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Sample records for hepatic damage induced

  1. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Tobias; Medina-Echeverz, José; Kapanadze, Tamar; Kruhlak, Michael J; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL), while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  2. Tumor Induced Hepatic Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells Can Cause Moderate Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Eggert, Tobias; Medina-Echeverz, José; Kapanadze, Tamar; Kruhlak, Michael J.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL), while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage. PMID:25401795

  3. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Efficiency of Selenium Nanoparticles Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Damage.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kamal Adel; Hashem, Khalid Shaban; Alshehri, Fawziah Saleh; Awad, Said T; Hassan, Mohammed S

    2017-01-01

    Overdoses of acetaminophen (APAP), a famous and widely used drug, may have hepatotoxic effects. Nanoscience is a novel scientific discipline that provides specific tools for medical science problems including using nano trace elements in hepatic diseases. Our study aimed to assess the hepatoprotective role of selenium nanoparticles (Nano-Se) against APAP-induced hepatic injury. Twenty-four male rats were classified into three equal groups: a control group that received 0.9 % NaCl, an APAP-treated group (oral administration), and a group treated with Nano-Se (10-20 nm, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection) and APAP (oral administration). APAP overdose induced significant elevations in liver function biomarkers, hepatic lipid peroxidation, hepatic catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione reductase (GR) activity, and stimulated significant DNA damage in hepatocytes, compared to control rats. Nano-Se administration improved the hepatic antioxidant protection mechanism and decreased cellular sensitivity to DNA fragmentation. Nano-Se exhibits a protective effect against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity through improved liver function and oxidative stress mediated by catalase, SOD, and GSH and decreases hepatic DNA fragmentation, a hepatic biomarker of cell death. Nano-Se could be a novel hepatoprotective strategy to inhibit oxidative stress.

  4. Bamboo salt attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Song, Jia-Le; Kil, Jeung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo salt, a Korean folk medicine, is prepared with solar salt (sea salt) and baked several times at high temperatures in a bamboo case. In this study, we compared the preventive effects of bamboo salt and purified and solar salts on hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with purified and solar salts, bamboo salts prevented hepatic damage in rats, as evidenced by significantly reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.05). Bamboo salt (baked 9×) triggered the greatest reduction in these enzyme levels. In addition, it also reduced the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Histopathological sections of liver tissue demonstrated the protective effect of bamboo salt, whereas sections from animals treated with the other salt groups showed a greater degree of necrosis. We also performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses of the inflammation-related genes iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β in rat liver tissues. Bamboo salt induced a significant decrease (~80%) in mRNA and protein expression levels of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-1β, compared with the other salts. Thus, we found that baked bamboo salt preparations could prevent CCl4-induced hepatic damage in vivo. PMID:23964314

  5. Radon inhalation protects mice from carbon-tetrachloride-induced hepatic and renal damage.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Toyota, Teruaki; Yoshimoto, Masaaki; Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Aoyama, Yutaka; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2011-12-01

    We assessed whether radon inhalation provided protection from carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic and renal damage in mice. Mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 after inhaling approximately 18 kBq/m3 radon for 6 h. Radon inhalation significantly increased total glutathione (t-GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the liver and kidney. Injection of CCl4 was associated with significantly higher levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and creatinine level in serum, and pretreatment with radon significantly decreased the GOT and ALP activity and creatinine level associated with CCl4 injection, suggesting that radon inhalation alleviates CCl4-induced hepatic and renal damage. The t-GSH contents and GPx activity in the liver and kidney of animals pretreated with radon were significantly higher than those of the CCl(4)-only group. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions and inhibited CCl4-induced hepatic and renal damage in mice.

  6. Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. attenuates CCl4-induced hepatic damage in imprinting control region mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui-Jie; Sun, Peng; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yu; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Xin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the preventive effect of the traditional Chinese medicine, Dendrobium candidum Wall ex Lindl. ( D. candidum ), on CCl 4 -induced hepatic damage in mice. The CCl 4 -induced hepatic damage mice were treated with D. candidum, and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were determined. In addition, serum cytokine levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ were analyzed with kits, while liver tissues were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, the contents of D. candidum were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). D. candidum was demonstrated to successfully prevent hepatic damage in mice. The serum levels of AST, ALT and LDH were significantly decreased when the mice were treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg D. candidum, as compared with the control mice (P<0.05). The lowest enzymatic activities were exhibited in the 400 mg/kg D. candidum group, which produced similar results to the positive control drug, silymarin. In addition, in the 400 mg/kg D. candidum group, the highest levels of TG and TC were observed among the treated groups. D. candidum -treated groups also demonstrated reduced levels of the serum proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ. The sections of liver tissue examined during histopathology in the high concentration 400 mg/kg D. candidum group recovered well from CCl 4 damage; however, the sections in the 200 mg/kg D. candidum group revealed necrosis to a more serious degree. RT-PCR analysis was conducted on inflammation-associated genes, including nuclear factor (NF)-κB, IκB-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in the livers of the mice. The 400 mg/kg D. candidum group demonstrated significantly

  7. Hypothermia can reverse hepatic oxidative stress damage induced by hypoxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente; Alva, Norma; Sánchez-Nuño, Sergio; Bardallo, Raquel G; Palomeque, Jesús; Carbonell, Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Our previous findings demonstrated that hypothermia enhances the reduction potential in the liver and helps to maintain the plasmatic antioxidant pool. Here, we aimed to elucidate if hypothermia protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative stress damage in rat liver. Several hepatic markers of oxidative stress were compared in three groups of animals (n = 8 in each group): control normothermic group ventilated with room air and two groups under extreme hypoxia (breathing 10 % O 2 ), one kept at normothermia (HN) (37 °C) and the other under deep hypothermia (HH) (central body temperature of 21-22 °C). Hypoxia in normothermia significantly increased the levels of hepatic nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, protein oxidation, Carbonilated proteins, advanced oxidation protein products, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) protein adducts, and lipid peroxidation when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). However, when hypoxia was induced under hypothermia, results from the oxidative stress biomarker analyses did not differ significantly from those found in the control group. Indeed, 4-HNE protein adduct amounts were significantly lower in the HH versus HN group (p < 0.05). Therefore, hypothermia can mitigate hypoxia-induced oxidative stress damage in rat liver. These effects could help clarify the mechanisms of action of therapeutic hypothermia.

  8. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-09-30

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition.

  9. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N.; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition. PMID:26419945

  10. Apitherapy products enhance the recovery of CCL4-induced hepatic damages in rats.

    PubMed

    Saral, Özlem; Yildiz, Oktay; Aliyazicioğlu, Rezzan; Yuluğ, Esin; Canpolat, Sinan; Öztürk, Ferhat; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2016-01-05

    Our objective was to identify the antioxidant properties of honeybee products from Turkey, chestnut honey, pollen, propolis, and royal jelly, and their hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. Animals were fed with honeybee products for 7 days following CCl4 injection. Development of liver damage and oxidative stress were monitored by measuring the activities of the enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Antioxidant capacities of the bee products were identified using FRAP and DPPH assays, as well as by measuring total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant activities of the honeybee products were highest in propolis, followed, in order, by pollen, honey, and royal jelly. Despite their different levels of antioxidant capacity, their roles in the prevention of liver damage induced by CCl4 were very similar, which can be explained through their bioavailability to the treated animals. Our results suggest that honey, propolis, pollen, and royal jelly significantly enhanced the healing of CCl4-induced liver damage, partially due to their antioxidant properties and bioavailability.

  11. Agmatine protects rat liver from nicotine-induced hepatic damage via antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and antifibrotic pathways.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A; Nader, Manar A; Attia, Ghalia M; Ateyya, Hayam

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco smoking with its various forms is a global problem with proved hazardous effects to human health. The present work was planned to study the defending role of agmatine (AGM) on hepatic oxidative stress and damage induced by nicotine in rats. Thirty-two rats divided into four groups were employed: control group, nicotine-only group, AGM group, and AGM-nicotine group. Measurements of serum hepatic biochemical markers, lipid profile, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were done. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activity, and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels were estimated in the liver homogenates. Immunohistochemistry for Bax and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) and histopathology of the liver were also included. Data of the study demonstrated that nicotine administration exhibited marked liver deterioration, an increase in liver enzymes, changes in lipid profile, and an elevation in MDA with a decline in levels of SOD, GSH, and NOx (nitrate/nitrite). Also, levels of proapoptotic Bax and profibrotic TGF-β1 showed marked elevation in the liver. AGM treatment to rats in nicotine-only group ameliorated all the previous changes. These findings indicate that AGM could successfully overcome the nicotine-evoked hepatic oxidative stress and tissue injury, apoptosis, and fibrosis.

  12. Preventive Effect of the Korean Traditional Health Drink (Taemyeongcheong) on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Damage in ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ruo-Kun; Song, Jia-Le; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the preventive effect of taemyeongcheong (TMC, a Korean traditional health drink) on acetaminophen (APAP, 800 mg/kg BW)-induced hepatic damage in ICR mice. TMC is prepared from Saururus chinensis, Taraxacum officinale, Zingiber officinale, Cirsium setidens, Salicornia herbacea, and Glycyrrhizae. A high dose of TMC (500 mg/kg BW) was found to decrease APAP-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. TMC pretreatment also increased the hepatic levels of hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, and reduced serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 in mice administered APAP (P<0.05). TMC (500 mg/kg BW) reduced hepatic mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS by 87%, 84%, 89%, 85%, and 88%, respectively, in mice treated with APAP (P<0.05). Furthermore, histological observations suggested TMC pretreatment dose-dependently prevented APAP-induced hepatocyte damage. These results suggest that TMC could be used as a functional health drink to prevent hepatic damage. PMID:25866750

  13. Preventive Effect of the Korean Traditional Health Drink (Taemyeongcheong) on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Damage in ICR Mice.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ruo-Kun; Song, Jia-Le; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-03-01

    This study was to investigate the preventive effect of taemyeongcheong (TMC, a Korean traditional health drink) on acetaminophen (APAP, 800 mg/kg BW)-induced hepatic damage in ICR mice. TMC is prepared from Saururus chinensis, Taraxacum officinale, Zingiber officinale, Cirsium setidens, Salicornia herbacea, and Glycyrrhizae. A high dose of TMC (500 mg/kg BW) was found to decrease APAP-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. TMC pretreatment also increased the hepatic levels of hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, and reduced serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 in mice administered APAP (P<0.05). TMC (500 mg/kg BW) reduced hepatic mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS by 87%, 84%, 89%, 85%, and 88%, respectively, in mice treated with APAP (P<0.05). Furthermore, histological observations suggested TMC pretreatment dose-dependently prevented APAP-induced hepatocyte damage. These results suggest that TMC could be used as a functional health drink to prevent hepatic damage.

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents hyperthyroidism induced hepatic damage via an antioxidant and antiapoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Giriş, Murat; Erbil, Yeşim; Depboylu, Bilge; Mete, Ozgür; Türkoğlu, Umit; Abbasoğlu, Semra Doğru; Uysal, Müjdat

    2010-12-01

    The exact pathogenesis of hepatic dysfunction in hyperthyroidism is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the pathogenesis of liver dysfunction caused by hyperthyroidism through inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, which has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Rats were divided into six groups: untreated (group 1), treated with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) (group 2), treated with hemin (group 3), treated with tri-iodothyronine (T3) (group 4), treated with T3 and ZnPP (group 5), and treated with T3 and hemin (group 6). After 22 d, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes and the expression of HO-1, mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-3 activity, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay were examined. Hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress of liver tissue was ameliorated by HO-1 induction. Administration of hemin (HO-1 inducer) increased Bcl-2 expression. Decreased expression of cytochrome c was accompanied by a decrease in caspase-3, caspase-8, Bax expression, and caspase-3 activity. The apoptotic activity and oxidative damage were found to be increased by the administration of ZnPP (HO-1 inhibitor). Immunohistochemistry findings supported these results. HO-1 induction plays a protective role in the pathogenesis of the liver dysfunction in hyperthyroidism. This effect is dependent on modulation of the antiapoptotic and antioxidative pathways by HO-1 expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatoprotective Effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

    2014-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (Saururaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb used to treat several disease symptoms. The present study was focused on the hepatoprotective effects of H. cordata ethyl acetate extract in experimental mice. Further the antioxidant potential of the extract was also evaluated to substantiate its hepatoprotective properties. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice was used to measure the serum biochemical parameters. Morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were studied by haematoxylin and eosin staining. In vitro alkyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect. Administration of H. cordata extract significantly reduced the elevated serum levels and regulated the altered levels of serum cholesterol in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice (P<0.05). The morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by H. cordata treatment. Further, the extract showed significant antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% scavenging of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 15.5 and 410 μg/ml, respectively. H. cordata extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective property in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The strong antioxidant activities possessed by the extract might be responsible for such actions. PMID:25284923

  16. Hepatoprotective Effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Koppula, S

    2014-07-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (Saururaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb used to treat several disease symptoms. The present study was focused on the hepatoprotective effects of H. cordata ethyl acetate extract in experimental mice. Further the antioxidant potential of the extract was also evaluated to substantiate its hepatoprotective properties. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice was used to measure the serum biochemical parameters. Morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were studied by haematoxylin and eosin staining. In vitro alkyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect. Administration of H. cordata extract significantly reduced the elevated serum levels and regulated the altered levels of serum cholesterol in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice (P<0.05). The morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by H. cordata treatment. Further, the extract showed significant antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% scavenging of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 15.5 and 410 μg/ml, respectively. H. cordata extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective property in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The strong antioxidant activities possessed by the extract might be responsible for such actions.

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of Caesalpinia gilliesii and Cajanus cajan proteins against acetoaminophen overdose-induced hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Maha Z; Aly, Hanan F; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Desoky, M M; Ibrahim, N; Younis, Eman A

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate two proteins derived from the seeds of the plants Cajanus cajan (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Leguminosae) for their abilities to ameliorate the toxic effects of chronic doses of acetoaminphen (APAP) through the determination of certain biochemical parameters including liver marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin. Also, total protein content and hepatic marker enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase were studied. Moreover, liver antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, and lipid peroxides were determined in this study. Hepatic adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), adenylate energy charge (ATP, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and inorganic phosphate), and phosphate potential, serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and myeloperoxidase were also examined in the present study. On the other hand, histopathological examination of intoxicated and liver treated with both proteins was taken into consideration. The present results show disturbances in all biochemical parameters and hepatic toxicity signs including mild vascular congestion, moderate inflammatory changes with moderate congested sinusoids, moderate nuclear changes (pyknosis), moderate centrilobular necrosis, fatty changes, nuclear pyknosis vascular congestion, and change in fatty centrilobular necrosis liver. Improvement in all biochemical parameters studied was noticed as a result of treatment intoxicated liver with C. gilliesii and C. cajan proteins either paracetamol with or post paracetamol treatment. These results were documented by the amelioration signs in rat's hepatic architecture. Thus, both plant protein extracts can upregulate and counteract the inflammatory process, minimize damage of the liver, delay disease progression, and reduce its complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Diabetes-induced hepatic pathogenic damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance was exacerbated in zinc deficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Lu, Xuemian; Tan, Yi; Li, Bing; Miao, Xiao; Jin, Litai; Shi, Xue; Zhang, Xiang; Miao, Lining; Li, Xiaokun; Cai, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency often occurs in the patients with diabetes. Effects of Zn deficiency on diabetes-induced hepatic injury were investigated. Type 1 diabetes was induced in FVB mice with multiple low-dose streptozotocin. Hyperglycemic and age-matched control mice were treated with and without Zn chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylemethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), at 5 mg/kg body-weight daily for 4 months. Hepatic injury was examined by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and liver histopathological and biochemical changes. Hepatic Zn deficiency (lower than control level, p<0.05) was seen in the mice with either diabetes or TPEN treatment and more evident in the mice with both diabetes and TPEN. Zn deficiency exacerbated hepatic injuries, shown by further increased serum ALT, hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative damage, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related cell death in Diabetes/TPEN group compared to Diabetes alone. Diabetes/TPEN group also showed a significant decrease in nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and transcription action along with significant increases in Akt negative regulators, decrease in Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, and increase in nuclear accumulation of Fyn (a Nrf2 negative regulator). In vitro study with HepG2 cells showed that apoptotic effect of TPEN at 0.5-1.0 µM could be completely prevented by simultaneous Zn supplementation at the dose range of 30-50 µM. Zn is required for maintaining Akt activation by inhibiting the expression of Akt negative regulators; Akt activation can inhibit Fyn nuclear translocation to export nuclear Nrf2 to cytoplasm for degradation. Zn deficiency significantly enhanced diabetes-induced hepatic injury likely through down-regulation of Nrf2 function.

  19. Role of phenolics from Spondias pinnata bark in amelioration of iron overload induced hepatic damage in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2016-07-26

    Crude Spondias pinnata bark extract was previously assessed for its antioxidant, anticancer and iron chelating potentials. The isolated compounds gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) were evaluated for their curative potential against iron overload-induced liver fibrosis and hepatocellular damage. In vitro iron chelation property and in vivo ameliorating potential from iron overload induced liver toxicity of GA and MG was assessed by different biochemical assays and histopathological studies. MG and GA demonstrated excellent reducing power activities but iron chelation potential of MG is better than GA. Oral MG treatment in mice displayed excellent efficacy (better than GA) to significantly restore the levels of liver antioxidants, serum markers and cellular reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent fashion. Apart from these, MG exceptionally prevented lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation whereas GA demonstrated better activity to reduce collagen content, thereby strengthening its position as an efficient drug against hepatic damage/fibrosis, which was further supported by histopathological studies. Alongside, MG efficiently eliminated the cause of liver damage, i.e., excess iron, by chelating free iron and reducing the ferritin-bound iron. The present study confirmed the curative effect of GA and MG against iron overload hepatic damage via their potent antioxidant and iron-chelating potential.

  20. Hepatoprotective Potential of Chestnut Bee Pollen on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damages in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, Oktay; Can, Zehra; Saral, Özlem; Yuluğ, Esin; Öztürk, Ferhat; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Rezzan; Canpolat, Sinan; Kolaylı, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87 mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07 mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71 mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9 mg β-carotene/100 g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries. PMID:24250716

  1. Ameliorative effect of nanoencapsulated flavonoid against chlorpyrifos-induced hepatic oxidative damage and immunotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Suke, Sanvidhan G; Sherekar, Prasad; Kahale, Vivek; Patil, Shaktipal; Mundhada, Dharmendra; Nanoti, Vivek M

    2018-04-18

    The theme of the present work is to evaluate the protective effect of nanoencapsulated quercetin (NEQ) against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced hepatic damage and immune alterations in animals. Nanoparticles (NP) drug encapsulation was prepared. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups. Two groups served as control and CPF (13.5 mg/kg) treatment for 28 days. Other three groups were free quercetin (QC), NP and NEQ treated with 3 mg/kg respectively for 15 days; whereas remaining three groups received treatment of CPF and QC, NP, NEQ, respectively, for 15 days. The results show that significantly altered oxidative stress in the liver tissue and liver enzyme parameters in blood and immune responses in CPF-treated rats compared to controls. Administration of NEQ attenuated biochemical and immunological parameters. The liver histopathological analysis confirmed pathological improvement. Hence, use of NEQ appeared to be beneficial to a great extent in attenuating and restoring hepatic oxidative damage and immune alteration sustained by pesticide exposure. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cyproterone acetate induces a wide spectrum of acute liver damage including corticosteroid-responsive hepatitis: report of 22 cases.

    PubMed

    Bessone, Fernando; Lucena, M I; Roma, Marcelo G; Stephens, Camilla; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada; Frider, Bernardo; Tsariktsian, Guillermo; Hernández, Nelia; Bruguera, Miquel; Gualano, Gisela; Fassio, Eduardo; Montero, Joaquín; Reggiardo, María V; Ferretti, Sebastián; Colombato, Luis; Tanno, Federico; Ferrer, Jaime; Zeno, Lelio; Tanno, Hugo; Andrade, Raúl J

    2016-02-01

    Cyproterone acetate (CPA), an anti-androgenic drug for prostate cancer, has been associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We aim to expand the knowledge on the spectrum of phenotypes and outcomes of CPA-induced DILI. Twenty-two males (70 ± 8 years; range 54-83) developing liver damage as a result of CPA therapy (dose: 150 ± 50 mg/day; range 50-200) were included. Severity index and causality by RUCAM were assessed. From 1993 to 2013, 22 patients were retrieved. Latency was 163 ± 97 days. Most patients were symptomatic, showing hepatocellular injury (91%) and jaundice. Liver tests at onset were: ALT 18 ± 13 × ULN, ALP 0.7 ± 0.7 × ULN and total serum bilirubin 14 ± 10 mg/dl. International normalized ratio values higher than 1.5 were observed in 14 (66%) patients. Severity was mild in 1 case (4%), moderate in 7 (32%), severe in 11 (50%) and fatal in 3 (14%). Five patients developed ascitis, and four encephalopathy. One patient had a liver injury that resembled autoimmune hepatitis. Eleven (50%) were hospitalized. Nineteen patients recovered after CPA withdrawal, although three required steroid therapy (two of them had high ANA titres). Liver biopsy was performed in seven patients (two hepatocellular collapse, one submassive necrosis, two cholestatic hepatitis, one cirrhosis with iron overload and one autoimmune hepatitis). RUCAM category was 'highly probable' in 19 (86%), 'probable' in 1 (4%), and 'possible' in 2 (9%). CPA-induced liver injury is severe and can be fatal, and may occasionally resemble autoimmune DILI. The benefit/risk ratio of this drug should be thoroughly assessed in each patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Antihepatotoxic activity of Rosmarinus tomentosus in a model of acute hepatic damage induced by thioacetamide.

    PubMed

    Galisteo, M; Suárez, A; del Pilar Montilla, M; del Pilar Utrilla, M; Jiménez, J; Gil, A; Faus, M J; Navarro, M

    2000-11-01

    R. tomentosus is a vegetal species closely related to the culinary rosemary (R. officinalis), a plant reported to contain antihepatotoxic agents. A dried ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus tomentosus (Lamiaceae) and its major fraction separated by column chromatography (fraction F19) were evaluated for antihepatotoxic activity in rats with acute liver damage induced by a single oral dose of thioacetamide. Silymarin was used as a reference antihepatotoxic substance. Pre-treatment with R. tomentosus ethanol extract, fraction F19 or silymarin significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity on plasma protein and urea levels as well as on plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities compared with thioacetamide-treated animals (group T). Pre-treatment with R. tomentosus ethanol extract significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide damage on alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities compared with group T. Silymarin administration significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities compared with group T. Fraction F19 administration reduced only alkaline phosphatase activity compared with group T. According to these data, R. tomentosus extract shows promising antihepatotoxic activity, suggesting the need to isolate the chemical principles responsible for this activity and to study this activity in a model of thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2012-01-01

    The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol–elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

  5. Pharmacological evaluation of mangiferin herbosomes for antioxidant and hepatoprotection potential against ethanol induced hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pushpendra Kumar; Kharya, Murlidhar; Gajbhiye, Asmita

    2013-11-01

    Fatty liver is the first stage of alcoholic damage which is reversible with abstinence from alcohol. Mangiferin (MF) showed potent scavenging activity on diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals which stimulate liver regeneration in various liver injuries. Although, MF shows hepatoprotection against various liver disorders but due to rapid clearance and limited solubility in lipoid environment, there is problem of its poor absorption from intestine hence poor bioavailability. Owing to which there is a need to develop MF herbosomes to resolve the problem of poor bioavailability to enhance the therapeutic potential. Successfully prepared MF herbosomes through complexation with phospholipids were characterized by physicochemical, chromatography, spectroscopy (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), ex vivo absorption using everted small intestine sac technique and in vivo studies using ethanol inducing hepatotoxicity in albino rats and comparing the results against plain MF. Ex vivo study showed significant increased absorption of MF from prepared MF herbosomes as compared to plain MF. The hepatoprotective potential of MF herbosomes evaluated by in vivo study revealed significantly decreased levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transminase (SGPT), total bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in MF herbosomes as compared to plain MF. MF herbosomes also showed significantly decreased level of malonyl dehydrogenase along with increased levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase as compared to plain MF which was also comparable to the standard drug, silymarin (SL). The above mentioned results showed that hepatoprotective and antioxidant potency of MF enhanced due to the preparation of its herbosomes.

  6. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of single clove garlic against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Al-Shaibani, Elham Shukri; Alhadi, Fatima A; Al-Soudi, Safa'a Abdulrzaq; D'souza, Myrene R

    2017-08-17

    The increase in demand and consumption of single clove garlic or 'Solo garlic' (Allium sativum) has resulted in an increase in research on its therapeutic properties. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activities, oxidant-scavenging efficiency and preventive effects of SCG (single clove garlic) and MCG (multi clove garlic) on CCl 4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. For this purpose, rabbits were orally administered with 3 ml of CCl 4 /kg of body weight, followed by 0.8 g of MCG or SCG/kg twice a week for three successive weeks. Oxidative hepatotoxicity was then assessed. SCG extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than the MCG extract. Scavenging ability of SCG showed significant (p < 0.05) elevation against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals in comparison to MCG. In addition, total phenolic content of SCG was significantly elevated (p < 0.001), thereby suggesting that the composition of garlic storage constituents varies with the number of cloves present. CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity demonstrated histological changes including severe damage in the structure of liver tissues which correlated well to oxidative stress levels. Simultaneously, administration of SCG resulted in a significant reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (TB) levels in addition to improvement in some histological parameters. Low levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) (p < 0.001), along with a huge reduction in peroxidase (POx) (p < 0.001) revealed protection against oxidative toxicity in the liver homogenate. Higher levels of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05) when compared to the MCG test (TM) group indicates that removal of H 2 O 2 is based on CAT activity in SCG test (TS) group rather than the POx activity demonstrated in the former group. The present study indicates that SCG

  7. Menhaden Oil Decreases High-Fat Diet–Induced Markers of Hepatic Damage, Steatosis, Inflammation, and Fibrosis in Obese Ldlr−/− Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Depner, Christopher M.; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises; Tripathy, Sasmita; Milne, Ginger; Jump, Donald B.

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has increased in parallel with obesity in the United States. NASH is progressive and characterized by hepatic damage, inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress. Because C20–22 (n-3) PUFA are established regulators of lipid metabolism and inflammation, we tested the hypothesis that C20–22 (n-3) PUFA in menhaden oil (MO) prevent high-fat (HF) diet–induced fatty liver disease in mice. Wild-type (WT) and Ldlr−/− C57BL/6J mice were fed the following diets for 12 wk: nonpurified (NP), HF with lard (60% of energy from fat), HF–high-cholesterol with olive oil (HFHC-OO; 54.4% of energy from fat, 0.5% cholesterol), or HFHC-OO supplemented with MO (HFHC-MO). When compared with the NP diet, the HF and HFHC-OO diets induced hepatosteatosis and hepatic damage [elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases] and elevated hepatic expression of markers of inflammation (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), fibrosis (procollagen 1α1), and oxidative stress (heme oxygenase-1) (P ≤ 0.05). Hepatic damage (i.e., ALT) correlated (r = 0.74, P < 0.05) with quantitatively higher (>140%, P < 0.05) hepatic cholesterol in Ldlr−/− mice fed the HFHC-OO diet than WT mice fed the HF or HFHC-OO diets. Plasma and hepatic markers of liver damage, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, but not oxidative stress, were lower in WT and Ldlr−/− mice fed the HFHC-MO diet compared with the HFHC-OO diet (P < 0.05). In conclusion, MO [C20–22 (n-3) PUFA at 2% of energy] decreases many, but not all, HF diet–induced markers of fatty liver disease in mice. PMID:22739374

  8. Insulin protects against hepatic damage postburn.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Kraft, Robert; Song, Juquan; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Cox, Robert A; Brooks, Natasha C; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury causes hepatic dysfunction associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress/UPR leads to hepatic apoptosis and activation of the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, leading to vast metabolic alterations. Insulin has been shown to attenuate hepatic damage and to improve liver function. We therefore hypothesized that insulin administration exerts its effects by attenuating postburn hepatic ER stress and subsequent apoptosis. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a 60% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injury. Animals were randomized to receive saline (controls) or insulin (2.5 IU/kg q. 24 h) and euthanized at 24 and 48 h postburn. Burn injury induced dramatic changes in liver structure and function, including induction of the ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, hepatocyte apoptosis, and up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. Insulin decreased hepatocyte caspase-3 activation and apoptosis significantly at 24 and 48 h postburn. Furthermore, insulin administration decreased ER stress significantly and reversed structural and functional changes in hepatocyte mitochondria. Finally, insulin attenuated the expression of inflammatory mediators IL-6, MCP-1, and CINC-1. Insulin alleviates burn-induced ER stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial abnormalities, and inflammation leading to improved hepatic structure and function significantly. These results support the use of insulin therapy after traumatic injury to improve patient outcomes.

  9. Insulin Protects against Hepatic Damage Postburn

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G; Kraft, Robert; Song, Juquan; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Cox, Robert A; Brooks, Natasha C; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury causes hepatic dysfunction associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress/UPR leads to hepatic apoptosis and activation of the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, leading to vast metabolic alterations. Insulin has been shown to attenuate hepatic damage and to improve liver function. We therefore hypothesized that insulin administration exerts its effects by attenuating postburn hepatic ER stress and subsequent apoptosis. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a 60% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injury. Animals were randomized to receive saline (controls) or insulin (2.5 IU/kg q. 24 h) and euthanized at 24 and 48 h postburn. Burn injury induced dramatic changes in liver structure and function, including induction of the ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, hepatocyte apoptosis, and up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. Insulin decreased hepatocyte caspase-3 activation and apoptosis significantly at 24 and 48 h postburn. Furthermore, insulin administration decreased ER stress significantly and reversed structural and functional changes in hepatocyte mitochondria. Finally, insulin attenuated the expression of inflammatory mediators IL-6, MCP-1, and CINC-1. Insulin alleviates burn-induced ER stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial abnormalities, and inflammation leading to improved hepatic structure and function significantly. These results support the use of insulin therapy after traumatic injury to improve patient outcomes. PMID:21267509

  10. Long-term soft drink and aspartame intake induces hepatic damage via dysregulation of adipocytokines and alteration of the lipid profile and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Lebda, Mohamed A; Tohamy, Hossam G; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2017-05-01

    Dietary intake of fructose corn syrup in sweetened beverages is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines play a role in lipid storage and induction of liver injury. Therefore, this study intended to explore the expression of adipocytokines and its link to hepatic damage. Rats were assigned to drink water, cola soft drink (free access) and aspartame (240 mg/kg body weight/day orally) for 2 months. The lipid profiles, liver antioxidants and pathology, and mRNA expression of adipogenic cytokines were evaluated. Subchronic intake of soft drink or aspartame substantially induced hyperglycemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia, as represented by increased serum glucose, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with obvious visceral fatty deposition. These metabolic syndromes were associated with the up-regulation of leptin and down-regulation of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression. Moreover, alterations in serum transaminases accompanied by hepatic oxidative stress involving induction of malondialdehyde and reduction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione levels are indicative of oxidative hepatic damage. Several cytoarchitecture alterations were detected in the liver, including degeneration, infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis, predominantly with aspartame. These data suggest that long-term intake of soft drink or aspartame-induced hepatic damage may be mediated by the induction of hyperglycemia, lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress with the involvement of adipocytokines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Grapefruit juice intake does not enhance but rather protects against aflatoxin B1-induced liver DNA damage through a reduction in hepatic CYP3A activity.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Takano, Hiroki; Guo, Lian Q; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2004-02-01

    Influence of grapefruit juice intake on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced liver DNA damage was examined using a Comet assay in F344 rats given 5 mg/kg AFB1 by gavage. Rats allowed free access to grapefruit juice for 5 days prior to AFB1 administration resulted in clearly reduced DNA damage in liver, to 65% of the level in rats that did not receive grapefruit juice. Furthermore, rats treated with grapefruit juice extract (100 mg/kg per os) for 5 days prior to AFB1 treatment also reduced the DNA damage to 74% of the level in rats that did not receive grapefruit juice. No significant differences in the portal blood and liver concentrations of AFB1 were observed between grapefruit juice intake rats and the controls. In an Ames assay with AFB1 using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, lower numbers of revertant colonies were detected with hepatic microsomes prepared from rats administered grapefruit juice, compared with those from control rats. Microsomal testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation was also lower with rats given grapefruit juice than with control rats. Immunoblot analyses showed a significant decrease in hepatic CYP3A content, but not CYP1A and CYP2C content, in microsomes of grapefruit juice-treated rats than in non-treated rats. No significant difference in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione content was observed in the two groups. GSTA5 protein was not detected in hepatic cytosol of the two groups. In microsomal systems, grapefruit juice extract inhibited AFB1-induced mutagenesis in the presence of a microsomal activation system from livers of humans as well as rats. These results suggest that grapefruit juice intake suppresses AFB1-induced liver DNA damage through inactivation of the metabolic activation potency for AFB1 in rat liver.

  12. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are a common cause of liver injury, particularly ... problem. However, if you took high doses of acetaminophen , treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  13. Enterobacter cloacae administration induces hepatic damage and subcutaneous fat accumulation in high-fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Keskitalo, Anniina; Munukka, Eveliina; Toivonen, Raine; Hollmén, Maija; Kainulainen, Heikki; Huovinen, Pentti; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Pekkala, Satu

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota plays a significant role in obesity, insulin resistance and associated liver disorders. Family Enterobacteriaceae and especially Enterobacter cloacae strain B29 have been previously linked to obesity and hepatic damage. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Therefore, we comprehensively examined the effects of E. cloacae subsp. cloacae (ATCC® 13047™) administration on host metabolism of mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into HFD control, chow control, and E. cloacae treatment groups. The E. cloacae treatment group received live bacterial cells in PBS intragastrically twice a week, every other week for 13 weeks. Both control groups received PBS intragastrically. After the 13-week treatment period, the mice were sacrificed for gene and protein expression and functional analyses. Our results show that E. cloacae administration increased subcutaneous fat mass and the relative proportion of hypertrophic adipocytes. Both subcutaneous and visceral fat had signs of decreased insulin signaling and elevated lipolysis that was reflected in higher serum glycerol levels. In addition, E. cloacae -treated mice had significantly higher hepatic AST and AST/ALT ratio, and their liver histology indicated fibrosis, demonstrating that E. cloacae subsp. cloacae administration promotes hepatic damage in HFD fed mice.

  14. Hepatitis B Virus Induces IL-23 Production in Antigen Presenting Cells and Causes Liver Damage via the IL-23/IL-17 Axis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jun; Zheng, Yanhua; Huang, Zemin; Tian, Yi; Jia, Zhengcai; Tang, Yan; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C.; Mao, Qing; Bian, Xiuwu; Ping, Yifang; Ni, Bing; Wu, Yuzhang

    2013-01-01

    IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR)-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis. PMID:23825942

  15. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation with Spirulina platensis on Atrazine-induced oxidative stress- mediated hepatic damage and inflammation in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Toughan, Hosam; Khalil, Samah R; El-Ghoneimy, Ashraf Ahmed; Awad, Ashraf; Seddek, A Sh

    2018-03-01

    The present study evaluated the potential modulatory effect(s) of dietary supplementation with Spirulina platensis (SP) on Atrazine (ATZ)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Common carp was exposed to ATZ (428μg/L) and SP (1%), either alone or in combination, for 40 days. Subsequently, the treatment groups were evaluated for ATZ-induced oxidative stress-mediated hepatic damage and the potential antioxidant effect(s) of SP supplementation. The results indicated that ATZ exposure led to a significant increase in the oxidative stress as suggested by the increased levels of lipid and DNA oxidative damage markers and the significant decline of antioxidant status biomarkers. Further, a real-time PCR analysis of the liver tissues revealed that the ATZ exposure resulted in the significant modulation of the mRNA expression of cytokines involved in the inflammatory response pathway in the liver, such as Interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-10. The expression of IL-1ß mRNA was up-regulated while that of IL-10 mRNA was down-regulated. The group subjected to supplementation with SP exhibited a significant decrease in ATZ-induced oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxic and inflammatory responses; however, these did not attain the levels of the control group. Owing to its ability for protecting against ATZ-induced oxidative stress-mediated hepatic damage in carps, SP could be a potentially effective and promising candidate as a feed additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone induces hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response, but not apoptosis in mouse: The prevention of curcumin

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Demei; Hu, Lihua; Su, Chuanyang

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated the protective effects of curcumin on tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. TCBQ-treatment causes significant liver injury (the elevation of serum AST and ALT activities, histopathological changes in liver section including centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cells), oxidative stress (the elevation of TBAR level and the inhibition of SOD and catalase activities) and inflammation (up-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). However, these changes were alleviated upon pretreatment with curcumin. Interestingly, TCBQ has no effect on caspase family genes or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein expressions, which implied that TCBQ-induced hepatotoxicity is independent ofmore » apoptosis. Moreover, curcumin was shown to induce phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). In summary, the protective mechanisms of curcumin against TCBQ-induced hepatoxicity may be related to the attenuation of oxidative stress, along with the inhibition of inflammatory response via the activation of Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • TCBQ-intoxication significantly increased AST and ALT activities. • TCBQ-intoxication induced oxidative stress in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced inflammatory response in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. • Curcumin relieved TCBQ-induced liver damage remarkably.« less

  18. Protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in precision-cut carp liver slices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjuan; Zhang, Chunyun; Du, Jinliang; Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Jeney, Galina; Teraoka, Hiroki; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guojun

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro in common carp. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs), which closely resemble the organ from which they are derived, were employed as an in vitro model system. GLPS (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/ml) was added to PCLS culture system before the exposure to 12 mM CCl 4 . The supernatants and slices were collected to detect molecular and biochemical responses to CCl 4 and PCLS treatments. The levels of CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1 were measured by ELISA; the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS were determined by RT-PCR; and the relative protein expressions of c-Rel and p65 were analyzed by western blotting. Results showed that GLPS inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH) and MDA induced by CCl 4 ; it also enhanced the suppressed activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, T-AOC). The treatment with GLPS resulted in significant downregulation of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels and significant decreases in the hepatic protein levels of CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1. These results suggest that GLPS can protect CCl 4 -induced PCLS injury through inhibiting lipid peroxidation, elevating antioxidant enzyme activity, and suppressing immune inflammatory response.

  19. Previous physical exercise alters the hepatic profile of oxidative-inflammatory status and limits the secondary brain damage induced by severe traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Mauro Robson Torres; Ferreira, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Busanello, Guilherme Lago; da Silva, Luís Roberto Hart; da Silveira Junior, Mauro Eduardo Porto; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Arrifano, Gabriela; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Cuevas, María J; Bresciani, Guilherme; González-Gallego, Javier; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2017-09-01

    An early inflammatory response and oxidative stress are implicated in the signal transduction that alters both hepatic redox status and mitochondrial function after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Peripheral oxidative/inflammatory responses contribute to neuronal dysfunction after TBI Exercise training alters the profile of oxidative-inflammatory status in liver and protects against acute hyperglycaemia and a cerebral inflammatory response after TBI. Approaches such as exercise training, which attenuates neuronal damage after TBI, may have therapeutic potential through modulation of responses by metabolic organs. The vulnerability of the body to oxidative/inflammatory in TBI is significantly enhanced in sedentary compared to physically active counterparts. Although systemic responses have been described after traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known regarding potential interactions between brain and peripheral organs after neuronal injury. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate whether a peripheral oxidative/inflammatory response contributes to neuronal dysfunction after TBI, as well as the prophylactic role of exercise training. Animals were submitted to fluid percussion injury after 6 weeks of swimming training. Previous exercise training increased mRNA expression of X receptor alpha and ATP-binding cassette transporter, and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 expression per se in liver. Interestingly, exercise training protected against hepatic inflammation (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6), oxidative stress (decreases in non-protein sulfhydryl and glutathione, as well as increases in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate oxidation and protein carbonyl), which altered hepatic redox status (increases in myeloperoxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, as well as inhibition of catalase activity) mitochondrial function (decreases in methyl-tetrazolium and Δψ, as well as

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Simarouba amara Aublet (Simaroubaceae) stem bark against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Hélida M L; Vasconcelos, Carlos F B; Rolim, Larissa A; Neto, Pedro J Rolim; Neto, Jacinto da C Silva; Filho, Reginaldo C da Silva; Fernandes, Mariana P; Costa-Silva, João H; Araújo, Alice V; Wanderley, Almir G

    2014-10-31

    Simarouba amara stem bark decoction has been traditionally used in Brazil to treat malaria, inflammation, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, wounds and as a tonic. In this study, we investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of S. amara stem bark (SAAE) on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. SAAE was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). Groups I (vehicle-corn oil), II (control-CCl4), III, IV, V and VI were pretreated during 10 consecutive days, once a day p.o, with Legalon® 50 mg/kg b.w, SAAE at doses 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The hepatotoxicity was induced on 11th day with 2 mL/kg of 20% CCl4 solution. 24 h after injury, the blood samples were collected and their livers were removed to biochemical and immunohistochemical analyzes. The SAAE decreased the levels of liver markers and lipid peroxidation in all doses and increased the catalase levels at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg. Immunohistochemical results suggested hepatocyte proliferation in all doses. These results may be related to catechins present in SAAE. Thus, SAAE prevented the oxidative damage at the same time that increased regenerative and reparative capacities of the liver.

  1. Antioxidants of Phyllanthus emblica L. Bark Extract Provide Hepatoprotection against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Damage: A Comparison with Silymarin

    PubMed Central

    Chaphalkar, Renuka; Apte, Kishori G.; Talekar, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Phyllanthus emblica L. (amla) has been used in Ayurveda as a potent rasayan for treatment of hepatic disorders. Most of the pharmacological studies, however, are largely focused on PE fruit, while the rest of the parts of PE, particularly, bark, remain underinvestigated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanthus emblica bark (PEE) in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content and in vitro antioxidant activities were determined by using H2O2 scavenging and ABTS decolorization assays. Our results showed that PEE was rich in total phenols (99.523 ± 1.91 mg GAE/g), total flavonoids (389.33 ± 1.25 mg quercetin hydrate/g), and total tannins (310 ± 0.21 mg catechin/g), which clearly support its strong antioxidant potential. HPTLC-based quantitative analysis revealed the presence of the potent antioxidants gallic acid (25.05 mg/g) and ellagic acid (13.31 mg/g). Moreover, one-month PEE treatment (500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) followed by 30-day 70% ethanol (10 mL/kg) administration showed hepatoprotection as evidenced by significant restoration of ALT (p < 0.01), AST (p < 0.001), ALP (p < 0.05), and TP (p < 0.001) and further confirmed by liver histopathology. PEE-mediated hepatoprotection could be due to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity that may be ascribed to its antioxidant components, namely, ellagic acid and gallic acid. Thus, the results of the present study support the therapeutic claims made in Ayurveda about Phyllanthus emblica. PMID:28168009

  2. Artesunate restores spatial learning of rats with hepatic encephalopathy by inhibiting ammonia-induced oxidative damage in neurons and dysfunction of glutamate signaling in astroglial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Bo; Zhang, Li; Li, Wen-Ting; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Jiang-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Artesunate (ART) is an antimalarial drug with potential anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to explore the potential protective role of ART in hepatic encephalopathy (HE), involving its function against ammonia toxicity. HE rats were induced by the administration of thioacetamide (TAA, 300mg/kg/day). Spatial learning ability was tested in both Morris water and eight-arm radial maze. Rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were prepared for ammonia treatment in vitro, in line with SH-SY5Y and C6 cells. ART was administrated at 50 or 100mg/kg/day in vivo or added at 50 or 100μM in vitro. Oxidative damages were evaluated by the changes of cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glutathione (GSH) content, while glutamate uptake and release, and the activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and Na + K + -ATPase were measured to indicate the dysfunction of glutamate signaling. Decreased escape latency and increased numbers of working errors were observed in TAA-induced HE rats, which could be significantly restored by ART at a dosage-dependent manner. Decreased cell viability and GSH content and increased ROS accumulation were detected in ammonia-treated SH-SY5Y and CGNs, while ammonia-treated C6 cells showed reduced glutamate uptake, increased glutamate release, and decrease of GSH content, GS and Na + K + -ATPase activity. In contrast, ART, especially at 100μM, strongly reversed all changes induced by ammonia, showing a similar dosage-dependent manner in vitro. This study revealed a new neuroprotective role of ART in the pathogenesis of HE, by protecting neurons and astroglial cells from ammonia-induced damages and dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Administration of high doses of copper to capuchin monkeys does not cause liver damage but induces transcriptional activation of hepatic proliferative responses.

    PubMed

    Araya, Magdalena; Núñez, Héctor; Pavez, Leonardo; Arredondo, Miguel; Méndez, Marco; Cisternas, Felipe; Pizarro, Fernando; Sierralta, Walter; Uauy, Ricardo; González, Mauricio

    2012-02-01

    Liver cells respond to copper loading upregulating protective mechanisms. However, to date, except for liver content, there are no good indicators that identify individuals with excess liver copper. We hypothesized that administering high doses of copper to young (5.5 mg Cu · kg⁻¹ . d⁻¹) and adult (7.5 mg Cu · kg⁻¹ . d⁻¹) capuchin monkeys would induce detectable liver damage. Study groups included adult monkeys (2 females, 2 males) 3-3.5 y old at enrollment treated with copper for 36 mo (ACu); age-matched controls (1 female, 3 males) that did not receive additional copper (AC); young monkeys (2 female, 2 males) treated from birth with copper for 36 mo (YCu); and young age-matched controls (2 female, 2 males) that did not receive additional copper (YC). We periodically assessed clinical, blood biochemical, and liver histological indicators and at 36 mo the hepatic mRNA abundance of MT2a, APP, DMT1, CTR1, HGF, TGFβ, and NFκΒ only in adult monkeys. After 36 mo, the liver copper concentration was 4-5 times greater in treated monkeys relative to controls. All monkeys remained healthy with normal routine serum biochemical indices and there was no evidence of liver tissue damage. Relative mRNA abundance of HGF, TGFβ and NFκB was significantly greater in ACu than in AC monkeys. In conclusion, capuchin monkeys exposed to copper at doses up to 50 times the current upper level enhanced expression of genes related to inflammation and injury without clinical, blood biochemical, or histological evidence of liver damage.

  4. Role of miR-155 in fluorooctane sulfonate-induced oxidative hepatic damage via the Nrf2-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Chong; Han, Rui; Liu, Limin

    Studies demonstrated that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) tends to accumulate in the liver and is capable to cause hepatomegaly. In the present study, we investigated the roles of miR-155 in PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats and HepG2 cells. Male SD rats were orally administrated with PFOS at 1 or 10 mg/kg/day for 28 days while HepG2 cells were treated with 0–50 μM of PFOS for 24 h or 50 μM of PFOS for 1, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h, respectively. We found that PFOS significantly increased the liver weight and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) levelsmore » in rats. Morphologically, PFOS caused actin filament remodeling and endothelial permeability changes in the liver. Moreover, PFOS triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and induced apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro assays. Immunoblotting data showed that NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression and activation and its target genes were all suppressed by PFOS in the liver and HepG2 cells. However, PFOS significantly increased miR-155 expression. Further studies showed that pretreatment of HepG2 cells with catalase significantly decreased miR-155 expression and substantially increased Nrf2 expression and activation, resulting in reduction of PFOS-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Taken together, these results indicated that miR-155 plays an important role in the PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity by disrupting Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. - Highlights: • PFOS is capable to cause hepatotoxicity. • PFOS triggers ROS generation and induces apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro assays. • PFOS-induced ROS inhibits Nrf2 expression and its transactivation function. • PFOS promotes miR155 expression in liver and HepG2 cells. • miR-155 is involved in PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity by disrupting Nrf2/ARE pathway.« less

  5. Mangiferin, a Natural Xanthone, Protects Murine Liver in Pb(II) Induced Hepatic Damage and Cell Death via MAP Kinase, NF-κB and Mitochondria Dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most well-known naturally occurring environmental heavy metals, lead (Pb) has been reported to cause liver injury and cellular apoptosis by disturbing the prooxidant-antioxidant balance via oxidative stress. Several studies, on the other hand, reported that mangiferin, a naturally occurring xanthone, has been used for a broad range of therapeutic purposes. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the molecular mechanisms of the protective action of mangiferin against lead-induced hepatic pathophysiology. Lead [Pb(II)] in the form of Pb(NO3)2 (at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight, 6 days, orally) induced oxidative stress, hepatic dysfunction and cell death in murine liver. Post treatment of mangiferin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (6 days, orally), on the other hand, diminished the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced the levels of serum marker enzymes [alanine aminotranferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)]. Mangiferin also reduced Pb(II) induced alterations in antioxidant machineries, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as mutual regulation of Bcl-2/Bax. Furthermore, mangiferin inhibited Pb(II)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (phospho-ERK 1/2, phosphor-JNK phospho- p38), nuclear translocation of NF-κB and apoptotic cell death as was evidenced by DNA fragmentation, FACS analysis and histological assessment. In vitro studies using hepatocytes as the working model also showed the protective effect of mangiferin in Pb(II) induced cytotoxicity. All these beneficial effects of mangiferin contributes to the considerable reduction of apoptotic hepatic cell death induced by Pb(II). Overall results demonstrate that mangiferin exhibit both antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties and protects the organ in Pb(II) induced hepatic dysfunction. PMID:23451106

  6. Aloe-induced Toxic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ha Na; Kim, Young Mook; Kim, Byoung Ho; Sohn, Kyoung Min; Choi, Myung Jin; Choi, Young Hee

    2010-01-01

    Aloe has been widely used in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine describes aloe as a herb which has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-aging effects. In recent years several cases of aloe-induced hepatotoxicity were reported. But its pharmacokinetics and toxicity are poorly described in the literature. Here we report three cases with aloe-induced toxic hepatitis. A 57-yr-old woman, a 62-yr-old woman and a 55-yr-old woman were admitted to the hospital for acute hepatitis. They had taken aloe preparation for months. Their clinical manifestation, laboratory findings and histologic findings met diagnostic criteria (RUCAM scale) of toxic hepatitis. Upon discontinuation of the oral aloe preparations, liver enzymes returned to normal level. Aloe should be considered as a causative agent in hepatotoxicity. PMID:20191055

  7. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Kids / Hepatitis What's in this article? ... have liver damage because of it. What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  8. Fluoride-induced iron overload contributes to hepatic oxidative damage in mouse and the protective role of Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qiang; He, Ping; Xu, Shangzhi; Ma, Ruling; Ding, Yusong; Mu, Lati; Li, Shugang

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated that iron overload plays an important role in oxidative stress in the liver. This study aimed to explore whether fluoride-induced hepatic oxidative stress is associated with iron overload and whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) alleviates oxidative stress by reducing iron overload. Forty Kunming male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated for 5 weeks with distilled water (control), sodium fluoride (NaF) (100 mg/L), GSPE (400 mg/kg bw), or NaF (100 mg/L) + GSPE (400 mg/kg bw). Mice exposed to NaF showed typical poisoning changes of morphology, increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in the liver. NaF treatment also increased MDA accumulation, decreased GSH-Px, SOD and T-AOC levels in liver, indicative of oxidative stress. Intriguingly, all these detrimental effects were alleviated by GSPE. Further study revealed that NaF induced disorders of iron metabolism, as manifested by elevated iron level with increased hepcidin but decreased ferroportin expression, which contributed to hepatic oxidative stress. Importantly, the iron dysregulation induced by NaF could be normalized by GSPE. Collectively, these data provide a novel insight into mechanisms underlying fluorosis and highlight the potential of GSPE as a naturally occurring prophylactic treatment for fluoride-induced hepatotoxicity associated with iron overload.

  9. Carvedilol suppresses circulating and hepatic IL-6 responsible for hepatocarcinogenesis of chronically damaged liver in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Balaha, Mohamed, E-mail: Mohamed.Balaha@Med.Tanta.

    Carvedilol is an anti-oxidant non-selective β-blocker used for reduction of portal blood pressure, prophylaxis of esophageal varices development and bleeding in chronic liver diseases. Recently, it exhibited potent anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-proliferative and anti-carcinogenic effects. In the present study, we evaluated the possible suppressive effect of carvedilol on circulating and hepatic IL-6 levels responsible for hepatocarcinogenesis in a rat model of hepatic cirrhosis. Besides, its effect on hepatic STAT-3 levels, function tests, oxidative stress markers, and hydroxyproline content, hepatic tissue histopathological changes and immunohistochemical expression of E & N-cadherin. Nine-week-old male Wistar rats injected intraperitoneal by 1 ml/kg 10% CCL{sub 4}more » in olive oil three times/week (every other day) for 12 weeks to induce hepatic cirrhosis. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day suspended in 0.5% CMC orally), silymarin (50 mg/kg/day suspended in 0.5% CMC orally) or combination of both used to treat hepatic cirrhosis from 15th to 84th day. Our data showed that carvedilol and silymarin co-treatment each alone or in combination efficiently reduced the elevated serum IL-6, ALT, AST, ALP and BIL, hepatic IL-6, STAT-3, MDA levels and hydroxyproline content. In addition, it elevated the reduced serum ALB level, hepatic CAT activity and GSH level. Meanwhile, it apparently restored the normal hepatic architecture, collagen distribution and immunohistochemical E & N-cadherin expression. Furthermore, carvedilol was superior to silymarin in improving MDA level. Moreover, the combination of carvedilol and silymarin showed an upper hand in amelioration of the CCL{sub 4} induced hepatotoxicity than each alone. Therefore, carvedilol could be promising in prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis in chronic hepatic injuries. - Highlights: • Chronic liver damage ends into hepatocellular carcinoma in 5% of patients. • Persistent elevation of IL-6 induces

  10. ALLYLISOPROPYLACETAMIDE INDUCES RAT HEPATIC ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In rat liver, allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) treatment strongly induced (25-fold) the activity of rat hepatic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). y either the oral or the subcutaneous routes, AIA produced a long-lasting induction (30 to 4O hours) of hepatic ODC activity. hree analogs o...

  11. [Peculiarities of laparoscopic diagnosis of the closed hepatic traumatic damage].

    PubMed

    Kapshitar', A A; Kapshitar', A V; Syrbu, I F

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic possibilities of laparoscopy were studied in 24 injured persons, suffering closed hepatic damage in noninformity of results of clinical, laboratory-biochemical, roentgenologic, ultrasound investigations and diagnostic peritoneal lavage as well, were studied. Isolated trauma was revealed in 8 injured persons, the multiple one in 7 and the combined--in 9. Open operation was performed in 21 patients, relaparotomy--in 3, laparoscopic intervention with curative intent--in 3 hepatic wound tamponade, using hemostatic sponge with ambene, lubricated by dicinon. Three patients died due to severe combined trauma.

  12. Drug-induced corneal damage.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    Corneal damage can have a variety of causes, including infections, chemical splashes, environmental factors (radiation, trauma, contact lenses, etc.), and systemic diseases (genetic, autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic, etc.). A wide range of drugs can also damage the cornea. The severity of drug-induced corneal changes can range from simple asymptomatic deposits to irreversible, sight-threatening damage. Several factors can influence the onset of corneal lesions. Some factors, such as the dose, are treatment-related, while others such as contact lenses, are patient-related. A variety of mechanisms may be involved, including corneal dryness, changes in the corneal epithelium, impaired wound healing and deposits. Many drugs can damage the cornea through direct contact, after intraocular injection or instillation, including VEGF inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, local anaesthetics, glaucoma drugs, fluoroquinolones, and preservatives. Some systemically administered drugs can also damage the cornea, notably cancer drugs, amiodarone and isotretinoin. Vulnerable patients should be informed of this risk if they are prescribed a drug with the potential to damage the cornea so that they can identify problems in a timely manner. It may be necessary to discontinue the suspect drug when signs and symptoms of corneal damage occur.

  13. Phytochemical analysis, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Alchornea cordifolia methanol leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C; Uzor, Philip F; Nnamani, Nneka R; Adiele, Ijeoma E; Obiano, Nkemakonam C

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Alchornea cordifolia (A. cordifolia) leaf extract. Various solvent fractions of the methanol extract of the leaf of the plant A. cordifolia Mull. Arg (Fam: Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT/AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT/ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was also evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. The ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, at a dose of 300 mg/kg, produced significant (P<0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of the serum enzymes and bilirubin while there were marked scavenging of the DPPH free radicals by the fractions. The effects were comparable to those of the standard drugs used for the respective experiments, silymarin and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were detected in the phytochemical screening. From this study, it was concluded that the plant of A. cordifolia possesses hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant activities and these activities reside mainly in the ethyl acetate and acetone fractions of methanol leaf extract. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Suppressive role of hepatic dendritic cells in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, C; Watanabe, H; Izutsu, Y; Watanabe, M; Abo, T

    2011-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis is a mouse model of acute autoimmune hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hepatic dendritic cells (DC) in the immune modulation of tissue damage. Almost all hepatic DC were plasmacytoid DC (CD11c+ I-Alow B220+); however, conventional DC were CD11c+ I-Ahigh B220–. At an early stage (3–6 h) after Con A administration, the number of DC in both the liver and spleen decreased, increasing thereafter (12–24 h) in parallel with hepatic failure. The hepatic CD11c+ DC population contained many CD11b- cells, while the majority of splenic CD11c+ DC were CD11b+. After Con A administration, the proportion of I-A+ and CD11b+ cells within the CD11c+ DC population tended to increase in the liver, but not in the spleen. Similarly, expression of the activation markers CD80, CD86 and CD40 by CD11c+ DC increased in the liver, but not in the spleen. Next, adoptive transfer of DC isolated from the liver and spleen was performed 3 h after Con A administration to examine the immunomodulatory function of DC. Only hepatic DC had the ability to suppress hepatic failure. Analysis of cytokine production and subsequent identification of the effector cells showed that hepatic DC achieved this by suppressing the production of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-2, rather than modulating effector cell function. PMID:21985372

  15. Insulin-Inducible SMILE Inhibits Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Min; Seo, Woo-Young; Han, Hye-Sook; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Don-Kyu; Choi, Seri; Choi, Byeong Hun; Harris, Robert A; Lee, Chul-Ho; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    The role of a glucagon/cAMP-dependent protein kinase-inducible coactivator PGC-1α signaling pathway is well characterized in hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, an opposing protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt-inducible corepressor signaling pathway is unknown. A previous report has demonstrated that small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper protein (SMILE) regulates the nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors that control hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, we show that hepatic SMILE expression was induced by feeding in normal mice but not in db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Interestingly, SMILE expression was induced by insulin in mouse primary hepatocyte and liver. Hepatic SMILE expression was not altered by refeeding in liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) or PKB β-deficient (PKBβ(-/-)) mice. At the molecular level, SMILE inhibited hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-mediated transcriptional activity via direct competition with PGC-1α. Moreover, ablation of SMILE augmented gluconeogenesis and increased blood glucose levels in mice. Conversely, overexpression of SMILE reduced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression and ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in db/db and HFD-fed mice. Therefore, SMILE is an insulin-inducible corepressor that suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. Small molecules that enhance SMILE expression would have potential for treating hyperglycemia in diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. Fecal microbiota transplantation prevents hepatic encephalopathy in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Xiao-Bing; You, Nan; Zheng, Lu; Li, Jing

    2017-10-14

    To investigate whether fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) prevents hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced acute hepatic dysfunction. A rat model of HE was established with CCl 4 . Rat behaviors and spatial learning capability were observed, and hepatic necrosis, intestinal mucosal barrier, serum ammonia levels and intestinal permeability were determined in HE rats receiving FMT treatment. Furthermore, the expression of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1, Claudin-6 and Occludin), Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4/TLR9, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was examined. FMT improved rat behaviors, HE grade and spatial learning capability. Moreover, FMT prevented hepatic necrosis and intestinal mucosal barrier damage, leading to hepatic clearance of serum ammonia levels and reduced intestinal permeability. The expression of TLR4 and TLR9, two potent mediators of inflammatory response, was significantly downregulated in the liver of rats treated with FMT. Consistently, circulating pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were remarkably decreased, indicating that FMT is able to limit systemic inflammation by decreasing the expression of TLR4 and TLR9. Importantly, HE-induced loss of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1, Claudin-6 and Occludin) was restored in intestinal tissues of rats receiving FMT treatment. FMT enables protective effects in HE rats, and it improves the cognitive function and reduces the liver function indexes. FMT may cure HE by altering the intestinal permeability and improving the TLR response of the liver.

  17. Ferret hepatitis E virus infection induces acute hepatitis and persistent infection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yang, Tingting; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ishii, Koji; Kishida, Noriko; Shirakura, Masayuki; Asanuma, Hideki; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-02-01

    Ferret hepatitis E virus (HEV), a novel hepatitis E virus, has been identified in ferrets. However, the pathogenicity of ferret HEV remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the HEV RNA-positivity rates and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of 63 ferrets between before and after import from the US to Japan. We found that the ferret HEV-RNA positivity rates were increased from 12.7% (8/63) to 60.3% (38/63), and ALT elevation was observed in 65.8% (25/38) of the ferret HEV RNA-positive ferrets, indicating that ferret HEV infection is responsible for liver damage. From long term-monitoring of ferret HEV infection we determined that this infection in ferrets exhibits three patterns: sub-clinical infection, acute hepatitis, and persistent infection. The ALT elevation was also observed in ferret HEV-infected ferrets in a primary infection experiment. These results indicate that the ferret HEV infection induced acute hepatitis and persistent infection in ferrets, suggesting that the ferrets are a candidate animal model for immunological as well as pathological studies of hepatitis E. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ketoconazole-induced fulminant hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bercoff, E; Bernuau, J; Degott, C; Kalis, B; Lemaire, A; Tilly, H; Rueff, B; Benhamou, J P

    1985-01-01

    We report the cases of two adult patients in whom fulminant hepatitis developed after 17 and 103 days of ketoconazole administration. Histologic administration showed massive, predominantly centrilobular necrosis. Clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity and eosinophilia were absent in both patients, which suggests that ketoconazole hepatotoxicity is not mediated through an immunoallergic mechanism. Images Fig. 2 PMID:4007605

  19. [Ketoconazole-induced hepatitis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Henning, H; Kasper, B; Lüders, C J

    1983-12-01

    Since Oct. 1981 a new systemic antifungal drug Ketoconazole is available in the Federal Republic of Germany that has proven effective even in severe cases with fungal infections. This case-study will call attention on a rare but important side effect, namely Ketoconazole induced hepatitis. As an acute icteric viral hepatitis, type Non-A-Non-B-hepatitis possibly misdiagnosed only a carefully compiled history of the recent intake of drugs points at the real cause of hepatitis. In our case-report we observed a considerable increase in serum enzymes, especially GOT, GPT and GLDH after a drug-challenge with two tablets. We recommend so-called liver functions tests 2 to 3 weeks after beginning of therapy and further-on in monthly intervals. Histologically at that time toxic hydropic changes of the liver cells and a mesenchymal reaction with portal and intralobular mainly eosinophilic infiltration could be established. The serum enzymes came to normal only after 12 weeks.

