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Sample records for hepatic taurine transport

  1. Hepatic taurine transport: a Na/sup +/-dependent carrier on the basolateral plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Bucuvalas, J.C.; Goodrich, A.L.; Suchy, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    Highly purified rat basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles were used examine the mechanism and the driving forces for hepatic uptake of the ..beta..-amino acid, taurine. An inwardly directed 100 mM NaCl gradient stimulated the initial rate of taurine uptake and energized a transient twofold accumulation of taurine above equilibrium (overshoot). In contrast, uptake was slower and no overshoot was detected in the presence of a KCl gradient. A negative intravesicular electrical potential generated by the presence of permeant anions or an outwardly directed K/sup +/ gradient with valinomycin increased Na/sup +/-stimulated taurine uptake. External Cl/sup -/ stimulated Na/sup +/-dependent taurine uptake independent of effects on the transmembrane electrical potential difference. Na/sup +/-dependent taurine uptake showed a sigmoidal dependence on extravesicular Na/sup +/ concentration, suggesting multiple Na/sup +/ ions are involved in the translocation of each taurine molecule. Na/sup +/-dependent taurine uptake demonstrated Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a maximum velocity of 0.537 nmol x mg protein/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/ and an apparent K/sub m/ of 174 ..mu..M. (/sup 3/H)taurine uptake was inhibited by the presence of excess unlabeled taurine, ..beta..-alanine, or hypotaurine but not by L-glutamine or L-alanine. In summary, using basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles, the authors have shown that hepatic uptake of taurine occurs by a carrier-mediated, secondary active transport process specific for ..beta..-amino acids. Uptake is electrogenic, stimulated by external Cl/sup -/, and requires multiple Na/sup +/ ions for the translocation of each taurine molecule.

  2. Taurine inhibits osteoclastogenesis through the taurine transporter.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling-Qing; Liu, Wei; Cui, Rong-Rong; Wang, Dan; Meng, Ji-Cai; Xie, Hui; Wu, Xian-Ping; Zhou, Hou-De; Lu, Ying; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2010-06-01

    Several studies have suggested a direct link between taurine and bone homeostasis. However, the mechanisms of taurine on the regulation of bone metabolism have not been elucidated. Using a coculture of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells as a model for the study of osteoclastogenesis, RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and M-CSF- and RANKL-induced bone marrow macrophages were investigated to elucidate the possible roles of taurine in osteoclastogenesis. Taurine inhibited osteoclastogenesis in the coculture of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells, but did not influence the expression of OPG and RANKL in osteoblasts. The taurine transporter (TAUT) expressed by RAW264.7 and bone marrow macrophages exhibited typical taurine uptake activity. Taurine directly reduced osteoclastogenesis in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and M-CSF- and RANKL-induced bone marrow macrophages, while TAUT siRNA relieved this effect. Our study demonstrated that taurine directly inhibited osteoclastogenesis through the taurine transporter. Taken together, these data suggest that taurine plays a direct role in bone homeostasis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

  3. Renal transport of taurine adapts to perturbed taurine homeostasis.

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, R; Scriver, C R

    1982-01-01

    Renal adaptation apparently contributes to the homeostasis of taurine, a beta-amino compound that behaves as a conserved metabolite in the mammal. We studied two strains of inbred mice: C3H/HeJ (low-taurine excreter) and C57BL/6J (high-taurine excreter due to impaired basolateral membrane permeability to taurine). Low-protein and low-sulfur amino acid diets fed for two weeks significantly decreased plasma taurine in both strains, decreased fractional taurine excretion in vivo (particularly in the C57BL strain), and increased net uptake of taurine by renal cortex slices and isolated brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) in vitro in both strains. Renal adaptation was less obvious in vivo in the low-taurine excreter C3H strain, but in vitro adaptation, as observed in slices and BBMV (P less than 0.01), was greater than that observed in the C57BL strain. Renal cellular taurine content fell (P less than 0.01) only in the adapted C3H strain. The in vitro adaptive response was not confined to taurine; BBMV uptake of D-glucose and L-alanine was also enhanced in the adapted state. Specificity of the stimulus for adaptation was tested with a low-phenylalanine diet; a modest adaptation was observed in vivo and in vitro but only in the C3H strain. BBMV adaptation did not correlate with blood methionine but correlated inversely with plasma taurine (r = 0.71, P less than 0.05), implying that change in extracellular taurine may be a signal for renal adaptation in taurine homeostasis in the mammal. PMID:6952257

  4. Chronic liver disease is triggered by taurine transporter knockout in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Warskulat, Ulrich; Borsch, Elena; Reinehr, Roland; Heller-Stilb, Birgit; Mönnighoff, Irmhild; Buchczyk, Darius; Donner, Markus; Flögel, Ulrich; Kappert, Günther; Soboll, Sibylle; Beer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Klaus; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Gabrielsen, Marcus; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Dienes, Hans Peter; Häussinger, Dieter

    2006-03-01

    Taurine is an abundant organic osmolyte with antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Its role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease is unknown. The liver phenotype was studied in taurine transporter knockout (taut-/-) mice. Hepatic taurine levels were ~21, 15 and 6 mumol/g liver wet weight in adult wild-type, heterozygous (taut+/-) and homozygous (taut-/-) mice, respectively. Immunoelectronmicroscopy revealed an almost complete depletion of taurine in Kupffer and sinusoidal endothelial cells, but not in parenchymal cells of (taut-/-) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, (taut-/-) and (taut+/-) mice developed moderate unspecific hepatitis and liver fibrosis with increased frequency of neoplastic lesions beyond 1 year of age. Liver disease in (taut-/-) mice was characterized by hepatocyte apoptosis, activation of the CD95 system, elevated plasma TNF-alpha levels, hepatic stellate cell and oval cell proliferation, and severe mitochondrial abnormalities in liver parenchymal cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction was suggested by a significantly lower respiratory control ratio in isolated mitochondria from (taut-/-) mice. Taut knockout had no effect on taurine-conjugated bile acids in bile; however, the relative amount of cholate-conjugates acid was decreased at the expense of 7-keto-cholate-conjugates. In conclusion, taurine deficiency due to defective taurine transport triggers chronic liver disease, which may involve mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:16421246

  5. Chronic liver disease is triggered by taurine transporter knockout in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Warskulat, Ulrich; Borsch, Elena; Reinehr, Roland; Heller-Stilb, Birgit; Mönnighoff, Irmhild; Buchczyk, Darius; Donner, Markus; Flögel, Ulrich; Kappert, Günther; Soboll, Sibylle; Beer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Klaus; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Gabrielsen, Marcus; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Dienes, Hans Peter; Häussinger, Dieter

    2006-03-01

    Taurine is an abundant organic osmolyte with antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Its role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease is unknown. The liver phenotype was studied in taurine transporter knockout (taut-/-) mice. Hepatic taurine levels were ~21, 15 and 6 mumol/g liver wet weight in adult wild-type, heterozygous (taut+/-) and homozygous (taut-/-) mice, respectively. Immunoelectronmicroscopy revealed an almost complete depletion of taurine in Kupffer and sinusoidal endothelial cells, but not in parenchymal cells of (taut-/-) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, (taut-/-) and (taut+/-) mice developed moderate unspecific hepatitis and liver fibrosis with increased frequency of neoplastic lesions beyond 1 year of age. Liver disease in (taut-/-) mice was characterized by hepatocyte apoptosis, activation of the CD95 system, elevated plasma TNF-alpha levels, hepatic stellate cell and oval cell proliferation, and severe mitochondrial abnormalities in liver parenchymal cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction was suggested by a significantly lower respiratory control ratio in isolated mitochondria from (taut-/-) mice. Taut knockout had no effect on taurine-conjugated bile acids in bile; however, the relative amount of cholate-conjugates acid was decreased at the expense of 7-keto-cholate-conjugates. In conclusion, taurine deficiency due to defective taurine transport triggers chronic liver disease, which may involve mitochondrial dysfunction.

  6. Taurine transport in renal brush-border-membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, R; Tenenhouse, H S; Scriver, C R

    1979-01-01

    Taurine transport in isolated brush-border-membrane vesicles from rat kidney is concentrative and it is driven by the Na+ gradient and transmembrane potential difference; binding is not a significant component of net uptake. The Na+-dependent component of net uptake is saturable with an apparent Km of 17 microM. The taurine-transport mechanism is selective for beta-amino compounds. PMID:486101

  7. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan-Rong; Ni, Xian-Qiang; Huang, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-01-01

    In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4+ Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. PMID:27054062

  8. Taurine deficiency, synthesis and transport in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Jessica R; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2015-09-01

    The amino acid taurine is essential for the function of skeletal muscle and administration is proposed as a treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Taurine homeostasis is dependent on multiple processes including absorption of taurine from food, endogenous synthesis from cysteine and reabsorption in the kidney. This study investigates the cause of reported taurine deficiency in the dystrophic mdx mouse model of DMD. Levels of metabolites (taurine, cysteine, cysteine sulfinate and hypotaurine) and proteins (taurine transporter [TauT], cysteine deoxygenase and cysteine sulfinate dehydrogenase) were quantified in juvenile control C57 and dystrophic mdx mice aged 18 days, 4 and 6 weeks. In C57 mice, taurine content was much higher in both liver and plasma at 18 days, and both cysteine and cysteine deoxygenase were increased. As taurine levels decreased in maturing C57 mice, there was increased transport (reabsorption) of taurine in the kidney and muscle. In mdx mice, taurine and cysteine levels were much lower in liver and plasma at 18 days, and in muscle cysteine was low at 18 days, whereas taurine was lower at 4: these changes were associated with perturbations in taurine transport in liver, kidney and muscle and altered metabolism in liver and kidney. These data suggest that the maintenance of adequate body taurine relies on sufficient dietary intake of taurine and cysteine availability and metabolism, as well as retention of taurine by the kidney. This research indicates dystrophin deficiency not only perturbs taurine metabolism in the muscle but also affects taurine metabolism in the liver and kidney, and supports targeting cysteine and taurine deficiency as a potential therapy for DMD.

  9. Taurine transporter knockout depletes muscle taurine levels and results in severe skeletal muscle impairment but leaves cardiac function uncompromised.

    PubMed

    Warskulat, Ulrich; Flögel, Ulrich; Jacoby, Christoph; Hartwig, Hans-Georg; Thewissen, Michael; Merx, Marc W; Molojavyi, Andrej; Heller-Stilb, Birgit; Schrader, Jürgen; Häussinger, Dieter

    2004-03-01

    Taurine is the most abundant free amino acid in heart and skeletal muscle. In the present study, the effects of hereditary taurine deficiency on muscle function were examined in taurine transporter knockout (taut-/-) mice. These mice show an almost complete depletion of heart and skeletal muscle taurine levels. Treadmill experiments demonstrated that total exercise capacity of taut-/- mice was reduced by >80% compared with wild-type controls. The decreased performance of taut-/- mice correlated with increased lactate levels in serum during exercise. Surprisingly, cardiac function of taut-/- mice as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and isolated heart studies showed a largely normal phenotype under both control and stimulated conditions. However, analysis of taut-/- skeletal muscle revealed electromyographic abnormalities. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of tissue extracts showed that in the heart of taut-/- mice the lack of taurine was compensated by the up-regulation of various organic solutes. In contrast, a deficit of >10 mM in total organic osmolyte concentration was found in skeletal muscle. The present study identifies taurine transport as a crucial factor for the maintenance of skeletal muscle function and total exercise capacity, while cardiac muscle apparently can compensate for the loss of taurine. PMID:14734644

  10. Taurine transporter knockout depletes muscle taurine levels and results in severe skeletal muscle impairment but leaves cardiac function uncompromised.

    PubMed

    Warskulat, Ulrich; Flögel, Ulrich; Jacoby, Christoph; Hartwig, Hans-Georg; Thewissen, Michael; Merx, Marc W; Molojavyi, Andrej; Heller-Stilb, Birgit; Schrader, Jürgen; Häussinger, Dieter

    2004-03-01

    Taurine is the most abundant free amino acid in heart and skeletal muscle. In the present study, the effects of hereditary taurine deficiency on muscle function were examined in taurine transporter knockout (taut-/-) mice. These mice show an almost complete depletion of heart and skeletal muscle taurine levels. Treadmill experiments demonstrated that total exercise capacity of taut-/- mice was reduced by >80% compared with wild-type controls. The decreased performance of taut-/- mice correlated with increased lactate levels in serum during exercise. Surprisingly, cardiac function of taut-/- mice as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and isolated heart studies showed a largely normal phenotype under both control and stimulated conditions. However, analysis of taut-/- skeletal muscle revealed electromyographic abnormalities. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of tissue extracts showed that in the heart of taut-/- mice the lack of taurine was compensated by the up-regulation of various organic solutes. In contrast, a deficit of >10 mM in total organic osmolyte concentration was found in skeletal muscle. The present study identifies taurine transport as a crucial factor for the maintenance of skeletal muscle function and total exercise capacity, while cardiac muscle apparently can compensate for the loss of taurine.

  11. Osmoregulated taurine transport in H4IIE hepatoma cells and perfused rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Warskulat, U; Wettstein, M; Häussinger, D

    1997-01-01

    The effects of aniso-osmotic exposure on taurine transport were studied in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Hyperosmotic (405 mosmol/l) exposure of H4IIE cells stimulated Na+-dependent taurine uptake and led to an increase in taurine transporter (TAUT) mRNA levels, whereas hypo-osmotic (205 mosmol/l) exposure diminished both taurine uptake and TAUT mRNA levels when compared with normo-osmotic (305 mosmol/l) control incubations. Taurine uptake increased 30-40-fold upon raising the ambient osmolarity from 205 to 405 mosmol/l. When H4IIE cells and perfused livers were preloaded with taurine, hypo-osmotic cell swelling led to a rapid release of taurine from the cells. The taurine efflux, but not taurine uptake, was sensitive to 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), suggestive of an involvement of DIDS-sensitive channels in mediating volume-regulatory taurine efflux. Whereas in both H4IIE rat hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes TAUT mRNA levels were strongly dependent upon ambient osmolarity, mRNAs for other osmolyte transporters, i.e. the betaine transporter BGT-1 and the Na+/myo-inositol transporter SMIT, were not detectable. In line with this, myo-inositol uptake by H4IIE hepatoma cells was low and was not stimulated by hyperosmolarity. However, despite the absence of BGT-1 mRNA, a slight osmosensitive uptake of betaine was observed, but the rate was less than 10% of that of taurine transport. This study identifies a constitutively expressed and osmosensitive TAUT in H4IIE cells and the use of taurine as a main osmolyte, whereas betaine and myo-inositol play little or no role in the osmolyte strategy in these cells. This is in contrast with rat liver macrophages, in which betaine has been shown to be a major osmolyte. PMID:9032454

  12. Cloning, tissue and ontogenetic expression of the taurine transporter in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Gomes, Ana S; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2012-04-01

    Flatfish species seem to require dietary taurine for normal growth and development. Although dietary taurine supplementation has been recommended for flatfish, little is known about the mechanisms of taurine absorption in the digestive tract of flatfish throughout ontogeny. This study described the cloning and ontogenetic expression of the taurine transporter (TauT) in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Results showed a high similarity between TauT in Senegalese sole and other vertebrates, but a change in TauT amino acid sequences indicates that taurine transport may differ between mammals and fish, reptiles or birds. Moreover, results showed that Senegalese sole metamorphosis is an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in larvae, especially in muscle tissues, which may be important for larval growth. Results also indicated that the capacity to uptake dietary taurine in the digestive tract is already established in larvae at the onset of metamorphosis. In Senegalese sole juveniles, TauT expression was highest in brain, heart and eye. These are organs where taurine is usually found in high concentrations and is believed to play important biological roles. In the digestive tract of juveniles, TauT was more expressed in stomach and hindgut, indicating that dietary taurine is quickly absorbed when digestion begins and taurine endogenously used for bile salt conjugation may be recycled at the posterior end of the digestive tract. Therefore, these results suggest an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine in Senegalese sole, a process that may be important for maintenance of the taurine body levels in flatfish species.

  13. Sulfasalazine-induced renal and hepatic injury in rats and the protective role of taurine

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Reza; Rasti, Maryam; Shirazi Yeganeh, Babak; Niknahad, Hossein; Saeedi, Arastoo; Najibi, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sulfasalazine is a drug commonly administrated against inflammatory-based disorders. On the other hand, kidney and liver injury are serious adverse events accompanied by sulfasalazine administration. No specific therapeutic option is available against this complication. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the potential protective effects of taurine against sulfasalazine-induced kidney and liver injury in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with sulfasalazine (600 mg/kg, oral) for 14 consecutive days. Animals received different doses of taurine (250, 500 and 1000 mg/ kg, i.p.) every day. Markers of organ injury were evaluated on day 15th, 24 h after the last dose of sulfasalazine. Results: Sulfasalazine caused renal and hepatic injury as judged by an increase in serum level of creatinine (Cr), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation were raised in kidney and liver of sulfasalazine-treated animals. Moreover, tissue glutathione reservoirs were depleted after sulfasalazine administration. Histopathological changes of kidney and liver also endorsed organ injury. Taurine administration (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, i.p) alleviated sulfasalazine-induced renal and hepatic damage. Conclusion: Taurine administration could serve as a potential protective agent with therapeutic capabilities against sulfasalazine adverse effects. PMID:27340618

  14. Taurine transporter in fetal T lymphocytes and platelets: differential expression and functional activity.

    PubMed

    Iruloh, C G; D'Souza, S W; Speake, P F; Crocker, I; Fergusson, W; Baker, P N; Sibley, C P; Glazier, J D

    2007-01-01

    Transplacental transfer of taurine, a beta-amino acid essential for fetal and neonatal development, constitutes the primary source of taurine for the fetus. Placental transport of taurine is compromised in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction, resulting in a reduced concentration of taurine in cord plasma. This could impact on fetal cellular metabolism as taurine represents the most abundant intracellular amino acid in many fetal cell types. In the present study, we have used pure isolates of fetal platelets and T lymphocytes from cord blood of placentas, from normal, term pregnancies, as fetal cell types to examine the cellular uptake mechanisms for taurine by the system beta transporter and have compared gene and protein expression for the taurine transporter protein (TAUT) in these two cell types. System beta activity in fetal platelets was 15-fold higher compared with fetal T lymphocytes (P < 0.005), mirroring greater TAUT mRNA expression in platelets than T lymphocytes (P < 0.005). Cell-specific differences in TAUT protein moieties were detected with a doublet of 75 and 80 kDa in fetal platelets compared with 114 and 120 kDa in fetal T lymphocytes, with relatively higher expression in platelets. We conclude that greater system beta activity in fetal platelets compared with T lymphocytes is the result of relatively greater TAUT mRNA and protein expression. This study represents the first characterization of amino acid transporters in fetal T lymphocytes.

  15. Regulation of the taurine transporter gene in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Matsell, D G; Bennett, T; Han, X; Budreau, A M; Chesney, R W

    1997-09-01

    Traditionally, bulk amino acid reabsorption in the kidney has been thought to be localized to the early portions of the proximal nephron. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets with low, normal, and high taurine content for two weeks. Kidneys were hybridized with an 35S-radiolabeled complementary RNA probe to the rB16a subclone encoding the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the rat brain taurine transporter. Identical fragments were generated by RT-PCR from rat brain and kidneys as confirmed by DNA sequencing. Hybridization was localized to the outer zone of the medulla of all the kidneys. In the normal diet animals, taurine transporter mRNA was localized to the S3 segment of the proximal tubule, to the loop of Henle in the medulla, and to the glomerular epithelial cell layer. With taurine restriction, taurine transporter mRNA expression was up-regulated predominantly in the S3 segment and was virtually absent in this segment in animals supplemented with taurine. These experiments have precisely localized the rat kidney taurine transporter gene, demonstrating regulation that is limited to the S3 segment of the proximal tubule.

  16. Cysteine Sulfinic Acid Decarboxylase Regulation: A Role for FXR and SHP in Murine Hepatic Taurine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas A.; Matsumoto, Yuri; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Xie, Yan; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.; Stipanuk, Martha H.; Anakk, Sayeepriyadarshini; Moore, David D.; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Kennedy, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bile acid synthesis is regulated by nuclear receptors including farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and small heterodimer partner (SHP), and by fibroblast growth factor15/19 (FGF15/19). Because bile acid synthesis involves amino acid conjugation, we hypothesized that hepatic cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) (a key enzyme in taurine synthesis) is regulated by bile acids. Aims To investigate CSAD regulation by bile acids and CSAD regulatory mechanisms. Methods Mice were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with either 0.5% cholate or 2% cholestyramine. To gain mechanistic insight into CSAD regulation, we utilized GW4064 (FXR agonist), FGF19, or T-0901317 (LXR agonist) and Shp−/− mice. Tissue mRNA expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Amino acids were measured by HPLC. Results Mice supplemented with dietary cholate exhibited reduced hepatic CSAD mRNA expression while those receiving cholestyramine exhibited increased hepatic CSAD mRNA expression. Activation of FXR suppressed CSAD mRNA expression whereas hepatic CSAD mRNA expression was increased in Shp−/− mice. Hepatic hypotaurine concentration (the product of CSAD) was higher in Shp−/− mice with a corresponding increase in serum (but not hepatic) taurine-conjugated bile acids. FGF19 administration suppressed hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA but did not change CSAD mRNA expression. LXR activation induced CYP7A1 mRNA yet failed to induce CSAD mRNA expression. Conclusion CSAD mRNA expression is physiologically regulated by bile acids in a feedback fashion via mechanisms involving SHP and FXR but not FGF15/19 or LXR. These novel findings implicate bile acids as regulators of CSAD mRNA via mechanisms shared in part with CYP7A1. PMID:24033844

  17. Regulation of taurine transporter activity in LLC-PK1 cells: role of protein synthesis and protein kinase C activation.

    PubMed

    Jones, D P; Miller, L A; Dowling, C; Chesney, R W

    1991-11-01

    Taurine transporter activity increases after exposure of cultured renal epithelial cells to taurine-free medium for 24 h and decreases after incubation in high (500 microM) taurine. This adaptive response mimics that observed in rat kidney after manipulation of dietary taurine. In order to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in the regulation of beta-amino acid transporter activity, the role of RNA transcription, protein synthesis, and protein import (trafficking), as well as protein kinase C activation, on the control of taurine transport was examined in the continuous proximally derived LLC-PK1 renal cell line. Inhibition of RNA transcription with actinomycin D did not alter the up-regulatory and down-regulatory adaptive responses. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide prevented the increased taurine transport in response to taurine-free medium as well as the decrease in taurine transport after exposure to high taurine. Colchicine prevented the response to taurine-free medium but had no effect on the response to high-taurine medium. Exposure of confluent cell monolayers to the active phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, resulted in a reduction in taurine uptake. The effect was seen within minutes of exposure but was not observed in the presence of the inactive phorbol 4-alpha. This inhibitory action was blocked by staurosporin, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). Treatment of cells with the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022, which results in increased intracellular diacylglycerol, a natural stimulant of PKC, also inhibited taurine uptake, providing further evidence for a specific effect of PKC activation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Effect of mercury on taurine transport by the red blood cells of the marine polychaete, Glycera dibranchiata

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.; Preston, R.L.

    1987-08-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of heavy metal exposure on the transport of the amino acid, /sup 14/C-taurine, by the hemoglobin containing coelomocytes (red blood cells) of the marine polychaete, Glycera dibranchiata. Glycera has been used previously in studies on heavy metal absorption. Glycera red cells (RBCs) were used for this study because they contain a high concentration of taurine (190 mM) which has been implicated as a major osmolyte in cellular volume regulation in marine invertebrates. Taurine also appears to participate in osmoregulation of mammalian heart and brain tissue. The coelomic fluid bathing Glycera RBCs typically contains taurine at considerably lower concentrations (0.2 mM). The standing gradients (intracellular conc./extracellular conc.) for amino acids ranges from 40:1 for lysine to 950:1 for taurine. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that the maintenance of the large standing gradient for taurine was apparently due to the presence of a specific Na and Cl dependent taurine transport system in these cells. The fact that Glycera RBCs actively maintain large taurine gradients suggests that this tissue should be an excellent one to use in analysis of the mechanisms of heavy metal interaction with taurine transport systems.

  19. Altered hepatic sulfur metabolism in cystathionine β-synthase-deficient homocystinuria: regulatory role of taurine on competing cysteine oxidation pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Abman, Steven H; Maclean, Kenneth N

    2014-09-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase-deficient homocystinuria (HCU) is a serious life-threatening inborn error of sulfur metabolism with poorly understood pathogenic mechanisms. We investigated the effect of HCU on hepatic cysteine oxidation in a transgenic mouse model of the disease. Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) protein levels were 90% repressed without any change in mRNA levels. Cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) was induced at both the mRNA (8-fold) and protein (15-fold) levels. Cysteine supplementation normalized CDO protein levels without reversing the induction of CSAD. Regulatory changes in CDO and CSAD expression were proportional to homocysteine elevation, indicating a possible threshold effect. Hepatic and blood taurine levels in HCU animals were decreased by 21 and 35%, respectively, and normalized by cysteine supplementation. Expression of the cytoplasmic (GOT1) and mitochondrial (GOT2) isoforms of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase were repressed in HCU animals by 86 and 30%, respectively. HCU induced regulatory changes in CSAD, CDO, and GOT1 expression were normalized by taurine supplementation, indicating that cysteine is not the only sulfur compound that regulates hepatic cysteine oxidation. Collectively, our results indicate that HCU induces significant alterations of sulfur metabolism with the potential to contribute to pathogenesis and that cysteine and taurine have the potential to serve as adjunctive treatments in this disease.

  20. [Blood oxygen transport, prooxidant -- antioxidant status, and vasoactive characteristics of vascular endothelium in rats treated with endotoxin and taurine].

    PubMed

    Milosh, T S; Maksimovich, N E

    2014-01-01

    Experiments on a group of 74 pregnant rats upon intramuscular introduction of E. coli lipopolysaccharides during pregnancy revealed the correction effect of taurine on the blood oxygen transport function, prooxidant - antioxidant status, and vasoactive characteristics of vascular endothelium.

  1. The role of taurine in infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chesney, R W; Helms, R A; Christensen, M; Budreau, A M; Han, X; Sturman, J A

    1998-01-01

    The importance of taurine in the diet of pre-term and term infants has not always been clearly understood and is a topic of interest to students of infant nutrition. Recent evidence indicates that it should be considered one of the "conditionally essential" amino acids in infant nutrition. Plasma values for taurine will fall if infants are fed a taurine-free formula or do not have taurine provided in the TPN solution. Urine taurine values also fall, which is indicative of an attempt by the kidney to conserve taurine. The very-low-birth-weight infant, for a variety of reasons involving the maturation of tubular transport function, cannot maximally conserve taurine by enhancing renal reabsorption and, hence, is potentially at greater risk for taurine depletion than larger pre-term or term infants, and certainly more than older children who have taurine in their diet. Taurine has an important role in fat absorption in pre-term and possibly term infants and in children with cystic fibrosis. Because taurine-conjugated bile acids are better emulsifiers of fat than glycine-conjugated bile acids, the dietary (or TPN) intake has a direct influence on absorption of lipids. Taurine supplementation of formulas or TPN solutions could potentially serve to minimize the brain phospholipid fatty acid composition differences between formula-fed and human milk-fed infants. Taurine appears to have a role in infants, children, and even adults receiving most (> 75%) of their calories from TPN solutions in the prevention of granulation of the retina and electroencephalographic changes. Taurine has also been reported to improve maturation of auditory-evoked responses in pre-term infants, although this point is not fully established. Clearly, taurine is an important osmolyte in the brain and the renal medulla. At these locations, it is a primary factor in the cell volume regulatory process, in which brain or renal cells swell or shrink in response to osmolar changes, but return to their

  2. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of human hepatic stellate cells treated with natural taurine.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian; Deng, Xin; Wu, Fa-Sheng; Tang, Yan-Fang

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differential expression of genes and proteins between natural taurine (NTau)‑treated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and control cells as well as the underlying mechanism of NTau in inhibiting hepatic fibrosis. A microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to analyze the proliferation of NTau‑treated HSCs. Flow cytometry was performed to compare the apoptosis rate between NTau-treated and non‑treated HSCs. Proteomic analysis using a combination of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) was conducted to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Microarray analysis was performed to investigate the differential expression of genes and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to validate the results. The experimental findings obtained demonstrated that NTau decreased HSC proliferation, resulting in an increased number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and a reduced number of cells in the S phase. Flow cytometric analysis showed that NTau-treated HSCs had a significantly increased rate of apoptosis when compared with the non‑treated control group. A total of 15 differentially expressed proteins and 658 differentially expressed genes were identified by 2DE and MS, and microarray analysis, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) functional analysis indicated that these genes and proteins were enriched in the function clusters and pathways related to cell proliferation, cellular apoptosis and oxidation. The transcriptome and proteome analyses of NTau-treated HSCs demonstrated that NTau is able to significantly inhibit cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis, highlighting its potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23525364

  3. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of human hepatic stellate cells treated with natural taurine.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian; Deng, Xin; Wu, Fa-Sheng; Tang, Yan-Fang

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differential expression of genes and proteins between natural taurine (NTau)‑treated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and control cells as well as the underlying mechanism of NTau in inhibiting hepatic fibrosis. A microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to analyze the proliferation of NTau‑treated HSCs. Flow cytometry was performed to compare the apoptosis rate between NTau-treated and non‑treated HSCs. Proteomic analysis using a combination of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) was conducted to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Microarray analysis was performed to investigate the differential expression of genes and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to validate the results. The experimental findings obtained demonstrated that NTau decreased HSC proliferation, resulting in an increased number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and a reduced number of cells in the S phase. Flow cytometric analysis showed that NTau-treated HSCs had a significantly increased rate of apoptosis when compared with the non‑treated control group. A total of 15 differentially expressed proteins and 658 differentially expressed genes were identified by 2DE and MS, and microarray analysis, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) functional analysis indicated that these genes and proteins were enriched in the function clusters and pathways related to cell proliferation, cellular apoptosis and oxidation. The transcriptome and proteome analyses of NTau-treated HSCs demonstrated that NTau is able to significantly inhibit cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis, highlighting its potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  4. Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant status of totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi).