  20. In vitro differentiated hepatic oval-like cells enhance hepatic regeneration in CCl4 -induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Awan, Sana Javaid; Baig, Maria Tayyab; Yaqub, Faiza; Tayyeb, Asima; Ali, Gibran

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic oval cells are likely to be activated during advanced stage of liver fibrosis to reconstruct damaged hepatic tissue. However, their scarcity, difficulties in isolation, and in vitro expansion hampered their transplantation in fibrotic liver. This study was aimed to investigate the repair potential of in vitro differentiated hepatic oval-like cells in CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis. BMSCs and oval cells were isolated and characterized from C57BL/6 GFP + mice. BMSCs were differentiated into oval cells by preconditioning with HGF, EGF, SCF, and LIF and analyzed for the oval cells-specific genes. Efficiency of oval cells to reduce hepatocyte injury was studied by determining cell viability, release of LDH, and biochemical tests in a co-culture system. Further, in vivo repair potential of differentiated oval cells was determined in CCl 4 -induced fibrotic model by gene expression analysis, biochemical tests, mason trichrome, and Sirius red staining. Differentiated oval cells expressed hepatic oval cells-specific markers AFP, ALB, CK8, CK18, CK19. These differentiated cells when co-cultured with injured hepatocytes showed significant hepato-protection as measured by reduction in apoptosis, LDH release, and improvement in liver functions. Transplantation of differentiated oval cells like cells in fibrotic livers exhibited enhanced homing, reduced liver fibrosis, and improved liver functions by augmenting hepatic microenvironment by improved liver functions. This preconditioning strategy to differentiate BMSCs into oval cell leads to improved survival and homing of transplanted cells. In addition, reduction in fibrosis and functional improvement in mice with CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis was achieved. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. Natural Dietary Pigments: Potential Mediators against Hepatic Damage Induced by Over-The-Counter Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics are among the most widely prescribed and purchased drugs around the world. Most analgesics, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen, are metabolized in the liver. The hepatocytes are responsible for drug metabolism and detoxification. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are phase I enzymes expressed mainly in hepatocytes and they account for ≈75% of the metabolism of clinically used drugs and other xenobiotics. These metabolic reactions eliminate potentially toxic compounds but, paradoxically, also result in the generation of toxic or carcinogenic metabolites. Cumulative or overdoses of OTC analgesic drugs can induce acute liver failure (ALF) either directly or indirectly after their biotransformation. ALF is the result of massive death of hepatocytes induced by oxidative stress. There is an increased interest in the use of natural dietary products as nutritional supplements and/or medications to prevent or cure many diseases. The therapeutic activity of natural products may be associated with their antioxidant capacity, although additional mechanisms may also play a role (e.g., anti-inflammatory actions). Dietary antioxidants such as flavonoids, betalains and carotenoids play a preventive role against OTC analgesics-induced ALF. In this review, we will summarize the pathobiology of OTC analgesic-induced ALF and the use of natural pigments in its prevention and therapy. PMID:29364842

  2. Hepatic FGF21 mediates sex differences in high-fat high-fructose diet-induced fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Chukijrungroat, Natsasi; Khamphaya, Tanaporn; Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Songserm, Thaweesak; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon

    2017-08-01

    The role of gender in the progression of fatty liver due to chronic high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD) has not been studied. The present investigation assessed whether HFFD induced hepatic perturbations differently between the sexes and examined the potential mechanisms. Male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or HFFD for 12 wk. Indexes of liver damage and hepatic steatosis were analyzed biochemically and histologically together with monitoring changes in hepatic gene and protein expression. HFFD induced a higher degree of hepatic steatosis in females, with significant increases in proteins involved in hepatic lipogenesis, whereas HFFD significantly induced liver injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress only in males. Interestingly, a significant increase in hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) protein expression was observed in HFFD-fed males but not in HFFD-fed females. Ovarian hormone deprivation by itself led to a significant reduction in FGF21 with hepatic steatosis, and HFFD further aggravated hepatic fat accumulation in OVX rats. Importantly, estrogen replacement restored hepatic FGF21 levels and reduced hepatic steatosis in HFFD-fed OVX rats. Collectively, our results indicate that male rats are more susceptible to HFFD-induced hepatic inflammation and that the mechanism underlying this sex dimorphism is mediated through hepatic FGF21 expression. Our findings reveal sex differences in the development of HFFD-induced fatty liver and indicate the protective role of estrogen against HFFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Pharmacological safety evaluation of a traditional herbal medicine "Zereshk-e-Saghir" and assessment of its hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Sarhadynejad, Zarrin; Sharififar, Fariba; Pardakhty, Abbas; Nematollahi, Mohammad-Hadi; Sattaie-Mokhtari, Saeedeh; Mandegary, Ali

    2016-08-22

    "Zereshk-e-Saghir" (ZES), one of the traditional herbal medicines in old manuscripts of Persian hakims, has been used for the treatment of liver disorders. This current study is aimed to evaluate ZES effects on animal model to investigate its safety and hepatoprotective activity. ZES was prepared according to a traditional method by blending aqueous extracts of Berberis vulgaris L., with fine particles of other plants including Rosa damascene Mill, Cichorium intybus L., Cucumis sativus L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rheum palmatum L., and Nardostachys jatamansi DC.. The lethality of ZES was determined in male NMRI mice. Acute organ toxicity of ZES (750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days, orally) was evaluated by measuring the cell blood count, liver marker enzymes, creatinine, antioxidant status and histopathological examinations in rats. CCl4-induced liver toxicity was used to examine the hepatoprotective effects of the preparation. The rats were pretreated with 250, 500, 750 and 1500mg/kg ZES by gavage for 15 days. At day 16, the rats were intraperitoneally injected 1ml/kg CCl4 in olive oil. Forty-eight hours after CCl4 injection, the animals were sacrificed and their liver samples and blood were collected for determination of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALT, AST, and ALP), histopathological examinations and antioxidant status. Treatment of the mice with a single dose of ZES up to 2g/kg did not cause mortality. Treatment of the rats with doses of 750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days showed no significant hematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Treatment of the rats with ZES reduced the increased serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP induced by CCl4 at the doses of 250, 500, and 750mg/kg. This was almost confirmed by histopathological examinations. Pretreatment with ZES also decreased lipid peroxidation and maintained the levels of glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. The present in vivo study revealed that the long term usage of ZES

  4. Effects of low dose pre-irradiation on hepatic damage and genetic material damage caused by cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Yu, H-S; Song, A-Q; Liu, N; Wang, H

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CTX) can attack tumour cells, but can also damage the other cells and microstructures of an organism at different levels, such as haematopoietic cells, liver cells, peripheral lymphocyte DNA, and genetic materials. Low dose radiation (LDR) can induce general adaptation reaction. In this study, we explore the effects of low dose radiation on hepatic damage and genetic material damage caused by CTX. Mice were implanted subcutaneously with S180 cells in the left groin (control group excluded). On days 8 and 11, mice of the LDR and LDR+CTX groups were given 75 mGy of whole-body γ-irradiation; whereas mice of the CTX and LDR+CTX groups were injected intraperitoneally with 3.0 mg of CTX. All mice were sacrificed on day 13. DNA damage of the peripheral lymphocytes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) of the plasma, malonyl-dialdheyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity of the hepatic homogenate, and micronucleus frequency (MNF) of polychromatoerythrocytes in the bone marrow were analysed. The control group had the lowest MDA content and the highest SOD and GSH-PX activity, whereas the CTX group had the highest MDA content and the lowest SOD and GSH-PX activity. Compared with the CTX group, the MDA content decreased significantly (p < 0.01) and the SOD and GSH-PX activity increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the LDR+CTX group. TP and ALB in control group were higher than that of the other groups. Compared with the sham-irradiated group, TP and ALB in the LDR group elevated significantly (p < 0.05). The control group had the lightest DNA damage, whereas the CTX group had the severest. DNA damage in LDR+CTX group was much lighter compared with that of the CTX group (p < 0.05). MNF in the CTX group increased significantly compared with the control and the sham-irradiated groups (p < 0.01). Compared with the CTX group, MNF in LDR+CTX group had a tendency of decline

  5. Liver manipulation during liver surgery in humans is associated with hepatocellular damage and hepatic inflammation.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Maartje A J; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Schreurs, Joris J W; Bloemen, Johanne G; Bieghs, Veerle; Rensen, Sander S; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Olde Damink, Steven W M

    2013-04-01

    Manipulation of the liver during liver surgery results in profound hepatocellular damage. Experimental data show that mobilization-induced hepatocellular damage is related to hepatic inflammation. To date, information on this link in humans is lacking. As it is possible to modulate inflammation, it is clinically relevant to unravel this relationship. This observational study aimed to establish the association between liver mobilization and hepatic inflammation in humans. Consecutive patients requiring mobilization of the right hemi-liver during liver surgery were studied. Plasma samples and liver biopsies were collected prior to and directly after mobilization and after transection of the liver. Hepatocellular damage was assayed by liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and aminotransferase levels. Hepatic inflammation was determined by (a) immunohistochemical identification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and CD68- positive cells and (b) hepatic gene expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1). A total of 25 patients were included. L-FABP levels increased significantly during mobilization (301 ± 94 ng/ml to 1599 ± 362 ng/ml, P = 0.008), as did ALAT levels (36 ± 5 IU/L to 167 ± 21 IU/L, P < 0.001). A significant increase in MPO (P = 0.001) and CD68 (P = 0.002) positive cells was noticed in the liver after mobilization. The number of MPO-positive cells correlated with the duration of mobilization (Pearson correlation=0.505, P = 0.033). Hepatic gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, chemo-attractant IL-8 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 increased significantly during liver manipulation. Liver mobilization is associated with hepatocellular damage and liver inflammation, as shown by infiltration of inflammatory cells and upregulation of genes involved in acute inflammation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Hepatitis E-induced severe myositis.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Annerose M; Stenzel, Werner; Meisel, Andreas; Büning, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in Asian and African countries but is rarely reported in Western countries. Although there are some prominent neurological manifestations, HEV is rarely recognized by neurologists. This is a case report of myositis induced by HEV. We report the life-threatening case of a 57-year-old man with flaccid tetraparesis due to myositis, acute hepatitis, and renal failure caused by HEV infection. Muscle biopsy revealed scattered myofiber necrosis with a diffuse, mild lymphomonocytic infiltrate in the endomysium and perimysium. Because the patient suffered from an acute HEV infection with a rapidly progressive course of severe myopathy, we started ribavirin treatment. He recovered partially within 3 weeks and recovered fully within 6 months. This case highlights a neurological manifestation of endemic HEV infection with severe myositis in a patient with alcoholic chronic liver disease. Ribavirin treatment is effective in severe HEV infection and may also lead to rapid neurological recovery. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Edaravone prevents lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Munehito; Tojo, Kentaro; Yazawa, Takuya; Ota, Shuhei; Goto, Takahisa; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2015-04-01

    Lung injury is a major clinical concern after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), due to the production of reactive oxygen species in the reperfused liver. We investigated the efficacy of edaravone, a potent free-radical scavenger, for attenuating lung injury after hepatic I/R. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sham + normal saline (NS), I/R + NS, or I/R + edaravone group. Rats in the I/R groups were subjected to 90 min of partial hepatic I/R. Five minutes before reperfusion, 3 mg/kg edaravone was administered to the I/R + edaravone group. After 6 h of reperfusion, we evaluated lung histopathology and wet-to-dry ratio. We also measured malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, in the liver and the lung, as well as cytokine messenger RNA expressions in the reperfused liver and plasma cytokine concentrations. Histopathology revealed lung damages after 6 h reperfusion of partial ischemic liver. Moreover, a significant increase in lung wet-to-dry ratio was observed. MDA concentration increased in the reperfused liver, but not in the lungs. Edaravone administration attenuated the lung injury and the increase of MDA in the reperfused liver. Edaravone also suppressed the reperfusion-induced increase of interleukin-6 messenger RNA expressions in the liver and plasma interleukin-6 concentrations. Edaravone administration before reperfusion of the ischemic liver attenuates oxidative stress in the reperfused liver and the subsequent lung injury. Edaravone may be beneficial for preventing lung injury induced by hepatic I/R. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Submassive hepatic necrosis induced by dichloropropanol.

    PubMed

    Haratake, J; Furuta, A; Iwasa, T; Wakasugi, C; Imazu, K

    1993-06-01

    A hitherto undescribed industrial liver injury of fulminant form induced by dichloropropanol is reported. Two middle-aged men developed severe hepatic injury just after cleaning a dichloropropanol tank at a plant producing dichloropropanol. They died from hepatic failure 4 and 11 days respectively, after carrying out the work. Liver specimens taken at autopsy from one of the cases showed submassive hepatic necrosis. This accident prompted us to undertake an experimental study in rats of intraperitoneal one-shot injection of two isomeric substances of dichloropropanol, that is, 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (DC1P) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (DC2P). Saline was injected into the control rats. One, two, four, six, 24, 48, 72 h, and 1 week after the injection, rats in each group were sacrificed. Neither control nor DC1P-injected rats showed significant biochemical or histopathological abnormalities. DC2P-injected rats revealed elevations of transaminase from 6 h after the injections, and submassive necrosis of the liver was observed in many rats. It was concluded that the severe liver injuries in both the human cases and rats in our study were caused by DC2P.

  9. Vinpocetine ameliorates acute hepatic damage caused by administration of carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel Salam, O M E; Oraby, Fatma Hassan; Hassan, Nabila S

    2007-12-01

    Vinpocetine is a widely used drug for the treatment of cerebrovascular and memory disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect of vinpocetine on the acute hepatic injury caused in the rat by the administration of CCl4 in vivo. Vinpocetine (2.1, 4.2, 8.4 mg/kg) or silymarin (30 mg/kg) was given once daily orally simultaneously with CCl4 and for 15 days thereafter. Liver damage was assessed by determining serum enzyme activities and hepatic histopathology. Stained sections were subjected to morphometric evaluation using computerized image analyzer. The results showed that vinpocetine administered to CCl4-treated rats decreased the elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) by 49.3, 58.1 and 63.6%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) by 10.5, 22.6 and 27.2% and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 52.5, 59.6 and 64.9%, respectively, and in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, silymarin reduced elevated ALT, AST and ALP levels by 53.1, 26.9 and 66%, respectively. Histological examination of liver specimens revealed a marked reduction in liver cell necrosis in vinpocetine and silymarin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated CCl4-treated rats. Quantitative analysis of the area of damage showed 85.3% reduction in the area of damage after silymarin and 72.2, 78.9 and 82.6% reduction after vinpocetine treatment at 2.1, 4.2, 8.4 mg/kg, respectively. It is concluded that administration of vinpocetine in a model of CCl4-induced liver injury in rats reduced liver damage. The reduction obtained by 4.2 mg/kg of vinpocetine was similar to that obtained by 30 mg/kg silymarin. Therefore, it is suggested that vinpocetine might be a good pharmacological agent in the treatment of liver disease besides its neuroprotective effects.

  10. Hepatitis C virus core protein induces hepatic steatosis via Sirt1-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanhai; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Hanlin; Liu, Shunai; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Cheng, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a common feature of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Previous reports have shown that the overexpression of hepatitis C virus core-encoding sequences (hepatitis C virus genotypes 3a and 1b) significantly induces intracellular triglyceride accumulation. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been revealed. To investigate whether Sirt1 is involved in hepatitis C virus-mediated hepatic steatosis, the overexpression of hepatitis C virus core 1b protein and Sirt1 and the knockdown of Sirt1 in HepG2 cells were performed. To confirm the results of the cellular experiment liver-specific Sirt1 KO mice with lentivirus-mediated hepatitis C virus core 1b overexpression were studied. Our results show that hepatitis C virus core 1b protein overexpression led to the accumulation of triglycerides in HepG2 cells. Notably the expression of PPARγ2 was dramatically increased at both the mRNA and protein levels by hepatitis C virus core 1b overexpression. The protein expression of Sirt1 is an upstream regulator of PPARγ2 and was also significantly increased after core 1b overexpression. In addition, the overexpression or knockdown of Sirt1 expression alone was sufficient to modulate p300-mediated PPARγ2 deacetylation. In vivo studies showed that hepatitis C virus core protein 1b-induced hepatic steatosis was attenuated in liver-specific Sirt1 KO mice by downregulation of PPARγ2 expression. Sirt1 mediates hepatitis C virus core protein 1b-induced hepatic steatosis by regulation of PPARγ2 expression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. p53-Mediated Cellular Response to DNA Damage in Cells with Replicative Hepatitis B Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puisieux, Alain; Ji, Jingwei; Guillot, Celine; Legros, Yann; Soussi, Thierry; Isselbacher, Kurt; Ozturk, Mehmet

    1995-02-01

    Wild-type p53 acts as a tumor suppressor gene by protecting cells from deleterious effects of genotoxic agents through the induction of a G_1/S arrest or apoptosis as a response to DNA damage. Transforming proteins of several oncogenic DNA viruses inactivate tumor suppressor activity of p53 by blocking this cellular response. To test whether hepatitis B virus displays a similar effect, we studied the p53-mediated cellular response to DNA damage in 2215 hepatoma cells with replicative hepatitis B virus. We demonstrate that hepatitis B virus replication does not interfere with known cellular functions of p53 protein.

  12. Causal relationship of hepatic fat with liver damage and insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Dongiovanni, P; Stender, S; Pietrelli, A; Mancina, R M; Cespiati, A; Petta, S; Pelusi, S; Pingitore, P; Badiali, S; Maggioni, M; Mannisto, V; Grimaudo, S; Pipitone, R M; Pihlajamaki, J; Craxi, A; Taube, M; Carlsson, L M S; Fargion, S; Romeo, S; Kozlitina, J; Valenti, L

    2018-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is epidemiologically associated with hepatic and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether hepatic fat accumulation has a causal role in determining liver damage and insulin resistance. We performed a Mendelian randomization analysis using risk alleles in PNPLA3, TM6SF2, GCKR and MBOAT7, and a polygenic risk score for hepatic fat, as instruments. We evaluated complementary cohorts of at-risk individuals and individuals from the general population: 1515 from the liver biopsy cohort (LBC), 3329 from the Swedish Obese Subjects Study (SOS) and 4570 from the population-based Dallas Heart Study (DHS). Hepatic fat was epidemiologically associated with liver damage, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The impact of genetic variants on liver damage was proportional to their effect on hepatic fat accumulation. Genetically determined hepatic fat was associated with aminotransferases, and with inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis in the LBC. Furthermore, in the LBC, the causal association between hepatic fat and fibrosis was independent of disease activity, suggesting that a causal effect of long-term liver fat accumulation on liver disease is independent of inflammation. Genetically determined hepatic steatosis was associated with insulin resistance in the LBC and SOS. However, this association was dependent on liver damage severity. Genetically determined hepatic steatosis was associated with liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and with a small increase in risk of type 2 diabetes in publicly available databases. These data suggest that long-term hepatic fat accumulation plays a causal role in the development of chronic liver disease. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  13. DNA Damage Induced Neuronal Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    heterozygous for the DNA repair genes Os-methylguanine methyltransferase (Mgmt), 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag) , and xeroderma pigmentosum ...mice by human 06-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase. Science 1993; 259: 219-222. 4. Enokido Y, Inamura N, Araki T, et al: Loss of the xeroderma ... pigmentosum group A gene (XPA) enhances apoptosis of cultured cerebellar neurons induced by UV but not by low-K+ medium. J Neurochem 199; 69: 246-251. 5

  14. Role of geraniol against lead acetate-mediated hepatic damage and their interaction with liver carboxylesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ahmet; Sahin, Zafer; Kuzu, Muslum; Saglam, Yavuz Selim; Ozkaraca, Mustafa; Uckun, Mirac; Yologlu, Ertan; Comakli, Veysel; Demirdag, Ramazan; Yologlu, Semra

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of geraniol (50 mg/kg for 30 d), a natural antioxidant and repellent/antifeedant monoterpene, in a rat model of lead acetate-induced (500 ppm for 30 d) liver damage was evaluated. Hepatic malondialdehyde increased in the lead acetate group. Reduced glutathione unchanged, but glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, as well as carboxylesterase activities decreased in geraniol, lead acetate and geraniol + lead acetate groups. 8-OhDG immunoreactivity, mononuclear cell infiltrations and hepatic lead concentration were lower in the geraniol + lead acetate group than the lead acetate group. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities increased in the Pb acetate group. In conclusion, lead acetate causes oxidative and toxic damage in the liver and this effect can reduce with geraniol treatment. However, we first observed that lead acetate, as well as geraniol, can affect liver carboxylesterase activity.

  15. Ursodeoxycholyl Lysophosphatidylethanolamide Protects Against CD95/FAS-Induced Fulminant Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Utaipan, Tanyarath; Otto, Ann-Christin; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Chunglok, Warangkana; Pathil, Anita; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Chamulitrat, Walee

    2017-08-01

    Increased activation of CD95/Fas by Fas ligand in viral hepatitis and autoimmunity is involved in pathogenesis of fulminant hepatitis and liver failure. We designed a bile-acid phospholipid conjugate ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE with LPE containing oleate at the sn-1) as a hepatoprotectant that was shown to protect against fulminant hepatitis induced by endotoxin. We herein further assessed the ability of UDCA-LPE to prevent death receptor CD95/Fas-induced fulminant hepatitis. C57BL/6 mice were intravenously administered with CD95/Fas agonistic monoclonal antibody (Jo-2) with or without 1 h pretreatment with 50 mg/kg UDCA-LPE. Jo-2 administration caused massive hepatocyte damage as seen by histology, and this was associated with a significant decrease in hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysoPC, and lysophosphatidylethanolamine levels. By histology, UDCA-LPE pretreatment improved hepatocyte damage and restored the loss of these phospholipids in part by a mechanism involving an inhibition of cytosolic phospholipaseA2 expression. Accordingly, Jo-2 treatment increased hepatic expression of cleaved caspase 8, caspase 3, and poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase-1, and on the other hand decreased that of anti-apoptotic cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein. UDCA-LPE pretreatment was able to reverse all these changes. Moreover, UDCA-LPE attenuated inflammatory response by lowering the levels of Jo-2-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in liver and serum. UDCA-LPE was also able to decrease the levels of stimulated Th1/Th17 cytokines in Jo-2-primed isolated splenocytes. Taken together, UDCA-LPE exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects against CD95/Fas-induced fulminant hepatitis.

  16. Secondhand smoke induces hepatic apoptosis and fibrosis in hamster fetus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang; Cho, Ta-Hsiung; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Jeng; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2016-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an important health issue worldwide. Inhaling SHS during pregnancy could cause abnormalities in the internal tissues of newborns, which may then impair fetal development and even cause severe intrauterine damage and perinatal death. However, the understanding of cytopathic mechanisms of SHS by maternal passive smoking on fetus liver during pregnancy is still limited. This study analyzed the effects of high-dose SHS (SHSH) on fetus liver using a maternal passive smoking animal model. Experiments showed that hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells were significantly increased in livers from fetuses of hamsters treated with SHSH. Similarly, expressions of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic molecules were significantly higher in livers from fetuses of hamsters exposed to SHSH. Additionally, significantly increased inflammatory proteins, including transforming growth factor β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1β, and fibrotic signaling molecules, including phosphorylated Smad2/3, SP1, and α-smooth muscle actin, were observed in the fetus livers from hamsters treated with SHSH. This study revealed that SHSH not only increased apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the livers of fetuses from hamsters exposed to SHSH but also augmented hepatic fibrosis via Smad2/3 signaling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Potential mechanisms of hepatitis B virus induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Suhail, Mohd; Abdel-Hafiz, Hany; Ali, Ashraf; Fatima, Kaneez; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Azhar, Esam; Chaudhary, Adeel GA; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2014-01-01

    Chronic active hepatitis (CAH) is acknowledged as an imperative risk factor for the development of liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma. The histological end points of CAH are chronic inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis which are coupled with increased DNA synthesis in cirrhotic vs healthy normal livers. The potential mechanism involved in CAH includes a combination of processes leading to liver cell necrosis, inflammation and cytokine production and liver scaring (fibrosis). The severity of liver damage is regulated by Hepatitis B virus genotypes and viral components. The viral and cellular factors that contribute to liver injury are discussed in this article. Liver injury caused by the viral infection affects many cellular processes such as cell signaling, apoptosis, transcription, DNA repair which in turn induce radical effects on cell survival, growth, transformation and maintenance. The consequence of such perturbations is resulted in the alteration of bile secretion, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, detoxification and metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fat and balance of nutrients. The identification and elucidation of the molecular pathways perturbed by the viral proteins are important in order to design effective strategy to minimize and/or restore the hepatocytes injury. PMID:25253946

  18. Overexpression of the cholesterol-binding protein MLN64 induces liver damage in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Tichauer, Juan Enrique; Morales, María Gabriela; Amigo, Ludwig; Galdames, Leopoldo; Klein, Andrés; Quiñones, Verónica; Ferrada, Carla; R, Alejandra Alvarez; Rio, Marie-Christine; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Rigotti, Attilio; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the in vivo phenotype associated with hepatic metastatic lymph node 64 (MLN64) over-expression. METHODS: Recombinant-adenovirus-mediated MLN64 gene transfer was used to overexpress MLN64 in the livers of C57BL/6 mice. We measured the effects of MLN64 overexpression on hepatic cholesterol content, bile flow, biliary lipid secretion and apoptosis markers. For in vitro studies cultured CHO cells with transient MLN64 overexpression were utilized and apoptosis by TUNEL assay was measured. RESULTS: Livers from Ad.MLN64-infected mice exhibited early onset of liver damage and apoptosis. This response correlated with increases in liver cholesterol content and biliary bile acid concentration, and impaired bile flow. We investigated whether liver MLN64 expression could be modulated in a murine model of hepatic injury. We found increased hepatic MLN64 mRNA and protein levels in mice with chenodeoxycholic acid-induced liver damage. In addition, cultured CHO cells with transient MLN64 overexpression showed increased apoptosis. CONCLUSION: In summary, hepatic MLN64 over-expression induced damage and apoptosis in murine livers and altered cholesterol metabolism. Further studies are required to elucidate the relevance of these findings under physiologic and disease conditions. PMID:17589922

  19. Laser-Induced Damage with Femtosecond Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Kyle R. P.

    The strong electric fields of focused femtosecond laser pulses lead to non-equilibrium dynamics in materials, which, beyond a threshold intensity, causes laser-induced damage (LID). Such a strongly non-linear and non-perturbative process renders important LID observables like fluence and intensity thresholds and damage morphology (crater) extremely difficult to predict quantitatively. However, femtosecond LID carries a high degree of precision, which has been exploited in various micro/nano-machining and surface engineering applications, such as human eye surgery and super-hydrophobic surfaces. This dissertation presents an array of experimental studies which have measured the damage behavior of various materials under femtosecond irradiation. Precision experiments were performed to produce extreme spatio-temporal confinement of the femtosecond laser-solid damage interaction on monocrystalline Cu, which made possible the first successful direct-benchmarking of LID simulation with realistic damage craters. A technique was developed to produce laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in a single pulse (typically a multi-pulse phenomenon), and was used to perform a pump-probe study which revealed asynchronous LIPSS formation on copper. Combined with 1-D calculations, this new experimental result suggests more drastic electron heating than expected. Few-cycle pulses were used to study the LID performance and morphology of commercial ultra-broadband optics, which had not been systematically studied before. With extensive surface analysis, various morphologies were observed, including LIPSS, swelling (blisters), simple craters, and even ring-shaped structures, which varied depending on the coating design, number of pulses, and air/vacuum test environment. Mechanisms leading to these morphologies are discussed, many of which are ultrafast in nature. The applied damage behavior of multi-layer dielectric mirrors was measured and compared between long pulse (150 ps

  20. Synergistic protective effect of picrorhiza with honey in acetaminophen induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prashant; Tripathi, Alok; Agrawal, Tripti; Narayan, Chandradeo; Singh, B M; Kumar, Mohan; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-08-01

    Rhizome of picrorhiza along with honey prevents hepatic damage and cure the acetaminophen (paracetamol) induced hepatotoxicity by modulating the activity of hepatic enzymes. Here, we studied the in vivo effects of Picrorhiza kurroa and honey on acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity Balb/c mice model. Hepatic histopathological observations of acetaminophen fed (day-6) group showed more congestion, hemorrhage, necrosis, distorted hepatic architecture and nuclear inclusion. Such damages were recompensed to normal by picrorhiza or honey alone or both in combinations. We observed increased activity of SGPT and SGOT in injured liver tissues, and that too was compensated to normal with picrorhiza or honey alone or both in combinations. We observed 1.27 and 1.23-fold enhanced activity of SGPT in serum and liver lysate, respectively while SGOT showed 1.66 and 1.11 fold enhanced activity. These two enzymes are signature enzymes of liver damage. Thus, our results support that honey may be used with drug picrorhiza due to its synergistic role to enhance hepatoprotective and hepatoregenerative ability along with allopathic drugs to mitigate the hepatotoxic effects.

  1. Parvovirus infection-induced DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yong; Qiu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Parvoviruses are a group of small DNA viruses with ssDNA genomes flanked by two inverted terminal structures. Due to a limited genetic resource they require host cellular factors and sometimes a helper virus for efficient viral replication. Recent studies have shown that parvoviruses interact with the DNA damage machinery, which has a significant impact on the life cycle of the virus as well as the fate of infected cells. In addition, due to special DNA structures of the viral genomes, parvoviruses are useful tools for the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying viral infection-induced DNA damage response (DDR). This review aims to summarize recent advances in parvovirus-induced DDR, with a focus on the diverse DDR pathways triggered by different parvoviruses and the consequences of DDR on the viral life cycle as well as the fate of infected cells. PMID:25429305

  2. Nilotinib counteracts thioacetamide-induced hepatic oxidative stress and attenuates liver fibrosis progression.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Mohamed E; Salem, Hatem A; Shiha, Gamal E; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of imatinib and nilotinib to that of silymarin on established liver fibrosis and oxidative stress in a thioacetamide (TAA) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of TAA (150mg/kg, twice weekly) for 12weeks. Daily treatments with imatinib (10mg/kg), nilotinib (10mg/kg), and silymarin (100mg/kg) were administered orally during the last 4weeks of TAA-administration. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests in serum. Hepatic histopathology and collagen content were employed to quantify liver fibrosis. Hepatic oxidative stress was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), total nitrate/nitrite (NOx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Nilotinib, silymarin and, to a lesser extent, imatinib treatments ameliorated TAA-induced hepatic oxidative stress and damage as indicated by hepatic MDA, 4-HNE, NOx, GSH, MPO and SOD levels, as well as liver function tests. Hepatic histopathology results revealed that nilotinib, imatinib, and silymarin treatments decreased the mean score of fibrosis in TAA-treated rats by 24, 14, and 3%, respectively. However, nilotinib and silymarin, but not imatinib, treatments decreased hepatic collagen content in TAA-treated rats by 17 and 36%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that nilotinib not only protected against hepatic oxidative stress, but also slowed down liver fibrosis progression. Thus, we provide the first evidence that nilotinib might be a promising anti-fibrotic drug. © 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. Adipose tissue macrophages induce hepatic neutrophil recruitment and macrophage accumulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Bijnen, Mitchell; Josefs, Tatjana; Cuijpers, Ilona; Maalsen, Constantijn J; van de Gaar, José; Vroomen, Maria; Wijnands, Erwin; Rensen, Sander S; Greve, Jan Willem M; Hofker, Marten H; Biessen, Erik A L; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Wouters, Kristiaan

    2017-10-26

    Obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This risk has been attributed to visceral adipose tissue (vAT) expansion associated with increased proinflammatory mediators. Accumulation of CD11c + proinflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) is an important driver of vAT inflammation. We investigated the role of ATMs in hepatic inflammation during NASH development. vAT isolated from lean, obese or ATM-depleted (using clodronate liposomes) obese mice was transplanted to lean ldlr -/- acceptor mice. Systemic and hepatic inflammation was assessed either after 2 weeks on standard chow or after 8 weeks on high cholesterol diet (HCD) to induce NASH. Transplanting donor vAT from obese mice increased HCD-induced hepatic macrophage content compared with lean-transplanted mice, worsening liver damage. ATM depletion prior to vAT transplantation reduced this increased hepatic macrophage accumulation. On chow, vAT transplantation induced a more pronounced increase in circulating and hepatic neutrophil numbers in obese-transplanted than lean-transplanted mice, while ATM depletion prior to vAT transplantation reversed this effect. Microarray analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorting of CD11c + and CD11c - macrophages isolated from donor adipose tissue showed that obesity resulted in enhanced expression of neutrophil chemotaxis genes specifically in CD11c + ATMs. Involvement of the neutrophil chemotaxis proteins, CXCL14 and CXCL16, was confirmed by culturing vAT. In humans, CD11c expression in vAT of obese individuals correlated with vAT expression of neutrophil chemotactic genes and with hepatic expression of neutrophil and macrophage marker genes. ATMs from obese vAT induce hepatic macrophage accumulation during NASH development, possibly by enhancing neutrophil recruitment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  4. Selective inhibition of iNOS attenuates trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation-induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Kan, Wen-Hong; Hsu, Jun-Te; Schwacha, Martin G; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Raju, Raghavan; Bland, Kirby I; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2008-10-01

    Although trauma-hemorrhage produces tissue hypoxia, systemic inflammatory response and organ dysfunction, the mechanisms responsible for these alterations are not clear. Using a potent selective inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, N-[3-(aminomethyl) benzyl]acetamidine (1400W), and a nonselective NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), we investigated whether inducible NO synthase plays any role in producing hepatic injury, inflammation, and changes of protein expression following trauma-hemorrhage. To investigate this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to midline laparotomy and hemorrhagic shock (mean blood pressure 35-40 mmHg for approximately 90 min) followed by fluid resuscitation. Animals were treated with either vehicle (DMSO) or 1400W (10 mg/kg body wt ip), or L-NAME (30 mg/kg iv), 30 min before resuscitation and killed 2 h after resuscitation. Trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation induced a marked hypotension and increase in markers of hepatic injury (i.e., plasma alpha-glutathione S-transferase, tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and nitrotyrosine formation). Hepatic expression of iNOS, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, ICAM-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and neutrophil chemoattractant (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) protein levels were also markedly increased following trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation. Administration of the iNOS inhibitor 1400W significantly attenuated hypotension and expression of these mediators of hepatic injury induced by trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation. However, administration of L-NAME could not attenuate hepatic dysfunction and tissue injury mediated by trauma-hemorrhage, although it improved mean blood pressure as did 1400W. These results indicate that increased expression of iNOS following trauma-hemorrhage plays an important role in the induction of hepatic damage under such conditions.

  5. Inducing a visceral organ to protect a peripheral capillary bed: stabilizing hepatic HIF-1α prevents oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, George; Lee, Tamara J; Yoon, Suzy; Yu, Minzhong; Peachey, Neal S; Rayborn, Mary; Zutel, M Julieta; Trichonas, George; Au, John; Sears, Jonathan E

    2014-06-01

    Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) can prevent oxygen-induced retinopathy in rodents. Here we demonstrate that dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG)-induced retinovascular protection is dependent on hepatic HIF-1 because mice deficient in liver-specific HIF-1α experience hyperoxia-induced damage even with DMOG treatment, whereas DMOG-treated wild-type mice have 50% less avascular retina (P < 0.0001). Hepatic HIF stabilization protects retinal function because DMOG normalizes the b-wave on electroretinography in wild-type mice. The localization of DMOG action to the liver is further supported by evidence that i) mRNA and protein erythropoietin levels within liver and serum increased in DMOG-treated wild-type animals but are reduced by 60% in liver-specific HIF-1α knockout mice treated with DMOG, ii) triple-positive (Sca1/cKit/VEGFR2), bone-marrow-derived endothelial precursor cells increased twofold in DMOG-treated wild-type mice (P < 0.001) but are unchanged in hepatic HIF-1α knockout mice in response to DMOG, and iii) hepatic luminescence in the luciferase oxygen-dependent degradation domain mouse was induced by subcutaneous and intraperitoneal DMOG. These findings uncover a novel endocrine mechanism for retinovascular protection. Activating HIF in visceral organs such as the liver may be a simple strategy to protect capillary beds in the retina and in other peripheral tissues. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential effects of experimental and cold-induced hyperthyroidism on factors inducing rat liver oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Venditti, P; Pamplona, R; Ayala, V; De Rosa, R; Caldarone, G; Di Meo, S

    2006-03-01

    Thyroid hormone-induced increase in metabolic rates is often associated with increased oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of iodothyronines to liver oxidative stress in the functional hyperthyroidism elicited by cold, using as models cold-exposed and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)- or thyroxine (T4)-treated rats. The hyperthyroid state was always associated with increases in both oxidative capacity and oxidative damage of the tissue. The most extensive damage to lipids and proteins was found in T3-treated and cold-exposed rats, respectively. Increase in oxygen reactive species released by mitochondria and microsomes was found to contribute to tissue oxidative damage, whereas the determination of single antioxidants did not provide information about the possible contribution of a reduced effectiveness of the antioxidant defence system. Indeed, liver oxidative damage in hyperthyroid rats was scarcely related to levels of the liposoluble antioxidants and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Conversely, other biochemical changes, such as the degree of fatty acid unsaturation and hemoprotein content, appeared to predispose hepatic tissue to oxidative damage associated with oxidative challenge elicited by hyperthyroid state. As a whole, our results confirm the idea that T3 plays a key role in metabolic changes and oxidative damage found in cold liver. However, only data concerning changes in glutathione peroxidase activity and mitochondrial protein content favour the idea that dissimilarities in effects of cold exposure and T3 treatment could depend on differences in serum levels of T4.

  7. Rifampicin-Induced Concomitant Renal Injury and Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chogtu, Bharti; Surendra, Vyshak Uddur; Acharya, Preetam Rajgopal; Yerrapragada, Devesh Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are not unusual during Anti-Tubercular Therapy (ATT). One of the common complications of anti-tubercular treatment is drug induced hepatitis and renal insufficiency has also been reported. Renal failure and/or hepatitis encountered during treatment of tuberculosis can have varied aetiologies: drug induced, concomitant viral infection, pre-existing co-morbidities or a combination of these. Since, hepatitis and/or renal insufficiency can be life threatening a prompt diagnosis is warranted, where drugs should be kept as one of the important cause. Identifying the drug helps in treating hepatitis and/or renal insufficiency along with helping the physician to change the combination of ATT regimen. Rifampicin is one of the most important first line drugs in the treatment of tuberculosis. Hepatitis, epigastric distress, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and interstitial nephritis are reported adverse drug reactions to rifampicin. As per literature rifampicin induced renal toxicity is usually seen on rifampicin re-exposure, or rifampicin administration on alternate days, both being present in this case. Here we are reporting a case of ATT induced renal failure with concomitant hepatitis where rifampicin was suspected to be the cause. PMID:27790502

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of Tridax procumbens against d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2005-10-03

    The hepatoprotective activity of aerial parts of Tridax procumbens was investigated against d-Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide (d-GalN/LPS) induced hepatitis in rats. d-GalN/LPS (300 mg/kg body weight/30 microg/kg body weight)-induced hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transferase) and bilirubin level in serum and lipids both in serum and liver. Pretreatment of rats with a chloroform insoluble fraction from ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens reversed these altered parameters to normal values. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Results of this study revealed that Tridax procumbens could afford a significant protection in the alleviation of d-GalN/LPS-induced hepatocellular injury.

  9. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis (pronounced: hep-uh-TIE-tiss) is an ...

  10. Hepatic damage in newborns from female rats exposed to the pesticide derivative ethylenethiourea.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Patrícia Veruska Ribeiro Barbosa; Martins, José Luiz; Lemos, Sidney Pereira Pinto; Santos, Fernando Leandro dos; Silva, Sílvio Romero Gonçalves e

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate hepatic morphological-histological abnormalities in newborns from female rats exposed to ethylenethiourea. A randomized study was conducted on fifty-five newborn Wistar rats were studied: 34 in the experimental group, whose mothers had been exposed to 1% ethylenethiourea; and 21 in the control group, whose mothers had received 0.9% physiological solution. The solution was administered via gavage on the 11(th) day of gestation. Cesarean section was performed on the 20(th) day of gestation. The newborns' livers were examined and any morphological-histological abnormalities were registered. The presence of megakaryocytes was quantified in 50 microscope fields, as the total number of these cells per mm(2). The entire experimental group presented abnormalities of embryonic formation, with musculoskeletal anomalies, digestive system anomalies, hepatic congestion and friability, hydrops and delayed intrauterine growth. The histopathological analysis showed that morphological-histological hepatic destructuring had occurred in all entire experimental with removal of the hepatic trabeculae and severe hepatic megakaryocytosis. The mean megakaryocyte density ranged from 107.9 to 114.2 per mm(2), and it was eight times greater than in the control group, thus characterizing a situation of extramedullary hematopoiesis. The fetal exposure to ethylenethiourea caused hepatic damage characterized by severe extramedullary hematopoiesis.

  11. Sub-acute deltamethrin and fluoride toxicity induced hepatic oxidative stress and biochemical alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Nitin; Khan, Adil Mehraj; Raina, Rajinder

    2013-09-01

    The current study investigated the effects of deltamethrin, fluoride (F(-)) and their combination on the hepatic oxidative stress and consequent alterations in blood biochemical markers of hepatic damage in rats. Significant hepatic oxidative stress and hepatic damage were observed in the toxicant exposed groups. These changes were higher in the deltamethrin-F(-) co-exposure treatment group, depicting a positive interaction between the two chemicals.

  12. Recurrent Acute Liver Failure Because of Acute Hepatitis Induced by Organic Solvents: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Ito, Kyoji; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Fujinaga, Hidetaka; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a case of recurrent acute liver failure because of occupational exposure to organic solvents. A 35-year-old man with a 3-week history of worsening jaundice and flu-like symptoms was admitted to our hospital. Viral hepatitis serology and autoimmune factors were negative. The authors considered liver transplantation, but the patient's liver function spontaneously recovered. Liver biopsy revealed massive infiltration of neutrophils, but the cause of the acute hepatitis was not identified. Four months after discharge, the patient's liver function worsened again. The authors considered the possibility of antinuclear antibody-negative autoimmune hepatitis and initiated steroid treatment, which was effective. Four months after discharge, the patient was admitted for repeated liver injury. The authors started him on steroid pulse therapy, but this time it was not effective. Just before the first admission, he had started his own construction company where he was highly exposed to organic solvents, and thus the authors considered organic solvent-induced hepatitis. Although urine test results for organic solvents were negative, a second liver biopsy revealed severe infiltration of neutrophils, compatible with toxic hepatitis. Again, his liver function spontaneously improved. Based on the pathology and detailed clinical course, including the patient's high exposure to organic solvents since just before the first admission, and the spontaneous recovery of his liver damage in the absence of the exposure, he was diagnosed with toxic hepatitis. The authors strongly advised him to avoid organic solvents. Since then, he has been in good health without recurrence. This is the first report of recurrent acute liver failure because of exposure to organic solvents, which was eventually diagnosed through a meticulous medical history and successfully recovered by avoiding the causative agents. In acute liver failure with an undetermined etiology, clinicians should rule

  13. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeong Ok; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Baek, Jang-Mi; Kang, Keon-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Roh, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan Hum; Jeong, Kap-Seop; Noh, Jeong-Sook

    2017-06-15

    The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling.

  14. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yeong Ok; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Baek, Jang-Mi; Kang, Keon-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Roh, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan Hum; Jeong, Kap-Seop; Noh, Jeong-Sook

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling. PMID:28617322

  15. Albendazole Induced Recurrent Acute Toxic Hepatitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Yilmaz; Yilmaz, Cengiz; Cagin, Yasir Furkan; Atayan, Yahya; Karadag, Nese; Harputluoglu, Murat Muhsin Muhip

    2017-01-01

    Drug induced acute toxic hepatitis can be idiosyncratic. Albendazole, a widely used broad spectrum antiparasitic drug is generally accepted as a safe drug. It may cause asymptomatic transient liver enzyme abnormalities but acute toxic hepatitis is very rare. Case Report : Herein, we present the case of 47 year old woman with recurrent acute toxic hepatitis after a single intake of albendazole in 2010 and 2014. The patient was presented with symptoms and findings of anorexia, vomiting and jaundice. For diagnosis, other acute hepatitis etiologies were excluded. Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) score was calculated and found to be 10, which meant highly probable drug hepatotoxicity. Within 2 months, all pathological findings came to normal. There are a few reported cases of albendazole induced toxic hepatitis, but at adults, there is no known recurrent acute toxic hepatitis due to albendazole at this certainty according to RUCAM score. Physicians should be aware of this rare and potentially fatal adverse effect of albendazole. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  16. Induced hypothermia reduces the hepatic inflammatory response in a swine multiple trauma model.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Matthias; Hildebrand, Frank; Weuster, Matthias; Mommsen, Philipp; Mohr, Juliane; Witte, Ingo; Raeven, Pierre; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Flohé, Sascha; van Griensven, Martijn; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Pfeifer, Roman

    2014-06-01

    Mild therapeutic hypothermia following trauma has been introduced in several studies to reduce the posttraumatic inflammation and organ injury. In this study, we analyzed the effects of induced mild hypothermia (34°C) on the inflammation of the shock organs liver and kidney. In a porcine model of multiple trauma including blunt chest trauma, liver laceration, and hemorrhagic shock followed by fluid resuscitation, the influence of induced hypothermia on hepatic and renal damage and organ-specific inflammation were evaluated. A total of 40 pigs were randomly assigned to four groups, which were sham (anesthesia only) or trauma groups receiving either hypothermia or normothermia. The parameters analyzed were laboratory parameters (aspartate transaminase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase, urea, creatinine) as well as hepatic and renal cytokine expression determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8). Blinded analysis of histologic changes in the liver and kidney was performed. Fifteen and a half hours following combined trauma, hepatic cytokine expression and liver damage were significantly increased in animals with normothermia compared with the respective sham group. Hypothermia, however, resulted in a fivefold reduced hepatic expression of IL-8 (mean ± SE, 2.4 ± 1.3; p = 0.01) when compared with the normothermic trauma group (IL-8, 12.8 ± 4.7). Accordingly, granulocyte infiltration and a histologic, semiquantitative score for liver injury were significantly higher in the normothermic trauma group. Serum AST levels raised significantly after trauma and normothermia compared with the respective sham group, while AST levels showed no difference from the sham groups in the hypothermic trauma group. In contrast, neither trauma nor hypothermia influenced the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 and tissue injury in the kidney. Therapeutic hypothermia seems to attenuate the hepatic inflammatory response and the associated liver injury after severe

  17. Multiphoton microscopy can visualize zonal damage and decreased cellular metabolic activity in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Liu, Xin; Burczynski, Frank J.; Fletcher, Linda M.; Gobe, Glenda C.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-11-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common occurrence in liver surgery. In orthotopic transplantation, the donor liver is exposed to periods of ischemia and when oxygenated blood is reintroduced to the liver, oxidative stress may develop and lead to graft failure. The aim of this project was to investigate whether noninvasive multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, without external markers, were useful in detecting early liver damage caused by I/R injury. Localized hepatic ischemia was induced in rats for 1 h followed by 4 h reperfusion. Multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy was conducted prior to ischemia and up to 4 h of reperfusion and compared to morphological and biochemical assessment of liver damage. Liver function was significantly impaired at 2 and 4 h of reperfusion. Multiphoton microscopy detected liver damage at 1 h of reperfusion, manifested by vacuolated cells and heterogeneous spread of damage over the liver. The damage was mainly localized in the midzonal region of the liver acinus. In addition, fluorescence lifetime imaging showed a decrease in cellular metabolic activity. Multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy detected evidence of early I/R injury both structurally and functionally. This provides a simple noninvasive technique useful for following progressive liver injury without external markers.

  18. Toxin-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis Caused by Raw Cashew Nuts.

    PubMed

    Crismale, James F; Stueck, Ashley; Bansal, Meena

    2016-08-01

    A 64-year-old man with no past medical history presented with abnormally elevated liver enzymes 1 year after developing a diffuse rash thought to be related to eating large quantities of raw cashew nuts. Liver biopsy was performed, which revealed features concerning for drug- or toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient began treatment with azathioprine and prednisone, and liver enzymes normalized. We describe a unique case of a toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis precipitated not by a drug or dietary supplement but by a food product.

  19. Protective effect of thymoquinone against lead-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, Aymen; Bel Hadj Salah, Imen; Chaieb, Wafa; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) intoxication is a worldwide health problem which frequently affects the liver. This study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the major active ingredient of volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, against Pb-induced liver damage. Adult male rats were randomized into four groups: Control group received no treatment, Pb group was exposed to 2000 ppm Pb acetate in drinking water, Pb-TQ group was cotreated with Pb plus TQ (5 mg/kg/day, per orally), and TQ group receiving only TQ. All treatments were applied for 5 weeks. Results indicated that Pb exposure increased hepatic Pb content, damaged hepatic histological structure (necrotic foci, hepatic strands disorganization, hypertrophied hepatocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization, cytoplasmic loss, chromatin condensation, mononuclear cell infiltration, congestion, centrilobular swelling), and changed liver function investigated by plasma biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, γ-GT, LDH). Pb treatment also decreased total antioxidant status level and increased lipid peroxidation in the liver. Supplementation with TQ remarkably improved the Pb-induced adverse effects without significantly reducing the metal accumulation in the liver. In conclusion, our results indicate, for the first time, a protective effect of TQ against Pb-induced hepatotoxicity and suggest that this component might be clinically useful in Pb intoxication.

  20. Ameliorative Effect of Gallic Acid on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Oxidative Injury and Hepatic Dysfunction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olayinka, Ebenezer Tunde; Ore, Ayokanmi; Ola, Olaniyi Solomon; Adeyemo, Oluwatobi Adewumi

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), a bifunctional alkylating agent used in chemotherapy has been reported to induce organ toxicity mediated by generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Gallic acid (GA), a phenolic substance, is a natural antioxidant with proven free radical scavenging activity and offers protection against oxidative damage. This research study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effect of GA against CP-induced toxicity in rats. Twenty-five male Wistar rats (180–200 g) were randomized into five treatment groups: (A) control, (B) CP, 2 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), (C) pre-treatment with GA (20 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days followed by CP (2 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days, (D) co-treatment with GA (20 mg/kg b.w) and CP (2 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days, and (E) GA (20 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days. CP induced marked renal and hepatic damages as plasma levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin and activities of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in the CP-treated group relative to control. In addition, hepatic levels of GSH, vitamin C and activities of SOD, catalase and GST significantly reduced in the CP-treated group when compared with control. This was accompanied with a significant increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation. The restoration of the markers of renal and hepatic damages as well as antioxidant indices and lipid peroxidation by pre- and co-treatment with GA clearly shows that GA offers ameliorative effect by scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by CP. This protective effect may be attributed to the antioxidant property of gllic acid. PMID:29083393

  1. Mineral metabolism in dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    George, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    Complications such as ascites during the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis may lead to several abnormalities in mineral metabolism. In the present investigation, we have monitored serum and liver concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium during experimentally induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. The liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injections of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN; N-nitrosodimethylamine, NDMA) in doses 1 mg/100 g body weight on 3 consecutive days of each week over a period of 21 days. Calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the serum and liver on days 7, 14 and 21 after the start of DMN administration. Negative correlations were observed between liver function tests and serum mineral levels, except with albumin. Calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium concentrations in the serum were decreased after the induction of liver injury. The liver calcium content was increased after DMN treatment. No change occurred in liver sodium content. However, magnesium and potassium content was significantly reduced in the hepatic tissue. The results suggest that DMN-induced hepatic fibrosis plays certain role in the alteration of essential elements. The low levels of albumin and the related ascites may be one of the major causes of the imbalance of mineral metabolism in hepatic fibrosis and further aggravation of the disease.

  2. Orlistat-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Sall, D; Wang, J; Rashkin, M; Welch, M; Droege, C; Schauer, D

    2014-12-01

    Orlistat was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998 and has been shown to be superior to placebo in achieving weight loss. It is generally well tolerated. However, severe liver injury has been reported. We present a case of hepatic failure in a patient taking orlistat. A 54-year-old African-American woman with hypertension presented with hepatic failure. She had noticed increasing fatigue, jaundice and confusion. She used alcohol sparingly and denied tobacco or illicit drug use, but had been taking over-the-counter orlistat for the past two months. Physical examination revealed scleral icterus, jaundice, asterixis and slow speech. Laboratory testing showed markedly abnormal liver function tests with coagulopathy. Acute viral and autoimmune serologies were negative, as was toxicology screen. Liver biopsy showed necrotic hepatic parenchyma likely secondary to drug toxicity. Based upon her clinical presentation and time course, the pattern of liver injury seen on liver biopsy and lack of an alternative plausible explanation, her liver failure was most likely associated with orlistat use. She continued to deteriorate and ultimately underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. Fourteen cases of severe liver injury associated with orlistat use have been reported, four of which are detailed in the literature. This is the second published case of liver failure associated with over-the-counter orlistat usage. Clinicians should be aware of the growing number of cases associating liver injury and orlistat use and carefully monitor their patients on this medication for signs of hepatic dysfunction. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  3. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Mohamed E; Zalata, Khaled R; Mehal, Wajahat Z; Shiha, Gamal E; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2011-04-15

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl(4) twice weekly for 8weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) during the last 4weeks of CCl(4)-intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10mg/kg), nilotinib (20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl(4)-treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl(4)-induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20mg/kg) and imatinib (20mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gap Junction Inhibition Prevents Drug-induced Liver Toxicity and Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Suraj J; Milwid, Jack M; King, Kevin R; Bohr, Stefan; Iracheta, Arvin; Li, Matthew; Vitalo, Antonia; Parekkadan, Biju; Jindal, Rohit; Yarmush, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) limits the development and utilization of numerous therapeutic compounds, and consequently presents major challenges to the pharmaceutical industry and clinical medicine1, 2. Acetaminophen (APAP) containing compounds are among the most frequently prescribed drugs, and also the most common cause of DILI3. Here we describe a pharmacological strategy that targets gap junction communication to prevent amplification of fulminant hepatic failure and APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We report that connexin 32 (Cx32), a key hepatic gap junction protein, is an essential mediator of DILI by showing that mice deficient in Cx32 are protected against liver damage, acute inflammation, and death. We identified a small molecule inhibitor of Cx32 as a novel hepatoprotectant that achieves the same result in wildtype mice when coadministered with known hepatotoxic drugs. These findings demonstrate that gap junction inhibition is an effective therapy for limiting DILI, and suggest a novel pharmaceutical strategy to improve drug safety. PMID:22252509

  5. Tangeretin Alleviates Cisplatin-Induced Acute Hepatic Injury in Rats: Targeting MAPKs and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hany A; Mohamed, Wafaa R; Arab, Hany H; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A

    2016-01-01

    Despite its broad applications, cisplatin affords considerable nephro- and hepatotoxicity through triggering inflammatory and oxidative stress cascades. The aim of the current investigation was to study the possible protective effects of tangeretin on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. The impact of tangeretin on cisplatin-evoked hepatic dysfunction and histopathologic changes along with oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic biomarkers were investigated compared to silymarin. Tangeretin pre-treatment significantly improved liver function tests (ALT and AST), inhibited cisplatin-induced lipid profile aberrations (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and diminished histopathologic structural damage in liver tissues. Tangeretin also attenuated cisplatin-induced hepatic inflammatory events as indicated by suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and enhancement of interleukin-10 (IL-10). Meanwhile, it lowered malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF-2) levels with restoration of glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Regarding mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, tangeretin attenuated cisplatin-induced increase in phospho-p38, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) in liver tissues. In addition, tangeretin downregulated Bax expression with augmentation of Bcl-2 promoting liver cell survival. Our results highlight the protective effects of tangeretin against cisplatin-induced acute hepatic injury via the concerted modulation of inflammation, oxidative stress, MAPKs and apoptotic pathways.

  6. [Interferon-alpha and liver fibrosis in patients with chronic damage due to hepatitis C virus].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Huezo, María Sarai; Gallegos-Orozco, Juan Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The present review focuses on the published information published regarding the effects of interferon alpha therapy on liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver damage secondary to hepatitis C infection. Data reviewed included results of the in vitro effects of interferon on hepatic cell line cultures with regards to indirect markers of fibrosis, activation of hepatic stellate cells and oxidative stress response. In the clinical arena, there is current clear evidence of a favorable histological outcome in patients with sustained viral response to interferon therapy. For this reason, the current review focuses more on the histological outcomes regarding liver fibrosis in patients who have not attained viral response to therapy (non-responders) or who already have biopsy defined cirrhosis. Data in these patients were analyzed according to the results of objective testing of fibrosis through the assessment of liver biopsy and its change during time, specially because the morbidity and mortality of this disease is directly related to the complications of liver cirrhosis and not necessarily to the persistence of the hepatitis C virus. Lastly, it is concluded that the process of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis is a dynamic one and that there is some evidence to support the usefulness of interferon alpha therapy as a means to halt or retard the progression of hepatic fibrosis. The result of current clinical trials in which interferon therapy is being used to modify the progression of fibrosis in non-responders or cirrhotic patients is eagerly awaited.

  7. Histopathological, oxidative damage, biochemical, and genotoxicity alterations in hepatic rats exposed to deltamethrin: modulatory effects of garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Ncir, Marwa; Ben Salah, Ghada; Kamoun, Hassen; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; Khabir, Abdelmajid; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Saoudi, Mongi

    2016-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a pesticide widely used as a synthetic pyrethroid. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of deltamethrin to induce oxidative stress and changes in biochemical parameters, hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in female rats following a short-term (30 days) oral exposure and attenuation of these effects by Allium sativum extract. Indeed, Allium sativum is known to be a good antioxidant food resource which helps destroy free radical particles. Our results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase in liver enzyme activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. However, it induced a decrease in activities of hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p < 0.01). Allium sativum extract normalized significantly (p < 0.01) the mentioned parameters in deltamethrin-treated rats. For genotoxic evaluation, deltamethrin treatment showed a significant increase in frequencies of micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. Micronucleus formation is an indicator of chromosomal damage which has been increasingly used to detect the genotoxic potential of environmental pests. The present study showed that Allium sativum diminished the adverse effects induced by this synthetic pyrethroid insecticide.

  8. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the virus that causes it; for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Drug or alcohol ... not, it can be treated with drugs. Sometimes hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Vaccines can help prevent some viral forms.

  9. Osteomalacia induced by adefovir in patient with hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Nathali Rivas Zavaleta, Mayra; Guayambuco Romero, Sonia; Calabozo Raluy, Marcelo; Pérez Ruiz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Osteomalacia is defined as a defect in mineralization of the bone matrix. We describe the case of a patient with chronic hepatitis B infection in whom treatment with adefovir induced renal phosphate loss with intense and sustained hypophosphatemia which derived in symptomatic osteomalacia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Obesity-induced hepatic hypoperfusion primes for hepatic dysfunction after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Paul J; Hurt, Ryan T; Franklin, Glen A; McClain, Craig J; Garrison, R Neal

    2009-10-01

    Obese patients (BMI>35) after blunt trauma are at increased risk compared to non-obese for organ dysfunction, prolonged hospital stay, infection, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) produce a low grade systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with compromised hepatic blood flow, which increases with body mass index. We hypothesized that obesity further aggravates liver dysfunction by reduced hepatic perfusion following resuscitated hemorrhagic shock (HEM). Age-matched Zucker rats (Obese, 314-519 g & Lean, 211-280 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10-12/group): (1) Lean-Sham; (2) Lean, HEM, and resuscitation (HEM/RES); (3) Obese-Sham; and (4) Obese-HEM/RES. HEM was 40% of mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 60 min; RES was return of shed blood/5 min and 2 volumes of saline/25 min. Hepatic blood flow (HBF) using galactose clearance, liver enzymes and complete metabolic panel were measured over 4 h after completion of RES. Obese rats had increased MAP, heart rate, and fasting blood glucose and BUN concentrations compared to lean controls, required less blood withdrawal (mL/g) to maintain 40% MAP, and RES did not restore BL MAP. Obese rats had decreased HBF at BL and during HEM/RES, which persisted 4 h post RES. ALT and BUN were increased compared to Lean-HEM/RES at 4 h post-RES. These data suggest that obesity significantly contributes to trauma outcomes through compromised vascular control or through fat-induced sinusoidal compression to impair hepatic blood flow after HEM/RES resulting in a greater hepatic injury. The pro-inflammatory state of NAFLD seen in obesity appears to prime the liver for hepatic ischemia after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock, perhaps intensified by insidious and ongoing hepatic hypoperfusion established prior to the traumatic injury or shock.