    PubMed

    Bañuelos-Vargas, Isaura; López, Lus M; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena

    2014-04-01

    The effect of dietary incorporation of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and the concomitant supplementation with taurine on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant status of totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) juveniles was assessed. Four isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated containing either 30 or 60% of SPC (diets SP30 and SP60), supplemented or not with 1% of taurine (diets SP30T and SP60T). A fish meal (FM) based diet, without SPC and taurine supplementation, was used as a control. Triplicate groups of 32 totoaba juveniles (average body mass=7.5g) were fed these diets over 45days. Results revealed that dietary FM replacement by SPC depressed the overall intermediary metabolism. Activity of key enzymes of amino acid catabolism and gluconeogenesis was significantly reduced and a trend to reduce glycolysis and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was observed. The incorporation of the highest level of SPC also significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and the activity of superoxide dismutase. Concomitant taurine supplementation restored the activity of amino acid catabolic and gluconeogenic enzymes and hexokinase to levels similar of those of the control diet. Taurine supplementation also led to a significant increase of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase activity, as well as to a significant reduction of liver lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that taurine may play an important metabolic modulation action on totoaba fed SPC based diets, contributing to the enhancement of the overall metabolism and to the reduction of liver oxidative damage.

  5. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-03-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 ..mu..M/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na/sup +/ and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with /sup 14/C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 ..mu..M, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet.

  6. Downregulation of the taurine transporter TauT during hypo-osmotic stress in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Friis, Martin Barfred; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2012-02-01

    The present work was initiated to investigate regulation of the taurine transporter TauT by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts during acute and long-term (4 h) exposure to low-sodium/hypo-osmotic stress. Taurine influx is reduced following reduction in osmolarity, keeping the extracellular Na(+) concentration constant. TonEBP activity is unaltered, whereas TauT transcription as well as TauT activity are significantly reduced under hypo-osmotic conditions. In contrast, TonEBP activity and TauT transcription are significantly increased following hyperosmotic exposure. Swelling-induced ROS production in NIH3T3 fibroblasts is generated by NOX4 and by increasing total ROS, by either exogenous application of H(2)O(2) or overexpressing NOX4, we demonstrate that TonEBP activity and taurine influx are regulated negatively by ROS under hypo-osmotic, low-sodium conditions, whereas the TauT mRNA level is unaffected. Acute exposure to ROS reduces taurine uptake as a result of modulated TauT transport kinetics. Thus, swelling-induced ROS production could account for the reduced taurine uptake under low-sodium/hypo-osmotic conditions by direct modulation of TauT. PMID:22383044

  7. Protective Role of Taurine against Arsenic-Induced Mitochondria-Dependent Hepatic Apoptosis via the Inhibition of PKCδ-JNK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Das, Joydeep; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxic effect of arsenic (As) is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione (GSH) in liver. Taurine, on the other hand, enhances intracellular production of GSH. Little is known about the mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in As-induced hepatic pathophysiology. Therefore, in the present study we investigated its beneficial role in As-induced hepatic cell death via mitochondria-mediated pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats were exposed to NaAsO2 (2 mg/kg body weight for 6 months) and the hepatic tissue was used for oxidative stress measurements. In addition, the pathophysiologic effect of NaAsO2 (10 µM) on hepatocytes was evaluated by determining cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS generation. As caused mitochondrial injury by increased oxidative stress and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL/Bad, Bax, Bim in association with increased level of Apaf-1, activation of caspase 9/3, cleavage of PARP protein and ultimately led to apoptotic cell death. In addition, As markedly increased JNK and p38 phosphorylation with minimal disturbance of ERK. Pre-exposure of hepatocytes to a JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevented As-induced caspase-3 activation, ROS production and loss in cell viability. Pre-exposure of hepatocytes to a p38 inhibitor SB2035, on the other hand, had practically no effect on these events. Besides, As activated PKCδ and pre-treatment of hepatocytes with its inhibitor, rottlerin, suppressed the activation of JNK indicating that PKCδ is involved in As-induced JNK activation and mitochondrial dependent apoptosis. Oral administration of taurine (50 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks) both pre and post to NaAsO2 exposure or incubation of the hepatocytes with taurine (25 mM) were found to be effective in counteracting As-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance Results indicate that taurine treatment improved As-induced hepatic damages by inhibiting PKC

  8. Mapping of the taurine transporter gene to mouse chromosome 6 and to the short arm of human chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.; Uhl, G.R.; Gregor, P.

    1995-01-01

    Transport proteins have essential functions in the uptake of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. We have mapped the gene encoding the taurine transporter, Taut, to the central region of mouse chromosome 6. Analysis of a cross segregating the neurological mutant mnd2 excluded Taut as a candidate gene for this closely linked mutation. To map the human taurine transporter gene, TAUT, a sequence-tagged site (STS) corresponding to the 3{prime} untranslated region of the human cDNA was developed. TAUT was assigned to human chromosome 3 by typing this STS on a panel of somatic cell hybrids. Further analysis of a hybrid panel containing defined deletions of chromosome 3 suggested that TAUT maps to 3p21-p25. These data extend a conserved linkage group on mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 3p. Deletion of TAUT might contribute to some phenotypic features of the 3p{sup -} syndrome. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Identification and functional characterization of a dual GABA/taurine transporter in the bullfrog retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes, fluorescence imaging, and radiotracer flux techniques were used to investigate the physiological response of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the major retinal inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA is released tonically in the dark by amphibian horizontal cells, but is not taken up by the nearby Muller cells. Addition of GABA to the apical bath produced voltage responses in the bullfrog RPE that were not blocked nor mimicked by any of the major GABA-receptor antagonists or agonists. Nipecotic acid, a substrate for GABA transport, inhibited the voltage effects of GABA. GABA and nipecotic acid also inhibited the voltage effects of taurine, suggesting that the previously characterized beta- alanine sensitive taurine carrier also takes up GABA. The voltage responses of GABA, taurine, nipecotic acid, and beta-alanine all showed first-order saturable kinetics with the following Km's: GABA (Km = 160 microM), beta-alanine (Km = 250 microM), nipecotic acid (Km = 420 microM), and taurine (Km = 850 microM). This low affinity GABA transporter is dependent on external Na, partially dependent on external Cl, and is stimulated in low [K]o, which approximates subretinal space [K]o during light onset. Apical GABA also produced a significant conductance increase at the basolateral membrane. These GABA-induced conductance changes were blocked by basal Ba2+, suggesting that GABA decreased basolateral membrane K conductance. In addition, the apical membrane Na/K ATPase was stimulated in the presence of GABA. A model for the interaction between the GABA transporter, the Na/K ATPase, and the basolateral membrane K conductance accounts for the electrical effects of GABA. Net apical-to-basal flux of [3H]-GABA was also observed in radioactive flux experiments. The present study shows that a high capacity GABA uptake mechanism with unique pharmacological properties is located at the RPE apical membrane and could play an

  10. Effects of the transport site conformation on the binding of external NAP-taurine to the human erythrocyte anion exchange system: evidence for intrinsic asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Knauf, P.A.; Law, F.Y.; Tarshis, T.; Furuya, W.

    1984-05-01

    External N-(4-azido (NAP-taurine) inhibits human red cell chloride exchange by binding to a site that is distinct from the chloride transport site. Increases in the intracellular chloride concentration (at constant external chloride) cause an increase in the inhibitory potency of external NAP-taurine. This effect is not due to the changes in pH or membrane potential that usually accompany a chloride gradient, since even when these changes are reversed or eliminated the inhibitory potency remains high. According to the ping-pong model for anion exchange, such transmembrane effects of intracellular chloride on external NAP-taurine can be explained if NAP-taurine only binds to its site when the transport site is in the outward-facing (E/sub o/ or ECl/sub o/) form. Since NAP-taurine prevents the conformational change from ECl/sub o/ to ECl/sub i/, it must lock the system in the outward-facing form. NAP-taurine can therefore be used just like the competitive inhibitor H/sub 2/DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyano-1,2-diphenylethane-2,2'-disulfonic acid) to monitor the fraction of transport sites that face outward. A quantitative analysis of the effects of chloride gradients on the inhibitory potency of NAP-taurine and H/sub 2/DIDS reveals that the transport system is intrinsically asymmetric, such that when Cl/sub i/ = Cl/sub o/, most of the unloaded transport sites face the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. 30 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Transforming growth factor-beta-induced stimulation of formation of collagen fiber network and anti-fibrotic effect of taurine in an in vitro model of hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Junya; Ido, Akio; Hasuike, Satoru; Uto, Hirofumi; Hori, Takeshi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Shigeru; Terano, Akira; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2004-09-01

    The cell strain M, which was established from normal rat liver cells, is characterized by the active formation of a collagen fiber network. In this study, we investigated the characterization of M cells and evaluated the anti-fibrogenic effects of taurine using this culture system. M cells expressed cytokeratin (CK)8, CK18, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin, whereas expression of CK-19 or desmin was not detected. Also, M cells expressed transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, -beta2, and TGF-beta type I and II receptors, and treatment with TGF-beta1 (1ng/ml) for 6 days markedly stimulated the formation of a collagen fiber network and expression of procollagen alpha1(I) mRNA. When M cells were treated with various concentrations of taurine (10-50mM), network formation and procollagen alpha1(I) expression were significantly suppressed in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, even in the presence of TGF-beta1, taurine treatment effectively reduced the formation of a collagen fiber network. These results suggest that M cells exhibit features of not only hepatocytes but also myofibroblasts, and TGF-beta1 plays an important role in the formation of collagen fiber networks in this culture system. Additionally, this M cell culture system is appropriate for use as an in vitro model of hepatic fibrosis in the evaluation of the anti-fibrogenic effects of various agents.

  12. Comparison of serum and plasma taurine values in Bengal tigers with values in taurine-sufficient and -deficient domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J P; Chesney, R W; Beehler, B; Moore, C P; Lippincott, S; Sturman, J; Ketring, K L

    1990-01-15

    A white Bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. Because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (CRD) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. Serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white Bengal tigers, orange Bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually impaired cats with CRD. Hepatic and brain enzymes responsible for taurine synthesis were identified in tissue specimens from an orange Bengal tiger. Serum taurine concentrations were lower in white vs orange tigers, but were not as low as those in cats with CRD. Thus, we concluded that taurine depletion did not account for the central retinal lesion in the white Bengal tiger.

  13. Comparison of serum and plasma taurine values in Bengal tigers with values in taurine-sufficient and -deficient domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J P; Chesney, R W; Beehler, B; Moore, C P; Lippincott, S; Sturman, J; Ketring, K L

    1990-01-15

    A white Bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. Because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (CRD) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. Serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white Bengal tigers, orange Bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually impaired cats with CRD. Hepatic and brain enzymes responsible for taurine synthesis were identified in tissue specimens from an orange Bengal tiger. Serum taurine concentrations were lower in white vs orange tigers, but were not as low as those in cats with CRD. Thus, we concluded that taurine depletion did not account for the central retinal lesion in the white Bengal tiger. PMID:2298663

  14. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production.

  15. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production. PMID:23392894

  16. Interaction of GABA-mimetics with the taurine transporter (TauT, Slc6a6) in hyperosmotic treated Caco-2, LLC-PK1 and rat renal SKPT cells.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rune Nørgaard; Lagunas, Candela; Plum, Jakob; Holm, René; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2016-01-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if basic GABA-mimetics interact with the taurine transporter (TauT, Slc6a6), and to find a suitable cell based model that is robust towards extracellular changes in osmolality during uptake studies. Taurine uptake was measured in human Caco-2 cells, porcine LLC-PK1 cells, and rat SKPT cells using radiolabelled taurine. Hyperosmotic conditions were obtained by incubation with raffinose (final osmolality of 500mOsm) for 24h prior to the uptake experiments. Expression of the taurine transporter, TauT, was investigated at the mRNA level by real-time PCR. Uptake of the GABA-mimetics gaboxadol and vigabatrin was investigated in SKPT cells, and quantified by liquid scintillation or HPLC-MS/MS analysis, respectively. The uptake rate of [(3)H]-taurine was Na(+) and Cl(-) and concentration dependent with taurine with an apparent Vmax of 6.3±1.6pmolcm(-2)min(-1) and a Km of 24.9±15.0μM. β-alanine, nipecotic acid, gaboxadol, GABA, vigabatrin, δ-ALA and guvacine inhibited the taurine uptake rate in a concentration dependent manner. The order of affinity for TauT was β-alanine>GABA>nipecotic acid>guvacine>δ-ALA>vigabatrin>gaboxadol with IC50-values of 0.04, 1.07, 2.02, 4.19, 4.94, 31.4 and 39.9mM, respectively. In conclusion, GABA mimetics inhibited taurine uptake in hyperosmotic rat renal SKPT cells. SKPT cells, which seem to be a useful model for investigating taurine transport in the short-term presence of high concentrations of osmolytes. Furthermore, analogues of β-alanine appear to have higher affinities for TauT than GABA-analogues.

  17. Ontogenetic taurine biosynthesis ability in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2015-07-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) plays important roles in multiple physiological processes including osmoregulation, bile salt conjugation and membrane protection. It is known that taurine biosynthesis varies in different fish species. However, its ontogenetic regulation has not been clear. In the present study, we found that the hepatic concentrations of taurine increased marginally with rainbow trout growth. The mRNA expression, protein levels and enzyme activities of key enzymes involved in taurine biosynthesis, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD), were analyzed. Our results showed that the mRNA levels and protein abundances of CSD increased dramatically with the development of rainbow trout stages while the enzyme activities showed a slight improvement. However, the expression and activities of CDO decreased with rainbow trout growth. These results provide valuable information on defining the exact supplementation of taurine in diets for different stages of rainbow trout and give new insights into elucidating the regulation of taurine metabolism in rainbow trout.

  18. Role of Hepatic Drug Transporters in Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houfu; Sahi, Jasminder

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic drug transporters can play an important role in pharmacokinetics and the disposition of therapeutic drugs and endogenous substances. Altered function of hepatic drug transporters due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs), genetic polymorphisms, and disease states can often result in a change in systemic and/or tissue exposure and subsequent pharmacological/toxicological effects of their substrates. Regulatory agencies including the US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, and Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency have issued guidance for industry on drug interaction studies, which contain comprehensive recommendations on in vitro and in vivo study tools and cutoff values to evaluate the DDI potential of new molecular entities mediated by hepatic drug transporters. In this report we summarize the latest regulatory and scientific progress of hepatic drug transporters in clinical DDIs, pharmacogenetics, drug-induced liver injury (DILI), as well as methods for predicting transporter-mediated pharmacokinetics and DDIs. PMID:27385168

  19. Effects of zinc ex vivo on taurine uptake in goldfish retinal cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Taurine and zinc exert neurotrophic effects in the central nervous system. Current studies demonstrate that Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters, similar to that of taurine, are modulated by micromolar concentrations of zinc. This study examined the effect of zinc sulfate ex vivo on [3H]taurine transport in goldfish retina. Methods Isolated cells were incubated in Ringer with zinc (0.1–100 µM). Taurine transport was done with 50 nM [3H]taurine or by isotopic dilution with taurine (0.001–1 mM) and 50 nM [3H]taurine. Results Zinc reduced the capacity of taurine transport without changes in affinity, and caused a noncompetitive inhibition of high affinity taurine transport, with an EC50= 0.072 µM. The mechanism by which zinc affects taurine transport is unknown at the present. Conclusions There may be a binding site of zinc in the transporter that affects union or translocation of taurine, or possibly the formation of taurine-zinc complexes, rather than free zinc, could affect the operation of the transporter. PMID:20804587

  20. Taurine and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is abundantly present in most mammalian tissues and plays a role in many important physiological functions. Atherosclerosis is the underlying mechanism of cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarctions, strokes and peripheral artery disease and remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies conducted in laboratory animal models using both genetic and dietary models of hyperlipidemia have demonstrated that taurine supplementation retards the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Epidemiological studies have also suggested that taurine exerts preventive effects on cardiovascular diseases. The present review focuses on the effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In addition, the potential mechanisms by which taurine suppress the development of atherosclerosis will be discussed.

  1. Role of taurine accumulation in keratinocyte hydration.

    PubMed

    Janeke, Guido; Siefken, Wilfried; Carstensen, Stefanie; Springmann, Gunja; Bleck, Oliver; Steinhart, Hans; Höger, Peter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Wenck, Horst; Stäb, Franz; Sauermann, Gerhard; Schreiner, Volker; Doering, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are exposed to a low water concentration at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. When epithelial tissues are osmotically perturbed, cellular protection and cell volume regulation is mediated by accumulation of organic osmolytes such as taurine. Previous studies reported the presence of taurine in the epidermis of several animal species. Therefore, we analyzed human skin for the presence of the taurine transporter (TAUT) and studied the accumulation of taurine as one potential mechanism protecting epidermal keratinocytes from dehydration. According to our results, TAUT is expressed as a 69 kDa protein in human epidermis but not in the dermis. For the epidermis a gradient was evident with maximal levels of TAUT in the outermost granular keratinocyte layer and lower levels in the stratum spinosum. No TAUT was found in the basal layer or in the stratum corneum. Keratinocyte accumulation of taurine was induced by experimental induction of skin dryness via application of silica gel to human skin. Cultured human keratinocytes accumulated taurine in a concentration- and osmolarity-dependent manner. TAUT mRNA levels were increased after exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic culture medium, indicating osmosensitive TAUT mRNA expression as part of the adaptation of keratinocytes to hyperosmotic stress. Keratinocyte uptake of taurine was inhibited by beta-alanine but not by other osmolytes such as betaine, inositol, or sorbitol. Accumulation of taurine protected cultured human keratinocytes from both osmotically induced and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Our data indicate that taurine is an important epidermal osmolyte required to maintain keratinocyte hydration in a dry environment. PMID:12880428

  2. Content and traffic of taurine in hippocampal reactive astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Junyent, Fèlix; De Lemos, Luisa; Utrera, Juana; Paco, Sonia; Aguado, Fernando; Camins, Antoni; Pallàs, Mercè; Romero, Rafael; Auladell, Carme

    2011-02-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system, where it is crucial to proper development. Moreover, taurine acts as a neuroprotectant in various diseases; in epilepsy, for example, it has the capacity to reduce or abolish seizures. In the present study, taurine levels has been determine in mice treated with Kainic Acid (KA) and results showed an increase of this amino acid in hippocampus but not in whole brain after 3 and 7 days of KA treatment. This increase occurs when gliosis was observed. Moreover, taurine transporter (TAUT) was found in astrocytes 3 and 7 days after KA treatment, together with an increase in cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (csd) mRNA, that codifies for the rate-limiting enzyme of taurine synthesis, in the hippocampus at the same times after KA treatment. Glial cultures enriched in astrocytes were developed to demonstrate that these cells are responsible for changes in taurine levels after an injury to the brain. The cultures were treated with proinflammatory cytokines to reproduce gliosis. In this experimental model, an increase in the immunoreactivity of GFAP was observed, together with an increase in CSD and taurine levels. Moreover, an alteration in the taurine uptake-release kinetics was detected in glial cells treated with cytokine. All data obtained indicate that astrocytes could play a key role in taurine level changes induced by neuronal damage. More studies are, therefore, needed to clarify the role taurine has in relation to neuronal death and repair. PMID:20082296

  3. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each diet; (b) 3 d of fasting; or (c) a combination of 3% beta-alanine added for 8 d and 3 d of fasting. Each maneuver lowered the cortex taurine concentration, but did not significantly lower plasma taurine values compared with controls. Increased BBMV taurine uptake occurred after each manipulation. Feeding 3% glycine did not alter the plasma, renal cortex, or urinary taurine concentrations, or BBMV uptake of taurine. Feeding 3% methionine raised plasma and urinary taurine excretion but renal tissue taurine was unchanged, as was initial BBMV uptake. Hence, nonsulfur-containing alpha-amino acids did not change beta-amino acid transport. The increase in BBMV uptake correlates with the decline in renal cortex and plasma taurine content. However, since 3% methionine changed plasma taurine without altering BBMV uptake, it is more likely that the change in BBMV uptake and the adaptive response expressed at the brush border surface relate to changes in renal cortex taurine concentrations. Finally, despite changes in urine and renal cortex taurine content, brain taurine values were unchanged, which suggests that this renal adaptive response maintains stable taurine concentrations where taurine serves as a neuromodulator. PMID:3935668

  4. PPARγ stimulates expression of L-type amino acid and taurine transporters in human placentas: the evidence of PPARγ regulating fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhaoguang; He, Ping; Ding, Xiaoying; Huang, Ying; Gu, Hang; Ni, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Placental amino acid transporters and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been implicated to placental development and therefore regulation of fetal growth. We analyzed the correlation between the expression of amino acid transporters and PPARs and investigated whether PPARs control the expression of amino acid transporters in placentas. It was found that protein expression of PPARγ and L-type amino acid transporter 1(LAT1) and 2 (LAT2) was decreased in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) placentas. LAT1, LAT2 and taurine transporter (TAUT) expression correlated to PPARγ level and birth weight. In cultured placental cells, PPARγ agonist stimulated LAT1 and LAT2 and TAUT, which was reversed by PPARγ siRNA. PPARγ up-regulation of LAT1 and TAUT was through specificity protein 1 (Sp-1) while stimulation of LAT2 expression was via induction of gene transcription. Our data suggest that PPARγ, SP-1, LAT1 and LAT2 in placentas are involved in control of fetal growth. PPARγ signaling pathway may be the therapeutic target for intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:26227476

  5. PPARγ stimulates expression of L-type amino acid and taurine transporters in human placentas: the evidence of PPARγ regulating fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaoguang; He, Ping; Ding, Xiaoying; Huang, Ying; Gu, Hang; Ni, Xin

    2015-07-31

    Placental amino acid transporters and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been implicated to placental development and therefore regulation of fetal growth. We analyzed the correlation between the expression of amino acid transporters and PPARs and investigated whether PPARs control the expression of amino acid transporters in placentas. It was found that protein expression of PPARγ and L-type amino acid transporter 1(LAT1) and 2 (LAT2) was decreased in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) placentas. LAT1, LAT2 and taurine transporter (TAUT) expression correlated to PPARγ level and birth weight. In cultured placental cells, PPARγ agonist stimulated LAT1 and LAT2 and TAUT, which was reversed by PPARγ siRNA. PPARγ up-regulation of LAT1 and TAUT was through specificity protein 1 (Sp-1) while stimulation of LAT2 expression was via induction of gene transcription. Our data suggest that PPARγ, SP-1, LAT1 and LAT2 in placentas are involved in control of fetal growth. PPARγ signaling pathway may be the therapeutic target for intrauterine growth restriction.

  6. Taurine for EPR dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Maghraby, A; Mansour, A; Tarek, E

    2012-08-01

    EPR dosimetry is characterized by its non-destructive read-out and the possibility of dose archival. Here, taurine is proposed as a radiation dosimeter using EPR spectroscopy. The EPR spectrum of taurine was studied and assigned, and changes in the taurine EPR spectrum as a result of the change in both modulation amplitude and microwave power were quantified. For gamma radiation, the energy absorption coefficient and the collision mass stopping power of taurine were compared to the corresponding values of soft tissue and alanine, in addition to calculation of effective atomic numbers. The response of taurine to gamma radiation doses in the range from 0.1 to 50 kGy was investigated, as well as that in the range from 1.0 to 20.0 Gy using numerically enhanced EPR taurine spectra. Both response curves showed a linear behavior. In addition, the time dependence of radiation-induced radicals was studied for short (during the first 6 h after irradiation) and long (during about 3 months after irradiation) time periods, and a reasonable degree of stability of the taurine radicals was observed. It is concluded that taurine is a promising dosimeter, which is characterized by its simple spectrum, radical stability, and wide range of linear response to gamma radiation.

  7. Recent advances in understanding hepatic drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, Bruno; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Cells need to strictly control their internal milieu, a function which is performed by the plasma membrane. Selective passage of molecules across the plasma membrane is controlled by transport proteins. As the liver is the central organ for drug metabolism, hepatocytes are equipped with numerous drug transporters expressed at the plasma membrane. Drug disposition includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of a drug and hence multiple passages of drugs and their metabolites across membranes. Consequently, understanding the exact mechanisms of drug transporters is essential both in drug development and in drug therapy. While many drug transporters are expressed in hepatocytes, and some of them are well characterized, several transporters have only recently been identified as new drug transporters. Novel powerful tools to deorphanize (drug) transporters are being applied and show promising results. Although a large set of tools are available for studying transport in vitro and in isolated cells, tools for studying transport in living organisms, including humans, are evolving now and rely predominantly on imaging techniques, e.g. positron emission tomography. Imaging is an area which, certainly in the near future, will provide important insights into "transporters at work" in vivo. PMID:27781095

  8. Taurine and proliferation of lymphocytes in physically restrained rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    involve its transport into the cells. Elevation of interleukin-1β produced in stressed rats by physical restrain could seriously affect the immune balance, whereas taurine increase might be protective. These results suggest that taurine and taurine transport play a role in lymphoproliferation. In addition, modifications of taurine system in lymphocytes take place during restriction stress. PMID:20804599

  9. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Howard J.; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D.; Crewe, H. Kim; Gill, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  10. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Burt, Howard J; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D; Crewe, H Kim; Gill, Katherine L; Neuhoff, Sibylle

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  11. Effect of sulfide, osmotic, and thermal stresses on taurine transporter mRNA levels in the gills of the hydrothermal vent-specific mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Kusakabe, Ikumi; Nagasaki, Toshihiro; Kinjo, Azusa; Sassa, Mieko; Koito, Tomoko; Okamura, Kei; Yamagami, Shosei; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent environmental conditions are characterized by high sulfide concentrations, fluctuating osmolality, and irregular temperature elevations caused by vent effluents. These parameters represent potential stressors for organisms that inhabit the area around hydrothermal vents. Here, we aimed to obtain a better understanding of the adaptation mechanisms of marine species to hydrothermal vent environments. Specifically, we examined the effect of sulfide, osmolality, and thermal stress on the expression of taurine transporter (TAUT) mRNA in the gill of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum, which is a dominant species around hydrothermal vent sites. We analyzed TAUT mRNA levels by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the gill of mussels exposed to sulfide (0.1 or 1mg/L Na2S·9H2O), hyper- (115% seawater) and hypo- (97.5%, 95.5%, and 85% seawater) osmotic conditions, and thermal stresses (12°C and 20°C) for 24 and 48h. The results showed that mussels exposed to relatively low levels of sulfide (0.1mg/L) and moderate heat stress (12°C) exhibited higher TAUT mRNA levels than the control. Although hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress did not significantly change TAUT mRNA levels, slight induction was observed in mussels exposed to low osmolality. Our results indicate that TAUT is involved in the coping mechanism of mussels to various hydrothermal vent stresses.

  12. Effect of sulfide, osmotic, and thermal stresses on taurine transporter mRNA levels in the gills of the hydrothermal vent-specific mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Kusakabe, Ikumi; Nagasaki, Toshihiro; Kinjo, Azusa; Sassa, Mieko; Koito, Tomoko; Okamura, Kei; Yamagami, Shosei; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent environmental conditions are characterized by high sulfide concentrations, fluctuating osmolality, and irregular temperature elevations caused by vent effluents. These parameters represent potential stressors for organisms that inhabit the area around hydrothermal vents. Here, we aimed to obtain a better understanding of the adaptation mechanisms of marine species to hydrothermal vent environments. Specifically, we examined the effect of sulfide, osmolality, and thermal stress on the expression of taurine transporter (TAUT) mRNA in the gill of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum, which is a dominant species around hydrothermal vent sites. We analyzed TAUT mRNA levels by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the gill of mussels exposed to sulfide (0.1 or 1mg/L Na2S·9H2O), hyper- (115% seawater) and hypo- (97.5%, 95.5%, and 85% seawater) osmotic conditions, and thermal stresses (12°C and 20°C) for 24 and 48h. The results showed that mussels exposed to relatively low levels of sulfide (0.1mg/L) and moderate heat stress (12°C) exhibited higher TAUT mRNA levels than the control. Although hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress did not significantly change TAUT mRNA levels, slight induction was observed in mussels exposed to low osmolality. Our results indicate that TAUT is involved in the coping mechanism of mussels to various hydrothermal vent stresses. PMID:26431911

  13. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C.

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  14. Renal and hepatic transporter expression in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Michael T; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Sawant, Sharmilee P; Dnyanmote, Ankur V; Mehendale, Harihara M; Manautou, José E

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transporters are critical for the uptake as well as elimination of chemicals and by-products of metabolism from the liver and kidneys. Since these proteins are important determinants of chemical disposition, changes in their expression in different disease states can modulate drug pharmacokinetics. The present study investigated alterations in the renal and hepatic expression of organic anion and cation transporters (Oats/Octs), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), and hepatic Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) in type 2 diabetic rats. For this purpose, type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats a high fat diet followed by a single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.p., in 0.01 M citrate buffer pH 4.3) on day 14. Controls received normal diet and vehicle. Kidney and liver samples were collected on day 24 for generation of crude plasma membrane fractions and Western blot analysis of Oat, Oct, Mrp, Bcrp, Pgp, and Ntcp proteins. With regards to renal uptake transporters, type 2 diabetes increased levels of Oat2 (2.3-fold) and decreased levels of Oct2 to 50% of control kidneys. Conversely, efflux transporters Mrp2, Mrp4, and Bcrp were increased 5.4-fold, 2-fold, and 1.6-fold, respectively in type 2 diabetic kidneys with no change in levels of Mrp1, Mrp5, or Pgp. Studies of hepatic transporters in type 2 diabetic rats reveal that the protein level of Mrp5 was reduced to 4% of control livers with no change in levels of Bcrp, Mrp1, Mrp2, Mrp4, Ntcp, or Pgp. The changes reported in this study may have implications in type 2 diabetic patients.

  15. Macitentan does not interfere with hepatic bile salt transport.

    PubMed

    Treiber, Alexander; Äänismaa, Päivi; de Kanter, Ruben; Delahaye, Stephane; Treher, Marianne; Hess, Patrick; Sidharta, Patricia

    2014-07-01

    Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension with the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan has been associated with transient increases in liver transaminases. Mechanistically, bosentan inhibits the bile salt export pump (BSEP) leading to an intrahepatic accumulation of cytotoxic bile salts, which eventually results in hepatocellular damage. BSEP inhibition by bosentan is amplified by its accumulation in the liver as bosentan is a substrate of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) transport proteins. The novel endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan shows a superior liver safety profile. Introduction of the less acidic sulfamide moiety and increased lipophilicity yield a hepatic disposition profile different from other endothelin receptor antagonists. Passive diffusion rather than OATP-mediated uptake is the driving force for macitentan uptake into the liver. Interaction with the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and BSEP transport proteins involved in hepatic bile salt homeostasis is therefore limited due to the low intrahepatic drug concentrations. Evidence for this conclusion is provided by in vitro experiments in drug transporter-expressing cell lines, acute and long-term studies in rats and dogs, absence of plasma bile salt changes in healthy human volunteers after multiple dosing, and finally the liver safety profile of macitentan in the completed phase III morbidity/mortality SERAPHIN (Study with an Endothelin Receptor Antagonist in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension to Improve Clinical Outcome) trial.

  16. Elevation of retinol levels and suppression of alanine aminotransferase activity in the liver of taurine-deficient kittens.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, A; Knutsson, L; Bosaeus, I

    1990-10-01

    In taurine-deficient cats, the secretion of bile acids is impaired, and this impairment may reduce intestinal uptake of lipophilic vitamins. It was therefore hypothesized that retinol deficiency is involved in the generation of retinal lesions in taurine-deficient kittens. To this end, the concentration of retinol in plasma and liver was determined in taurine-deficient kittens. Further, the effects of taurine deficiency on amino acid concentrations of heart, liver and kidney were investigated. To see whether taurine deficiency adversely affects the liver, hepatic enzymes were measured in plasma and liver of kittens suffering from taurine deficiency. In addition, liver morphology, growth and food intake were studied. Taurine was the only amino acid whose concentration was consistently decreased in plasma of the experimental group. Unexpectedly, retinol level was increased in plasma and liver from taurine-depleted kittens. Several alterations were noted in amino acid concentrations in liver and kidney, but not in heart. Plasma alanine aminotransferase activity was diminished, probably reflecting decreased activity in the liver. Perivenular steatosis was found in both groups. Controls grew linearly, in contrast to deficient animals, which nevertheless consumed more food. The results demonstrate that retinol deficiency is not involved in taurine-deficiency retinopathy. Moreover, taurine is required for linear growth of juvenile cats and for the maintenance of hepatic and renal pools of certain amino acids. PMID:2213246

  17. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation preventing this. There was no effect of long-term fructose diet and/or taurine supplementation on plasma triglycerides, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, as well as plasma HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol.In conclusion, the study suggests that long-term taurine supplementation improves glucose tolerance and normalize hepatic triglyceride content following long-term fructose feeding. However, as the combination of taurine and fructose also increased fasting glucose levels, the beneficial effect of taurine supplementation towards amelioration of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance may be questionable.

  18. The potential protective effects of taurine on coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Oktawia P; Koenig, Karen L; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2010-01-01

    In humans, taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is mainly obtained from diet. Despite the fact that the health effects of taurine are largely unknown, taurine has become a popular supplement and ingredient in energy drinks in recent years. Evidence from mechanistic and animal studies has shown that the main biological actions of taurine include its ability to conjugate bile acids, regulate blood pressure (BP), and act as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. These actions suggest that high levels of taurine may be protective against coronary heart disease (CHD). However, data from epidemiologic and intervention studies in humans are limited. We review what is known about taurine's metabolism, its transportation in the body, its food sources, and evidence of its effect on cardiovascular health from in vitro, animal, and epidemiologic studies. We also discuss shortcomings of the human studies that need to be addressed in the future. The identification of taurine as a preventive factor for CHD may be of great public health importance. PMID:19592001

  19. Hepatic mitochondrial glutathione: transport and role in disease and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Checa, Jose C. . E-mail: checa229@yahoo.com; Kaplowitz, Neil . E-mail: kaplowitz@hsc.usc.edu

    2005-05-01

    Synthesized in the cytosol of cells, a fraction of cytosolic glutathione (GSH) is then transported into the mitochondrial matrix where it reaches a high concentration and plays a critical role in defending mitochondria against oxidants and electrophiles. Evidence mainly from kidney and liver mitochondria indicated that the dicarboxylate and the 2-oxoglutarate carriers contribute to the transport of GSH across the mitochondrial inner membrane. However, differential features between kidney and liver mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) transport seem to suggest the existence of additional carriers the identity of which remains to be established. One of the characteristic features of the hepatic mitochondrial transport of GSH is its regulation by membrane fluidity. Conditions leading to increased cholesterol deposition in the mitochondrial inner membrane such as in alcohol-induced liver injury decrease membrane fluidity and impair the mitochondrial transport of GSH. Depletion of mitochondrial GSH by alcohol is believed to contribute to the sensitization of the liver to alcohol-induced injury through tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated hepatocellular death. Through control of mitochondrial electron transport chain-generated oxidants, mitochondrial GSH modulates cell death and hence its regulation may be a key target to influence disease progression and drug-induced cell death.

  20. TonEBP modulates the protective effect of taurine in ischemia-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y J; Han, Y Y; Chen, K; Zhang, Y; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, K Q; Ge, J B; Liu, W; Zuo, J

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, which is found at high concentration in the heart, exerts several protective actions on myocardium. Physically, the high level of taurine in heart is maintained by a taurine transporter (TauT), the expression of which is suppressed under ischemic insult. Although taurine supplementation upregulates TauT expression, elevates the intracellular taurine content and ameliorates the ischemic injury of cardiomyocytes (CMs), little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of taurine governing TauT expression under ischemia. In this study, we describe the TonE (tonicity-responsive element)/TonEBP (TonE-binding protein) pathway involved in the taurine-regulated TauT expression in ischemic CMs. Taurine inhibited the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of TonEBP, promoted the translocation of TonEBP into the nucleus, enhanced TauT promoter activity and finally upregulated TauT expression in CMs. In addition, we observed that TonEBP had an anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative role in CMs under ischemia. Moreover, the protective effects of taurine on myocardial ischemia were TonEBP dependent. Collectively, our findings suggest that TonEBP is a core molecule in the protective mechanism of taurine in CMs under ischemic insult. PMID:26673669

  1. Heterogeneity in hepatic transport of somatostatin analog octapeptides.

    PubMed

    Fricker, G; Dubost, V; Schwab, D; Bruns, C; Thiele, C

    1994-07-01

    Hepatic transport of the synthetic somatostatin analog octreotide-SMS 201-995, (D)Phe-Cys-Phe-(D)Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys-Throl--and its novel derivative N-alpha-(alpha-D-glucosyl(1-4)-1-deoxy-D-fructosyl)-octreotide--SD Z CO-611, N-alpha-(alpha-D-glucosyl(1-4)-1-deoxy-D-fructosyl)-(D)Phe-Cys-Phe- (D)Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys-Throl--was studied. In rats SMS 201-995 showed a plasma elimination half-life of 1.2 +/- 0.2 hr; that of SDZ CO-611 was 1.9 +/- 0.3 hours. Within 120 min 66% of a mesenterically injected 4.4-nmol dose of SMS 201-995 was excreted in bile, but only 5.3% of SDZ CO-611 was excreted in bile. Biliary concentration of SMS 201-995 showed a maximum enrichment of 540-fold +/- 75-fold over peripheral blood concentration, indicating hepatic transport mechanisms different from simple diffusion. Comparison of plasma profiles of both peptides after mesenteric and femoral administration demonstrated the relative importance of hepatic extraction for SMS 201-995 but not for SDZ CO-611. The mode of extraction was studied by means of multiple-indicator dilution in isolated perfused rat liver, with inulin as nonpermeable marker. Ratio plots, ln([inulin]/[peptide]) vs. time, exhibited decreasing slopes for SMS 201-995, suggesting very rapid binding to hepatocyte membranes. The slope of the ratio plot of (inulin/SDZ CO-611) was almost zero even at low doses (down to 0.2 microgram), implying mainly extracellular distribution and nonhepatic elimination. Binding assays indicated the absence of somatostatin receptors in sinusoidal hepatocyte membranes. However, SMS 201-995 and SDZ CO-611 bound with high affinity to somatostatin receptors in rat cortical membranes. Multiple-indicator dilution experiments in presence of increasing cholyltaurine concentrations suggested an interaction of SMS 201-995 with sinusoidal bile salt transport. In isolated hepatocytes, uptake of SMS 201-995 was saturable and showed mutual inhibition with cholyltaurine. The results indicate that SMS 201-995 transport

  2. Taurine concentrations in animal feed ingredients; cooking influences taurine content.

    PubMed

    Spitze, A R; Wong, D L; Rogers, Q R; Fascetti, A J

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the taurine content in a variety of animal feeds. There is very little information on the taurine content of ingredients used in home-prepared diets for dogs and cats, and foods fed to wild animals in captivity. This study reports the taurine content of both common and alternative feed ingredients, and compares taurine loss as a result of different methods of food preparation. Foods were selected based on their use in commercial and home-prepared diets. Animal muscle tissue, particularly marine, contained high taurine concentrations. Plant products contained either low or undetectable amounts of taurine. The amount of taurine that remained in a feed ingredient after cooking depended upon the method of food preparation. When an ingredient was constantly surrounded by water during the cooking process, such as in boiling or basting, more taurine was lost. Food preparation methods that minimized water loss, such as baking or frying, had higher rates of taurine retention.

  3. Hyperinsulinemia Enhances Hepatic Expression of the Fatty Acid Transporter Cd36 and Provokes Hepatosteatosis and Hepatic Insulin Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Steneberg, Pär; Sykaras, Alexandros G.; Backlund, Fredrik; Straseviciene, Jurate; Söderström, Ingegerd; Edlund, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Hepatosteatosis is associated with the development of both hepatic insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Hepatic expression of Cd36, a fatty acid transporter, is enhanced in obese and diabetic murine models and human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and thus it correlates with hyperinsulinemia, steatosis, and insulin resistance. Here, we have explored the effect of hyperinsulinemia on hepatic Cd36 expression, development of hepatosteatosis, insulin resistance, and dysglycemia. A 3-week sucrose-enriched diet was sufficient to provoke hyperinsulinemia, hepatosteatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and dysglycemia in CBA/J mice. The development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in CBA/J mice on a sucrose-enriched diet was paralleled by increased hepatic expression of the transcription factor Pparγ and its target gene Cd36 whereas that of genes implicated in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL secretion was unaltered. Additionally, we demonstrate that insulin, in a Pparγ-dependent manner, is sufficient to directly increase Cd36 expression in perfused livers and isolated hepatocytes. Mouse strains that display low insulin levels, i.e. C57BL6/J, and/or lack hepatic Pparγ, i.e. C3H/HeN, do not develop hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, or dysglycemia on a sucrose-enriched diet, suggesting that elevated insulin levels, via enhanced CD36 expression, provoke fatty liver development that in turn leads to hepatic insulin resistance and dysglycemia. Thus, our data provide evidence for a direct role for hyperinsulinemia in stimulating hepatic Cd36 expression and thus the development of hepatosteatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and dysglycemia. PMID:26085100

  4. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Hepatitis Print A A A ... an important digestive liquid called bile . What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  5. Effect of taurine in rat milk on the growth of offspring.

    PubMed

    Hu, J M; Rho, J Y; Suzuki, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M

    2000-07-01

    The physiological significance of taurine in milk in the growth of rat pups was investigated. Our results confirmed that taurine was at an exceptionally high concentration in rat milk during the lactational period, especially for the first few days after birth. Pups taking no milk from natural dams but from foster mothers at an advanced lactational period showed a slower growth rate. Intraperitoneal administration of taurine to the foster mothers in the first five days restored this growth retardation. On the other hand, intraperitoneal administration of beta-alanine, a transport antagonist of taurine, to the natural dams through the lactational period induced a slower growth rate of pups. This beta-alanine treatment to dams increased beta-alanine concentration, but did not decrease taurine concentrations in milk, and serum taurine concentration in the pups receiving this milk was elevated. Direct administration of beta-alanine to pups also increased the serum taurine concentrations dose-dependently. Beta-alanine administration to pups significantly decreased [3H]taurine incorporation into all the organs examined, and in contrast. [3H]taurine concentrations in serum and urine were elevated. Thus, beta-alanine inhibited taurine incorporation into cells and accelerated taurine excretion into either urine or milk. Serum IGF-I levels in pups receiving beta-alanine either directly or via their mothers was significantly lower than those in control pups. Cumulatively, taurine ingestion from milk at an early lactational period seems critical for normal growth of rat neonates due to its role in maintaining normal serum IGF-I levels.

  6. Regulation of hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Bsep expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xingguo; Buckley, David; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and bile salt export pump (Bsep) are two key transporters for hepatic bile acid uptake and excretion. Alterations in Ntcp and Bsep expression have been reported in pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, the effects of age, gender, and various chemicals on the regulation of these two transporters were characterized in mice. Ntcp and Bsep mRNA levels in mouse liver were low in the fetus, but increased to its highest expression at parturition. After birth, mouse Ntcp and Bsep mRNA decreased by more than 50%, and then gradually increased to adult levels by day 30. Expression of mouse Ntcp mRNA and protein exhibit higher levels in female than male livers, which is consistent with the trend of human NTCP mRNA expression between men and women. No gender difference exists in BSEP/Bsep expression in human and mouse livers. Hormone replacements conducted in gonadectomized, hypophysectomized, and lit/lit mice indicate that female-predominant Ntcp expression in mouse liver is due to the inhibitory effect of male-pattern GH secretion, but not sex hormones. Ntcp and Bsep expression are in general resistant to induction by a large battery of microsomal enzyme inducers. Administration of cholestyramine increased Ntcp, whereas chenodeoxycholic acid increased Bsep mRNA expression. In silico analysis indicates that female-predominant mouse and human Ntcp/NTCP expression may be due to GH. In conclusion, mouse Ntcp and Bsep are regulated by age, gender, cholestyramine, and bile acid, but resistant to induction by most microsomal enzyme inducers. PMID:17897632

  7. Mechanism for modulation of gating of connexin26-containing channels by taurine

    PubMed Central

    Kieken, Fabien; Tao, Liang; Sorgen, Paul L.; Harris, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of action of endogenous modulatory ligands of connexin channels are largely unknown. Previous work showed that protonated aminosulfonates (AS), notably taurine, directly and reversibly inhibit homomeric and heteromeric channels that contain Cx26, a widely distributed connexin, but not homomeric Cx32 channels. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of connexin channel modulation by taurine, using hemichannels and junctional channels composed of Cx26 (homomeric) and Cx26/Cx32 (heteromeric). The addition of a 28–amino acid “tag” to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CT) of Cx26 (Cx26T) eliminated taurine sensitivity of homomeric and heteromeric hemichannels in cells and liposomes. Cleavage of all but four residues of the tag (Cx26Tc) resulted in taurine-induced pore narrowing in homomeric hemichannels, and restored taurine inhibition of heteromeric hemichannels (Cx26Tc/Cx32). Taurine actions on junctional channels were fully consistent with those on hemichannels. Taurine-induced inhibition of Cx26/Cx32T and nontagged Cx26 junctional channels was blocked by extracellular HEPES, a blocker of the taurine transporter, confirming that the taurine-sensitive site of Cx26 is cytoplasmic. Nuclear magnetic resonance of peptides corresponding to Cx26 cytoplasmic domains showed that taurine binds to the cytoplasmic loop (CL) and not the CT, and that the CT and CL directly interact. ELISA showed that taurine disrupts a pH-dependent interaction between the CT and the CT-proximal half of the CL. These studies reveal that AS disrupt a pH-driven cytoplasmic interdomain interaction in Cx26-containing channels, causing closure, and that the Cx26CT has a modulatory role in Cx26 function. PMID:21844220

  8. Taurine supplementation reduces oxidative stress and protects the liver in an iron-overload murine model

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZEYU; LIU, DAN; YI, BO; LIAO, ZHANGPING; TANG, LEI; YIN, DONG; HE, MING

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that iron overload induces liver damage by causing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taurine is a potent free radical scavenger that attenuates the damage caused by excessive oxygen free radicals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether taurine could reduce the hepatotoxicity of iron overload with regard to ROS production. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with iron 5 days/week for 13 weeks to achieve iron overload. It was found that iron overload resulted in liver dysfunction, increased apoptosis and elevated oxidative stress. Taurine supplementation increased liver taurine levels by 40% and led to improved liver function, as well as a reduction in apoptosis, ROS formation and mitochondrial swelling and an attenuation in the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment with taurine mediated a reduction in oxidative stress in iron-overloaded mice, attenuated liver lipid peroxidation, elevated antioxidant enzyme activities and maintained reduced glutathione levels. These results indicate that taurine reduces iron-induced hepatic oxidative stress, preserves liver function and inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis. Therefore, taurine may be a potential therapeutic drug to reduce liver damage caused by iron overload. PMID:25201602

  9. Osmotic sensitivity of taurine release from hippocampal neuronal and glial cells.

    PubMed

    Olson, J E; Li, G Z

    2000-01-01

    Taurine transport is important for volume regulation of cultured neurons and astroglial cells. Both cell types utilize similar mechanisms for taurine accumulation and efflux. However, taurine lost from cerebellar Purkinje cells in vivo is accumulated by adjacent astrocytes during hypoosmotic hyponatremia. To examine mechanisms for transfer of taurine between cell types, we measured relative sensitivities of taurine loss from cultured neurons and astrocytes. Primary cultures of hippocampal neurons and astrocytes were grown from embryonic and neonatal rat brain, respectively. Neurons were used after 10-14 days in culture. Astrocytes were used after 14 days in culture and were grown in the same culture medium used for neurons for 3 days prior to experimentation. Cells were incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min in isoosmotic (290 mOsm) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The PBS was then changed to fresh isoosmotic or to hypoosmotic PBS (270 mOsm or 250 mOsm), made by reducing the NaCl concentration. Cell volume and taurine content were determined immediately before hypoosmotic exposure or 3, 15, or 30 min later. In isoosmotic PBS, astrocytes contained 162 +/- 18 nmol taurine/mg protein (mean +/- SEM), equivalent to an intracellular concentration of 30.2 +/- 2.1 mM. No taurine loss was detectable after 3 or 15 min in either hypoosmotic PBS, but after 30 min in 270 or 250 mOsm PBS, astrocyte taurine was reduced by 8.0% or 22.2%, respectively. Neurons initially contained 114 +/- 13 nmol taurine/mg protein, equivalent to an intracellular taurine concentration of 22.2 +/- 2.5 mM. After 3 min of exposure to 270 or 250 mOsm PBS, the cells had lost 17 +/- 5% or 25 +/- 4% of their taurine content, respectively. Cell volumes of each cell type were similarly affected by hypoosmotic exposure. We conclude that taurine loss from cultured hippocampal neurons is more sensitive to osmotic swelling than taurine loss from cultured hippocampal astrocytes. This characteristic, if present in

  10. The osmolyte taurine protects against ultraviolet B radiation-induced immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Rockel, Nicole; Esser, Charlotte; Grether-Beck, Susanne; Warskulat, Ulrich; Flögel, Ulrich; Schwarz, Agatha; Schwarz, Thomas; Yarosh, Daniel; Häussinger, Dieter; Krutmann, Jean

    2007-09-15

    Organic osmolytes, such as taurine, are involved in cell volume homeostasis and cell protection. Epidermal keratinocytes possess an osmolyte strategy, i.e., they take up taurine upon hyperosmotic stress and express the corresponding transporter TAUT. UVB irradiation also triggers taurine uptake and TAUT expression in this cell type. We therefore asked whether taurine plays a role in photoprotection. By using a TAUT-deficient mouse model, lack of taurine in the skin was found to cause a significantly higher sensitivity to UVB-induced immunosuppression. This was not due to an increased generation or decreased repair of UVB-induced DNA photoproducts in the skin of these animals. Instead, decreased skin taurine levels were associated with an increased formation of the soluble immunosuppressive molecule platelet-activating factor (PAF) from the membranes of UVB-irradiated epidermal cells. Blocking PAF activity in taut-deficient mice with a PAF receptor antagonist abrogated their increased sensitivity to UVB-induced immunosuppression. Moreover, taut -/- mice were more sensitive to PAF-mediated immunosuppression than taut +/+ mice. These data suggest that taurine uptake by epidermal cells prevents undue PAF formation, and thereby photoimmunosuppression. Thus, similar to nucleotide excision repair, taurine uptake is critically involved in photoprotection of the skin. PMID:17785795

  11. Protective effects of taurine in traumatic brain injury via mitochondria and cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Fan, Weijia; Cai, Ying; Wu, Qiaoli; Mo, Lidong; Huang, Zhenwu; Huang, Huiling

    2016-09-01

    In mammalian tissues, taurine is an important natural component and the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. This study is to examine the taurine's protective effects on neuronal ultrastructure, the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, and on cerebral blood flow (CBF). The model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was made for SD rats by a fluid percussion device, with taurine (200 mg/kg) administered by tail intravenous injection once daily for 7 days after TBI. It was found that CBF was improved for both left and right brain at 30 min and 7 days post-injury by taurine. Reaction time was prolonged relative to the TBI-only group. Neuronal damage was prevented by 7 days taurine. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and II showed greater activity with the taurine group. The improvement by taurine of CBF may alleviate edema and elevation in intracranial pressure. Importantly taurine improved the hypercoagulable state.

  12. Protective effects of taurine in traumatic brain injury via mitochondria and cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Fan, Weijia; Cai, Ying; Wu, Qiaoli; Mo, Lidong; Huang, Zhenwu; Huang, Huiling

    2016-09-01

    In mammalian tissues, taurine is an important natural component and the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. This study is to examine the taurine's protective effects on neuronal ultrastructure, the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, and on cerebral blood flow (CBF). The model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was made for SD rats by a fluid percussion device, with taurine (200 mg/kg) administered by tail intravenous injection once daily for 7 days after TBI. It was found that CBF was improved for both left and right brain at 30 min and 7 days post-injury by taurine. Reaction time was prolonged relative to the TBI-only group. Neuronal damage was prevented by 7 days taurine. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and II showed greater activity with the taurine group. The improvement by taurine of CBF may alleviate edema and elevation in intracranial pressure. Importantly taurine improved the hypercoagulable state. PMID:27156064

  13. The osmolyte taurine protects against ultraviolet B radiation-induced immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Rockel, Nicole; Esser, Charlotte; Grether-Beck, Susanne; Warskulat, Ulrich; Flögel, Ulrich; Schwarz, Agatha; Schwarz, Thomas; Yarosh, Daniel; Häussinger, Dieter; Krutmann, Jean

    2007-09-15

    Organic osmolytes, such as taurine, are involved in cell volume homeostasis and cell protection. Epidermal keratinocytes possess an osmolyte strategy, i.e., they take up taurine upon hyperosmotic stress and express the corresponding transporter TAUT. UVB irradiation also triggers taurine uptake and TAUT expression in this cell type. We therefore asked whether taurine plays a role in photoprotection. By using a TAUT-deficient mouse model, lack of taurine in the skin was found to cause a significantly higher sensitivity to UVB-induced immunosuppression. This was not due to an increased generation or decreased repair of UVB-induced DNA photoproducts in the skin of these animals. Instead, decreased skin taurine levels were associated with an increased formation of the soluble immunosuppressive molecule platelet-activating factor (PAF) from the membranes of UVB-irradiated epidermal cells. Blocking PAF activity in taut-deficient mice with a PAF receptor antagonist abrogated their increased sensitivity to UVB-induced immunosuppression. Moreover, taut -/- mice were more sensitive to PAF-mediated immunosuppression than taut +/+ mice. These data suggest that taurine uptake by epidermal cells prevents undue PAF formation, and thereby photoimmunosuppression. Thus, similar to nucleotide excision repair, taurine uptake is critically involved in photoprotection of the skin.

  14. Taurine, cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, and pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Feria, C A; Wideman, R F

    2001-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested cardiac taurine is released into the plasma in response to hypoxemia (low blood oxygen levels) during the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites). In the present study, broilers reared under cool temperature conditions (16 C) were provided tap water (control group), tap water supplemented with taurine, or tap water supplemented with the taurine transport antagonist beta-alanine. When compared with control values, taurine supplementation consistently elevated free taurine concentrations in the plasma but not in cardiac tissues, whereas beta-alanine supplementation consistently reduced free taurine concentrations in cardiac tissues but not in the plasma. Neither the incidence of PHS nor specific predictors of PHS susceptibility (electrocardiogram Lead II S-wave amplitude, % saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen, heart rate, right to total ventricular weight ratio) were affected by taurine or beta-alanine supplementation. Cardiopulmonary hemodynamic evaluations were conducted to compare control and beta-alanine supplemented broilers breathing room air or air containing 12% oxygen (low oxygen challenge). While breathing room air, the betaalanine-supplemented broilers had higher baseline values for cardiac output (186.2 vs. 146.9 mL/min/kg BW) and pulmonary arterial pressure (27.4 vs. 22.4 mm Hg), similar values for mean systemic arterial pressure (100 vs. 104 mm Hg) and pulmonary vascular resistance (0.062 vs. 0.064 resistance units), and lower values for total peripheral resistance (0.228 vs. 0.296 resistance units) when compared with control broilers breathing room air. During low oxygen challenges, the beta-alanine-supplemented broilers exhibited larger reductions in cardiac output, mean systemic arterial pressure, and pulmonary arterial pressure and greater increases in pulmonary vascular resistance than control broilers. These observations indicate that beta-alanine-supplemented broilers breathing room air had

  15. Involvement of the essential metal transporter Zip14 in hepatic Cd accumulation during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyong-Son; Takano, Masaoki; Amako, Katsumi; Ueda, Hidenori; Tanaka, Keiichi

    2013-03-27

    Upregulation of Zip14 contributes to hepatic zinc (Zn) and non-transferrin-bound iron (Fe) uptake during infection and inflammation. We investigated whether this essential metal transporter is also involved in hepatic cadmium (Cd) uptake under these conditions. An injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), turpentine oil (Tur) and n-hexane (Hex) resulted in an decrease in plasma Zn and Fe concentrations to 25-50% and an increase in hepatic concentrations of both metals to 150-200% of control mice. LPS significantly increased plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels more rapidly than Tur or Hex. Tur or Hex significantly increased hepatic Zip14 mRNA expression and decreased ferroportin 1 mRNA expression following continuous increase of IL-6 level. Hepatic Cd and Zn concentrations increased significantly after repeated injections of Cd in Tur- or Hex-treated mice fed a control diet. Treatment with Tur or Hex additionally increased hepatic Cd accumulation in Zn-deficient mice, unlike in Fe-deficient mice. These results suggest that Zn transporters, such as Zip14, may be involved in hepatic Cd uptake during inflammation.