  11. Fenofibrate Does Not Affect Burn-Induced Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hiyama, Yaeko; Marshall, Alexandra H.; Kraft, Robert; Arno, Anna; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Burn injury causes major metabolic derangements such as hypermetabolism, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance and is associated with liver damage, hepatomegaly, and hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Although the physiological consequences of such derangements have been delineated, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Previously, it was shown that fenofibrate improves patient outcome by attenuating post-burn stress responses. Methods Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α agonist, regulates liver lipid metabolism and has been used to treat hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia for many years. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of fenofibrate on burn-induced hepatic morphologic and metabolic changes. We randomized rats to sham, burn injury, and burn injury plus fenofibrate. Animals were sacrificed and livers were assessed at 24 or 48 hours post-burn. Results Burn injury decreased albumin and increased alanine transaminase (p = 0.1 vs. sham), indicating liver injury. Fenofibrate administration did not restore albumin or decrease alanine transaminase. In addition, ER stress was significantly increased after burn injury both with and without fenofibrate (p < 0.05 vs. sham). Burn injury increased fatty acid metabolism gene expression (p < 0.05 vs. sham), downstream of PPARα. Fenofibrate treatment increased fatty acid metabolism further, which reduced post-burn hepatic steatosis (burn vs. sham p < 0.05, burn+fenofibrate vs. sham not significant). Conclusions Fenofibrate did not alleviate thermal injury induced hepatic ER stress and dysfunction but reduced hepatic steatosis by modulating hepatic genes related to fat metabolism. PMID:23866789

  12. An Investigation of Laser Induced Surface Damage in glass.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    ROA-RI60 669 RN INVESTIGATION OF LASER INDUCED SURFACE DAMAG IN In1 1 6lo GLASS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA R D UYAK JUN 85IUNCLASSIFIED...ii -0 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California bor OCT THESIS AN INVESTIGATION OF LASER INDUCED SURFACE DAMAGE IN GLASS by )Richard David Uyak ,L...Subtitle) EPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED %An Investigation of Laser Induced Master’s Thesis Surface Damage in Glass June 1985S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT MUMMER 7

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Chang, Wen-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2009-08-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect.

  14. Eleusine indica L. possesses antioxidant activity and precludes carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-mediated oxidative hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Gnanaraj, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of aqueous extract of Eleusine indica to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced hepatic injury in rats. The antioxidant activity of E. indica was evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic content of E. indica was also determined. Biochemical parameters [e.g. alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase] were used to evaluate hepatic damage in animals pretreated with E. indica and intoxicated with CCl₄. CCl₄-mediated hepatic damage was also evaluated by histopathologically. E. indica extract was able to reduce the stable DPPH level in a dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value was 2350 μg/ml. Total phenolic content was found to be 14.9 ± 0.002 mg/g total phenolic expressed as gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract. Groups pretreated with E. indica showed significantly increased activity of antioxidant enzymes compared to the CCl₄-intoxicated group (p < 0.05). The increased levels of serum ALT and AST were significantly prevented by E. indica pretreatment (p < 0.05). The extent of MDA formation due to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), and reduced GSH was significantly increased in a dose-dependently manner (p < 0.05) in the E. indica-pretreated groups as compared to the CCl₄-intoxicated group. The protective effect of E. indica was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations in the liver. The results of our study indicate that the hepatoprotective effects of E. indica might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property.

  15. Andrographis paniculata ameliorates carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-dependent hepatic damage and toxicity: diminution of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Koh, Pei Hoon; Mokhtar, Ruzaidi Azli Mohd; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (hempedu bumi) is a plant that possesses many medicinal values in treating several diseases and for health care maintenance. However, its hepatoprotective activity and mechanism of action have not been fully investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of A. paniculata and its mechanism of action in rats. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) challenge of rats at a dose of 1.2 ml/kg body weight-induced oxidative stress in the liver. This was evidenced by augmentation in lipid peroxidation, which was accompanied by a decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and depletion in the level of reduced glutathione (P < 0.05). Parrallel to these changes, CCl(4) challenge too, enhanced hepatic damage as evidenced by sharp increase in serum transaminases (e.g. alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) (P < 0.05). Additionally, the impairment of liver function corresponded to histolopathological changes. However, most of these changes were reversed in a dose-dependent fashion by pre-treatment of animals with A. paniculata (P < 0.05). The ability of A. paniculata to scavenge the 2,2-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical was determined through its EC(50) value. The EC(50) value of A. paniculata was 583.60 ± 4.25 µg/ml. In addition, A. paniculata was found to contain 65.37 ± 1.20 mg/g total phenolics expressed as gallic acid equivalent. From these studies, it is concluded that A. paniculata could be used as a hepatoprotective agent and possesses the potential to treat or prevent degenerative diseases where oxidative stress is implicated.

  16. Hepatic FTO expression is increased in NASH and its silencing attenuates palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Andrea; Zhou, Jin; Sinha, Rohit A; Singh, Brijesh K; Ghosh, Sujoy; Lim, Kiat-Hon; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Woon, Esther C Y; Yen, Paul M

    2016-10-21

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common causes of liver failure worldwide. It is characterized by excess fat accumulation, inflammation, and increased lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. Currently, there are limited treatment options for NASH due to lack of understanding of its molecular etiology. In the present study, we demonstrate that the expression of fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) is significantly increased in the livers of NASH patients and in a rodent model of NASH. Furthermore, using human hepatic cells, we show that genetic silencing of FTO protects against palmitate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress, and apoptosis in vitro. Taken together, our results show that FTO may have a deleterious role in hepatic cells during lipotoxic conditions, and strongly suggest that up-regulation of FTO may contribute to the increased liver damage in NASH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus induced Acute Hepatitis in Young Female Patient.

    PubMed

    Ates, İhsan; Kaplan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Nisbet; Çiftçi, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis is a disorder that goes with liver cell necrosis and liver inflammation. Among the causes of acute hepatitis, the most common reasons are viral hepatitis. About 95% of the acute hepatitis generate because of hepatotropic viruses. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are from the family of herpes viruses and rare causes of acute hepatitis. In this case report, acute hepatitis due to EBV and CMV coinfection will be described. Ates İ, Kaplan M, Yilmaz N, Çiftçi F. Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus induced Acute Hepatitis in Young Female Patient. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):60-61.

  18. Laser-Induced Thermal Damage of Skin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    identify by block number) Skin Burns Skin Model Laser Effects \\Thermal Predictions 20 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side it necessary and identify by...block number) A computerized model was developed for predicting thermal damage of skin by laser exposures. Thermal, optical, and physiological data are...presented for the model. Model predictions of extent of irreversible damage were compared with histologic determinations of the extent of damage

  19. Spontaneous rupture of a hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma: damage control surgery. A case report.

    PubMed

    Occhionorelli, S; Dellachiesa, L; Stano, R; Cappellari, L; Tartarini, D; Severi, S; Palini, G M; Pansini, G C; Vasquez, G

    2013-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare mesenchymal tumor composed by blood vessels, adipose tissue and smooth muscle cells in variable proportions. Although it is most often diagnosed in the kidney, this tumor may originate from any part of the liver. It is often misdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other benign liver tumor. We describe a case of spontaneous rupture of hepatic angiomyolipoma in a young woman, with evidence of internal hemorrhage and hemoperitoneum. Liver tumor rupture is a rare but real surgical emergency. In our case it has been managed according to the trauma principles of the damage control surgery. At the time of the observation, the patient presented an instable condition, so the decision-making was oriented toward a less invasive first step of liver packing instead of a more aggressive intervention such as one shot hepatic resection. Damage control surgery with deep parenchymal sutures of the liver and pro-coagulant tissue adhesives packing abbreviates surgical time before the development of critical and irreversible physiological endpoints and permits a more confident second time surgery. This surgical management concept helps to reduce the mortality rate and the incidence of complications not only in traumatic liver damages, it works very well in spontaneous liver ruptures as well.

  20. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaker, Mohamed E., E-mail: mshaker2222@yahoo.com; Zalata, Khaled R.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.

    2011-04-15

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl{sub 4} twice weekly for 8 weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20 mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) during the last 4 weeks of CCl{sub 4}-intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stressmore » parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20 mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10 mg/kg), nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl{sub 4}-treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl{sub 4}-induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and imatinib (20 mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20 mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > The anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin were

  1. Hepatitis C virus induces a prediabetic state by directly impairing hepatic glucose metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Lerat, Hervé; Imache, Mohamed Rabah; Polyte, Jacqueline; Gaudin, Aurore; Mercey, Marion; Donati, Flora; Baudesson, Camille; Higgs, Martin R; Picard, Alexandre; Magnan, Christophe; Foufelle, Fabienne; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2017-08-04

    Virus-related type 2 diabetes is commonly observed in individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Our aim was to unravel these mechanisms using FL-N/35 transgenic mice expressing the full HCV ORF. We observed that these mice displayed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. We also found that Glut-2 membrane expression was reduced in FL-N/35 mice and that hepatocyte glucose uptake was perturbed, partly accounting for the HCV-induced glucose intolerance in these mice. Early steps of the hepatic insulin signaling pathway, from IRS2 to PDK1 phosphorylation, were constitutively impaired in FL-N/35 primary hepatocytes via deregulation of TNFα/SOCS3. Higher hepatic glucose production was observed in the HCV mice, despite higher fasting insulinemia, concomitant with decreased expression of hepatic gluconeogenic genes. Akt kinase activity was higher in HCV mice than in WT mice, but Akt-dependent phosphorylation of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 at serine 256, which triggers its nuclear exclusion, was lower in HCV mouse livers. These findings indicate an uncoupling of the canonical Akt/FoxO1 pathway in HCV protein-expressing hepatocytes. Thus, the expression of HCV proteins in the liver is sufficient to induce insulin resistance by impairing insulin signaling and glucose uptake. In conclusion, we observed a complete set of events leading to a prediabetic state in HCV-transgenic mice, providing a valuable mechanistic explanation for HCV-induced diabetes in humans. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Ameliorative effects of rutin on hepatic encephalopathy-induced by thioacetamide or gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Somaya Z; El-Marakby, Seham M; Moawed, Fatma S M

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a syndrome resulting from acute or chronic liver failure. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of rutin on thioacetamide (TAA) or γ-radiation-induced HE model. Animals were received with TAA (200mg/kg, i.p.) twice weekly for four weeks or exposed to 6Gy of γ-radiation to induce HE then groups orally treated with rutin (50mg/kg b.wt.) for four weeks. At the end of experiment, blood, liver and brain samples were collected to assess biochemical and biophysical markers as well histopathological investigations. TAA or γ-radiation exposed rats experienced increases in serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP and ammonia level. Also an alteration in relative permeability and conductivity of erythrocytes was observed. Furthermore, cytokines levels and AChE activity were induced whereas the activities of HO-1 and neurotransmitters contents were depleted. TAA or γ-radiation caused distortion of hepatic and brain architecture as shown by histopathological examination. Treatment with rutin resulted in improvement in liver function by the decline in serum AST and ALT activities and reduction in serum ammonia level. In addition, the administration of rutin significantly modulated the alteration in cytokines levels and neurotransmitters content. Histopathological examinations of liver and brain tissues showed that administration of rutin has attenuate TAA or radiation-induced damage and improve tissue architecture. Consequently, rutin has been a powerful hepatoprotective effect to combat hepatic encephalopathy associated hyperammonemia and its consequential damage in liver and brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Sil, Rajarshi; Ray, Doel; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2015-11-01

    Glycyrrhizin, a major constituent of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, has been reported to ameliorate insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and obesity in rats with metabolic syndrome. Liver dysfunction is associated with this syndrome. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizin treatment on metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage. After induction of metabolic syndrome in rats by high fructose (60%) diet for 6 weeks, the rats were treated with glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight, single intra-peritoneal injection). After 2 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed to collect blood samples and liver tissues. Compared to normal, elevated activities of serum alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase, increased levels of liver advanced glycation end products, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, protein kinase Cα, NADPH oxidase-2, and decreased glutathione cycle components established liver damage and oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats. Activation of nuclear factor κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as signals from mitochondria were found to be involved in liver cell apoptosis. Increased levels of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-12 proteins suggested hepatic inflammation. Metabolic syndrome caused hepatic DNA damage and poly-ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting using annexin V/propidium iodide staining confirmed the apoptotic hepatic cell death. Histology of liver tissue also supported the experimental findings. Treatment with glycyrrhizin reduced oxidative stress, hepatic inflammation, and apoptotic cell death in fructose-fed rats. The results suggest that glycyrrhizin possesses therapeutic potential against hepatocellular damage in metabolic syndrome.

  4. [Viral and drug-induced liver damage in children with tuberculosis: prevalence, clinical features].

    PubMed

    Borzakova, S N; Aksenova, V A; Reĭzis, A R

    2013-01-01

    THE AIM OF THE RESEARCH: Improving the effectiveness of diagnostics and treatment of viral and drug-induced lesions of the liver (DILL) at a tuberculosis in children by identifying the frequency of their distribution, peculiarities of diagnostics and clinics. We examined 242 children in the age from 2 months to 17 years, the patients with different forms of tuberculosis. The prevalence of hepatitis in children with tuberculosis: B - 1,2%, C-0.4%, G - 4,6%, TT - 8,7%. DILL was diagnosed in 67.5% of children - TB patients, in 48% of the children with DILL an asymptomatic course of the disease was noted, however, in 54.4% of the children with DILL cytolitic syndrome was expressed (ALT> standards). The prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C among children with TB is low. The infection with viruses of hepatitis G and TT is more often, but has no significant impact as on the course of tuberculosis, and on the severity of the liver damage. Drug-induced liver damage is a dominant view of pathology of the liver in children - TB patients and is mostly asymptomatic, but with a pronounced cytolitic syndrome.

  5. β-Cell Hyperplasia Induced by Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, Oscar; Guillén, Carlos; Nevado, Carmen; Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Kahn, C. Ronald; Benito, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes results from a combination of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. To directly address the effects of hepatic insulin resistance in adult animals, we developed an inducible liver-specific insulin receptor knockout mouse (iLIRKO). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using this approach, we were able to induce variable insulin receptor (IR) deficiency in a tissue-specific manner (liver mosaicism). RESULTS iLIRKO mice presented progressive hepatic and extrahepatic insulin resistance without liver dysfunction. Initially, iLIRKO mice displayed hyperinsulinemia and increased β-cell mass, the extent of which was proportional to the deletion of hepatic IR. Our studies of iLIRKO suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between progressive insulin resistance and the fold increase of plasma insulin levels and β-cell mass. Ultimately, the β-cells failed to secrete sufficient insulin, leading to uncontrolled diabetes. We observed that hepatic IGF-1 expression was enhanced in iLIRKO mice, resulting in an increase of circulating IGF-1. Concurrently, the IR-A isoform was upregulated in hyperplastic β-cells of iLIRKO mice and IGF-1–induced proliferation was higher than in the controls. In mouse β-cell lines, IR-A, but not IR-B, conferred a proliferative capacity in response to insulin or IGF-1, providing a potential explanation for the β-cell hyperplasia induced by liver insulin resistance in iLIRKO mice. CONCLUSIONS Our studies of iLIRKO mice suggest a liver-pancreas endocrine axis in which IGF-1 functions as a liver-derived growth factor to promote compensatory pancreatic islet hyperplasia through IR-A. PMID:19136656

  6. Protective effect of gastrodin on bile duct ligation-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuangshuang; Li, Naren; Zhen, Yongzhan; Ge, Maoxu; Li, Yi; Yu, Bin; He, Hongwei; Shao, Rong-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Gastrodin has been showed to possess many beneficial physiological functions, including protection against inflammation and oxidation and apoptosis. Studies showed inflammation and oxidation play important roles in producing liver damage and initiating hepatic fibrogenesis. However, it has not been reported whether gastrodin has a protective effect against hepatic fibrosis or not. This is first ever made attempts to test gastrodin against liver fibrosis in bile duct ligation (BDL) rats. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of gastrodin on BDL-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. BDL rats were divided into two groups, BDL alone group, and BDL-gastrodin group treated with gastrodin (5 mg/ml in drinking water). The effects of gastrodin on BDL-induced hepatic injury and fibrosis in rats were estimated by assessing serum, urine, bile and liver tissue biochemistry followed by liver histopathology (using hematoxylin & eosin and sirius red stain) and hydroxyproline content measurement. The results showed that gastrodin treatment significantly reduced collagen content, bile duct proliferation and parenchymal necrosis after BDL. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) decreased with gastrodin treatment by 15.1 and 23.6 percent respectively in comparison to BDL group did not receive gastrodin. Gastrodin also significantly increased the level of serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) by 62.5 percent and down-regulated the elevated urine total bilirubin (TBIL) by 56.5 percent, but had no effect on total bile acid (TBA) in serum, bile and liver tissues. The immunohistochemical assay showed gastrodin remarkably reduced the expressions of CD68 and NF-κB in BDL rats. Hepatic SOD levels, depressed by BDL, were also increased by gastrodin by 8.4 percent. In addition, the increases of hepatic MDA and NO levels in BDL rats were attenuated by gastrodin by 31.3 and 38.7 percent separately. Our results indicate that gastrodin

  7. Chemoproteomics reveals baicalin activates hepatic CPT1 to ameliorate diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianye; Liang, Kai; Zhao, Shan; Jia, Wentong; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Hongkun; Lv, Jia; Cao, Chen; Chen, Tao; Zhuang, Shentian; Hou, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Shijie; Zhang, Xiannian; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Yanyi; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Wang, Yan-Ling; Luo, Tuoping; Xiao, Junyu; Wang, Chu

    2018-06-11

    Obesity and related metabolic diseases are becoming worldwide epidemics that lead to increased death rates and heavy health care costs. Effective treatment options have not been found yet. Here, based on the observation that baicalin, a flavonoid from the herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis , has unique antisteatosis activity, we performed quantitative chemoproteomic profiling and identified carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the controlling enzyme for fatty acid oxidation, as the key target of baicalin. The flavonoid directly activated hepatic CPT1 with isoform selectivity to accelerate the lipid influx into mitochondria for oxidation. Chronic treatment of baicalin ameliorated diet-induced obesity (DIO) and hepatic steatosis and led to systemic improvement of other metabolic disorders. Disruption of the predicted binding site of baicalin on CPT1 completely abolished the beneficial effect of the flavonoid. Our discovery of baicalin as an allosteric CPT1 activator opens new opportunities for pharmacological treatment of DIO and associated sequelae.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Induces the Mitochondrial Translocation of Parkin and Subsequent Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Jun; Syed, Gulam H.; Siddiqui, Aleem

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) induces intracellular events that trigger mitochondrial dysfunction and promote host metabolic alterations. Here, we investigated selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria (mitophagy) in HCV-infected cells. HCV infection stimulated Parkin and PINK1 gene expression, induced perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, and promoted mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, an initial event in mitophagy. Liver tissues from chronic HCV patients also exhibited notable levels of Parkin induction. Using multiple strategies involving confocal and electron microscopy, we demonstrated that HCV-infected cells display greater number of mitophagosomes and mitophagolysosomes compared to uninfected cells. HCV-induced mitophagy was evidenced by the colocalization of LC3 puncta with Parkin-associated mitochondria and lysosomes. Ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy also displayed engulfment of damaged mitochondria in double membrane vesicles in HCV-infected cells. The HCV-induced mitophagy occurred irrespective of genotypic differences. Silencing Parkin and PINK1 hindered HCV replication suggesting the functional relevance of mitophagy in HCV propagation. HCV-mediated decline of mitochondrial complex I enzyme activity was rescued by chemical inhibition of mitophagy or by Parkin silencing. Overall our results suggest that HCV induces Parkin-dependent mitophagy, which may have significant contribution in mitochondrial liver injury associated with chronic hepatitis C. PMID:23555273

  9. Protective effect of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885) cuttlebone against CCl4 induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxic agent causing hepatic necrosis and it is widely used in animal models for induction of acute and chronic liver damage. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats was studied by measuring the activity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides), non enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), liver marker enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid profile (FFA, TG, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and histopathological changes. Rats treated with chitosan against CCl4 toxicity showed significantly decreased levels of ALT and AST activities, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid in plasma and tissue. Whereas the treatment with chitosan along with CCl4 showed markedly increased level of hepatic and circulatory in SOD, CAT, GPx and reduced glutathione and decreased the malondialdehyde level. Histopathological observations proved the marked hepatoprotective effect of chitosan. The CCl4 induced alterations in circulatory and hepatic antioxidant defense system were normalized by chitosan and it could be concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of chitosan may be due to its antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preventive activity of banana peel polyphenols on CCl4-induced experimental hepatic injury in Kunming mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Suo, Huayi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of banana peel polyphenols (BPPs) against hepatic injury. Mice were divide into normal, control, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg banana peel polyphenol and silymarin groups. All the mice except normal mice were induced with hepatic damage using CCl 4 . The serum and tissue levels of mice were determined by a kit and the tissues were further examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. BPPs reduced the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in a CCl 4 -induced mouse model of hepatic injury. Furthermore, BPPs reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and triglyceride, while increasing glutathione levels in the serum and liver tissues of mice. In addition, the effects of 200 mg/kg treatment were more evident, and these effects were comparable to those of the drug silymarin. Serum levels of the cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon-γ, were reduced in the mice treated with BPPs compared with injury control group mice, and these levels were comparable to those of the normal and silymarin-treated groups. Histopathological examination indicated that BPPs were able to reduce the extent of CCl 4 -induced liver tissue injury and protect the liver cells. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of the inflammation-associated factors cyclooxygenase-2, nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α and IL-1β were reduced in mice treated with BPPs compared with the control group mice. Mice that received 200 mg/kg BPP exhibited reduced expression levels of these factors compared with mice that received 100 mg/kg BPP. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that BPPs exert a good preventive effect against hepatic injury.

  11. Protective effect of Anoectochilus roxburghii polysaccharide against CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Lawei; Pan, Qunwen; Li, Juan; Wu, Yongfu; Chen, Meizhen; Cui, Shichao; Yu, Jie

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the isolation and characterization of Anoectochilus roxburghii polysaccharides (ARP), and further evaluated whether ARP possessed hepatoprotective activities against CCl 4 -induced oxidative liver damage in mice. ARP is comprised of glucose and galactose in a 1.9:1 molar ratio, and the molecular weight is 19.5kDa. ARP displayed significant scavenging effects against hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, DPPH radical and a strong reducing power. In vivo experiment demonstrated ARP (150mg/kg) administrated to mice for 7days prior to carbon tetrachloride treatment, attenuated the elevated expression levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride (TG) in serum and inhibited the formation of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). ARP pretreatment also increased antioxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the liver of CCl 4 -induced mice. Furthermore, hepatic histopathological changes induced by CCl 4 were significantly normalized by ARP pretreatment. These findings demonstrated that ARP possessed hepatoprotective effect against acute CCl 4 -induced liver damage by reducing lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of fishing gear induced pipeline damage

    SciTech Connect

    Ellinas, C.P.; King, B.; Davies, R.

    1995-12-31

    Impact and damage to pipelines due to fishing activities is one of the hazards faced by North Sea pipelines during their operating lives. Available data indicate that about one in ten of reported incidents are due to fishing activities. This paper is concerned with one such occurrence, the assessment of the resulting damage, the methods used to confirm pipeline integrity and the approaches developed for its repair.

  13. Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hepatic TNF-α Expression and Liver Injury via an IL-10- and PGE2-EP4-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Longxian; Yang, Jianzhuan; Lu, Haifeng; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has essential role in the pathogenesis of D-galactosamine-sensitized animal models and alcoholic liver diseases of humans, by stimulating release of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause hepatic damage and intestinal barrier impairment. Oral pretreatment of probiotics has been shown to attenuate LPS-induced hepatic injury, but it is unclear whether the effect is direct or due to improvement in the intestinal barrier. The present study tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with probiotics enables the liver to withstand directly LPS-induced hepatic injury and inflammation. In a mouse model of LPS-induced hepatic injury, the levels of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of mice with depleted intestinal commensal bacteria were not significantly different from that of the control models. Pre-feeding mice for 10 days with Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 (LF41), significantly alleviated LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α expression and liver damage. After LF41 pretreatment, mice had dramatically more L.fermentum-specific DNA in the ileum, significantly higher levels of ileal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and interleukin 10 (IL-10) and hepatic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, hepatic COX-1, COX-2, and IL-10 protein levels were not changed after the pretreatment. There were also higher hepatic IL-10 protein levels after LPS challenge in LF41-pretreaed mice than in the control mice. Attenuation of hepatic TNF-α was mediated via the PGE2/E prostanoid 4 (EP4) pathway, and serum ALT levels were attenuated in an IL-10-dependent manner. A COX-2 blockade abolished the increase in hepatic PGE2 and IL-10 associated with LF41. In LF41-pretreated mice, a blockade of IL-10 caused COX-2-dependent promotion of hepatic PGE2, without affecting hepatic COX-2levels. In LF41-pretreated mice, COX2 prevented enhancing TNF-α expression in both hepatic mononuclear cells and the ileum, and averted TNF-α-mediated increase in

  14. Noise Induced DNA Damage Within the Auditory Nerve.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, O'neil W

    2017-03-01

    An understanding of the molecular pathology that underlies noise induced neurotoxicity is a prerequisite to the design of targeted therapies. The objective of the current experiment was to determine whether or not DNA damage is part of the pathophysiologic sequela of noise induced neurotoxicity. The experiment consisted of 41 hooded Long-Evans rats (2 month old males) that were randomized into control and noise exposed groups. Both the control and the noise group followed the same time schedule and therefore started and ended the experiment together. The noise dose consisted of a 6000 Hz noise band at 105 dB SPL. Temporal bones from both groups were harvested, and immunohistochemistry was used to identify neurons with DNA damage. Quantitative morphometric analyses was then employed to determine the level of DNA damage. Neural action potentials were recorded to assess the functional impact of noise induced DNA damage. Immunohistochemical reactions revealed that the noise exposure precipitated DNA damage within the nucleus of auditory neurons. Quantitative morphometry confirmed the noise induced increase in DNA damage levels and the precipitation of DNA damage was associated with a significant loss of nerve sensitivity. Therefore, DNA damage is part of the molecular pathology that drives noise induced neurotoxicity. Anat Rec, 300:520-526, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. High-Fat Diet Increased Renal and Hepatic Oxidative Stress Induced by Vanadium of Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Cui, R Y; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Xuan, Y; Su, Z W

    2016-04-01

    The study was conducted to assess the effect of vanadium (V) in high-fat diet on the liver and kidney of rats in a 5-week trial. Seventy-two female Wistar rats (BW = 95 ± 5 g) were randomly allotted into eight groups. Groups I, II, III, and IV obtained low-fat diet containing 0, 3, 15, and 30 mg/kg V, and V, VI, VII, and VIII groups received the respective vanadium doses with high-fat diet, respectively. There were lesions in the liver and kidney of V, VI, VII, and VIII groups, granular degeneration and vacuolar degeneration were observed in the renal tubular and glomerulus epithelial cells, and hepatocytes showed granular degeneration and vacuolar degeneration. Supplemented high-fat diet with vanadium was shown to decrease (P < 0.05) activities of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione-S transferase, and NAD(P)H/quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and increase malondialdehyde content in the liver and kidney. The relative expression of hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and NQO1 mRNA was downregulated by V addition and high-fat diet, and the effect of V was more pronounced in high-fat diet (interaction, P < 0.05), with VIII group having the lowest mRNA expression of Nrf-2 and NQO1 in the liver and kidney. In conclusion, it suggested that dietary vanadium ranging from 15 to 30 mg/kg could lead to oxidative damage and vanadium accumulation in the liver and kidney, which caused renal and hepatic toxicity. The high-fat diet enhanced vanadium-induced hepatic and renal damage, and the mechanism was related to the modulation of the hepatic and renal mRNA expression of Nrf-2 and NQO1.

  16. The role of damage associated molecular pattern molecules in acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Martin-Murphy, Brittany V; Holt, Michael P; Ju, Cynthia

    2010-02-15

    The idiosyncratic nature, severity and poor diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) make these reactions a major safety issue during drug development, as well as the most common cause for the withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. Elucidation of the underlying mechanism(s) is necessary for identifying predisposing factors and developing strategies in the treatment and prevention of DILI. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used over the counter therapeutic that is known to be effective and safe at therapeutic doses. However, in overdose situations fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis can result. Evidence suggests that the chemically reactive metabolite of the drug initiates hepatocyte damage and that inflammatory innate immune responses also occur within the liver, leading to the exacerbation and progression of tissue injury. Here we investigate whether following APAP-induced liver injury (AILI) damaged hepatocytes release "danger" signals or damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules, which induce pro-inflammatory activation of hepatic macrophages, further contributing to the progression of liver injury. Our study demonstrated a clear activation of Kupffer cells following early exposure to APAP (1h). Activation of a murine macrophage cell line, RAW cells, was also observed following treatment with liver perfusate from APAP-treated mice, or with culture supernatant of APAP-challenged hepatocytes. Moreover, in these media, the DAMP molecules, heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) were detected. Overall, these findings reveal that DAMP molecules released from damaged and necrotic hepatocytes may serve as a crucial link between the initial hepatocyte damage and the activation of innate immune cells following APAP-exposure, and that DAMPs may represent a potential therapeutic target for AILI. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ni; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Jianbin; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26508989

  18. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ni; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Jianbin; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity.

  19. Pharmacogenetics of ribavirin-induced anemia in hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ampuero, Javier; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacogenetics assesses inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways and its role in medicine is growing. Ribavirin (RBV) and peginterferon were the standard of care therapy in hepatitis C virus infection during 15 years, with the addition of first-generation protease inhibitors at the beginning of 2010s. New direct-acting agents are the new standard of care, but RBV remains important in some scenarios. The main adverse effect of RBV is anemia, which requires dose reduction and even stopping treatment in some patients. Pharmacogenetics has identified ITPA and SLC28/29 genes to be closely related to RBV-induced anemia. The routine evaluation of these genes could help to identify those patients at risk of developing anemia during the hepatitis C virus treatment.

  20. Postulated deficiency of hepatic heme and repair by hematin infusions in the "inducible" hepatic porphyrias.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, C J; Pierach, C A; Bossenmaier, I; Cardinal, R

    1977-01-01

    There is compelling, indirect evidence of hepatic heme deficiency due primarily to the respective genetic errors of the three inducible hepatic porphyrias, acute intermittent porphyria, porphyria variegata, and hereditary coproporphyria. The induction is enhanced by exogenous inducers such as barbiturate, estrogens and other "porphyrogenic" chemicals and factors, including glucose deprivation. The newer knowledge of the induction of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase [delta-aminolevulinate synthase; succinyl--CoA:glycine C-succinyltransferase (decarboxylating), EC 2.3.1.37] in relation to inadequate heme, and repression by heme, stimulated early trials of hematin infusions to overcome the acute relapse in the foregoing inducible porphyrias. Recently this experience has been considerably expanded, 143 infusions of hematin having been given in 22 cases. Studies of the effect on the serum concentrations of delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen have shown a highly significant decline, often to 0, especially of delta-aminolevulinic acid. A distinct relationship to the clinical severity of the attack has been evident in the frequency and magnitude of decline of serum delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. This was regularly associated with objective clinical improvement. PMID:266732

  1. Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Evans, W J

    1987-01-01

    In brief: Delayed-onset muscle soreness is most likely caused by structural damage in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise, in which muscles produce force while lengthening, as in running downhill. This damage may take as long as 12 weeks to repair. Therefore, athletes should allow plenty of time for recovery after events that cause extreme muscle soreness. Because prostaglandin E2 may be important in muscle repair, prostaglandin blockers, such as aspirin, may be useless or even detrimental in the treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness. Eccentric exercise training may help prevent soreness.

  2. Aerobic capacity and hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation alters susceptibility for chronic high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Morris, E Matthew; Meers, Grace M E; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Fletcher, Justin A; Fu, Xiaorong; Shankar, Kartik; Burgess, Shawn C; Ibdah, Jamal A; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2016-10-01

    Rats selectively bred for high capacity running (HCR) or low capacity running (LCR) display divergence for intrinsic aerobic capacity and hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity, both factors associated with susceptibility for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we tested if HCR and LCR rats display differences in susceptibility for hepatic steatosis after 16 wk of high-fat diets (HFD) with either 45% or 60% of kcals from fat. HCR rats were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas only the 60% HFD induced steatosis in LCR rats, as marked by a doubling of liver triglycerides. Hepatic complete fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and mitochondrial respiratory capacity were all lower in LCR compared with HCR rats. LCR rats also displayed lower hepatic complete and incomplete FAO in the presence of etomoxir, suggesting a reduced role for noncarnitine palmitoyltransferase-1-mediated lipid catabolism in LCR versus HCR rats. Hepatic complete FAO and mitochondrial respiration were largely unaffected by either chronic HFD; however, 60% HFD feeding markedly reduced 2-pyruvate oxidation, a marker of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, and mitochondrial complete FAO only in LCR rats. LCR rats displayed lower levels of hepatic long-chain acylcarnitines than HCR rats but maintained similar levels of hepatic acetyl-carnitine levels, further supporting lower rates of β-oxidation, and TCA cycle flux in LCR than HCR rats. Finally, only LCR rats displayed early reductions in TCA cycle genes after the acute initiation of a HFD. In conclusion, intrinsically high aerobic capacity confers protection against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through elevated hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity.

  3. Aerobic capacity and hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation alters susceptibility for chronic high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E. Matthew; Meers, Grace M. E.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Fletcher, Justin A.; Fu, Xiaorong; Shankar, Kartik; Burgess, Shawn C.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Rector, R. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Rats selectively bred for high capacity running (HCR) or low capacity running (LCR) display divergence for intrinsic aerobic capacity and hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity, both factors associated with susceptibility for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we tested if HCR and LCR rats display differences in susceptibility for hepatic steatosis after 16 wk of high-fat diets (HFD) with either 45% or 60% of kcals from fat. HCR rats were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas only the 60% HFD induced steatosis in LCR rats, as marked by a doubling of liver triglycerides. Hepatic complete fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and mitochondrial respiratory capacity were all lower in LCR compared with HCR rats. LCR rats also displayed lower hepatic complete and incomplete FAO in the presence of etomoxir, suggesting a reduced role for noncarnitine palmitoyltransferase-1-mediated lipid catabolism in LCR versus HCR rats. Hepatic complete FAO and mitochondrial respiration were largely unaffected by either chronic HFD; however, 60% HFD feeding markedly reduced 2-pyruvate oxidation, a marker of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, and mitochondrial complete FAO only in LCR rats. LCR rats displayed lower levels of hepatic long-chain acylcarnitines than HCR rats but maintained similar levels of hepatic acetyl-carnitine levels, further supporting lower rates of β-oxidation, and TCA cycle flux in LCR than HCR rats. Finally, only LCR rats displayed early reductions in TCA cycle genes after the acute initiation of a HFD. In conclusion, intrinsically high aerobic capacity confers protection against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through elevated hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity. PMID:27600823

  4. Preventing Ultraviolet Light-Induced Damage: The Benefits of Antioxidants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Cheng-Wai

    2007-01-01

    Extracts of fruit peels contain antioxidants that protect the bacterium "Escherichia coli" against damage induced by ultraviolet light. Antioxidants neutralise free radicals, thus preventing oxidative damage to cells and deoxyribonucleic acid. A high survival rate of UV-exposed cells was observed when grapefruit or grape peel extract was…

  5. Selective cytoprotective effect of histamine on doxorubicin-induced hepatic and cardiac toxicity in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, DJMartinel; Nicoud, MB; Sterle, HA; Carabajal, E; Tesan, F; Perazzo, JC; Cremaschi, GA; Rivera, ES; Medina, VA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential protective effect of histamine on Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced hepatic and cardiac toxicity in different rodent species and in a triple-negative breast tumor-bearing mice model. Male Sprague Dawley rats and Balb/c mice were divided into four groups: control (received saline), histamine (5 mg/kg for rats and 1 mg/kg for mice, daily subcutaneous injection starting 24 h before treatment with Dox), Dox (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally injected three times a week for 2 weeks) and Dox+histamine (received both treatments). Tissue toxicity was evaluated by histopathological studies and oxidative stress and biochemical parameters. The combined effect of histamine and Dox was also investigated in vitro and in vivo in human MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer model. Heart and liver of Dox-treated animals displayed severe histological damage, loss of tissue weight, increased TBARS levels and DNA damage along with an augment in serum creatine kinase-myocardial band. Pretreatment with histamine prevented Dox-induced tissue events producing a significant preservation of the integrity of both rat and mouse myocardium and liver, through the reduction of Dox-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Histamine treatment preserved anti-tumor activity of Dox, exhibiting differential cytotoxicity and increasing the Dox-induced inhibition of breast tumor growth. Findings provide preclinical evidence indicating that histamine could be a promising candidate as a selective cytoprotective agent for the treatment of Dox-induced cardiac and hepatic toxicity, and encourage the translation to clinical practice. PMID:27551485

  6. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Yuanqin; Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY; Li, Wenqi

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidativemore » damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.« less

  7. Hypervitaminosis A-induced hepatic fibrosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Juliana M; Daniel, Alexandre G T; Aloia, Thiago P A; de Siqueira, Adriana; Fukushima, André R; Simões, Denise M N; Reche-Júior, Archivaldo; Cogliati, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    The excessive intake of vitamin A in the form of vitamin concentrate, supplement or vitamin-rich liver can result in hypervitaminosis A in man and animals. Although osteopathologies resulting from chronic vitamin A intoxication in cats are well characterized, no information is available concerning feline hypervitaminosis A-induced liver disease. We report the first case of hepatic stellate cell lipidosis and hepatic fibrosis in a domestic cat that had been fed a diet based on raw beef liver. Radiographic examination revealed exostoses and ankylosis between vertebrae C1 and T7, compatible with deforming cervical spondylosis. Necropsy showed a slightly enlarged and light yellow to bronze liver. Microscopic and ultrastructural analyses of liver tissues revealed diffuse and severe liver fibrosis associated with hepatic stellate cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. These cells showed immunopositive staining for α-smooth muscle actin and desmin markers. The necropsy findings of chronic liver disease coupled with osteopathology supported the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis A. As in human hepatology, if there is dietary evidence to support increased intake of vitamin A, then hypervitaminosis A should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic liver disease in cats.

  8. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates apoptosis and autophagy in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis by inhibiting BNIP3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sainan; Xia, Yujing; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most effective compound in green tea, and possesses a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EGCG in concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis in mice and explored the possible mechanisms involved in these effects. Methods Balb/C mice were injected with ConA (25 mg/kg) to induce acute autoimmune hepatitis, and EGCG (10 or 30 mg/kg) was administered orally twice daily for 10 days before ConA injection. Serum liver enzymes, proinflammatory cytokines, and other marker proteins were determined 2, 8, and 24 hours after the ConA administration. Results BNIP3 mediated cell apoptosis and autophagy in ConA-induced hepatitis. EGCG decreased the immunoreaction and pathological damage by reducing inflammatory factors, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-1β. EGCG also exhibited an antiapoptotic and antiautophagic effect by inhibiting BNIP3 via the IL-6/JAKs/STAT3 pathway. Conclusion EGCG attenuated liver injury in ConA-induced hepatitis by downregulating IL-6/JAKs/STAT3/BNIP3-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:26929598

  9. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    DOE PAGES

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesismore » that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.« less

  10. Melatonin mitigates thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis via antioxidant activity and modulation of proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes.

    PubMed

    Lebda, Mohamed A; Sadek, Kadry M; Abouzed, Tarek K; Tohamy, Hossam G; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2018-01-01

    The potential antifibrotic effects of melatonin against induced hepatic fibrosis were explored. Rats were allocated into four groups: placebo; thioacetamide (TAA) (200mg/kg bwt, i.p twice weekly for two months); melatonin (5mg/kgbwt, i.p daily for a week before TAA and continued for an additional two months); and melatonin plus TAA. Hepatic fibrotic changes were evaluated biochemically and histopathologically. Hepatic oxidative/antioxidative indices were assessed. The expression of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β), fibrogenic-related genes (transforming growth factor-1β, collagen I, collagen, III, laminin, and autotaxin) and an antioxidant-related gene (thioredoxin-1) were detected by qRT-PCR. In fibrotic rats, melatonin lowered serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and autotaxin activities, bilirubin, hepatic hydroxyproline and plasma ammonia levels. Melatonin displayed hepatoprotective and antifibrotic potential as indicated by mild hydropic degeneration of some hepatocytes and mild fibroplasia. In addition, TAA induced the depletion of glutathione, glutathione s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), while inducing the accumulation of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl (C=O) and nitric oxide (NO), and DNA fragmentation. These effects were restored by melatonin pretreatment. Furthermore, melatonin markedly attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes via the upregulation of thioredoxin-1 mRNA transcripts. Melatonin exhibits potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and fibrosuppressive activities against TAA-induced hepatic fibrogenesis via the suppression of oxidative stress, DNA damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic gene transcripts. In addition, we demonstrate that the antifibrotic activity of melatonin is mediated by the induction of thioredoxin-1 with attenuation of autotaxin expressions

  11. Modelling low velocity impact induced damage in composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents recent progress on modelling low velocity impact induced damage in fibre reinforced composite laminates. It is important to understand the mechanisms of barely visible impact damage (BVID) and how it affects structural performance. To reduce labour intensive testing, the development of finite element (FE) techniques for simulating impact damage becomes essential and recent effort by the composites research community is reviewed in this work. The FE predicted damage initiation and propagation can be validated by Non Destructive Techniques (NDT) that gives confidence to the developed numerical damage models. A reliable damage simulation can assist the design process to optimise laminate configurations, reduce weight and improve performance of components and structures used in aircraft construction.

  12. Diagnostics for the detection and evaluation of laser induced damage

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-31

    The Laser Damage and Conditioning Group at LLNL is evaluating diagnostics which will help make damage testing more efficient and reduce the risk of damage during laser conditioning. The work to date has focused on photoacoustic and scattered light measurements on 1064-nm wavelength HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings. Both the acoustic and scatter diagnostics have resolved 10 {mu}m diameter damage points in these coatings. Using a scanning stage, the scatter diagnostic can map both intrinsic and laser-induced scatter. Damage threshold measurements obtained using scatter diagnostics compare within experimental error with those measured using 100x Nomarski microscopy. Scattermore » signals measured during laser conditioning can be used to detect damage related to nodular defects.« less

  13. Diagnostics for the detection and evaluation of laser induced damage

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-01-03

    The Laser Damage and Conditioning Group at LLNL is evaluating diagnostics which will help make damage testing more efficient and reduce the risk of damage during laser conditioning. The work to date has focused on photoacoustic and scattered light measurements on 1064-nm wavelength HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings. Both the acoustic and scatter diagnostics have resolved 10 {mu}m diameter damage points in these coatings. Using a scanning stage, the scatter diagnostic can map both intrinsic and laser-induced scatter. Damage threshold measurements obtained using scatter diagnostics compare within experimental error with those measured using 100x Nomarski microscopy. Scattermore » signals measured during laser conditioning can be used to detect damage related to nodular defects.« less

  14. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Rodrigues, Ivanildes Vasconcelos; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose. PMID:25435714

  15. Quercetin, a Flavonoid Antioxidant, Ameliorated Procarbazine-Induced Oxidative Damage to Murine Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Olayinka, Ebenezer Tunde; Ore, Ayokanmi; Adeyemo, Oluwatobi Adewumi; Ola, Olaniyi Solomon; Olotu, Olaoluwa Oluwaseun; Echebiri, Roseline Chinonye

    2015-01-01

    Procarbazine (PCZ) (indicated in Hodgkin’s disease), is an alkylating agent known to generate free radicals in vivo, while Quercetin (QCT) is a flavonoid antioxidant with proven free radical scavenging capacity. This study investigated the protective effects of QCT on PCZ-induced oxidative damage in the rat. Male Wistar rats (160–180 g) were randomized into five groups (n = 5/group): I (control), II PCZ-treated (2 mg/kg body weight (bw) for seven days); III pre-treated with QCT (20 mg/kg bw) for seven days, followed by PCZ for seven days; IV co-treated with PCZ and QCT for seven days and V administered QCT alone for seven days. PCZ caused a significant increase in plasma total bilirubin, urea, and creatinine when compared with control (P < 0.05). Similarly, plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) were significantly increased in the PCZ-treated group relative to control. Furthermore, PCZ caused a significant decrease in the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as levels of ascorbic acid (AA) and glutathione (GSH). This was followed by a significant increase in hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content. However, QCT pre-treatment and co-treatment ameliorated the PCZ-induced changes in plasma levels of urea, creatinine, and bilirubin as well as the activities of ALP, AST, ALT, and GGT. QCT also ameliorated hepatic AA and GSH levels and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GST. This all suggests that QCT protected against PCZ-induced oxidative damage in rats. PMID:26783707

  16. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: Serum biomarkers in predicting liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Valva, Pamela; Ríos, Daniela A; De Matteo, Elena; Preciado, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Currently, a major clinical challenge in the management of the increasing number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients is determining the best means for evaluating liver impairment. Prognosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are partly dependent on the assessment of histological activity, namely cell necrosis and inflammation, and the degree of liver fibrosis. These parameters can be provided by liver biopsy; however, in addition to the risks related to an invasive procedure, liver biopsy has been associated with sampling error mostly due to suboptimal biopsy size. To avoid these pitfalls, several markers have been proposed as non-invasive alternatives for the diagnosis of liver damage. Distinct approaches among the currently available non-invasive methods are (1) the physical ones based on imaging techniques; and (2) the biological ones based on serum biomarkers. In this review, we discuss these approaches with special focus on currently available non-invasive serum markers. We will discuss: (1) class I serum biomarkers individually and as combined panels, particularly those that mirror the metabolism of liver extracellular matrix turnover and/or fibrogenic cell changes; (2) class II biomarkers that are indirect serum markers and are based on the evaluation of common functional alterations in the liver; and (3) biomarkers of liver cell death, since hepatocyte apoptosis plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. We highlight in this review the evidence behind the use of these markers and assess the diagnostic accuracy as well as advantages, limitations, and application in clinical practice of each test for predicting liver damage in CHC. PMID:26819506

  17. Phenylbutyric acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrogenesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Qing; Second Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601; Chen, Xi

    2013-01-15

    A recent report showed that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in the pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatic fibrosis. Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) is a well-known chemical chaperone that inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PBA on CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. All mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg BW, twice per week) for 8 weeks. In CCl{sub 4} + PBA group, mice were i.p. injected with PBA (150 mg/kg, twice per day) from the beginning of CCl{submore » 4} injection to the end. As expected, PBA significantly attenuated CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR activation. Although PBA alleviated, only to a less extent, hepatic necrosis, it obviously inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Moreover, PBA inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Interestingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for the initiation phase of HSC activation, was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with PBA. Correspondingly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic collagen (Col)1α1 and Col1α2, markers for the perpetuation phase of HSC activation, were inhibited in PBA-treated mice. Importantly, CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis, as determined using Sirius red staining, was obviously attenuated by PBA. In conclusion, PBA prevents CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic inflammatory response and HSC activation. Highlights: ► CCl{sub 4} induces hepatic ER stress, inflammation, HSC activation and hepatic fibrosis. ► PBA alleviates CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic ER stress and UPR signaling activation. ► PBA inhibits CCl{sub 4

  18. A Role for the Host DNA Damage Response in Hepatitis B Virus cccDNA Formation—and Beyond?

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Sabrina; Nassal, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection puts more than 250 million people at a greatly increased risk to develop end-stage liver disease. Like all hepadnaviruses, HBV replicates via protein-primed reverse transcription of a pregenomic (pg) RNA, yielding an unusually structured, viral polymerase-linked relaxed-circular (RC) DNA as genome in infectious particles. Upon infection, RC-DNA is converted into nuclear covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA. Associating with cellular proteins into an episomal minichromosome, cccDNA acts as template for new viral RNAs, ensuring formation of progeny virions. Hence, cccDNA represents the viral persistence reservoir that is not directly targeted by current anti-HBV therapeutics. Eliminating cccDNA will thus be at the heart of a cure for chronic hepatitis B. The low production of HBV cccDNA in most experimental models and the associated problems in reliable cccDNA quantitation have long hampered a deeper understanding of cccDNA molecular biology. Recent advancements including cccDNA-dependent cell culture systems have begun to identify select host DNA repair enzymes that HBV usurps for RC-DNA to cccDNA conversion. While this list is bound to grow, it may represent just one facet of a broader interaction with the cellular DNA damage response (DDR), a network of pathways that sense and repair aberrant DNA structures and in the process profoundly affect the cell cycle, up to inducing cell death if repair fails. Given the divergent interactions between other viruses and the DDR it will be intriguing to see how HBV copes with this multipronged host system. PMID:28531167

  19. Chemically Induced Damage to the Hippocampal Formation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Ottersen, 0 P and Meldrum , B S (1980): The role of epileptic activity in hippocanpal and "remote" cerebral lesions induced by kainic acid , Brain Res...Toxicology (in press). PAPFR III: (manuscript) Naalsund, L U and Fonnum, F, 1986, Pifferences in anionic dependence of the synaptic efflux of D-aspartic acid ...and y-amino butyric acid , J Neurochem (in press). PAPER IV: (manuscript) Naalsund, L U, 1986, Hippocampal EEC in rats after chronic toluene inhalation

  20. [Activity of liver mitochondrial NAD+-dependent dehydrogenases of the krebs cycle in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis developed under conditions of alimentary protein deficiency].

    PubMed

    Voloshchuk, O N; Kopylchuk, G P

    2016-01-01

    Activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and the NAD(+)/NADН ratio were studied in the liver mitochondrial fraction of rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen under conditions of alimentary protein deprivation. Acetaminophen-induced hepatitis was characterized by a decrease of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities, while the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio remained at the control level. Modeling of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis in rats with alimentary protein caused a more pronounced decrease in the activity of NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases studied and a 2.2-fold increase of the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio. This suggests that alimentary protein deprivation potentiated drug-induced liver damage.

  1. Reduced hepatic injury in Toll-like receptor 4-deficient mice following D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Avlas, Orna; Pappo, Orit; Zilbermints, Veacheslav; Cheporko, Yelena; Bachmetov, Larissa; Zemel, Romy; Shainberg, Asher; Sharon, Eran; Grief, Franklin; Hochhauser, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the only therapy of proven benefit in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced FHF is a well established model of liver injury in mice. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified as a receptor for LPS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TLR4 in FHF induced by D-GalN/LPS administration in mice. Wild type (WT) and TLR4 deficient (TLR4ko) mice were studied in vivo in a fulminant model induced by GalN/LPS. Hepatic TLR4 expression, serum liver enzymes, hepatic and serum TNF-α and interleukin-1β levels were determined. Apoptotic cells were identified by immunohistochemistry for caspase-3. Nuclear factor-kappaβ (NF-κ β) and phosphorylated c-Jun hepatic expression were studied using Western blot analysis. All WT mice died within 24 hours after administration of GalN/LPS while all TLR4ko mice survived. Serum liver enzymes, interleukin-1β, TNF-α level, TLR4 mRNA expression, hepatic injury and hepatocyte apoptosis all significantly decreased in TLR4ko mice compared with WT mice. A significant decrease in hepatic c-Jun and IκB signaling pathway was noted in TLR4ko mice compared with WT mice. In conclusion, following induction of FHF, the inflammatory response and the liver injury in TLR4ko mice was significantly attenuated through decreased hepatic c-Jun and NF-κB expression and thus decreased TNF-α level. Down-regulation of TLR4 expression plays a pivotal role in GalN/LPS induced FHF. These findings might have important implications for the use of the anti TLR4 protein signaling as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in FHF. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. DNA damage induced by the direct effect of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoya, A.; Shikazono, N.; Fujii, K.; Urushibara, A.; Akamatsu, K.; Watanabe, R.

    2008-10-01

    We have studied the nature of DNA damage induced by the direct effect of radiation. The yields of single- (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB), base lesions and clustered damage were measured using the agarose gel electrophoresis method after exposing to various kinds of radiations to a simple model DNA molecule, fully hydrated closed-circular plasmid DNA (pUC18). The yield of SSB does not show significant dependence on linear energy transfer (LET) values. On the other hand, the yields of base lesions revealed by enzymatic probes, endonuclease III (Nth) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which excise base lesions and leave a nick at the damage site, strongly depend on LET values. Soft X-ray photon (150 kVp) irradiation gives a maximum yield of the base lesions detected by the enzymatic probes as SSB and clustered damage, which is composed of one base lesion and proximate other base lesions or SSBs. The clustered damage is visualized as an enzymatically induced DSB. The yields of the enzymatically additional damages strikingly decrease with increasing levels of LET. These results suggest that in higher LET regions, the repair enzymes used as probes are compromised because of the dense damage clustering. The studies using simple plasmid DNA as a irradiation sample, however, have a technical difficulty to detect multiple SSBs in a plasmid DNA. To detect the additional SSBs induced in opposite strand of the first SSB, we have also developed a novel technique of DNA-denaturation assay. This allows us to detect multiply induced SSBs in both strand of DNA, but not induced DSB.

  3. Protective effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, C J; Wang, J M; Lin, W L; Chu, C Y; Chou, F P; Tseng, T H

    2000-05-01

    Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs), a group of natural pigments occurring in the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., which is a local soft drink material and medical herb, were studied for antioxidant bioactivity. The preliminary study showed that HAs were able to quench the free radicals of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. This antioxidant bioactivitiy was further evaluated using the model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cytotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes and hepatotoxicity in rats. The results demonstrated that HAs, at the concentrations of 0.10 and 0.20 mg/ml, significantly decreased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and the formation of malondialdehyde induced by a 30-min treatment of t-BHP (1.5 mM). The in vivo investigation showed that the oral pretreatment of HAs (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 5 days before a single dose of t-BHP (0.2 mmol/kg, ip) significantly lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase) and reduced oxidative liver damage. The histopathological evaluation of the liver revealed that Hibiscus pigments reduced the incidence of liver lesions including inflammatory, leucocyte infiltration, and necrosis induced by t-BHP in rats. Based on the results described above, we speculate that Hibiscus pigments may play a role in the prevention of oxidative damage in living systems.

  4. Turmeric extract and its active compound, curcumin, protect against chronic CCl4-induced liver damage by enhancing antioxidation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Seung-Wook; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Choi, Min-Kyung; Jung, Han-Wool; Kim, Young-Jun; Kwon, Ho-Jeong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-08-26

    Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric, has previously been reported to alleviate liver damage. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which turmeric and curcumin protect the liver against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced injury in rats. We hypothesized that turmeric extract and curcumin protect the liver from CCl4-induced liver injury by reducing oxidative stress, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and increasing glutathione peroxidase activation. Chronic hepatic stress was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (0.1 ml/kg body weight) into rats. Turmeric extracts and curcumin were administered once a day for 4 weeks at three dose levels (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day). We performed ALT and AST also measured of total lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and lipid peroxidation. We found that turmeric extract and curcumin significantly protect against liver injury by decreasing the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and by improving the hepatic glutathione content, leading to a reduced level of lipid peroxidase. Our data suggest that turmeric extract and curcumin protect the liver from chronic CCl4-induced injury in rats by suppressing hepatic oxidative stress. Therefore, turmeric extract and curcumin are potential therapeutic antioxidant agents for the treatment of hepatic disease.

  5. Protective effects of Fraxinus xanthoxyloides (Wall.) leaves against CCl4 induced hepatic toxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Younis, Tahira; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Sajid, Moniba

    2016-10-24

    Leaves and root bark of Fraxinus xanthoxyloides Wall. (Oleaceae) are used locally for the treatment of jaundice, malaria and pneumonia. Decoction of stem, twigs and bark is used in pain, internal injuries, rheumatism and in bone fracture. In this investigation we have evaluated the methanol extract of leaves for its hepatoprotective potential against CCl 4 induced hepatic injuries in rat. Powder of F. xanthoxyloides leaves was extracted with methanol (FXM) and subjected for the determination of polyphenolics through HPLC-DAD analysis. Sprague-Dawley (Rattus novergicus) male rats were divided into eight groups (six rats in each). Group I: non-treated control; Group II: vehicle treated (DMSO plus olive oil) while Group III- VI treated with 1 ml/kg body weight (bw) of CCl 4 (30 % in olive oil) for 30 days (15 dosages) to induce the hepatic injuries. Group IV: treated with silymarin (100 mg/kg bw); Group V and VI with FXM (200, 400 mg/kg bw) on alternate days with CCl 4 treatment. Group VII and VIII was administered with FXM (200, 400 mg/kg bw) alone (15 dosages). After 30 days the serum was evaluated for liver function enzymes and biochemical markers, liver samples for antioxidant enzymes, biochemical markers, comet assay and for histopathology. HPLC-DAD analysis of FXM revealed the existence of rutin and caffeic acid. In CCl 4 treated rats the level of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin was significantly increased while the albumin concentration in serum was decreased as compared to control group. The level of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSR) was significantly decreased against the control group. Further, significant decrease in GSH while increase in lipid peroxides (TBARS), H 2 O 2 , DNA damages and comet length was induced with CCl 4 in hepatic tissues of rat. In contrast, co-administration of FXM

  6. Seabuckthron (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf extract ameliorates the gamma radiation mediated DNA damage and hepatic alterations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amitava; Manna, Krishnendu; Chinchubose; Das, Dipesh Kr; Sinha, Mahuya; Kesh, Swaraj Bandhu; Das, Ujjal; Dey, Rakhi Sharma; Banerji, Asoke; Dey, Sanjit

    2014-10-01

    In vitro assessment showed that H. rhamnoides (HrLE) extract possessed free radical scavenging activities and can protect gamma (gamma) radiation induced supercoiled DNA damage. For in vivo study, Swiss albino mice were administered with HrLE (30 mg/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days before exposing them to a single dose of 5 Gy of beta radiation. HrLE significantly prevented the radiation induced genomic DNA damage indicated as a significant reduction in the comet parameters. The lipid peroxidation, liver function enzymes, expression of phosphorylated NFkappaB (p65) and IkappaBalpha increased whereas the endogenous antioxidants diminished upon radiation exposure compared to control. Pretreatment of HrLE extract ameliorated these changes. Based on the present results it can be concluded that H. rhamnoides possess a potential preventive element in planned and accidental nuclear exposures.

  7. Quercitrin Protects Skin from UVB-induced Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Yong-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. PMID:23545178

  8. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    1996-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an inflammatory liver disease in which the immune system is believed to orchestrate an immune attack onto the liver cell. Current knowledge suggests that both T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2 programmes are involved in the generation of the liver damage. Release of TH2 cytokines leads to the production of autoantibodies to the hepatocyte membrane that recruit killer cells. TH1 cytokines induce macrophage activation which contributes to hepatocyte destruction. Patients commonly possess the "autoimmune" HLA A1/B8/DR3 haplotype and a silent gene at the C4A locus with consequent partial deficiency of the complement component C4. Two main types of autoimmune hepatitis are recognised according to the presence of circulating non-organ specific autoantibodies. Patients with smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody may be adults or children, while patients with antiliver kidney microsomal type 1 (LKM1) antibody are usually children or very young adults. In both types there is a preponderance of females. LKM1 antibody is also present in a proportion of adult patients, mainly male, with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This observation originally led to the suggestion that hepatitis C virus may be the cause of this form of autoimmune hepatitis, but several studies have shown that the epitopes target of the LKM1 antibody in autoimmune hepatitis and chronic hepatitis C virus infection differ. Although autoimmune hepatitis responds satisfactorily to immunosuppression in the short term, progression to cirrhosis is frequent. It is hoped that ongoing research will provide a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of liver damage leading to a more effective and specific mode of treatment.