  16. Alteration of human hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by cigarette smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Katia; Vee, Marc Le; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad; Jouan, Elodie; Stieger, Bruno; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Smoking is well-known to impair pharmacokinetics, through inducing expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. In the present study, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) also alters activity and expression of hepatic drug transporters, which are now recognized as major actors of hepatobiliary elimination of drugs. CSC thus directly inhibited activities of sinusoidal transporters such as OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1 and NTCP as well as those of canalicular transporters like P-glycoprotein, MRP2, BCRP and MATE1, in hepatic transporters-overexpressing cells. CSC similarly counteracted constitutive OATP, NTCP and OCT1 activities in human highly-differentiated hepatic HepaRG cells. In parallel, CSC induced expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in HepaRG cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B1, OATP2B1, OAT2, NTCP, OCT1 and BSEP, and enhanced that of MRP4. Such changes in transporter gene expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway, and were counteracted, for some of them, by siRNA-mediated AhR silencing. This suggests that CSC alters hepatic drug transporter levels via activation of the AhR cascade. Importantly, drug transporter expression regulations as well as some transporter activity inhibitions occurred for a range of CSC concentrations similar to those required for inducing drug metabolizing enzymes and may therefore be hypothesized to be relevant for smokers. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of cigarette smoke, which could contribute to known alteration of pharmacokinetics and some liver adverse effects caused by smoking. PMID:27450509

  17. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses Type Transmission Prognosis A Fecal-oral (stool to ... risk for severe disease. Others A variety of viruses can affect the liver Signs and Symptoms Hepatitis ...

  18. Effect of β-alanine treatment on mitochondrial taurine level and 5-taurinomethyluridine content

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The β-amino acid, taurine, is a nutritional requirement in some species. In these species, the depletion of intracellular stores of taurine leads to the development of severe organ dysfunction. The basis underlying these defects is poorly understood, although there is some suggestion that oxidative stress may contribute to the abnormalities. Recent studies indicate that taurine is required for normal mitochondrial protein synthesis and normal electron transport chain activity; it is known that defects in these events can lead to severe mitochondrial oxidative stress. The present study examines the effect of taurine deficiency on the first step of mitochondrial protein synthesis regulation by taurine, namely, the formation of taurinomethyluridine containing tRNA. Methods Isolated rat cardiomyocytes were rendered taurine deficient by incubation with medium containing the taurine transport inhibitor, β-alanine. The time course of cellular and mitochondrial taurine depletion was measured. The primer extension method was employed to evaluate the effect of β-alanine treatment on taurinomethyluridine content of tRNALeu. The protein levels of ND6 were also determined by Western blot analysis. Results β-alanine caused a time-dependent decrease in cellular taurine content, which were reduced in half after 48 hrs of incubation. The amount of taurine in the mitochondria was considerably less than that in the cytosol and was unaffected by β-alanine treatment. Approximately 70% of the tRNALeu in the untreated cell lacked taurinomethyluridine and these levels were unchanged following β-alanine treatment. Protein content of ND6, however, was significantly reduced after 48 hours incubation with β-alanine. Conclusions The taurine levels of the cytosol and the mitochondria are not directly coupled. The β-alanine-mediated reduction in taurine levels is too small to affect taurinomethyluridine levels. Nonetheless, it interferes with mitochondrial protein synthesis

  19. 21 CFR 573.980 - Taurine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.980 Taurine. The food additive taurine (2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid) may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taurine. 573.980 Section 573.980 Food and...

  20. 21 CFR 573.980 - Taurine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.980 Taurine. The food additive taurine (2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid) may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taurine. 573.980 Section 573.980 Food and...

  1. 21 CFR 573.980 - Taurine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.980 Taurine. The food additive taurine (2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid) may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taurine. 573.980 Section 573.980 Food and...

  2. 21 CFR 573.980 - Taurine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.980 Taurine. The food additive taurine (2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid) may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Taurine. 573.980 Section 573.980 Food and...

  3. 21 CFR 573.980 - Taurine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.980 Taurine. The food additive taurine (2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid) may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taurine. 573.980 Section 573.980 Food and...

  4. Transporter-Enzyme Interplay: Deconvoluting Effects of Hepatic Transporters and Enzymes on Drug Disposition Using Static and Dynamic Mechanistic Models.

    PubMed

    Varma, Manthena V; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2016-07-01

    A large body of evidence suggests hepatic uptake transporters, organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), are of high clinical relevance in determining the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs, based on which recent regulatory guidances to industry recommend appropriate assessment of investigational drugs for the potential drug interactions. We recently proposed an extended clearance classification system (ECCS) framework in which the systemic clearance of class 1B and 3B drugs is likely determined by hepatic uptake. The ECCS framework therefore predicts the possibility of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) involving OATPs and the effects of genetic variants of SLCO1B1 early in the discovery and facilitates decision making in the candidate selection and progression. Although OATP-mediated uptake is often the rate-determining process in the hepatic clearance of substrate drugs, metabolic and/or biliary components also contribute to the overall hepatic disposition and, more importantly, to liver exposure. Clinical evidence suggests that alteration in biliary efflux transport or metabolic enzymes associated with genetic polymorphism leads to change in the pharmacodynamic response of statins, for which the pharmacological target resides in the liver. Perpetrator drugs may show inhibitory and/or induction effects on transporters and enzymes simultaneously. It is therefore important to adopt models that frame these multiple processes in a mechanistic sense for quantitative DDI predictions and to deconvolute the effects of individual processes on the plasma and hepatic exposure. In vitro data-informed mechanistic static and physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are proven useful in rationalizing and predicting transporter-mediated DDIs and the complex DDIs involving transporter-enzyme interplay.

  5. Transporter-Enzyme Interplay: Deconvoluting Effects of Hepatic Transporters and Enzymes on Drug Disposition Using Static and Dynamic Mechanistic Models.

    PubMed

    Varma, Manthena V; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2016-07-01

    A large body of evidence suggests hepatic uptake transporters, organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), are of high clinical relevance in determining the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs, based on which recent regulatory guidances to industry recommend appropriate assessment of investigational drugs for the potential drug interactions. We recently proposed an extended clearance classification system (ECCS) framework in which the systemic clearance of class 1B and 3B drugs is likely determined by hepatic uptake. The ECCS framework therefore predicts the possibility of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) involving OATPs and the effects of genetic variants of SLCO1B1 early in the discovery and facilitates decision making in the candidate selection and progression. Although OATP-mediated uptake is often the rate-determining process in the hepatic clearance of substrate drugs, metabolic and/or biliary components also contribute to the overall hepatic disposition and, more importantly, to liver exposure. Clinical evidence suggests that alteration in biliary efflux transport or metabolic enzymes associated with genetic polymorphism leads to change in the pharmacodynamic response of statins, for which the pharmacological target resides in the liver. Perpetrator drugs may show inhibitory and/or induction effects on transporters and enzymes simultaneously. It is therefore important to adopt models that frame these multiple processes in a mechanistic sense for quantitative DDI predictions and to deconvolute the effects of individual processes on the plasma and hepatic exposure. In vitro data-informed mechanistic static and physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are proven useful in rationalizing and predicting transporter-mediated DDIs and the complex DDIs involving transporter-enzyme interplay. PMID:27385183

  6. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn(2+) and albumin levels (P<0.05 or 0.01) induced by doxorubicin. In rats treated with doxorubicin, taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (P<0.01). qBase(+) was used to evaluate the stability of eight candidate reference genes for real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (P<0.01). Western blotting demonstrated that taurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation.

  7. Protective role of taurine against genotoxic damage in mice treated with methotrexate and tamoxfine.

    PubMed

    Alam, Sally S; Hafiz, Nagla A; Abd El-Rahim, Abeer H

    2011-01-01

    The genotoxic actions of anti-neoplastic drugs can lead to the development of secondary cancers in patients in extended remission. One of the most attractive approaches to disease prevention involves the use of natural antioxidants to protect tissue against toxic injury. We investigated the modulatory effects of exogenously administered taurine, on the genotoxicity of two well known anti-neoplastic drugs methotrexate (MTX) and tamoxifen (TAM) in Swiss albino mice. The animals were randomly divided into six groups consisting of ten mice each. Two groups were received single intraperitoneal injection of MTX (10 mg/kgb.wt.) and TAM (50 mg/kgb.wt.) to induce genotoxicity. Two other groups were treated orally with taurine (100 mg/kgb.wt.) for nine days prior to MTX and TAM administration. A vehicle treated control group and taurine control groups were also included. The protective effects of taurine were monitored by apoptosis assays and level of reduced glutathione (GSH), a key antioxidant, in liver, chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells as well as sperm count, motility and morphology. The results indicated that taurine pre-treatment showed significant increment in the levels of GSH content, reduction in DNA fragmentation and ladder formation in hepatic tissue, suggesting the antioxidant activity of taurine may reduce the toxic effects of MTX and TAM. Treatment with taurine showed also significant reduction in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in both somatic and germ cells. Moreover, it increases sperm count and motility, and decreases the incidence of sperm abnormalities. In conclusion, it appears that taurine protects against anti-neoplastic drugs-induced genotoxicity in somatic and germ tissues and may be of therapeutic potential in alleviating the risk of secondary tumors in chemotherapy.

  8. Expression and function of renal and hepatic organic anion transporters in extrahepatic cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Brandoni, Anabel; Hazelhoff, María Herminia; Bulacio, Romina Paula; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice occurs in patients suffering from cholelithiasis and from neoplasms affecting the pancreas and the common bile duct. The absorption, distribution and elimination of drugs are impaired during this pathology. Prolonged cholestasis may alter both liver and kidney function. Lactam antibiotics, diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, several antiviral drugs as well as endogenous compounds are classified as organic anions. The hepatic and renal organic anion transport pathways play a key role in the pharmacokinetics of these compounds. It has been demonstrated that acute extrahepatic cholestasis is associated with increased renal elimination of organic anions. The present work describes the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of the expression and function of the renal and hepatic organic anion transporters in extrahepatic cholestasis, such as multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1, organic anion transporter 3, bilitranslocase, bromosulfophthalein/bilirubin binding protein, organic anion transporter 1 and sodium dependent bile salt transporter. The modulation in the expression of renal organic anion transporters constitutes a compensatory mechanism to overcome the hepatic dysfunction in the elimination of organic anions. PMID:23197884

  9. Regulation of Human Hepatic Drug Transporter Activity and Expression by Diesel Exhaust Particle Extract

    PubMed Central

    Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Stieger, Bruno; Lecureur, Valérie; Fardel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are common environmental air pollutants primarily affecting the lung. DEPs or chemicals adsorbed on DEPs also exert extra-pulmonary effects, including alteration of hepatic drug detoxifying enzyme expression. The present study was designed to determine whether organic DEP extract (DEPe) may target hepatic drug transporters that contribute in a major way to drug detoxification. Using primary human hepatocytes and transporter-overexpressing cells, DEPe was first shown to strongly inhibit activities of the sinusoidal solute carrier (SLC) uptake transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 and of the canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux pump multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, with IC50 values ranging from approximately 1 to 20 μg/mL and relevant to environmental exposure situations. By contrast, 25 μg/mL DEPe failed to alter activities of the SLC transporter organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and of the ABC efflux pumps P-glycoprotein and bile salt export pump (BSEP), whereas it only moderately inhibited those of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Treatment by 25 μg/mL DEPe was next demonstrated to induce expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in cultured human hepatic cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B3, OATP2B1, OCT1 and BSEP. Such changes in transporter expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. This suggests that DEPe, which is enriched in known ligands of AhR like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alters drug transporter expression via activation of the AhR cascade. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of organic chemicals containing in DEPs, which may contribute to their

  10. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides in the Hepatic Uptake of PBDE Congeners in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pacyniak, Erik; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Klaassen, Curtis D.; McKeeman, Lois Lehman; Guo, Grace L.

    2011-01-01

    BDE47, BDE99 and BDE153 are the predominant polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners detected in humans and can induce drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver. We have previously demonstrated that several human liver organic anion transporting polypeptides (humans: OATPs; rodents: Oatps) can transport PBDE congeners. Mice are commonly used to study the toxicity of chemicals like the PBDE congeners. However, the mechanism of the hepatic PBDE uptake in mice is not known. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that BDE47, BDE99, and BDE153 are substrates of mouse hepatic Oatps (Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1b2, and Oatp2b1). We used Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cells transiently expressing individual Oatps and quantified the uptake of BDE47, BDE99, and BDE153. Oatp1a4, Oatp1b2, and Oatp2b1 transported all three PBDE congeners, whereas Oatp1a1 did transport none. Kinetic studies demonstrated that Oatp1a4 and Oatp1b2 transported BDE47 with the greatest affinity, followed by BDE99 and BDE153. In contrast, Oatp2b1 transported all three PBDE congeners with similar affinities. The importance of hepatic Oatps for the liver accumulation of BDE47 was confirmed using Oatp1a4-, and Oatp1b2-null mice. PMID:21884716

  11. Taurine: its biological role and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Chesney, R W

    1985-01-01

    More than simply cataloging the numerous experimental models in which taurine plays a modulating role, this discussion aims at stimulating further investigation of the potential clinical value of this abundant sulfur amino acid. Both the biomedical investigator and clinician must be struck by the enormous amount of taurine floating freely in the intracellular water of the cells. In cardiac tissue alone, taurine levels of 20 mM or higher may be found. Given this abundance of taurine, why is our understanding of its function so elusive? Although it is clear taurine is important in conjugating bile acids to form water-soluble bile salts, only a fraction of available taurine is used for this function, predominantly in young animals and children. While taurine conjugation is the preferred route of bile acid conjugation in the young, changes in adults given 250 mg of taurine daily for two to three weeks are insignificant. Total pool size of bile acid and chenodeoxycholic acid declines. Unchanged are the rate of bile acid synthesis or the secretion rates of biliary cholesterol, bile acid and phospholipids. Biliary cholesterol saturation also stays the same. The finding that taurine availability protects against cholestasis induced by monohydroxy bile acids remains confined to guinea pigs. The abundance of taurine suggests it may be an osmoregulator of cell volume, and there is convincing evidence that it serves this function in fish. Taurine may play this role in the brain under high osmotic states such as hypernatremia, dehydration and uremia. Evidence is strong that taurine is vital in maintaining retinal function, which may explain why taurine is so abundant in human breast milk. Prolonged TPN feeding of infants demonstrates the importance of taurine in retinal development. We have begun to appreciate the role of the kidney in conserving taurine and how this is perturbed in the neonatal period. Taurine has recently been added to infant formulas (about 50 mg

  12. Congenital taurine deficiency in mice is associated with reduced sensitivity to nociceptive chemical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lötsch, J; Hummel, T; Warskulat, U; Coste, O; Häussinger, D; Geisslinger, G; Tegeder, I

    2014-02-14

    The amino acid taurine is required for development and functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system where it exerts osmoregulatory, neuromodulatory and anti-apoptotic actions. It is subject to cellular import by the taurine transporter slc6a6. Absence of the transporter and consequently, absence of taurine leads to several neurologic deficits and sensory losses. In a slc6a6 knock-out mouse model, consequences of congenital taurine deficiency were assessed in nociceptive sensory processes. The formalin assay, hot plate assay, and summated generator potentials in response to local nociceptive stimulation with gaseous CO2 were applied. Reduced responsiveness of slc6a6(-/-) mice to nociceptive stimulation was observed in particular to chemical nociceptive stimuli. Scl6a6 knock-out mice spent significantly less time licking the formalin injected paw and displayed smaller amplitudes of the nociceptive nasal mucosa potentials than wild-type mice (p=0.002 and 0.01 respectively). In contrast, withdrawal latencies on a hot plate did not significantly differ, suggesting that intracellular taurine deficits lead in particular to a hyposensitivity of nociceptive sensory neurons sensitive to noxious chemical stimulation. As hereditary absence of taurine affects biological processes of anatomical structure development, the altered nociceptive responses likely reflect consequences of compromised peripheral nervous system development.

  13. The taurine content of common foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, S A; Grosvenor, M; Kopple, J D

    1990-01-01

    There is growing evidence that taurine is a biologically valuable nutrient. However, there are few published data concerning the taurine content of different foods. We measured the taurine content of 29 meats, including both cooked and uncooked samples, nine dairy products, 17 infant or adult-feeding solutions and 48 plant foods (including vegetables, nuts or seeds, fruits and legumes. Taurine was detected in meats, dairy products, and infant feeding solutions but not in plant products or adult feeding solutions. Using these data, we compared calculated and measured daily taurine intakes in six defined diets. We present sample daily diets for omnivores, lacto-ovovegetarians and vegans (strict vegetarians), together with calculated taurine intakes.

  14. Maternal taurine supplementation attenuates maternal fructose-induced metabolic and inflammatory dysregulation and partially reverses adverse metabolic programming in offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Reynolds, C M; Sloboda, D M; Gray, C; Vickers, M H

    2015-03-01

    Excessive fructose consumption is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and high fructose intake during pregnancy can lead to compromised fetal development in the rat. Evidence suggests that the amino acid taurine can ameliorate fructose-induced IR and NAFLD in nonpregnant animals. This study investigated the efficacy of taurine supplementation on maternal fructose-induced metabolic dysfunction and neonatal health. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomized to four groups during pregnancy and lactation: (a) control diet (CON), (b) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT), (c) CON supplemented with fructose solution (F) and (d) F supplemented with taurine (FT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Maternal hyperinsulinemia, increased homeostasis model assessment of IR indices and elevated proinflammatory cytokines were observed in F group and normalized in FT group. Maternal fructose-induced hepatic steatosis accompanied with increased liver weight was ameliorated with taurine supplementation. Maternal hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase expression was significantly increased in the F group compared to the CON, CT and FT groups. Neonatal hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was increased in male F neonates compared to the CON, CT and FT groups and was increased in female F and FT neonates compared to CON and CT. Interleukin-1β expression was decreased in male CT and FT neonates compared to other male groups. Hepatic tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 was lower in the male FT group than the F group. These results demonstrate that maternal taurine supplementation can partially reverse fructose-induced maternal metabolic dysfunction and may ameliorate adverse developmental programming effects in offspring in a sex-specific manner.

  15. Taurine release in mouse brain stem slices under cell-damaging conditions.

    PubMed

    Saransaari, P; Oja, S S

    2007-01-01

    Taurine has been thought to be essential for the development and survival of neural cells and to protect them under cell-damaging conditions. In the brain stem taurine regulates many vital functions, including cardiovascular control and arterial blood pressure. We have recently characterized the release of taurine in the adult and developing brain stem under normal conditions. Now we studied the properties of preloaded [3H]taurine release under various cell-damaging conditions (hypoxia, hypoglycemia, ischemia, the presence of metabolic poisons and free radicals) in slices prepared from the mouse brain stem from developing (7-day-old) and young adult (3-month-old) mice, using a superfusion system. Taurine release was greatly enhanced under these cell-damaging conditions, the only exception being the presence of free radicals in both age groups. The ischemia-induced release was characterized to consist of both Ca2+-dependent and -independent components. Moreover, the release was mediated by Na+-, Cl--dependent transporters operating outwards, particularly in the immature brain stem. Cl- channel antagonists reduced the release at both ages, indicating that a part of the release occurs through ion channels, and protein kinase C appeared to be involved. The release was also modulated by cyclic GMP second messenger systems, since inhibitors of soluble guanylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterases suppressed ischemic taurine release. The inhibition of phospholipases also reduced taurine release at both ages. This ischemia-induced taurine release could constitute an important mechanism against excitotoxicity, protecting the brain stem under cell-damaging conditions.

  16. Organic anion transporting polypeptides in the hepatic uptake of PBDE congeners in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pacyniak, Erik; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois; Guo, Grace L.

    2011-11-15

    BDE47, BDE99 and BDE153 are the predominant polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners detected in humans and can induce drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver. We have previously demonstrated that several human liver organic anion transporting polypeptides (humans: OATPs; rodents: Oatps) can transport PBDE congeners. Mice are commonly used to study the toxicity of chemicals like the PBDE congeners. However, the mechanism of the hepatic PBDE uptake in mice is not known. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that BDE47, BDE99, and BDE153 are substrates of mouse hepatic Oatps (Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1b2, and Oatp2b1). We used Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cells transiently expressing individual Oatps and quantified the uptake of BDE47, BDE99, and BDE153. Oatp1a4, Oatp1b2, and Oatp2b1 transported all three PBDE congeners, whereas Oatp1a1 did transport none. Kinetic studies demonstrated that Oatp1a4 and Oatp1b2 transported BDE47 with the greatest affinity, followed by BDE99 and BDE153. In contrast, Oatp2b1 transported all three PBDE congeners with similar affinities. The importance of hepatic Oatps for the liver accumulation of BDE47 was confirmed using Oatp1a4-, and Oatp1b2-null mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE congeners are substrates of OATPs expressed in human hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice are commonly used to study the toxicity of chemicals like the PBDE congeners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oatp1a4, Oatp1b2, and Oatp2b1 transported all three PBDE congeners in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo Oatp1a4 plays a minor and Oatp1b2 a major role in BDE47 liver accumulation.

  17. Regulation of hepatic ABCC transporters by xenobiotics and in disease states

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xinsheng; Manautou, Jose E.

    2015-01-01

    The subfamily of ABCC transporters consists of 13 members in mammals, including the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), sulfonylurea receptors (SURs), and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). These proteins play roles in chemical detoxification, disposition, and normal cell physiology. ABCC transporters are expressed differentially in the liver and are regulated at the transcription and translation level. Their expression and function are also controlled by post-translational modification and membrane-trafficking events. These processes are tightly regulated. Information about alterations in the expression of hepatobiliary ABCC transporters could provide important insights into the pathogenesis of diseases and disposition of xenobiotics. In this review, we describe the regulation of hepatic ABCC transporters in humans and rodents by a variety of xenobiotics, under disease states and in genetically modified animal models deficient in transcription factors, transporters, and cell-signaling molecules. PMID:20233023

  18. Computer Modeling of Yttrium-90-Microsphere Transport in the Hepatic Arterial Tree to Improve Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Andrew S.; Kleinstreuer, Clement; Basciano, Christopher A.; Dezarn, William A.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Radioembolization (RE) via yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microspheres is an effective and safe treatment for unresectable liver malignancies. However, no data are available regarding the impact of local blood flow dynamics on {sup 90}Y-microsphere transport and distribution in the human hepatic arterial system. Methods and Materials: A three-dimensional (3-D) computer model was developed to analyze and simulate blood-microsphere flow dynamics in the hepatic arterial system with tumor. Supplemental geometric and flow data sets from patients undergoing RE were also available to validate the accuracy of the computer simulation model. Specifically, vessel diameters, curvatures, and branching patterns, as well as blood flow velocities/pressures and microsphere characteristics (i.e., diameter and specific gravity), were measured. Three-dimensional computer-aided design software was used to create the vessel geometries. Initial trials, with 10,000 noninteracting microspheres released into the hepatic artery, used resin spheres 32-{mu}m in diameter with a density twice that of blood. Results: Simulations of blood flow subject to different branch-outlet pressures as well as blood-microsphere transport were successfully carried out, allowing testing of two types of microsphere release distributions in the inlet plane of the main hepatic artery. If the inlet distribution of microspheres was uniform (evenly spaced particles), a greater percentage would exit into the vessel branch feeding the tumor. Conversely, a parabolic inlet distribution of microspheres (more particles around the vessel center) showed a high percentage of microspheres exiting the branch vessel leading to the normal liver. Conclusions: Computer simulations of both blood flow patterns and microsphere dynamics have the potential to provide valuable insight on how to optimize {sup 90}Y-microsphere implantation into hepatic tumors while sparing normal tissue.

  19. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of taurine against aluminum-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Wael M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed A; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2011-08-30

    Aluminum is a well known neurotoxin and a possible candidate of hepatotoxins to humans. Using natural antioxidants against metal-induced hepatotoxicity is a modern approach. In the present study, Aluminum (AlCl(3)) intoxication (a single injection of 25mg Al(3+)/kg, i.p.) for 24h in mice resulted in elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and serum tumor necrosis factor and hepatic malondialdehyde levels. Aluminum reduced the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, quinone oxidoreductase, and catalase in liver. In addition, Al caused hepatic hemorrhage, cellular degeneration as well as necrosis of hepatocytes. Ultrastructure examination showed swelling of mitochondria, derangement of rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and pleomorphic nuclei with abnormal chromatin distribution. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid was administered to mice daily for 5 days before (at 100mg/kg, i.p.) or 2h after (a single dose of 1g/kg, i.p.) aluminum administration. Treating mice with taurine at either dosing regimens, pre- or post-aluminum administration alleviated aluminum oxidative damaging effects. The rate of recovery was better when taurine was administered prior to Al. Taurine had anaphylactic and therapeutic activity against hepatotoxicity induced by aluminum in mice.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Oral Taurine in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Ghandforoush-Sattari, Mohammadreza; Mashayekhi, Siminozar; Krishna, Channarayapatna V.; Thompson, John P.; Routledge, Philipp A.

    2010-01-01

    Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is a normal constituent of the human diet. Little is known of the pharmacokinetics of taurine in man after oral administration. We studied the pharmacokinetics of 4 g taurine in eight healthy male volunteers (median age 27.5, range 22–45) following orally administration in the fasting state in the morning. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals and plasma taurine concentration was measured by a modified HPLC method. Data were subjected to noncompartmental analysis. Maximum plasma taurine concentration (Cmax) was measured at 1.5 ± 0.6 hr after administration as 86.1 ± 19.0 mg/L (0.69 ± 0.15 mmol). Plasma elimination half-life (T1/2) and the ratio of clearance/bioavailability (Cl/F) were 1.0 ± 0.3 hr and 21.1 ± 7.8 L/hr, respectively. Since taurine is occasionally used in therapeutics as a medicine, the pharmacokinetics and effects of oral taurine in healthy volunteers would be useful in the future studies of taurine in pharmacology and nutrition. PMID:22331997

  1. Altered regulation of hepatic efflux transporters disrupts acetaminophen disposition in pediatric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Canet, Mark J; Merrell, Matthew D; Hardwick, Rhiannon N; Bataille, Amy M; Campion, Sarah N; Ferreira, Daniel W; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Manautou, Jose E; A-Kader, H Hesham; Erickson, Robert P; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2015-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, representing a spectrum of liver pathologies that include simple hepatic steatosis and the more advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The current study was conducted to determine whether pediatric NASH also results in altered disposition of acetaminophen (APAP) and its two primary metabolites, APAP-sulfate and APAP-glucuronide. Pediatric patients with hepatic steatosis (n = 9) or NASH (n = 3) and healthy patients (n = 12) were recruited in a small pilot study design. All patients received a single 1000-mg dose of APAP. Blood and urine samples were collected at 1, 2, and 4 hours postdose, and APAP and APAP metabolites were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, human liver tissues from patients diagnosed with various stages of NAFLD were acquired from the Liver Tissue Cell Distribution System to investigate the regulation of the membrane transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and 3 (MRP2 and MRP3, respectively). Patients with the more severe disease (i.e., NASH) had increased serum and urinary levels of APAP-glucuronide along with decreased serum levels of APAP-sulfate. Moreover, an induction of hepatic MRP3 and altered canalicular localization of the biliary efflux transporter, MRP2, describes the likely mechanism for the observed increase in plasma retention of APAP-glucuronide, whereas altered regulation of sulfur activation genes may explain decreased sulfonation activity in NASH. APAP-glucuronide and APAP-sulfate disposition is altered in NASH and is likely due to hepatic membrane transporter dysregulation as well as altered intracellular sulfur activation.

  2. Hepatobiliary disposition of 3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxy-cholanoyl taurine: a substrate for multiple canalicular transporters.

    PubMed

    Megaraj, Vandana; Iida, Takashi; Jungsuwadee, Paiboon; Hofmann, Alan F; Vore, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Tetrahydroxy bile acids become major biliary bile acids in Bsep(-/-) mice and Fxr(-/-) mice fed cholic acid; we characterized disposition of these novel bile acids that also occur in patients with cholestasis. We investigated mouse Mrp2 (mMrp2) and P-glycoprotein [(P-gp) mMdr1a]-mediated transport of a tetrahydroxy bile acid, 6α-OH-taurocholic acid (6α-OH-TC), and its biliary excretion in wild-type and Mrp2(-/-) mice in the presence or absence of N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918), a P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor. 6α-OH-TC was rapidly excreted into bile of wild-type mice (78% recovery); coinfusion of GF120918 had no significant effect. In Mrp2(-/-) mice, biliary excretion was decreased (52% recovery) and coinfusion of GF120918 further decreased these values (34% recovery). In wild-type, but not Mrp2(-/-), mice, 6α-OH-TC increased bile flow 2.5-fold. Membrane vesicle transport studies of 6α-OH-TC (0.05-0.75 mM) yielded saturation kinetics with a higher apparent affinity for mMrp2 (K(m) = 0.13 mM) than for mMdr1a (K(m) = 0.33 mM); mBsep transported 6α-OH-TC with positive cooperativity (Hill slope = 2.1). Human multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 and P-gp also transported 6α-OH-TC but with positive cooperativity (Hill slope = 3.6 and 1.6, respectively). After intraileal administration, the time course of 6α-OH-TC biliary recovery was similar to that of coinfused taurocholate, implying that 6α-OH-TC can undergo enterohepatic cycling. Thus, Mrp2 plays a key role in 6α-OH-TC biliary excretion, whereas P-glycoprotein plays a secondary role; Bsep likely mediates excretion of 6α-OH-TC in the absence of Mrp2 and P-gp. In Bsep(-/-) mice, efficient synthesis of tetrahydroxy bile acids that are Mrp2 and P-gp substrates can explain the noncholestatic phenotype.

  3. Immunologic consequences of taurine deficiency in cats.

    PubMed

    Schuller-Levis, G; Mehta, P D; Rudelli, R; Sturman, J

    1990-04-01

    Our results show that a lack of taurine in the diet of cats results in a significant leukopenia, a shift in the percentage of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes, an increase in the absolute count of mononuclear leukocytes, and a change in the sedimentation characteristics of white cells. Functional studies of polymorphonuclear cells isolated from cats fed taurine-free diets show a significant decrease in the respiratory burst as measured by chemiluminescence as well as a decrease in phagocytosis of Staphylococcus epidermis compared to cats fed the same diet containing taurine. In addition, serum gamma globulin in cats fed taurine-free diets was significantly increased compared to taurine-supplemented cats, indicating that other immune cells may be affected by taurine deficiency. Histological examination of lymph nodes and spleen revealed regression of follicular centers with depletion of reticular cells, mature and immature lymphocytes (B cell areas), as well as mild extravascular hemolysis. These results indicate that there are profound immunologic consequences in cats with prolonged taurine deficiency. PMID:2319206

  4. Metabolism of taurine during reproduction in women.

    PubMed

    Naismith, D J; Rana, S K; Emery, P W

    1987-01-01

    The pattern of excretion of taurine was measured in four omnivore and four vegan/vegetarian women during pregnancy and lactation, and was compared with the changes in urinary excretion of other amino acids, including the precursors of endogenous taurine, observed in ten pregnant omnivores. The loss of taurine in breast milk was also determined in fourteen omnivore and fourteen vegan mothers. In contrast to the rise in excretion of all amino acids during pregnancy, including methionine and cysteine, taurine excretion fell dramatically from week 9 of pregnancy in all subjects, and, in the vegan/vegetarian subjects, fell still further during lactation. Although the concentration of taurine in breast milk was lower in vegan subjects, the mean value fell within the range found in omnivore subjects. Our findings indicate that the suppression of urinary taurine excretion, both during pregnancy and lactation, is a physiological response to reproduction that satisfies the needs of the fetus and the suckling infant for this amino acid. The data also suggest that taurine is stored in the maternal tissues in early pregnancy for later transfer to the fetus.

  5. Metabolism of taurine during reproduction in women.

    PubMed

    Naismith, D J; Rana, S K; Emery, P W

    1987-01-01

    The pattern of excretion of taurine was measured in four omnivore and four vegan/vegetarian women during pregnancy and lactation, and was compared with the changes in urinary excretion of other amino acids, including the precursors of endogenous taurine, observed in ten pregnant omnivores. The loss of taurine in breast milk was also determined in fourteen omnivore and fourteen vegan mothers. In contrast to the rise in excretion of all amino acids during pregnancy, including methionine and cysteine, taurine excretion fell dramatically from week 9 of pregnancy in all subjects, and, in the vegan/vegetarian subjects, fell still further during lactation. Although the concentration of taurine in breast milk was lower in vegan subjects, the mean value fell within the range found in omnivore subjects. Our findings indicate that the suppression of urinary taurine excretion, both during pregnancy and lactation, is a physiological response to reproduction that satisfies the needs of the fetus and the suckling infant for this amino acid. The data also suggest that taurine is stored in the maternal tissues in early pregnancy for later transfer to the fetus. PMID:3570861

  6. Sulfoacetate generated by Rhodopseudomonas palustris from taurine.

    PubMed

    Denger, Karin; Weinitschke, Sonja; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Cook, Alasdair M

    2004-10-01

    Genes thought to encode (a) the regulator of taurine catabolism under carbon-limiting or nitrogen-limiting conditions and (b) taurine dehydrogenase were found in the genome of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The organism utilized taurine quantitatively as a sole source of nitrogen (but not of carbon) for aerobic and photoheterotrophic growth. No sulfate was released, and the C-sulfonate bond was recovered stoichiometrically as sulfoacetate, which was identified by mass spectrometry. An inducible sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase was detected. R. palustris thus contains a pathway to generate a natural product that was previously believed to be formed solely from sulfoquinovose.

  7. [Effects of taurine supplementation on apoptosis, lipid peroxidation and proteomic pools of subcellular fractions of rat hepatocytes in experiment].

    PubMed

    Sharanova, N É; Karagodina, Z V; Kulakova, S N; Trushina, É N; Mustafina, O K; Vasil'ev, A V

    2012-01-01

    During research specific proteomic pools of subcellular fractions of rats hepatic cells typical for different states of ontogenesis were identified. Taurine supplementation during early ontogenesis leads to a production of a catalase in rats' microsomes, that may be an evidence of activation of antioxidant defense system. Majority of proteomic markers (C-type lectin, SH2B1, protein phosphatase-1), which was investigated during taurine supplement, are rather identify features of energy homeostasis, than common assessment of apoptosis or expression certain set of proteins. This fact confirms the requirement of using proteomic diagnostic during nutriproteomic studies that allows defining efficiency and probable risks of using biological active substances in nutrition.

  8. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine. Skin prick test and basophil activation test with the synthetic taurine were negative. To our knowledge, there has been no report of taurine-induced hypersensitivity reactions. We herein report the first case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis, especially by synthetic taurine.

  9. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine. Skin prick test and basophil activation test with the synthetic taurine were negative. To our knowledge, there has been no report of taurine-induced hypersensitivity reactions. We herein report the first case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis, especially by synthetic taurine. PMID:23404176

  10. Altered hepatic transport of immunoglobulin A in mice lacking the J chain

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have created J chain knockout mice to define the physiologic role of the J chain in immunoglobulin synthesis and transport. The J chain is covalently associated with pentameric immunoglobulin (Ig) M and dimeric IgA and is also expressed in most IgG-secreting cells. J chain- deficient mice have normal serum IgM and IgG levels but markedly elevated serum IgA. Although polymeric IgA was present in the mutant mice, a larger proportion of their serum IgA was monomeric than was found in wild-type mouse serum. Bile and fecal IgA levels were decreased in J chain-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice, suggesting inefficient transport of J chain-deficient IgA by hepatic polymeric immunoglobulin receptors (pIgR). The pIgR-mediated transport of serum-derived IgA from wild-type and mutant mice was assessed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with the pIgR. These studies revealed selective transport by pIgR-expressing MDCK cells of wild-type IgA but not J chain-deficient IgA. We conclude that although the J chain is not required for IgA dimerization, it does affect the efficiency of polymerization or have a role in maintaining IgA dimer stability. Furthermore, the J chain is essential for efficient hepatic pIgR transport of IgA. PMID:7500036

  11. Taurine Boosts Cellular Uptake of Small d-Peptides for Enzyme-Instructed Intracellular Molecular Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Due to their biostability, d-peptides are emerging as an important molecular platform for biomedical applications. Being proteolytically resistant, d-peptides lack interactions with endogenous transporters and hardly enter cells. Here we show that taurine, a natural amino acid, drastically boosts the cellular uptake of small d-peptides in mammalian cells by >10-fold, from 118 μM (without conjugating taurine) to >1.6 mM (after conjugating taurine). The uptake of a large amount of the ester conjugate of taurine and d-peptide allows intracellular esterase to trigger intracellular self-assembly of the d-peptide derivative, further enhancing their cellular accumulation. The study on the mechanism of the uptake reveals that the conjugates enter cells via both dynamin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis, but likely not relying on taurine transporters. Differing fundamentally from the positively charged cell-penetrating peptides, the biocompatibility, stability, and simplicity of the enzyme-cleavable taurine motif promise new ways to promote the uptake of bioactive molecules for countering the action of efflux pump and contributing to intracellular molecular self-assembly. PMID:26235707

  12. Taurine Boosts Cellular Uptake of Small D-Peptides for Enzyme-Instructed Intracellular Molecular Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Li, Jie; Yamagata, Natsuko; Xu, Bing

    2015-08-19

    Due to their biostability, D-peptides are emerging as an important molecular platform for biomedical applications. Being proteolytically resistant, D-peptides lack interactions with endogenous transporters and hardly enter cells. Here we show that taurine, a natural amino acid, drastically boosts the cellular uptake of small D-peptides in mammalian cells by >10-fold, from 118 μM (without conjugating taurine) to >1.6 mM (after conjugating taurine). The uptake of a large amount of the ester conjugate of taurine and D-peptide allows intracellular esterase to trigger intracellular self-assembly of the D-peptide derivative, further enhancing their cellular accumulation. The study on the mechanism of the uptake reveals that the conjugates enter cells via both dynamin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis, but likely not relying on taurine transporters. Differing fundamentally from the positively charged cell-penetrating peptides, the biocompatibility, stability, and simplicity of the enzyme-cleavable taurine motif promise new ways to promote the uptake of bioactive molecules for countering the action of efflux pump and contributing to intracellular molecular self-assembly.

  13. Taurine Boosts Cellular Uptake of Small D-Peptides for Enzyme-Instructed Intracellular Molecular Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Li, Jie; Yamagata, Natsuko; Xu, Bing

    2015-08-19

    Due to their biostability, D-peptides are emerging as an important molecular platform for biomedical applications. Being proteolytically resistant, D-peptides lack interactions with endogenous transporters and hardly enter cells. Here we show that taurine, a natural amino acid, drastically boosts the cellular uptake of small D-peptides in mammalian cells by >10-fold, from 118 μM (without conjugating taurine) to >1.6 mM (after conjugating taurine). The uptake of a large amount of the ester conjugate of taurine and D-peptide allows intracellular esterase to trigger intracellular self-assembly of the D-peptide derivative, further enhancing their cellular accumulation. The study on the mechanism of the uptake reveals that the conjugates enter cells via both dynamin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis, but likely not relying on taurine transporters. Differing fundamentally from the positively charged cell-penetrating peptides, the biocompatibility, stability, and simplicity of the enzyme-cleavable taurine motif promise new ways to promote the uptake of bioactive molecules for countering the action of efflux pump and contributing to intracellular molecular self-assembly. PMID:26235707

  14. Tool from traditional medicines is useful for health-medication: Bezoar Bovis and taurine.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kyoko; Azuma, Yuko; Kobayashi, Shizu; Azuma, Junichi; Takahashi, Koichi; Schaffer, Stephen W; Hattori, Masao; Namba, Tsuneo

    2009-01-01

    Bezoar Bovis (BB:dried cattle gallbladder stones) has been used empirically in Asia for over 3000 years to treat heart and liver disorders. Yet its therapeutic potential remains unexplored by Western researchers. The aim of this study has been to clarify the actions of BB on cultured cardiomyocytes and to identify its active component(s). BB is a component of 98.7% of the Japanese over the counter (OTC) cardioactive drugs. The water-extract of BB exhibits protection action against arrhythmias produced by low Ca2+ and high Ca2+ in the medium. On the other hand, the Ca(2+)-antagonist, verapamil, did not suppress arrhythmias that developed in cell culture. Rather, it aggravated the beating status of the cardiomyocytes. The major constituents of the BB extract are bile salts (cholate, deoxycholate, taurocholate) and amino acids (taurine, cysteine, leucine, isoleucine). Most cells incubated with bile salts developed morphological damage. However, one of the major constituents of the BB extract, taurine, was effective in protecting against the abnormal beating pattern induced by high Ca2+. Since beta-alanine, an inhibitor of taurine transport, antagonized the protective effects of both BB and taurine, it is likely that the effect of BB is partly mediated by taurine.

  15. Reaction of (/sup 3/H)-taurine maleimide with platelet surface thiols

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, D.W.; Mills, D.C.B.

    1986-05-01

    Taurine Maleimide (2-maleimidoethanesulfonate, TM) was synthesized from (2-/sup 3/H)-taurine and methoxycarbonylmaleimide (MCM). The yield of a 1 ..mu..mol synthesis approached 100% (based on taurine) when MCM was used in 4-fold excess. The product (TM*) was purified by ion exchange chromatography. TM* reacted irreversibly with thiol groups on the surface of washed human platelets, leading to incorporation of radioactivity into platelet pellets. Incorporation was blocked by cysteine, mercuribenzenesulfonate (MBS), dithiobisnitrobenzoate, and N-ethylmaleimide, but not by taurine or by inhibitors of anion transport. Reaction of TM* with platelets showed the dependence on time and concentration characteristics of a bimolecular reaction. The number of reactive sites ranged from 1 to 5 x 10/sup 5//platelet, and the apparent rate constant from 1 to 3 x 10/sup 3//(M x min). TM was less effective than MBS as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by several agents. TM had no effect on the uptake of serotonin, taurine, or phosphate by the platelets, processes which are sensitive to MBS. These differences, considered with the similarity in size and charge of TM and MBS, suggest that classes of thiols defined as exofacial by their accessibility to MBS can differ substantially in their reactivity with other impermeant reagents.

  16. Acute cholesterol depletion leads to net loss of the organic osmolyte taurine in Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Duelund, Lars; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2010-11-01

    In mammalian cells, the organic osmolyte taurine is accumulated by the Na-dependent taurine transporter TauT and released though the volume- and DIDS-sensitive organic anion channel. Incubating Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (5 mM, 1 h) reduces the total cholesterol pool to 60±5% of the control value. Electron spin resonance data indicate a concomitant disruption of cholesterol-rich micro-domains. Active taurine uptake, cellular taurine content, and cell volume are reduced by 50, 20 and 20% compared to control values, respectively, whereas the passive taurine release is increased 4.5-fold under isotonic conditions following cholesterol depletion. However, taurine release under isotonic conditions is insensitive to DIDS and inhibitors of the volume-regulated anion channel. Uptake and release of meAIB are similarly affected following cholesterol depletion. Kinetic analysis reveals that cholesterol depletion increases TauT's affinity toward taurine but reduces its maximal transport capacity. Cholesterol depletion has no impact on TauT regulation by protein kinases A and C. Phospholipase A2 activity, which is required for the activation of volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC), is increased under isotonic and hypotonic conditions following cholesterol depletion, whereas taurine release under hypotonic conditions is reduced following cholesterol depletion. Hence, acute cholesterol depletion of Ehrlich Lettré cells leads to reduced TauT and VSOAC activities and at the same time increases the release of organic osmolytes via a leak pathway different from the volume-sensitive pathways for amino acids and anions. PMID:20499258

  17. Dietary inclusion level and time effects of taurine on broiler performance, meat quality, oxidative status and muscle taurine content.

    PubMed

    Huang, C X; Wang, B; Min, Z; Yuan, J

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of taurine on growth performance, meat quality, oxidative status and muscle taurine content in broilers. In Experiment 1, 50 one-day-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 0, 0.125, 0.50, 2.00 or 8.00 g/kg taurine from 1 to 42 d of age. In Experiment 2, 80 22-d-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 4.00 g/kg taurine for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Taurine contents of thigh and breast muscle increased linearly with increasing dietary taurine. Taurine supplementation for 1, 2 and 3 weeks significantly increased the taurine content of breast muscle. The taurine contents of liver and thigh meat were significantly increased by taurine supplementation for 3 weeks. The taurine contents of thigh and breast meat from broilers given a diet supplemented with 4 g/kg taurine for 3 weeks increased to 1.89 times the concentrations of the control group. There were no detrimental effects on growth performance, breast or thigh muscle yield, pH value or drip-water loss, and taurine supplementation did not affect the serum carbonyl content. Serum malondialdehyde concentration was significantly decreased by taurine supplementation for 1, 2 or 3 weeks. PMID:25022619

  18. HPLC Determination of Taurine in Sports Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Dale L.

    2001-06-01

    The amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a nutritional supplement in many sports drinks. An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in these sports drinks. A pre-column derivatization with Sanger's reagent, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, is followed by an HPLC separation utilizing a gradient elution, and detection at 360 nm.

  19. Molecular changes in hepatic metabolism and transport in cirrhosis and their functional importance

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Götze, Oliver; Geier, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the common endpoint of many hepatic diseases and represents a relevant risk for liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. The progress of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is accompanied by deteriorating liver function. This review summarizes the regulatory and functional changes in phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes as well as transport proteins and provides an overview regarding lipid and glucose metabolism in cirrhotic patients. Interestingly, phase I enzymes are generally downregulated transcriptionally, while phase II enzymes are mostly preserved transcriptionally but are reduced in their function. Transport proteins are regulated in a specific way that resembles the molecular changes observed in obstructive cholestasis. Lipid and glucose metabolism are characterized by insulin resistance and catabolism, leading to the disturbance of energy expenditure and wasting. Possible non-invasive tests, especially breath tests, for components of liver metabolism are discussed. The heterogeneity and complexity of changes in hepatic metabolism complicate the assessment of liver function in individual patients. Additionally, studies in humans are rare, and species differences preclude the transferability of data from rodents to humans. In clinical practice, some established global scores or criteria form the basis for the functional evaluation of patients with liver cirrhosis, but difficult treatment decisions such as selection for transplantation or resection require further research regarding the application of existing non-invasive tests and the development of more specific tests. PMID:26755861

  20. Hepatic Transporter Expression in Metabolic Syndrome: Phenotype, Serum Metabolic Hormones, and Transcription Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Donepudi, Ajay C; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Lu, Zhenqiang James; Cherrington, Nathan J; Slitt, Angela L

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and the alteration of multiple metabolic hormones. Obesity rates have been rising worldwide, which increases our need to understand how this population will respond to drugs and exposure to other chemicals. The purpose of this study was to determine in lean and obese mice the ontogeny of clinical biomarkers such as serum hormone and blood glucose levels as well as the physiologic markers that correlate with nuclear receptor- and transporter-related pathways. Livers from male and female wild-type (WT) (C57BL/6) and ob/ob mice littermates were collected before, during, and after the onset of obesity. Serum hormone and mRNA levels were analyzed. Physiologic changes and gene expression during maturation and progression to obesity were performed and correlation analysis was performed using canonical correlations. Significant ontogenic changes in both WT and ob/ob mice were observed and these ontogenic changes differ in ob/ob mice with the development of obesity. In males and females, the ontogenic pattern of the expression of genes such as Abcc3, 4, Abcg2, Cyp2b10, and 4a14 started to differ from week 3, and became significant at weeks 4 and 8 in ob/ob mice compared with WT mice. In obese males, serum resistin, glucagon, and glucose levels correlated with the expression of most hepatic ATP-binding cassette (Abc) transporters, whereas in obese females, serum glucagon-like peptide 1 levels were correlated with most hepatic uptake transporters and P450 enzymes. Overall, the correlation between physiologic changes and gene expression indicate that metabolism-related hormones may play a role in regulating the genes involved in drug metabolism and transport. PMID:26847773

  1. Taurine zinc solid dispersions enhance bile-incubated L02 cell viability and improve liver function by inhibiting ERK2 and JNK phosphorylation during cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lai, Xiaofang; Xu, Donghui

    2016-07-29

    Dietary intakes of taurine and zinc are associated with decreased risk of liver disease. In this study, solid dispersions (SDs) of a taurine zinc complex on hepatic injury were examined in vitro using the immortalized human hepatocyte cell line L02 and in a rat model of bile duct ligation. Sham-operated and bile duct ligated Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the vehicle alone or taurine zinc (40, 80, 160mg/kg) for 17days. Bile duct ligation significantly increased blood lipid levels, and promoted hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation and compensatory biliary proliferation. In vitro, incubation with bile significantly reduced L02 cell viability; this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and enhanced when co-incubated with taurine zinc SDs. In vivo, administration of taurine zinc SDs decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increases in serum total bilirubin, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after bile duct ligation. Additionally, taurine zinc SDs downregulated the expression of interleukin-1β and inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase2 (ERK2) in the liver after bile duct ligation. Moreover, taurine zinc SDs had more potent blood lipid regulatory and anti-apoptotic effects than the physical mixture of taurine and zinc acetate. Therefore, we speculate that taurine zinc SDs protect liver function at least in part via a mechanism linked to reduce phosphorylation of JNK and ERK2, which suppresses inflammation, apoptosis and cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis. PMID:27501764

  2. The Altered Renal and Hepatic Expression of Solute Carrier Transporters (SLCs) in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenghao; Zhu, Ling; Chan, Ting; Lu, Xiaoxi; Shen, Weiyong; Gillies, Mark C.; Zhou, Fanfan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that significantly affects human health and well-being. The Solute carrier transporters (SLCs), particularly the Organic anion/cation transporters (Oats/Octs/Octns), Organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) and Oligopeptide transporters (Pepts) are essential membrane proteins responsible for cellular uptake of many endogenous and exogenous substances such as clinically important drugs. They are widely expressed in mammalian key organs especially the kidney and liver, in which they facilitate the influx of various drug molecules, thereby determining their distribution and elimination in body. The altered expression of SLCs in diabetes mellitus could have a profound and clinically significant influence on drug therapies. In this study, we extensively investigated the renal and hepatic expression of twenty essential SLCs in the type 1 diabetic Ins2Akita murine model that develops both hyperglycemia and diabetes-related complications using real-time PCR and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the renal expression of mOatp1a1, mOatp1a6, mOat1, mOat3, mOat5, mOct2 and mPept2 was decreased; while that of mPept1 was increased at the mRNA level in the diabetic mice compared with non-diabetic controls. We found up-regulated mRNA expression of mOatp1a4, mOatp1c1, mOctn2, mOct3 and mPept1 as well as down-regulation of mOatp1a1 in the livers of diabetic mice. We confirmed the altered protein expression of several SLCs in diabetic mice, especially the decreased renal and hepatic expression of mOatp1a1. We also found down-regulated protein expression of mOat3 and mOctn1 in the kidneys as well as increased protein expression of mOatp1a4 and mOct3 in the livers of diabetic mice. Our findings contribute to better understanding the modulation of SLC transporters in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is likely to affect the pharmacokinetic performance of drugs that are transported by these transporters and therefore, forms the

  3. Interaction of taurine on baclofen intestinal absorption: a nonlinear mathematical treatment using differential equations to describe kinetic inhibition models.

    PubMed

    Moll-Navarro, M J; Merino, M; Casabó, V G; Nácher, A; Polache, A

    1996-11-01

    Previous studies showed that the in situ absorption of baclofen in rat jejunum was inhibited by beta-alanine, a nonessential amino acid, and therefore mediated, at least in part, by some beta-amino acid carrier. In this paper a similar study was undertaken using taurine, a sulfonic beta-amino acid, in order to evaluate its effect and to establish a general inhibition model. To achieve this goal, remaining concentrations of inhibitor were also measured and incorporated into the model. Previously, kinetic absorption in situ parameters for taurine in free solution were obtained: Vm = 27.73 +/- 9.99 mM h-1, K(m) = 8.06 +/- 2.82 mM, Ka (passive difussion component) = 0.40 +/- 0.28 h-1. Isotonic solutions containing 0.5 mM baclofen with starting taurine concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 mM were perfused in rat jejunum, and the remaining concentrations of both compounds were measured. The apparent rate pseudoconstant of the drug clearly decreased as the remaining taurine concentration increased. The interaction can be described as a complete competitive inhibition plus a second component, K, noninhibited, K = 0.58 (+/- 0.03) h-1, Ki = 20.62 (+/- 4.04) mM, Vmi = 28.12 (+/- 6.12) mM h-1, Kmi = 11.71 (+/- 2.53) mM, Kai = 0.47 (+/- 0.10) h-1. A residual absorption of baclofen in the presence of high taurine concentrations was observed, which should be attributed to another transport system not associated with the taurine carrier. In order to elucidate whether or not taurine and beta-alanine carriers are two separate entities that baclofen can use for absorption, further experiments using beta-alanine and taurine together as inhibitors (baclofen, 0.5 mM; beta-alanine, 50 mM, and taurine, 50 mM) were developed. Results indicated that baclofen and both amino acids share the same carrier in the intestinal absorption process. We have completed studies using leucine, taurine, and GABA together as inhibitors of drug absorption. An isotonic perfusion solution of 0.5 mM baclofen in

  4. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P < 0.01), respectively, and (2) that taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P < 0.01), respectively. Overall, our results indicated that taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  5. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P < 0.01), respectively, and (2) that taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P < 0.01), respectively. Overall, our results indicated that taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR. PMID:24676564

  6. Could supplementary dietary tryptophan and taurine prevent epileptic seizures?

    PubMed

    Maurizi, C P

    1985-12-01

    Roles for melatonin, taurine, and the pineal gland in epilepsy are examined. Cerebrospinal fluid melatonin and taurine may be natural anticonvulsants. The flow of cerebrospinal fluid may bathe the medial and lateral geniculate ganglia and the superior and inferior colliculli with these anticonvulsant substances. Supplemental dietary taurine and tryptophan could be of value in the treatment and prevention of seizures.

  7. Effects of graded taurine levels on juvenile cobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taurine, which has multiple important physiological roles in teleost fish and mammals, is an amino acid not found in alternative protein sources not derived from animals. Although taurine is found in fish-meal-based feeds, its high water solubility leads to lower taurine levels in reduction-process-...

  8. Taurine reduction in anaerobic respiration of Bilophila wadsworthia RZATAU.

    PubMed

    Laue, H; Denger, K; Cook, A M

    1997-05-01

    Organosulfonates are important natural and man-made compounds, but until recently (T. J. Lie, T. Pitta, E. R. Leadbetter, W. Godchaux III, and J. R. Leadbetter. Arch. Microbiol. 166:204-210, 1996), they were not believed to be dissimilated under anoxic conditions. We also chose to test whether alkane- and arenesulfonates could serve as electron sinks in respiratory metabolism. We generated 60 anoxic enrichment cultures in mineral salts medium which included several potential electron donors and a single organic sulfonate as an electron sink, and we used material from anaerobic digestors in communal sewage works as inocula. None of the four aromatic sulfonates, the three unsubstituted alkanesulfonates, or the N-sulfonate tested gave positive enrichment cultures requiring both the electron donor and electron sink for growth. Nine cultures utilizing the natural products taurine, cysteate, or isethionate were considered positive for growth, and all formed sulfide. Two clearly different pure cultures were examined. Putative Desulfovibrio sp. strain RZACYSA, with lactate as the electron donor, utilized sulfate, aminomethanesulfonate, taurine, isethionate, and cysteate, converting the latter to ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Strain RZATAU was identified by 16S rDNA analysis as Bilophila wadsworthia. In the presence of, e.g., formate as the electron donor, it utilized, e.g., cysteate and isethionate and converted taurine quantitatively to cell material and products identified as ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Sulfite and thiosulfate, but not sulfate, were utilized as electron sinks, as was nitrate, when lactate was provided as the electron donor and carbon source. A growth requirement for 1,4-naphthoquinone indicates a menaquinone electron carrier, and the presence of cytochrome c supports the presence of an electron transport chain. Pyruvate-dependent disappearance of taurine from cell extracts, as well as formation of alanine and release of ammonia and acetate, was

  9. Combined administration of taurine and monoisoamyl DMSA protects arsenic induced oxidative injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Flora, Swaran J S; Chouhan, Swapnila; Kannan, Gurusamy M; Mittal, Megha; Swarnkar, Harimohan

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is ubiquitously present in the environment. High concentration of naturally occurring arsenic in drinking water is a major health problem in different parts of the world. Despite arsenic being a health hazard and a well documented carcinogen, no safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures are available. Among various recent strategies adopted, administration of an antioxidant has been reported to be the most effective. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), administered either individually or in combination with taurine post chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Arsenic exposed male rats (25 ppm, sodium arsenite in drinking water for 24 weeks) were treated with taurine (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily), monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) (50 mg/kg, oral, once daily) either individually or in combination for 5 consecutive days. Biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress along-with arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidney were measured. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a key enzyme involved in the heme biosynthesis and enhanced zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level. Clinical hematological variables like white blood cells (WBC), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) showed significant decrease with a significant elevation in platelet (PLT) count. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased catalase activity. Arsenic exposure caused a significant decrease in hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG). These biochemical changes were correlated with an increased uptake of arsenic in blood, liver and kidney. Administration of taurine significantly reduced hepatic oxidative stress however co

  10. Clinical significance of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) in drug disposition: their roles in hepatic clearance and intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Shitara, Yoshihisa; Maeda, Kazuya; Ikejiri, Kazuaki; Yoshida, Kenta; Horie, Toshiharu; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family transporters accept a number of drugs and are increasingly being recognized as important factors in governing drug and metabolite pharmacokinetics. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play an important role in hepatic drug uptake while OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 might be key players in intestinal absorption and transport across blood-brain barrier of drugs, respectively. To understand the importance of OATPs in the hepatic clearance of drugs, the rate-determining process for elimination should be considered; for some drugs, hepatic uptake clearance rather than metabolic intrinsic clearance is the more important determinant of hepatic clearances. The importance of the unbound concentration ratio (liver/blood), K(p,uu) , of drugs, which is partly governed by OATPs, is exemplified in interpreting the difference in the IC(50) of statins between the hepatocyte and microsome systems for the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The intrinsic activity and/or expression level of OATPs are affected by genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions. Their effects on the elimination rate or intestinal absorption rate of drugs may sometimes depend on the substrate drug. This is partly because of the different contribution of OATP isoforms to clearance or intestinal absorption. When the contribution of the OATP-mediated pathway is substantial, the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs should be greatly affected. This review describes the estimation of the contribution of OATP1B1 to the total hepatic uptake of drugs from the data of fold-increases in the plasma concentration of substrate drugs by the genetic polymorphism of this transporter. To understand the importance of the OATP family transporters, modeling and simulation with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model are helpful.