  10. Neuronal growth cones respond to laser-induced axonal damage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Mohanty, Samarendra; Gomez-Godinez, Veronica; Shi, Linda Z.; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Miotke, Jill; Meyer, Ronald L.; Berns, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well known that damage to neurons results in release of substances that inhibit axonal growth, release of chemical signals from damaged axons that attract axon growth cones has not been observed. In this study, a 532 nm 12 ns laser was focused to a diffraction-limited spot to produce site-specific damage to single goldfish axons in vitro. The axons underwent a localized decrease in thickness (‘thinning’) within seconds. Analysis by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy indicated that there was no gross rupture of the cell membrane. Mitochondrial transport along the axonal cytoskeleton immediately stopped at the damage site, but recovered over several minutes. Within seconds of damage nearby growth cones extended filopodia towards the injury and were often observed to contact the damaged site. Turning of the growth cone towards the injured axon also was observed. Repair of the laser-induced damage was evidenced by recovery of the axon thickness as well as restoration of mitochondrial movement. We describe a new process of growth cone response to damaged axons. This has been possible through the interface of optics (laser subcellular surgery), fluorescence and electron microscopy, and a goldfish retinal ganglion cell culture model. PMID:21831892

  11. Management of functional, hepatic damage after chemotherapy with Liverubin (pharma-standard silymarin).

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, L; Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Hu, S; Gizzi, G; Corsi, M; Hosoi, M; Luzzi, R; Feragalli, B; Cotellese, R

    2015-10-22

    Mild, temporary hepatic failure (MTHF) after chemotherapy is a common clinical problem; in case of repeated episodes MTHF may cause chronic impairment. This registry has evaluated post- chemotherapy (PC)-MTHF in subjects using Liverubin (standardized Silymarin) for 8 weeks (3 capsules/day). PC-MTHF was evaluated in a registry study. Hepatitis markers were negative at inclusion and at end-registry. In the final registry there were results concerning 18 Liverubin-supplemented patients and 19 controls completing the 8-week period. Signs/symptoms. The distribution of the most common symptoms and signs with ultrasound scans were comparable. Symptoms were mostly minimal or subclinical. Most symptoms observed at inclusion were completely disappeared or greatly attenuated after 8 weeks. The improvement produced by Liverubin induced a better and faster disappearance of symptoms. The results of the blood tests (at inclusion and at 8 weeks showed the increase in albumin, significantly (P<0.05) faster with the final values higher in the supplement group. Total bilirubin was reduced with the supplement better than in controls (P<0.05). Direct bilirubin values improved more in the supplement (P<0.05) group. The decrease in SGPT and AST-ASAT was more evident with the supplement (P<0.05). Improvement in controls was more limited. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower (than in controls) with Liverubin at 8 weeks (p<0.05). Gamma GT also decreased more and faster with the supplement. The ESR (erythrocytes sedimentation rate) was decreased in both groups, more in the Liverubin group (P<0.05). There was a more limited decrease in controls with persisting higher values at 8 weeks. The white cell count was also better at 3 months (with a larger decrease with the supplement; P<0.05). Oxidative stress. Plasma free radicals (PFR) were elevated in both groups at inclusion. A more significant decrease in the supplement group was observed at 8 weeks. Persisting elevation in values

  12. Kupffer Cell p38 MAPK Signaling Drives Post Burn Hepatic Damage and Pulmonary Inflammation when Alcohol Intoxication Precedes Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael M.; O’Halloran, Eileen B.; Ippolito, Jill A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinical and animal studies demonstrate that alcohol intoxication at the time of injury worsens post-burn outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine the role and mechanism of Kupffer cell derangement in exacerbating post-burn end organ damage in alcohol exposed mice. Design Interventional study. Setting Research Institute. Subjects Male C57BL/6 mice. Interventions Alcohol administered 30 minutes before a 15% scald burn injury. Antecedent Kupffer cell depletion with clodronate liposomes (0.5 mg/kg). p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibition via SB203580 (10 mg/kg). Measurements and Main Results Kupffer cells were isolated 24 hours after injury and analyzed for p38 activity and IL-6 production. Intoxicated burned mice demonstrated a 2-fold (p<0.05) elevation of Kupffer cell p38 activation relative to either insult alone and this corresponded to a 43% (p<0.05) increase in IL-6 production. Depletion of Kupffer cells attenuated hepatic damage as seen by decreases of 53% (p<0.05) in serum ALT and 74% (p<0.05) in hepatic triglycerides, as well as a 77% reduction (p<0.05) in serum IL-6 levels compared to matched controls. This mitigation of hepatic damage was associated with a 54% decrease (p<0.05) in pulmonary neutrophil infiltration and reduced alveolar wall thickening by 45% (p<0.05). In vivo p38 inhibition conferred nearly identical hepatic and pulmonary protection after the combined injury as mice depleted of Kupffer cells. Conclusions Intoxication exacerbates post-burn hepatic damage through p38-dependent IL-6 production in Kupffer cells. PMID:27322363

  13. Combination of alcohol and fructose exacerbates metabolic imbalance in terms of hepatic damage, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Xu, Min; Schultze, Frank Christian; Wilting, Jörg; Mihm, Sabine; Raddatz, Dirk; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Although both alcohol and fructose are particularly steatogenic, their long-term effect in the development of a metabolic syndrome has not been studied in vivo. Consumption of fructose generally leads to obesity, whereas ethanol can induce liver damage in the absence of overweight. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum for 28 days on five diets: chow (control), liquid Lieber-DeCarli (LDC) diet, LDC +30%J of ethanol (L-Et) or fructose (L-Fr), and LDC combined with 30%J ethanol and 30%J fructose (L-EF). Body weight (BW) and liver weight (LW) were measured. Blood and liver samples were harvested and subjected to biochemical tests, histopathological examinations, and RT-PCR. Alcohol-containing diets substantially reduced the food intake and BW (≤3rd week), whereas fructose-fed animals had higher LW than controls (P<0.05). Additionally, leukocytes, plasma AST and leptin levels were the highest in the fructose-administered rats. Compared to the chow and LDC diets, the L-EF diet significantly elevated blood glucose, insulin, and total-cholesterol levels (also vs. the L-Et group). The albumin and Quick-test levels were the lowest, whereas ALT activity was the highest in the L-EF group. Moreover, the L-EF diet aggravated plasma triglyceride and reduced HDL-cholesterol levels more than 2.7-fold compared to the sum of the effects of the L-Et and L-Fr diets. The decreased hepatic insulin clearance in the L-EF group vs. control and LDC groups was reflected by a significantly decreased C-peptide:insulin ratio. All diets except the control caused hepatosteatosis, as evidenced by Nile red and H&E staining. Hepatic transcription of insulin receptor substrate-1/2 was mainly suppressed by the L-Fr and L-EF diets. The L-EF diet did not enhance the mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids (Cpt1α and Ppar-α expressions) compared to the L-Et or L-Fr diet. Together, our data provide evidence for the coaction of ethanol and fructose with a high-fat-diet on dyslipidemia and

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus induced Acute Hepatitis in Young Female Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Nisbet; Çiftçi, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis is a disorder that goes with liver cell necrosis and liver inflammation. Among the causes of acute hepatitis, the most common reasons are viral hepatitis. About 95% of the acute hepatitis generate because of hepatotropic viruses. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are from the family of herpes viruses and rare causes of acute hepatitis. In this case report, acute hepatitis due to EBV and CMV coinfection will be described. How to cite this article Ates İ, Kaplan M, Yilmaz N, Çiftçi F. Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus induced Acute Hepatitis in Young Female Patient. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):60-61. PMID:29201691

  15. Forced Hepatic Overexpression of CEACAM1 Curtails Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Al-Share, Qusai Y.; DeAngelis, Anthony M.; Lester, Sumona Ghosh; Bowman, Thomas A.; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Abdallah, Simon L.; Russo, Lucia; Patel, Payal R.; Kaw, Meenakshi K.; Raphael, Christian K.; Kim, Andrea Jung; Heinrich, Garrett; Lee, Abraham D.; Kim, Jason K.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Philbrick, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) regulates insulin sensitivity by promoting hepatic insulin clearance. Liver-specific inactivation or global null-mutation of Ceacam1 impairs hepatic insulin extraction to cause chronic hyperinsulinemia, resulting in insulin resistance and visceral obesity. In this study we investigated whether diet-induced insulin resistance implicates changes in hepatic CEACAM1. We report that feeding C57/BL6J mice a high-fat diet reduced hepatic CEACAM1 levels by >50% beginning at 21 days, causing hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and elevation in hepatic triacylglycerol content. Conversely, liver-specific inducible CEACAM1 expression prevented hyperinsulinemia and markedly limited insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation that were induced by prolonged high-fat intake. This was partly mediated by increased hepatic β-fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure. The data demonstrate that the high-fat diet reduced hepatic CEACAM1 expression and that overexpressing CEACAM1 in liver curtailed diet-induced metabolic abnormalities by protecting hepatic insulin clearance. PMID:25972571

  16. Tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells exacerbate immune-mediated hepatitis in mice in a CD40-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M; Wiltrout, Robert H; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A; Manns, Michael P; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2015-04-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing (TB) mice. We studied hepatic MDSCs in two murine models of immune-mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of TB mice with Concanavalin A (Con A) or α-galactosylceramide resulted in increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels in comparison to tumor-free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSCs into naïve mice exacerbated Con A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells revealed a polarized proinflammatory gene signature after Con A treatment. An IFN-γ-dependent upregulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells along with an upregulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Con A treatment was observed. Con A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) MDSCs as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSCs led to increased arginase activity upon Con A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40(-/-) tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased ROS production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSCs act as proinflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Effect of complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine (WCPT) on chemically induced oxidative DNA damage in the rat.

    PubMed

    Casalini, C; Lodovici, M; Briani, C; Paganelli, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Dolara, P

    1999-08-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic antioxidants occurring in vegetables and fruits as well as beverages such as tea and wine which have been thought to influence oxidative damage. We wanted to verify whether a complex mixture of wine tannins (wine complex polyphenols and tannins, WCPT) prevent chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage in vivo. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by measuring the ratio of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (80HdG)/ 2-deoxyguanosine (2dG) x 10(-6) in hydrolyzed DNA using HPLC coupled with electrochemical and UV detectors. We treated rats with WCPT (57 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 d, a dose 10-fold higher than what a moderate wine drinker would be exposed to. WCPT administration significantly reduced the ratio of 80HdG/2dG x 10(-6) in liver DNA obtained from rats treated with 2-nitropropane (2NP) relative to controls administered 2NP only (33. 3 +/- 2.5 vs. 44.9 +/- 3.2 x 10(-6) 2dG; micro +/- SE; p<0.05). On the contrary, pretreatment with WCPT for 10 d did not protect the colon mucosa from oxidative DNA damage induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). 2NP and DMH are hepatic and colon carcinogens, respectively, capable of inducing oxidative DNA damage. WCPT have protective action against some types of chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage in vivo.

  18. UV and ionizing radiations induced DNA damage, differences and similarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Douki, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Both UV and ionizing radiations damage DNA. Two main mechanisms, so-called direct and indirect pathways, are involved in the degradation of DNA induced by ionizing radiations. The direct effect of radiation corresponds to direct ionization of DNA (one electron ejection) whereas indirect effects are produced by reactive oxygen species generated through water radiolysis, including the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which damage DNA. UV (and visible) light damages DNA by again two distinct mechanisms. UVC and to a lesser extend UVB photons are directly absorbed by DNA bases, generating their excited states that are at the origin of the formation of pyrimidine dimers. UVA (and visible) light by interaction with endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers induce the formation of DNA damage through photosensitization reactions. The excited photosensitizer is able to induce either a one-electron oxidation of DNA (type I) or to produce singlet oxygen (type II) that reacts with DNA. In addition, through an energy transfer from the excited photosensitizer to DNA bases (sometime called type III mechanism) formation of pyrimidine dimers could be produced. Interestingly it has been shown recently that pyrimidine dimers are also produced by direct absorption of UVA light by DNA, even if absorption of DNA bases at these wavelengths is very low. It should be stressed that some excited photosensitizers (such as psoralens) could add directly to DNA bases to generate adducts. The review will described the differences and similarities in terms of damage formation (structure and mechanisms) between these two physical genotoxic agents.

  19. Maltol, a Food Flavoring Agent, Attenuates Acute Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ye; Xu, Qi; Hu, Jiang-ning; Han, Xin-yue; Li, Wei; Zhao, Li-chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of maltol, a food-flavoring agent, on alcohol-induced acute oxidative damage in mice. Maltol used in this study was isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer) and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, pretreatment with maltol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg; 15 days) drastically prevented the elevated activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and triglyceride (TG) in serum and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in liver tissue (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the levels of hepatic antioxidant, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were elevated by maltol pretreatment, compared to the alcohol group (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that maltol pretreatment significantly inhibited alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. Interestingly, pretreatment of maltol effectively relieved alcohol-induced oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maltol appeared to possess promising anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. It was suggested that the hepatoprotective effect exhibited by maltol on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:25608939

  20. An extended sequence specificity for UV-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chung, Long H; Murray, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    The sequence specificity of UV-induced DNA damage was determined with a higher precision and accuracy than previously reported. UV light induces two major damage adducts: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs). Employing capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence and taking advantages of the distinct properties of the CPDs and 6-4PPs, we studied the sequence specificity of UV-induced DNA damage in a purified DNA sequence using two approaches: end-labelling and a polymerase stop/linear amplification assay. A mitochondrial DNA sequence that contained a random nucleotide composition was employed as the target DNA sequence. With previous methodology, the UV sequence specificity was determined at a dinucleotide or trinucleotide level; however, in this paper, we have extended the UV sequence specificity to a hexanucleotide level. With the end-labelling technique (for 6-4PPs), the consensus sequence was found to be 5'-GCTC*AC (where C* is the breakage site); while with the linear amplification procedure, it was 5'-TCTT*AC. With end-labelling, the dinucleotide frequency of occurrence was highest for 5'-TC*, 5'-TT* and 5'-CC*; whereas it was 5'-TT* for linear amplification. The influence of neighbouring nucleotides on the degree of UV-induced DNA damage was also examined. The core sequences consisted of pyrimidine nucleotides 5'-CTC* and 5'-CTT* while an A at position "1" and C at position "2" enhanced UV-induced DNA damage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CCl4 induced genotoxicity and DNA oxidative damages in rats: hepatoprotective effect of Sonchus arvensis.

    PubMed

    Alkreathy, Huda Mohammad; Khan, Rahmat Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Sahreen, Sumaira

    2014-11-21

    Sonchus arvesis is traditionally reported in various human ailments including hepatotoxicity in Pakistan. Presently we designed to assess the protective effects of methanolic extract of Sonchus arvesis against carbon tetrachloride induced genotoxicity and DNA oxidative damages in hepatic tissues of experimental rats. 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Sonchus arvensis against CCl4 induced genotoxicity, DNA damages and antioxidant depletion. Rats of normal control group were given free access of food and water add labitum. Group II rats received 3 ml/kg of CCl4 (30% in olive oil v/v) via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for four weeks. Group III and IV received 1 ml of 100 mg/kg b.w. and 200 mg/kg b.w. SME via gavage after 48 h of CCl4 treatment whereas group V was given 1 ml of silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w.) after 48 h of CCl4 treatment. Group VI only received 200 mg/kg b.w. SME. Protective effects of SME were checked by measuring serum markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes, genotoxicity and DNA dmages. Results of the present study showed that treatment of SME reversed the activities of serum marker enzymes and cholesterol profile as depleted with CCl4 treatment. Activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes of liver tissue homogenate; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were reduced with administration of CCl4, which were returned to the control level with SME treatment. CCl4-induced hepatic cirrhosis decreased hepatic glutathione (GSH) and increased lipid peroxidative products (TBARS), were normalized by treatment with SME. Moreover, administration of CCl4 caused genotoxicity and DNA fragmentation which were significantly restored towards the normal level with SME. These results reveal that treatment of SME may be useful in the prevention of hepatic stress.

  2. Hardening measures for bipolar transistors against microwave-induced damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Chang-Chun; Ma, Zhen-Yang; Ren, Xing-Rong; Yang, Yin-Tang; Zhao, Ying-Bo; Yu, Xin-Hai

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper we study the influences of the bias voltage and the external components on the damage progress of a bipolar transistor induced by high-power microwaves. The mechanism is presented by analyzing the variation in the internal distribution of the temperature in the device. The findings show that the device becomes less vulnerable to damage with an increase in bias voltage. Both the series diode at the base and the relatively low series resistance at the emitter, Re, can obviously prolong the burnout time of the device. However, Re will aid damage to the device when the value is sufficiently high due to the fact that the highest hot spot shifts from the base-emitter junction to the base region. Moreover, the series resistance at the base Rb will weaken the capability of the device to withstand microwave damage.

  3. Protective effects of L-carnosine on CCl4 -induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Alsheblak, Mehyar Mohammad; Elsherbiny, Nehal M; El-Karef, Amro; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M

    2016-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of L-carnosine (CAR), an endogenous dipeptide of alanine and histidine, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Liver injury was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of CCl4, twice weekly for six weeks. CAR was administered to rats daily, at dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. At the end of six weeks, blood and liver tissue specimens were collected. Results show that CAR treatment attenuated the hepatic morphological changes, necroinflammation and fibrosis induced by CCl4, as indicated by hepatic histopathology scoring. In addition, CAR treatment significantly reduced the CCl4-induced elevation of liver-injury parameters in serum. CAR treatment also combatted oxidative stress; possibly by restoring hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) levels. Moreover, CAR treatment prevented the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as indicated by reduced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the liver, and decreased hepatic inflammation as demonstrated by a reduction in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and restoration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. In conclusion, CCl4-induced hepatic injury was alleviated by CAR treatment. The results suggest that these beneficial, protective effects are due, at least in part, to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities.

  4. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg-1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility.

  5. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  6. Shock-induced damage in rocks: Application to impact cratering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Huirong

    Shock-induced damage beneath impact craters is studied in this work. Two representative terrestrial rocks, San Marcos granite and Bedford limestone, are chosen as test target. Impacts into the rock targets with different combinations of projectile material, size, impact angle, and impact velocity are carried out at cm scale in the laboratory. Shock-induced damage and fracturing would cause large-scale compressional wave velocity reduction in the recovered target beneath the impact crater. The shock-induced damage is measured by mapping the compressional wave velocity reduction in the recovered target. A cm scale nondestructive tomography technique is developed for this purpose. This technique is proved to be effective in mapping the damage in San Marcos granite, and the inverted velocity profile is in very good agreement with the result from dicing method and cut open directly. Both compressional velocity and attenuation are measured in three orthogonal directions on cubes prepared from one granite target impacted by a lead bullet at 1200 m/s. Anisotropy is observed from both results, but the attenuation seems to be a more useful parameter than acoustic velocity in studying orientation of cracks. Our experiments indicate that the shock-induced damage is a function of impact conditions including projectile type and size, impact velocity, and target properties. Combined with other crater phenomena such as crater diameter, depth, ejecta, etc., shock-induced damage would be used as an important yet not well recognized constraint for impact history. The shock-induced damage is also calculated numerically to be compared with the experiments for a few representative shots. The Johnson-Holmquist strength and failure model, initially developed for ceramics, is applied to geological materials. Strength is a complicated function of pressure, strain, strain rate, and damage. The JH model, coupled with a crack softening model, is used to describe both the inelastic response of

  7. Myostatin as a Marker for Doxorubicin Induced Cardiac Damage.

    PubMed

    Kesik, Vural; Honca, Tevfik; Gulgun, Mustafa; Uysal, Bulent; Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Cayci, Tuncer; Babacan, Oguzhan; Gocgeldi, Ercan; Korkmazer, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent but causes severe cardiac failure over known doses. Thus, early detection and prevention of cardiac damage is important. Various markers have been tested for early detection of cardiac damage. Myostatin is a protein produced in skeletal muscle cells inhibits muscle differentiation and growth during myogenesis. We evaluated the role of myostatin as a marker for showing DXR induced cardiac damage and compared with well known cardiac markers like NT-proBNP, hs-TnT and CK in a rat model of chronic DXR cardiotoxicity. Myostatin, NT-proBNP, and hs-TnT but not CK rose significantly during DXR treatment. Myostatin can be used as an early marker of DXR induced cardiotoxicity. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  8. FURTHER EVIDENCE THAT DICHLOROMETHANE DOES NOT INDUCE CHROMOSOME DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dichloromethane (DCM) is a widely used industrial solvent which has been determined to be a carcinogen in rats and mice. n vitro and in vivo analyses of chromosome damage induced by this agent have provided conflicting results. n order to further investigate the clastogenic poten...

  9. Chemical determination of free radical-induced damage to DNA.

    PubMed

    Dizdaroglu, M

    1991-01-01

    Free radical-induced damage to DNA in vivo can result in deleterious biological consequences such as the initiation and promotion of cancer. Chemical characterization and quantitation of such DNA damage is essential for an understanding of its biological consequences and cellular repair. Methodologies incorporating the technique of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) have been developed in recent years for measurement of free radical-induced DNA damage. The use of GC/MS with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) facilitates unequivocal identification and quantitation of a large number of products of all four DNA bases produced in DNA by reactions with hydroxyl radical, hydrated electron, and H atom. Hydroxyl radical-induced DNA-protein cross-links in mammalian chromatin, and products of the sugar moiety in DNA are also unequivocally identified and quantitated. The sensitivity and selectivity of the GC/MS-SIM technique enables the measurement of DNA base products even in isolated mammalian chromatin without the necessity of first isolating DNA, and despite the presence of histones. Recent results reviewed in this article demonstrate the usefulness of the GC/MS technique for chemical determination of free radical-induced DNA damage in DNA as well as in mammalian chromatin under a vast variety of conditions of free radical production.

  10. Curculigo orchioides protects cisplatin-induced cell damage.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tong Ho; Hong, Bin Na; Jung, Su-Young; Lee, Jeong-Han; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; You, Yong-Ouk

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is commonly used as a chemotherapeutic agent against many human cancers. However, it generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has serious dose-limiting side effects, including ototoxicity. The roots of Curculigo orchioides (C. orchioides) have been used to treat auditory diseases such as tinnitus and hearing loss in Chinese traditional medicine. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of an ethanol extract obtained from C. orchioides rhizome (COR) on cisplatin-induced cell damage in auditory cells (HEI-OC1). COR (2.5-25 μg/ml) inhibited cisplatin-induced HEI-OC1 cell damage in a dose-dependent manner. To investigate the protective mechanism of COR on cisplatin cytotoxicity in HEI-OC1 cells, we measured the effects of COR on ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in cisplatin-treated cells as well as its scavenging activities against superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and DPPH radicals. COR (1-25 μg/ml) had scavenging activities against superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and DPPH radicals, as well as reduced lipid peroxidation. In in vivo experiments, COR was shown to reduce cochlear and peripheral auditory function impairments through cisplatin-induced auditory damage in mice. These results indicate that COR protects from cisplatin-induced auditory damage by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and scavenging activities against free radicals.

  11. [Effects of pirfenidone on hepatic fibrosis in mice induced by carbon tetrachloride].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Min; Qu, Xiao-Hu; Lv, Jv-Ping; Shi, Yang; Li, Chang-Xi; Xie, Ke-Jian

    2016-04-08

    To investigate the effects of pirfenidone on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice. After 8-week feeding, 40 healthy male SPF ICR mice were randomly divided into 4 groups:liver fibrosis group (CCL 4 group), low doses of Pirfenidone group (PFD-L group), high doses of Pirfenidone group (PFD-H group) and control group. The mice in CCL 4 group, low doses of Pirfenidone group (PFD-L group), high doses of Pirfenidone group (PFD-H group) were injected intraperitoneally with 0.4 ml 10% CCL 4 solution dissolved in soybean oil. Then the PFD-L and PFD-H groups were treated with 120 mg and 240 mg PFD via gastric gavage, respectively. Control group was injected with same volume of saline. Alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) in serum were tested with automatic biochemistry analyzer and the pathologic changes of liver tissue were examined by HE staining. Furthermore, we identi-fied hyaluronic acids(HA), laminin(LN), collagentype IV(IV-C) in serum using radioimmunoassay and the expression of smooth muscle acti-nalpha(α-SMA) related gene in liver was tested by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Compared with control group, hepatic lobules in CCL 4 mice were damaged significantly, collagenous fiber was deposited obviously, and counterfeit hepatic lobules formed. The serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP were increased obviously ( P <0.05) with the enhancement of HA, LN, IV-C in serum ( P <0.05) and the ex-pression of α-SMA related gene ( P <0.05). Compared to CCL 4 -treated mice, the serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP in PFD-L and PFD-H groups were decreased, HA, LN, IV-C in PFD-L and PFD-H mice went down obviously,and the expression of α-SMA related gene was con-trolled ( P <0.05). From pathological observation, we found the degree of liver fibrosis in PFD-L mice was reduced and collagenous fiber was decreased, only a little counterfeit hepatic lobule could be found. Cell arrangement in PFD-H mice recovered, the structural of hepatic

  12. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-induced protein 1 targets hypoxia-inducible factor 1α to protect against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Lu, Yue-Xin; Cheng, Daqing; Zhang, Kuo; Zheng, Jilin; Liu, Yupeng; Wang, Xiaozhan; Yuan, Yu-Feng; Tang, Yi-Da

    2018-05-09

    Sterile inflammation is an essential factor causing hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. As a critical regulator of inflammation, the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) in hepatic I/R injury remains undetermined. In this study, we discovered that MCPIP1 downregulation was associated with hepatic I/R injury in liver transplant patients and a mouse model. Hepatocyte-specific Mcpip1 gene knockout (HKO) and transgenic (HTG) mice demonstrated that MCPIP1 functions to ameliorate liver damage, reduce inflammation, prevent cell death, and promote regeneration. A mechanistic study revealed that MCPIP1 interacted with and maintained hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression by deubiquitinating HIF-1α. Notably, HIF-1α inhibitor reversed the protective effect of MCPIP1, while HIF-1α activator compensated for the detrimental effect of MCPIP1 deficiency. Thus, we identified the MCPIP1-HIF-1α axis as a critical pathway that may be a good target for intervention in hepatic I/R injury. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Parvovirus B19 induced hepatic failure in an adult requiring liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Krygier, Darin S; Steinbrecher, Urs P; Petric, Martin; Erb, Siegfried R; Chung, Stephen W; Scudamore, Charles H; Buczkowski, Andrzej K; Yoshida, Eric M

    2009-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 induced acute hepatitis and hepatic failure have been previously reported, mainly in children. Very few cases of parvovirus induced hepatic failure have been reported in adults and fewer still have required liver transplantation. We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent woman who developed fulminant hepatic failure after acute infection with Parvovirus B19 who subsequently underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. This is believed to be the first reported case in the literature in which an adult patient with fulminant hepatic failure associated with acute parvovirus B19 infection and without hematologic abnormalities has been identified prior to undergoing liver transplantation. This case suggests that Parvovirus B19 induced liver disease can affect adults, can occur in the absence of hematologic abnormalities and can be severe enough to require liver transplantation. PMID:19705505

  14. Ciliary neurotrophic factor analogue aggravates CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Jun-Feng; Min, Guang-Ning; Han, Wei; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2017-05-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and CNTF analogs were reported to have hepatoprotective effect and ameliorate hepatic steatosis in db/db or high-fat-diet-fed mice. Because hepatic steatosis and injury are also commonly induced by hepatotoxin, the aim of the present study is to clarify whether CNTF could alleviate hepatic steatosis and injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). Unexpectedly, when combined with CCl 4 , CNTF aggravated hepatic steatosis and liver injury. The mechanism is associated with effects of CNTF that inhibited lipoprotein secretion and drastically impaired the ability of lipoproteins to act as transport vehicles for lipids from the liver to the circulation. While injected after CCl 4 cessation, CNTF could improve liver function. These data suggest that CNTF could be a potential hepatoprotective agent against CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury after the cessation of CCl 4 exposure. However, it is forbidden to combine recombinant mutant of human CNTF treatment with CCl 4 .

  15. Effect of intestinal microbiota alteration on hepatic damage in rats with acute rejection after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yirui; Chen, Huazhong; Zhu, Biao; Qin, Nan; Chen, Yunbo; Li, Zhengfeng; Deng, Min; Jiang, Haiyin; Xu, Xiangfei; Yang, Jiezuan; Ruan, Bing; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-11-01

    The previous studies all focus on the effect of probiotics and antibiotics on infection after liver transplantation. Here, we focus on the effect of gut microbiota alteration caused by probiotics and antibiotics on hepatic damage after allograft liver transplantation. Brown-Norway rats received saline, probiotics, or antibiotics via daily gavage for 3 weeks. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) was carried out after 1 week of gavage. Alteration of the intestinal microbiota, liver function and histopathology, serum and liver cytokines, and T cells in peripheral blood and Peyer's patch were evaluated. Distinct segregation of fecal bacterial diversity was observed in the probiotic group and antibiotic group when compared with the allograft group. As for diversity of intestinal mucosal microbiota and pathology of intestine at 2 weeks after OLT, antibiotics and probiotics had a significant effect on ileum and colon. The population of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the probiotic group was significantly greater than the antibiotic group and the allograft group. The liver injury was significantly reduced in the antibiotic group and the probiotic group compared with the allograft group. The CD4/CD8 and Treg cells in Peyer's patch were decreased in the antibiotic group. The intestinal Treg cell and serum and liver TGF-β were increased markedly while CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly decreased in the probiotic group. It suggested that probiotics mediate their beneficial effects through increase of Treg cells and TGF-β and deduction of CD4/CD8 in rats with acute rejection (AR) after OLT.

  16. Oxidative DNA damage induced by a hydroperoxide derivative of cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mariko; Suzuki, Toshinari; Midorikawa, Kaoru; Oikawa, Shinji; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2004-09-15

    Interstrand DNA cross-linking has been considered to be the primary action mechanism of cyclophosphamide (CP) and its hydroperoxide derivative, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC). To clarify the mechanism of anti-tumor effects by 4-HC, we investigated DNA damage in a human leukemia cell line, HL-60, and its H(2)O(2)-resistant clone HP100. Apoptosis DNA ladder formation was detected in HL-60 cells treated with 4-HC, whereas it was not observed in HP100 cells. 4-HC significantly increased 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, in HL-60 cells. On the other hand, CP did not significantly induce 8-oxodG formation and apoptosis in HL-60 cells under the same conditions as did 4-HC. Using (32)P-labeled DNA fragments from the human p53 tumor suppressor gene, 4-HC was found to cause Cu(II)-mediated oxidative DNA damage, but CP did not. Catalase inhibited 4-HC-induced DNA damage, including 8-oxodG formation, suggesting the involvement of H(2)O(2). The generation of H(2)O(2) during 4-HC degradation was ascertained by procedures using scopoletin and potassium iodide. We conclude that, in addition to DNA cross-linking, oxidative DNA damage through H(2)O(2) generation may participate in the anti-tumor effects of 4-HC.

  17. Tissue damage negatively regulates LPS-induced macrophage necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Scott, M J; Fan, E K; Li, Y; Liu, J; Xiao, G; Li, S; Billiar, T R; Wilson, M A; Jiang, Y; Fan, J

    2016-09-01

    Infection is a common clinical complication following tissue damage resulting from surgery and severe trauma. Studies have suggested that cell pre-activation by antecedent trauma/tissue damage profoundly impacts the response of innate immune cells to a secondary infectious stimulus. Cell necroptosis, a form of regulated inflammatory cell death, is one of the mechanisms that control cell release of inflammatory mediators from important innate immune executive cells such as macrophages (Mφ), which critically regulate the progress of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the mechanism and role of trauma/tissue damage in the regulation of LPS-induced Mφ necroptosis using a mouse model simulating long-bone fracture. We demonstrate that LPS acting through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 promotes Mφ necroptosis. However, necroptosis is ameliorated by high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release from damaged tissue. We show that HMGB1 acting through cell surface receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) upregulates caveolin-1 expression, which in turn induces caveolae-mediated TLR4 internalization and desensitization to decrease Mφ necroptosis. We further show that RAGE-MyD88 activation of Cdc42 and subsequent activation of transcription factor Sp1 serves as a mechanism underlying caveolin-1 transcriptional upregulation. These results reveal a previous unidentified protective role of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules in restricting inflammation in response to exogenous pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules.

  18. Tissue damage negatively regulates LPS-induced macrophage necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z; Scott, M J; Fan, E K; Li, Y; Liu, J; Xiao, G; Li, S; Billiar, T R; Wilson, M A; Jiang, Y; Fan, J

    2016-01-01

    Infection is a common clinical complication following tissue damage resulting from surgery and severe trauma. Studies have suggested that cell pre-activation by antecedent trauma/tissue damage profoundly impacts the response of innate immune cells to a secondary infectious stimulus. Cell necroptosis, a form of regulated inflammatory cell death, is one of the mechanisms that control cell release of inflammatory mediators from important innate immune executive cells such as macrophages (Mφ), which critically regulate the progress of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the mechanism and role of trauma/tissue damage in the regulation of LPS-induced Mφ necroptosis using a mouse model simulating long-bone fracture. We demonstrate that LPS acting through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 promotes Mφ necroptosis. However, necroptosis is ameliorated by high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release from damaged tissue. We show that HMGB1 acting through cell surface receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) upregulates caveolin-1 expression, which in turn induces caveolae-mediated TLR4 internalization and desensitization to decrease Mφ necroptosis. We further show that RAGE-MyD88 activation of Cdc42 and subsequent activation of transcription factor Sp1 serves as a mechanism underlying caveolin-1 transcriptional upregulation. These results reveal a previous unidentified protective role of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules in restricting inflammation in response to exogenous pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. PMID:26943325

  19. Mechanisms of free radical-induced damage to DNA.

    PubMed

    Dizdaroglu, Miral; Jaruga, Pawel

    2012-04-01

    Endogenous and exogenous sources cause free radical-induced DNA damage in living organisms by a variety of mechanisms. The highly reactive hydroxyl radical reacts with the heterocyclic DNA bases and the sugar moiety near or at diffusion-controlled rates. Hydrated electron and H atom also add to the heterocyclic bases. These reactions lead to adduct radicals, further reactions of which yield numerous products. These include DNA base and sugar products, single- and double-strand breaks, 8,5'-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleosides, tandem lesions, clustered sites and DNA-protein cross-links. Reaction conditions and the presence or absence of oxygen profoundly affect the types and yields of the products. There is mounting evidence for an important role of free radical-induced DNA damage in the etiology of numerous diseases including cancer. Further understanding of mechanisms of free radical-induced DNA damage, and cellular repair and biological consequences of DNA damage products will be of outmost importance for disease prevention and treatment.

  20. LKM3 autoantibodies in hepatitis C cirrhosis: a further phenomenon of the HCV-induced autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Csepregi, A; Nemesánszky, E; Luettig, B; Obermayer-Straub, P; Manns, M P

    2001-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is frequently associated with laboratory markers-including LKM1 autoantibodies--of autoimmunity. A 62-yr-old woman with hepatitis C cirrhosis presented autoantibodies against liver and kidney microsomal proteins. By further evaluation of autoantibodies using ELISA and immunoblotting LKM1 and LKM3 autoantibodies could be revealed. The target antigen of LKM3 autoantibodies proved to be UGT-1.1 isoenzyme. In the absence of chronic hepatitis D infection or autoimmune hepatitis type 2, this is the first case that reports the occurrence of LKM3 autoantibodies in HCV-induced chronic liver disease.

  1. Hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed against CCl4 -induced liver damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kasote, D. M.; Badhe, Y. S.; Zanwar, A. A.; Hegde, M. V.; Deshmukh, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed against CCl4 -induced liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced to Wistar rats by administration of 0.2% CCl4 in olive oil (8 mL/kg, i.p.) on the seventh day of treatment. Hepatoprotective potential of EPC-BF at doses, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was assessed through biochemical and histological parameters. Results: EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated animal groups showed significantly decreased activities of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and level of total bilirubin, elevated by CCl4 intoxication. Hepatic lipid peroxidation elevated by CCl4 intoxication were also found to be alleviated at almost normal level in the EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated groups. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and treatment of EPC-BF at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was found to be effective in restoring CCl4 -induced hepatic damage. However, EPC-BF did not show dose-dependent hepatoprotective potential. EPC-BF depicted maximum protection against CCl4 -induced hepatic damage at lower dose 250 mg/kg than higher dose (500 mg/ kg). Conclusion: EPC-BF possesses the significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced liver damage, which could be mediated through increase in antioxidant defenses. PMID:22923966

  2. Hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed against CCl(4) -induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kasote, D M; Badhe, Y S; Zanwar, A A; Hegde, M V; Deshmukh, K K

    2012-07-01

    to investigate the hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed against CCl(4) -induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced to Wistar rats by administration of 0.2% CCl(4) in olive oil (8 mL/kg, i.p.) on the seventh day of treatment. Hepatoprotective potential of EPC-BF at doses, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was assessed through biochemical and histological parameters. EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated animal groups showed significantly decreased activities of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and level of total bilirubin, elevated by CCl(4) intoxication. Hepatic lipid peroxidation elevated by CCl(4) intoxication were also found to be alleviated at almost normal level in the EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated groups. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and treatment of EPC-BF at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was found to be effective in restoring CCl(4) -induced hepatic damage. However, EPC-BF did not show dose-dependent hepatoprotective potential. EPC-BF depicted maximum protection against CCl(4) -induced hepatic damage at lower dose 250 mg/kg than higher dose (500 mg/ kg). EPC-BF possesses the significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl(4) induced liver damage, which could be mediated through increase in antioxidant defenses.

  3. [Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide)-induced hepatic dysfunction confirmed by drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takayuki; Mori, Takehiko; Karigane, Daiki; Kikuchi, Taku; Koda, Yuya; Toyama, Takaaki; Nakajima, Hideaki; Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man with refractory leukemia transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome was placed on hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide) at a daily dose of 500 mg. Because of insufficient cytoreductive efficacy, the dose was increased to 1,500 mg five days later. Eight days after the initiation of hydroxyurea, the patient started complaining of chills, fever, and vomiting. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were markedly elevated to 5,098 and 3,880 IU/l from 44 and 59 IU/l in one day, respectively. Tests for hepatitis viruses were all negative. With the discontinuation of hydroxyurea, AST and ALT returned to their former levels within two weeks. A drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test for hydroxyurea was positive with a stimulating index of 2.0. Hepatic dysfunction has been recognized as one of the side effects of hydroxyurea. However, there have been only a limited number of reports demonstrating drug allergy to have a role in hepatic dysfunction accompanied by fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings of our case strongly suggest that all presentations could be explained by drug allergy. Physicians should be mindful of the potential for acute and severe hepatic dysfunction due to allergic reaction against hydroxyurea.

  4. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage threshold on hybrid mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanda, Jan; Muresan, Mihai-George; Bilek, Vojtech; Sebek, Matej; Hanus, Martin; Lucianetti, Antonio; Rostohar, Danijela; Mocek, Tomas; Škoda, Václav

    2017-11-01

    So-called hybrid mirrors, consisting of broadband metallic surface coated with dielectric reflector designed for specific wavelength, becoming more important with progressing development of broadband mid-IR sources realized using parametric down conversion system. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage on such mirrors was tested by method s-on-1, where s stands for various numbers of pulses. We show difference in damage threshold between common protected silver mirrors and hybrid silver mirrors prepared by PVD technique and their variants prepared by IAD. Keywords: LIDT,

  5. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, jaundice and dark urine.These symptoms can last up to five ... of hepatitis A cases require hospitalization. Swallowing fecal matter, even in microscopic quantities. Infection occurs most often ...

  6. Protective effects of Ziyang tea polysaccharides on CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongying; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Yanfei; Yang, Xingbin

    2014-01-15

    This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the tea polysaccharides (ZTPs) extracted from a selenium-enriched Ziyang green tea (Camellia sinensis). ZTPs were identified as the heteropolysaccharides with glucose (31.4%), arabinose (23.5%) and galactose (21.8%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. ZTPs displayed noteworthy scavenging effects against DPPH, OH and O2(-), and high antioxidant effects in vitro, and the effects were further verified by suppressing CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage in mice at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg BW. Administration of ZTPs in mice prior to CCl4 significantly prevented the CCl4-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactic dehydrogenase, as well as hepatic malondialdehyde level. Mice treated with ZTPs showed normal glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, relative to CCl4-treated group. ZTPs also prevented the CCl4-caused liver histological alteration, as indicated by histopathological evaluation. These findings demonstrate that ZTPs have protective effects against acute CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Apocynin prevented inflammation and oxidative stress in carbon tetra chloride induced hepatic dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Muse, Awale Yousuf; Khan, D M Isha Olive; Ahmed, Ismaile Hussein; Subhan, Nusrat; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Alam, Md Ashraful; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit Dey

    2017-08-01

    Liver fibrosis is a leading pathway to cirrhosis and a global clinical issue. Oxidative stress mediated tissue damage is one of the prime causes of hepatic dysfunction and fibrosis. Apocynin is one of many strong antioxidants. To evaluate the effect of apocynin in the CCl 4 administered hepatic dysfunction in rats. Female Long Evans rats were administered with CCl 4 orally (1mL/kg) twice a week for 2 weeks and were treated with apocynin (100mg/kg). Both plasma and liver tissues were analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase activities. Oxidative stress parameters were also measured by determining malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), advanced protein oxidation product (APOP). In addition, antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in plasma and liver tissues were analyzed. Moreover, inflammation and tissue fibrosis were confirmed by histological staining of liver tissue sections. Apocynin significantly reduced serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. It also exhibited a considerable reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, MPO, NO, and APOP level) which was elevated due to CCl 4 administration in rats. Apocynin treatment also restored the catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in CCl 4 treated rats. Histological analysis of liver sections revealed that apocynin prevented inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in CCl 4 administered rats. These results suggest that apocynin protects liver damage induced by CCl 4 by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and stimulating the cellular antioxidant system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Role for Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) and Platelet Aggregation in Early Sepsis-induced Hepatic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kentaro; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Okazaki, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takahisa; Ohbatake, Yoshinao; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Okamoto, Koichi; Sakai, Seisho; Kinoshita, Jun; Makino, Isamu; Nakamura, Keishi; Hayashi, Hironori; Oyama, Katsunobu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Harada, Kenichi; Harmon, John W; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Severe sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Inflammation and coagulation play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of sepsis leading to multiple organ failure, especially in the liver. The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanism from sepsis to liver damage in a mouse model. We created a sepsis model by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally in mice. At 0, 6, 12, and 24 h following intraperitoneal injection of LPS, mice were euthanised and analyzed. Primary antibodies against myeloperoxidase (MPO), hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SE-1), and P-selectin (CD62p) were used. Expression and localization in neutrophil, sinusoidal endothelial, and platelet cells were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed a positive staining for MPO, most abundantly in neutrophil granulocytes, within the hepatic sinusoids immediately after injection. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)-like structures stained for MPO, indicating the presence of neutrophils undergoing NETosis, were confirmed at 6 h after LPS administration. SE-1 staining for liver sinusoidal endothelial cells was significantly reduced at 12 h post-LPS administration through sinusoidal endothelial injury or detachment. Furthermore, the presence of extravasated platelets was confirmed in the space of Disse at 24 h after LPS administration. Blood sample analyses showed that white blood cell counts and platelet counts decreased gradually, while MPO amounts increased until 12 h after LPS administration. We conclude that NET formation and intravasated platelet aggregation are the first steps from sepsis to liver damage, and that extravasated platelet aggregation promoted by NET-facilitated detachment of sinusoidal endothelial cells is the origin of sepsis-induced liver dysfunction. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Sambo, N; Garba, S H; Timothy, H

    2009-12-01

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six. Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100 mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days respectively. Rats in group III were administered 450 mg/kg body weight of Psidium guajava only for 7 days while rats in groups IV, V and VI were administered Psidium guajava extract for 7 days and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin for 14 days. Histopathological investigation of the liver tissues revealed striking oedema and mild periportal mononuclear cell infiltration of hepatic cords in the liver of rats administered 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. Pretreatment with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract showed a slight degree of protection against the induced hepatic injury caused by 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate. Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained revealed a significant increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes measured in the groups administered with 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract compared to the control groups and those pretreated with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of psidium guajava leaf possesses hepatoprotective property at lower dose and a hepatotoxic property at higher dose but further studies with prolonged duration is recommended.

  10. Heme oxygenase-1 upregulated by Ginkgo biloba extract: potential protection against ethanol-induced oxidative liver damage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping; Li, Ke; Song, Fangfang; Zhou, Shaoliang; Sun, Xiufa; Zhang, Xiping; Nüssler, Andreas K; Liu, Liegang

    2007-08-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and HO-1 induction is suggested to protect hepatocytes from ethanol hepatotoxicity. Here, we present the data to explore the hepatoprotective effect and underlying mechanism(s) of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB), a naturally occurring HO-1 inducer, against ethanol-induced oxidative damage. Ethanol-fed (2.4 g/kg) male rats were pretreated by EGB (48 or 96 mg/kg) for 90 days. Liver damage was evaluated by histopathology and serum aminotransferase assay. Hepatic redox parameters were measured by spectrophotometry. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression was determined by RT-PCR and flow cytometry on mRNA and protein level, respectively. Our results showed that EGB, especially at high dose, ameliorated ethanol-induced macrovesicular steatosis and parenchymatous degeneration in hepatocytes, and decreased serum aminotransferases level. Furthermore, EGB reduced ethanol-derived glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation, and inhibited the inactivation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, although EGB itself had no influence on such parameters. Importantly, EGB induced hepatic microsomal HO-1 on mRNA, protein expression and enzymatic activity, which is paralleled to the EGB-derived hepatoprotective effect. Hence, HO-1 upregulation by EGB may enhance the antioxidative capacity against the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and maintain the cellular redox balance.

  11. A Computational Model of Hepatic Energy Metabolism: Understanding Zonated Damage and Steatosis in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, William B.; Bogle, I. David L.

    2016-01-01

    In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), lipid build-up and the resulting damage is known to occur more severely in pericentral cells. Due to the complexity of studying individual regions of the sinusoid, the causes of this zone specificity and its implications on treatment are largely ignored. In this study, a computational model of liver glucose and lipid metabolism is presented which treats the sinusoid as the repeating unit of the liver rather than the single hepatocyte. This allows for inclusion of zonated enzyme expression by splitting the sinusoid into periportal to pericentral compartments. By simulating insulin resistance (IR) and high intake diets leading to the development of steatosis in the model, we identify key differences between periportal and pericentral cells accounting for higher susceptibility to pericentral steatosis. Secondly, variation between individuals is seen in both susceptibility to steatosis and in its development across the sinusoid. Around 25% of obese individuals do not show excess liver fat, whilst 16% of lean individuals develop NAFLD. Furthermore, whilst pericentral cells tend to show higher lipid levels, variation is seen in the predominant location of steatosis from pericentral to pan-sinusoidal or azonal. Sensitivity analysis was used to identify the processes which have the largest effect on both total hepatic triglyceride levels and on the sinusoidal location of steatosis. As is seen in vivo, steatosis occurs when simulating IR in the model, predominantly due to increased uptake, along with an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Additionally, concentrations of glucose intermediates including glycerol-3-phosphate increased when simulating IR due to inhibited glycogen synthesis. Several differences between zones contributed to a higher susceptibility to steatosis in pericentral cells in the model simulations. Firstly, the periportal zonation of both glycogen synthase and the oxidative phosphorylation enzymes meant that the

  12. Atherogenic diet-induced hepatitis is partially dependent on murine TLR4

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diets high in cholesterol and cholate such as the Paigen diet have been used to study atherogenesis, lithogenesis, and proinflammatory microvascular changes induced by nutritional hypercholesterolemia. Although these diets lead to chronic hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, the early inflammatory cha...

  13. Diphenylmethyl selenocyanate attenuates malachite green induced oxidative injury through antioxidation & inhibition of DNA damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Jayanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sibani; Hossain, Sk Ugir; Chakraborty, Pramita; Das, Rajat Kumar; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Malachite green (MG), an environmentally hazardous material, is used as a non permitted food colouring agent, especially in India. Selenium (Se) is an essential nutritional trace element required for animals and humans to guard against oxidative stress induced by xenobiotic compounds of diverse nature. In the present study, the role of the selenium compound diphenylmethyl selenocyanate (DMSE) was assessed on the oxidative stress (OS) induced by a food colouring agent, malachite green (MG) in vivo in mice. Methods: Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were intraperitoneally injected with MG at a standardized dose of 100 μg/ mouse for 30 days. DMSE was given orally at an optimum dose of 3 mg/kg b.w. in pre (15 days) and concomitant treatment schedule throughout the experimental period. The parameters viz. ALT, AST, LPO, GSH, GST, SOD, CAT, GPx, TrxR, CA, MN, MI and DNA damage have been evaluated. Results: The DMSE showed its potential to protect against MG induced hepatotoxicity by controlling the serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST) levels and also ameliorated oxidative stress by modulating hepatic lipid peroxidation and different detoxifying and antioxidative enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and also the selenoenzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and reduced glutathione level which in turn reduced DNA damage. Interpretation & conclusions: The organo-selenium compound DMSE showed significant protection against MG induced heptotoxicity and DNA damage in murine model. Better protection was observed in pretreatment group than in the concomitant group. Further studies need to be done to understand the mechanism of action. PMID:23852297

  14. Inflammation-Induced Cell Proliferation Potentiates DNA Damage-Induced Mutations In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, Orsolya; Gong, Guanyu; Olipitz, Werner; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Engelward, Bevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations are a critical driver of cancer initiation. While extensive studies have focused on exposure-induced mutations, few studies have explored the importance of tissue physiology as a modulator of mutation susceptibility in vivo. Of particular interest is inflammation, a known cancer risk factor relevant to chronic inflammatory diseases and pathogen-induced inflammation. Here, we used the fluorescent yellow direct repeat (FYDR) mice that harbor a reporter to detect misalignments during homologous recombination (HR), an important class of mutations. FYDR mice were exposed to cerulein, a potent inducer of pancreatic inflammation. We show that inflammation induces DSBs (γH2AX foci) and that several days later there is an increase in cell proliferation. While isolated bouts of inflammation did not induce HR, overlap between inflammation-induced DNA damage and inflammation-induced cell proliferation induced HR significantly. To study exogenously-induced DNA damage, animals were exposed to methylnitrosourea, a model alkylating agent that creates DNA lesions relevant to both environmental exposures and cancer chemotherapy. We found that exposure to alkylation damage induces HR, and importantly, that inflammation-induced cell proliferation and alkylation induce HR in a synergistic fashion. Taken together, these results show that, during an acute bout of inflammation, there is a kinetic barrier separating DNA damage from cell proliferation that protects against mutations, and that inflammation-induced cell proliferation greatly potentiates exposure-induced mutations. These studies demonstrate a fundamental mechanism by which inflammation can act synergistically with DNA damage to induce mutations that drive cancer and cancer recurrence. PMID:25647331

  15. Matcha, a powdered green tea, ameliorates the progression of renal and hepatic damage in type 2 diabetic OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Hur, Jong Moon; Yokozawa, Takako

    2009-08-01

    Matcha, a powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill, has been popularly used in the traditional tea ceremony and foods in Japan. Matcha is well known to be richer in some nutritional elements and epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate than other green teas. In our previous study, epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate exhibited protective effects against renal damage in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effects of Matcha (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day) on the progression of hepatic and renal damage in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. OLETF rats were orally administered Matcha for 16 weeks, and we assessed biochemical parameters in the serum, liver, and kidney and expression levels of major products of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), N(6)-(carboxylmethyl)lysine (CML) and N(6)-(carboxylethyl)lysine (CEL), receptor for AGE (RAGE), and sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs)-1 and -2. Serum total protein levels were significantly increased by Matcha administration, whereas the serum albumin and glycosylated protein levels as well as the renal glucose and triglyceride levels were only slightly or not at all affected. However, Matcha treatment significantly lowered the glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels in the serum and liver, renal AGE levels, and the serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels. In addition, Matcha supplementation resulted in decreases in the renal CML, CEL, and RAGE expressions as well as an increase in hepatic SREBP-2 expression, but not that of SREBP-1. These results suggest that Matcha protects against hepatic and renal damage through the suppression of renal AGE accumulation, by decreases in hepatic glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels, and by its antioxidant activities.

  16. Hepatoprotective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2 in Rats With Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenli; Zhang, Zemin; Du, Ning; Wang, Kai; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Infectious hepatitis is a serious problem affecting millions of people worldwide, particularly in China and other developing countries, and it is the major risk factor for hepatic cirrhosis. To date, the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis is complex and unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used in its treatment; however, little is known to date about the effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) on liver fibrosis. Using a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis, the study intended to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of GSPB2 and to determine the possible pathway by which GSPB2 exerts its activities. Design • Thirty-six male, Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. Rats in a model (CCl4 only) group and the GSPB2 group were given CCl4 to induce hepatic fibrosis. Simultaneously, animals in the GSPB2 group were treated with GSPB2 by intragastric administration for 12 wk. In addition, the rat's Kupffer cells were cultured with CCl4 and GSPB2. The study took place at the central laboratory of Qilu Hospital at Shandong University in Jinan, China. The following parameters were investigated: (1) hepatic function; (2) the liver fibrosis index-serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), type 3 procollagen (PC-3), collagen 4, and hepatic hydroxyproline; (3) the expression in the liver of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1); (4) inflammatory cytokines in the liver and cell culture medium-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 1-β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-17; (5) oxidative stress markers in the liver and cell culture medium-malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC); and (6) levels of angiotensin 2 (Ang 2) in the liver. The CCl4 induced (1) significant hepatic-function damage; (2) elevated levels of the measures of the liver fibrosis index, TGF-β1, inflammatory cytokines, MDA, and 8-OHdG; (3) a reduction in

  17. Role of TRAIL and the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bim in acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Badmann, A; Keough, A; Kaufmann, T; Bouillet, P; Brunner, T; Corazza, N

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP), paracetamol) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, accidental or intentional overdose causes acute liver failure characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis with high morbidity and mortality. Although many molecular aspects of APAP-induced cell death have been described, no conclusive mechanism has been proposed. We recently identified TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and c-Jun kinase (JNK)-dependent activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bim as an important apoptosis amplification pathway in hepatocytes. In this study, we, thus, investigated the role of TRAIL, c-JNK and Bim in APAP-induced liver damage. Our results demonstrate that TRAIL strongly synergizes with APAP in inducing cell death in hepatocyte-like cells lines and primary hepatocyte. Furthermore, we found that APAP strongly induces the expression of Bim in a c-JNK-dependent manner. Consequently, TRAIL- or Bim-deficient mice were substantially protected from APAP-induced liver damage. This study identifies the TRAIL-JNK-Bim axis as a novel target in the treatment of APAP-induced liver damage and substantiates its general role in hepatocyte death. PMID:21654829

  18. Mechanisms for microvascular damage induced by ultrasound-activated microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Matula, Thomas J.

    2012-10-01

    To provide insight into the mechanisms of microvascular damage induced by ultrasound-activated microbubbles, experimental studies were performed to correlate microvascular damage to the dynamics of bubble-vessel interactions. High-speed photomicrography was used to record single microbubbles interacting with microvessels in ex vivo tissue, under the exposure of short ultrasound pulses with a center frequency of 1 MHz and peak negative pressures (PNP) ranging from 0.8-4 MPa. Vascular damage associated with observed bubble-vessel interactions was either indicated directly by microbubble extravasation or examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. As observed previously, the high-speed images revealed that ultrasound-activated microbubbles could cause distention and invagination of adjacent vessel walls, and could form liquid jets in microvessels. Vessel distention, invagination, and liquid jets were associated with the damage of microvessels whose diameters were smaller than those of maximally expanded microbubbles. However, vessel invagination appeared to be the dominant mechanism for the damage of relative large microvessels.

  19. Mechanisms for microvascular damage induced by ultrasound-activated microbubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Evan, Andrew P.

    To provide insight into the mechanisms of microvascular damage induced by ultrasound-activated microbubbles, experimental studies were performed to correlate microvascular damage to the dynamics of bubble-vessel interactions. High-speed photomicrography was used to record single microbubbles interacting with microvessels in ex vivo tissue, under the exposure of short ultrasound pulses with a center frequency of 1 MHz and peak negative pressures (PNP) ranging from 0.8-4 MPa. Vascular damage associated with observed bubble-vessel interactions was either indicated directly by microbubble extravasation or examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. As observed previously, the high-speed images revealed that ultrasound-activated microbubbles could cause distentionmore » and invagination of adjacent vessel walls, and could form liquid jets in microvessels. Vessel distention, invagination, and liquid jets were associated with the damage of microvessels whose diameters were smaller than those of maximally expanded microbubbles. However, vessel invagination appeared to be the dominant mechanism for the damage of relative large microvessels.« less

  20. Impact of mechanical stress induced in silica vacuum windows on laser-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Gingreau, Clémence; Lanternier, Thomas; Lamaignère, Laurent; Donval, Thierry; Courchinoux, Roger; Leymarie, Christophe; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-15

    At the interface between vacuum and air, optical windows must keep their optical properties, despite being subjected to mechanical stress. In this Letter, we investigate the impact of such stress on the laser-induced damage of fused silica windows at the wavelength of 351 nm in the nanosecond regime. Different stress values, from 1 to 30 MPa, both tensile and compressive, were applied. No effect of the stress on the laser-induced damage was evidenced.

  1. Ellagic and ferulic acids alleviate gamma radiation and aluminium chloride-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed M; Mohammaden, Tarek F; Ali, Mohamed A M; Mohamed, Enas A; Hasan, Hesham F

    2016-09-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems through the generation of free radicals, which induce oxidative stress. Aluminium (Al) can negatively impact human health by direct interaction with antioxidant enzymes. Ellagic acid (EA) and Ferulic acid (FA) are plant polyphenolic compounds, have gained attention due to their multiple biological activities. To date, no studies investigating the antioxidant effect of EA/FA in a model involving both γ radiation and aluminium chloride (AlCl3) have been reported. Herein, we investigated the protective effect of EA and FA against oxidative stress induced by γ radiation and AlCl3 in rats. Rats were divided into thirteen groups: a negative control group, 3 positive control groups (γ-irradiated, AlCl3-treated and γ-irradiated+AlCl3-treated) and 9 groups (3 γ-irradiated, 3 AlCl3-treated and 3 γ-irradiated+AlCl3-treated) treated with EA and/or FA. Liver function and lipid profile were assessed. Levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and endogenous antioxidants as well as the concentrations of copper, iron and zinc were estimated in liver tissue homogenate. Furthermore, liver tissue sections were histologically examined. Oral administration of EA and/or FA resulted in 1) amelioration of AlCl3 and/or γ-radiation-induced hepatic function impairment, dyslipidemia and hepatic histological alterations; 2) reduction in liver MDA and PCC levels; 3) elevation of liver CAT, GPx and SOD activity as well as GSH level; 4) elevation in liver Cu concentrations which was accompanied by a reduction in Fe and Zn concentrations. Oral administration of EA and/or FA may be useful for ameliorating γ radiation and/or AlCl3-induced oxidative damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PTEN positively regulates UVB-induced DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Mei; Feng, Li; Shea, Christopher R.; Soltani, Keyoumars; Zhao, Baozhong; Han, Weinong; Smart, Robert C.; Trempus, Carol S.; He, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common cancer in the U.S., where DNA-damaging UVB radiation from the sun remains the major environmental risk factor. However, the critical genetic targets of UVB radiation are undefined. Here we show that attenuating PTEN in epidermal keratinocytes is a predisposing factor for UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. In skin papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), levels of PTEN were reduced compared to skin lacking these lesions. Likewise, there was a reduction in PTEN levels in human premalignant actinic keratosis and malignant SCC, supporting a key role for PTEN in human skin cancer formation and progression. PTEN downregulation impaired the capacity of global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), a critical mechanism for removing UVB-induced mutagenic DNA lesions. In contrast to the response to ionizing radiation, PTEN downregulation prolonged UVB-induced growth arrest and increased the activation of the Chk1 DNA damage pathway in an AKT-independent manner, likely due to reduced DNA repair. PTEN loss also suppressed expression of the key GG-NER protein xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) through the AKT/p38 signaling axis. Reconstitution of XPC levels in PTEN-inhibited cells restored GG-NER capacity. Taken together, our findings define PTEN as an essential genomic gatekeeper in the skin, through its ability to positively regulate XPC-dependent GG-NER following DNA damage. PMID:21771908

  3. Experimental study of electrolysis-induced hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Wemyss-Holden, S A; Dennison, A R; Hall, P M; Baxter, P; Maddern, G J

    1998-09-01

    One of the most promising but unexplored methods for treating patients with irresectable liver tumours is electrolysis. This study examined the effect of increasing 'current dose' on the volume of the lesion induced in normal rat liver. A direct current generator, connected to platinum electrodes implanted in the rat liver, was used to examine the effect of (1) varying current doses from 1 to 5 coulombs and (2) electrode separation (2 or 20 mm), on the volume of liver necrosis. There was a significant correlation (P < 0.001) between the current dose and the volume of necrosis produced for each electrode separation. Placing the electrodes 2 mm apart resulted in smaller total volumes of necrosis than placing them 20 mm apart when anode lesions were significantly larger than cathode lesions (P< 0.05). Liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase) were significantly raised 1 day after treatment (P < 0.001) and predicted the total volume of hepatic necrosis (P < 0.001). Predictable and reproducible areas of liver necrosis are produced with electrolysis. If these results extrapolate to larger animal models, this technique has potential for patients with irresectable primary and secondary liver tumours.

  4. Drug-induced hepatitis superimposed on the presence of anti-SLA antibody: a case report.

    PubMed

    Etxagibel, Aitziber; Julià, M Rosa; Brotons, Alvaro; Company, M Margarita; Dolz, Carlos

    2008-01-28

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a necroinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, and response to immunosuppression. It has the histological features of chronic hepatitis. The onset is usually insidious, but in some patients the presentation may be acute and occasionally severe. Certain drugs can induce chronic hepatitis mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Different autoantibodies have been associated with this process but they are not detectable after drug withdrawal and clinical resolution. We describe a case of drug-induced acute hepatitis associated with antinuclear, antisoluble liver-pancreas and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies in a 66-year-old woman. Abnormal clinical and biochemical parameters resolved after drug withdrawal, but six months later anti-soluble liver-pancreas antibodies remained positive and liver biopsy showed chronic hepatitis and septal fibrosis. Furthermore, our patient has a HLA genotype associated with autoimmune hepatitis. Patient follow-up will disclose whether our patient suffers from an autoimmune disease and if the presence of anti-soluble liver antigens could precede the development of an autoimmune hepatitis, as the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies can precede primary biliary cirrhosis.

  5. Long-term administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzung-Yan; Wang, Guei-Jane; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2003-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is metabolized by cytochrome P450 to form a reactive trichloromethyl radical that triggers a chain of lipid peroxidation. These changes lead to cell injury, and chronic liver injury leads to excessive deposition of collagen in liver, resulting in liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term Salvia miltiorrhiza administration in CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Salvia miltiorrhiza (10, 25 or 50 mg kg(-1) twice a day) was given for 9 weeks, beginning at the same time as the injections of CCl4. Rats receiving CCl4 alone showed a decreased hepatic glutathione level and an increased glutathione-S-transferase content. The hepatic thiobarbituratic acid-reactive substance levels were increased. CCl4 also caused a prominent collagen deposition in liver histology that was further supported by the increased hepatic mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and procollagen I. Salvia miltiorrhiza administration led to a dose-dependent increase in hepatic glutathione levels and a decrease in peroxidation products. Additionally, it reduced the mRNA expression of markers for hepatic fibrogenesis. In conclusion, long-term administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza in rats ameliorated the CCl4-induced hepatic injury that probably related to a reduced oxidant stress and degree of hepatic fibrosis.