  11. Calcium channel blockers ameliorate iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis by altering iron transport and stellate cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Xin; Chang, Yanzhong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chu, Xi; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Zhenyi; Guo, Hui; Wang, Na; Gao, Yonggang; Zhang, Jianping; Chu, Li

    2016-06-15

    Liver fibrosis is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with iron overload. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can antagonize divalent cation entry into renal and myocardial cells and inhibit fibrogenic gene expression. We investigated the potential of CCBs to resolve iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis. Kunming mice were assigned to nine groups (n=8 per group): control, iron overload, deferoxamine, high and low dose verapamil, high and low dose nimodipine, and high and low dose diltiazem. Iron deposition and hepatic fibrosis were measured in mouse livers. Expression levels of molecules associated with transmembrane iron transport were determined by molecular biology approaches. In vitro HSC-T6 cells were randomized into nine groups (the same groups as the mice). Changes in proliferation, apoptosis, and metalloproteinase expression in cells were detected to assess the anti-fibrotic effects of CCBs during iron overload conditions. We found that CCBs reduced hepatic iron content, intracellular iron deposition, the number of hepatic fibrotic areas, collagen expression levels, and hydroxyproline content. CCBs rescued abnormal expression of α1C protein in L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (LVDCC) and down-regulated divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1) expression in mouse livers. In iron-overloaded HSC-T6 cells, CCBs reduced iron deposition, inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). CCBs are potential therapeutic agents that can be used to address hepatic fibrosis during iron overload. They resolve hepatic fibrosis probably correlated with regulating transmembrane iron transport and inhibiting HSC growth. PMID:27095094

  12. Taurine and brain development: trophic or cytoprotective actions?

    PubMed

    Pasantes-Morales, Herminia; Hernández-Benítez, Reyna

    2010-12-01

    The decline of taurine content during brain maturation as well as the consequences of taurine deficiency disturbing brain development, suggest its involvement in basic processes of developing brain cells. If taurine participates in cell protection, differentiation or proliferation in the developing brain is as yet unclear. Extensive and solid evidence supports taurine cytoprotective actions, directly or indirectly related to an antioxidant effect. Since redox status and oxidative stress are now implicated in signalling processes regulating cell differentiation and proliferation, the question is raised of whether the taurine antioxidant activity is on the basis of its requirement during brain development.

  13. Taurine Inhibits K+-Cl− Cotransporter KCC2 to Regulate Embryonic Cl− Homeostasis via With-no-lysine (WNK) Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Koichi; Furukawa, Tomonori; Kumada, Tatsuro; Yamada, Junko; Wang, Tianying; Inoue, Rieko; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2012-01-01

    GABA inhibits mature neurons and conversely excites immature neurons due to lower K+-Cl− cotransporter 2 (KCC2) expression. We observed that ectopically expressed KCC2 in embryonic cerebral cortices was not active; however, KCC2 functioned in newborns. In vitro studies revealed that taurine increased KCC2 inactivation in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. When Thr-906 and Thr-1007 residues in KCC2 were substituted with Ala (KCC2T906A/T1007A), KCC2 activity was facilitated, and the inhibitory effect of taurine was not observed. Exogenous taurine activated the with-no-lysine protein kinase 1 (WNK1) and downstream STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress response 1 (OSR1), and overexpression of active WNK1 resulted in KCC2 inhibition in the absence of taurine. Phosphorylation of SPAK was consistently higher in embryonic brains compared with that of neonatal brains and down-regulated by a taurine transporter inhibitor in vivo. Furthermore, cerebral radial migration was perturbed by a taurine-insensitive form of KCC2, KCC2T906A/T1007A, which may be regulated by WNK-SPAK/OSR1 signaling. Thus, taurine and WNK-SPAK/OSR1 signaling may contribute to embryonic neuronal Cl− homeostasis, which is required for normal brain development. PMID:22544747

  14. Raman spectra of deuteriated taurine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. M. de; Lima, R. J. C.; Freire, P. T. C.; Sasaki, J. M.; Melo, F. E. A.; Filho, J. Mendes; Jones, Derry W.

    2005-05-01

    The polarized Raman spectra of partially deuteriated taurine [(ND 3+) 0.65(NH 3+) 0.35(CH 2) 2SO 3-] crystals from x( zz) x and x( zy) x scattering geometries of the A g and B g irreducible representations of the factor group C 2h are reported. The temperature-dependent Raman spectra of partially deuteriated taurine do not reveal any evidence of the structural phase transition undergone by normal taurine at about 250 K, but an anomaly observed in the 180 cm -1 band at ˜120 K implies a different dynamic for this band (which is involved in a pressure-induced phase transition) in the deuteriated crystal.

  15. Establishment of a set of double transfectants coexpressing organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 and hepatic efflux transporters for the characterization of the hepatobiliary transport of telmisartan acylglucuronide.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Naoki; Maeda, Kazuya; Saito, Asami; Kishimoto, Wataru; Matsushima, Soichiro; Ebner, Thomas; Roth, Willy; Igarashi, Takashi; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2008-04-01

    In the hepatic uptake of organic anions, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 is believed to be mainly involved. We have constructed a set of double-transfected cells coexpressing OATP1B1 and hepatic efflux transporters and characterized the transcellular transport of several anions. Recent reports have also suggested the importance of OATP1B3 in the hepatic uptake of some compounds. However, there is little information about OATP1B3-selective substrate and no good tool for the evaluation of efflux transporters of OATP1B3 substrates. In the present study, we found an OATP1B3-selective substrate and established a novel set of double transfectants expressing OATP1B3. Telmisartan acylglucuronide (tel-glu) is a main metabolite of telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Tel-glu is recognized by hepatobiliary transport systems and efficiently distributed to liver. Several studies using rat and human hepatocytes and transporter-expressing cells revealed that OATP1B3 was responsible for the hepatic uptake of tel-glu in humans. By using double transfectants expressing OATP1B3, we investigated the transcellular transport of tel-glu as well as estradiol 17beta-d-glucuronide (E(2)17betaG) and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) to identify the responsible efflux transporters in their biliary excretion. Vectorial basal-to-apical transport of tel-glu was observed in all kinds of double transfectants expressing OATP1B3. In contrast, basal-to-apical transport of E(2)17betaG and CCK-8 was seen only in the OATP1B3/MRP2 double transfectant compared with OATP1B3-expressing cells. Therefore, the newly established set of double transfectants expressing OATP1B3 combined with OATP1B1-expressing double transfectants can be used as a powerful tool for the rapid identification of hepatic uptake and efflux transporters of organic anions.

  16. Protective Effects of S-Adenosylmethionine and Its Combinations With Taurine and/or Betaine Against Lipopolysaccharide or Polyinosinic-polycytidylic Acid-induced Acute Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo Yeon; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Background Several mechanisms for the pathogenesis of many liver diseases are related with oxidative stress, endotoxins, and infections by many microorganisms. These can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and its combinations with taurine and/or betaine against hepatotoxicites induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C). Methods RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with SAMe (SAM or AdoMet), taurine, and/or betaine. In order to mimic hepatic injury like endotoxemia or viral infection, cells and mice were treated with LPS or polyI:C. Concentrations of glutathione (GSH), mRNA expressions of GSH synthesizing enzymes, and inflammatory markers were measured by biochemical assays and quantitative real-time PCR. Results In RAW 264.7 cells and mice, pretreatment of SAMe alone or SAMe with taurine and/or betaine attenuated the decrease in GSH levels and mRNA expressions of GSH synthesizing enzymes. In addition, pretreatment of SAMe with taurine and/or betaine prevented the excessive increase in inflammatory mediators produced by LPS or polyI:C treatment. Conclusions Treatment with SAMe in combination with taurine and betaine, would have anti-oxidant functions in addition to anti-inflammatory action against bacterial and/or viral inflammation. PMID:27722141

  17. Mechanisms of hepatic transport of cyclosporin A: an explanation for its cholestatic action?

    PubMed Central

    Fricker, G.; Fahr, A.

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic transport of the immunosuppressive Cyclosporin A (CyA) was studied using liposomal phospholipid membranes, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes and bile canalicular plasma membrane vesicles from rat liver. The Na(+)-dependent, saturable uptake of the bile acid 3H-taurocholate into isolated rat liver cells was apparently competitively inhibited by CyA. However, the uptake of CyA into the cells was neither saturable, nor temperature-dependent nor Na(+)-dependent, nor could it be inhibited by bile salts or CyA-derivatives, indicating passive diffusion. In steady state depolarization fluorescence studies, CyA caused a concentration-dependent decrease of anisotropy, indicating a membrane fluidizing effect. Ion flux experiments demonstrated that CyA dramatically increases the permeability of Na+ and Ca2+ across phospholipid membranes in a dose- and time-dependent manner, suggesting a iontophoretic activity that might have a direct impact on cellular ion homeostasis and regulation of bile acid uptake. Photoaffinity labeling with a [3H]-labeled photolabile CyA-derivative resulted in the predominant incorporation of radioactivity into a membrane polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 160,000 and a minor labeling of polypeptides with molecular weights of 85,000-90,000. In contrast, use of a photolabile bile acid resulted in the labeling of a membrane polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 110,000, representing the bile canalicular bile acid carrier. The photoaffinity labeling as well as CyA transport by canalicular membrane vesicles were inhibited by CyA and the p-glycoprotein substrates daunomycin and PSC-833, but not by taurocholate, indicating that CyA is excreted by p-glycoprotein. CyA uptake by bile canalicular membrane vesicles was ATP-dependent and could not be inhibited by taurocholate. CyA caused a decrease in the maximum amount of bile salt accumulated by the vesicles with time. However, initial rates of [3H]-taurocholate uptake within

  18. The effects of systemically administered taurine and N-pivaloyltaurine on striatal extracellular dopamine and taurine in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Salimäki, J; Scriba, G; Piepponen, T P; Rautolahti, N; Ahtee, L

    2003-08-01

    The second most abundant cerebral amino acid, taurine, is widely consumed in the so-called "energy drinks". Therefore, its possible actions on the brain are of great interest. In the present experiments taurine was given intraperitoneally to rats in order to study if it can be administered systemically in large enough amounts to alter cerebral dopaminergic transmission or to induce hypothermia. In addition, the effects of subcutaneously administered lipophilic taurine analogue, N-pivaloyltaurine, were studied. The extracellular striatal taurine and dopamine concentrations were estimated using in vivo microdialysis in awake and freely moving rats, and the rectal temperatures were measured. Taurine at the total dose of 45 mmol/kg i.p. led to a maximally 8-fold increased striatal extracellular taurine concentration, induced a long-lasting hypothermia, and significantly reduced the striatal extracellular dopamine concentration. The latter effect was strengthened by co-treatment with reuptake inhibitor nomifensine. N-pivaloyltaurine (15 mmol/kg in total, s.c.) only slightly elevated the striatal extracellular taurine concentration, failed to alter the rectal temperature, and in contrast to taurine somewhat elevated the striatal extracellular dopamine concentration suggesting a different mechanism or locus of action from that of taurine. Finally, our experiments using brain microdialysis confirmed the earlier findings that taurine is slowly eliminated from the brain. The results clearly indicate that systemically given taurine enters the brain in concentrations that induce pharmacological effects. PMID:12898127

  19. The protective effects of taurine on acute ammonia toxicity in grass carp Ctenopharynodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaodan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Ren, Qianyan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-09-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia content in the liver and brain, and alanine, arginine, glutamine, glutamate and glycine contents in liver. Brain alanine and glutamate of fish in group 2 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 1. Malondialdehyde content of fish in group 2 was the highest, but superoxide dismutase and glutathione activities were the lowest. Although fish in group 2 had the lowest red cell count and hemoglobin, the highest alkaline phosphatase, complement C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents appeared in this group. In addition, superoxide dismutase and glutathione activities, red cell count and hemoglobin of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2, but malondialdehyde content is the opposite. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing reactive oxygen species generation and malondialdehyde accumulation, leading to blood deterioration and over-activation of immune response. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. PMID:27514785

  20. Sulfoacetate released during the assimilation of taurine-nitrogen by Neptuniibacter caesariensis: purification of sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Krejcík, Zdenĕk; Denger, Karin; Weinitschke, Sonja; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Paces, Václav; Cook, Alasdair M; Smits, Theo H M

    2008-08-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) is a widespread natural product whose nitrogen moiety was recently shown to be assimilated by bacteria, usually with excretion of an organosulfonate via undefined novel pathways; other data involve transcriptional regulator TauR in taurine metabolism. A screen of genome sequences for TauR with the BLAST algorithm allowed the hypothesis that the marine gammaproteobacterium Neptuniibacter caesariensis MED92 would inducibly assimilate taurine-nitrogen and excrete sulfoacetate. The pathway involved an ABC transporter (TauABC), taurine:pyruvate aminotransferase (Tpa), a novel sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (SafD) and exporter(s) of sulfoacetate (SafE) (DUF81). Ten candidate genes in two clusters involved three sets of paralogues (for TauR, Tpa and SafE). Inducible Tpa and SafD were detected in cell extracts. SafD was purified 600-fold to homogeneity in two steps. The monomer had a molecular mass of 50 kDa (SDS-PAGE); data from gel filtration chromatography indicated a tetrameric native protein. SafD was specific for sulfoacetaldehyde with a K (m)-value of 0.12 mM. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of SafD confirmed the identity of the safD gene. The eight pathway genes were transcribed inducibly, which indicated expression of the whole hypothetical pathway. We presume that this pathway is one source of sulfoacetate in nature, where this compound is dissimilated by many bacteria.

  1. Role of taurine in the pathogenesis of obesity.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is present in mammalian tissues in millimolar concentrations. Taurine is involved in a diverse array of biological and physiological functions, including bile salt conjugation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, calcium modulation, anti-oxidation, and immunomodulation. The prevalence of obesity and being overweight continues to rise worldwide at an alarming rate. Obesity is associated with a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other clinical conditions. Ingestion of taurine has been shown to alleviate metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in animal models. A global epidemiological survey showed that 24-h urinary taurine excretion, as a marker of dietary taurine intake, was inversely associated with BMI, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol in humans. In addition, taurine chloramine, an endogenous product derived from activated neutrophils, has been reported to suppress obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in adipocytes. Synthetic activity and concentration of taurine in adipose tissues and plasma have been shown to decrease in humans and animals during the development of obesity, suggesting a relationship between taurine deficiency and obesity. In this review, I summarize the effects of taurine on the progression of obesity in animal models and humans. Furthermore, I discuss possible mechanisms underlying the antiobesity effects of taurine.

  2. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  3. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    PubMed

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  4. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    PubMed

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  5. OCT1 is a high-capacity thiamine transporter that regulates hepatic steatosis and is a target of metformin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ligong; Shu, Yan; Liang, Xiaomin; Chen, Eugene C; Yee, Sook Wah; Zur, Arik A; Li, Shuanglian; Xu, Lu; Keshari, Kayvan R; Lin, Michael J; Chien, Huan-Chieh; Zhang, Youcai; Morrissey, Kari M; Liu, Jason; Ostrem, Jonathan; Younger, Noah S; Kurhanewicz, John; Shokat, Kevan M; Ashrafi, Kaveh; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2014-07-01

    Organic cation transporter 1, OCT1 (SLC22A1), is the major hepatic uptake transporter for metformin, the most prescribed antidiabetic drug. However, its endogenous role is poorly understood. Here we show that similar to metformin treatment, loss of Oct1 caused an increase in the ratio of AMP to ATP, activated the energy sensor AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), and substantially reduced triglyceride (TG) levels in livers from healthy and leptin-deficient mice. Conversely, livers of human OCT1 transgenic mice fed high-fat diets were enlarged with high TG levels. Metabolomic and isotopic uptake methods identified thiamine as a principal endogenous substrate of OCT1. Thiamine deficiency enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Metformin and the biguanide analog, phenformin, competitively inhibited OCT1-mediated thiamine uptake. Acute administration of metformin to wild-type mice reduced intestinal accumulation of thiamine. These findings suggest that OCT1 plays a role in hepatic steatosis through modulation of energy status. The studies implicate OCT1 as well as metformin in thiamine disposition, suggesting an intriguing and parallel mechanism for metformin and its major hepatic transporter in metabolic function.

  6. Ethnic variability in the expression of hepatic drug transporters: absolute quantification by an optimized targeted quantitative proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kuan-wei; Bacon, James; Zheng, Ming; Guo, Yingying; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2015-07-01

    Hepatic OATPs 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1, as well as P-gp, play important roles in regulating liver uptake and biliary excretion of drugs. The intrinsic ethnic variability in OATP1B1-mediated hepatic uptake of statins has been proposed to underlie the ethnic variability in plasma exposures of statins between Caucasians and Asians. Using a targeted quantitative proteomic approach, we determined hepatic protein concentrations of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, P-gp, and PMCA4 (a housekeeping protein) in a panel of human livers (n = 141) and compared protein expression across Caucasian, Asian, African-American, and unidentified donors. Using an optimized protocol that included sodium deoxycholate as a membrane protein solubilizer, the hepatic protein expression levels (mean ± S.D.) of these transporters across all livers were determined to be 15.0 ± 6.0, 16.1 ± 8.1, 4.1 ± 1.3, 0.6 ± 0.2, and 2.4 ± 1.0 fmol/μg of total membrane protein, respectively. The scaling factor was 3.5 mg of total membrane protein in 100 mg of wet liver tissue. OATP1B1 protein expression was significantly associated with the c.388A>G (rs2306283, N130D) single nucleotide polymorphism. When compared across ethnicity, the hepatic expression levels of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 were unexpectedly higher in Asians relative to Caucasians, suggesting that hepatic OATP expression alone does not explain the increased systemic statin levels in Asians compared with Caucasians. These findings may help improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to predict statin pharmacokinetic profiles and enable extrapolation of pharmacokinetic data of OATP substrates across ethnic groups.

  7. 33S NMR cryogenic probe for taurine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobo, Fumio; Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    With the goal of a S33 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe applicable to in vivo NMR on taurine-biological samples, we have developed the S33 NMR cryogenic probe, which is applicable to taurine solutions. The NMR sensitivity gain relative to a conventional broadband probe is as large as 3.5. This work suggests that improvements in the preamplifier could allow NMR measurements on 100 μM taurine solutions, which is the level of sensitivity necessary for biological samples.

  8. Effect of taurine on ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant β-amino acid that regulates several events that dramatically influence the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. One of these events is the extrusion of taurine and Na+ from the cell via the taurine/Na+ symport. The loss of Na+ during the ischemia-reperfusion insult limits the amount of available Na+ for Na+/Ca2+ exchange, an important process in the development of Ca2+ overload and the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition, a key process in ischemia-reperfusion mediated cell death. Taurine also prevents excessive generation of reactive oxygen species by the respiratory chain, an event that also limits the activation of the MPT. Because taurine is an osmoregulator, changes in taurine concentration trigger "osmotic preconditioning," a process that activates an Akt-dependent cytoprotective signaling pathway that inhibits MPT pore formation. These effects of taurine have clinical implications, as experimental evidence reveals potential promise of taurine therapy in preventing cardiac damage during bypass surgery, heart transplantation and myocardial infarction. Moreover, severe loss of taurine from the heart during an ischemia-reperfusion insult may increase the risk of ventricular remodeling and development of heart failure. PMID:22936072

  9. Comparative use of isolated hepatocytes and hepatic microsomes for cytochrome P450 inhibition studies: transporter-enzyme interplay.

    PubMed

    Brown, Hayley S; Wilby, Alison J; Alder, Jane; Houston, J Brian

    2010-12-01

    Accurate assignment of the concentration of victim drug/inhibitor available at the enzyme active site, both in vivo and within an in vitro incubation, is an essential requirement in rationalizing and predicting drug-drug interactions. Inhibitor accumulation within the liver, whether as a result of active transport processes or intracellular binding, may best be accounted for using hepatocytes rather than hepatic microsomes to estimate in vitro inhibitory potency. The aims of this study were to compare K(i) values determined in rat liver microsomes and freshly isolated rat hepatocytes of four cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibitors (clarithromycin, enoxacin, nelfinavir, and saquinavir) with known hepatic transporter involvement and a range of uptake (cell/medium concentration ratios 20-3000) and clearance (10-1200 μl/min/10(6) cells) properties. Inhibition studies were performed using two well established P450 probe substrates (theophylline and midazolam). Comparison of unbound K(i) values showed marked differences between the two in vitro systems for inhibition of metabolism. In two cases (clarithromycin and enoxacin, both low-clearance drugs), inhibitory potency in hepatocytes markedly exceeded that in microsomes (10- to 20-fold), and this result was consistent with their high cell/medium concentration ratios. For nelfinavir and saquinavir (high-clearance, extensively metabolized drugs), the opposite trend was seen in the K(i) values: despite very high cell/medium concentration ratios, stronger inhibition was evident within microsomal preparations. Hence, the consequences of hepatic accumulation resulting from uptake transporters vary according to the clearance of the inhibitor. This study demonstrates that transporter-enzyme interplay can result in differences in inhibitory potency between microsomes and hepatocytes and hence drug-drug interaction predictions that are not always intuitive.

  10. Taurine in the osmoregulation of the Brattleboro rat

    SciTech Connect

    Nieminen, M.J.; Tuomisto, L.; Solatunturi, E.; Eriksson, L.; Paasonen, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The function of taurine in mammalian osmoregulation was studied in the Brattleboro rat with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (DI). DI rats are chronically dehydrated because of their inability to synthesize vasopressin. One day of water deprivation did not affect the water balance in rats with normal vasopressin synthesis, whereas DI rats were markedly dehydrated and lost considerably body weight. Taurine content and /sup 3/H-taurine accumulation by platelets were significantly higher in DI rats, with a further increase after one day of water deprivation. In DI rats, water deprivation also evoked a clear taurine increase in skeletal muscle and in the brain. These findings indicate that taurine has an osmoregulatory function in mammals.

  11. Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on growth performance, hematological and biochemical status, and liver histology of totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi).

    PubMed

    López, Lus M; Flores-Ibarra, Maricela; Bañuelos-Vargas, Isaura; Galaviz, Mario A; True, Conal D

    2015-08-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and simultaneous supplementation with taurine on the growth, hematology, blood biochemistry, and liver histology of totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) juveniles was assessed. Four isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated containing either 30 or 60% of SPC (diets S30 and S60), supplemented or not with 1% of taurine (diets S30T and S60T). A fishmeal-based diet formulated for totoaba nutritional requirements, without SPC and taurine supplementation, was used as a reference diet. Triplicate groups of 32 totoaba juveniles (average body weight 7.5 ± 0.6 g) were fed these diets for 45 days. Results showed that growth performance in fish fed S30, S30T, and S60T was similar to fish fed the reference diet. Red blood cells and hematocrit in fish fed with supplemented taurine in both levels of SPC (S30T and S60T) were similar to the fish fed the RD; the addition of taurine improved the state of hydration of totoaba. Plasmatic hemoglobin in fish fed the lower SPC level was similar to fish fed the RD. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in fish fed S30T was similar to fish fed the RD, taurine supplementation prevented the development of hypochromic anemia in this group of fish. Plasmatic albumin in fish fed S30 was similar to fish fed the RD. Plasmatic total protein and globulin concentration increased and AL:GLB (albumin:globulin ratio) decreased in fish fed the SPC-based diets despite taurine supplementation. The protein profile showed that taurine supplementation did not prevent a possible inflammatory process (increased globulins, decreased AL:GLB) in juvenile totoaba fed both levels of SPC. Glucose concentration was similar in fish fed S30, S30T, and S60T. The histological hepatic index was highest in fish fed S60. These results suggest that with an appropriate nutritional level, taurine may play an important modulatory role in the hematology and blood biochemistry status in totoaba fed SPC

  12. Taurine activates GABAergic networks in the neocortex of immature mice

    PubMed Central

    Sava, Bogdan A.; Chen, Rongqing; Sun, Haiyan; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that taurine is the main endogenous neurotransmitter acting on glycine receptors, the implications of glycine receptor-mediated taurine actions on immature neocortical networks have not been addressed yet. To investigate the influence of taurine on the excitability of neuronal networks in the immature neocortex, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from visually identified pyramidal neurons and interneurons in coronal slices from C57Bl/6 and GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice (postnatal days 2–4). In 46% of the pyramidal neurons bath-application of taurine at concentrations ≥ 300 μM significantly enhanced the frequency of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) by 744.3 ± 93.8% (n = 120 cells). This taurine-induced increase of PSC frequency was abolished by 0.2 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX), 1 μM strychnine or 3 μM gabazine, but was unaffected by the glutamatergic antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and (±) R(-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), suggesting that taurine specifically activates GABAergic network activity projecting to pyramidal neurons. Cell-attached recordings revealed that taurine enhanced the frequency of action potentials (APs) in pyramidal neurons, indicating an excitatory action of the GABAergic PSCs. In order to identify the presynaptic targets of taurine we demonstrate that bath application of taurine induced in GAD67-GFP labeled interneurons an inward current that is mainly mediated by glycine receptors and can generate APs in these cells. We conclude from these results that taurine can enhance network excitability in the immature neocortex by selectively activating GABAergic interneurons via interactions with glycine receptors. PMID:24550782

  13. Dietary-induced variations in urinary taurine levels of college women.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D E; Vivian, V M

    1977-04-01

    Dietary-induced variations in the urinary taurine excretion of healthy college women were investigated. Data were collected in three metabolic studies in which nutritionally adequate diets of constant composition were fed. Variables included isonitrogenous natural food and semi-purified diets; taurine, cystine and meat supplements; and kind and amount of dietary fat. Observed urinary taurine levels were low and ranges were narrower than those reported by other investigators. The low taurine excretion at the completion of the studies was considered evidence that urinary taurine levels in humans is related to the level of body taurine as well as to the level of dietary taurine. Urinary taurine excretion was shown to be related to dietary taurine intake rather than protein (nitrogen) intake. A relationship between kind of dietary fat and taurine excretion is suggested.

  14. Age-related changes in mRNA levels of hepatic transporters, cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Atsushi; Ito, Ayami; Yamada, Ayano; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    Hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes affect drug pharmacokinetics. Limited information exists on the alteration in mRNA levels of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes with aging. We examined the effects of aging on the mRNA levels of representative hepatic drug transporters and metabolic enzymes by analyzing their levels in 10-, 30- and 50-week-old male and female rats. Levels of mRNA of drug transporters including multidrug resistance protein (Mdr)1a, multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp)2, breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp)1a1, and the metabolic enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A1, CYP3A2 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A1 were analyzed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels of transporters in male rats did not decrease with age, while the mRNA levels of Bcrp and Oatp1a1 in female rats decreased with age. The mRNA levels of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 in male rats were higher than those in female rats. The mRNA levels of metabolic enzymes decreased with age in female but not male rats. In particular, the mRNA levels of UGT1A1 in 10-week-old female rats were higher than those in male rats. mRNA expression of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes are more susceptible to aging in female than male rats. The age-related decreases in the mRNA levels of Bcrp, Oatp1a1, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 in female rats may affect the metabolism and transport of substrates. This study showed that aging affected the mRNA expression of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes in rats.

  15. Meta-analysis of expression of hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters in cellular systems relative to human liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Badée, Justine; Achour, Brahim; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 transporters play an important role in hepatic drug disposition. Recently, an increasing number of studies have reported proteomic expression data for OATP transporters. However, systematic analysis and understanding of the actual differences in OATP expression between liver tissue and commonly used cellular systems is lacking. In the current study, meta-analysis was performed to assess the protein expression of OATP transporters reported in hepatocytes relative to liver tissue and to identify any potential correlations in transporter expression levels in the same individual. OATP1B1 was identified as the most abundant uptake transporter at 5.9 ± 8.3, 5.8 ± 3.3, and 4.2 ± 1.7 fmol/μg protein in liver tissue, sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH), and cryopreserved suspended hepatocytes, respectively. The rank order in average expression in liver tissue and cellular systems was OATP1B1 > OATP1B3 ≈ OATP2B1. Abundance levels of the OATP transporters investigated were not significantly different between liver and cellular systems, with the exception of OATP2B1 expression in SCHH relative to liver tissue. Analysis of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 liver expression data in the same individuals (n = 86) identified weak (OATP1B1-OATP2B1) to moderately (OATP1B3-OATP2B1) significant correlations. A significant weak correlation was noted between OATP1B1 abundance and age of human donors, whereas expression of the OATPs investigated was independent of sex. Implications of the current analysis on the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of transporter-mediated drug disposition using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are discussed.

  16. Triclosan Disrupts Thyroxine: Contribution of Hepatic Transport to the Mode of Action

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) (TCS) decreases serum thyroxine (T4) in rats. In previous work, TCS upregulated Phase I and II hepatic metabolism after 4-day exposures in rats. A major data gap in our characterization of the mode of action (MOA) of TCS-induced ...

  17. Amino acid suppression of taurine-sensitive chemosensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, R A; Ache, B W

    1985-05-27

    Single unit recordings from chemoreceptors on the antennule of the spiny lobster revealed a population of taurine-sensitive cells whose response is suppressed when taurine is presented in mixture with certain amino acids. A synthetic mixture of 21 amino acids plus betaine, which mimics the composition of a natural food stimulus (crab muscle tissue) and itself contains taurine, totally and reversibly blocked the taurine response of this group of receptor cells. An analysis of the contribution to this suppression by the six major components (based on concentration) in the mixture revealed partial or complete inhibitory activity by five of the compounds. In a sample group of the inhibited cells, mean percent suppression of the taurine response was 99% for glycine and L-arginine, 98% for L-glutamine, 60% for L-alanine and 43% for L-proline. Both glycine and alanine in binary mixture with taurine caused a right-shift in the concentration-response function for taurine, suggesting a competitive mechanism of suppression. pA2 values determined from these data yielded 4.17 for glycine and 3.55 for alanine. These results suggest that the processing of chemical information in quality and/or intensity coding of natural stimulus mixtures can be tempered by interactions of the components at the receptor-cell level, and possibly at the receptor-sites themselves.

  18. Effect of Taurine on the antimicrobial efficiency of Gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Islambulchilar, Mina; Sattari, Mohammad Reza; Sardashti, Mohammad; Lotfipour, Farzaneh

    2011-01-01

    Context: Gentamicin is mainly used in severe infections caused by gram-negatives. However toxicity including nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity is one of the most important complications of its treatment. The production of free radicals seems to be involved in gentamicin toxicity mechanism. Taurine, a major intracellular free β-amino acid, is known to be an endogenous antioxidant. So potentially the co-therapy of taurine and gentamicin would reduce the adverse effects of the antibiotic. Objectives: In this study, we wished to know the effect of taurine on the antibiotic capacity of gentamicin. Methods: strainsof P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and S. epidermidis were used as test organisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin in the presence and absence of taurine at quantities from 40 to 2 mg/L were determined using macro-dilution method. Results: MICs were determined in the various concentrations of taurine for bacterial indicators. The MIC values of gentamicin for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli remained unchanged in the values of 2.5, 5 and 20 μg/ml respectively in the absence and presences of different concentrations of taurine. The bactericidal activity of gentamicin against S. epidermidis was increased by addition of taurine in the concentrations higher than 6 mg/L. Conclusion: According to our study the antibacterial activity of gentamicin against the indicator microorganisms were not interfere with taurine at selected concentrations. Further in vivo studies are needed to establish if a combination of gentamicin and taurine would have the same effect. PMID:24312759

  19. Pitavastatin as an in vivo probe for studying hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide-mediated drug-drug interactions in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Ohtsuka, Tatsuyuki; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tatekawa, Ichiro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Utoh, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kume, Toshiyuki

    2013-10-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) caused by the inhibition of hepatic uptake transporters such as organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) can affect therapeutic efficacy and cause adverse reactions. We investigated the potential utility of pitavastatin as an in vivo probe substrate for preclinically studying OATP-mediated DDIs using cynomolgus monkeys. Cyclosporine A (CsA) and rifampicin (RIF), typical OATP inhibitors, inhibited active uptake of pitavastatin into monkey hepatocytes with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values comparable with those in human hepatocytes. CsA and RIF increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of intravenously administered pitavastatin in cynomolgus monkeys by 3.2- and 3.6-fold, respectively. In addition, there was no apparent prolongation of the elimination half-life of pitavastatin due to the decrease in both hepatic clearance and volume of distribution. These findings suggest that DDIs were caused by the inhibition of hepatic uptake of pitavastatin. CsA and RIF increased the AUC of orally administered pitavastatin by 10.6- and 14.8-fold, respectively, which was additionally caused by the effect of the CsA and RIF in the gastrointestinal tract. Hepatic contribution to the overall DDI for oral pitavastatin with CsA was calculated from the changes in hepatic availability and clearance, and it was shown that the magnitude of hepatic DDI was comparable between the present study and the clinical study. In conclusion, pharmacokinetic studies using pitavastatin as a probe in combination with drug candidates in cynomolgus monkeys are useful to support the assessment of potential clinical DDIs involving hepatic uptake transporters.

  20. Lycopene protects against atrazine-induced hepatic ionic homeostasis disturbance by modulating ion-transporting ATPases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia; Zhao, Hua-Shan; Xiang, Li-Run; Xia, Jun; Wang, Li-Li; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Jin-Long; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible chemoprotective role of lycopene (LYC) against atrazine (ATR)-induced ionic disorder and hepatotoxicity in mice. Male kunming mice were treated with LYC (5mg/kg) and/or ATR (50mg/kg or 200mg/kg) by lavage administration for 21days. Ionic disorder was assessed by determining the Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) content and the alteration in ATP enzymes (ATPases) including Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase and the mRNA levels of ATPase's subunits in liver. ATR caused the increases of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and histological changes. LYC pretreatment significantly protected liver against ATR-caused alternation. The significant effect of ATR and LYC on the K(+) and Mg(2+) content in liver was not observed, but ATR increased hepatic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and decreased Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. The mRNA expressions of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunits were regulated significantly by ATR. A significant increase of Ca(2+) content and seven down-regulated mRNA expressions of Ca(2+)-ATPase subunits and a decrease of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were observed in the ATR-treated mice. Notably, LYC modulated these ATR-induced alterations of ATPase activity and mRNA expression of their subunits. These results suggest that ATR presents hepatotoxicity via regulating hepatic ATPase's activities and their subunit transcriptions and inducing ionic disorder. LYC protects liver against ATR-induced hepatotoxicity, significantly. LYC modulated hepatic ionic homeostasis disturbance via regulation of ATPase activities and their subunits' (1a1, 1b3, 1b4 and 2b4) transcriptions. In summary, these effects play a critical role of LYC-mediated chemoprevention against ATR-induced hepatotoxicity.

  1. Roles of changes in active glutamine transport in brain edema development during hepatic encephalopathy: an emerging concept.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Popek, Mariusz; Albrecht, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Excessive glutamine (Gln) synthesis in ammonia-overloaded astrocytes contributes to astrocytic swelling and brain edema, the major complication of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Much of the newly formed Gln is believed to enter mitochondria, where it is recycled to ammonia, which causes mitochondrial dysfunction (a "Trojan horse" mode of action). A portion of Gln may increase osmotic pressure in astrocytes and the interstitial space, directly and independently contributing to brain tissue swelling. Here we discuss the possibility that altered functioning of Gln transport proteins located in the cellular or mitochondrial membranes, modulates the effects of increased Gln synthesis. Accumulation of excess Gln in mitochondria involves a carrier-mediated transport which is activated by ammonia. Studies on the expression of the cell membrane N-system transporters SN1 (SNAT3) and SN2 (SNAT5), which mediate Gln efflux from astrocytes rendered HE model-dependent effects. HE lowered the expression of SN1 at the RNA and protein level in the cerebral cortex (cc) in the thioacetamide (TAA) model of HE and the effect paralleled induction of cerebral cortical edema. Neither SN1 nor SN2 expression was affected by simple hyperammonemia, which produces no cc edema. TAA-induced HE is also associated with decreased expression of mRNA coding for the system A carriers SAT1 and SAT2, which stimulate Gln influx to neurons. Taken together, changes in the expression of Gln transporters during HE appear to favor retention of Gln in astrocytes and/or the interstitial space of the brain. HE may also affect arginine (Arg)/Gln exchange across the astrocytic cell membrane due to changes in the expression of the hybrid Arg/Gln transporter y(+)LAT2. Gln export from brain across the blood-brain barrier may be stimulated by HE via its increased exchange with peripheral tryptophan. PMID:24072671

  2. Effect of allyl alcohol on hepatic transporter expression: Zonal patterns of expression and role of Kupffer cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, Sarah N.; Tatis-Rios, Cristina; Augustine, Lisa M.; Goedken, Michael J.; Rooijen, Nico van; Cherrington, Nathan J.; Manautou, Jose E.

    2009-04-01

    During APAP toxicity, activation of Kupffer cells is critical for protection from hepatotoxicity and up-regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (Mrp4) in centrilobular hepatocytes. The present study was performed to determine the expression profile of uptake and efflux transporters in mouse liver following treatment with allyl alcohol (AlOH), a periportal hepatotoxicant. This study also investigated the role of Kupffer cells in AlOH hepatotoxicity, and whether changes in transport protein expression by AlOH are dependent on the presence of Kupffer cells. C57BL/6J mice received 0.1 ml clodronate liposomes to deplete Kupffer cells or empty liposomes 48 h prior to dosing with 60 mg/kg AlOH, i.p. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by plasma ALT and histopathology. Hepatic transporter mRNA and protein expression were determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and Western blotting, respectively. Depletion of Kupffer cells by liposomal clodronate treatment resulted in heightened susceptibility to AlOH toxicity. Exposure to AlOH increased mRNA levels of several Mrp genes, while decreasing organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) mRNA expression. Protein analysis mirrored many of these mRNA changes. The presence of Kupffer cells was not required for the observed changes in uptake and efflux transporters induced by AlOH. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed enhanced Mrp4 staining exclusively in centrilobular hepatocytes of AlOH treated mice. These findings demonstrate that Kupffer cells are protective from AlOH toxicity and that induction of Mrp4 occurs in liver regions away from areas of AlOH damage independent of Kupffer cell function. These results suggest that Kupffer cell mediators do not play a role in mediating centrilobular Mrp4 induction in response to periportal damage by AlOH.

  3. Neurotrophic effects of taurine on spiral ganglion neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rak, Kristen; Völker, Johannes; Jürgens, Lukas; Scherzad, Agmal; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Radeloff, Andreas; Jablonka, Sibylle; Mlynski, Robert; Hagen, Rudolf

    2014-11-12

    Taurine is an ubiquitary expressed aminosulfonic acid known to play an important role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. It is distributed in the inner ear, contributing toward the protection of hair cells against aminoglycoside-induced or bilirubin-induced ototoxicity. Thus, the question arises whether taurine also has an influence on the cellular integrity of the auditory neurons. To test this hypothesis, isolated cells of the spiral ganglion were cocultured with taurine or the neurotrophic factors brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) as controls. The analysis included cellular survival rate and neurite outgrowth. With application of taurine, the survival of glial cells and neurons was stimulated in a similar pattern, whereas BDNF and NT-3 only effected neuronal survival. Furthermore, administration of taurine resulted in enhanced neurite outgrowth comparable with the effect of the neurotrophic factors. These new insights on the neuromodulatory effects of taurine on auditory neurons suggest the use of this aminosulfonic acid to reduce the degeneration of auditory neurons in sensorineural hearing loss. Consecutively, a new therapeutical approach for the therapy of hearing impairment could be discussed. PMID:25202928

  4. Effects of taurine on gut microbiota and metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haining; Guo, Zhengzhao; Shen, Shengrong; Shan, Weiguang

    2016-07-01

    As being a necessary amino acid, taurine plays an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and nutrition. In this study, effects of taurine on mice gut microbes and metabolism were investigated. BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: The first group was administered saline (CK), the second was administered 165 mg/kg natural taurine (NE) and the third one administered 165 mg/kg synthetic taurine (CS). Gut microbiota composition in mice feces was analyzed by metagenomics technology, and the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in mice feces was detected by gas chromatography (GC), while the concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by a LPS ELISA kit and a SOD assay kit, respectively. The results showed that the effect of taurine on gut microbiota could reduce the abundance of Proteobacteria, especially Helicobacter. Moreover, we found that the SCFA content was increased in feces of the NE group while LPS content was decreased in serum of the NE group; the SOD activity in serum and livers of the NE and CS groups were not changed significantly compare to that of the CK group. In conclusion, taurine could regulate the gut micro-ecology, which might be of benefit to health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria, accelerating the production of SCFA and reducing LPS concentration. PMID:27026373

  5. Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2013-02-01

    Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data obtained in this research showed that no significant variations of taurine occurred in cow's milk subjected to different technological processes and between whole and semi-skimmed milk. The amount of taurine was less (p < 0.05) in cow's milk (0.60 mg/100 g) than in goat and buffalo's milk (6.55 and 7.32 mg/100 g, respectively). No significant differences in taurine occurred between goat and buffalo's samples. The amounts of taurine in yoghurt reflected, substantially, the content of this molecule in the milk of the relevant animal species. These results are noteworthy because data available in the literature on this molecule in commercial dairy products are old or few.

  6. Effects of taurine on gut microbiota and metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haining; Guo, Zhengzhao; Shen, Shengrong; Shan, Weiguang

    2016-07-01

    As being a necessary amino acid, taurine plays an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and nutrition. In this study, effects of taurine on mice gut microbes and metabolism were investigated. BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: The first group was administered saline (CK), the second was administered 165 mg/kg natural taurine (NE) and the third one administered 165 mg/kg synthetic taurine (CS). Gut microbiota composition in mice feces was analyzed by metagenomics technology, and the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in mice feces was detected by gas chromatography (GC), while the concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by a LPS ELISA kit and a SOD assay kit, respectively. The results showed that the effect of taurine on gut microbiota could reduce the abundance of Proteobacteria, especially Helicobacter. Moreover, we found that the SCFA content was increased in feces of the NE group while LPS content was decreased in serum of the NE group; the SOD activity in serum and livers of the NE and CS groups were not changed significantly compare to that of the CK group. In conclusion, taurine could regulate the gut micro-ecology, which might be of benefit to health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria, accelerating the production of SCFA and reducing LPS concentration.

  7. Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2013-02-01

    Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data obtained in this research showed that no significant variations of taurine occurred in cow's milk subjected to different technological processes and between whole and semi-skimmed milk. The amount of taurine was less (p < 0.05) in cow's milk (0.60 mg/100 g) than in goat and buffalo's milk (6.55 and 7.32 mg/100 g, respectively). No significant differences in taurine occurred between goat and buffalo's samples. The amounts of taurine in yoghurt reflected, substantially, the content of this molecule in the milk of the relevant animal species. These results are noteworthy because data available in the literature on this molecule in commercial dairy products are old or few. PMID:22779912

  8. /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance study of the complexation of calcium by taurine

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, C.S.; Hammer, B.E.; Danyluk, S.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    /sup 13/C Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts, /sup 1/J/sub c-c/ scalar coupling constants, spin-lattice relaxation times, and nuclear Overhauser effects were determined for taurine-(1, 2 /sup 13/C) and a taurine-(1 /sup 13/C) and taurine-(2 /sup 13/C) mixture in the presence and absence of calcium. Comparison of taurine titration shifts to values for related compounds reveals some unusual electronic properties of the taurine molecule. Stability constants of 1:1 calcium complexes with taurine zwitterions and anions, as well as their /sup 13/C chemical shifts, were obtained by least squares analysis of titration curves measured in the presence of calcium. The stability constants of calcium-taurine complexes were significantly lower than previous values and led to estimates that only approximately one percent of intracellular calcium of mammalian myocardial cells would exist in a taurine complex.

  9. Activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine receptors by taurine in preoptic hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Chun, Sang Woo; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2015-11-01

    Taurine is an essential amino-sulfonic acid having a fundamental function in the brain, participating in both cell volume regulation and neurotransmission. Using a whole cell voltage patch clamp technique, the taurine-activated neurotransmitter receptors in the preoptic hypothalamic area (PHA) neurons were investigated. In the first set of experiments, different concentrations of taurine were applied on PHA neurons. Taurine-induced responses were concentration-dependent. Taurine-induced currents were action potential-independent and sensitive to strychnine, suggesting the involvement of glycine receptors. In addition, taurine activated not only α-homomeric, but also αβ-heteromeric glycine receptors in PHA neurons. Interestingly, a low concentration of taurine (0.5mM) activated glycine receptors, whereas a higher concentration (3mM) activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors in PHA neurons. These results suggest that PHA neurons are influenced by taurine and respond via glycine and GABAA receptors.

  10. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues. It has many important biological functions in mammals including membrane stabilization, antioxidation, cellular osmoregulation, detoxification, neuromodulation, and brain and eye development. Taurine supplementation in juvenil...

  11. The involvement of organic anion transporting polypeptide in the hepatic uptake of telmisartan in rats: PET studies with [¹¹C]telmisartan.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Tadayuki; Hashizume, Yoshinobu; Katayama, Yumiko; Murai, Machiko; Wada, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-10-01

    Telmisartan, a selective angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is primarily excreted via hepatobiliary transport. The predominant contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3 in its hepatic uptake of telmisartan has been demonstrated by in vitro transport studies. In the present study, a quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) methodology was developed for in vivo kinetic assessment of hepatobiliary transport of telmisartan. Serial abdominal PET scans were performed in rats following intravenous administration of [(11)C]telmisartan as a radiotracer. PET scans revealed that [(11)C]telmisartan was localized primarily in the liver and some of the radioactivity moved to the intestine, which corresponds to biliary excretion. Radiometabolite analysis by radiometric HPLC showed that [(11)C]telmisartan was converted to its acylglucuronide, which was mainly detected in bile, but little in plasma and liver. Integration plot analysis revealed that [(11)C]telmisartan was taken up into the liver as rapidly as the hepatic blood flow rate, and the radiometabolite was subsequently excreted into the bile. When rifampicin, a typical Oatp inhibitor, was coadministered with [(11)C]telmisartan in rats, hepatic uptake clearance of [(11)C]telmisartan was significantly decreased, whereas biliary efflux clearance was not changed. Coinjection with unlabeled telmisartan (4 and 10 mg/kg) also decreased hepatic uptake clearance of [(11)C]telmisartan. On the other hand, PET imaging analysis revealed a significant increase of biliary efflux when telmisartan dose was increased to more than 4 mg/kg. These results suggested that the hepatic uptake of [(11)C]telmisartan mainly consists of a saturable process mediated by Oatps in rats, according to noninvasive real-time measurement of tissue radioactivity with the use of PET. The present study with rats is expected to provide the feasibility of PET imaging study to quantitatively estimate OATP1B3 function in humans.

  12. Mechanism of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Uptake into the Liver: PBDE Congeners Are Substrates of Human Hepatic OATP Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Pacyniak, Erik; Roth, Megan; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Guo, Grace L.

    2010-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardants that upon chronic exposure enter the liver where they are biotransformed to potentially toxic metabolites. The mechanism by which PBDEs enter the liver is not known. However, due to their large molecular weights (MWs ∼485 to 1000 Da), they cannot enter hepatocytes by simple diffusion. Organic anion–transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are responsible for hepatic uptake of a variety of amphipathic compounds of MWs larger than 350 Da. Therefore, in the present study, Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 were used to test the hypothesis that OATPs expressed in human hepatocytes would be responsible for the uptake of PBDE congeners 47, 99, and 153. The results demonstrated that PBDE congeners inhibited OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated uptake of estradiol-17-β-glucuronide as well as OATP2B1-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate in a concentration-dependent manner. Direct uptake studies confirmed that all three PBDE congeners are substrates for the three tested hepatic OATPs. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that OATP1B1 transported 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) with the highest affinity (Km = 0.31μM) followed by 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE99) (Km = 0.91μM) and 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE153) (Km = 1.91μM). For OATP1B3, the order was the same (BDE47: Km = 0.41μM; BDE99: Km = 0.70μM; BDE153: Km = 1.66μM), while OATP2B1 transported all three congeners with similar affinities (BDE47: Km = 0.81μM; BDE99: Km = 0.87μM; BDE153: Km = 0.65μM). These results clearly suggest that uptake of PBDEs via these OATPs is a mechanism responsible for liver-specific accumulation of PBDEs. PMID:20176623

  13. Taurine enhances volume regulation in hippocampal slices swollen osmotically.

    PubMed

    Kreisman, N R; Olson, J E

    2003-01-01

    Cell volume regulation has been studied in neuronal and glial cultures but little is known about volume regulation in brain tissue with an intact extracellular space. We investigated volume regulation in hippocampal slices maintained in an interface chamber and exposed to hypo-osmotic medium. Relative changes in intracellular and extracellular volume were measured respectively as changes in light transmittance and extracellular resistance. Slices exposed to hypo-osmotic medium (200-240 mOsm/L) showed a decrease in light transmittance, which occasionally was preceded by a brief transient increase. However, hypo-osmotic exposure was always accompanied by a monotonic increase in extracellular resistance. Peak changes in light transmittance and extracellular resistance occurred at 15-20 min following exposure to hypo-osmotic medium. Optical evidence of volume regulation (RVD) was observed in six of 12 slices and occurred over the next 60-90 min. We hypothesized that the relatively low incidence of RVD was related to depletion of taurine, an osmolyte known to play an important role in volume regulation, during preparation of the slices. Indeed, taurine levels in freshly prepared slices were <50% of those reported in intact hippocampus. Incubation of slices in 1 mM taurine restored taurine to levels observed in situ and increased both the likelihood and magnitude of RVD in hypo-osmotic medium. Inhibition of taurine flux with 100 microM 5-nitro-2-(3 phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid blocked both RVD and the transient undershoot of volume commonly associated with return of swollen slices to iso-osmotic medium. Taurine treatment had no effect on levels of several other amino acids but preserved slice potassium content. The results indicate a critical role for cellular taurine during hypo-osmotic volume regulation in hippocampal slices. Inconsistencies between optical measurements of cellular volume changes and electrical measurements of extracellular space are likely to

  14. Taurine supplementation modulates glucose homeostasis and islet function.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Everardo M; Latorraca, Marcia Q; Araujo, Eliana; Beltrá, Marta; Oliveras, Maria J; Navarro, Mónica; Berná, Genoveva; Bedoya, Francisco J; Velloso, Licio A; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Franz

    2009-07-01

    Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid for human that is involved in the control of glucose homeostasis; however, the mechanisms by which the amino acid affects blood glucose levels are unknown. Using an animal model, we have studied these mechanisms. Mice were supplemented with taurine for 30 d. Blood glucose homeostasis was assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT). Islet cell function was determined by insulin secretion, cytosolic Ca2+ measurements and glucose metabolism from isolated islets. Islet cell gene expression and translocation was examined via immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Insulin signaling was studied by Western blot. Islets from taurine-supplemented mice had: (i) significantly higher insulin content, (ii) increased insulin secretion at stimulatory glucose concentrations, (iii) significantly displaced the dose-response curve for glucose-induced insulin release to the left, (iv) increased glucose metabolism at 5.6 and 11.1-mmol/L concentrations; (v) slowed cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) oscillations in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations; (vi) increased insulin, sulfonylurea receptor-1, glucokinase, Glut-2, proconvertase and pancreas duodenum homeobox-1 (PDX-1) gene expression and (vii) increased PDX-1 expression in the nucleus. Moreover, taurine supplementation significantly increased both basal and insulin stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in skeletal muscle and liver tissues. Finally, taurine supplemented mice showed an improved IPGTT. These results indicate that taurine controls glucose homeostasis by regulating the expression of genes required for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, taurine enhances peripheral insulin sensitivity. PMID:18708284

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Taurine in Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lak, Sima; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nagili, Behrooz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Beigzali, Sanaz; Salehi, Feridoon; Djafarzadeh, Roxana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Burn induced inflammatory response can be mediated by reactive oxygen metabolites and accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction. Taurine has protective effects against various inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Taurine supplement in thermal burn victims. Methods: Thirty patients with severe thermal burns were enrolled in this randomized double-blinded clinical trial. These patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (namely Control and Taurine groups), where both received isocaloric and isonitrogenous formula. One group was supplemented with 50 mg/kg of Taurine per day for a duration of 10 days. Blood samples were obtained to measure Interleukin-10 (IL-10), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) levels at the beginning and the end of the study. Results: Change in serum level of IL-10 in Taurine group was more than Control group [-13.60(-31.40, -10.40) compared to -4.00(-20.00, -0.20) respectively; P = 0.030]. This change was significant in patients with more than 30% TBSA of burn [-14.20(-31.40, -10.40) compared to -2.40(-9.60, 0.40) respectively; P = 0.013]. As for the hs-CRP and TNF-α levels, the difference between the two groups were not significant. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, Taurine supplement showed a positive outcome on anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in all burn patients. This effect was even more significant in patients with higher percentage of burn area. Taurine had no significant effect on the inflammatory marker hs-CRP and the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α level. For a more thorough verification, measurement of a wider range of inflammatory cytokines in more frequent time intervals are suggested. PMID:26819926

  16. Prolactin increases hepatic Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity and messenger RNA post partum.

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, T C; Liu, Y; Hyde, J F; Hagenbuch, B; Meier, P J; Vore, M

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity is decreased in pregnancy, but rebounds post partum relative to non-pregnant controls, and that activity can be increased by treatment with ovine prolactin [Ganguly, Hyde and Vore (1993) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 267, 82-87]. To determine the basis for these effects, Na+/taurocholate co-transport was determined in purified basolateral liver plasma-membrane (bLPM) vesicles and compared with steady-state mRNA levels encoding the Na+/taurocholate-co-transporting polypeptide (Ntcp) in non-pregnant controls, pregnant rats (19-20 days pregnant), rats post partum (48 h post partum) and rats post partum treated with bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin secretion. Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity (nmol/5 s per mg of protein) in bLPM was decreased from 10.4 +/- 1.8 in non-pregnant controls to 7.9 +/- 0.6 in bLPM in pregnant rats, but rebounded to 17.5 +/- 1.3 post partum; treatment of rats post partum with bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin secretion decreased activity to 14.1 +/- 0.9. Northern and slot-blot analyses revealed similar changes in mRNA for Ntcp, so that a positive correlation was observed between Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity and Ntcp mRNA. Furthermore, treatment of ovariectomized rats with ovine prolactin increased Ntcp mRNA 10-fold compared with solvent-treated controls, consistent with the 2-fold increase in Vmax, for Na+/taurocholate co-transport in isolated hepatocytes. These data are the first to demonstrate endogenous physiological regulation by prolactin of Ntcp mRNA in parallel with Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity. Images Figure 2 PMID:7945260

  17. Persistent Hepatitis C Virus Infection Impairs Ribavirin Antiviral Activity through Clathrin-Mediated Trafficking of Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Rajesh; Chandra, Partha K.; Ferraris, Pauline; Kurt, Ramazan; Song, Kyoungsub; Garry, Robert F.; Reiss, Krzysztof; Coe, Imogen R.; Furihata, Tomomi; Balart, Luis A.; Wu, Tong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ribavirin (RBV) continues to be an important component of interferon-free hepatitis C treatment regimens, as RBV alone does not inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication effectively; the reason for this ineffectiveness has not been established. In this study, we investigated the RBV resistance mechanism using a persistently HCV-infected cell culture system. The antiviral activity of RBV against HCV was progressively impaired in the persistently infected culture, whereas interferon lambda 1 (IFN-λ1), a type III IFN, showed a strong antiviral response and induced viral clearance. We found that HCV replication in persistently infected cultures induces an autophagy response that impairs RBV uptake by preventing the expression of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1). The Huh-7.5 cell line treated with an autophagy inducer, Torin 1, downregulated membrane expression of ENT1 and terminated RBV uptake. In contrast, the autophagy inhibitors hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), 3-methyladenine (3-MA), and bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) prevented ENT1 degradation and enhanced RBV antiviral activity. The HCV-induced autophagy response, as well as treatment with Torin 1, degrades clathrin heavy chain expression in a hepatoma cell line. Reduced expression of the clathrin heavy chain by HCV prevents ENT1 recycling to the plasma membrane and forces ENT1 to the lysosome for degradation. This study provides a potential mechanism for the impairment of RBV antiviral activity in persistently HCV-infected cell cultures and suggests that inhibition of the HCV-induced autophagy response could be used as a strategy for improving RBV antiviral activity against HCV infection. IMPORTANCE The results from this work will allow a review of the competing theories of antiviral therapy development in the field of HCV virology. Ribavirin (RBV) remains an important component of interferon-free hepatitis C treatment regimens. The reason why RBV alone does not inhibit HCV replication effectively has

  18. mTOR ensures increased release and reduced uptake of the organic osmolyte taurine under hypoosmotic conditions in mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Jensen, Jane Vendelbo; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that modulates translation in response to growth factors and alterations in nutrient availability following hypoxia and DNA damage. Here we demonstrate that mTOR activity in Ehrlich Lettré ascites (ELA) cells is transiently increased within minutes following osmotic cell swelling and that inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphatase (PTEN) counteracts the upstream phosphatidylinositol kinase and potentiates mTOR activity. PTEN inhibition concomitantly potentiates swelling-induced taurine release via the volume-sensitive transporter for organic osmolytes and anion channels (VSOAC) and enhances swelling-induced inhibition of taurine uptake via the taurine-specific transporter (TauT). Chronic osmotic stress, i.e., exposure to hypotonic or hypertonic media for 24 h, reduces and increases mTOR activity in ELA cells, respectively. Using rapamycin, we demonstrate that mTOR inhibition is accompanied by reduction in TauT activity and increase in VSOAC activity in cells expressing high (NIH3T3 fibroblasts) or low (ELA) amounts of mTOR protein. The effect of mTOR inhibition on TauT activity reflects reduced TauT mRNA, TauT protein abundance, and an overall reduction in protein synthesis, whereas the effect on VSOAC is mimicked by catalase inhibition and correlates with reduced catalase mRNA abundance. Hence, mTOR activity favors loss of taurine following hypoosmotic cell swelling, i.e., release via VSOAC and uptake via TauT during acute hypotonic exposure is potentiated and reduced, respectively, by phosphorylation involving mTOR and/or the kinases upstream to mTOR. Decrease in TauT activity during chronic hypotonic exposure, on the other hand, involves reduction in expression/activity of TauT and enzymes in antioxidative defense. PMID:24696147

  19. Retinal degeneration in cats fed casein. I. Taurine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S Y; Berson, E L; Hayes, K C

    1976-01-01

    All cats fed a taurine-free casein diet for at least 23 weeks have shown granularity with a hyper-reflective white zone in the area centralis, nondetectable electroretinograms (ERG's), and structural changes indicating photoreceptor cell degeneration. The present study has demonstrated that cats fed this casein diet have a selective decrease in plasma and retinal taurine concentrations by five weeks; taurine levels were about 4 per cent of normal in plasma, and 60 per cent of normal in retina. After 10 weeks, taurine levels were 2 to 4 per cent of normal in plasma and reached a minimum of 20 to 30 per cent of normal in the retina. These biochemical changes occurred in association with a delay in the cone ERG implicit time at five weeks and reduced cone and rod ERG amplitudes at 10 weeks. During this period, retinal DNA content (as a measure of cell viability) and fundus appearance were normal. By 23 weeks, ERG's were nondetectable, retinal DNA content was reduced, and the fundus showed typical changes in the area centralis. These studies help to establish a biological role for taurine in maintaining photoreceptor cell function and viability in the cat.