  6. Drug-induced hepatitis superimposed on the presence of anti-SLA antibody: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Etxagibel, Aitziber; Julià, M Rosa; Brotons, Alvaro; Company, M Margarita; Dolz, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis is a necroinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, and response to immunosuppression. It has the histological features of chronic hepatitis. The onset is usually insidious, but in some patients the presentation may be acute and occasionally severe. Certain drugs can induce chronic hepatitis mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Different autoantibodies have been associated with this process but they are not detectable after drug withdrawal and clinical resolution. Case presentation We describe a case of drug-induced acute hepatitis associated with antinuclear, antisoluble liver-pancreas and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies in a 66-year-old woman. Abnormal clinical and biochemical parameters resolved after drug withdrawal, but six months later anti-soluble liver-pancreas antibodies remained positive and liver biopsy showed chronic hepatitis and septal fibrosis. Furthermore, our patient has a HLA genotype associated with autoimmune hepatitis. Conclusion Patient follow-up will disclose whether our patient suffers from an autoimmune disease and if the presence of anti-soluble liver antigens could precede the development of an autoimmune hepatitis, as the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies can precede primary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:18226219

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of Trichilia roka on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Germanò, M P; D'Angelo, V; Sanogo, R; Morabito, A; Pergolizzi, S; De Pasquale, R

    2001-11-01

    Trichilia roka Chiov. (Meliaceae) is a tree widely distributed in tropical Africa. It has been used in Mali folk medicine for the treatment of various illnesses. A decoction of the roots is taken as a remedy for colds and pneumonia, and it is used as a diuretic and in hepatic disorders. We have evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of a decoction of Trichilia roka root on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in rats. Treatment with the decoction showed a significant protective action made evident by its effect on the levels of glutamate oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in the serum, on the protein content and lipid peroxidation levels in the liver homogenate. Histopathological changes produced by CCl4, such as necrosis, fatty change, ballooning degeneration and inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes around the central veins, were clearly recovered by the treatment with Trichilia root decoction. On fractionating this extract into diethyl ether-soluble and water-soluble fractions, the activity was retained in the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. Moreover, the administration of decoction prevented a preferential deposition of collagen around the sinusoidal cell layer, which is responsible for the perisinusoidal fibrosis in the early stage of CCl4 damage. This study showed that treatment with Trichilia roka extracts or silymarin (as reference) appeared to enhance the recovery from CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective properties of Trichilia roka may be correlated to polyphenol content of the decoction and its diethyl ether-soluble fraction.

  8. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Induces Hepatic Steatosis by Enhancing the Expression of Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun-Li; Peng, Xian-E; Zhu, Yi-Bing; Yan, Xiao-Li; Chen, Wan-Nan; Lin, Xu

    2016-02-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been implicated as a potential trigger of hepatic steatosis although molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HBV-associated hepatic steatosis still remain elusive. Our prior work has revealed that the expression level of liver fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1), a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was elevated in HBV-producing hepatoma cells. In this study, the effects of HBV X protein (HBx) mediated FABP1 regulation on hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanism were determined. mRNA and protein levels of FABP1 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting. HBx-mediated FABP1 regulation was evaluated by luciferase assay, coimmunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Hepatic lipid accumulation was measured by using Oil-Red-O staining and the triglyceride level. It was found that expression of FABP1 was increased in HBV-producing hepatoma cells, the sera of HBV-infected patients, and the sera and liver tissues of HBV-transgenic mice. Ectopic overexpression of HBx resulted in upregulation of FABP1 in HBx-expressing hepatoma cells, whereas HBx abolishment reduced FABP1 expression. Mechanistically, HBx activated the FABP1 promoter in an HNF3β-, C/EBPα-, and PPARα-dependent manner, in which HBx increased the gene expression of HNF3β and physically interacted with C/EBPα and PPARα. On the other hand, knockdown of FABP1 remarkably blocked lipid accumulation both in long-chain free fatty acids treated HBx-expressing HepG2 cells and in a high-fat diet-fed HBx-transgenic mice. Therefore, FABP1 is a key driver gene in HBx-induced hepatic lipid accumulation via regulation of HNF3β, C/EBPα, and PPARα. FABP1 may represent a novel target for treatment of HBV-associated hepatic steatosis. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has indicated that chronic HBV infection is associated with hepatic steatosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying HBV-induced

  9. Fatal autoimmune hepatitis induced by concurrent loss of naturally arising regulatory T cells and PD-1-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Kido, Masahiro; Watanabe, Norihiko; Okazaki, Taku; Akamatsu, Takuji; Tanaka, Junya; Saga, Kazuyuki; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Honjo, Tasuku; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2008-10-01

    Because of the lack of animal models developing spontaneous autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of AIH are still unclear. This study aims to examine the regulatory roles of naturally arising CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)-mediated signaling in the development of AIH. To induce a concurrent loss of Treg cells and PD-1-mediated signaling, neonatal thymectomy (NTx), which severely reduces the number of Treg cells, was performed on PD-1(-/-) mice. After the NTx, we performed histologic examination, assessed autoantibody production and infiltrating cells in the liver, and conducted adoptive transfer experiments. In contrast to NTx mice and PD-1(-/-) mice, NTx-PD-1(-/-) mice produced antinuclear antibodies and developed fatal hepatitis characterized by a CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell infiltration invading the parenchyma with massive lobular necrosis. Induction of AIH in NTx-PD-1(-/-) mice was suppressed by transfer of Treg cells, even derived from PD-1(-/-) mice. Transfer of total but not CD4(+) T-cell-depleted splenocytes from NTx-PD-1(-/-) mice into RAG2(-/-) mice induced the development of severe hepatitis. In contrast, the transfer of CD8(+) T-cell-depleted splenocytes triggered only mononuclear infiltrates without massive necrosis of the parenchyma. NTx-PD-1(-/-) mice are the first mouse model of spontaneous fatal AIH. The concurrent loss of Treg cells and PD-1-mediated signaling can induce the development of fatal AIH. Autoreactive CD4(+) T cells are essential for induction of AIH, whereas CD8(+) T cells play an important role in progression to fatal hepatic damage.

  10. Anti-oxidative protection against iron overload-induced liver damage in mice by Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Hazra, Bibhabasu; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2013-02-01

    In view of the contribution of iron deposition in the oxidative pathologic process of liver disease, the potential of 70% methanolic extract of C. cajan leaf (CLME) towards antioxidative protection against iron-overload-induced liver damage in mice has been investigated. DPPH radical scavenging and protection of Fenton reaction induced DNA damage was conducted in vitro. Post oral administration of CLME to iron overloaded mice, the levels of antioxidant and serum enzymes, hepatic iron, serum ferritin, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline contents were measured, in comparison to deferasirox treated mice. Oral treatment of the plant extract effectively lowered the elevated levels of liver iron, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline. There was notable increment in the dropped levels of hepatic antioxidants. The dosage of the plant extract not only made the levels of serum enzymes approach normal value, but also counteracted the overwhelmed serum ferritin level. The in vitro studies indicated potential antioxidant activity of CLME. The histopathological observations also substantiated the ameliorative function of the plant extract. Accordingly, it is suggested that Cajanus cajan leaf can be a useful herbal remedy to suppress oxidative damage caused by iron overload.

  11. Oxidant-induced DNA damage of target cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schraufstätter, I; Hyslop, P A; Jackson, J H; Cochrane, C G

    1988-01-01

    In this study we examined the leukocytic oxidant species that induce oxidant damage of DNA in whole cells. H2O2 added extracellularly in micromolar concentrations (10-100 microM) induced DNA strand breaks in various target cells. The sensitivity of a specific target cell was inversely correlated to its catalase content and the rate of removal of H2O2 by the target cell. Oxidant species produced by xanthine oxidase/purine or phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated monocytes induced DNA breakage of target cells in proportion to the amount of H2O2 generated. These DNA strand breaks were prevented by extracellular catalase, but not by superoxide dismutase. Cytotoxic doses of HOCl, added to target cells, did not induce DNA strand breakage, and myeloperoxidase added extracellularly in the presence of an H2O2-generating system, prevented the formation of DNA strand breaks in proportion to its H2O2 degrading capacity. The studies also indicated that H2O2 formed hydroxyl radical (.OH) intracellularly, which appeared to be the most likely free radical responsible for DNA damage: .OH was detected in cells exposed to H2O2; the DNA base, deoxyguanosine, was hydroxylated in cells exposed to H2O2; and intracellular iron was essential for induction of DNA strand breaks. PMID:2843565

  12. CCN1/CYR61 overexpression in hepatic stellate cells induces ER stress-related apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Steffen, Bettina T; Van de Leur, Eddy; Haas, Ute; Tihaa, Lidia; Friedman, Scott L; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    CCN1/CYR61 is a matricellular protein of the CCN family, comprising six secreted proteins specifically associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM). CCN1 acts as an enhancer of the cutaneous wound healing process by preventing hypertrophic scar formation through induction of myofibroblast senescence. In liver fibrosis, the senescent cells are primarily derived from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) that initially proliferate in response to liver damage and are the major source of ECM. We investigate here the possible use of CCN1 as a senescence inducer to attenuate liver fibrogenesis by means of adenoviral gene transfer in primary HSC, myofibroblasts (MFB) and immortalized HSC lines (i.e. LX-2, CFSC-2G). Infection with Ad5-CMV-CCN1 induced large amounts of CCN1 protein in all these cells, resulting in an overload of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in a compensatory unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR resulted in upregulation of ER chaperones including BIP/Grp78, Grp94 and led to an activation of IRE1α as evidenced by spliced XBP1 mRNA with IRE1α-induced JNK phosphorylation. The UPR arm PERK and eIF2a was phosphorylated, combined with significant CHOP upregulation. Ad5-CMV-CCN1 induced HSC apoptosis that was evident by proteolytic cleavage of caspase-12, caspase-9 and the executor caspase-3 and positive TUNEL stain. Remarkably, Ad5-CMV-CCN1 effectively reduced collagen type I mRNA expression and protein. We conclude that the matricellular protein CCN1 gene transfer induces HSC apoptosis through ER stress and UPR. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of heat stress and recovery on viability, oxidative damage, and heat shock protein expression in hepatic cells of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanting; Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao; Habte-Tsion, H-Michael; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of hyperthermia and recovery on cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and heat shock protein (HSP60, 70, and 90) mRNA expression in the hepatic cells of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. Triplicate groups of cultured cells were exposed to 30, 32, or 34 °C for 0.5 h and then immediately incubated at 27 °C in 5 % CO2 for 6, 12, 24, or 48 h. Hyperthermia stress greatly reduced cell viability and increased LDH release. Cell damage declined after recovery. Hyperthermia stress increased the lipid peroxide levels and reduced the antioxidant capacity (e.g., reduced SOD and T-AOC) of the cells. However, oxidative damage declined as the recovery period increased, and the levels of MDA, SOD, and T-AOC were restored. After cells were exposed to 32 °C, the expression of HSP60 after recovery for 1, 2, and 4 h (P < 0.05), the expression of HSP70 after recovery for 0.5 and 1 h (P < 0.01), and the expression of HSP90 throughout recovery were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than the prestress levels. During the recovery period, the variations in HSP gene expression reflected the transition period from a state of cellular growth to one of the cellular repairs. In conclusion, hyperthermia depresses cell viability, induces oxidative damage, and increases HSP expression, which plays an important role during hyperthermic stress in grass carp hepatic cells.

  14. Is UV-induced DNA damage greater at higher elevation?

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Wei; Hidema, Jun; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2014-05-01

    • Although ultraviolet radiation (UV) is known to have negative effects on plant growth, there has been no direct evidence that plants growing at higher elevations are more severely affected by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, which is known to increase with elevation. We examined damage to DNA, a primary target of UV-B, in the widespread species Polygonum sachalinense (Fallopia sachalinensis) and Plantago asiatica at two elevations.• We sampled leaves of both species at 300 and 1700 m above sea level every 2 h for 11 d across the growing season and determined the level of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), a major product of UV damage to DNA.• The CPD level was significantly influenced by the time of day, date, elevation, and their interactions in both species. The CPD level tended to be higher at noon or on sunny days. DNA damage was more severe at 1700 m than at 300 m: on average, 8.7% greater at high elevation in P. asiatica and 7.8% greater in P. sachalinense Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the CPD level was explained mainly by UV-B and had no significant relationship with other environmental factors such as temperature and photosynthetically active radiation.• UV-induced DNA damage in plants is greater at higher elevations. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  15. Tangeretin sensitizes SGS1-deficient cells by inducing DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chong, Shin Yen; Wu, Meng-Ying; Lo, Yi-Chen

    2013-07-03

    Tangeretin, a polymethoxyflavone found in citrus peel, has been shown to have antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. However, the underlying target pathways are not fully characterized. We investigated the tangeretin sensitivity of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutants for DNA damage response or repair pathways. We found that tangeretin treatment significantly reduced (p < 0.05) survival rate, induced preferential G1 phase accumulation, and elevated the DNA double-strand break (DSB) signal γH2A in DNA repair-defective sgs1Δ cells, but had no obvious effects on wild-type cells or mutants of the DNA damage checkpoint (including tel1Δ, sml1Δ mec1Δ, sml1Δ mec1Δ tel1Δ, and rad9Δ mutants). Additionally, microarray data indicated that tangeretin treatment up-regulates genes involved in nutritional processing and down-regulates genes related to RNA processing in sgs1Δ mutants. These results suggest tangeretin may sensitize SGS1-deficient cells by increasing a marker of DNA damage and by inducing G1 arrest and possibly metabolic stress. Thus, tangeretin may be suitable for chemosensitization of cancer cells lacking DSB-repair ability.

  16. Exercise-induced muscle damage and running economy in humans.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15-30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO₂max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO₂max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE.

  17. Damage-induced ectopic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kupiec, M; Steinlauf, R

    1997-06-09

    Mitotic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is induced when cells are irradiated with UV or X-rays, reflecting the efficient repair of damage by recombinational repair mechanisms. We have used multiply marked haploid strains that allow the simultaneous detection of several types of ectopic recombination events. We show that inter-chromosomal ectopic conversion of lys2 heteroalleles and, to a lesser extent, direct repeat recombination (DRR) between non-tandem repeats, are increased by DNA-damaging agents; in contrast, ectopic recombination of the naturally occurring Ty element is not induced. We have tested several hypotheses that could explain the preferential lack of induction of Ty recombination by DNA-damaging agents. We have found that the lack of induction cannot be explained by a cell cycle control or by an effect of the mating-type genes. We also found no role for the flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the Ty in preventing the induction. Ectopic conversion, DRR, and forward mutation of artificial repeats show different kinetics of induction at various positions of the cell cycle, reflecting different mechanisms of recombination. We discuss the mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of these results.

  18. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Li; Guo, Yun; Zheng, Changqing

    2014-05-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenolic compound present in green tea and has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EGCG against concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms. EGCG (5 mg/kg) was administered orally by gavage to mice twice daily for 10 days before an intravenous injection of ConA. We found that EGCG effectively rescued lethality, improved hepatic pathological damage, and decreased serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in ConA-challenged mice. Furthermore, EGCG also significantly prevented the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-6 in serum, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and restored glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver tissues from ConA-challenged mice. Finally, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and TLR9 protein in liver tissues were significantly inhibited by EGCG pretreatment. Taken together, our data suggest that EGCG possesses hepatoprotective properties against ConA-induced liver injury through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. NLRP3 Inflammasome Mediates Aldosterone-Induced Vascular Damage.

    PubMed

    Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Ferreira, Nathanne S; Zanotto, Camila Z; Ramalho, Fernanda; Pequeno, Isabela O; Olivon, Vania C; Neves, Karla B; Alves-Lopes, Rheure; Campos, Eduardo; Silva, Carlos Alberto A; Fazan, Rubens; Carlos, Daniela; Mestriner, Fabiola L; Prado, Douglas; Pereira, Felipe V; Braga, Tarcio; Luiz, Joao Paulo M; Cau, Stefany B; Elias, Paula C; Moreira, Ayrton C; Câmara, Niels O; Zamboni, Dario S; Alves-Filho, Jose Carlos; Tostes, Rita C

    2016-12-06

    Inflammation is a key feature of aldosterone-induced vascular damage and dysfunction, but molecular mechanisms by which aldosterone triggers inflammation remain unclear. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a pivotal immune sensor that recognizes endogenous danger signals triggering sterile inflammation. We analyzed vascular function and inflammatory profile of wild-type (WT), NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3 -/- ), caspase-1 knockout (Casp-1 -/- ), and interleukin-1 receptor knockout (IL-1R -/- ) mice treated with vehicle or aldosterone (600 µg·kg -1 ·d -1 for 14 days through osmotic mini-pump) while receiving 1% saline to drink. Here, we show that NLRP3 inflammasome plays a central role in aldosterone-induced vascular dysfunction. Long-term infusion of aldosterone in mice resulted in elevation of plasma interleukin-1β levels and vascular abnormalities. Mice lacking the IL-1R or the inflammasome components NLRP3 and caspase-1 were protected from aldosterone-induced vascular damage. In vitro, aldosterone stimulated NLRP3-dependent interleukin-1β secretion by bone marrow-derived macrophages by activating nuclear factor-κB signaling and reactive oxygen species generation. Moreover, chimeric mice reconstituted with NLRP3-deficient hematopoietic cells showed that NLRP3 in immune cells mediates aldosterone-induced vascular damage. In addition, aldosterone increased the expression of NLRP3, active caspase-1, and mature interleukin-1β in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Hypertensive patients with hyperaldosteronism or normal levels of aldosterone exhibited increased activity of NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting that the effect of hyperaldosteronism on the inflammasome may be mediated through high blood pressure. Together, these data demonstrate that NLRP3 inflammasome, through activation of IL-1R, is critically involved in the deleterious vascular effects of aldosterone, placing NLRP3 as a potential target for therapeutic interventions in conditions with high aldosterone levels.

  20. A Blend of Extracts from Houttuynia cordata, Nelumbo nucifera, and Camellia sinensis Protects Against Ethanol-Induced Liver Damage in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    You, Yanghee; Lee, Hyunmi; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Min-Jae; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2018-02-01

    The protective activity of a mixture of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Nelumbo nucifera G. leaves, and Camellia sinensis seed (HNC) was evaluated in C57BL/6 mice. Pretreatment with HNC prevented the elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase caused by ethanol-induced hepatic damage. The HNC-treated mice showed significantly lower triglyceride levels, reduced CYP2E1 activity, and increased antioxidant enzyme activities and lipogenic mRNA levels. These results suggest that HNC might be a candidate agent for liver protection against ethanol-induced oxidative damage, through enhancement of antioxidant and antilipogenic activity.

  1. Curcumin protects against acetaminophen-induced apoptosis in hepatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chen, Jun-Bao; Wang, Chao; Xu, Zhi; Nie, Hao; Qin, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Gong, Quan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effects of curcumin (CMN) on hepatic injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in vivo. METHODS: Male mice were randomly divided into three groups: group I (control) mice received the equivalent volumes of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally (ip); Group II [APAP + carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)] mice received 1% CMC (vehicle) 2 h before APAP injection; Group III (APAP + CMN) mice received curcumin (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip) 2 h before before or after APAP challenge. In Groups II and III, APAP was dissolved in pyrogen-free PBS and injected at a single dose of 300 mg/kg. CMN was dissolved in 1% CMC. Mice were sacrificed 16 h after the APAP injection to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in serum and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and hepatocyte apoptosis in liver tissues. RESULTS: Both pre- and post-treatment with curcumin resulted in a significant decrease in serum ALT compared with APAP treatment group (10 mg/kg: 801.46 ± 661.34 U/L; 20 mg/kg: 99.68 ± 86.48 U/L vs 5406.80 ± 1785.75 U/L, P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of liver necrosis was significantly lowered in CMN treated animals. MDA contents were significantly reduced in 20 mg/kg CMN pretreatment group, but increased in APAP treated group (10.96 ± 0.87 nmol/mg protein vs 16.03 ± 2.58 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). The decrease of SOD activity in APAP treatment group and the increase of SOD in 20 mg/kg CMN pretreatment group were also detected (24.54 ± 4.95 U/mg protein vs 50.21 ± 1.93 U/mg protein, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CMN treatment efficiently protected against APAP-induced apoptosis via increasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio. CONCLUSION: CMN has significant therapeutic potential in both APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and other types of liver diseases. PMID:24259976

  2. Morphological studies of laser-induced photoacoustic damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flotte, Thomas J.; Yashima, Yutaka; Watanabe, Shinichi; McAuliffe, Daniel J., Sr.; Jacques, Steven L.

    1990-06-01

    Argon-fluoride excimer laser ablation of stratum comeum causes deeper tissue damage than expected for thermal or photochemical mechanisms, suggesting thatphotoacoustic waves have arole in tissue damage. Laserirradiation (193 nm, 14 ns pulses, 1-2 Hz) attworadiantexposures, 60 and 160 mJ/cm2perpulse was usedto ablate the stratumcomeumofskin. Light and electron microscopy ofimmediate biopsies demonstrated damage to fibroblasts as deep as 88 and 220 jun, respectively, below the ablation site. Ablation throughwaterwas usedtoinertially confine the ablation zone. Partial ablationofs.c. through airproducedno damage, whereas partial ablation through water damaged skin to amean depth of 1 14.5 8.8( Full thickness ablation of s.c. through air and water produced damage zones measuring 192.2 16.2 and 293.0 71.6 rim, respectively (p <0.05). The increased depth ofdamage in the presence ofinertial confinementprovided by the layer of water strongly supports a photoacoustic mechanism ofdamage. The depths ofdamage for thelarge spot, line, and small spots were 43 1 164 urn, 269 96xni, andno damage. The spot size dependence ofthedepthofdamage is consistentwiththe geometric attenuation one would expect to be present from a pressure wave related phenomena. Sequential biopsies were taken over a 7 day period for light and transmission electron microscopy. At 24 hours, there was necrosis of the epidermis and papillary dermis subjacent to the ablation site, with neutrophils surrounding and demarcating the affected area. The necrotic zone sloughedby48 hours. Thereepithelializationwas completeby7 days. The sequenceofrepairis similartoknife wound healing which we have previously studied, and is analogous to other wound healing processes. We have used an experimental model of ArF excimer laser ablation of stratum corneum to investigate laser-induced photoacoustic damage. The evidence for the injury being due to pressure transients is indirectbutcompelling. Whether these pressuretransients are

  3. Chemotherapy-induced damage to ovary: mechanisms and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Bedoschi, Giuliano; Navarro, Paula Andrea; Oktay, Kutluk

    2016-10-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem around the world. Currently, about 5% of women diagnosed with cancer are of reproductive age. These young survivors may face compromised fertility. The effects of chemotherapeutic agents on ovarian reserve and its clinical consequences are generally inferred from a variety of surrogate markers of ovarian reserve, all aiming to provide prognostic information on fertility or the likelihood of success of infertility treatment. Until recently, the mechanisms that are responsible for chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage were not fully elucidated. The understanding of these mechanisms may lead to targeted treatments to preserve fertility. In this manuscript, we will review the current knowledge on the mechanism of ovarian damage and clinical impact of chemotherapy agents on fertility.

  4. DNA Damage Response in Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shiyao; Pabla, Navjotsingh; Tang, Chengyuan; He, Liyu; Dong, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin and its derivatives are widely used chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment. However, they have debilitating side-effects in normal tissues and induce ototoxicity, neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. In kidneys, cisplatin preferentially accumulates in renal tubular cells causing tubular cell injury and death, resulting in acute kidney injury (AKI). Recent studies have suggested that DNA damage and the associated DNA damage response (DDR) is an important pathogenic mechanism of AKI following cisplatin treatment. Activation of DDR may lead to cell cycle arrest and DNA repair for cell survival or, in the presence of severe injury, kidney cell death. Modulation of DDR may provide novel renoprotective strategies for cancer patients undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy. PMID:26564230

  5. Fructose impairs glucose-induced hepatic triglyceride synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia frequently coexist and are associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Consumption of refined carbohydrate and particularly fructose has increased significantly in recent years and has paralled the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that high dietary fructose intake positively correlates with increased dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Metabolism of fructose occurs primarily in the liver and high fructose flux leads to enhanced hepatic triglyceride accumulation (hepatic steatosis). This results in impaired glucose and lipid metabolism and increased proinflammatory cytokine expression. Here we demonstrate that fructose alters glucose-stimulated expression of activated acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), pSer hormone sensitive lipase (pSerHSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in hepatic HepG2 or primary hepatic cell cultures in vitro. This was associated with increased de novo triglyceride synthesis in vitro and hepatic steatosis in vivo in fructose- versus glucose-fed and standard-diet fed mice. These studies provide novel insight into the mechanisms involved in fructose-mediated hepatic hypertriglyceridemia and identify fructose-uptake as a new potential therapeutic target for lipid-associated diseases. PMID:21261970

  6. Serum from CCl4-induced acute rat injury model induces differentiation of ADSCs towards hepatic cells and reduces liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Baig, Maria Tayyab; Ali, Gibran; Awan, Sana Javaid; Shehzad, Umara; Mehmood, Azra; Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Shaheen N; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2017-10-01

    Cellular therapies hold promise to alleviate liver diseases. This study explored the potential of allogenic serum isolated from rat with acute CCl 4 injury to differentiate adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) towards hepatic lineage. Acute liver injury was induced by CCl 4 which caused significant increase in serum levels of VEGF, SDF1α and EGF. ADSCs were preconditioned with 3% serum isolated from normal and acute liver injury models. ADSCs showed enhanced expression of hepatic markers (AFP, albumin, CK8 and CK19). These differentiated ADSCs were transplanted intra-hepatically in CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis model. After one month of transplantation, fibrosis and liver functions (alkaline phosphatase, ALAT and bilirubin) showed marked improvement in acute injury group. Elevated expression of hepatic (AFP, albumin, CK 18 and HNF4a) and pro survival markers (PCNA and VEGF) and improvement in liver architecture as deduced from results of alpha smooth muscle actin, Sirius red and Masson's trichome staining was observed.

  7. Genomic damage induced by 1-MHz ultrasound in vitro.

    PubMed

    Udroiu, Ion; Marinaccio, Jessica; Bedini, Angelico; Giliberti, Claudia; Palomba, Raffaele; Sgura, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Genotoxic effects of therapeutic ultrasound are poorly documented, when compared with the wide use of this physical agent. The aim of this work was to investigate the clastogenic and aneugenic potential of 1 MHz ultrasound, employing intensities (200 and 300 mW/cm 2 ) above the cavitational threshold, but in the range of those normally used in therapeutics. Both normal fibroblasts (AG01522) and tumoral cells (MCF-7) were sonicated. While no effects on viability were noted, significant increases of CREST-negative micronuclei (indicative of clastogenesis) and CREST-positive micronuclei (indicative of aneuploidy) were detected. Clastogenesis was confirmed by increases of γ-H2AX foci, while increases of spindle anomalies confirmed the induction of aneuploidy. Our results confirm previous works that showed ultrasound-induced DNA breakage. Moreover, our experiments show that the known effect of ultrasound-induced damage to microtubules is also able to damage the mitotic spindle and induce aneuploidy. On the overall, this work highlights the importance to further investigate the potential risks related to therapeutics US. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:60-68, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Opportunities for nutritional amelioration of radiation-induced cellular damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Nancy D.; Braby, Leslie A.; Ford, John; Lupton, Joanne R.

    2002-01-01

    The closed environment and limited evasive capabilities inherent in space flight cause astronauts to be exposed to many potential harmful agents (chemical contaminants in the environment and cosmic radiation exposure). Current power systems used to achieve space flight are prohibitively expensive for supporting the weight requirements to fully shield astronauts from cosmic radiation. Therefore, radiation poses a major, currently unresolvable risk for astronauts, especially for long-duration space flights. The major detrimental radiation effects that are of primary concern for long-duration space flights are damage to the lens of the eye, damage to the immune system, damage to the central nervous system, and cancer. In addition to the direct damage to biological molecules in cells, radiation exposure induces oxidative damage. Many natural antioxidants, whether consumed before or after radiation exposure, are able to confer some level of radioprotection. In addition to achieving beneficial effects from long-known antioxidants such as vitamins E and C and folic acid, some protection is conferred by several recently discovered antioxidant molecules, such as flavonoids, epigallocatechin, and other polyphenols. Somewhat counterintuitive is the protection provided by diets containing elevated levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, considering they are thought to be prone to peroxidation. Even with the information we have at our disposal, it will be difficult to predict the types of dietary modifications that can best reduce the risk of radiation exposure to astronauts, those living on Earth, or those enduring diagnostic or therapeutic radiation exposure. Much more work must be done in humans, whether on Earth or, preferably, in space, before we are able to make concrete recommendations.

  9. Revision of laser-induced damage threshold evaluation from damage probability data

    SciTech Connect

    Bataviciute, Gintare; Grigas, Povilas; Smalakys, Linas

    2013-04-15

    In this study, the applicability of commonly used Damage Frequency Method (DFM) is addressed in the context of Laser-Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) testing with pulsed lasers. A simplified computer model representing the statistical interaction between laser irradiation and randomly distributed damage precursors is applied for Monte Carlo experiments. The reproducibility of LIDT predicted from DFM is examined under both idealized and realistic laser irradiation conditions by performing numerical 1-on-1 tests. A widely accepted linear fitting resulted in systematic errors when estimating LIDT and its error bars. For the same purpose, a Bayesian approach was proposed. A novel concept of parametricmore » regression based on varying kernel and maximum likelihood fitting technique is introduced and studied. Such approach exhibited clear advantages over conventional linear fitting and led to more reproducible LIDT evaluation. Furthermore, LIDT error bars are obtained as a natural outcome of parametric fitting which exhibit realistic values. The proposed technique has been validated on two conventionally polished fused silica samples (355 nm, 5.7 ns).« less

  10. Hemorrhage-induced hepatic injury and hypoperfusion can be prevented by direct peritoneal resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Ryan T; Zakaria, El Rasheid; Matheson, Paul J; Cobb, Mahoney E; Parker, John R; Garrison, R Neal

    2009-04-01

    Crystalloid fluid resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock (HS) that restores/maintains central hemodynamics often culminates in multi-system organ failure and death due to persistent/progressive splanchnic hypoperfusion and end-organ damage. Adjunctive direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) using peritoneal dialysis solution reverses HS-induced splanchnic hypoperfusion and improves survival. We examined HS-mediated hepatic perfusion (galactose clearance), tissue injury (histopathology), and dysfunction (liver enzymes). Anesthetized rats were randomly assigned (n = 8/group): (1) sham (no HS); (2) HS (40% mean arterial pressure for 60 min) plus conventional i.v. fluid resuscitation (CR; shed blood + 2 volumes saline); (3) HS + CR + 30 mL intraperitoneal (IP) DPR; or (4) HS + CR + 30 mL IP saline. Hemodynamics and hepatic blood flow were measured for 2 h after CR completion. In duplicate animals, liver and splanchnic tissues were harvested for histopathology (blinded, graded), hepatocellular function (liver enzymes), and tissue edema (wet-dry ratio). Group 2 decreased liver blood flow, caused liver injuries (focal to submassive necrosis, zones 2 and 3) and tissue edema, and elevated liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 149 +/- 28 microg/mL and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 234 +/- 24 microg/mL; p < 0.05) compared to group 1 (73 +/- 9 and 119 +/- 10 microg/mL, respectively). Minimal/no injuries were observed in group 3; enzymes were normalized (ALT 89 +/- 9 microg/mL and AST 150 +/- 17 microg/mL), and tissue edema was similar to sham. CR from HS restored and maintained central hemodynamics but did not restore or maintain liver perfusion and was associated with significant hepatocellular injury and dysfunction. DPR added to conventional resuscitation (blood and crystalloid) restored and maintained liver perfusion, prevented hepatocellular injury and edema, and preserved liver function.

  11. Gender differences in alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and brain damage.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Pascual, María; Guerri, Consuelo

    2013-09-06

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated that women are more vulnerable than men to the toxic effects of alcohol, although the results as to whether gender differences exist in ethanol-induced brain damage are contradictory. We have reported that ethanol, by activating the neuroimmune system and Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4), can cause neuroinflammation and brain injury. However, whether there are gender differences in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation and brain injury are currently controversial. Using the brains of TLR4(+/+) and TLR4(-/-) (TLR4-KO) mice, we report that chronic ethanol treatment induces inflammatory mediators (iNOS and COX-2), cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α), gliosis processes, caspase-3 activation and neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex of both female and male mice. Conversely, the levels of these parameters tend to be higher in female than in male mice. Using an in vivo imaging technique, our results further evidence that ethanol treatment triggers higher GFAP levels and lower MAP-2 levels in female than in male mice, suggesting a greater effect of ethanol-induced astrogliosis and less MAP-2(+) neurons in female than in male mice. Our results further confirm the pivotal role of TLR4 in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation and brain damage since the elimination of TLR4 protects the brain of males and females against the deleterious effects of ethanol. In short, the present findings demonstrate that, during the same period of ethanol treatment, females are more vulnerable than males to the neurotoxic/neuroinflammatory effects of ethanol, thus supporting the view that women are more susceptible than men to the medical consequences of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of plasma processing induced charging damage to MOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shawming

    1997-12-01

    Plasma processing has become an integral part of the fabrication of integrated circuits and takes at least 30% of whole process steps since it offers advantages in terms of directionality, low temperature and process convenience. However, wafer charging during plasma processes is a significant concern for both thin oxide damage and profile distortion. In this work, the factors affecting this damage will be explained by plasma issues, device structure and oxide quality. The SPORT (Stanford Plasma On-wafer Real Time) charging probe was developed to investigate the charging mechanism of different plasma processes including poly-Si etching, resist ashing and PECVD. The basic idea of this probe is that it simulates a real device structure in the plasma environment and allows measurement of plasma induced charging voltages and currents directly in real time. This measurement is fully compatible with other charging voltage measurement but it is the only one to do in real-time. Effect of magnetic field induced plasma nonuniformity on spatial dependent charging is well understood by this measurement. In addition, the plasma parameters including ion current density and electron temperature can also be extracted from the probe's plasma I-V characteristics using a dc Langmuir probe like theory. It will be shown that the MOS device tunneling current from charging, the dependence on antenna ratio and the etch uniformity can all be predicted by using this measurement. Moreover, the real-time measurement reveals transient and electrode edge effect during processing. Furthermore, high aspect ratio pattern induced electron shading effects can also be characterized by the probe. On the oxide quality issue, wafer temperature during plasma processing has been experimentally shown to be critical to charging damage. Finally, different MOS capacitor testing methods including breakdown voltage, charge-to-breakdown, gate leakage current and voltage-time at constant current bias were

  13. Oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in manganese-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovic, Dejan; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels results in neurotoxicity to the extrapyramidal system and the development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like movement disorder, referred to as manganism. Although the mechanisms by which Mn induces neuronal damage are not well defined, its neurotoxicity appears to be regulated by a number of factors, including oxidative injury, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. To investigate the mechanisms underlying Mn neurotoxicity, we studied the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates (HEP), neuroinflammation mediators and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Primary cortical neuronal cultures showed concentration-dependent alterationsmore » in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes (F{sub 2}-IsoPs) and mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP), as early as 2 h following Mn exposure. Treatment of neurons with 500 {mu}M Mn also resulted in time-dependent increases in the levels of the inflammatory biomarker, prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}). In vivo analyses corroborated these findings, establishing that either a single or three (100 mg/kg, s.c.) Mn injections (days 1, 4 and 7) induced significant increases in F{sub 2}-IsoPs and PGE{sub 2} in adult mouse brain 24 h following the last injection. Quantitative morphometric analyses of Golgi-impregnated striatal sections from mice exposed to single or three Mn injections revealed progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). These findings suggest that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are underlying mechanisms in Mn-induced neurodegeneration.« less

  14. First evidence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengbi; Ruan, Jianqing; Gao, Hong; Li, Na; Ma, Jiang; Xue, Junyi; Ye, Yang; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Wang, Jiyao; Lin, Ge

    2017-12-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent phytotoxins widely distributed in plant species around the world. PA is one of the major causes responsible for the development of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) and exerts hepatotoxicity via metabolic activation to form the reactive metabolites, which bind with cellular proteins to generate pyrrole-protein adducts, leading to hepatotoxicity. PA N-oxides coexist with their corresponding PAs in plants with varied quantities, sometimes even higher than that of PAs, but the toxicity of PA N-oxides remains unclear. The current study unequivocally identified PA N-oxides as the sole or predominant form of PAs in 18 Gynura segetum herbal samples ingested by patients with liver damage. For the first time, PA N-oxides were recorded to induce HSOS in human. PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity was further confirmed on mice orally dosed of herbal extract containing 170 μmol PA N-oxides/kg/day, with its hepatotoxicity similar to but potency much lower than the corresponding PAs. Furthermore, toxicokinetic study after a single oral dose of senecionine N-oxide (55 μmol/kg) on rats revealed the toxic mechanism that PA N-oxides induced hepatotoxicity via their biotransformation to the corresponding PAs followed by the metabolic activation to form pyrrole-protein adducts. The remarkable differences in toxicokinetic profiles of PAs and PA N-oxides were found and attributed to their significantly different hepatotoxic potency. The findings of PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and rodents suggested that the contents of both PAs and PA N-oxides present in herbs and foods should be regulated and controlled in use.

  15. Ameliorative Effect of Caffeic Acid on Capecitabine-Induced Hepatic and Renal Dysfunction: Involvement of the Antioxidant Defence System

    PubMed Central

    Olayinka, Ebenezer Tunde; Ore, Ayokanmi; Adeyemo, Oluwatobi Adewumi

    2017-01-01

    Background: It has been postulated that during liver and kidney damage there is a decreased in the antioxidant status associated with a simultaneous increase in the reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. In consonant with this, Capecitabine, an oral chemotherapy and inactive non-cytotoxic fluoropyrimidine considered for the treatment of advance colorectal cancer, has also been shown to induce oxidative stress in liver tissues. Caffeic acid, a typical hydroxycinnamic, has been claimed to be effective against oxidative stress. Therefore, this present work studied the protective effect of caffeic acid on oxidative stress-induced liver and kidney damage by the administration of capecitabine. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: A. control, B. capecitabine (CPTB)-treated group (30 mg/kg b.w. CPTB), C. caffeic acid (CFA)-treated group (100 mg/kg b.w. CFA) and D. co-treated group with CFA (100 mg/kg b.w.) and CPTB (30 mg/kg b.w.). Results: Caffeic acid administration significantly ameliorated the elevated plasma biomarkers of hepatic and renal tissue damage induced by the capecitabine and improved enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels in liver organ. Conclusions: The protective effect of caffeic acid could be attributed to its ability to boost the antioxidant defence system and reduce lipid peroxidation. PMID:29068374

  16. Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, NC; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiev, L; Magen, I; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, EM

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex pathogenesis caused by acute or chronic liver failure. We investigated the effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory properties that activates the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5-HT1A, on brain and liver functions in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure induced in mice by thioacetamide. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Female Sabra mice were injected with either saline or thioacetamide and were treated with either vehicle or cannabidiol. Neurological and motor functions were evaluated 2 and 3 days, respectively, after induction of hepatic failure, after which brains and livers were removed for histopathological analysis and blood was drawn for analysis of plasma liver enzymes. In a separate group of animals, cognitive function was tested after 8 days and brain 5-HT levels were measured 12 days after induction of hepatic failure. KEY RESULTS Neurological and cognitive functions were severely impaired in thioacetamide-treated mice and were restored by cannabidiol. Similarly, decreased motor activity in thioacetamide-treated mice was partially restored by cannabidiol. Increased plasma levels of ammonia, bilirubin and liver enzymes, as well as enhanced 5-HT levels in thioacetamide-treated mice were normalized following cannabidiol administration. Likewise, astrogliosis in the brains of thioacetamide-treated mice was moderated after cannabidiol treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Cannabidiol restores liver function, normalizes 5-HT levels and improves brain pathology in accordance with normalization of brain function. Therefore, the effects of cannabidiol may result from a combination of its actions in the liver and brain. PMID:21182490

  17. Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, Nc; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiev, L; Magen, I; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, Em

    2011-04-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex pathogenesis caused by acute or chronic liver failure. We investigated the effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory properties that activates the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5-HT(1A) , on brain and liver functions in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure induced in mice by thioacetamide. Female Sabra mice were injected with either saline or thioacetamide and were treated with either vehicle or cannabidiol. Neurological and motor functions were evaluated 2 and 3 days, respectively, after induction of hepatic failure, after which brains and livers were removed for histopathological analysis and blood was drawn for analysis of plasma liver enzymes. In a separate group of animals, cognitive function was tested after 8 days and brain 5-HT levels were measured 12 days after induction of hepatic failure. Neurological and cognitive functions were severely impaired in thioacetamide-treated mice and were restored by cannabidiol. Similarly, decreased motor activity in thioacetamide-treated mice was partially restored by cannabidiol. Increased plasma levels of ammonia, bilirubin and liver enzymes, as well as enhanced 5-HT levels in thioacetamide-treated mice were normalized following cannabidiol administration. Likewise, astrogliosis in the brains of thioacetamide-treated mice was moderated after cannabidiol treatment. Cannabidiol restores liver function, normalizes 5-HT levels and improves brain pathology in accordance with normalization of brain function. Therefore, the effects of cannabidiol may result from a combination of its actions in the liver and brain. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Liver-specific loss of Perilipin 2 alleviates diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Najt, Charles P.; Senthivinayagam, Subramanian; Aljazi, Mohammad B.; Fader, Kelly A.; Olenic, Sandra D.; Brock, Julienne R. L.; Lydic, Todd A.; Jones, A. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic inflammation and fibrosis are key elements in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive liver disease initiated by excess hepatic lipid accumulation. Lipid droplet protein Perilipin 2 (Plin2) alleviates dietary-induced hepatic steatosis when globally ablated; however, its role in the progression of NASH remains unknown. To investigate this further, we challenged Plin2 liver-specific knockout mice (designated L-KO) and their respective wild-type (WT) controls with a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 15 days to induce a NASH phenotype of increased hepatic triglyceride levels through impaired phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion. Results on liver weights, body weights, fat tissue mass, and histology in WT and L-KO mice fed the MCD diet revealed signs of hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation; however, these effects were blunted in L-KO mice. In addition, levels of PC and VLDL were unchanged, and hepatic steatosis was reduced in L-KO mice fed the MCD diet, due in part to an increase in remodeling of PE to PC via the enzyme phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT). These mice also exhibited decreased hepatic expression of proinflammatory markers cyclooxygenase 2, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and reduced expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins C/EBP homologous protein and cleaved caspase-1. Taken together, these results suggest that Plin2 liver-specific ablation alleviates diet-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation via a PEMT-mediated mechanism that involves compensatory changes in proteins involved in phospholipid remodeling, inflammation, and ER stress that work to alleviate diet-induced NASH. Overall, these findings support a role for Plin2 as a target for NASH therapy. PMID:26968211

  19. Drug-induced Sweet's syndrome secondary to hepatitis C antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Liana; Cotruta, Bogdan; Trifu, Viorel; Cotruta, Cristina; Becheanu, Gabriel; Gheorghe, Cristian

    2008-09-01

    Pegylated interferon-alpha in combination with ribavirin currently represents the therapeutic standard for the hepatitis C virus infection. Interferon based therapy may be responsible for many cutaneous side effects. We report a case of drug-induced Sweet's syndrome secondary to hepatitis C antiviral therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Sweet's syndrome in association with pegylated interferon-alpha therapy.

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid Attenuates Hepatic Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Fibrosis without Decreasing Hepatosteatosis in a Ldlr−/− Mouse Model of Western Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis123

    PubMed Central

    Depner, Christopher M.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Jump, Donald B.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has increased in parallel with the incidence of obesity. While both NAFLD and NASH are characterized by hepatosteatosis, NASH is characterized by hepatic damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. We previously reported that feeding Ldlr−/− mice a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet containing menhaden oil attenuated several markers of NASH, including hepatosteatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Herein, we test the hypothesis that DHA [22:6 (n-3)] is more effective than EPA [20:5 (n-3)] at preventing Western diet (WD)-induced NASH in Ldlr−/− mice. Mice were fed the WD supplemented with either olive oil (OO), EPA, DHA, or EPA + DHA for 16 wk. WD + OO feeding induced a severe NASH phenotype, characterized by robust hepatosteatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Whereas none of the C20–22 (n-3) fatty acid treatments prevented WD-induced hepatosteatosis, all 3 (n-3) PUFA-containing diets significantly attenuated WD-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatic damage. The capacity of dietary DHA to suppress hepatic markers of inflammation (Clec4F, F4/80, Trl4, Trl9, CD14, Myd88), fibrosis (Procol1α1, Tgfβ1), and oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase subunits Nox2, p22phox, p40phox, p47phox, p67phox) was significantly greater than dietary EPA. The effects of DHA on these markers paralleled DHA-mediated suppression of hepatic Fads1 mRNA abundance and hepatic arachidonic acid content. Because DHA suppression of NASH markers does not require a reduction in hepatosteatosis, dietary DHA may be useful in combating NASH in obese humans. PMID:23303872

  1. CTRP3 attenuates diet-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating triglyceride metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jonathan M.; Seldin, Marcus M.; Wei, Zhikui; Aja, Susan

    2013-01-01

    CTRP3 is a secreted plasma protein of the C1q family that helps regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and is downregulated in a diet-induced obese state. However, the role of CTRP3 in regulating lipid metabolism has not been established. Here, we used a transgenic mouse model to address the potential function of CTRP3 in ameliorating high-fat diet-induced metabolic stress. Both transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet showed similar body weight gain, food intake, and energy expenditure. Despite similar adiposity to wild-type mice upon diet-induced obesity (DIO), CTRP3 transgenic mice were strikingly resistant to the development of hepatic steatosis, had reduced serum TNF-α levels, and demonstrated a modest improvement in systemic insulin sensitivity. Additionally, reduced hepatic triglyceride levels were due to decreased expression of enzymes (GPAT, AGPAT, and DGAT) involved in triglyceride synthesis. Importantly, short-term daily administration of recombinant CTRP3 to DIO mice for 5 days was sufficient to improve the fatty liver phenotype, evident as reduced hepatic triglyceride content and expression of triglyceride synthesis genes. Consistent with a direct effect on liver cells, recombinant CTRP3 treatment reduced fatty acid synthesis and neutral lipid accumulation in cultured rat H4IIE hepatocytes. Together, these results establish a novel role for CTRP3 hormone in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and highlight its protective function and therapeutic potential in attenuating hepatic steatosis. PMID:23744740

  2. Prevention of CCl4-induced liver damage by ginger, garlic and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K C; Wegwu, M O; Ayalogu, E O

    2007-02-15

    The hepatoprotective effects of garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and vitamin E pre-treatment against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male wistar albino rats were investigated. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg(-1) body weight) was administered after 28 days of feeding animals with diets containing ginger, garlic, vitamin E and various mixtures of ginger and garlic. Serum alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels, 24 h after CCl4 administration, decreased significantly (p < or = 0.05) in rats pre-treated with garlic, ginger, vitamin E and various mixtures of garlic and ginger than in CCl4-treated rats only. Lipid peroxidation expressed by serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was assayed to assess the extent of liver damage by CCl4; including the extent of hepatoprotection by garlic, ginger and vitamin E. MDA concentration was significantly decreased (p < or = 0.05) in rats pretreated with garlic, ginger, vitamin E and various mixtures of garlic and ginger than in rats administered CCl4-alone. Histological examination of the liver revealed severe infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats treated with CCl4 alone. However, the observed alteration in the normal architecture of the hepatic cells decreased remarkably in pre-treated rats.

  3. Effects of tissue mechanical properties on susceptibility to histotripsy-induced tissue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Kim, Yohan; Owens, Gabe; Roberts, William; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive tissue ablation method capable of fractionating tissue by controlling acoustic cavitation. To determine the fractionation susceptibility of various tissues, we investigated histotripsy-induced damage on tissue phantoms and ex vivo tissues with different mechanical strengths. A histotripsy bubble cloud was formed at tissue phantom surfaces using 5-cycle long ultrasound pulses with peak negative pressure of 18 MPa and PRFs of 10, 100, and 1000 Hz. Results showed significantly smaller lesions were generated in tissue phantoms of higher mechanical strength. Histotripsy was also applied to 43 different ex vivo porcine tissues with a wide range of mechanical properties. Gross morphology demonstrated stronger tissues with higher ultimate stress, higher density, and lower water content were more resistant to histotripsy damage in comparison to weaker tissues. Based on these results, a self-limiting vessel-sparing treatment strategy was developed in an attempt to preserve major vessels while fractionating the surrounding target tissue. This strategy was tested in porcine liver in vivo. After treatment, major hepatic blood vessels and bile ducts remained intact within a completely fractionated liver volume. These results identify varying susceptibilities of tissues to histotripsy therapy and provide a rational basis to optimize histotripsy parameters for treatment of specific tissues.

  4. Hepatic SIRT1 attenuates hepatic steatosis and controls energy balance in mice by inducing fibroblast growth factor 21.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Wong, Kimberly; Giles, Amber; Jiang, Jianwei; Lee, Jong Woo; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Yang, Qin; Gao, Bin; Guarente, Leonard; Zang, Mengwei

    2014-02-01

    The hepatocyte-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like regulator of metabolism. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 regulates fatty acid metabolism through multiple nutrient sensors. Hepatic overexpression of SIRT1 reduces steatosis and glucose intolerance in obese mice. We investigated mechanisms by which SIRT1 controls hepatic steatosis in mice. Liver-specific SIRT1 knockout (SIRT1 LKO) mice and their wild-type littermates (controls) were divided into groups that were placed on a normal chow diet, fasted for 24 hours, or fasted for 24 hours and then fed for 6 hours. Liver tissues were collected and analyzed by histologic examination, gene expression profiling, and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Human HepG2 cells were incubated with pharmacologic activators of SIRT1 (resveratrol or SRT1720) and mitochondrion oxidation consumption rate and immunoblot analyses were performed. FGF21 was overexpressed in SIRT1 LKO mice using an adenoviral vector. Energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Prolonged fasting induced lipid deposition in livers of control mice, but severe hepatic steatosis in SIRT1 LKO mice. Gene expression analysis showed that fasting up-regulated FGF21 in livers of control mice but not in SIRT1 LKO mice. Decreased hepatic and circulating levels of FGF21 in fasted SIRT1 LKO mice were associated with reduced hepatic expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, and increased expression of genes that control lipogenesis, compared with fasted control mice. Resveratrol or SRT1720 each increased the transcriptional activity of the FGF21 promoter (-2070/+117) and levels of FGF21 messenger RNA and protein in HepG2 cells. Surprisingly, SIRT1 LKO mice developed late-onset obesity with impaired whole-body energy expenditure. Hepatic overexpression of FGF21 in SIRT1 LKO mice increased the expression of genes that regulate fatty acid oxidation, decreased

  5. Renal tissue damage induced by focused shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioritani, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Kambe, K.; Taguchi, K.; Saitoh, T.; Shirai, S.; Orikasa, S.; Takayama, K.; Lush, P. A.

    1990-07-01

    Biological evidence of renal arterial wall damage induced by the microjet due to shock wave-cavitation bubble interaction was demonstrated in living dog kidneys. We also intended to clarify the mechanism of renal tissue damage and the effects of different conditions of shock wave exposure (peak pressure of focused area, number of shots, exposure rate) on the renal tissue damage in comparison to stone disintegration. Disruption of arterial wall was the most remarkable histological change in the focused area of the kidneys. This lesion appeared as if the wall had been punctured by a needle. Large hematoma formation in the renal parenchym, and interstitial hemorrhage seemed to be the results of the arterial lesion. This arterial disorder also led to ischemic necrosis of the tubules surrounding the hematoma. Micro-angiographic examination of extracted kidneys also proved such arterial puncture lesions and ischemic lesions. The number of shots required for model stone disintegration was not inversely proportional to peak pressure. It decreased markedly when peak pressure was above 700 bar. Similarly thenumber of shots for hematoma formation was not inversely proportional to peak pressure, however, this decreased markedly above 500 bar. These results suggested that a hematoma could be formed under a lower peak pressure than that required for stone disintegration.

  6. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1) of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased.

  7. Nandrolone decanoate induces genetic damage in multiple organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Renan; Fernandes, Kelly Rosseti; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the impact potential of nandrolone decanoate on DNA damage in multiple organs of Wistar rats by means of single-cell gel (comet) assay and micronucleus test. A total of 15 animals were distributed into three groups of five animals each as follows: control group = animal not exposed to nandrolone decanoate; experimental group = animals exposed to nandrolone decanoate for 24 h at 5 mg/kg subcutaneously; and experimental group = animals exposed to nandrolone decanoate for 24 h at 15 mg/kg subcutaneously. Significant statistical differences (p < 0.05) were noted in peripheral blood, liver, and heart cells exposed to nandrolone decanoate at the two doses evaluated. A clear dose-response relationship was observed between groups. Kidney cells showed genetic damage at only the highest dose (15 mg/kg) used. However, micronucleus data did not show remarkable differences among groups. In conclusion, the present study indicates that nandrolone decanoate induces genetic damage in rat blood, liver, heart, and kidney cells as shown by single-cell gel (comet) assay results.

  8. Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on ConA-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using ConA (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before ConA injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053

  9. Bee's honey attenuates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-induced hepatic injury through the regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jia; Liu, Yingxia; Xing, Feiyue; Leung, Tung Ming; Liong, Emily C; Tipoe, George L

    2016-06-01

    We aim to examine whether honey ameliorates hepatic injury in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) animal and cell line steatosis models. NASH was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rat by 8-week feeding with a high-fat diet. During the experiment, 5 g/kg honey was intragastrically fed daily. Rat normal hepatocyte BRL-3A cell was treated with sodium palmitate (SP) to induce steatosis in the absence or presence of honey pre-treatment or specific siRNA/overexpress plasmid of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) or antagonist/agonist of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3). Honey significantly improved the high-fat-diet-induced hepatic injury, steatosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in rats. Honey also inhibited the overexpression of TXNIP and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. These effects were replicated in BRL-3A cell line which showed that the down-regulation of TXNIP or inhibition of NLRP3 contributed to the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, inflammation, and re-balanced lipid metabolism. In contrast, overexpression of TXNIP or agonism of NLRP3 exacerbated the cellular damage induced by SP. Suppression of the TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway may partly contribute to the amelioration of hepatic injury during the progression of NASH by honey. Targeting hepatic TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway is a potential therapeutic way for the prevention and treatment of NASH.

  10. Clusterin deficiency induces lipid accumulation and tissue damage in kidney.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Ji-Eun; Dan, Yongwook; Kim, Yong-Woon; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Cho, Kyu Hyang; Bae, Young Kyung; Im, Seung-Soon; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Song, In-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, So-Young

    2018-05-01

    Clusterin is a secretory glycoprotein that is involved in multiple physiopathological processes, including lipid metabolism. Previous studies have shown that clusterin prevents hepatic lipid accumulation via suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1. In this study, we examined the role of clusterin in renal lipid accumulation in clusterin-knockout mice and NRK52e tubular epithelial cells. Clusterin deficiency increased the expression of SREBP1 and its target genes and decreased malonyl-CoA decarboxylase protein levels in the kidney. Expression of the endocytic receptor, megalin, and scavenger receptor class A was increased in clusterin-deficient mice. Functional analysis of lipid metabolism also revealed that lipid uptake and triglyceride synthesis were increased and fatty acid oxidation was reduced, leading to increased lipid accumulation in clusterin-deficient mice. These phenomena were accompanied by mesangial expansion, fibrosis and increased urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio. High-fat feeding aggravated these clusterin deficiency-induced pathological changes. Clusterin knockdown in NRK52e cells increased lipogenic gene expression and lipid levels, whereas overexpression of clusterin by treatment with adenovirus or recombinant clusterin protein suppressed lipogenic gene expression and lipid levels. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFB1) expression increased in the kidney of clusterin-deficient mice and suppression of TGFB1 in NRK52e cells suppressed lipid accumulation. These results suggest that clusterin deficiency induces renal lipid accumulation by dysregulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related factors and TGFB1, thereby leading to chronic kidney disease. Hence, clusterin may serve as a therapeutic target for lipid-induced chronic kidney disease. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Pentoxifylline attenuates cytokine stress and Fas system in syngeneic liver proteins induced experimental autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Hendawy, Nevien

    2017-08-01

    Apoptosis is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Cytokine stresses and extrinsic apoptotic pathway have been implicated in this type of hepatic injury. Pentoxifylline plays an important role in controlling inflammation and apoptosis in different autoimmune diseases. To assess the protective effect of pentoxifylline for 30days against pro-inflammatory cytokines as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (INF-γ) and mediators of extrinsic apoptotic pathway involving TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and its ligand TNF-α and Fas receptor and its ligand (FasL) in experimental autoimmune hepatitis (EAH) model. EAH was induced by intraperitoneal injection of syngeneic liver antigen emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in male C57BL/6 mice. Five groups of mice were used: two control groups; Control PBS group and Control CFA group, EAH group and two EAH+pentoxifylline treated groups in doses (100 or 200mg/kg/d, given by oral gavage). Serum transaminase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and interferon-γ) and hepatic caspase-8 and 3 activities were evaluated. Signs of autoimmune hepatitis were confirmed by liver histology. In addition, hepatic TNFR1, Fas and FasL mRNA expression were assayed. Serum transaminase levels and signs of AIH observed in EAH mice were significantly reduced by pentoxifylline. Upregulated serum TNF-α, IFN-γ, hepatic caspase-8 and 3 activities and TNFR1, Fas and FasL mRNA expression in liver tissues in EAH group were significantly downregulated by pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline protects against syngeneic liver antigen induced hepatitis and associating apoptosis through attenuating the exaggerated cytokine release and extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Thus, this may represent a new therapeutic strategy for hepatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effects of a natural herbal compound quercetin against snake venom-induced hepatic and renal toxicities in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K; Khan, Haseeb A; Manthiri, Rajamohamed A; Al-Khlaiwi, Ahmad A; Al-Asmari, Bayan A; Ibrahim, Khalid E

    2018-05-08

    Echis pyramidum is a highly poisonous viper snake. Previous studies have shown acute phase hepatic and renal toxicities of Echis pyramidum venom (EPV) in rats. This study reports the protective effects of a natural herbal compound quercetin (QRC) on EPV-induced hepatic and renal toxicities in rats. A singly injection of EPV (4.76 mg/kg) caused significant increase in serum biomarkers of liver and kidney function. Pre-treatment of QRC (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the toxic effects of EPV on functional impairment in liver and kidneys of rats. Administration of QRC also reversed EPV-induced increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in total thiols. The histopathology of liver showed fat accumulation, focal degeneration and cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes in EPV treated rats. EPV also caused renal tubular dilation and focal atrophy of glomerular tufts in rat kidneys. Administration of QRC prevented EPV-induced structural tissue damage in liver and kidneys of rats. In conclusion, QRC significantly inhibited the acute phase toxic effects of EPV on liver and kidneys of rats by preventing the oxidative stress in these organs. QRC is also known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-edema, anti-hemorrhagic and PLA2-inhibitory properties and therefore may be regarded as a multi-action antidote against snake venom toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scaling Relations for Intercalation Induced Damage in Electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Chien-Fan; Barai, Pallab; Smith, Kandler; ...

    2016-04-02

    Mechanical degradation, owing to intercalation induced stress and microcrack formation, is a key contributor to the electrode performance decay in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The stress generation and formation of microcracks are caused by the solid state diffusion of lithium in the active particles. Here in this work, scaling relations are constructed for diffusion induced damage in intercalation electrodes based on an extensive set of numerical experiments with a particle-level description of microcrack formation under disparate operating and cycling conditions, such as temperature, particle size, C-rate, and drive cycle. The microcrack formation and evolution in active particles is simulated based onmore » a stochastic methodology. A reduced order scaling law is constructed based on an extensive set of data from the numerical experiments. The scaling relations include combinatorial constructs of concentration gradient, cumulative strain energy, and microcrack formation. Lastly, the reduced order relations are further employed to study the influence of mechanical degradation on cell performance and validated against the high order model for the case of damage evolution during variable current vehicle drive cycle profiles.« less

  14. Investigation of possible fs-LASIK induced retinal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, S.; Sander, M.; Stolte, A.; Doepke, C.; Baumgaertner, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    2006-02-01

    Rapid development of new laser technologies enabled the application of ultra short lasers in refractive surgery. Focused ultra short laser pulses in near-infrared spectral range can generate a laser induced breakdown (LIB) in the cornea, which will disrupt the tissue. Cutting depth and position can be established by varying the laser focus. The fs-LASIK technique allows both flap and lenticule to be formed by using fs-pulses without the presence of any mechanical impact. During the cutting process not all of the pulse energy is deposited into the cornea; approximately half of the remaining energy propagates through the eye and reaches the retina. Though defocused, the transmitted energy can still induce damage to the retina due to absorption by the retinal pigment epithelium and the transfer of thermal energy to surrounding tissue. The fs-LASIK process was simulated with two laser systems; one continous-wave and one in the fs-regime. For the simulation the exposure time and focusing numerical aperature which defines the retinal spot size were varied. The Damage thresholds of the laser beam exposed eyes were determined in terms of ophthalmoscopic and histopathologic observations.

  15. Laser induced damage in optical materials: tenth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1979-07-01

    The tenth annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 12-14 September 1978. The symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Office of Naval Research. About 175 scientists attended, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Japan, West Germany, and the Soviet Union. The symposium was divided into sessions concerning the measurement of absorption characteristics, bulk material properties, mirrors and surfaces, thin film damage, coating materials and design, and breakdown phenomena. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for use from 10.6 microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength was also discussed. In commemoration of the tenth symposium in this series, a number of comprehensive review papers were presented to assess the state of the art in various facets of laser induced damage in optical materials. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons. The eleventh annual symposium is scheduled for 30-31 October 1979 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado.

  16. Can ebselen prevent cisplatin-induced ovarian damage?

    PubMed

    Soyman, Zeynep; Uzun, Hafize; Bayindir, Nihan; Esrefoglu, Mukaddes; Boran, Birtan

    2018-06-01

    The occurrence of ovarian damage is a major shortcoming in treating tumors with cisplatin (CP). The present study investigates the beneficial effects of ebselen-a seleno-organic compound with antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties-vis-à-vis CP-induced ovarian damage. Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided into four study groups. Group 1 received no treatment. The rats in Groups 2, 3, and 4 were intraperitoneally administered CP (2 mg/kg/day) twice per week, for 5 weeks. Those in Group 2 received 0.3 ml saline (0.9% NaCl) intraperitoneally 60 min before each CP treatment, while those in Group 3 received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 0.3 ml saline intraperitoneally 60 min before each CP treatment. The rats in Group 4 were pretreated with an intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg/day ebselen 60 min before each CP treatment. Ovarian tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), total nitric oxide (NOx), glutathione (GSH), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and catalase levels, as well as histopathological damage scores (HDSs) and serum antimullerian hormone (AMH) levels, were assessed. Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH levels were significantly higher, and MDA and NOx levels significantly lower, in Group 4 than in Groups 2 and 3. Pretreatment with ebselen significantly improved serum AMH levels, relative to Groups 2 and 3. Additionally, HDS values were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Groups 2 and 3. Our results from using an experimental rat model of CP chemotherapy suggest that ebselen use may ameliorate ovarian damage by preventing oxidative injury.

  17. Evaluation of radio-protective effect of melatonin on whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazale; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation. In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean ± standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group. The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation.

  18. Modulatory role of Pterocarpus santalinus against alcohol-induced liver oxidative/nitrosative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulle, Saradamma; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Maturu, Paramahamsa; N Ch, Varadacharyulu

    2016-10-01

    Pterocarpus santalinus, a traditional medicinal plant has shown protective mechanisms against various complications. The aim of the present study is to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of P. santalinus heartwood methanolic extract (PSE) against alcohol-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress leading to hepatotoxicity. In-vitro studies revealed that PSE possess strong DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. For in vivo studies male albino Wistar rats were treated with 20% alcohol (5g/kg b.wt/day) and PSE (250mg/kg b.wt/day) for 60days. Results showed that alcohol administration significantly altered plasma lipid profile with marked increase in the levels of plasma transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT). Moreover, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide (NOx) levels in plasma and liver were increased with increased iNOS protein expression in liver was noticed in alcohol administered rats and these levels were significantly brought back close to normal level by PSE administration except iNOS protein expression. Alcohol administration also decreased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver, which were significantly enhanced by administration of PSE. The active compounds pterostilbene, lignan and lupeols present in PSE might have shown protection against alcohol-induced hepatic damage by possibly reducing the rate of lipid peroxidation, NOx levels and increasing the antioxidant defence mechanism in alcohol administered rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the alcohol-induced liver damage model emphasize beneficial action of PSE as a hepatoprotective agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Alteration of hepatic structure and oxidative stress induced by intravenous nanoceria

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Michael T., E-mail: mttsen01@louisville.edu; Lu, Xiaoqin, E-mail: x0lu0003@louisville.edu; Duan, Xiaoxian, E-mail: x0duan02@louisville.edu

    2012-04-15

    Beyond the traditional use of ceria as an abrasive, the scope of nanoceria applications now extends into fuel cell manufacturing, diesel fuel additives, and for therapeutic intervention as a putative antioxidant. However, the biological effects of nanoceria exposure have yet to be fully defined, which gave us the impetus to examine its systemic biodistribution and biological responses. An extensively characterized nanoceria (5 nm) dispersion was vascularly infused into rats, which were terminated 1 h, 20 h or 30 days later. Light and electron microscopic tissue characterization was conducted and hepatic oxidative stress parameters determined. We observed acute ceria nanoparticle sequestrationmore » by Kupffer cells with subsequent bioretention in parenchymal cells as well. The internalized ceria nanoparticles appeared as spherical agglomerates of varying dimension without specific organelle penetration. In hepatocytes, the agglomerated nanoceria frequently localized to the plasma membrane facing bile canaliculi. Hepatic stellate cells also sequestered nanoceria. Within the sinusoids, sustained nanoceria bioretention was associated with granuloma formations comprised of Kupffer cells and intermingling CD3{sup +} T cells. A statistically significant elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level was seen at 1 and 20 h, but subsided by 30 days after ceria administration. Further, elevated apoptosis was observed on day 30. These findings, together with increased hepatic protein carbonyl levels on day 30, indicate ceria-induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress, respectively. Such observations suggest a single vascular infusion of nanoceria can lead to persistent hepatic retention of particles with possible implications for occupational and therapeutic exposures. -- Highlights: ► Time course study on nanoceria induced hepatic alterations in rats. ► Serum AST elevation indicated acute hepatotoxicity. ► Ceria is retained for up to 30 days in Kupffer

  20. Valproate induced hepatic steatosis by enhanced fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xupeng; Hong, Weipeng; Cai, Peiheng

    Steatosis is the characteristic type of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and may result in life-threatening hepatic lesion. Approximately 61% of patients treated with VPA have been diagnosed with hepatic steatosis through ultrasound examination. However, the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced intracellular fat accumulation are not yet fully understood. Here we demonstrated the involvement of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo by using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, western blotting analysis, fatty acid uptake assays, Nile Red staining assays, and Oil Red O staining assays. Specifically, we found that the expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36),more » an important fatty acid transport, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) were significantly up-regulated in HepG2 cells and livers of C57B/6J mice after treatment with VPA. Furthermore, VPA treatment remarkably enhanced the efficiency of fatty acid uptake mediated by CD36, while this effect was abolished by the interference with CD36-specific siRNA. Also, VPA treatment significantly increased DGAT2 expression as a result of the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) – extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway; however, DGAT2 knockdown significantly alleviated VPA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. Additionally, we also found that sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)-mediated fatty acid synthesis may be not involved in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis. Overall, VPA-triggered over-regulation of CD36 and DGAT2 could be helpful for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced hepatic steatosis and may offer novel therapeutic strategies to combat VPA-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • VPA induced hepatic steatosis and modulated genes associated with lipid metabolism. • CD36-mediated fatty acid uptake contributed to VPA-induced lipid accumulation. • PA increased the

  1. Anti-inflammatory and ameliorative effects of gallic acid on fluoxetine-induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Khouzani, Omid; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Amini, Sayed Asadollah

    2017-08-01

    Fluoxetine-induced liver damage is a cause of chronic liver disease. In the present study the hepatoprotective effects of gallic acid against fluoxetine-induced liver damage were examined. Forty-eight male rats were divided into six groups as follow: group 1, the control group; group 2, rats receiving fluoxetine (24mg/kg bw daily, po) without treatment; group 3, rats receiving 24mg/kg bw fluoxetine, treated with 50mg/kg bw silymarin and groups 4, 5, and 6 in which gallic acid (50, 100, and 200mg/kg bw, po, respectively) was prescribed after the consumption of fluoxetine. The histopathological changes of hepatic tissues were checked out. Fluoxetine caused a significant increase in the levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), lipid profiles, urea, fasting blood sugar (FBS), creatinine (Cr), protein carbonyl (PC) content, malondialdehyde (MDA), and liver TNF-α as an inflammatory element. Also, the obtained results of group 2 revealed a significant decline in ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), liver catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and vitamin C levels. The treatment with gallic acid showed significant ameliorations in abnormalities of fluoxetine-induced liver injury as represented by the improvement of hepatic CAT, SOD activities, vitamin C levels, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes, in addition to the recovery of antioxidant defense system status. Gallic acid has inhibitory effects on fluoxetine-induced liver damage. The effect of gallic acid is derived from free radical scavenging properties and the anti-inflammatory effect related to TNF-α. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  2. Cyclosporine induced biochemical remission in childhood autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Franulović, Orjena Zaja; Rajacić, Nada; Lesar, Tatjana; Kuna, Andrea Tesija; Morić, Bernardica Valent

    2012-09-01

    The conventional treatment of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in children, which includes prednisone alone or in combination with azathioprine, induces remission in most cases but is often associated with poorly tolerated side effects. To avoid the adverse effects, Alvarez et al. introduced an alternative treatment regimen, using cyclosporine A (CyA) as primary immunosuppression. We carried out a retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of CyA treatment in children and adolescents with AIH treated in our center. During 2000-2010 period, nine children (6 female) aged 5-17.5 years, were diagnosed with AIH according to established international criteria. Following the suggested protocol, CyA was administered orally and when the transaminases tended to normalise, dose was adjusted to lover serum levels. Conversion to low dose of prednisone and azathioprine was started after 6 months, with gradual tapering and discontinuation of CyA. All nine patient had elevated transaminases and gammaglobulin levels, with proven histological changes typical for AIH in 8 patients that underwent liver biopsy (in one patient biopsy was contraindicated due to the prolonged prothrombin time). Serum ANA/SMA autoantibodies were positive in all but one patient, who had positive anti-LKM1. Complete or near complete and persistent normalisation of transaminase activity was observed in 8/9 patients within first 6 to 12 months. In one patient with partial response, an overlap syndrome was established. After ursodeoxycholic acid was added complete remission was observed. All patients had excellent clinical course and histological improvement. During the long-term follow-up (1.5-9 yrs; median 4.5 yrs), biochemical relapse occured in one patient after discontinuation of maintenance corticosteroid dose. Despite registered improvement, none of the patients fulfilled the criteria for therapy discontinuation, so all of them are still receiving maintenance doses of prednisone or azathioprine

  3. Chronic CCl4 intoxication causes liver and bone damage similar to the human pathology of hepatic osteodystrophy: a mouse model to analyse the liver-bone axis.

    PubMed

    Nussler, Andreas K; Wildemann, Britt; Freude, Thomas; Litzka, Christian; Soldo, Petra; Friess, Helmut; Hammad, Seddik; Hengstler, Jan G; Braun, Karl F; Trak-Smayra, Viviane; Godoy, Patricio; Ehnert, Sabrina

    2014-04-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases frequently exhibit decreased bone mineral densities (BMD), which is defined as hepatic osteodystrophy (HOD). HOD is a multifactorial disease whose regulatory mechanisms are barely understood. Thus, an early diagnosis and therapy is hardly possible. Therefore, the aim of our study consisted in characterizing a mouse model reflecting the human pathomechanism. Serum samples were collected from patients with chronic liver diseases and 12-week old C57Bl6/N mice after 6-week treatment with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Repetitive injections of CCl4 induced liver damage in mice, resembling liver fibrosis in patients, as assessed by serum analysis and histological staining. Although CCl4 did not affect primary osteoblast cultures, μCT analysis revealed significantly decreased BMD, bone volume, trabecular number and thickness in CCl4-treated mice. In both HOD patients and CCl4-treated mice, an altered vitamin D metabolism with decreased CYP27A1, CYP2R1, vitamin D-binding protein GC and increased 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase hepatic gene expression, results in decreased 25-OH vitamin D serum levels. Moreover, both groups exhibit excessively high active transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) serum levels, inhibiting osteoblast function in vitro. Summarizing, our mouse model presents possible mediators of HOD, e.g. altered vitamin D metabolism and increased active TGF-β. Liver damage and significant changes in bone structure and mineralization are already visible by μCT analysis after 6 weeks of CCl4 treatment. This fast response and easy transferability makes it an ideal model to investigate specific gene functions in HOD.

  4. Interleukin-22 induces hepatic stellate cell senescence and restricts liver fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiaoni; Feng, Dechun; Wang, Hua; Hong, Feng; Bertola, Adeline; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Gao, Bin

    2012-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22 is known to play a key role in promoting antimicrobial immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair at barrier surfaces by binding to the receptors, IL-10R2 and IL-22R1. IL-22R1 is generally thought to be expressed exclusively in epithelial cells. In this study, we identified high levels of IL-10R2 and IL-22R1 expression on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the predominant cell type involved in liver fibrogenesis in response to liver damage. In vitro treatment with IL-22 induced the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 in primary mouse and human HSCs. IL-22 administration prevented HSC apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, but surprisingly, the overexpression of IL-22 by either gene targeting (e.g., IL-22 transgenic mice) or exogenous administration of adenovirus expressing IL-22 reduced liver fibrosis and accelerated the resolution of liver fibrosis during recovery. Furthermore, IL-22 overexpression or treatment increased the number of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase-positive HSCs and decreased alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in fibrotic livers in vivo and cultured HSCs in vitro. Deletion of STAT3 prevented IL-22-induced HSC senescence in vitro, whereas the overexpression of a constitutively activated form of STAT3 promoted HSC senescence through p53- and p21-dependent pathways. Finally, IL-22 treatment up-regulated the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 3 expression in HSCs. Immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SOCS3 bound p53 and subsequently increased the expression of p53 and its target genes, contributing to IL-22-mediated HSC senescence. IL-22 induces the senescence of HSCs, which express both IL-10R2 and IL-22R1, thereby ameliorating liver fibrogenesis. The antifibrotic effect of IL-22 is likely mediated by the induction of HSC senescence, in addition to the previously discovered hepatoprotective functions of IL-22. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Urinary proteomic profiling reveals diclofenac-induced renal injury and hepatic regeneration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Swelm, Rachel P.L. van; Laarakkers, Coby M.M.; Pertijs, Jeanne C.L.M.

    Diclofenac (DF) is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of rheumatic disorders, but is often associated with liver injury. We applied urinary proteomic profiling using MALDI-TOF MS to identify biomarkers for DF-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Female CH3/HeOUJIco mice were treated with 75 mg/kg bw DF by oral gavage and 24 h urine was collected. Proteins identified in urine of DF-treated mice included epidermal growth factor, transthyretin, kallikrein, clusterin, fatty acid binding protein 1 and urokinase, which are related to liver regeneration but also to kidney injury. Both organs showed enhanced levels of oxidative stress (TBARS, p induced kidney and liver injury. Within 24 h, however, the liver was able to recover by activating tissue regeneration processes. Hence, the proteins found in urine of DF-treated mice represent kidney damage rather than hepatic injury. - Highlights: • The urinary proteome shows biological processes involved in adverse drug reactions. • Urine proteins of DF-treated mice relate to kidney injury rather than liver injury. • Liver regeneration, not liver injury, is apparent 24h after oral DF administration. • Pretreatment with LPS does not enhance DF-induced liver injury in mice.« less

  6. Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase (Mkp)-1 Protects Mice against Acetaminophen-induced Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wancket, Lyn M.; Meng, Xiaomei; Rogers, Lynette K.; Liu, Yusen

    2012-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation promotes hepatocyte death during acetaminophen overdose, a common cause of drug-induced liver failure. While mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase (Mkp)-1 is a critical negative regulator of JNK MAPK, little is known about the role of Mkp-1 during hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated the role of Mkp-1 during acute acetaminophen toxicity. Mkp-1+/+ and Mkp-1−/− mice were dosed ip with vehicle or acetaminophen at 300 mg/kg (for mechanistic studies) or 400 mg/kg (for survival studies). Tissues were collected 1–6 hr post 300 mg/kg dosing to assess glutathione levels, organ damage, and MAPK activation. Mkp-1−/− mice exhibited more rapid plasma clearance of acetaminophen than did Mkp-1+/+ mice, indicated by a quicker decline of plasma acetaminophen level. Moreover, Mkp-1−/− mice suffered more severe liver injury, indicated by higher plasma alanine transaminase activity and more extensive centrilobular apoptosis and necrosis. Hepatic JNK activity in Mkp-1−/− mice was higher than in Mkp-1+/+ mice. Finally, Mkp-1−/− mice displayed a lower overall survival rate and shorter median survival time after dosing with 400 mg/kg acetaminophen. The more severe phenotype exhibited by Mkp-1−/− mice indicates that Mkp-1 plays a protective role during acute acetaminophen overdose, potentially through regulation of JNK. PMID:22623522

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MICE LIVER IN DYNAMICS OF CONCANAVALIN A - INDUCED HEPATITIS.

    PubMed

    Pavlovych, S I; Makogon, N V; Grushka, N G; Bryzgina, T M; Janchiy, R I

    The injure of the liver tissue and its infiltration by cells of the innate and adaptive immunity in dynamics of Con A-induced hepatitis in mice was studied. The semiquantitative method of damage rate of microcirculation channel and liver parenchyma was used, leukocyte liver infiltration and cellular composition of infiltrates were investigated also. Primary liver reaction to the Con-A was the inflammatory changes in the vascular bed, followed by disturbances in the parenchyma.The sufficient increasing of leukocyte migration to the liver was revealed. Besides, the neutrophile infiltration was increased first with a maximum at 6 hours of the experiment (63,9 ±4,6%, p<0,001 to the control level) ,and then the lymphocyte infiltration was increased with creation of manycellular lymphocytemacrophage infiltrates (62% at 48 hours comparing to 6 hours of experiment) and sufficient quantity of plasma cells population (4,9%, p<0,05 comparing to 6 hours of experiment). The obtained data gives the base to suggest that the elevated infiltration of liver tissue by leukocytes, particularly by lymphocytes and monocytes, together with necrotic death increasing creats the conditions for effective intracellular interaction and immune response to autoantigenes. This can be the essential pathogenic mechanism of development of autoimmune liver deseases.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Induces the Localization of Lipid Rafts to Autophagosomes for Its RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ja Yeon; Wang, Linya; Lee, Jiyoung

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy plays important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis. It uses double- or multiple-membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes to remove protein aggregates and damaged organelles from the cytoplasm for recycling. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown to induce autophagy to enhance its own replication. Here we describe a procedure that combines membrane flotation and affinity chromatography for the purification of autophagosomes from cells that harbor an HCV subgenomic RNA replicon. The purified autophagosomes had double- or multiple-membrane structures with a diameter ranging from 200 nm to 600 nm. The analysis of proteins associated with HCV-induced autophagosomes by proteomics led to the identification of HCV nonstructural proteins as well as proteins involved in membrane trafficking. Notably, caveolin-1, caveolin-2, and annexin A2, which are proteins associated with lipid rafts, were also identified. The association of lipid rafts with HCV-induced autophagosomes was confirmed by Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy. Their association with autophagosomes was also confirmed in HCV-infected cells. The association of lipid rafts with autophagosomes was specific to HCV, as it was not detected in autophagosomes induced by nutrient starvation. Further analysis indicated that the autophagosomes purified from HCV replicon cells could mediate HCV RNA replication in a lipid raft-dependent manner, as the depletion of cholesterol, a major component of lipid rafts, from autophagosomes abolished HCV RNA replication. Our studies thus demonstrated that HCV could specifically induce the association of lipid rafts with autophagosomes for its RNA replication. IMPORTANCE HCV can cause severe liver diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is one of the most important human pathogens. Infection with HCV can lead to the reorganization of membrane structures in its host cells, including the induction of

  9. TRPM2 channels mediate acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, Ehsan; Ma, Linlin; Morphett, Arthur; Barritt, Greg J.; Rychkov, Grigori Y.

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most frequently used analgesic and antipyretic drug available over the counter. At the same time, acetaminophen overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure and the leading cause of chronic liver damage requiring liver transplantation in developed countries. Acetaminophen overdose causes a multitude of interrelated biochemical reactions in hepatocytes including the formation of reactive oxygen species, deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, covalent modification and oxidation of proteins, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation. Although an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in hepatocytes is a known consequence of acetaminophen overdose, its importance in acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity is not well understood, primarily due to lack of knowledge about the source of the Ca2+ rise. Here we report that the channel responsible for Ca2+ entry in hepatocytes in acetaminophen overdose is the Transient Receptor Potential Melanostatine 2 (TRPM2) cation channel. We show by whole-cell patch clamping that treatment of hepatocytes with acetaminophen results in activation of a cation current similar to that activated by H2O2 or the intracellular application of ADP ribose. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TRPM2 in hepatocytes inhibits activation of the current by either acetaminophen or H2O2. In TRPM2 knockout mice, acetaminophen-induced liver damage, assessed by the blood concentration of liver enzymes and liver histology, is significantly diminished compared with wild-type mice. The presented data strongly suggest that TRPM2 channels are essential in the mechanism of acetaminophen-induced hepatocellular death. PMID:24569808

  10. A novel therapeutic hepatitis B vaccine induces cellular and humoral immune responses and breaks tolerance in hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Pascale; Dembek, Claudia; Kuklick, Larissa; Jäger, Clemens; Tedjokusumo, Raindy; von Freyend, Miriam John; Drebber, Uta; Janowicz, Zbigniew; Melber, Karl; Protzer, Ulrike

    2013-02-06

    Therapeutic vaccines are currently being developed for chronic hepatitis B and C. As an alternative to long-term antiviral treatment or to support only partially effective therapy, they should activate the patient's immune system effectively to fight and finally control the virus. A paradigm of therapeutic vaccination is the potent induction of T-cell responses against key viral antigens - besides activation of a humoral immune response. We have evaluated the potential of a novel vaccine formulation comprising particulate hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) and core antigen (HBcAg), and the saponin-based ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant for its ability to stimulate T and B cell responses in C57BL/6 mice and its ability to break tolerance in syngeneic HBV transgenic (HBVtg) mice. In C57BL/6 mice, the vaccine induced multifunctional HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T cells detected by staining for IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2, as well as high antibody titers against both antigens. Vaccination of HBVtg animals induced potent HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in spleens and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in livers as well as anti-HBs seroconversion two weeks post injection. Vaccination further reduced HBcAg expression in livers of HBVtg mice without causing liver damage. In summary, this study demonstrates therapeutic efficacy of a novel vaccine formulation in a mouse model of immunotolerant, chronic HBV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mouse Hepatitis Virus Infection Induces a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Activation of Inflammatory Functions in Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells during Acute Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bleau, Christian; Filliol, Aveline; Samson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under physiological conditions, the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) mediate hepatic immune tolerance toward self or foreign antigens through constitutive expression of anti-inflammatory mediators. However, upon viral infection or Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, LSECs can achieve proinflammatory functions, but their role in hepatic inflammation during acute viral hepatitis is unknown. Using the highly virulent mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV3) and the attenuated variants 51.6-MHV3 and YAC-MHV3, exhibiting lower tropism for LSECs, we investigated in vivo and in vitro the consequence of LSEC infection on their proinflammatory profiles and the aggravation of acute hepatitis process. In vivo infection with virulent MHV3, in comparison to attenuated strains, resulted in fulminant hepatitis associated with higher hepatic viral load, tissue necrosis, and levels of inflammatory mediators and earlier recruitment of inflammatory cells. Such hepatic inflammatory disorders correlated with disturbed production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and vascular factors by LSECs. We next showed in vitro that infection of LSECs by the virulent MHV3 strain altered their production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and promoted higher release of proinflammatory and procoagulant factors and earlier cell damage than infection by attenuated strains. This higher replication and proinflammatory activation in LSECs by the virulent MHV3 strain was associated with a specific activation of TLR2 signaling by the virus. We provide evidence that TLR2 activation of LSCEs by MHV3 is an aggravating factor of hepatic inflammation and correlates with the severity of hepatitis. Taken together, these results indicate that preservation of the immunotolerant properties of LSECs during acute viral hepatitis is imperative in order to limit hepatic inflammation and damage. IMPORTANCE Viral hepatitis B and C infections are serious health problems affecting over 350 million and 170 million

  12. Mouse Hepatitis Virus Infection Induces a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Activation of Inflammatory Functions in Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells during Acute Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Bleau, Christian; Filliol, Aveline; Samson, Michel; Lamontagne, Lucie

    2016-10-15

    Under physiological conditions, the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) mediate hepatic immune tolerance toward self or foreign antigens through constitutive expression of anti-inflammatory mediators. However, upon viral infection or Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, LSECs can achieve proinflammatory functions, but their role in hepatic inflammation during acute viral hepatitis is unknown. Using the highly virulent mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV3) and the attenuated variants 51.6-MHV3 and YAC-MHV3, exhibiting lower tropism for LSECs, we investigated in vivo and in vitro the consequence of LSEC infection on their proinflammatory profiles and the aggravation of acute hepatitis process. In vivo infection with virulent MHV3, in comparison to attenuated strains, resulted in fulminant hepatitis associated with higher hepatic viral load, tissue necrosis, and levels of inflammatory mediators and earlier recruitment of inflammatory cells. Such hepatic inflammatory disorders correlated with disturbed production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and vascular factors by LSECs. We next showed in vitro that infection of LSECs by the virulent MHV3 strain altered their production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and promoted higher release of proinflammatory and procoagulant factors and earlier cell damage than infection by attenuated strains. This higher replication and proinflammatory activation in LSECs by the virulent MHV3 strain was associated with a specific activation of TLR2 signaling by the virus. We provide evidence that TLR2 activation of LSCEs by MHV3 is an aggravating factor of hepatic inflammation and correlates with the severity of hepatitis. Taken together, these results indicate that preservation of the immunotolerant properties of LSECs during acute viral hepatitis is imperative in order to limit hepatic inflammation and damage. Viral hepatitis B and C infections are serious health problems affecting over 350 million and 170 million people worldwide

  13. An Inducible Transgenic Mouse Model for Immune Mediated Hepatitis Showing Clearance of Antigen Expressing Hepatocytes by CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cebula, Marcin; Ochel, Aaron; Hillebrand, Upneet; Pils, Marina C.; Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Hauser, Hansjörg; Wirth, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    The liver has the ability to prime immune responses against neo antigens provided upon infections. However, T cell immunity in liver is uniquely modulated by the complex tolerogenic property of this organ that has to also cope with foreign agents such as endotoxins or food antigens. In this respect, the nature of intrahepatic T cell responses remains to be fully characterized. To gain deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate the CD8+ T cell responses in the liver, we established a novel OVA_X_CreERT2 mouse model. Upon tamoxifen administration OVA antigen expression is observed in a fraction of hepatocytes, resulting in a mosaic expression pattern. To elucidate the cross-talk of CD8+ T cells with antigen-expressing hepatocytes, we adoptively transferred Kb/OVA257-264-specific OT-I T cells to OVA_X_CreERT2 mice or generated triple transgenic OVA_X CreERT2_X_OT-I mice. OT-I T cells become activated in OVA_X_CreERT2 mice and induce an acute and transient hepatitis accompanied by liver damage. In OVA_X_CreERT2_X_OT-I mice, OVA induction triggers an OT-I T cell mediated, fulminant hepatitis resulting in 50% mortality. Surviving mice manifest a long lasting hepatitis, and recover after 9 weeks. In these experimental settings, recovery from hepatitis correlates with a complete loss of OVA expression indicating efficient clearance of the antigen-expressing hepatocytes. Moreover, a relapse of hepatitis can be induced upon re-induction of cured OVA_X_CreERT2_X_OT-I mice indicating absence of tolerogenic mechanisms. This pathogen-free, conditional mouse model has the advantage of tamoxifen inducible tissue specific antigen expression that reflects the heterogeneity of viral antigen expression and enables the study of intrahepatic immune responses to both de novo and persistent antigen. It allows following the course of intrahepatic immune responses: initiation, the acute phase and antigen clearance. PMID:23869228

  14. Impaired Cardiolipin Biosynthesis Prevents Hepatic Steatosis and Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Laura K.; Mejia, Edgard M.; Vandel, Marilyne; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Claypool, Steven M.; Dyck-Chan, Laura; Klein, Julianne

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are the nexus of energy metabolism, and consequently their dysfunction has been implicated in the development of metabolic complications and progression to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The unique tetra-acyl phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it maintains mitochondrial integrity. Here we show that knockdown of Tafazzin (TAZ kd), a CL transacylase, in mice results in protection against the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. We determined that hypermetabolism protected TAZ kd mice from weight gain. Unexpectedly, the large reduction of CL in the heart and skeletal muscle of TAZ kd mice was not mirrored in the liver. As a result, TAZ kd mice exhibited normal hepatic mitochondrial supercomplex formation and elevated hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Collectively, these studies identify a key role for hepatic CL remodeling in regulating susceptibility to insulin resistance and as a novel therapeutic target for diet-induced obesity. PMID:27495222

  15. Overgrazing induces alterations in the hepatic proteome of sheep (Ovis aries): an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Weibo; Hou, Xiangyang; Wang, Yuqing; Badgery, Warwick; Li, Xiliang; Ding, Yong; Guo, Huiqin; Wu, Zinian; Hu, Ningning; Kong, Lingqi; Chang, Chun; Jiang, Chao; Zhang, Jize

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of the steppe of Inner Mongolia, due to overgrazing, has resulted in ecosystem damage as well as extensive reductions in sheep production. The growth performance of sheep is greatly reduced because of overgrazing, which triggers massive economic losses every year. The liver is an essential organ that has very important roles in multiple functions, such as nutrient metabolism, immunity and others, which are closely related to animal growth. However, to our knowledge, no detailed studies have evaluated hepatic metabolism adaption in sheep due to overgrazing. The molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects remain unclear. In the present study, our group applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic analysis to investigate changes in the protein profiles of sheep hepatic tissues when nutrition was reduced due to overgrazing (12.0 sheep/ha), with the goal of characterizing the molecular mechanisms of hepatic metabolism adaption in sheep in an overgrazing condition. The body weight daily gain of sheep was greatly decreased due to overgrazing. Overall, 41 proteins were found to be differentially abundant in the hepatic tissue between a light grazing group and an overgrazing group. Most of the differentially expressed proteins identified are involved in protein metabolism, transcriptional and translational regulation, and immune response. In particular, the altered abundance of kynureninase (KYNU) and HAL (histidine ammonia-lyase) involved in protein metabolic function, integrated with the changes of serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and glucose (GLU), suggest that overgrazing triggers a shift in energy resources from carbohydrates to proteins, causing poorer nitrogen utilization efficiency. Altogether, these results suggest that the reductions in animal growth induced by overgrazing are associated with liver proteomic changes, especially the proteins involved in nitrogen compounds metabolism

  16. Vitamin C modulates cadmium-induced hepatic antioxidants' gene transcripts and toxicopathic changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Yasser S; El-Gazzar, Ahmed M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Ashry, Khaled M

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the naturally occurring heavy metals having adverse effects, while vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is an essential micronutrient for fish, which can attenuate tissue damage owing to its chain-breaking antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties. The adult Nile tilapia fish were exposed to Cd at 5 mg/l with and without vitamin C (500 mg/kg diet) for 45 days in addition to negative and positive controls fed with the basal diet and basal diet supplemented with vitamin C, respectively. Hepatic relative mRNA expression of genes involved in antioxidant function, metallothionein (MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST-α1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), was assessed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hepatic architecture was also histopathologically examined. Tilapia exposed to Cd exhibited upregulated antioxidants' gene transcript levels, GST-⍺1, GPx1, and MT by 6.10-, 4.60-, and 4.29-fold, respectively. Histopathologically, Cd caused severe hepatic changes of multifocal hepatocellular and pancreatic acinar necrosis, and lytic hepatocytes infiltrated with eosinophilic granular cells. Co-treatment of Cd-exposed fish with vitamin C overexpressed antioxidant enzyme-related genes, GST-⍺1 (16.26-fold) and GPx1 (18.68-fold), and maintained the expression of MT gene close to control (1.07-fold), averting the toxicopathic lesions induced by Cd. These results suggested that vitamin C has the potential to protect Nile tilapia from Cd hepatotoxicity via sustaining hepatic antioxidants' genes transcripts and normal histoarchitecture.

  17. Metoprolol induces oxidative damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Donkor, Kingsley; Brewer, Sharon; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Sánchez-Aceves, Livier; Elizalde-Velázquez, Armando; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2018-04-01

    During the last decade, β-blockers such as metoprolol (MTP) have been frequently detected in surface water, aquatic systems and municipal water at concentrations of ng/L to μg/L. Only a small number of studies exist on the toxic effects induced by this group of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damage induced by MTP in the common carp Cyprinus carpio, using oxidative stress biomarkers. To this end, indicators of cellular oxidation such as hydroperoxide content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were determined, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Also, concentrations of MTP and its metabolite O-desmethyl metoprolol were determined in water as well as carp gill, liver, kidney, brain and blood, along with the partial uptake pattern of these compounds. Results show that carp takes up MTP and its metabolite in the different organs evaluated, particularly liver and gill. The oxidative stress biomarkers, HPC, LPX, and PCC, as well as SOD and CAT activity all increased significantly at most exposure times in all organs evaluated. Results indicate that MTP and its metabolite induce oxidative stress on the teleost C. carpio and that the presence of these compounds may constitute a risk in water bodies for aquatic species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of lipoic Acid on acrylamide induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Lebda, Mohamed; Gad, Shereen; Gaafar, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Acrylamide is very toxic to various organs and associated with significant increase of oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants. Alpha-lipoic acid enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of alpha-lipoic acid on the oxidative damage induced by acrylamide in testicular and epididymal tissues. Forty adult male rats were divided into four groups (10 rats each). Control group; acrylamide treated group administered acrylamide 0.05% (w/v) in drinking water for 21 days; alpha-lipoic acid group received basal diet supplemented with 1% alpha-lipoic acid and forth group was exposed to acrylamide and treated with alpha-lipoic acid at the same doses and treatment regimen mentioned before. The administration of acrylamide resulted in significant elevation in testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level (MDA) and significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, acrylamide significantly reduced serum total testosterone and progesterone but increased estradiol (E2) levels. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid prior to acrylamide induced protective effects and attenuated these biochemical changes. Alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to possess antioxidant properties offering promising efficacy against oxidative stress induced by acrylamide administration.

  19. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic PPAR-γ expression.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, Simon Musyoka; Peng, Sophia; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Thorn, Natalie; Farris, Alton B; Jain, Sanjay; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Anania, Frank; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2016-01-15

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice, however, the mechanisms involved are not known. In this study we investigated the effects of GDNF overexpression and nanoparticle delivery of GDNF in mice on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and the expression of genes involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Transgenic overexpression of GDNF in liver and other metabolically active tissues was protective against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Mice overexpressing GDNF had significantly reduced P62/sequestosome 1 protein levels suggestive of accelerated autophagic clearance. They also had significantly reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CD36 gene expression and protein levels, and lower expression of mRNA coding for enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis. GDNF-loaded nanoparticles were protective against short-term HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and attenuated liver fibrosis in mice with long-standing HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. They also suppressed the liver expression of steatosis-associated genes. In vitro, GDNF suppressed triglyceride accumulation in Hep G2 cells through enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling and inhibition of PPAR-γ gene promoter activity. These results show that GDNF acts directly in the liver to protect against HFD-induced cellular stress and that GDNF may have a role in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  20. Long term radiological features of radiation-induced lung damage.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Catarina; Landau, David; McClelland, Jamie R; Ledermann, Jonathan A; Hawkes, David; Janes, Sam M; Devaraj, Anand

    2018-02-01

    To describe the radiological findings of radiation-induced lung damage (RILD) present on CT imaging of lung cancer patients 12 months after radical chemoradiation. Baseline and 12-month CT scans of 33 patients were reviewed from a phase I/II clinical trial of isotoxic chemoradiation (IDEAL CRT). CT findings were scored in three categories derived from eleven sub-categories: (1) parenchymal change, defined as the presence of consolidation, ground-glass opacities (GGOs), traction bronchiectasis and/or reticulation; (2) lung volume reduction, identified through reduction in lung height and/or distortions in fissures, diaphragm, anterior junction line and major airways anatomy, and (3) pleural changes, either thickening and/or effusion. Six patients were excluded from the analysis due to anatomical changes caused by partial lung collapse and abscess. All remaining 27 patients had radiological evidence of lung damage. The three categories, parenchymal change, shrinkage and pleural change were present in 100%, 96% and 82% respectively. All patients had at least two categories of change present and 72% all three. GGOs, reticulation and traction bronchiectasis were present in 44%, 52% and 37% of patients. Parenchymal change, lung shrinkage and pleural change are present in a high proportion of patients and are frequently identified in RILD. GGOs, reticulation and traction bronchiectasis are common at 12 months but not diagnostic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection against Oxidant-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Suntres, Zacharias E.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical, can be formed as normal products of aerobic metabolism and can be produced at elevated rates under pathophysiological conditions. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of ROS result in significant damage to cell structure and functions. In vitro studies showed that antioxidants, when applied directly and at relatively high concentrations to cellular systems, are effective in conferring protection against the damaging actions of ROS, but results from animal and human studies showed that several antioxidants provide only modest benefit and even possible harm. Antioxidants have yet to be rendered into reliable and safe therapies because of their poor solubility, inability to cross membrane barriers, extensive first-pass metabolism, and rapid clearance from cells. There is considerable interest towards the development of drug-delivery systems that would result in the selective delivery of antioxidants to tissues in sufficient concentrations to ameliorate oxidant-induced tissue injuries. Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic artificial phospholipid vesicles that offer the possibility of carrying hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and amphiphilic molecules. This paper focus on the use of liposomes for the delivery of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress. PMID:21876690

  2. Protection of cadmium chloride induced DNA damage by Lamiaceae plants

    PubMed Central

    Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the total phenolic content, DNA protecting and radical scavenging activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of three Lamiaceae plants, i.e. Anisomelos malabarica (A. malabarica), Leucas aspera (L. aspera) and Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum). Methods The total polyphenols and flavonoids were analyzed in the ethanolic leaf extracts of the lamiaceae plants. To determine the DNA protecting activity, various concentrations of the plant extracts were prepared and treated on cultured HepG2 human lung cancer cells. The pretreated cells were exposed to H2O2 to induce DNA damage through oxidative stress. Comet assay was done and the tail length of individual comets was measured. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion scavenging activities of lamiaceae plants were analyzed. Results Among the three plant extracts, the highest amount of total phenolic content was found in O. basilicum (189.33 mg/g), whereas A. malabarica showed high levels of flavonoids (10.66 mg/g). O. basilicum also showed high levels of DNA protecting (85%) and radical scavenging activity. Conclusions The results of this study shows that bioactive phenols present in lamiaceae plants may prevent carcinogenesis through scavenging free radicals and inhibiting DNA damage. PMID:23569799

  3. Sonic-boom-induced building structure responses including damage.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarkson, B. L.; Mayes, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Concepts of sonic-boom pressure loading of building structures and the associated responses are reviewed, and results of pertinent theoretical and experimental research programs are summarized. The significance of sonic-boom load time histories, including waveshape effects, are illustrated with the aid of simple structural elements such as beams and plates. Also included are discussions of the significance of such other phenomena as three-dimensional loading effects, air cavity coupling, multimodal responses, and structural nonlinearities. Measured deflection, acceleration, and strain data from laboratory models and full-scale building tests are summarized, and these data are compared, where possible, with predicted values. Damage complaint and claim experience due both to controlled and uncontrolled supersonic flights over communities are summarized with particular reference to residential, commercial, and historic buildings. Sonic-boom-induced building responses are compared with those from other impulsive loadings due to natural and cultural events and from laboratory simulation tests.

  4. Arsenite induced oxidative damage in mouse liver is associated with increased cytokeratin 18 expression.

    PubMed

    Gonsebatt, M E; Del Razo, L M; Cerbon, M A; Zúñiga, O; Sanchez-Peña, L C; Ramírez, P

    2007-09-01

    Cytokeratins (CK) constitute a family of cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are typically expressed in epithelial cells. An abnormal structure and function are effects that are clearly related to liver diseases as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We have previously observed that sodium arsenite (SA) induced the synthesis of CK18 protein and promotes a dose-related disruption of cytoplasmic CK18 filaments in a human hepatic cell line. Both abnormal gene expression and disturbance of structural organization are toxic effects that are likely to cause liver disease by interfering with normal hepatocyte function. To investigate if a disruption in the CK18 expression pattern is associated with arsenite liver damage, we investigated CK18 mRNA and protein levels in liver slices treated with low levels of SA. Organotypic cultures were incubated with 0.01, 1 and 10 microM of SA in the absence and presence of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Cell viability and inorganic arsenic metabolism were determined. Increased expression of CK18 was observed after exposure to SA. The addition of NAC impeded the oxidative effects of SA exposure, decreasing the production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and significantly diminishing the up regulation of CK18 mRNA and protein. Liver arsenic levels correlated with increased levels of mRNA. Mice treated with intragastric single doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of SA showed an increased expression of CK18. Results suggest that CK18 expression may be a sensible early biomarker of oxidative stress and damage induced by arsenite in vitro and in vivo. Then, during SA exposure, altered CK expression may compromise liver function.

  5. Naringin ameliorates sodium arsenite-induced renal and hepatic toxicity in rats: decisive role of KIM-1, Caspase-3, TGF-β, and TNF-α.

    PubMed

    Adil, Mohammad; Kandhare, Amit D; Visnagri, Asjad; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure of a naturally occurring metal arsenic leads to renal and hepatic diseases. Naringin, a flavanone glycoside, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potential. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the protective effect of naringin against arsenic-induced renal and hepatic toxicity in rats. Renal and hepatic toxicity was induced in rats by sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Rats were treated orally with either vehicle or naringin (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) or Coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg) for 28 days. Various biochemical, histological, and molecular biomarkers were assessed in kidney and liver. Treatment with naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently restored (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) altered levels of kidney (serum creatinine, urine creatinine, BUN, uric acid, and creatinine clearance) and liver function test (AST and ALT) induced by sodium arsenite. Elevated levels of oxido-nitrosative stress in renal and hepatic tissue was significantly and dose-dependently decreased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) by naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) treatment. It significantly and dose-dependently down-regulated (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) renal KIM-1, Caspase-3, TGF-β, and TNF-α mRNA expression. Histopathological alteration induced in kidney and liver by sodium arsenite was reduced by naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) treatment. In conclusion, naringin treatment ameliorates arsenic-induced renal and hepatic damage in rats due its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties via down-regulation of elevated oxido-nitrosative stress, KIM-1, Caspase-3, TGF-β, and TNF-α levels.

  6. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    used an array of countermeasures (Antioxidant diets and injections) to prevent the radiation-induced bone loss, although these did not prevent bone loss, analysis is ongoing to determine if these countermeasure protected radiation-induced damage to other tissues.

  7. Effects of isoquinoline alkaloid berberine on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense system, and liver damage induced by lead acetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, Parisa; Ghafari-Vahed, Masumeh; Khodadadi, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Liver is considered a target organ affected by lead toxicity. Oxidative stress is among the mechanisms involved in liver damage. Here we investigated the effects of the natural alkaloid berberine on oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity induced by lead in rats. Animals received an aqueous solution of lead acetate (500 mg Pb/l in the drinking water) and/or daily oral gavage of berberine (50 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Rats were then weighed and used for the biochemical, molecular, and histological evaluations. Lead-induced oxidative stress, shown by increasing lipid peroxidation along with a concomitant decrease in hepatic levels of thiol groups, total antioxidant capacity, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase, and reduced versus oxidized glutathione ratio. Berberine corrected all the disturbances in oxidative stress markers induced by lead administration. Berberine also prevented the elevated levels of enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and the decrease in body weight and albumin. The protective effects of berberine were comparable with silymarin. Furthermore, berberine attenuated liver damage, shown by decreased necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Berberine represents a potential therapeutic option against lead-induced hepatotoxicity through inhibiting lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidant defenses. Berberine exerted protective effects on lead-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats.

  8. The effect of sulforaphane on oxidative stress and inflammation in rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophene.

    PubMed

    Dokumacioglu, E; Iskender, H; Aktas, M S; Hanedan, B; Dokumacioglu, A; Sen, T M; Musmul, A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible effect of sulforaphane on oxidative stress and inflammation in rats liver with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophene. Sulforaphane is a compound with high antioxidant properties. Acetaminophen, which is a para-aminophenol derivative, can lead to fatal hepatic necrosis with direct hepatotoxic effects at high doses. Thirty six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Control group (n = 9) was fed with standard rat chow and water for 3 days. Group APAP (n = 9) received a single dose acetaminophen 1 g/kg by oral gavage in addition to standard chow and water. Group SFN (n = 9) received sulforaphane 500 μg/kg by oral gavage in addition to standard chow and water for 3 days. Group APAP+SFN (n = 9) received sulforaphane 500 μg/kg and a single dose acetaminophen 1 g/kg by oral gavage in addition to standard chow and water. Acetaminophen was administered three hours after SFN administration. Neopterin, MDA, AST, ALT and CRP levels of group APAP were significantly increased compared to control group. GSH level of group APAP was significantly lower than in the control group. Sulforaphane is a protective agent against acetaminophen-induced liver damage and it can be added in the treatment protocol (Tab. 1, Fig. 5, Ref. 51).

  9. Interferon-alpha-induced changes in metallothionein expression in liver biopsies from patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Takeaki; Suzuki, Keiji; Kondo, Toshihiko; Nakazato, Kyomi; Kakizaki, Satoru; Takagi, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Katuyuki

    2005-08-01

    An association between reactive oxygen species and liver damage has been postulated in the course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Metallothionein (MT), induced by HCV core protein and interferon (IFN), plays a role in scavenging free radicals. MT expression in liver biopsies obtained from 21 patients with chronic HCV infection before and after IFN-alpha therapy was investigated. Changes in Knodell histological activity index (HAI) scores, MT protein levels (immunohistochemistry), MT-I and MT-II messenger (m)RNA expression levels (in situ hybridization) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labelling index were determined and compared in serial liver specimens. MT staining was clustered around the portal tracts with inflammatory cells and fibrosis. The pattern of MT protein before IFN-alpha therapy was similar in all patients, but was higher in IFN-sustained responders than in nonresponders after IFN-alpha therapy. HAI scores and PCNA labelling indexes were significantly reduced after IFN-alpha therapy. MT-II mRNA expression correlated positively with PCNA index before therapy and with HAI scores after therapy (P<0.05). No correlation was found between MT-I mRNA and HAI scores or PCNA index. The findings indicate that IFN-alpha-induced hepatic MT may participate in the therapeutic effects of IFN-alpha for HCV. In addition, MT-II mRNA expression may be involved in cell proliferation in the livers of patients with chronic HCV infection.

  10. Histological and immunohistochemical effects of Curcuma longa on activation of rat hepatic stellate cells after cadmium induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Mansy, A A; Mazroa, S A; Hamed, W S; Yaseen, A H; El-Mohandes, E A

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a target for toxic chemicals such as cadmium (Cd). When the liver is damaged, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are activated and transformed into myofibroblast-like cells, which are responsible for liver fibrosis. Curcuma longa has been reported to exert a hepato-protective effect under various pathological conditions. We investigated the effects of C. longa administration on HSC activation in response to Cd induced hepatotoxicity. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group 1 (control), group 2 (Cd treated), group 3 (C. longa treated) and group 4 (Cd and C. longa treated). After 6 weeks, liver specimens were prepared for light and electron microscopy examination of histological changes and immunohistochemical localization of alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) as a specific marker for activated HSC. Activated HSC with a positive αSMA immune reaction were not detected in groups 1 and 3. Large numbers of activated HSC with αSMA immune reactions were observed in group 2 in addition to Cd induced hepatotoxic changes including excess collagen deposition in thickened portal triads, interlobular septa with hepatic lobulation, inflammatory cell infiltration, a significant increase in Kupffer cells and degenerated hepatocytes. In group 4, we observed a significant decrease in HSC that expressed αSMA with amelioration of the hepatotoxic changes. C. longa administration decreased HSC activation and ameliorated hepatotoxic changes caused by Cd in adult rats.

  11. Influence of alpha-lipoic acid on nicotine-induced lung and liver damage in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Ateyya, Hayam; Nader, Manar A; Attia, Ghalia M; El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine mediates some of the injurious effects caused by consuming tobacco products. This work aimed at investigating the defensive role of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) with its known antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect in nicotine-induced lung and liver damage. Rats were arranged into 4 groups: control, nicotine, ALA, and ALA-nicotine groups. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status were determined by assessing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) levels in lung and liver. Liver enzymes and lipid profiles were measured and pulmonary and hepatic damage were assessed by histopathological examination. Also, serum levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were determined. The results revealed an increase in TBARS in tissues and a reduction in both SOD and GSH activity in the nicotine-treated rats. Nicotine induced high levels of liver enzymes, TGF-β1, VCAM-1, and dyslipidemia with histopathological changes in the lung and liver. ALA administration along with nicotine attenuated oxidative stress and normalized the SOD and GSH levels, ameliorated dyslipidemia, and improved TGF-β1 and VCAM-1 with better histopathology of the lung and liver. The study data revealed that ALA may be beneficial in alleviating nicotine-induced oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and both lung and liver damage.

  12. Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) Is an Essential Modifier of Glucocorticoid-Induced Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Robin; Benz, Verena; Clemenz, Markus; Bloch, Mandy; Foryst-Ludwig, Anna; Wardat, Sami; Witte, Nicole; Trappiel, Manuela; Namsolleck, Pawel; Mai, Knut; Spranger, Joachim; Matthias, Gabriele; Roloff, Tim; Truee, Oliver; Kappert, Kai; Schupp, Michael; Matthias, Patrick; Kintscher, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the importance of histone deacetylase (HDAC)6 for glucocorticoid receptor–mediated effects on glucose metabolism and its potential as a therapeutic target for the prevention of glucocorticoid-induced diabetes. Dexamethasone-induced hepatic glucose output and glucocorticoid receptor translocation were analyzed in wild-type (wt) and HDAC6-deficient (HDAC6KO) mice. The effect of the specific HDAC6 inhibitor tubacin was analyzed in vitro. wt and HDAC6KO mice were subjected to 3 weeks’ dexamethasone treatment before analysis of glucose and insulin tolerance. HDAC6KO mice showed impaired dexamethasone-induced hepatic glucocorticoid receptor translocation. Accordingly, dexamethasone-induced expression of a large number of hepatic genes was significantly attenuated in mice lacking HDAC6 and by tubacin in vitro. Glucose output of primary hepatocytes from HDAC6KO mice was diminished. A significant improvement of dexamethasone-induced whole-body glucose intolerance as well as insulin resistance in HDAC6KO mice compared with wt littermates was observed. This study demonstrates that HDAC6 is an essential regulator of hepatic glucocorticoid-stimulated gluconeogenesis and impairment of whole-body glucose metabolism through modification of glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation. Selective pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 may provide a future therapeutic option against the prodiabetogenic actions of glucocorticoids. PMID:22210316

  13. Valproate induced hepatic steatosis by enhanced fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xupeng; Hong, Weipeng; Cai, Peiheng; Chen, Yibei; Xu, Chuncao; Cao, Di; Yu, Weibang; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Huang, Min; Jin, Jing

    2017-06-01

    Steatosis is the characteristic type of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and may result in life-threatening hepatic lesion. Approximately 61% of patients treated with VPA have been diagnosed with hepatic steatosis through ultrasound examination. However, the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced intracellular fat accumulation are not yet fully understood. Here we demonstrated the involvement of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo by using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, western blotting analysis, fatty acid uptake assays, Nile Red staining assays, and Oil Red O staining assays. Specifically, we found that the expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), an important fatty acid transport, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) were significantly up-regulated in HepG2 cells and livers of C57B/6J mice after treatment with VPA. Furthermore, VPA treatment remarkably enhanced the efficiency of fatty acid uptake mediated by CD36, while this effect was abolished by the interference with CD36-specific siRNA. Also, VPA treatment significantly increased DGAT2 expression as a result of the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) - extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway; however, DGAT2 knockdown significantly alleviated VPA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. Additionally, we also found that sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)-mediated fatty acid synthesis may be not involved in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis. Overall, VPA-triggered over-regulation of CD36 and DGAT2 could be helpful for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced hepatic steatosis and may offer novel therapeutic strategies to combat VPA-induced hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Altered Hepatic Transport by Fetal Arsenite Exposure in Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Ditzel, Eric J; Li, Hui; Foy, Caroline E; Perrera, Alec B; Parker, Patricia; Renquist, Benjamin J; Cherrington, Nathan J; Camenisch, Todd D

    2016-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease can result in changes to drug metabolism and disposition potentiating adverse drug reactions. Furthermore, arsenite exposure during development compounds the severity of diet-induced fatty liver disease. This study examines the effects of arsenite potentiated diet-induced fatty liver disease on hepatic transport in male mice. Changes were detected for Mrp2/3/4 hepatic transporter gene expression as well as for Oatp1a4/2b1/1b2. Plasma concentrations of Mrp and Oatp substrates were increased in arsenic exposure groups compared with diet-only controls. In addition, murine embryonic hepatocytes and adult primary hepatocytes show significantly altered transporter expression after exposure to arsenite alone: a previously unreported phenomenon. These data indicate that developmental exposure to arsenite leads to changes in hepatic transport which could increase the risk for ADRs during fatty liver disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Analysis of Arg-Gly-Asp mimetics and soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor as therapeutic modalities for concanavalin A induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, R; Shirin, H; Hershkoviz, R; Lider, O; Kenet, G; Aeed, H; Matas, Z; Zaidel, L; Halpern, Z

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: It has been shown that synthetic non-peptidic analogues of Arg-Gly-Asp, a major cell adhesive ligand of extracellular matrix, prevented an increase in serum aminotransferase activity, as a manifestation of concanavalin A induced liver damage in mice. This study examined the effects of an Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic on liver histology and cytokine release in response to concanavalin A administration, and the efficacy of soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha in preventing hepatitis in this model of liver injury. METHODS: Mice were pretreated with either the Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic SF-6,5 or recombinant soluble receptor of TNF alpha before their inoculation with 10 mg/kg concanavalin A. Liver enzymes, histology, and the serum values of TNF alpha and interleukin (IL)6 were examined. RESULTS: The histopathological damage in the liver, and the concanavalin A induced release of TNF alpha and IL6 were significantly inhibited by the synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic (p < 0.001). Liver injury, manifested by the increase in serum aminotransferase and cytokines, as well as by histological manifestations of hepatic damage, was effectively prevented by pretreatment of the mice with the soluble TNF receptor (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the efficacy of a synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic and soluble TNF receptor in the prevention of immune mediated liver damage in mice. Images PMID:9155591

  16. Overexpression of NRK1 ameliorates diet- and age-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Cui, Jing; Ren, Feng; Wang, Qingzhi; Huang, Yanmei; Zhao, Bin; Wei, Lai; Qian, Xinlai; Xiong, Xiwen

    2018-06-02

    NAD + is a co-enzyme in redox reactions and a substrate required for activity of various enzyme families, including sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Dietary supplementation of NAD + precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR) protects against metabolic disease, neurodegenerative disorders and age-related physiological decline in mammals. Here we sought to identify the roles of nicotinamide riboside kinase 1 (NRK1) plays in regulating hepatic NAD + biosynthesis and lipid metabolism. Using adenovirus mediated gene transduction to overexpress or knockdown NRK1 in mouse liver, we have demonstrated that NRK1 is critical for maintaining hepatic NAD + levels and triglyceride content. We have further shown that the hepatic expression of Nmrk1 mRNA is significantly decreased either in mice treated with high-fat diet or in aged mice. However, adenoviral delivery of NRK1 in these diet- and age-induced mice elevates hepatic NAD + levels, reduces hepatic steatosis, and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Our results provide important insights in targeting NRK1 for treating hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exenatide Induces Impairment of Autophagy Flux to Damage Rat Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Huang, Lihua; Yu, Xiao; Yu, Can; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Xia; Han, Duo; Huang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the alteration of autophagy in rat pancreas treated with exenatide. Normal Sprague-Dawley rats and diabetes-model rats induced by 2-month high-sugar and high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection were subcutaneously injected with exenatide, respectively, for 10 weeks, with homologous rats treated with saline as control. Meanwhile, AR42J cells, pancreatic acinar cell line, were cultured with exenatide at doses of 5 pM for 3 days. The pancreas was disposed, and several sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expressions of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas, and Western blot was used to test the expressions of GLP-1R, light chain 3B-I and -II, and p62 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells. The data were expressed as mean (standard deviation) and analyzed by unpaired Student's t-test. Exenatide can induce pathological changes in rat pancreas. The GLP-1R, p62, light chain 3B-II, and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells treated with exenatide were significantly overexpressed. Exenatide can activate and upregulate its receptor, GLP-1R, then impair autophagy flux and activate apoptosis in the pancreatic acinar cell, thus damaging rat pancreas.

  18. Chromium-induced membrane damage: protective role of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Dey, S K; Nayak, P; Roy, S

    2001-07-01

    Importance of chromium as environmental toxicant is largely due to impact on the body to produce cellular toxicity. The impact of chromium and their supplementation with ascorbic acid was studied on plasma membrane of liver and kidney in male Wistar rats (80-100 g body weight). It has been observed that the intoxication with chromium (i.p.) at the dose of 0.8 mg/100 g body weight per day for a period of 28 days causes significant increase in the level of cholesterol and decrease in the level of phospholipid of both liver and kidney. The alkaline phosphatase, total ATPase and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activities were significantly decreased in both liver and kidney after chromium treatment, except total ATPase activity of kidney. It is suggested that chromium exposure at the present dose and duration induce for the alterations of structure and function of both liver and kidney plasma membrane. Ascorbic acid (i.p. at the dose of 0.5 mg/100 g body weight per day for period of 28 days) supplementation can reduce these structural changes in the plasma membrane of liver and kidney. But the functional changes can not be completely replenished by the ascorbic acid supplementation in response to chromium exposure. So it is also suggested that ascorbic acid (nutritional antioxidant) is useful free radical scavenger to restrain the chromium-induced membrane damage.

  19. Both Complexity and Location of DNA Damage Contribute to Cellular Senescence Induced by Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xurui; Ye, Caiyong; Sun, Fang; Wei, Wenjun; Hu, Burong; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Persistent DNA damage is considered as a main cause of cellular senescence induced by ionizing radiation. However, the molecular bases of the DNA damage and their contribution to cellular senescence are not completely clear. In this study, we found that both heavy ions and X-rays induced senescence in human uveal melanoma 92–1 cells. By measuring senescence associated-β-galactosidase and cell proliferation, we identified that heavy ions were more effective at inducing senescence than X-rays. We observed less efficient repair when DNA damage was induced by heavy ions compared with X-rays and most of the irreparable damage was complex of single strand breaks and double strand breaks, while DNA damage induced by X-rays was mostly repaired in 24 hours and the remained damage was preferentially associated with telomeric DNA. Our results suggest that DNA damage induced by heavy ion is often complex and difficult to repair, thus presents as persistent DNA damage and pushes the cell into senescence. In contrast, persistent DNA damage induced by X-rays is preferentially associated with telomeric DNA and the telomere-favored persistent DNA damage contributes to X-rays induced cellular senescence. These findings provide new insight into the understanding of high relative biological effectiveness of heavy ions relevant to cancer therapy and space radiation research. PMID:27187621

  20. Ischemic Preconditioning Blunts Muscle Damage Responses Induced by Eccentric Exercise.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alexander; Behringer, Michael; Harmsen, Jan-Frieder; Mayer, Constantin; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Zilkens, Christoph; Schumann, Moritz

    2018-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is known to reduce muscle damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion injury during surgery. Because of similarities between the pathophysiological formation of ischemia and reperfusion injury and eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), as characterized by an intracellular accumulation of Ca, an increased production of reactive oxygen species, and increased proinflammatory signaling, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether IPC performed before eccentric exercise may also protect against EIMD. Nineteen healthy men were matched to an eccentric-only (ECC; n = 9) or eccentric proceeded by IPC group (IPC + ECC; n = 10). The exercise protocol consisted of bilateral biceps curls (3 × 10 repetitions at 80% of the concentric one-repetition maximum). In IPC + ECC, IPC was applied bilaterally at the upper arms by a tourniquet (200 mm Hg) immediately before the exercise (3 × 5 min of occlusion, separated by 5 min of reperfusion). Creatine kinase (CK), arm circumference, subjective pain (visual analog scale score), and radial displacement (tensiomyography, maximal radial displacement) were assessed before IPC, preexercise, postexercise, and 20 min, 2 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h postexercise. CK differed from baseline only in ECC at 48 h (P < 0.001) and 72 h (P < 0.001) postexercise. After 24, 48, and 72 h, CK was increased in ECC compared with IPC + ECC (between groups: 24 h, P = 0.004; 48 h, P < 0.001; 72 h, P < 0.001). The visual analog scale score was significantly higher in ECC at 24-72 h postexercise when compared with IPC + ECC (between groups: all P values < 0.001). The maximal radial displacement was decreased on all postexercise days in ECC (all P values < 0.001) but remained statistically unchanged in IPC + ECC (between groups: P < 0.01). These findings indicate that IPC performed before a bout of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors blunts EIMD and exercise-induced pain while maintaining the contractile

  1. An alternative medicine, Agaricus blazei, may have induced severe hepatic dysfunction in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Toru; Ando, Masashi; Katsumata, Noriyuki

    2006-12-01

    We report three cases of patients with advanced cancer who showed severe hepatic damage, and two of whom died of fulminant hepatitis. All the patients were taking Agaricus blazei (Himematsutake) extract, one of the most popular complementary and alternative medicines among Japanese cancer patients. In one patient, liver functions recovered gradually after she stopped taking the Agaricus blazei, but she restarted taking it, which resulted in deterioration of the liver function again. The other patients who were admitted for severe liver damage had started taking the Agaricus blazei several days before admission. Although several other factors cannot be completely ruled out as the causes of liver damage, a strong causal relationship between the Agaricus blazei extract and liver damage was suggested and, at least, taking the Agaricus blazei extract made the clinical decision-making process much more complicated. Doctors who are aware of their patients taking the extract may accept it probably because they believe there is no harm in a complementary and alternative medicine. When unexpected liver damage is documented, however, doctors should consider the use of the Agaricus blazei extract as one of its causal factors. It is necessary to evaluate many modes of complementary and alternative medicines, including the Agaricus blazei extract, in rigorous, scientifically designed and peer-reviewed clinical trials.

  2. Immunizations with chimeric hepatitis B virus-like particles to induce potential anti-hepatitis C virus neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Vietheer, Patricia T K; Boo, Irene; Drummer, Heidi E; Netter, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are highly immunogenic and proven to induce protective immunity. The small surface antigen (HBsAg-S) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) self-assembles into VLPs and its use as a vaccine results in protective antiviral immunity against HBV infections. Chimeric HBsAg-S proteins carrying foreign epitopes allow particle formation and have the ability to induce anti-foreign humoral and cellular immune responses. The insertion of the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequence derived from the envelope protein 2 (E2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into the major antigenic site of HBsAg-S ('a'-determinant) resulted in the formation of highly immunogenic VLPs that retained the antigenicity of the inserted HVR1 sequence. BALB/c mice were immunized with chimeric VLPs, which resulted in antisera with anti-HCV activity. The antisera were able to immunoprecipitate native HCV envelope complexes (E1E2) containing homologous or heterologous HVR1 sequences. HCV E1E2 pseudotyped HIV-1 particles (HCVpp) were used to measure entry into HuH-7 target cells in the presence or absence of antisera that were raised against chimeric VLPs. Anti-HVR1 VLP sera interfered with entry of entry-competent HCVpps containing either homologous or heterologous HVR1 sequences. Also, immunizations with chimeric VLPs induced antisurface antigen (HBsAg) antibodies, indicating that HBV-specific antigenicity and immunogenicity of the 'a'-determinant region is retained. A multivalent vaccine against different pathogens based on the HBsAg delivery platform should be possible. We hypothesize that custom design of VLPs with an appropriate set of HCV-neutralizing epitopes will induce antibodies that would serve to decrease the viral load at the initial infecting inoculum.

  3. A Western diet induced NAFLD in LDLR(-/)(-) mice is associated with reduced hepatic glutathione synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Lee, Kwangwon; Lopez, Rocio; Previs, Stephen F; Willard, Belinda; McCullough, Arthur; Kasumov, Takhar

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Glutathione is the major anti-oxidant involved in cellular oxidative defense, however there are currently no simple non-invasive methods for assessing hepatic glutathione metabolism in patients with NAFLD. As a primary source of plasma glutathione, liver plays an important role in interorgan glutathione homeostasis. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that measurements of plasma glutathione turnover could be used to assess the hepatic glutathione metabolism in LDLR(-/)(-) mice, a mouse model of diet-induced NAFLD. Mice were fed a standard low fat diet (LFD) or a high fat diet containing cholesterol (a Western type diet (WD)). The kinetics of hepatic and plasma glutathione were quantified using the (2)H2O metabolic labeling approach. Our results show that a WD leads to reduced fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of hepatic (25%/h in LFD vs. 18%/h in WD, P<0.05) and plasma glutathione (43%/h in LFD vs. 21%/h in WD, P<0.05), without any significant effect on their absolute production rates (PRs). WD-induced concordant changes in both hepatic and plasma glutathione turnover suggest that the plasma glutathione turnover measurements could be used to assess hepatic glutathione metabolism. The safety, simplicity, and low cost of the (2)H2O-based glutathione turnover approach suggest that this method has the potential for non-invasive probing of hepatic glutathione metabolism in patients with NAFLD and other diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ameliorative effect of methanol extract of Rumex vesicarius on CCl4-induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ganaie, Majid Ahmad; Khan, Tajdar Husain; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali; Ansari, Mohd Nazam

    2015-08-01

    Rumex vesicarius L. (Polygonaceae), an edible plant, is reported to have many bioactive phytochemicals, especially flavonoids and anthraquinones with antioxidant and detoxifying properties. This study evaluated the methanolic extract of R. vasicarius (MERV) for hepatoprotective activity in rats against CCl4-induced liver damage. The whole plant extract was prepared and investigated for its hepatoprotective activity. Rats were pretreated with MERV (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 d prior to the induction of liver damage by CCl4. Animals were then sacrificed 24 h after CCl4 administration for the biochemical (AST, ALT, and ALP activity in serum; lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels in liver tissue) and histological analyses. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was confirmed by an increase (p < 0.05) in serum AST (4.55-fold), ALT (3.51-fold), and ALP (1.82-fold) activities. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was also manifested by an increase (p < 0.05) in LPO (3.88-fold) and depletion of reduced glutathione (3.14-fold) activity in liver tissue. The multiple dose MERV administration at 200 mg/kg showed promising hepatoprotective activity as evident from significant decrease levels of serum AST (230.01 ± 13.21), serum ALT (82.15 ± 5.01), serum ALP (504.75 ± 19.72), hepatic LPO (3.38 ± 0.33), and increased levels of hepatic glutathione (0.34 ± 0.04) towards near normal. Further, biochemical results were confirmed by histopathological changes as compared with CCl4-intoxicated rats. The results obtained from this study indicate hepatoprotective activity of Rumex plant against CCl4-induced liver toxicity; hence, it can be used as a hepatoprotective agent.

  5. Azithromycin induced hepatocellular toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy in asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bidyut Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Azithromycin is a widely used macrolide derivative and has generally been considered to be a very safe medication. Though gastrointestinal symptoms and reversible hearing loss are common, potentially serious side effects including angioedema and cholestatic jaundice occurred in less than one percent of patients. We report a case of asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy with Azithromycin induced severe hepatocellular toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:22144789

  6. Increased hepatic CD36 expression contributes to dyslipidemia associated with diet-induced obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The etiology of type 2 diabetes often involves diet-induced obesity (DIO), which is associated with elevated plasma fatty acids and lipoprotein associated triglycerides. Since aberrant hepatic fatty acid uptake may contribute to this, we investigated whether increased expression of a fatty acid tran...

  7. 2-heptyl-formononetin increases cholesterol and induces hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Charlotte; Schjoldager, Janne G; Tortzen, Christian G; Vegge, Andreas; Hufeldt, Majbritt R; Skaanild, Mette T; Vogensen, Finn K; Kristiansen, Karsten; Hansen, Axel K; Nielsen, John

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of isoflavones may prevent adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and dyslipidaemia. However, studies in the area are few and primarily with genistein. This study investigated the effects of formononetin and its synthetic analogue, 2-heptyl-formononetin (C7F), on lipid and cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for five weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and were then fed either the cholesterol-enriched diet or the cholesterol-enriched diet-supplemented formononetin or C7F for three weeks. Body weight and composition, glucose homeostasis, and plasma lipids were compared. In another experiment, mice were fed the above diets for five weeks, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and gene expression and histology of adipose tissue and liver were examined. Supplementation with C7F increased plasma HDL-cholesterol thereby increasing the plasma level of total cholesterol. Supplementation with formononetin did not affect plasma cholesterol but increased plasma triglycerides levels. Supplementation with formononetin and C7F induced hepatic steatosis. However, formononetin decreased markers of inflammation and liver injury. The development of hepatic steatosis was associated with deregulated expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. In conclusion, supplementation with formononetin and C7F to a cholesterol-enriched diet adversely affected lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

  8. 2-Heptyl-Formononetin Increases Cholesterol and Induces Hepatic Steatosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Charlotte; Schjoldager, Janne G.; Tortzen, Christian G.; Vegge, Andreas; Hufeldt, Majbritt R.; Skaanild, Mette T.; Vogensen, Finn K.; Kristiansen, Karsten; Hansen, Axel K.; Nielsen, John

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of isoflavones may prevent adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and dyslipidaemia. However, studies in the area are few and primarily with genistein. This study investigated the effects of formononetin and its synthetic analogue, 2-heptyl-formononetin (C7F), on lipid and cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for five weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and were then fed either the cholesterol-enriched diet or the cholesterol-enriched diet-supplemented formononetin or C7F for three weeks. Body weight and composition, glucose homeostasis, and plasma lipids were compared. In another experiment, mice were fed the above diets for five weeks, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and gene expression and histology of adipose tissue and liver were examined. Supplementation with C7F increased plasma HDL-cholesterol thereby increasing the plasma level of total cholesterol. Supplementation with formononetin did not affect plasma cholesterol but increased plasma triglycerides levels. Supplementation with formononetin and C7F induced hepatic steatosis. However, formononetin decreased markers of inflammation and liver injury. The development of hepatic steatosis was associated with deregulated expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. In conclusion, supplementation with formononetin and C7F to a cholesterol-enriched diet adversely affected lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23738334

  9. Morin Hydrate Mitigates Cisplatin-Induced Renal and Hepatic Injury by Impeding Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress and Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    K V, Athira; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Samudrala, Pavan Kumar; Lahkar, Mangala; Gogoi, Ranadeep

    2016-12-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug; however, it induces damage on kidney and liver at clinically effective higher doses. Morin hydrate possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of morin hydrate (50 and 100 mg/kg, orally) against the renohepatic toxicity induced by a high dose of cisplatin (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Renal and hepatic function, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and inflammatory markers along with histopathology were evaluated. Morin hydrate ameliorated cisplatin-induced renohepatic toxicity significantly at 100 mg/kg as evidenced from the significant reversal of cisplatin-induced body weight loss, mortality, functional and structural alterations of kidney, and liver. The protective role offered by morin hydrate against cisplatin-induced renohepatic toxicity is by virtue of its free radical scavenging property, thereby abating the depletion of cellular antioxidant defense components and through modulation of inflammatory cytokines. We speculate morin hydrate as a protective candidate against renohepatic toxicity of cisplatin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The prevention and treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Howatson, Glyn; van Someren, Ken A

    2008-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) can be caused by novel or unaccustomed exercise and results in a temporary decrease in muscle force production, a rise in passive tension, increased muscle soreness and swelling, and an increase in intramuscular proteins in blood. Consequently, EIMD can have a profound effect on the ability to perform subsequent bouts of exercise and therefore adhere to an exercise training programme. A variety of interventions have been used prophylactically and/or therapeutically in an attempt to reduce the negative effects associated with EIMD. This article focuses on some of the most commonly used strategies, including nutritional and pharmacological strategies, electrical and manual therapies and exercise. Long-term supplementation with antioxidants or beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate appears to provide a prophylactic effect in reducing EIMD, as does the ingestion of protein before and following exercise. Although the administration of high-dose NSAIDs may reduce EIMD and muscle soreness, it also attenuates the adaptive processes and should therefore not be prescribed for long-term treatment of EIMD. Whilst there is some evidence that stretching and massage may reduce muscle soreness, there is little evidence indicating any performance benefits. Electrical therapies and cryotherapy offer limited effect in the treatment of EIMD; however, inconsistencies in the dose and frequency of these and other interventions may account for the lack of consensus regarding their efficacy. Both as a cause and a consequence of this, there are very few evidence-based guidelines for the application of many of these interventions. Conversely, there is unequivocal evidence that prior bouts of eccentric exercise provide a protective effect against subsequent bouts of potentially damaging exercise. Further research is warranted to elucidate the most appropriate dose and frequency of interventions to attenuate EIMD and if these interventions attenuate the

  11. Pro-Inflammatory Activated Kupffer Cells by Lipids Induce Hepatic NKT Cells Deficiency through Activation-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tongfang; Sui, Yongheng; Lian, Min; Li, Zhiping; Hua, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through alternation of liver innate immune response. Aims The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. Methods Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. Results High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. Conclusion High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD. PMID:24312613

  12. Cystathionine γ-Lyase Deficiency Exacerbates CCl4-Induced Acute Hepatitis and Fibrosis in the Mouse Liver.

    PubMed

    Ci, Lei; Yang, Xingyu; Gu, Xiaowen; Li, Qing; Guo, Yang; Zhou, Ziping; Zhang, Mengjie; Shi, Jiahao; Yang, Hua; Wang, Zhugang; Fei, Jian

    2017-07-20

    The present study examined the role of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver damage. A CSE gene knock-out and luciferase gene knock-in (KI) mouse model was constructed to study the function of CSE and to trace its expression in living status. CCl 4 or lipopolysaccharide markedly downregulated CSE expression in the liver of mice. CSE-deficient mice showed increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and liver damage after CCl 4 challenge, whereas albumin and endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) levels decreased significantly. CSE knockout mice showed increased serum homocysteine levels, upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, and increased autophagy and IκB-α degradation in the liver in response to CCl 4 treatment. The increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha in CSE-deficient mice after CCl 4 challenge, was accompanied by a significant increase in liver tissue hydroxyproline and α-smooth muscle actin and histopathologic changes in the liver. However, H 2 S donor pretreatment effectively attenuated most of these imbalances. Here, a CSE knock-out and luciferase KI mouse model was established for the first time to study the transcriptional regulation of CSE expression in real time in a non-invasive manner, providing information on the effects and potential mechanisms of CSE on CCl 4 -induced liver injury. CSE deficiency increases pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver and exacerbates acute hepatitis and liver fibrosis by reducing H 2 S production from L-cysteine in the liver. The present data suggest the potential of an H 2 S donor for the treatment of liver diseases such as toxic hepatitis and fibrosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 133-149.

  13. Radiation-Induced Damage to Nucleic Acid Constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heasook

    The objective of this research was to identify the primary free radical species produced by ionizing radiation in DNA. The ultimate goal would be to use these data obtained from model compounds to analyze radiation-induced damage in DNA itself. The different single crystals were studied in detail. The first was the sodium salt of guanosine-3 ^':5^' -cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP). The results of studies on crystals irradiated at 4.2^ circK distinguished two species. One of these species exhibited a non-exchangeable proton coupling that was characterized by ENDOR spectroscopy and shown to be sigma proton. The spin density on C8 was deduced from the ENDOR hyperfine coupling tensor and found to be 0.15. The second species also exhibited a non-exchangeable sigma proton coupling and a beta proton coupling. The spin densities on C8 and N9 were deduced from ENDOR measurements to be 0.09 and 0.36. The former is attributed to the oxidation product and the latter to the primary reduction product. These products are respectively the guanine cation and anion. The second single crystal studied was a sodium salt of 2^'-deoxyguanosine -5^'-monophosphate tetrahydrate. The ESR and ENDOR spectra obtained from this crystal after x-irradiation at 4.2^circK were complex and the paramagnetic species were tentatively identified as ionic species. The third DNA model compound studied was thymidine. Single crystal of thymidine were irradiated at 1.6^ circK and at 4.2^circ K. The lower temperature preserved a more primitive stage of the radiation damage process. ENDOR measurements distinguished three paramagnetic species. The most interesting component of the paramagnetic absorption in crystals irradiated at 1.6^circK is attributed to trapped electron. These electrons are stabilized by the electrostatic fields generated by hydroxy dipoles. The hyperfine couplings between the trapped electron and the proton of these polar groups were deduced from ENDOR measurements. The ESR and ENDOR

  14. Zinc protects HepG2 cells against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Wentao, E-mail: xuwentaoboy@sina.com

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are the most studied mechanisms by which ochratoxin A (OTA) induces its toxic effects, which include nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Zinc, which is an essential trace element, is considered a potential antioxidant. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplement could inhibit OTA-induced oxidative damage and DNA damage in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that that exposure of OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration; zinc supplement significantly reduced the OTA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but did notmore » affect the OTA-induced decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}). Meanwhile, the addition of the zinc chelator N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) strongly aggravated the OTA-induced oxidative damage. This study also demonstrated that zinc helped to maintain the integrity of DNA through the reduction of OTA-induced DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and DNA hypomethylation. OTA increased the mRNA expression of metallothionein1-A (MT1A), metallothionein2-A (MT2A) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Zinc supplement further enhanced the mRNA expression of MT1A and MT2A, but it had no effect on the mRNA expression of SOD1 and catalase (CAT). Zinc was for the first time proven to reduce the cytotoxicity of OTA through inhibiting the oxidative damage and DNA damage, and regulating the expression of zinc-associated genes. Thus, the addition of zinc can potentially be used to reduce the OTA toxicity of contaminated feeds. - Highlights: ► OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration. ► OTA induced the formation of 8-OHdG in HepG2 cells. ► It was testified for the first time that OTA induced DNA hypomethylation. ► Zinc protects against the oxidative damage and DNA damage

  15. Ecabet sodium alleviates neomycin-induced hair cell damage.

    PubMed

    Rah, Yoon Chan; Choi, June; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Yum, Gunhwee; Park, Saemi; Oh, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Soon Young; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Suhyun; Park, Hae-Chul

    2015-12-01

    Ecabet sodium (ES) is currently applied to some clinical gastrointestinal disease primarily by the inhibition of the ROS production. In this study, the protective role of ES was evaluated against the neomycin-induced hair cell loss using zebrafish experimental animal model. Zebrafish larvae (5-7 dpf), were treated with each of the following concentrations of ES: 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/mL for 1 h, followed by 125 μM neomycin for 1h. The positive control group was established by 125 μM neomycin-only treatment (1h) and the negative control group with no additional chemicals was also established. Hair cells inside four neuromasts ( SO1, SO2, O1, OC1) were assessed using fluorescence microscopy (n = 10). Hair cell survival was calculated as the mean number of viable hair cells for each group. Apoptosis and mitochondrial damage were investigated using special staining (TUNEL and DASPEI assay, respectively), and compared among groups. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Pre-treatment group with ES increased the mean number of viable hair cells as a dose-dependent manner achieving almost same number of viable hair cells with 40 μM/ml ES treatment (12.98 ± 2.59 cells) comparing to that of the negative control group (14.15 ± 1.39 cells, p = 0.72) and significantly more number of viable hair cells than that of the positive control group (7.45 ± 0.91 cells, p < 0.01). The production of reactive oxygen species significantly increased by 183% with 125 μM neomycin treatment than the negative control group and significantly decreased down to 105% with the pre-treatment with 40 μM/ml ES (n = 40, p = 0.04). A significantly less number of TUNEL-positive cells (reflecting apoptosis, p < 0.01) and a significantly increased DASPEI reactivity (reflecting viable mitochondria, p < 0.01) were observed in 40 μM/ml ES pre-treatment group. Our data suggest that ES could protect against neomycin-induced hair cell loss possibly by reducing

  16. A Prominent Role of Interleukin-18 in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury Advocates Its Blockage for Therapy of Hepatic Necroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Malte; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2018-01-01

    Acetaminophen [paracetamol, N -acetyl- p -aminophenol (APAP)]-induced acute liver injury (ALI) not only remains a persistent clinical challenge but likewise stands out as well-characterized paradigmatic model of drug-induced liver damage. APAP intoxication associates with robust hepatic necroinflammation the role of which remains elusive with pathogenic but also pro-regenerative/-resolving functions being ascribed to leukocyte activation. Here, we shine a light on and put forward a unique role of the interleukin (IL)-1 family member IL-18 in experimental APAP-induced ALI. Indeed, amelioration of disease as previously observed in IL-18-deficient mice was further substantiated herein by application of the IL-18 opponent IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BPd:Fc) to wild-type mice. Data altogether emphasize crucial pathological action of this cytokine in APAP toxicity. Adding recombinant IL-22 to IL-18BPd:Fc further enhanced protection from liver injury. In contrast to IL-18, the role of prototypic pro-inflammatory IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α is controversially discussed with lack of effects or even protective action being repeatedly reported. A prominent detrimental function for IL-18 in APAP-induced ALI as proposed herein should relate to its pivotal role for hepatic expression of interferon-γ and Fas ligand, both of which aggravate APAP toxicity. As IL-18 serum levels increase in patients after APAP overdosing, targeting IL-18 may evolve as novel therapeutic option in those hard-to-treat patients where standard therapy with N -acetylcysteine is unsuccessful. Being a paradigmatic experimental model of ALI, current knowledge on ill-fated properties of IL-18 in APAP intoxication likewise emphasizes the potential of this cytokine to serve as therapeutic target in other entities of inflammatory liver diseases.

  17. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx)-induced abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism revealed by (1)H-NMR-based metabonomics.

    PubMed

    Dan Yue; Zhang, Yuwei; Cheng, Liuliu; Ma, Jinhu; Xi, Yufeng; Yang, Liping; Su, Chao; Shao, Bin; Huang, Anliang; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Ping

    2016-04-14

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis; however, mechanisms underlying HBx-mediated carcinogenesis remain unclear. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was applied to systematically investigate the effects of HBx on cell metabolism. EdU incorporation assay was conducted to examine the effects of HBx on DNA synthesis, an important feature of nucleic acid metabolism. The results revealed that HBx disrupted metabolism of glucose, lipids, and amino acids, especially nucleic acids. To understand the potential mechanism of HBx-induced abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism, gene expression profiles of HepG2 cells expressing HBx were investigated. The results showed that 29 genes involved in DNA damage and DNA repair were differentially expressed in HBx-expressing HepG2 cells. HBx-induced DNA damage was further demonstrated by karyotyping, comet assay, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analyses. Many studies have previously reported that DNA damage can induce abnormalities of nucleic acid metabolism. Thus, our results implied that HBx initially induces DNA damage, and then disrupts nucleic acid metabolism, which in turn blocks DNA repair and induces the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These findings further contribute to our understanding of the occurrence of HCC.

  18. Essential fatty acid-rich diets protect against striatal oxidative damage induced by quinolinic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Morales-Martínez, Adriana; Sánchez-Mendoza, Alicia; Martínez-Lazcano, Juan Carlos; Pineda-Farías, Jorge Baruch; Montes, Sergio; El-Hafidi, Mohammed; Martínez-Gopar, Pablo Eliasib; Tristán-López, Luis; Pérez-Neri, Iván; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Castro, Nelly; Ríos, Camilo; Pérez-Severiano, Francisca

    2017-09-01

    Essential fatty acids have an important effect on oxidative stress-related diseases. The Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurologic disorder in which oxidative stress caused by free radicals is an important damage mechanism. The HD experimental model induced by quinolinic acid (QUIN) has been widely used to evaluate therapeutic effects of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was to test whether the fatty acid content in olive- or fish-oil-rich diet prevents against QUIN-related oxidative damage in rats. Rats were fed during 20 days with an olive- or a fish-oil-rich diet (15% w/w). Posterior to diet period, rats were striatally microinjected with QUIN (240 nmol/µl) or saline solution. Then, we evaluated the neurological damage, oxidative status, and gamma isoform of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) expression. Results showed that fatty acid-rich diet, mainly by fish oil, reduced circling behavior, prevented the fall in GABA levels, increased PPARγ expression, and prevented oxidative damage in striatal tissue. In addition none of the enriched diets exerted changes neither on triglycerides or cholesterol blood levels, nor or hepatic function. This study suggests that olive- and fish-oil-rich diets exert neuroprotective effects.

  19. The control of iron-induced oxidative damage in isolated rat-liver mitochondria by respiration state and ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Burkitt, M J; Gilbert, B C

    1989-01-01

    The reaction of iron (II) with H2O2 is believed to generate highly reactive species (e.g. .OH) capable of initiating biological damage. This study investigates the possibility that the severity of oxidative damage induced by iron in hepatic mitochondria is determined by the level of mitochondrial-H2O2 generation, which is believed to be particularly prominent in state-4 respiration. Iron-induced damage is found to be greater in state-4 than in state-3 respiration. Experiments using uncoupling agents and Ca++ to mimic state-3 conditions indicate that this effect reflects differences in the steady-state oxidation-level of the electron carriers of the respiratory chain (and hence the level of H2O2-generation), rather than changes in redox potential or transportation of the metal-ion. Evidence is also presented for a mechanism in which Fe(II) and H2O2 react inside the mitochondrial matrix. Ascorbate (vitamin C) is shown to be pro-oxidant in this system, except when present at very high concentration when it becomes antioxidant in nature.

  20. Methylphenidate and Amphetamine Do Not Induce Cytogenetic Damage in Lymphocytes of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Kristine L.; Shelby, Michael D.; Itchon-Ramos, Nilda; Faircloth, Melissa; Kissling, Grace E.; Chrisman, Allan K.; Ravi, Hima; Murli, Hemalatha; Mattison, Donald R.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2008-01-01

    The inducement of chromosomal damage in lymphocytes among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder receiving treatment with methylphenidate- or amphetamine-based drugs is investigated. Findings did not reveal significant increases in cytogenetic damage related to the treatment. The risk for cytogenetic damage posed by such products…

  1. Trivalent Chromium Supplementation Ameliorates Oleic Acid-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Wang, Jian; Liu, Yajing; Li, Hui; Wang, Qiao; Huang, Zhiwei; Liu, Wenbin; Shi, Ping

    2018-05-24

    Trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] is recognized as an essential trace element for human health, whereas its effect on hepatic lipid metabolism has not yet been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects and potential mechanisms of Cr(III) on hepatic steatosis in an oleic acid (OA) induced mice model. Mice were fed with high OA for 12 weeks to induce lipid accumulation, and co-administrated with Cr(III) supplementation. Indexes of liver lipid accumulation, associated lipid genes expression, fatty acids (FAs) profile and inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. The data showed that Cr(III) supplementation could attenuate disease progress of hepatic steatosis and protect liver from high OA. After Cr(III) supplementation, elevated body weight and liver injury in steatosis mice were reversed, excessive lipid accumulation and FAs were also reduced. The up-regulation of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) following steatosis induction were inhibited by Cr(III). Cr(III) reduced the content of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α, IL-12) and restored the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) to the control values. Our results suggest that Cr(III) supplementation is a novel strategy for alleviating OA-induced hepatic steatosis.

  2. Lysine Acetylation of CREBH Regulates Fasting-Induced Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunbae; Mendez, Roberto; Chen, Xuequn; Fang, Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a hepatic transcription factor that functions as a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Here, we defined a regulatory CREBH posttranslational modification process, namely, lysine-specific acetylation, and its functional involvement in fasting-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Fasting induces CREBH acetylation in mouse livers in a time-dependent manner, and this event is critical for CREBH transcriptional activity in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF-mediated acetylation and the deacetylase sirtuin-1-mediated deacetylation coexist to maintain CREBH acetylation states under fasting conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses revealed that the lysine (K) residue at position 294 (K294) within the bZIP domain of the CREBH protein is the site where fasting-induced acetylation/deacetylation occurs. Introduction of the acetylation-deficient (K294R) or acetylation-mimicking (K294Q) mutation inhibited or enhanced CREBH transcriptional activity, respectively. Importantly, CREBH acetylation at lysine 294 was required for the interaction and synergy between CREBH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in activating their target genes upon fasting or glucagon stimulation. Introduction of the CREBH lysine 294 mutation in the liver leads to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in animals under prolonged fasting. In summary, our study reveals a molecular mechanism by which fasting or glucagon stimulation modulates lipid homeostasis through acetylation of CREBH. PMID:26438600

  3. Interaction of Tamoxifen and noise induced damage to the cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Jagan A; Siegel, Jonathan H

    2011-01-01

    Tamoxifen has been used extensively in the treatment of breast cancer and other neoplasms. In addition to its well-known action on estrogen receptors it is also known to acutely block chloride channels that participate in cell volume regulation. Tamoxifen’s role in preventing cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) swelling in vitro suggested that OHC swelling noted following noise exposure could potentially be a therapeutic target for Tamoxifen in its role as a chloride channel blocker to help prevent noise induced hearing loss. To investigate this possiblity, the effects of exposure to Tamoxifen on physiologic measures of cochlear function in the presence and absence of subsequent noise exposure were studied. Male Mongolian gerbils (2–4 months old) were randomly assigned to different groups. Tamoxifen at ~10 mg/kg was administered to one of the groups. Five hours later they were exposed to a one-third octave band of noise centered at 8 kHz in a sound isolation chamber for 30 minutes at 108dB SPL. Compound action potential (CAP) thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels were measured 30–35 days following noise exposure. Tamoxifen administration did not produce any changes in CAP thresholds and DPOAE levels when administered by itself in the absence of noise. Tamoxifen causes a significant increase in CAP thresholds from 8–15 kHz following noise exposure compared to CAP thresholds in animals exposed to noise alone. No significant differences were seen in the DPOAE levels the f2 = 8–15 kHz frequency range where maximum noise-induced increases in CAP thresholds were seen. Contrary to our original expectation, it is concluded that Tamoxifen potentiates the degree of damage to the cochlea resulting from noise exposure. PMID:21907781

  4. Subsurface defects of fused silica optics and laser induced damage at 351 nm.

    PubMed

    Hongjie, Liu; Jin, Huang; Fengrui, Wang; Xinda, Zhou; Xin, Ye; Xiaoyan, Zhou; Laixi, Sun; Xiaodong, Jiang; Zhan, Sui; Wanguo, Zheng

    2013-05-20

    Many kinds of subsurface defects are always present together in the subsurface of fused silica optics. It is imperfect that only one kind of defects is isolated to investigate its impact on laser damage. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the impact of subsurface defects on laser induced damage of fused silica optics with a comprehensive vision. In this work, we choose the fused silica samples manufactured by different vendors to characterize subsurface defects and measure laser induced damage. Contamination defects, subsurface damage (SSD), optical-thermal absorption and hardness of fused silica surface are characterized with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), fluorescence microscopy, photo-thermal common-path interferometer and fully automatic micro-hardness tester respectively. Laser induced damage threshold and damage density are measured by 351 nm nanosecond pulse laser. The correlations existing between defects and laser induced damage are analyzed. The results show that Cerium element and SSD both have a good correlation with laser-induced damage thresholds and damage density. Research results evaluate process technology of fused silica optics in China at present. Furthermore, the results can provide technique support for improving laser induced damage performance of fused silica.

  5. Neuroinflammation markers and methyl alcohol induced toxic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Zakharov, Sergey; Hlusicka, Jiri; Nurieva, Olga; Kotikova, Katerina; Lischkova, Lucie; Kacer, Petr; Kacerova, Tereza; Urban, Pavel; Vaneckova, Manuela; Seidl, Zdenek; Diblik, Pavel; Kuthan, Pavel; Heissigerova, Jarmila; Lesovsky, Jiri; Rulisek, Jan; Vojtova, Lucie; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Navratil, Tomas

    2018-05-04

    Methyl alcohol intoxication is a global problem with high mortality and long-term visual sequelae and severe brain damage in survivors. The role of neuroinflammation in the mechanisms of methyl alcohol-induced toxic brain damage has not been well studied. We measured the acute concentrations and dynamics of lipoxins LxA4 and LxB4 and the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-13 in the serum of patients treated with methyl alcohol poisoning and the follow-up concentrations in survivors two years after discharge from the hospital. A series of acute measurements was performed in 28 hospitalized patients (mean age 54.2 ± 5.2 years, mean observation time 88 ± 20 h) and the follow-up measurements were performed in 36 subjects who survived poisoning (including 12/28 survivors from the acute group). Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI) were performed to detect long-term visual and brain sequelae of intoxication. The acute concentrations of inflammatory mediators were higher than the follow-up concentrations: LxA4, 62.0 ± 6.0 vs. 30.0 ± 5.0 pg/mL; LxB4, 64.0 ± 7.0 vs. 34.0 ± 4.0 pg/mL; IL-4, 29.0 ± 4.0 vs. 15.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-5, 30.0 ± 4.0 vs. 13.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-9, 30.0 ± 4.0 vs. 13.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-10, 38.0 ± 5.0 vs. 16.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-13, 35.0 ± 4.0 vs. 14.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL (all p < 0.001). The patients with higher follow-up IL-5 concentration had prolonged latency P1 (r = 0.413; p = 0.033) and lower amplitude N1P1 (r = -0.498; p = 0.010) of VEP. The higher follow-up IL-10 concentration was associated with MRI signs of brain necrotic damage (r = 0.533; p = 0.001) and brain hemorrhage (r = 0.396; p = 0.020). Our findings suggest that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the mechanisms of toxic brain damage in acute methyl alcohol intoxication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Intra-Hepatic Depletion of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Liver Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bolte, Fabian J; O'Keefe, Ashley C; Webb, Lauren M; Serti, Elisavet; Rivera, Elenita; Liang, T Jake; Ghany, Marc; Rehermann, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    controls. Anti-viral therapy rapidly decreased liver inflammation and MAIT cell activation and cytotoxicity, and increased the MAIT cell frequency among intra-hepatic but not blood T cells. The MAIT cell response to T-cell receptor-mediated stimulation did not change during the 12 weeks of antiviral therapy. In analyses of paired blood and liver samples from patients with chronic HCV infection before, during, and after antiviral therapy with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir, we found that intrahepatic MAIT cells are activated by monocyte-derived cytokines and depleted in HCV-induced liver inflammation. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical analysis on laser-induced cerebral damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaosen; Liu, Jiangang; Tao, Chunkan; Lan, Xiufeng; Cao, Lingyan; Pan, Weimin; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    Experimental investigation on cerebral damage of adult SD rats induced by 532nm CW laser was performed. Tissue heat conductive equation was set up based on two-layered structure model. Finite difference algorithm was utilized to numerically simulate the temperature distribution in the brain tissue. Allowing for tissue response to temperature variation, free boundary model was used to discuss tissue thermal coagulation formation in brain. Experimental observations show that thermal coagulation and necrosis can be caused due to laser light absorption. The result of the calculation shows that the process of the thermal coagulation of the given mode comprises two stages: fast and slow. At the first stage, necrosis domain grows fast. Then necrosis domain growth becomes slower because of the competition between the heat diffusion into the surrounding undamaged tissue and the heat dissipation caused by blood perfusion. At the center of coagulation area no neuron was observed and at the transitional zone few nervous cells were seen by microscope. The research can provide reference data for developing clinical therapy of some kind of encephalic diseases by using 532nm laser, and for making cerebral infarction models in animal experiment.

  8. Pravastatin reduces radiation-induced damage in normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Seiji; Odawara, Soichi; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Tanooka, Masao; Takada, Yasuhiro; Tsujimura, Tohru; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hirota, Shozo

    2017-05-01

    Pravastatin is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl- glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase that has been reported to have therapeutic applications in a range of inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to assess the radioprotective effects of pravastatin in an experimental animal model. Mice were divided into two groups: The control group received ionizing radiation with no prior medication, while the pravastatin group received pravastatin prior to ionizing radiation. Pravastatin was administered orally at 30 mg/kg body weight in drinking water at 24 and 4 h before irradiation. Intestinal crypt epithelial cell survival and the incidence of apoptosis in the intestine and lung were measured post-irradiation. The effect of pravastatin on intestinal DNA damage was determined by immunohistochemistry. Finally, the effect of pravastatin on tumor response to radiotherapy was examined in a mouse mesothelioma xenograft model. Pravastatin increased the number of viable intestinal crypts and this effect was statistically significant in the ileum (P<0.0001). The pravastatin group showed significantly lower apoptotic indices in all examined parts of the intestine (P<0.0001) and tended to show reduced apoptosis in the lung. Pravastatin reduced the intestinal expression of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and gamma-H2AX after irradiation. No apparent pravastatin-related differences were observed in the response of xenograft tumors to irradiation. In conclusion, pravastatin had radioprotective effects on the intestine and lung and reduced radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Pravastatin may increase the therapeutic index of radiotherapy.

  9. Chemical modification of normal tissue damage induced by photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Sigdestad, C. P.; Fingar, V. H.; Wieman, T. J.; Lindberg, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the limitations of successful use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) employing porphyrins is the acute and long-term cutaneous photosensitivity. This paper describes results of experiments designed to test the effects of two radiation protective agents (WR-2721, 500 mg kg-1 or WR-3689, 700 mg kg-1) on murine skin damage induced by PDT. C3H mice were shaved and depilated three days prior to injection with the photosensitiser, Photofrin (5 or 10 mg kg-1). Twenty-four hours later, the mice were injected intraperitoneally with a protector 30 min prior to Argon dye laser (630 nm) exposure. The skin response was followed for two weeks post irradiation using an arbitrary response scale. A light dose response as well as a drug dose response was obtained. The results indicate that both protectors reduced the skin response to PDT, however WR-2721 was demonstrated to be the most effective. The effect of the protectors on vascular stasis after PDT was determined using a fluorescein dye exclusion assay. In mice treated with Photofrin (5 mg kg-1), and 630 nm light (180 J cm-2) pretreatment with either WR-2721 or WR-3689 resulted in significant protection of the vascular effects of PDT. These studies document the ability of the phosphorothioate class of radiation protective agents to reduce the effects of light on photosensitized skin. They do so in a drug dose-dependent fashion with maximum protection at the highest drug doses. PMID:8763855

  10. Methionine- and choline-deficient diet induces hepatic changes characteristic of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Marcolin, Eder; Forgiarini, Luiz Felipe; Tieppo, Juliana; Dias, Alexandre Simões; Freitas, Luiz Antonio Rodrigues de; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a disease with a high incidence, difficult diagnosis, and as yet no effective treatment. So, the use of experimental models for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induction and the study of its routes of development have been studied. This study was designed to develop an experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a methionine- and choline-deficient diet that is manufactured in Brazil so as to evaluate the liver alterations resulting from the disorder. Thirty male C57BL6 mice divided in two groups (n = 15) were used: the experimental group fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet manufactured by Brazilian company PragSoluções®, and the control group fed a normal diet, for a period of 2 weeks. The animals were then killed by exsanguination to sample blood for systemic biochemical analyses, and subsequently submitted to laparotomy with total hepatectomy and preparation of the material for histological analysis. The statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for independent samples, with significance level of 5%. The mice that received the methionine- and choline-deficient diet showed weight loss and significant increase in hepatic damage enzymes, as well as decreased systemic levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and VLDL. The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was performed in 100% of the mice that were fed the methionine- and choline-deficient diet. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed some degree of macrovesicular steatosis, ballooning, and inflammatory process. None of the animals which were fed the control diet presented histological alterations. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed significantly increased lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH activity. The low cost and easily accessible methionine- and choline-deficient diet explored in this study is highly effective in inducing steatosis and steatohepatitis in animal model, alterations

  11. Attenuation of CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice by Vaccinating against TGF-β1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang; Lv, Yifei; Su, Houqiang; Jiang, Huiping; Hao, Zhiming

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is the pivotal pro-fibrogenic cytokine in hepatic fibrosis. Reducing the over-produced expression of TGF-β1 or blocking its signaling pathways is considered to be a promising therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of attenuating hepatic fibrosis by vaccination against TGF-β1 with TGF-β1 kinoids. Two TGF-β1 kinoid vaccines were prepared by cross-linking TGF-β1-derived polypeptides (TGF-β125–[41-65] and TGF-β130–[83-112]) to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Immunization with the two TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently elicited the production of high-levels of TGF-β1-specific antibodies against in BALB/c mice as tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. The antisera neutralized TGF-β1-induced growth-inhibition on mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and attenuated TGF-β1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation, α-SMA, collagen type 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression in the rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line, HSC-T6. Vaccination against TGF-β1 with the kinoids significantly suppressed CCl4-induced collagen deposition and the expression of α-SMA and desmin, attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis and accelerated hepatocyte proliferation in BALB/c mice. These results demonstrated that immunization with the TGF-β1 kinoids efficiently attenuated CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis and liver injury. Our study suggests that vaccination against TGF-β1 might be developed into a feasible therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic fibrotic liver diseases. PMID:24349218

  12. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 μmol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin.more » The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.« less

  13. High-pressure-assisted X-ray-induced damage as a new route for materials synthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Evlyukhin, Egor; Kim, Eunja; Goldberger, David; ...

    2018-01-01

    X-ray radiation induced damage has been known for decades and has largely been viewed as a tremendous nuisance; e.g., most X-ray-related studies of organic and inorganic materials suffer X-ray damage to varying degrees. Although, recent theoretical and experimental investigation of the response of simple chemical systems to X-rays offered better understanding of the mechanistic details of X-ray induced damage, the question about useful applicability of this technique is still unclear. Furthermore we experimentally demonstrate that by tuning pressure and X-ray energy, the radiation induced damage can be controlled and used for synthesis of novel materials.

  14. Robust optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of dielectric mirrors for high power lasers.

    PubMed

    Chorel, Marine; Lanternier, Thomas; Lavastre, Éric; Bonod, Nicolas; Bousquet, Bruno; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-30

    We report on a numerical optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of multi-dielectric high reflection mirrors in the sub-picosecond regime. We highlight the interplay between the electric field distribution, refractive index and intrinsic laser induced damage threshold of the materials on the overall laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the multilayer. We describe an optimization method of the multilayer that minimizes the field enhancement in high refractive index materials while preserving a near perfect reflectivity. This method yields a significant improvement of the damage resistance since a maximum increase of 40% can be achieved on the overall LIDT of the multilayer.

  15. Effect of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically alcohol-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jinle; Zhu, Wenxue; Li, Zhixi; Ling, Shengbao

    2012-06-01

    The protective effects of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically ethanol-induced biochemical changes in male mice were investigated. Administration of ethanol (50%, v/v, 10 mL kg⁻¹) to mice for 6 weeks induced liver damage with a significant increase (P < 0.01) of the liver index, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) in the serum and the hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. In contrast, administration of juice or fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles (10 mL kg⁻¹ bw) along with alcohol significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the activities of the enzymes (AST, ALT and γ-GT), liver index, concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TCH) in the serum and the hepatic TG and LPO levels. Mice treated with juice or fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles showed better profiles of the antioxidant systems with relatively higher glutathione (GSH) content, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. All these results were accompanied by histological observations in liver. The results demonstrate that both of the juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles have beneficial effects in reducing the adverse effect of alcohol.

  16. Regorafenib induced severe toxic hepatitis: characterization and discussion.

    PubMed

    Sacré, Anne; Lanthier, Nicolas; Dano, Hélène; Aydin, Selda; Leggenhager, Daniela; Weber, Achim; Dekairelle, Anne-France; De Cuyper, Astrid; Gala, Jean-Luc; Humblet, Yves; Sempoux, Christine; Van den Eynde, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Regorafenib is the first small-molecule multikinase inhibitor which showed survival benefits in pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Besides classical adverse events of this drug class, hepatotoxicity has been described as a frequent side effect. Patients with refractory mCRC treated with regorafenib in our institution were reviewed. Severe treatment-related liver toxicity was investigated. Clinical history, liver histology and genetic assessment (sequence analysis) of cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4) and uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 (UGT1A9) involved in regorafenib metabolization were here reported for patients with severe hepatotoxicity. Among the 93 reviewed patients, 3 presented severe and icteric toxic hepatitis which was fatal for 1 patient. Histopathological liver lesions were different depending on the onset of hepatotoxicity (acute or subacute): acinar zone 3 necrosis in case of acute symptoms, and portal tract inflammation with porto-central bridging and fibrosis in the delayed presentation. None of the patients had CYP3A4 gene mutations. Similar polymorphisms in UGT1A9 gene promoter region (UGT1A9 variant -118T 9>10 [rs3832043]) were found in both patients who presented acute hepatitis. Moreover, it appears retrospectively that both of them already experienced significant toxicity under irinotecan-based chemotherapy. This is the first report of severe hepatotoxicity with available liver histology and genetic assessment of enzymes involved in regorafenib metabolization. This report also reminds the importance of close liver tests monitoring during regorafenib treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Betaine reduces hepatic lipidosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Junnila, M; Barak, A J; Beckenhauer, H C; Rahko, T

    1998-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride-injected rats were given liquid diets with and without betaine for 7 d. Hepatic lipidosis was induced by 4 daily injections of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Animals were killed and their livers and blood taken for analysis of betaine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Liver samples were also processed and stained for histological examination. Supplemental betaine reduced triglyceride in the liver and centrilobular hepatic lipidosis induced by the CCl4 injections. In both the control and experimental groups receiving betaine, liver betaine, BHMT and SAM were significantly higher than in their respective groups not receiving betaine. This study provides evidence that betaine protects the liver against CCl4-induced lipidosis and may be a useful therapeutic and prophylactic agent in ameliorating the harmful effects of CCl4.

  18. Prevention by zinc of cadmium-induced alterations in pancreatic and hepatic functions.

    PubMed Central

    Merali, Z; Singhal, R L

    1976-01-01

    Subacute cadmium treatment (CdCl2, 1 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days) in rats disturbs glucose homeostasis as shown by hyperglycemia and decreased glucose tolerance associated with suppression of insulin release, enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes and decrease in hepatic glycogen content. 2 Exposure to cadmium increases hepatic cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and this is accompanied by stimulation of basal, adrenaline- as well as glucagon-stimulated form(s) of adenylate cyclase. 3 In contrast to cadmium, subacute administration of zinc (ZnCl2, 2 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days) fails to alter the activities of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes, cyclic AMP synthesis, as well as glucose clearance and insulin release in response to a glucose load. 4 Zinc, when administered at the same time as cadmium, prevents the cadmium-induced lesions in both hepatic and pancreatic functions. 5 The results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms of cadmium toxicity and to the role of sulphydryl groups in the protection exercised by zinc. PMID:183849

  19. Hepatic Scavenger Receptor BI Protects Against Polymicrobial-induced Sepsis through Promoting LPS Clearance in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ling; Zheng, Zhong; Ai, Junting; Huang, Bin; Li, Xiang-An

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI or Scarb1) plays a critical protective role in sepsis. However, the mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. In this study, using Scarb1I179N mice, a mouse model specifically deficient in hepatic SR-BI, we report that hepatic SR-BI protects against cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis as shown by 75% fatality in Scarb1I179N mice, but only 21% fatality in C57BL/6J control mice. The increase in fatality in Scarb1I179N mice was associated with an exacerbated inflammatory cytokine production. Further study demonstrated that hepatic SR-BI exerts its protection against sepsis through its role in promoting LPS clearance without affecting the inflammatory response in macrophages, the glucocorticoid production in adrenal glands, the leukocyte recruitment to peritoneum or the bacterial clearance in liver. Our findings reveal hepatic SR-BI as a critical protective factor in sepsis and point out that promoting hepatic SR-BI-mediated LPS clearance may provide a therapeutic approach for sepsis. PMID:24719333

  20. Phoenix dactylifera protects against oxidative stress and hepatic injury induced by paracetamol intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Salem, Gamal A; Shaban, Ahmed; Diab, Hussain A; Elsaghayer, Wesam A; Mjedib, Manal D; Hnesh, Aomassad M; Sahu, Ravi P

    2018-05-16

    The current studies were sought to determine effects of antioxidant potential of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Phoenix dactylifera leaves (PLAE and PLME) against the widely-used analgesic paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity. Groups of rats were treated with or without PCM (1500 mg/kg), PLAE and PLME (300 mg/kg) and n-acetylcysteine (NAC, 50 mg/kg) followed by assessments of liver function tests, oxidative stress, antioxidant defenses, and hepatotoxicity. We observed that PCM significantly elevated serum liver markers, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and bilirubin compared to control (untreated) group. These PCM-induced effects were associated with oxidative stress as demonstrated by increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced levels of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pretreatment of PLME decreased ALT and AST by 78.2% and tissue MDA by 54.1%, and increased hepatic GPx (3.5 folds), CAT (7 folds) and SOD (2.5 folds) compared to PCM group. These PLME-mediated effects were comparable to NAC pretreatment. Histological analysis demonstrates that PLME conserved hepatic tissues against lesions such as inflammation, centrilobular necrosis, and hemorrhages induced by PCM. In contrast, PLAE-mediated effects were less effective in reducing levels of liver function enzymes, oxidative stress, and liver histopathological profiles, and restoring antioxidant defenses against PCM-induced intoxication. These findings indicate that PLME exerts protective effects against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity via scavenging free radicals and restoring hepatic antioxidant enzymes. Thus, PLME and its bioactive components could further be evaluated for their pharmacological properties against drug-induced deleterious effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Blood Flow After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Selkow, Noelle M.; Herman, Daniel C.; Liu, Zhenqi; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M.; Saliba, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The most common modality used to address acute inflammation is cryotherapy. Whereas pain decreases with cryotherapy, evidence that changes occur in perfusion of skeletal muscle is limited. We do not know whether ice attenuates the increases in perfusion associated with acute inflammation. Objective: To examine the effects of repeated applications of ice bags on perfusion of the gastrocnemius muscle after an eccentric exercise protocol. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen healthy participants (3 men, 15 women; age = 22.2 ± 2.2 years, height = 166.0 ± 11.9 cm, mass = 69.4 ± 25.0 kg). Intervention(s): To induce eccentric muscle damage, participants performed 100 unilateral heel-lowering exercises off a step to the beat of a metronome. A randomized intervention (cryotherapy, sham, control) was applied to the exercised lower extremity immediately after the protocol and again at 10, 24, and 34 hours after the protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s): Baseline perfusion measurements (blood volume, blood flow, and blood flow velocity) were taken using contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the exercised leg. Perfusion was reassessed after the first intervention and 48 hours after the protocol as percentage change scores. Pain was measured with a visual analog scale at baseline and at 10, 24, 34, and 48 hours after the protocol. Separate repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to assess each dependent variable. Results: We found no interactions among interventions for microvascular perfusion. Blood volume and blood flow, however, increased in all conditions at 48 hours after exercise (P < .001), and blood flow velocity decreased postintervention from baseline (P = .041). We found a time-by-intervention interaction for pain (P = .009). Visual analog scale scores were lower for the cryotherapy group than for the control group at 34 and 48 hours after exercise. Conclusions: Whereas eccentric muscle damage

  2. Dynamic of Immune Response induced in Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-transgenic Mice Immunized with a Novel Therapeutic Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Freya M Freyre; Blanco, Aracelys; Trujillo, Heidy; Hernández, Dunia; García, Daymir; Alba, José S; Abad, Matilde López; Merino, Nelson; Lobaina, Yadira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The development of therapeutic vaccines against chronic hepatitis B requires the capacity of the formulation to subvert a tolerated immune response as well as the evaluation of histopathological damage resulting from the treatment. In the present study, the dynamicity of induced immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was evaluated in transgenic mice that constitutively express the HBsAg gene (HBsAg-tg mice). After immunization with a vaccine candidate containing both surface (HBsAg) and core (HBcAg) antigens of hepatitis B virus (HBV), the effect of vaccination on clearance of circulating HBsAg and the potential histological alterations were examined. Transgenic (tg) and non-transgenic (Ntg) mice were immunized by intranasal (IN) and subcutaneous (SC) routes simultaneously. A control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by IN route and aluminum by SC route. Positive responses, at both humoral and cellular levels, were obtained after five immunizations in HBsAg-tg mice. Such responses were delayed and of lower intensity in tg mice, compared to vaccinated Ntg mice. Serum IgG response was characterized by a similar IgG subclass pattern. Even when HBsAg-specific CD8+ T cell responses were clearly detectable by gamma-interferon ELISPOT assay, histopathological alterations were not detected in any organ, including the liver and kidneys. Our study demonstrated, that it is possible to subvert the immune tolerance against HBsAg in tg mice, opening a window for new studies to optimize the schedule, dose, and formulation to improve the immune response to the therapeutic vaccine candidate. These results can be considered a safety proof to support clinical developments for the formulation under study. How to cite this article Freyre FM, Blanco A, Trujillo H, Hernández D, García D, Alba JS, Lopez M, Merino N, Lobaina Y, Aguilar JC. Dynamic of Immune Response induced in Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-transgenic Mice Immunized with a Novel

  3. Betaine attenuates chronic alcohol‑induced fatty liver by broadly regulating hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjuan; Huang, Luming; Gao, Jinhang; Wen, Shilei; Tai, Yang; Chen, Meng; Huang, Zhiyin; Liu, Rui; Tang, Chengwei; Li, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Betaine has previously been demonstrated to protect the liver against alcohol‑induced fat accumulation. However, the mechanism through which betaine affects alcohol‑induced hepatic lipid metabolic disorders has not been extensively studied. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of betaine on alcoholic simple fatty liver and hepatic lipid metabolism disorders. A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into control, ethanol and ethanol + betaine groups. Liver function, morphological alterations, lipid content and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α levels were determined. Hepatic expression levels of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1, DGAT2, sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)‑1c, SREBP‑2, fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3‑hydroxy‑3‑methyl‑glutaryl (HMG)‑CoA reductase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor λ coactivator (PGC)‑1α, adiponectin receptor (AdipoR) 1 and AdipoR2 were quantified. Serum and adipose tissue adiponectin levels were assessed using an enzyme‑linked immunoassay. The results demonstrated that alcohol‑induced ultramicrostructural alterations in hepatocytes, including the presence of lipid droplets and swollen mitochondria, were attenuated by betaine. Hepatic triglyceride, free fatty acid, total cholesterol and cholesterol ester contents and the expression of DGAT1, DGAT2, SREBP‑1c, SREBP‑2, FAS and HMG‑CoA reductase were increased following ethanol consumption, however were maintained at control levels following betaine supplementation. Alcohol‑induced decreases in hepatic PGC‑1α mRNA levels and serum and adipose tissue adiponectin concentrations were prevented by betaine. The downregulation of hepatic AdipoR1 which resulted from alcohol exposure was partially attenuated by betaine. No significant differences in liver function, TNF‑α, phospholipid and AdipoR2 levels were observed among the control, ethanol and ethanol + betaine groups. Overall, these results indicated that

  4. Severe hepatic trauma: nonoperative management, definitive repair, or damage control surgery?

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, Ari K; Mentula, Panu J; Streng, Mari H; Koivikko, Mika P; Handolin, Lauri E

    2011-12-01

    Management of severe liver injuries has evolved to include the options for nonoperative management and damage control surgery. The present study analyzes the criteria for choosing between nonoperative management and early surgery, and definitive repair versus damage control strategy during early surgery. In a retrospective analysis of 144 patients with severe (AAST grade III-V) liver injuries (94% blunt trauma), early laparotomy was performed in 50 patients. Initial management was nonoperative in 94 blunt trauma patients with 8 failures. Uni- and multivariate analyses were used to calculate predictor odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Factors associated with early laparotomy in blunt trauma included shock on admission, associated grade IV-V splenic injury, grade IV-V head injury, and grade V liver injury. Only shock was an independent predictor (OR, 26.1; 95% CI, 8.9-77.1; P < 0.001). The presence of a grade IV-V splenic injury predicted damage control strategy (OR infinite; P = 0.021). Failed nonoperative management was associated with grade IV-V splenic injury (OR, 14.00; 95% CI, 1.67-117.55), and shock (OR, 6.82; 95% CI, 1.49-31.29). The hospital mortality rate was 15%; 8 of 21 deaths were liver-related. Shock (OR, 9.3; 95% CI, 2.4-35.8; P = 0.001) and severe head injury (OR, 9.25; 95% CI, 3.0-28.9; P = 0.000) were independent predictors for mortality. In patients with severe liver injury, associated severe splenic injury favors early laparotomy and damage control strategy. Patients who arrive in shock or have an associated severe splenic injury should not be managed nonoperatively. In addition to severe head injury, uncontrollable bleeding from the liver injury is still a major cause of early death.

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Infection Induces Autophagy as a Prosurvival Mechanism to Alleviate Hepatic ER-Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Srikanta; Chava, Srinivas; Aydin, Yucel; Chandra, Partha K.; Ferraris, Pauline; Chen, Weina; Balart, Luis A.; Wu, Tong; Garry, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently leads to chronic liver disease, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular mechanisms by which HCV infection leads to chronic liver disease and HCC are not well understood. The infection cycle of HCV is initiated by the attachment and entry of virus particles into a hepatocyte. Replication of the HCV genome inside hepatocytes leads to accumulation of large amounts of viral proteins and RNA replication intermediates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), resulting in production of thousands of new virus particles. HCV-infected hepatocytes mount a substantial stress response. How the infected hepatocyte integrates the viral-induced stress response with chronic infection is unknown. The unfolded protein response (UPR), an ER-associated cellular transcriptional response, is activated in HCV infected hepatocytes. Over the past several years, research performed by a number of laboratories, including ours, has shown that HCV induced UPR robustly activates autophagy to sustain viral replication in the infected hepatocyte. Induction of the cellular autophagy response is required to improve survival of infected cells by inhibition of cellular apoptosis. The autophagy response also inhibits the cellular innate antiviral program that usually inhibits HCV replication. In this review, we discuss the physiological implications of the HCV-induced chronic ER-stress response in the liver disease progression. PMID:27223299

  6. Activation of intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor 2α during obesity contributes to hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Cen; Yagai, Tomoki; Luo, Yuhong; Liang, Xianyi; Chen, Tao; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Dongxue; Zhao, Jie; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Sun, Lulu; Jiang, Chunmei; Xue, Xiang; Tian, Yuan; Krausz, Kristopher W; Patterson, Andrew D; Shah, Yatrik M; Wu, Yue; Jiang, Changtao; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2017-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries, and limited therapeutic options are available. Here we uncovered a role for intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in hepatic steatosis. Human-intestine biopsies from individuals with or without obesity revealed that intestinal HIF-2α signaling was positively correlated with body-mass index and hepatic toxicity. The causality of this correlation was verified in mice with an intestine-specific disruption of Hif2a, in which high-fat-diet-induced hepatic steatosis and obesity were substantially lower as compared to control mice. PT2385, a HIF-2α-specific inhibitor, had preventive and therapeutic effects on metabolic disorders that were dependent on intestine HIF-2α. Intestine HIF-2α inhibition markedly reduced intestine and serum ceramide levels. Mechanistically, intestine HIF-2α regulates ceramide metabolism mainly from the salvage pathway, by positively regulating the expression of Neu3, the gene encoding neuraminidase 3. These results suggest that intestinal HIF-2α could be a viable target for hepatic steatosis therapy.

  7. Vitamin B12 supplement alleviates N'-nitrosodimethylamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Areeba; Afroz, Nishat; Gupta, Umesh D; Ahmad, Riaz

    2014-01-10

    Abstract Context: Altered vitamin B 12 levels have been correlated with hepatotoxicity; however, further evidence is required to establish its protective role. Objective: To evaluate the effects of vitamin B 12 supplement in protecting N'-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-induced hepatic fibrosis in Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by administering NDMA in doses of 10 mg/kg body weight thrice a week for 21 days. Another group received equal doses (10 mg/kg body weight) of vitamin B 12 subsequent to NDMA treatment. Animals from either group were sacrificed weekly from the start of the treatment along with their respective controls. Progression of hepatic fibrosis, in addition to the effect of vitamin B 12 , was assessed biochemically for liver function biomarkers, liver glycogen, hydroxyproline (HP) and B 12 reserves along with histopathologically by hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) as well immunohistochemical staining for α-SMA expression. Results and discussion: Elevation in the levels of aminotransferases, SALP, total bilirubin and HP was observed in NDMA treated rats, which was concomitant with remarkable depletion in liver glycogen and B 12 reserves (p < 0.05). Liver biopsies also demonstrated disrupted lobular architecture, collagen amassing and intense fibrosis by NDMA treatment. Immunohistochemical staining showed the presence of activated stellate cells that was dramatically increased up to day 21 in fibrotic rats. Following vitamin B 12 treatment, liver function biomarkers, glycogen contents and hepatic vitamin B 12 reserves were restored in fibrotic rats, significantly. Vitamin B 12 administration also facilitated restoration of normal liver architecture. Conclusion: These findings provide interesting new evidence in favor of protective role for vitamin B 12 against NDMA-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

  8. Recruitment of TRF2 to laser-induced DNA damage sites.

    PubMed

    Huda, Nazmul; Abe, Satoshi; Gu, Ling; Mendonca, Marc S; Mohanty, Samarendra; Gilley, David

    2012-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the telomere-associated protein TRF2 plays critical roles in the DNA damage response. TRF2 is rapidly and transiently phosphorylated by an ATM-dependent pathway in response to DNA damage and this DNA damage-induced phosphoryation is essential for the DNA-PK-dependent pathway of DNA double-strand break repair (DSB). However, the type of DNA damage that induces TRF2 localization to the damage sites, the requirement for DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of TRF2 for its recruitment, as well as the detailed kinetics of TRF2 accumulation at DNA damage sites have not been fully investigated. In order to address these questions, we used an ultrafast femtosecond multiphoton laser and a continuous wave 405-nm single photon laser to induce DNA damage at defined nuclear locations. Our results showed that DNA damage produced by a femtosecond multiphoton laser was sufficient for localization of TRF2 to these DNA damage sites. We also demonstrate that ectopically expressed TRF2 was recruited to DNA lesions created by a 405-nm laser. Our data suggest that ATM and DNA-PKcs kinases are not required for TRF2 localization to DNA damage sites. Furthermore, we found that phosphorylation of TRF2 at residue T188 was not essential for its recruitment to laser-induced DNA damage sites. Thus, we provide further evidence that a protein known to function in telomere maintenance, TRF2, is recruited to sites of DNA damage and plays critical roles in the DNA damage response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aldosterone induces fibrosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage in livers of male rats independent of blood pressure changes

    SciTech Connect

    Queisser, Nina; Happ, Kathrin; Link, Samuel

    Mineralocorticoid receptor blockers show antifibrotic potential in hepatic fibrosis. The mechanism of this protective effect is not known yet, although reactive oxygen species seem to play an important role. Here, we investigated the effects of elevated levels of aldosterone (Ald), the primary ligand of the mineralocorticoid receptor, on livers of rats in a hyperaldosteronism model: aldosterone-induced hypertension. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated for 4 weeks with aldosterone. To distinguish if damage caused in the liver depended on increased blood pressure or on increased Ald levels, the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone was given in a subtherapeutic dose, not normalizing blood pressure.more » To investigate the impact of oxidative stress, the antioxidant tempol was administered. Aldosterone induced fibrosis, detected histopathologically, and by expression analysis of the fibrosis marker, α-smooth muscle actin. Further, the mRNA amount of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-β was increased significantly. Fibrosis could be reduced by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and also by blocking the mineralocorticoid receptor. Furthermore, aldosterone treatment caused oxidative stress and DNA double strand breaks in livers, as well as the elevation of DNA repair activity. An increase of the transcription factor Nrf2, the main regulator of the antioxidative response could be observed, and of its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. All these effects of aldosterone were prevented by spironolactone and tempol. Already after 4 weeks of treatment, aldosteroneinfusion induced fibrosis in the liver. This effect was independent of elevated blood pressure. DNA damage caused by aldosterone might contribute to fibrosis progression when aldosterone is chronically increased. - Highlights: • Aldosterone has direct profibrotic effects on the liver independent of blood pressure. • Fibrosis is mediated by the mineralocorticoid

  10. ASMASE IS REQUIRED FOR CHRONIC ALCOHOL INDUCED HEPATIC ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS AND MITOCHONDRIAL CHOLESTEROL LOADING

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Anna; Matias, Núria; Fucho, Raquel; Ribas, Vicente; Von Montfort, Claudia; Nuño, Natalia; Baulies, Anna; Martinez, Laura; Tarrats, Núria; Mari, Montserrat; Colell, Anna; Morales, Albert; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Mathurin, Philippe; Bataller, Ramón; Caballeria, Joan; Elena, Montserrat; Balsinde, Jesus; Kaplowitz, Neil; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernandez-Checa, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) is poorly understood. Here, we examined the role of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) in alcohol induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a key mechanism of ALD Methods We examined ER stress, lipogenesis, hyperhomocysteinemia, mitochondrial cholesterol (mChol) trafficking and susceptibility to LPS and concanavalin-A in ASMase−/− mice fed alcohol. Results Alcohol feeding increased SREBP-1c, DGAT-2 and FAS mRNA in ASMase+/+ but not in ASMase−/− mice. Compared to ASMase+/+ mice, ASMase−/− mice exhibited decreased expression of ER stress markers induced by alcohol, but the level of tunicamycin-mediated upregulation of ER stress markers and steatosis was similar in both types of mice. The increase in homocysteine levels induced by alcohol feeding was comparable in both ASMase+/+ mice and ASMase−/− mice. Exogenous ASMase, but not neutral SMase, induced ER stress by perturbing ER Ca2+ homeostasis. Moreover, alcohol-induced mChol loading and StARD1 overexpression were blunted in ASMase−/− mice. Tunicamycin upregulated StARD1 expression and this outcome was abrogated by tauroursodeoxycholic acid. Alcohol-induced liver injury and sensitization to LPS and concanavalin-A were prevented in ASMase−/− mice. These effects were reproduced in alcohol-fed TNFR1/R2−/− mice. Moreover, ASMase does not impair hepatic regeneration following partial hepatectomy. Of relevance, liver samples from patients with alcoholic hepatitis exhibited increased expression of ASMase, StARD1 and ER stress markers. Conclusion Our data indicate that ASMase is critical for alcohol-induced ER stress, and provide a rationale for further clinical investigation in ALD. PMID:23707365

  11. Unrepaired DNA damage in macrophages causes elevation of particulate matter- induced airway inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Bao, Zhengqiang; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Fei; Li, Wen; Chen, Zhihua; Ying, Songmin; Shen, Huahao

    2018-04-14

    The inflammatory cascade can be initiated with the recognition of damaged DNA. Macrophages play an essential role in particulate matter (PM)-induced airway inflammation. In this study, we aim to explore the PM induced DNA damage response of macrophages and its function in airway inflammation. The DNA damage response and inflammatory response were assessed using bone marrow-derived macrophages following PM treatment and mouse model instilled intratracheally with PM. We found that PM induced significant DNA damage both in vitro and in vivo and simultaneously triggered a rapid DNA damage response, represented by nuclear RPA, 53BP1 and γH2AX foci formation. Genetic ablation or chemical inhibition of the DNA damage response sensor amplified the production of cytokines including Cxcl1, Cxcl2 and Ifn-γ after PM stimulation in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Similar to that seen in vitro , mice with myeloid-specific deletion of RAD50 showed higher levels of airway inflammation in response to the PM challenge, suggesting a protective role of DNA damage sensor during inflammation. These data demonstrate that PM exposure induces DNA damage and activation of DNA damage response sensor MRN complex in macrophages. Disruption of MRN complex lead to persistent, unrepaired DNA damage that causes elevated inflammatory response.

  12. Influence of Piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Pushpavalli, Ganesan; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2008-01-01

    D-galactosamine is a well-established hepatotoxicant that induces a diffuse type of liver injury closely resembling human viral hepatitis. D-galactosamine by its property of generating free radicals causes severe damage to the membrane and affects almost all organs of the human body. The leaves of Piper betle L., a commonly used masticatory in Asian countries, possess several biological properties. Our aim is to investigate the in vivo antioxidant potential of P. betle leaf-extract against oxidative stress induced by D-galactosamine intoxication in male albino Wistar rats. Toxicity was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine, 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 21 days. Rats were treated with P. betle extract (200 mg/kg BW) via intragastric intubations. We assessed the activities of liver marker enzymes (aspartate amino-transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) and levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione. The extract significantly improved the status of antioxidants and decreased TBARS, hydroperoxides, and liver marker enzymes when compared with the D-galactosamine treated group, demonstrating its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties.

  13. Correlation of Particle-Induced Displacement Damage in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, G. P.; Burke, E. A.; Dale, C. J.; Wolicki, E. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Gehlhausen, M. A.

    1987-12-01

    Correlation is made between the effects of displacement damage caused in several types of silicon bipolar transistors by protons, deuterons, helium ions, and by 1 MeV equivalent neutrons. These measurements are compared to calculations of the nonionizing energy deposition in silicon as a function of particle type and energy. Measurements were made of displacement damage factors for 2N2222A and 2N2907A switching transistors, and for 2N3055, 2N6678, and 2N6547 power transistors, as a function of collector current using 3.7 - 175 MeV protons, 4.3 - 37 MeV deuterons, and 16.8 - 65 MeV helium ions. Long term ionization effects on the value of the displacement damage factors were taken into account. In calculating the energy dependence of the nonionizing energy deposition, Rutherford, nuclear elastic, and nuclear inelastic interactions, and Lindhard energy partition were considered. The main conclusions of the work are as follows: 1) The ratio of the displacement damage factors for a given charged particle to the 1 MeV equivalent neutron damage factor, as a function of energy, falls on a common curve which is independent of collector current. 2) Deuterons of a given energy are about twice as damaging as protons and helium ions are about eighteen times as damaging as protons.

  14. [Tanning lamp radiation-induced photochemical retinal damage].

    PubMed

    Volkov, V V; Kharitonova, N N; Mal'tsev, D S

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of original clinical research a rare case of bilateral retinal damage due to tanning lamp radiation exposure is presented. Along with significant decrease of visual acuity and light sensitivity of central visual field as well as color vision impairment, bilateral macular dystrophy was found during an ophthalmoscopy and confirmed by optical coherent tomography and fluorescent angiography. Intensive retinoprotective, vascular, and antioxidant therapy was effective and led to functional improvement and stabilization of the pathologic process associated with photochemical retinal damage. A brief review of literature compares mechanisms of retinal damage by either short or long-wave near visible radiation.

  15. Helium vs. Proton Induced Displacement Damage in Electronic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringo, Sawnese; Barghouty, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the specific effects of displacement damage due to the passage of protons and helium nuclei on some typical electronic materials will be evaluated and contrasted. As the electronic material absorbs the energetic proton and helium momentum, degradation of performance occurs, eventually leading to overall failure. Helium nuclei traveling at the same speed as protons are expected to impart more to the material displacement damage; due to the larger mass, and thus momentum, of helium nuclei compared to protons. Damage due to displacement of atoms in their crystalline structure can change the physical properties and hence performance of the electronic materials.

  16. Activation of the Farnesoid X Receptor Induces Hepatic Expression and Secretion of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21*

    PubMed Central

    Cyphert, Holly A.; Ge, Xuemei; Kohan, Alison B.; Salati, Lisa M.; Zhang, Yanqiao; Hillgartner, F. Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that starvation or consumption of a high fat, low carbohydrate (HF-LC) ketogenic diet induces hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) gene expression in part by activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα). Using primary hepatocyte cultures to screen for endogenous signals that mediate the nutritional regulation of FGF21 expression, we identified two sources of PPARα activators (i.e. nonesterified unsaturated fatty acids and chylomicron remnants) that induced FGF21 gene expression. In addition, we discovered that natural (i.e. bile acids) and synthetic (i.e. GW4064) activators of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) increased FGF21 gene expression and secretion. The effects of bile acids were additive with the effects of nonesterified unsaturated fatty acids in regulating FGF21 expression. FXR activation of FGF21 gene transcription was mediated by an FXR/retinoid X receptor binding site in the 5′-flanking region of the FGF21 gene. FGF19, a gut hormone whose expression and secretion is induced by intestinal bile acids, also increased hepatic FGF21 secretion. Deletion of FXR in mice suppressed the ability of an HF-LC ketogenic diet to induce hepatic FGF21 gene expression. The results of this study identify FXR as a new signaling pathway activating FGF21 expression and provide evidence that FXR activators work in combination with PPARα activators to mediate the stimulatory effect of an HF-LC ketogenic diet on FGF21 expression. We propose that the enhanced enterohepatic flux of bile acids during HF-LC consumption leads to activation of hepatic FXR and FGF19 signaling activity and an increase in FGF21 gene expression and secretion. PMID:22661717

  17. Genetic ablation or chemical inhibition of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein attenuates diet-induced hepatic glucose production.

    PubMed

    Shishova, Ekaterina Y; Stoll, Janis M; Ersoy, Baran A; Shrestha, Sudeep; Scapa, Erez F; Li, Yingxia; Niepel, Michele W; Su, Ya; Jelicks, Linda A; Stahl, Gregory L; Glicksman, Marcie A; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Cuny, Gregory D; Cohen, David E

    2011-08-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, synonym StARD2) is a highly specific intracellular lipid binding protein that is enriched in liver. Coding region polymorphisms in both humans and mice appear to confer protection against measures of insulin resistance. The current study was designed to test the hypotheses that Pctp-/- mice are protected against diet-induced increases in hepatic glucose production and that small molecule inhibition of PC-TP recapitulates this phenotype. Pctp-/- and wildtype mice were subjected to high-fat feeding and rates of hepatic glucose production and glucose clearance were quantified by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies and pyruvate tolerance tests. These studies revealed that high-fat diet-induced increases in hepatic glucose production were markedly attenuated in Pctp-/- mice. Small molecule inhibitors of PC-TP were synthesized and their potencies, as well as mechanism of inhibition, were characterized in vitro. An optimized inhibitor was administered to high-fat-fed mice and used to explore effects on insulin signaling in cell culture systems. Small molecule inhibitors bound PC-TP, displaced phosphatidylcholines from the lipid binding site, and increased the thermal stability of the protein. Administration of the optimized inhibitor to wildtype mice attenuated hepatic glucose production associated with high-fat feeding, but had no activity in Pctp-/- mice. Indicative of a mechanism for reducing glucose intolerance that is distinct from commonly utilized insulin-sensitizing agents, the inhibitor promoted insulin-independent phosphorylation of key insulin signaling molecules. These findings suggest PC-TP inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the management of hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex-1 Deficiency Attenuates Diet-Induced Hepatic Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Kenerson, Heidi L.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Yeung, Raymond S.

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is causally linked to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In a normal liver, insulin suppresses gluconeogenesis and promotes lipogenesis. In type 2 diabetes, the liver exhibits selective insulin resistance by failing to inhibit hepatic glucose production while maintaining triglyceride synthesis. Evidence suggests that the insulin pathway bifurcates downstream of Akt to regulate these two processes. Specifically, mTORC1 has been implicated in lipogenesis, but its role on hepatic steatosis has not been examined. Here, we generated mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Tsc1 to study the effects of constitutive mTORC1 activation in the liver. These mice developed normally but displayed mild hepatomegaly and insulin resistance without obesity. Unexpectedly, the Tsc1-null livers showed minimal signs of steatosis even under high-fat diet condition. This ‘resistant’ phenotype was reversed by rapamycin and could be overcome by the expression of Myr-Akt. Moreover, rapamycin failed to reduce hepatic triglyceride levels in models of steatosis secondary to Pten ablation in hepatocytes or high-fat diet in wild-type mice. These observations suggest that mTORC1 is neither necessary nor sufficient for steatosis. Instead, Akt and mTORC1 have opposing effects on hepatic lipid accumulation such that mTORC1 protects against diet-induced steatosis. Specifically, mTORC1 activity induces a metabolic shift towards fat utilization and glucose production in the liver. These findings provide novel insights into the role of mTORC1 in hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:21479224

  19. High fat diet-induced modifications in membrane lipid and mitochondrial-membrane protein signatures precede the development of hepatic insulin resistance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, M.; Schäfer, A.; Seelig, A.; Schultheiß, J.; Wu, M.; Aichler, M.; Leonhardt, J.; Rathkolb, B.; Rozman, J.; Sarioglu, H.; Hauck, S.M.; Ueffing, M.; Wolf, E.; Kastenmueller, G.; Adamski, J.; Walch, A.; Hrabé de Angelis, M.; Neschen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Excess lipid intake has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatosteatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. Lipids constitute approximately 50% of the cell membrane mass, define membrane properties, and create microenvironments for membrane-proteins. In this study we aimed to resolve temporal alterations in membrane metabolite and protein signatures during high-fat diet (HF)-mediated development of hepatic insulin resistance. Methods We induced hepatosteatosis by feeding C3HeB/FeJ male mice an HF enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 fatty acids for 7, 14, or 21 days. Longitudinal changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed via the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, in membrane lipids via t-metabolomics- and membrane proteins via quantitative proteomics-analyses, and in hepatocyte morphology via electron microscopy. Data were compared to those of age- and litter-matched controls maintained on a low-fat diet. Results Excess long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 intake for 7 days did not compromise hepatic insulin sensitivity, however, induced hepatosteatosis and modified major membrane lipid constituent signatures in liver, e.g. increased total unsaturated, long-chain fatty acid-containing acyl-carnitine or membrane-associated diacylglycerol moieties and decreased total short-chain acyl-carnitines, glycerophosphocholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, or sphingolipids. Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease within 14 days HF-exposure. Overt hepatic insulin resistance developed until day 21 of HF-intervention and was accompanied by morphological mitochondrial abnormalities and indications for oxidative stress in liver. HF-feeding progressively decreased the abundance of protein-components of all mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, inner and outer mitochondrial membrane substrate transporters independent from the hepatocellular mitochondrial volume in liver. Conclusions We assume HF-induced modifications in membrane lipid

  20. KEAP1-NRF2 COMPLEX IN ISCHEMIA-INDUCED HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE OF MOUSE LIVER TRANSPLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Bibo; Shen, Xiu-Da; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Haofeng; Gao, Feng; Yue, Shi; Kamo, Naoko; Zhai, Yuan; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway regulates host cell defense responses against oxidative stress and maintains the cellular redox balance. Aims&Methods: We investigated the function/molecular mechanisms by which Keap1-Nrf2 complex may influence liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in a mouse model of hepatic cold storage (20h at 4 C) followed by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Results The Keap1 hepatocyte-specific knock-out (HKO) in the donor liver ameliorated post-transplant IRI, evidenced by improved hepatocellular function and OLT outcomes (Keap1HKO Keap1HKO; 100% survival), as compared with controls (WT WT; 50% survival; p<0.01). In contrast, donor liver Nrf2 deficiency exacerbated IRI in transplant recipients (Nrf2KO Nrf2KO; 40% survival). Ablation of Keap1 signaling reduced macrophage/neutrophil trafficking, pro-inflammatory cytokine programs, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis, while simultaneously promoting anti-apoptotic functions in OLTs. At the molecular level, Keap1HKO increased Nrf2 levels, stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and enhanced expression of anti-oxidant Trx1, HIF-1 , and HO-1. Pretreatment of liver donors with PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) disrupted Akt/HIF-1 signaling and recreated hepatocellular damage in otherwise IR-resistant Keap1HKO transplants. In parallel in vitro studies, hydrogen peroxide-stressed Keap1-deficient hepatocytes were characterized by enhanced expression of Nrf2, Trx1, and Akt phosphorylation, in association with decreased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in cell culture supernatants. Conclusions Keap1-Nrf2 complex prevents oxidative injury in IR-stressed OLTs through Keap1 signaling, which negatively regulates Nrf2 pathway. Activation of Nrf2 induces Trx1 and promotes PI3K/Akt, crucial for HIF-1 activity. HIF-1 -mediated overexpression of HO-1/CyclinD1 facilitates cytoprotection by limiting hepatic inflammatory responses, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in PI3K-dependent manner. PMID

  1. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced photo-damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaping; Li, Zhenjie; Peng, Liqian; Jiang, Na; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Erting; Liang, Bihua; Li, Runxiang; Zhu, Huilan

    2017-02-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation plays a key role in skin damage, which induces oxidative and inflammatory damages, thereby causing photoaging or photocarcinogenesis. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), the most biologically active fraction of wolfberry, possesses significant antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on multiple tissues. In the present study, the photoprotective effects and potential underlying molecular mechanisms of LBP against UVB-induced photo-damage were investigated in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). The data indicated that pretreatment with LBP significantly attenuated UVB-induced decrease in cell viability, increase in ROS production and DNA damage. LBP also significantly suppressed UVB-induced p38 MAPK activation, and subsequently reversed caspase-3 activation and MMP-9 expression. Notably, LBP was found to induce Nrf2 nuclear translocation and increase the expression of Nrf2-dependent ARE target genes. Furthermore, the protective effects of LBP were abolished by siRNA-mediated Nrf2 silencing. These results showed that the antioxidant LBP could partially protect against UVB irradiation-induced photo-damage through activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway, thereby scavenging ROS and reducing DNA damage, and subsequently suppressing UVB-induced p38 MAP pathway. Thus, LBP can be potentially used for skincare against oxidative damage from environmental insults.

  2. Electron-Induced Displacement Damage Effects in CCDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Elliott, Tom; Alexander, James W.

    2006-01-01

    We compare differences in parametric degradation for CCDs irradiated to the same displacement damage dose with 10-MeV and 50-MeV electrons. Charge transfer efficiency degradation was observed to not scale with NIEL for small signals.

  3. Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has long been considered to be an herbal medicine and has been used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the cytoprotective properties of C. sinensis on D(+)-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were randomly assigned into control, GalN/LPS, CS 20 mg and CS 40 mg groups (C. sinensis, oral gavage, five days/week, four weeks). After receiving saline or C. sinensis, mice were intraperitoneally given GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (10 μg/kg). The effects of C. sinensis on TNF-α, IL-10, AST, NO, SOD, and apoptoticrelated proteins after the onset of endotoxin intoxication were determined. Data demonstrated that GalN/LPS increased hepatocyte degeneration, circulating AST, TNF-α, IL-10, and hepatic apoptosis and caspase activity. C. sinensis pre-treatment reduced AST, TNF-α, and NO and increased IL-10 and SOD in GalN/LPS induced fulminant hepatic failure. C. sinensis attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, as evidenced by the TUNEL and capase-3, 6 activity analyses. In summary, C. sinensis alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by modulating the cytokine response and inhibiting apoptosis.

  4. High-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic dysfunction in rats: improving effect of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Gokhan; Ergin, Volkan; Yilmaz, Guldal; Pektas, M Bilgehan; Yildirim, O Gokhan; Menevse, Adnan; Akar, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    The increased consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may contribute to the worldwide epidemic of fatty liver. In this study, we have investigated whether HFCS intake (20% beverages) influences lipid synthesis and accumulation in conjunction with insulin receptor substrate-1/2 (IRS-1; IRS-2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and inducible NOS (iNOS) expressions in liver of rats. Resveratrol was tested for its potential efficacy on changes induced by HFCS. Animals were randomly divided into four groups as control, resveratrol, HFCS and resveratrol plus HFCS (resveratrol + HFCS). HFCS was given as 20% solutions in drinking water. Feeding of all rats was maintained by a standard diet that enriched with or without resveratrol for 12 weeks. Dietary HFCS increased triglyceride content and caused mild microvesicular steatosis in association with up-regulation of fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c in liver of rats. Moreover, HFCS feeding impaired hepatic expression levels of IRS-1, eNOS and SIRT1 mRNA/proteins, but did not change iNOS level. Resveratrol promoted IRS, eNOS and SIRT1, whereas suppressed SREBP-1c expression in rats fed with HFCS. Resveratrol supplementation considerably restored hepatic changes induced by HFCS. The improvement of hepatic insulin signaling and activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol may be associated with decreased triglyceride content and expression levels of the lipogenic genes of the liver.

  5. Simulating Chemical-Induced Injury Using Virtual Hepatic Tissues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical-induced liver injury involves a dynamic sequence of events that span multiple levels of biological organization. Current methods for testing the toxicity of a single chemical can cost millions of dollars, take up to two years and sacrifice thousands of animals. It is dif...

  6. Mobile phone radiation-induced free radical damage in the liver is inhibited by the antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine and epigallocatechin-gallate.

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Elcin; Güler, Göknur; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2010-11-01

    To investigate oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme status in the liver of guinea pigs exposed to mobile phone-like radiofrequency radiation (RFR) and the potential protective effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) on the oxidative damage. Nine groups of guinea pigs were used to study the effects of exposure to an 1800-MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-modulated signal (average whole body Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 0.38 W/kg, 10 or 20 min per day for seven days) and treatment with antioxidants. Significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitric oxide (NO(x)) levels and decreases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were observed in the liver of guinea pigs after RFR exposure. Only NAC treatment induces increase in hepatic GSH-Px activities, whereas EGCG treatment alone attenuated MDA level. Extent of oxidative damage was found to be proportional to the duration of exposure (P < 0.05). Mobile phone-like radiation induces oxidative damage and changes the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver. The adverse effect of RFR may be related to the duration of mobile phone use. NAC and EGCG protect the liver tissue against the RFR-induced oxidative damage and enhance antioxidant enzyme activities.

  7. Thermal Model of Laser-Induced Eye Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-08

    Identify by. block ntber) Ocular Damage Laser Effect3 Thermal Model Temperature Rise Prediction Retinal, Corneal, Lenticular Damage 20. ABSTR ACT (CoIfn...routine available to predict retinal or lenticular beam characteristics based on beam de- scripton at the cornea and distance of the last beam waist 5...used are selected for minimal aberrations of the astigmatic kind and that coma is negligible because of nearly axial "illumination. Secondly, the thermal

  8. Is Allelopathic Activity of Ipomoea murucoides Induced by Xylophage Damage?

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Corona-López, Angélica María; Rios, María Yolanda; Aguilar-Guadarrama, Berenice; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Rodríguez-López, Verónica; Valencia-Díaz, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory activates the synthesis of allelochemicals that can mediate plant-plant interactions. There is an inverse relationship between the activity of xylophages and the abundance of epiphytes on Ipomoea murucoides. Xylophagy may modify the branch chemical constitution, which also affects the liberation of allelochemicals with defense and allelopathic properties. We evaluated the bark chemical content and the effect of extracts from branches subjected to treatments of exclusion, mechanical damage and the presence/absence of epiphytes, on the seed germination of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata. Principal component analysis showed that branches without any treatment separate from branches subjected to treatments; damaged and excluded branches had similar chemical content but we found no evidence to relate intentional damage with allelopathy; however 1-hexadecanol, a defense volatile compound correlated positively with principal component (PC) 1. The chemical constitution of branches subject to exclusion plus damage or plus epiphytes was similar among them. PC2 indicated that palmitic acid (allelopathic compound) and squalene, a triterpene that attracts herbivore enemies, correlated positively with the inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata. Inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata was mainly correlated with the increment of palmitic acid and this compound reached higher concentrations in excluded branches treatments. Then, it is likely that the allelopathic response of I. murucoides would increase to the damage (shade, load) that may be caused by a high load of epiphytes than to damage caused by the xylophages. PMID:26625350

  9. Is Allelopathic Activity of Ipomoea murucoides Induced by Xylophage Damage?

    PubMed

    Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Corona-López, Angélica María; Rios, María Yolanda; Aguilar-Guadarrama, Berenice; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Rodríguez-López, Verónica; Valencia-Díaz, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory activates the synthesis of allelochemicals that can mediate plant-plant interactions. There is an inverse relationship between the activity of xylophages and the abundance of epiphytes on Ipomoea murucoides. Xylophagy may modify the branch chemical constitution, which also affects the liberation of allelochemicals with defense and allelopathic properties. We evaluated the bark chemical content and the effect of extracts from branches subjected to treatments of exclusion, mechanical damage and the presence/absence of epiphytes, on the seed germination of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata. Principal component analysis showed that branches without any treatment separate from branches subjected to treatments; damaged and excluded branches had similar chemical content but we found no evidence to relate intentional damage with allelopathy; however 1-hexadecanol, a defense volatile compound correlated positively with principal component (PC) 1. The chemical constitution of branches subject to exclusion plus damage or plus epiphytes was similar among them. PC2 indicated that palmitic acid (allelopathic compound) and squalene, a triterpene that attracts herbivore enemies, correlated positively with the inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata. Inhibition of seed germination of T. recurvata was mainly correlated with the increment of palmitic acid and this compound reached higher concentrations in excluded branches treatments. Then, it is likely that the allelopathic response of I. murucoides would increase to the damage (shade, load) that may be caused by a high load of epiphytes than to damage caused by the xylophages.

  10. Biochanin A improves hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by regulating the hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic pathways in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Sook; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Kim, Soon-Hee; Park, Su-Jin; Hong, Moon Ju; Sung, Mi Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny

    2016-09-01

    Natural compounds that regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) have been reported to have beneficial effects in obesity-mediated metabolic disorders. In this study, we demonstrated that biochanin A (BA), an agonist of PPAR-α, improved hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by regulating hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal chow diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and an HFD supplemented with 0.05% BA for 12 weeks. Histological and biochemical examinations indicated that BA prevented obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. BA stimulated the transcriptional activation of PPAR-α in vitro and increased the expression of PPAR-α and its regulatory proteins in the liver. CE-TOF/MS analyses indicated that BA administration promoted the recovery of metabolites involved in phosphatidylcholine synthesis, lipogenesis, and beta-oxidation in the livers of obese mice. BA also suppressed the levels of gluconeogenesis-related metabolites and the expression of the associated enzymes, glucose 6-phosphatase and pyruvate kinase. Taken together, these results showed that BA ameliorated metabolic disorders such as hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by modulating lipid and glucose metabolism in diet-induced obesity. Thus, BA may be a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity-mediated hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. MCD-induced steatohepatitis is associated with hepatic adiponectin resistance and adipogenic transformation of hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Larter, Claire Z; Yeh, Matthew M; Williams, Jacqueline; Bell-Anderson, Kim S; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2008-09-01

    In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that increased lipid intake would exacerbate the severity of nutritional steatohepatitis. C57Bl/6J mice were fed methionine-and-choline deficient (MCD) diets containing 20% (high) or 5% (low) fat by weight for 3 weeks and compared to lipid-matched controls. MCD feeding increased serum ALT levels and induced hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, irrespective of dietary fat content. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation was similar between high and low-fat MCD-fed mice, but lipoperoxide levels were approximately 3-fold higher in the high-fat MCD-fed animals. Serum adiponectin levels increased in MCD-fed mice, although to a lesser extent in high-fat fed animals. AMPK phosphorylation was correspondingly increased in muscle of MCD-fed mice, but hepatic AMPK phosphorylation decreased, and there was little evidence of PPAR alpha activation, suggesting impaired adiponectin action in the livers of MCD-fed animals. Hepatocyte PPAR gamma mRNA levels increased in MCD-fed mice, and were associated with increased aP2 expression, indicating adipogenic transformation of hepatocytes. Increased dietary lipid intake did not alter steatohepatitis severity in MCD-fed mice despite increased lipoperoxide accumulation. Instead, steatohepatitis was associated with impaired hepatic adiponectin action, and adipogenic transformation of hepatocytes in both low and high-fat MCD-fed mice.

  12. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on oxidant/antioxidant balance system inducing hepatic steatosis in male rat.

    PubMed

    Kourouma, Ansoumane; Keita, Hady; Duan, Peng; Quan, Chao; Bilivogui, Koikoi Kebe; Qi, Suqin; Christiane, Ndjiembi Adjonga; Osamuyimen, Aidogie; Yang, Kedi

    2015-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that early life exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a widespread endocrine disrupting chemical, may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that intraperitoneal administration of 4-NP induces hepatic steatosis in rat. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with 4-NP (0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg b.wt) in corn oil for 30 days. Liver histology, biochemical analysis and gene expression profiling were examined. After treatment, abnormal liver morphology and function were observed in the 4-NP-treated rat, and significant changes in gene expression an indicator of hepatic steatosis and apoptosis were observed compared with controls. Up-regulated genes involved in apoptosis, hepatotoxity and oxidative stress, increased ROS and decrease of antioxidant enzyme were observed in the 4-NP exposed rat. Extensive fatty accumulation in liver section and elevated serum GOT, GPT, LDH and γ-GT were also observed. Incidence and severity of liver steatosis was scored and taken into consideration (steatosis, ballooning and lobular inflammation). Hepatocytes apoptosis could promote NAFLD progression; Fas/FasL, TNF-α and Caspase-9 mRNA activation were important contributing factors to hepatic steatosis. These findings provide the first evidence that 4-NP affects the gene expression related to liver hepatotoxicity, which is correlated with hepatic steatosis.

  13. Intrinsic aerobic capacity impacts susceptibility to acute high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Morris, E Matthew; Jackman, Matthew R; Johnson, Ginger C; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Lopez, Jordan L; Kearney, Monica L; Fletcher, Justin A; Meers, Grace M E; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Stephen L; Rector, R Scott; Ibdah, Jamal A; MacLean, Paul S; Thyfault, John P

    2014-08-15

    Aerobic capacity/fitness significantly impacts susceptibility for fatty liver and diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Herein, we utilized rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity to examine the mechanisms by which aerobic capacity impacts metabolic vulnerability for fatty liver following a 3-day high-fat diet (HFD). Indirect calorimetry assessment of energy metabolism combined with radiolabeled dietary food was employed to examine systemic metabolism in combination with ex vivo measurements of hepatic lipid oxidation. The LCR, but not HCR, displayed increased hepatic lipid accumulation in response to the HFD despite both groups increasing energy intake. However, LCR rats had a greater increase in energy intake and demonstrated greater daily weight gain and percent body fat due to HFD compared with HCR. Additionally, total energy expenditure was higher in the larger LCR. However, controlling for the difference in body weight, the LCR has lower resting energy expenditure compared with HCR. Importantly, respiratory quotient was significantly higher during the HFD in the LCR compared with HCR, suggesting reduced whole body lipid utilization in the LCR. This was confirmed by the observed lower whole body dietary fatty acid oxidation in LCR compared with HCR. Furthermore, LCR liver homogenate and isolated mitochondria showed lower complete fatty acid oxidation compared with HCR. We conclude that rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity show greater susceptibility for dietary-induced hepatic steatosis, which is associated with a lower energy expenditure and reduced whole body and hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation.

  14. The effects of metal ions on the DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Ueda, K; Komano, T

    1990-01-01

    The effects of metal ions on DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide were investigated using two methods, agarose-gel electrophoretic analysis of supercoiled DNA and sequencing-gel analysis of single end-labeled DNA fragments of defined sequences. Hydrogen peroxide induced DNA damage when iron or copper ion was present. At least two classes of DNA damage were induced, one being direct DNA-strand cleavage, and the other being base modification labile to hot piperidine. The investigation of the damaged sites and the inhibitory effects of radical scavengers revealed that hydroxyl radical was the species which attacked DNA in the reaction of H2O2/Fe(II). On the other hand, two types of DNA damage were induced by H2O2/Cu(II). Type I damage was predominant and inhibited by potassium iodide, but type II was not. The sites of the base-modification induced by type I damage were similar to those by lipid peroxidation products and by ascorbate in the presence of Cu(II), suggesting the involvement of radical species other than free hydroxyl radical in the damaging reactions.

  15. Long-term dietary supplementation with low-dose nobiletin ameliorates hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and inflammation without altering fat mass in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Je; Choi, Myung-Sook; Woo, Je Tae; Jeong, Mi Ji; Kim, Sang Ryong; Jung, Un Ju

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the long-term effect of low-dose nobiletin (NOB), a polymethoxylated flavone, on diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disturbances. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without NOB (0.02%, w/w) for 16 weeks. NOB did not alter food intake or body weight. Despite increases in fatty acid oxidation-related genes expression and enzymes activity in adipose tissue, NOB did not affect adipose tissue weight due to simultaneous increases in lipogenic genes expression and fatty acid synthase activity. However, NOB significantly decreased not only pro-inflammatory genes expression in adipose tissue but also proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma. NOB-supplemented mice also showed improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, along with decreased levels of plasma insulin, free fatty acids, total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. In addition, NOB caused significant decreases in hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and triglyceride content by activating hepatic fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes. Hepatic proinflammatory TNF-α mRNA expression, collagen accumulation, and plasma levels of aminotransferases, liver damage indicators, were also significantly lower in NOB-supplemented mice. These findings suggest that long-term supplementation with low-dose NOB can protect against HFD-induced inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, without ameliorating adiposity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Rebamipide retards CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats: Possible role for PGE2.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Sherin; El-Sisi, Alaa

    2016-07-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a potent physiological suppressor of liver fibrosis. Because the anti-ulcer drug rebamipide can induce the formation of endogenous PGE2, this study investigated the potential effects of rebamipide on development of a hepatic fibrosis that was inducible by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Groups of Wistar rats received intraperitoneal (IP) injections of CCl4 (0.45 ml/kg [0.72 g CCl4/kg]) over the course of for 4 weeks. Sub-sets of CCl4-treated rats were also treated concurrently with rebamipide at 60 or 100 mg/kg. At 24 h after the final treatments, liver function and oxidative stress were indirectly assessed. The extent of hepatic fibrosis was evaluated using two fibrotic markers, hyaluronic acid (HA) and pro-collagen-III (Procol-III); isolated liver tissues underwent histology and were evaluated for interleukin (IL)-10 and PGE2 content. The results indicated that treatment with rebamipide significantly inhibited CCl4-induced increases in serum ALT and AST and also reduced oxidative stress induced by CCl4. Fibrotic marker assays revealed that either dose of rebamipide decreased the host levels of Procol-III and HA that had become elevated due to the CCl4. At the higher dose tested, rebamipide appeared to be able to permit the hosts to have a normal liver histology and to minimize any CCl4-induced collagen precipitation in the liver. Lastly, the use of rebamipide was seen to be associated with significant increases in liver levels of both PGE2 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Based on these findings, it is concluded that rebamipide can retard hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 and that this effect may, in part, be mediated by an induction of PGE2 and IL-10 in the liver itself.

  17. Dandelion-enriched diet of mothers alleviates lead-induced damages in liver of newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Gargouri, M; Magné, C; Ben Amara, I; Ben Saad, H; El Feki, A

    2017-02-28

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic metal present in the environment. It causes disturbances of several functions, including hematologic, renal, reproductive and nervous ones. Preventive or curative use of medicinal plants against these disorders may be a promising and safe therapeutic strategy. This study evaluated the hepatic toxic effects of prenatal exposure to lead in rats and the possible protective effect of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) added to the diet. Female rats were given a normal diet (control) or a diet enriched with dandelion (treated). In addition, lead acetate was administered to half of the rats through drinking water from the 5th day of gestation until the 14th day postpartum. Lead toxicity was evaluated in their offspring by measuring body and liver weights, plasma biochemical parameters, liver damage, as well as protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver tissues. Lead poisoning of mothers caused lead deposition in blood and stomach of their pups as well as hepatic tissue damages. Moreover, significant decreases in liver weight and protein content were found. Lead treatment caused oxidative stress and marked changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. However, no damages or biochemical changes were observed in puppies from the rats co-treated with lead and dandelion. These results indicate that supplementation of pregnant and lactating rats with dandelion protects their offspring against lead poisoning, likely through reduction of oxidative stress and liver damages.

  18. Lightning Strike Induced Damage Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Hirohide

    Composite materials have a wide application in aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries, because of the superior structural and weight performances. Since carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites possess a much lower electrical conductivity as compared to traditional metallic materials utilized for aircraft structures, serious concern about damage resistance/tolerance against lightning has been rising. Main task of this study is to clarify the lightning damage mechanism of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites to help further development of lightning strike protection. The research on lightning damage to carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites is quite challenging, and there has been little study available until now. In order to tackle this issue, building block approach was employed. The research was started with the development of supporting technologies such as a current impulse generator to simulate a lightning strike in a laboratory. Then, fundamental electrical properties and fracture behavior of CFRPs exposed to high and low level current impulse were investigated using simple coupon specimens, followed by extensive parametric investigations in terms of different prepreg materials frequently used in aerospace industry, various stacking sequences, different lightning intensity, and lightning current waveforms. It revealed that the thermal resistance capability of polymer matrix was one of the most influential parameters on lightning damage resistance of CFRPs. Based on the experimental findings, the semi-empirical analysis model for predicting the extent of lightning damage was established. The model was fitted through experimental data to determine empirical parameters and, then, showed a good capability to provide reliable predictions for other test conditions and materials. Finally, structural element level lightning tests were performed to explore more practical situations. Specifically, filled-hole CFRP plates and patch

  19. Lycopene attenuates dichlorvos-induced oxidative damage and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Saad, Am Abu; Ibrahim, M M; Hazani, A A; El-Gaaly, G A

    2016-06-01

    Because of the widespread use of dichlorvos (DDVP) for domestic applications, evaluation of their toxic effects is of major concern to public health. Lycopene may lower oxidative stress by a mechanism that is not fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective efficacy of lycopene in terms of normalization of altered biochemical parameters following DDVP treatment in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. The first group was used as control, while groups 2, 3, and 4 were orally treated with lycopene (10 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.)), DDVP (1.6 mg kg(-1) b.w.), and DDVP plus lycopene, respectively. Results showed that oral administration of DDVP for 30 days increased the levels of lipid peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonanal, and protein carbonyl content in liver. Also, a decrease in levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione was detected due to DDVP administration. These were accompanied by a decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase in the liver tissue. Moreover, DDVP increased the activities of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and lipoxygenase, and the levels of bilirubin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and DNA-protein crosslinks, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, while decreased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our results provide new insights into the biochemical studies of relation between DDVP hepatotoxicity and lycopene treatment. Administration of lycopene to DDVP-treated rats reverted the status of hepatic markers to near-normal levels. These data suggest that lycopene can protect against the liver damage induced by DDVP. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Modulatory role of kolaviron in phenytoin-induced hepatic and testicular dysfunctions in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, Olatunde; Adedara, Isaac A; Adeyemo, Oluwatobi A; Bakare, Oluwafemi S; Egun, Christa; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-03-01

    Phenytoin, an anticonvulsant agent used for the treatment of epilepsy has been reported to exhibit toxic side effects on the liver and testes. The present study investigated the protective effects of kolaviron (KV, a bioflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds) against hepatic and testicular damage in rats exposed to phenytoin. The study consisted of four groups of six rats per group. Group I rats received 2 mL/kg of corn alone while group II received 75 mg/kg of phenytoin (PHT) alone. Groups III and IV were co-treated with kolaviron (200 mg/kg KV) and vitamin E (500 mg/kg VTE), respectively, for 14 days. The antioxidant status, hepatic and reproductive functional parameters were subsequently determined. PHT treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels along with significant reduction in the hepatic and testicular levels of glutathione (GSH). Moreover, PHT exposure elicited significant increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The significant reduction in seminal epithelium thickness and the diameter of seminiferous tubules was accompanied with marked decrease in sperm motility, sperm count, and viability in PHT-treated rats. However, antioxidant status and the functional indices of liver and testes were restored to near control levels in rats co-treated with KV and VTE. In conclusion, KV and VTE protect the liver and testes against functional impairment due to PHT treatment.

  1. Profiles of metabolites and gene expression in rats with chemically induced hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Heijne, Wilbert H M; Lamers, Robert-Jan A N; van Bladeren, Peter J; Groten, John P; van Nesselrooij, Joop H J; van Ommen, Ben

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated whether integrated analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics data increased the sensitivity of detection and provided new insight in the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Metabolite levels in plasma or urine were analyzed in relation to changes in hepatic gene expression in rats that received bromobenzene to induce acute hepatic centrilobular necrosis. Bromobenzene-induced lesions were only observed after treatment with the highest of 3 dose levels. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that metabolite profiles of blood plasma were largely different from controls when the rats were treated with bromobenzene, also at doses that did not elicit histopathological changes. Changes in levels of genes and metabolites were related to the degree of necrosis, providing putative novel markers of hepatotoxicity. Levels of endogenous metabolites like alanine, lactate, tyrosine and dimethylglycine differed in plasma from treated and control rats. The metabolite profiles of urine were found to be reflective of the exposure levels. This integrated analysis of hepatic transcriptomics and plasma metabolomics was able to more sensitively detect changes related to hepatotoxicity and discover novel markers. The relation between gene expression and metabolite levels was explored and additional insight in the role of various biological pathways in bromobenzene-induced hepatic necrosis was obtained, including the involvement of apoptosis and changes in glycolysis and amino acid metabolism. The complete Table 2 is available as a supplemental file online at http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/openurlasp?genre=journal&issn=0192-6233. To access the file, click on the issue link for 33(4), then select this article. A download option appears at the bottom of this abstract. In order to access the full article online, you must either have an individual subscription or a member subscription accessed through www.toxpath.org.

  2. A Case Report of Supplement-Induced Hepatitis in an Active Duty Service Member.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Michael J; Castaneda, Joni L; Huitron, Sonny S; Wang, James

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of drug-induced hepatic injury has been increasing as a result of more widespread use of workout supplements containing anabolic steroids to increase muscle mass. Synthetic androgenic steroids are shown to cause cholestatic liver injury, but the exact mechanism of injury is not completely understood. We present a case of a healthy, young, active duty Army male soldier who developed pruritis and jaundice shortly after starting to take a body-building supplement containing anabolic steroids, and was subsequently found to have significant biopsy proven drug-induced liver injury. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Acute lethal toxicity, hyperkalemia associated with renal injury and hepatic damage after intravenous administration of cadmium nitrate in rats.

    PubMed

    Dote, Emi; Dote, Tomotaro; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Shimbo, Yukari; Fujihara, Michiko; Kono, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium nitrate Cd(NO(3))(2) (CdN) is commonly used in Ni-Cd battery factories. The possibility of accidental exposure to CdN is great. CdN is very soluble in water compared to other Cd compounds. Therefore, acute toxicity would be expected to be quick due to rapid absorption after exposure. However, the mechanisms of CdN toxicity have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the acute lethal toxicity and harmful systemic effects of acute exposure to large doses of CdN. The lethal dose and dose-response study of the liver and kidney were determined after intravenous administration of CdN in rats. The LD(50) of CdN was determined to be 5.5 mg/kg. Doses of 2.1, 4.2, 6.3 mg/kg were selected for the dose-response study. Liver injury was induced at doses greater than 4.2 mg/kg. Severe hepatic injury occurred in the 6.3 mg/kg group, which would have been caused by acute exposure to the high concentration of Cd that exceeded the critical concentration in hepatic tissue. A remarkable decrease in urine volume in the 6.3 mg/kg group indicated acute renal failure. A decrease in creatinine clearance suggested acute glomerular dysfunction at doses greater than 4.2 mg/kg. Increases in urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase/creatinine, beta(2)-microglobulin and glucose in the 6.3 mg/kg group indicated proximal tubular injury. Secretion of K ion was also severely affected by proximal tubular injury and severe decreases in urine volume, and an increase in serum K ion was identified at doses greater than 4.2 mg/kg. Thus severe hyperkalemia might be associated with the cardiac-derived lethal toxicity of CdN.

  4. Impact induced damage assessment by means of Lamb wave image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is an analysis of full wavefield Lamb wave interaction with impact-induced damage at various impact energies in order to find out the limitation of the wavenumber adaptive image filtering method. In other words, the relation between impact energy and damage detectability will be shown. A numerical model based on the time domain spectral element method is used for modeling of Lamb wave propagation and interaction with barely visible impact damage in a carbon-epoxy laminate. Numerical studies are followed by experimental research on the same material with an impact damage induced by various energy and also a Teflon insert simulating delamination. Wavenumber adaptive image filtering and signal processing are used for damage visualization and assessment for both numerical and experimental full wavefield data. It is shown that it is possible to visualize and assess the impact damage location, size and to some extent severity by using the proposed technique.

  5. Stress-induced DNA Damage biomarkers: Applications and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitaki, Zacharenia; Hellweg, Christine; Georgakilas, Alexandros; Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    2015-06-01

    A variety of environmental stresses like chemicals, UV and ionizing radiation and organism’s endogenous processes like replication stress and metabolism can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that can attack cellular vital components like DNA, proteins and lipid membranes. Among them, much attention has been focused on DNA since DNA damages play a role in several biological disorders and aging processes. Thus, DNA damage can be used as a biomarker in a reliable and accurate way to quantify for example radiation exposure and can indicate its possible long term effects and cancer risk. Based on the type of DNA lesions detected one can hypothesize on the most probable mechanisms involved in the formation of these lesions for example in the case of UV and ionizing radiation (e.g. X- or α-, γ-rays, energetic ions, neutrons). In this review we describe the most accepted chemical pathways for DNA damage induction and the different types of DNA lesions, i.e. single, complex DNA lesions etc. that can be used as biomarkers. We critically compare DNA damage detection methods and their limitations. In addition to such DNA damage products, we suggest possible gene inductions that can be used to characterize responses to different types of stresses i.e. radiation, oxidative and replication stress, based on bioinformatic approaches and stringent meta-analysis of literature data.

  6. Modelling blast induced damage from a fully coupled explosive charge

    PubMed Central

    Onederra, Italo A.; Furtney, Jason K.; Sellers, Ewan; Iverson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents one of the latest developments in the blasting engineering modelling field—the Hybrid Stress Blasting Model (HSBM). HSBM includes a rock breakage engine to model detonation, wave propagation, rock fragmentation, and muck pile formation. Results from two controlled blasting experiments were used to evaluate the code’s ability to predict the extent of damage. Results indicate that the code is capable of adequately predicting both the extent and shape of the damage zone associated with the influence of point-of-initiation and free-face boundary conditions. Radial fractures extending towards a free face are apparent in the modelling output and matched those mapped after the experiment. In the stage 2 validation experiment, the maximum extent of visible damage was of the order of 1.45 m for the fully coupled 38-mm emulsion charge. Peak radial velocities were predicted within a relative difference of only 1.59% at the nearest history point at 0.3 m from the explosive charge. Discrepancies were larger further away from the charge, with relative differences of −22.4% and −42.9% at distances of 0.46 m and 0.61 m, respectively, meaning that the model overestimated particle velocities at these distances. This attenuation deficiency in the modelling produced an overestimation of the damage zone at the corner of the block due to excessive stress reflections. The extent of visible damage in the immediate vicinity of the blasthole adequately matched the measurements. PMID:26412978

  7. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Thanapirom, Kessarin; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Siriviriyakul, Prasong

    2014-07-08

    An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate that Aloe vera attenuate APAP-induced

  8. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Methods Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). Results In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. Conclusions APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate

  9. Correlation of particle-induced displacement damage in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, G. P.; Dale, C. J.; Burke, E. A.; Wolicki, E. A.; Marshall, P. W.

    1987-12-01

    The effects of displacement damage caused in several types of silicon bipolar transistors by protons, deuterons, helium ions, and by 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons are considered. Measurements are compared to calculations of the nonionizing energy deposition in silicon as a function of particle type and energy. Measurements were made of displacement damage factors for 2N2222A and 2N2907A switching transistors, and for 2N3055, 2N6678, and 2N6547 power transistors, as a function of collector current using 3.7-175-MeV protons, 4.3-37-MeV deuterons, and 16.8-65-MeV helium ions. Long-term ionization effects on the value of the displacement damage factors were taken into account. In calculating the energy dependence of the nonionizing energy deposition, Rutherford, nuclear elastic, and nuclear inelastic interactions, and Lindhard energy partition were considered.

  10. Protective Role of Taurine against Arsenic-Induced Mitochondria-Dependent Hepatic Apoptosis via the Inhibition of PKCδ-JNK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Das, Joydeep; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxic effect of arsenic (As) is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione (GSH) in liver. Taurine, on the other hand, enhances intracellular production of GSH. Little is known about the mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in As-induced hepatic pathophysiology. Therefore, in the present study we investigated its beneficial role in As-induced hepatic cell death via mitochondria-mediated pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats were exposed to NaAsO2 (2 mg/kg body weight for 6 months) and the hepatic tissue was used for oxidative stress measurements. In addition, the pathophysiologic effect of NaAsO2 (10 µM) on hepatocytes was evaluated by determining cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS generation. As caused mitochondrial injury by increased oxidative stress and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL/Bad, Bax, Bim in association with increased level of Apaf-1, activation of caspase 9/3, cleavage of PARP protein and ultimately led to apoptotic cell death. In addition, As markedly increased JNK and p38 phosphorylation with minimal disturbance of ERK. Pre-exposure of hepatocytes to a JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevented As-induced caspase-3 activation, ROS production and loss in cell viability. Pre-exposure of hepatocytes to a p38 inhibitor SB2035, on the other hand, had practically no effect on these events. Besides, As activated PKCδ and pre-treatment of hepatocytes with its inhibitor, rottlerin, suppressed the activation of JNK indicating that PKCδ is involved in As-induced JNK activation and mitochondrial dependent apoptosis. Oral administration of taurine (50 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks) both pre and post to NaAsO2 exposure or incubation of the hepatocytes with taurine (25 mM) were found to be effective in counteracting As-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance Results indicate that taurine treatment improved As-induced hepatic damages by inhibiting PKC

  11. Multiscale modelling of Flow-Induced Blood Cell Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaling; Sohrabi, Salman

    2017-11-01

    We study red blood cell (RBC) damage and hemolysis at cellular level. Under high shear rates, pores form on RBC membranes through which hemoglobin (Hb) leaks out and increases free Hb content of plasma leading to hemolysis. By coupling lattice Boltzmann and spring connected network models through immersed boundary method, we estimate hemolysis of a single RBC under various shear rates. The developed cellular damage model can be used as a predictive tool for hydrodynamic and hematologic design optimization of blood-wetting medical devices.

  12. Hybrid molecular dynamics simulation for plasma induced damage analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukuma, Masaaki

    2016-09-01

    In order to enable further device size reduction (also known as Moore's law) and improved power performance, the semiconductor industry is introducing new materials and device structures into the semiconductor fabrication process. Materials now include III-V compounds, germanium, cobalt, ruthenium, hafnium, and others. The device structure in both memory and logic has been evolving from planar to three dimensional (3D). One such device is the FinFET, where the transistor gate is a vertical fin made either of silicon, silicon-germanium or germanium. These changes have brought renewed interests in the structural damages caused by energetic ion bombardment of the fin sidewalls which are exposed to the ion flux from the plasma during the fin-strip off step. Better control of the physical damage of the 3D devices requires a better understanding of the damage formation mechanisms on such new materials and structures. In this study, the damage formation processes by ion bombardment have been simulated for Si and Ge substrate by Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) hybrid simulations and compared to the results from the classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In our QM/MM simulations, the highly reactive region in which the structural damage is created is simulated with the Density Functional based Tight Binding (DFTB) method and the region remote from the primary region is simulated using classical MD with the Stillinger-Weber and Moliere potentials. The learn on the fly method is also used to reduce the computational load. Hence our QM/MM simulation is much faster than the full QC-MD simulations and the original QM/MM simulations. The amorphous layers profile simulated with QM/MM have obvious differences in their thickness for silicon and germanium substrate. The profile of damaged structure in the germanium substrate is characterized by a deeper tail then in silicon. These traits are also observed in the results from the mass selected ion beam

  13. Saccharomyces boulardii ameliorates clarithromycin- and methotrexate-induced intestinal and hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Duman, Deniz Güney; Kumral, Zarife Nigâr Özdemir; Ercan, Feriha; Deniz, Mustafa; Can, Güray; Cağlayan Yeğen, Berrak

    2013-08-28

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic used for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. We aimed to investigate whether S. boulardii could alter the effects of clarithromycin (CLA) and methotrexate (MTX) on oro-caecal intestinal transit and oxidative damage in rats. Rats were divided into two groups receiving a single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg) or CLA (20 mg/kg per d) for 1 week. Groups were treated with either saline or S. boulardii (500 mg/kg) twice per d throughout the experiment. The control group was administered only saline. Following decapitation, intestinal transit and inflammation markers of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were measured in intestinal and hepatic tissues. CLA and MTX increased intestinal transit, while S. boulardii treatment slowed down CLA-facilitated transit back to control level. Both MTX and CLA increased lipid peroxidation while depleting the antioxidant GSH content in the hepatic and ileal tissues. Conversely, lipid peroxidation was depressed and GSH levels were increased in the ileal and hepatic tissues of S. boulardii-treated rats. Increased ileal neutrophil infiltration due to MTX and CLA treatments was also reduced by S. boulardii treatment. Histological analysis supported that S. boulardii protected intestinal tissues against the inflammatory effects of both agents. These findings suggest that S. boulardii ameliorates intestinal injury and the accompanying hepatic inflammation by supporting the antioxidant state of the tissues and by inhibiting the recruitment of neutrophils. Moreover, a preventive effect on MTXinduced toxicity is a novel finding of S. boulardii, proposing it as an adjunct to chemotherapy regimens.

  14. Modeling Inborn Errors of Hepatic Metabolism Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pournasr, Behshad; Duncan, Stephen A

    2017-11-01

    Inborn errors of hepatic metabolism are because of deficiencies commonly within a single enzyme as a consequence of heritable mutations in the genome. Individually such diseases are rare, but collectively they are common. Advances in genome-wide association studies and DNA sequencing have helped researchers identify the underlying genetic basis of such diseases. Unfortunately, cellular and animal models that accurately recapitulate these inborn errors of hepatic metabolism in the laboratory have been lacking. Recently, investigators have exploited molecular techniques to generate induced pluripotent stem cells from patients' somatic cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into a wide variety of cell types, including hepatocytes, thereby offering an innovative approach to unravel the mechanisms underlying inborn errors of hepatic metabolism. Moreover, such cell models could potentially provide a platform for the discovery of therapeutics. In this mini-review, we present a brief overview of the state-of-the-art in using pluripotent stem cells for such studies. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Berberine-induced activation of AMPK increases hepatic FGF21 expression via NUR77.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feiye; Bai, Mengyao; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhu, Qin; Zhang, Linlin; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Shushu; Zhu, Kecheng; Liu, Yun; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Libin

    2018-01-08

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone-like protein mainly derived from liver, exhibits multiple beneficial effect on energy metabolism. Similar to FGF21, berberine exerts anti-hyperglycemic and anti-dyslipidemic properties. Previous studies revealed that the beneficial metabolic effect of berberine was attributed to the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Here we investigated the effect of berberine on FGF21 expression in primary mouse hepatocytes. As expected, berberine induced hepatic FGF21 expression in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, along with the increased expression of NUR77, a proved transcription factor of FGF21. Berberine stimulated the phosphorylations of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of constitutively active AMPK triggered hepatic FGF21 and NUR77 expressions. The inhibition of AMPK by compound C abolished berberine-stimulated FGF21 and NUR77 expressions. These results suggest that berberine-induced activation of AMPK may contribute to hepatic FGF21 expression via NUR77. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical study of single and multiple pulse laser-induced damage in glasses.

    PubMed

    Gallais, L; Natoli, J; Amra, C

    2002-12-16

    Single and multiple pulse laser damage studies are performed in Suprasil silica and BK-7 borosilicate glasses. Experiments are made in the bulk of materials at 1.064microm with nanosecond pulses, using an accurate and reliable measurement system. By means of a statistical study on laser damage probabilities, we demonstrate that the same nano-precursors could be involved in the multiple shot and single shot damage process. A damage mechanism with two stages is then proposed to explain the results. Firstly, a pre-damage process, corresponding to material changes at a microscopic level, leads the precursor to a state that can induce a one-pulse damage. And secondly a final damage occurs, with a mechanism identical to the single shot case. For each material, a law is found to predict the precursor life-time. We can then deduce the long term life of optical elements in high-power laser systems submitted to multipulse irradiation.

  17. DNA-damage response during mitosis induces whole-chromosome missegregation.

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, Samuel F; Kabeche, Lilian; Murnane, John P; Zaki, Bassem I; Compton, Duane A

    2014-11-01

    Many cancers display both structural (s-CIN) and numerical (w-CIN) chromosomal instabilities. Defective chromosome segregation during mitosis has been shown to cause DNA damage that induces structural rearrangements of chromosomes (s-CIN). In contrast, whether DNA damage can disrupt mitotic processes to generate whole chromosomal instability (w-CIN) is unknown. Here, we show that activation of the DNA-damage response (DDR) during mitosis selectively stabilizes kinetochore-microtubule (k-MT) attachments to chromosomes through Aurora-A and PLK1 kinases, thereby increasing the frequency of lagging chromosomes during anaphase. Inhibition of DDR proteins, ATM or CHK2, abolishes the effect of DNA damage on k-MTs and chromosome segregation, whereas activation of the DDR in the absence of DNA damage is sufficient to induce chromosome segregation errors. Finally, inhibiting the DDR during mitosis in cancer cells with persistent DNA damage suppresses inherent chromosome segregation defects. Thus, the DDR during mitosis inappropriately stabilizes k-MTs, creating a link between s-CIN and w-CIN. The genome-protective role of the DDR depends on its ability to delay cell division until damaged DNA can be fully repaired. Here, we show that when DNA damage is induced during mitosis, the DDR unexpectedly induces errors in the segregation of entire chromosomes, thus linking structural and numerical chromosomal instabilities. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Eric S.; Gunn, Bridget; Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the effects of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage following high-force eccentric exercise in men randomly administered Cr or placebo. Results indicated that 5 days of Cr supplementation did not reduce indirect makers of muscle damage or enhance recovery from high-force eccentric exercise.…

  19. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    PubMed Central

    Gholampour, Firouzeh; Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Fatemeh; Owji, Seyed Mohammad; Vatanparast, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Results: Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. Conclusion: In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron. PMID:29299437

  20. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Gholampour, Firouzeh; Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Fatemeh; Owji, Seyed Mohammad; Vatanparast, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron.

  1. Cryptococcus neoformans-induced macrophage lysosome damage crucially contributes to fungal virulence1

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael J.; Eastman, Alison J.; Qiu, Yafeng; Gregorka, Brian; Kozel, Thomas R.; Osterholzer, John J.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Swanson, Joel A.; Olszewski, Michal A.

    2015-01-01

    Upon ingestion by macrophages, Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) can survive and replicate intracellularly unless the macrophages become classically activated. The mechanism enabling intracellular replication is not fully understood; neither are the mechanisms which allow classical activation to counteract replication. Cn-induced lysosome damage was observed in infected murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, increased with time and required yeast viability. To demonstrate lysosome damage in the infected host, we developed a novel flow-cytometric method for measuring lysosome damage. Increased lysosome damage was found in Cn-containing lung cells compared to Cn–free cells. Among Cn-containing myeloid cells, recently recruited cells displayed lower damage than resident cells, consistent with the protective role of recruited macrophages. The magnitude of lysosome damage correlated with increased Cn replication. Experimental induction of lysosome damage increased Cn replication. Activation of macrophages with IFN-γ abolished macrophage lysosome damage and enabled increased killing of Cn. We conclude that induction of lysosome damage is an important Cn survival strategy and that classical activation of host macrophages counters replication by preventing damage. Thus, therapeutic strategies which decrease lysosomal damage, or increase resistance to such damage, could be valuable in treating cryptococcal infections. PMID:25637026

  2. A Multiantigenic DNA Vaccine That Induces Broad Hepatitis C Virus-Specific T-Cell Responses in Mice.

    PubMed

    Gummow, Jason; Li, Yanrui; Yu, Wenbo; Garrod, Tamsin; Wijesundara, Danushka; Brennan, Amelia J; Mullick, Ranajoy; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Grubor-Bauk, Branka; Gowans, Eric J

    2015-08-01

    There are 3 to 4 million new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections annually around the world, but no vaccine is available. Robust T-cell mediated responses are necessary for effective clearance of the virus, and DNA vaccines result in a cell-mediated bias. Adjuvants are often required for effective vaccination, but during natural lytic viral infections damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are released, which act as natural adjuvants. Hence, a vaccine that induces cell necrosis and releases DAMPs will result in cell-mediated immunity (CMI), similar to that resulting from natural lytic viral infection. We have generated a DNA vaccine with the ability to elicit strong CMI against the HCV nonstructural (NS) proteins (3, 4A, 4B, and 5B) by encoding a cytolytic protein, perforin (PRF), and the antigens on a single plasmid. We examined the efficacy of the vaccines in C57BL/6 mice, as determined by gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay, cell proliferation studies, and intracellular cytokine production. Initially, we showed that encoding the NS4A protein in a vaccine which encoded only NS3 reduced the immunogenicity of NS3, whereas including PRF increased NS3 immunogenicity. In contrast, the inclusion of NS4A increased the immunogenicity of the NS3, NS4B, andNS5B proteins, when encoded in a DNA vaccine that also encoded PRF. Finally, vaccines that also encoded PRF elicited similar levels of CMI against each protein after vaccination with DNA encoding NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5B compared to mice vaccinated with DNA encoding only NS3 or NS4B/5B. Thus, we have developed a promising "multiantigen" vaccine that elicits robust CMI. Since their development, vaccines have reduced the global burden of disease. One strategy for vaccine development is to use commercially viable DNA technology, which has the potential to generate robust immune responses. Hepatitis C virus causes chronic liver infection and is a leading cause of liver cancer. To date, no vaccine is

  3. Explosive-induced shock damage in copper and recompression of the damaged region

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, William D.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Hixson, Robert Stewart

    Here, we have studied the dynamic spall process for copper samples in contact with detonating low-performance explosives. When a triangular shaped shock wave from detonation moves through a sample and reflects from the free surface, tension develops immediately, one or more damaged layers can form, and a spall scab can separate from the sample and move ahead of the remaining target material. For dynamic experiments, we used time-resolved velocimetry and x-ray radiography. Soft-recovered samples were analyzed using optical imaging and microscopy. Computer simulations were used to guide experiment design. We observe that for some target thicknesses the spall scab continuesmore » to run ahead of the rest of the sample, but for thinner samples, the detonation product gases accelerate the sample enough for it to impact the spall scab several microseconds or more after the initial damage formation. Our data also show signatures in the form of a late-time reshock in the time-resolved data, which support this computational prediction. A primary goal of this research was to study the wave interactions and damage processes for explosives-loaded copper and to look for evidence of this postulated recompression event. We found both experimentally and computationally that we could tailor the magnitude of the initial and recompression shocks by varying the explosive drive and the copper sample thickness; thin samples had a large recompression after spall, whereas thick samples did not recompress at all. Samples that did not recompress had spall scabs that completely separated from the sample, whereas samples with recompression remained intact. This suggests that the hypothesized recompression process closes voids in the damage layer or otherwise halts the spall formation process. This is a somewhat surprising and, in some ways controversial, result, and the one that warrants further research in the shock compression community.« less

  4. Explosive-induced shock damage in copper and recompression of the damaged region

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, W. D., E-mail: turleywd@nv.doe.gov; Stevens, G. D.; La Lone, B. M.

    We have studied the dynamic spall process for copper samples in contact with detonating low-performance explosives. When a triangular shaped shock wave from detonation moves through a sample and reflects from the free surface, tension develops immediately, one or more damaged layers can form, and a spall scab can separate from the sample and move ahead of the remaining target material. For dynamic experiments, we used time-resolved velocimetry and x-ray radiography. Soft-recovered samples were analyzed using optical imaging and microscopy. Computer simulations were used to guide experiment design. We observe that for some target thicknesses the spall scab continues tomore » run ahead of the rest of the sample, but for thinner samples, the detonation product gases accelerate the sample enough for it to impact the spall scab several microseconds or more after the initial damage formation. Our data also show signatures in the form of a late-time reshock in the time-resolved data, which support this computational prediction. A primary goal of this research was to study the wave interactions and damage processes for explosives-loaded copper and to look for evidence of this postulated recompression event. We found both experimentally and computationally that we could tailor the magnitude of the initial and recompression shocks by varying the explosive drive and the copper sample thickness; thin samples had a large recompression after spall, whereas thick samples did not recompress at all. Samples that did not recompress had spall scabs that completely separated from the sample, whereas samples with recompression remained intact. This suggests that the hypothesized recompression process closes voids in the damage layer or otherwise halts the spall formation process. This is a somewhat surprising and, in some ways controversial, result, and the one that warrants further research in the shock compression community.« less

  5. Explos