  20. Taurine deficiency and MELAS are closely related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Jong, Chian Ju; Warner, Danielle; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) is a mitochondrial disease caused by one or more mutations of tRNA(Leu(UUR)). These mutations reduce both the aminoacylation of tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and a posttranslational modification in the wobble position of tRNA(Leu(UUR)). Both changes result in reduced transcription of mitochondria-encoded proteins; however, reduced aminoacylation affects the decoding of both UUG and UUA while the wobble defect specifically diminishes UUG decoding. Because 12 out of the 13 mitochondria-encoded proteins are more dependent on UUA decoding than UUG decoding, the aminoacylation defect should have a more profound effect on protein synthesis than the wobble defect, which more specifically alters the expression of one mitochondria-encoded protein, ND6. Taurine serves as a substrate in the formation of 5-taurinomethyluridine-tRNA(Leu(UUR)); therefore, taurine deficiency should mimic 5-taurinomethyluridine-tRNA(Leu(UUR)) deficiency. Hence, the wobble hypothesis predicts that the symptoms of MELAS mimic those of taurine deficiency, provided that the dominant defect in MELAS is wobble modification deficiency. On the other hand, if the aminoacylation defect dominates, significant differences should exist between taurine deficiency and MELAS. The present review tests this hypothesis by comparing the symptoms of MELAS and taurine deficiency.

  1. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Islambulchilar, Mina; Asvadi, Iraj; Sanaat, Zohreh; Esfahani, Ali; Sattari, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally). Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years). The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05) increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05) lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes. PMID:25789226

  2. The effect of subacute supplementation of taurine on spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Ito, Koichi; Arko, Matevz; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2009-04-01

    Although the effect of taurine on the heart and liver is well studied, there has been no direct observation concerning the effect of taurine on spatial learning and memory at the behavior level. In this study, we tested the effect of subacute taurine supplementation with evaluation by the Morris water maze method. Although swim distance to find the platform of taurine-supplemented rats was significantly longer than that of control rats due to increase of swimming velocity, escape latency and the efficacy of learning and memory was comparable in both groups. These results suggest that taurine supplemented orally does not affect the learning and memory function.

  3. Dilated cardiomyopathy in an American cocker spaniel with taurine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gavaghan, B J; Kittleson, M D

    1997-12-01

    An American Cocker Spaniel with low plasma taurine concentration (< 2 nmol/mL) was presented with dyspnoea associated with pulmonary oedema and a left ventricular shortening fraction of 9%. Emergency therapy with furosemide, dobutamine, nitroglycerine and oxygen supplementation led to a good response. Chronic therapy was started with enalapril, furosemide, digoxin and taurine. Improvement in all echocardiographic indices were noted over a 22 week follow-up, most notably an increase in left ventricular shortening fraction to 20%, a decrease of E-point septal separation from 14 mm to 7 mm and marked left ventricular remodelling. This degree of improvement in myocardial function may represent a direct link between dilated cardiomyopathy in the American Cocker Spaniel and plasma taurine deficiency. Alternatively, this response may reflect a breed-related cardiomyopathy with a natural history and therapeutic response not commonly seen in the more common large breed cardiomyopathy presentations.

  4. An enzymatic derivative double isotope assay for measuring tissue levels of taurine.

    PubMed

    Lombardini, J B

    1975-04-01

    The development of a new assay for taurine is described. The procedure utilizes the formation of taurocholic acid by rat liver microsomes and is dependent upon the dilution of the specific activity of radioactive taurine by the amount of taurine present in perchloric acid homogenates of tissues. Known amounts of taurine (21/2-300 nmol) are added to incubation vessels to establish a standard curve so that unknown quantities of taurine present in tissue homogenates can be calculated by a graphical comparison. The possible interference by other compounds present in tissue extracts and their removal by passage through columns containing both cation and anion exchange resins is discussed. Conditions are established for the quantitative recovery of taurine after passage through the exchange resins. Measurement of the taurine levels of several rat tissues is presented along with duplicate assays performed on the amino acid analyzer for comparison purposes.

  5. The effect of 48-hour fasting on taurine status in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Gray, K; Alexander, L G; Staunton, R; Colyer, A; Watson, A; Fascetti, A J

    2016-06-01

    Low circulating taurine concentrations may be a risk factor for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs. Circulating taurine is typically measured in the clinic 4-5 h after feeding, largely because the impact of later sampling is not known. The objective of this study was to measure taurine in the blood during a 48-h fast in 12 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers to refine sampling methodology for determination of taurine status. Plasma and whole blood (WB) taurine concentrations did not fall to levels indicative of clinical deficiency throughout fasting; WB was the more reliable indicator of taurine status. This study shows that blood samples can be taken for assessment of taurine status any time up to 48 h after ingestion of a meal in healthy adult dogs. PMID:26250395

  6. Antidiabetic effect of taurine in cultured rat skeletal l6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Sun Hee; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a sulfur-containing β-amino acid, is found in all animal cells at millimolar concentrations and has been reported to show various health promoting activities including antidiabetic properties. The beneficial effects of taurine in diabetes mellitus have been known. However, the exact mechanism of hypoglycemic action of taurine is not properly defined. In this study, we investigated antidiabetic effect of taurine in the cell culture system using rat skeletal muscle cells. In cultured rat skeletal L6 myotubes, we studied the effect of taurine (0-100 μM) on glucose uptake to plasma membrane from the aspects of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. Taurine stimulated glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner by activating AMPK signaling. From these results, it may suggest that taurine show antidiabetic effect by stimulating insulin-independent glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscle.

  7. Kinetics for the synthetic bile acid 75selenohomocholic acid-taurine in humans: comparison with [14C]taurocholate.

    PubMed

    Jazrawi, R P; Ferraris, R; Bridges, C; Northfield, T C

    1988-07-01

    The "apparent" fractional turnover rate of the gamma-labeled bile acid analogue 75selenohomocholic acid-taurine (75SeHCAT) was assessed from decline in radioactivity over the gallbladder area on 4 successive days using a gamma-camera, and was compared in the same subjects with the fractional turnover rate of the corresponding natural bile acid, cholic acid-taurine, labeled with 14C ([14C]CAT) using the classical Lindstedt technique. Very similar results were obtained in 5 healthy individuals (coefficient of variation 4.8%, medians 0.35 and 0.34, respectively). By contrast, the fractional deconjugation rate assessed from zonal scanning of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids on thin-layer chromatography was much less for 75SeHCAT than for [14C]CAT (0.02 and 0.13, respectively; p less than 0.05). The fractional rate for deconjugation plus dehydroxylation was also determined by zonal scanning, and gave lower values for 75SeHCAT than for [14C]CAT (0.02 and 0.12, respectively; p less than 0.05). There was a striking similarity between the fractional rate for deconjugation alone and that for deconjugation plus dehydroxylation for both bile acids in individual samples (r = 0.999, p less than 0.001), suggesting that these two processes might occur simultaneously and probably involve the same bacteria. We conclude that our scintiscanning technique provides an accurate, noninvasive method of measuring fractional turnover rate of a bile acid in humans, and that the finding that 75SeHCAT remains conjugated with taurine during enterohepatic recycling means that absorption should be specific for the ileal active transport site, thus rendering it an ideal substance for assessing ileal function.

  8. Kinetics for the synthetic bile acid 75-selenohomocholic acid-taurine in humans: comparison with (/sup 14/C)taurocholate

    SciTech Connect

    Jazrawi, R.P.; Ferraris, R.; Bridges, C.; Northfield, T.C.

    1988-07-01

    The apparent fractional turnover rate of the gamma-labeled bile acid analogue 75-selenohomocholic acid-taurine (75-SeHCAT) was assessed from decline in radioactivity over the gallbladder area on 4 successive days using a gamma-camera, and was compared in the same subjects with the fractional turnover rate of the corresponding natural bile acid, cholic acid-taurine, labeled with 14C ((14C)CAT) using the classical Lindstedt technique. Very similar results were obtained in 5 healthy individuals (coefficient of variation 4.8%, medians 0.35 and 0.34, respectively). By contrast, the fractional deconjugation rate assessed from zonal scanning of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids on thin-layer chromatography was much less for 75-SeHCAT than for (14C)CAT (0.02 and 0.13, respectively; p less than 0.05). The fractional rate for deconjugation plus dehydroxylation was also determined by zonal scanning, and gave lower values for 75-SeHCAT than for (14C)CAT (0.02 and 0.12, respectively; p less than 0.05). There was a striking similarity between the fractional rate for deconjugation alone and that for deconjugation plus dehydroxylation for both bile acids in individual samples (r = 0.999, p less than 0.001), suggesting that these two processes might occur simultaneously and probably involve the same bacteria. We conclude that our scintiscanning technique provides an accurate, noninvasive method of measuring fractional turnover rate of a bile acid in humans, and that the finding that 75SeHCAT remains conjugated with taurine during enterohepatic recycling means that absorption should be specific for the ileal active transport site, thus rendering it an ideal substance for assessing ileal function.

  9. Activity-dependent endogenous taurine release facilitates excitatory neurotransmission in the neocortical marginal zone of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Qian, Taizhe; Chen, Rongqing; Nakamura, Masato; Furukawa, Tomonori; Kumada, Tatsuro; Akita, Tenpei; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J; Nakahara, Daiichiro; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    In the developing cerebral cortex, the marginal zone (MZ), consisting of early-generated neurons such as Cajal-Retzius cells, plays an important role in cell migration and lamination. There is accumulating evidence of widespread excitatory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the MZ. Cajal-Retzius cells express not only GABAA receptors but also α2/β subunits of glycine receptors, and exhibit glycine receptor-mediated depolarization due to high [Cl(-)]i. However, the physiological roles of glycine receptors and their endogenous agonists during neurotransmission in the MZ are yet to be elucidated. To address this question, we performed optical imaging from the MZ using the voltage-sensitive dye JPW1114 on tangential neocortical slices of neonatal rats. A single electrical stimulus evoked an action-potential-dependent optical signal that spread radially over the MZ. The amplitude of the signal was not affected by glutamate receptor blockers, but was suppressed by either GABAA or glycine receptor antagonists. Combined application of both antagonists nearly abolished the signal. Inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter by 20 µM bumetanide reduced the signal, indicating that this transporter contributes to excitation. Analysis of the interstitial fluid obtained by microdialysis from tangential neocortical slices with high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that GABA and taurine, but not glycine or glutamate, were released in the MZ in response to the electrical stimulation. The ambient release of taurine was reduced by the addition of a voltage-sensitive Na(+) channel blocker. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy indicated that taurine was stored both in Cajal-Retzius and non-Cajal-Retzius cells in the MZ, but was not localized in presynaptic structures. Our results suggest that activity-dependent non-synaptic release of endogenous taurine facilitates excitatory neurotransmission through activation of glycine

  10. Differential effect of troglitazone on the human bile acid transporters, MRP2 and BSEP, in the PXB hepatic chimeric mouse.

    PubMed

    Foster, John R; Jacobsen, Matt; Kenna, Gerry; Schulz-Utermoehl, Timothy; Morikawa, Yoshio; Salmu, Juuso; Wilson, Ian D

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the utility of the PXB mouse model of a chimeric human/mouse liver in studying human-specific effects of an important human hepatotoxic drug, the PPARγ agonist, troglitazone. When given orally by gavage for 7 days, at dose levels of 300 and 600 ppm, troglitazone induced specific changes in the human hepatocytes of the chimeric liver without an effect on the murine hepatic portions. The human hepatocytes, in the vehicle-treated PXB mouse, showed an accumulation of electron-dense lipid droplets that appeared as clear vacuoles under the light microscope in H&E-stained sections. Following dosing with troglitazone, there was a loss of the large lipid droplets in the human hepatocytes, a decrease in the amount of lipid as observed in frozen sections of liver stained by Oil-red-O, and a decrease in the expression of two bile acid transporters, BSEP and MRP2. None of these changes were observed in the murine remnants of the chimeric liver. No changes were observed in the expression of three CYPs, CYP 3A2, CYP 1A1, and CYP 2B1, in either the human or murine hepatocytes, even though the baseline expression of the enzymes differed significantly between the two hepatocyte species with the mouse hepatocytes consistently showing increased expression of the protein of all three enzymes. This study has shown that the human hepatocytes, in the PXB chimeric mouse liver, retain an essentially normal phenotype in the mouse liver and, the albeit limited CYP enzymes studied show a more human, rather than a murine, expression pattern. In line with this conclusion, the study has shown a differential response of the human versus the mouse hepatocytes, and the effects observed are highly suggestive of a differential handling of the compound by the two hepatocyte species although the exact reasons are not as yet clear. The PXB chimeric mouse system therefore holds the clear potential to explore human hepatic-specific features, such as metabolism, prior

  11. CSD mRNA expression in rat testis and the effect of taurine on testosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Feng, Ying; Sun, Changmian; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, the cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) mRNA expression was detected in rat testis by RT-PCR. The results showed that CSD mRNA was expressed in rat testis, and the putative encoded-amino acid sequence was exactly the same as that in rat liver which was already known. At the same time, the effects of taurine on testosterone secretion were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, taurine were administered to male rats by tap water. The results showed that taurine obviously stimulated the secretion of FSH, LH and testosterone in serum, but showed no significant effect on the secretion of estradiol. Taurine administered in water could significantly increase the concentration of taurine in the blood and testis of rats. In vitro, cultured Leydig cells were treated with taurine independently or incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and progesterone. The results showed that taurine had biphasic effects on basal testosterone secretion in cultured Leydig cells. Low concentrations of taurine (0.1-100 microg/ml) could stimulate testosterone secretion, whereas high concentration of taurine (400 microg/ml) could inhibit testosterone secretion. Testosterone secretion stimulated by HCG was significantly increased by 10 and 100 microg/ml of taurine administration, and obviously decreased by treating with 400 microg/ml of taurine. Testosterone secretion induced by progesterone was significantly stimulated by treating with 1.0 and 10 microg/ml of taurine, however, it was significantly inhibited when treated with 400 microg/ml of taurine. Meanwhile, the effect of silencing CSD mRNA by siRNA on testosterone secretion was analyzed. The results showed that testosterone secretion was obviously decreased after the inhibition of CSD mRNA expression in cultured Leydig cells. These results indicated that taurine can be synthesized in rat testis by CSD pathway, and it plays important roles in testosterone secretion both in vivo and in vitro which

  12. Eletriptan metabolism by human hepatic CYP450 enzymes and transport by human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Evans, David C; O'Connor, Desmond; Lake, Brian G; Evers, Raymond; Allen, Christopher; Hargreaves, Richard

    2003-07-01

    "Reaction phenotyping" studies were performed with eletriptan (ETT) to determine its propensity to interact with coadministered medications. Its ability to serve as a substrate for human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was also investigated since a central mechanism of action has been proposed for this "triptan" class of drug. In studies with a characterized bank of human liver microsome preparations, a good correlation (r2 = 0.932) was obtained between formation of N-desmethyl eletriptan (DETT) and CYP3A4-catalyzed testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation. DETT was selected to be monitored in our studies since it represents a significant ETT metabolite in humans, circulating at concentrations 10 to 20% of those observed for parent drug. ETT was metabolized to DETT by recombinant CYP2D6 (rCYP2D6) and rCYP3A4, and to a lesser extent by rCYP2C9 and rCYP2C19. The metabolism of ETT to DETT in human liver microsomes was markedly inhibited by troleandomycin, erythromycin, miconazole, and an inhibitory antibody to CYP3A4, but not by inhibitors of other major P450 enzymes. ETT had little inhibitory effect on any of the P450 enzymes investigated. ETT was determined to be a good substrate for human P-gp in vitro. In bidirectional transport studies across LLC-MDR1 and LLC-Mdr1a cell monolayers, ETT had a BA/AB transport ratio in the range 9 to 11. This finding had significance in vivo since brain exposure to ETT was reduced 40-fold in Mdr1a+/+ relative to Mdr1a-/- mice. ETT metabolism to DETT is therefore catalyzed primarily by CYP3A4, and plasma concentrations are expected to be increased when coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp activity. PMID:12814962

  13. Liquiritigenin, a flavonoid aglycone from licorice, has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Woo; Kang, Hee Eun; Lee, Myung Gull; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Chan; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Geon

    2009-02-01

    Liquiritigenin (LQ), an active component of licorice, has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced inhibitory nitric oxide synthase expression. This study investigated the effects of LQ on choleresis, the expression of hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes, and fulminant hepatitis. The choleretic effect and the pharmacokinetics of LQ and its glucuronides were monitored in rats. After intravenous administration of LQ, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve of glucuronyl metabolites was greater than that of LQ in plasma, which accompanied elevations in bile flow rate and biliary excretion of bile acid, glutathione, and bilirubin. The expressions of hepatocellular transporters and phase-II enzymes were assessed by immunoblots, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. In the livers of rats treated with LQ, the protein and mRNA levels of multidrug resistance protein 2 and bile salt export pump were increased in the liver, which was verified by their increased localizations in canalicular membrane. In addition, LQ treatment enhanced the expression levels of major hepatic phase-II enzymes. Consistent with these results, LQ treatments attenuated galactosamine/LPS-induced hepatitis in rats, as supported by decreases in the plasma alanine aminotransferase, liver necrosis, and plasma TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that LQ has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce transporters and phase-II enzymes in the liver, which may be associated with a hepatoprotective effect against galactosamine/LPS. Our findings may provide insight into understanding the action of LQ and its therapeutic use for liver disease.

  14. Liquiritigenin, a flavonoid aglycone from licorice, has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Woo; Kang, Hee Eun; Lee, Myung Gull; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Chan; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Geon

    2009-02-01

    Liquiritigenin (LQ), an active component of licorice, has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced inhibitory nitric oxide synthase expression. This study investigated the effects of LQ on choleresis, the expression of hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes, and fulminant hepatitis. The choleretic effect and the pharmacokinetics of LQ and its glucuronides were monitored in rats. After intravenous administration of LQ, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve of glucuronyl metabolites was greater than that of LQ in plasma, which accompanied elevations in bile flow rate and biliary excretion of bile acid, glutathione, and bilirubin. The expressions of hepatocellular transporters and phase-II enzymes were assessed by immunoblots, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. In the livers of rats treated with LQ, the protein and mRNA levels of multidrug resistance protein 2 and bile salt export pump were increased in the liver, which was verified by their increased localizations in canalicular membrane. In addition, LQ treatment enhanced the expression levels of major hepatic phase-II enzymes. Consistent with these results, LQ treatments attenuated galactosamine/LPS-induced hepatitis in rats, as supported by decreases in the plasma alanine aminotransferase, liver necrosis, and plasma TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that LQ has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce transporters and phase-II enzymes in the liver, which may be associated with a hepatoprotective effect against galactosamine/LPS. Our findings may provide insight into understanding the action of LQ and its therapeutic use for liver disease. PMID:19074639

  15. Differential hepatic gene expression in the broiler chicken in response to the combined stressors of food withdrawal, catching and transport at the end of production.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, Louise; Wathes, Christopher M; Cheng, Zhangrui; Wathes, D Claire

    2012-05-01

    Broiler (meat) chickens experience the combined acute stressors of food withdrawal, catching and transport (FCT) prior to slaughter as part of normal commercial practice at the end of their lives. This has associated physiological consequences, potentially affecting both welfare and meat quality, some of which are mediated through altered hepatic function. This study compared global hepatic gene expression between control birds and those exposed to commercial FCT using 20K chicken oligonucleotide microarrays. In response to FCT, 733 genes were differentially expressed of which 486 could be mapped onto the genome. The principal molecular and cellular functions thus affected by FCT involved lipid and carbohydrate metabolism with a suppression of mRNA expression for genes involved in lipogenesis, glycolysis and glycogenolysis and an induction of those involved in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid metabolism and ketone synthesis. There was also significant differential expression of genes associated with cellular control and immune function. These stressful events associated with FCT in commercial broiler chickens altered expression of hepatic genes associated with energy metabolism, with exhaustion of stored hepatic and pectoral muscle glycogen. A better understanding of FCT-induced stress through the use of gene expression arrays may in future inform husbandry practices, to improve both welfare and meat quality.

  16. Determination of bilirubin by thermal lens spectrometry and studies of its transport into hepatic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margon, A.; Terdoslavich, M.; Cocolo, A.; Decorti, G.; Passamonti, S.; Franko, M.

    2005-06-01

    The liver is responsible for clearance of bilirubin, the end product of heme catabolism, from the bloodstream. The main aim of our investigation was to determine the role of the carrier protein bilitranslocase in bilirubin uptake into the liver. Our experiments consisted of exposing cell cultures to bilirubin solutions under different conditions and measuring the uptake of bilirubin into the cells. However, since bilirubin is only slightly soluble in aqueous solution (< 70 nM at pH 7.4), we had to use bilirubin concentrations that are far below the limit of detection of the commonly used techniques (e.g. LOD for HPLC with UV-Vis detection \\cong 10 μM). TLS showed up to be a suitable technique for investigation of bilirubin uptake with an LOD of 2 nM. Under basal conditions, bilirubin uptake did not occur. However, increase of cytosolic NADH due to catabolism of specific substrates (e.g. lactate or ethanol) seemed to trigger bilirubin uptake. Furthermore, bilirubin uptake was completely inhibited by addition of specific anti-bilitranslocase antibodies. We can thus infer that, under these conditions, bilitranslocase is the main bilirubin transporter.

  17. Endogenous N-acyl taurines regulate skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Oscar; Pontis, Silvia; Armirotti, Andrea; Cardinali, Giorgia; Kovacs, Daniela; Migliore, Marco; Summa, Maria; Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Picardo, Mauro; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-07-26

    The intracellular serine amidase, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), degrades a heterogeneous family of lipid-derived bioactive molecules that include amides of long-chain fatty acids with taurine [N-acyl-taurines (NATs)]. The physiological functions of the NATs are unknown. Here we show that genetic or pharmacological disruption of FAAH activity accelerates skin wound healing in mice and stimulates motogenesis of human keratinocytes and differentiation of human fibroblasts in primary cultures. Using untargeted and targeted lipidomics strategies, we identify two long-chain saturated NATs-N-tetracosanoyl-taurine [NAT(24:0)] and N-eicosanoyl-taurine [NAT(20:0)]-as primary substrates for FAAH in mouse skin, and show that the levels of these substances sharply decrease at the margins of a freshly inflicted wound to increase again as healing begins. Additionally, we demonstrate that local administration of synthetic NATs accelerates wound closure in mice and stimulates repair-associated responses in primary cultures of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, through a mechanism that involves tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and an increase in intracellular calcium levels, under the permissive control of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptors. The results point to FAAH-regulated NAT signaling as an unprecedented lipid-based mechanism of wound-healing control in mammalian skin, which might be targeted for chronic wound therapy. PMID:27412859

  18. Taurine treatment protects against chronic nicotine-induced oxidative changes.

    PubMed

    Sener, Göksel; Ozer Sehirli, A; Ipçi, Yeşim; Cetinel, Sule; Cikler, Esra; Gedik, Nursal; Alican, Inci

    2005-04-01

    Experiments have shown that chronic nicotine administration caused oxidative damage in various organs by increasing lipid peroxidation products and decreasing the activity of endogenous antioxidants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine treatment on nicotine-induced oxidative changes in rat thoracic aorta and heart and to explore the possible mechanisms of action. Male Wistar albino rats (200-250 g) were injected with nicotine hydrogen bitartrate (0.6 mg/kg; i.p.) or saline for 21 days. Taurine was administered (50 mg/kg; i.p.) alone or along with nicotine injections. After decapitation, the thoracic aorta and heart tissues were excised. The aorta was used for in vitro contractility studies or stored along with the heart samples for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen content. Tissue samples were also examined histologically. Serum samples were stored for the measurement of MDA, GSH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Chronic nicotine treatment impaired both the contraction and relaxation responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine and acetylcholine, respectively. It increased lipid peroxidation, MPO levels and tissue collagen content of both aorta and heart samples. Taurine supplementation to nicotine-treated animals reversed the contractile dysfunction and restored the endogenous GSH levels and decreased high lipid peroxidation and MPO activities in both tissues. These data suggest that taurine supplementation effectively attenuates the oxidative damage because of chronic nicotine administration possibly by its antioxidant effects.

  19. Cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology: prophylactic role of taurine.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of taurine against cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology. Cadmium (in the form of Cadmium chloride, CdCl(2)) administration at a dose of 4 mg/kg body weight for 6 days significantly decreased testicular Delta(5)-3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD activities along with the reduction in the plasma testosterone level. In addition, reductions in testicular sperm count as well as loss in sperm motility were also observed in Cd-intoxication. Cd increased the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species and testicular Cd accumulation. Besides, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, glutathione disulfide and DNA fragmentation as well as decreased levels of the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, total thiols and reduced glutathione were also found to be associated with this toxicity. Taurine pretreatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days, on the other hand, could prevent all the Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology and oxidative insult related studied parameters. Taurine treatment, in addition also increased the in vivo ferric reducing antioxidant power linearly up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Histological examination of testicular sections from experimental animals supported these results. The effect of a well established antioxidant, vitamin C has been included in the study as a positive control. Combining all, data suggest that being an antioxidant, taurine plays a beneficial role against Cd-induced adverse effects on the male reproductive system. PMID:18926901

  20. Occurrence of a taurine derivative in an antarctic glass sponge.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marianna; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Castelluccio, Francesco; Avila, Conxita; Gavagnin, Margherita

    2014-04-01

    The n-butanol extract of an Antarctic hexactinellid sponge, Anoxycalyx (Scolymastra) joubini, was found to contain a taurine-conjugated anthranilic acid, never reported so far either as a natural product or by synthesis. The compound was inactive against human cancer cells in an in vitro growth inhibitory test, and also showed no antibacterial activity.

  1. Occurrence of a taurine derivative in an antarctic glass sponge.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marianna; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Castelluccio, Francesco; Avila, Conxita; Gavagnin, Margherita

    2014-04-01

    The n-butanol extract of an Antarctic hexactinellid sponge, Anoxycalyx (Scolymastra) joubini, was found to contain a taurine-conjugated anthranilic acid, never reported so far either as a natural product or by synthesis. The compound was inactive against human cancer cells in an in vitro growth inhibitory test, and also showed no antibacterial activity. PMID:24868857

  2. Carnosine and taurine treatments decreased oxidative stress and tissue damage induced by D-galactose in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kalaz, Esra Betül; Çoban, Jale; Aydın, A Fatih; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Öztezcan, Serdar; Uysal, Müjdat

    2014-03-01

    D-galactose (GAL) causes aging-related changes and oxidative stress in the organism. We investigated the effect of carnosine (CAR) or taurine (TAU), having antioxidant effects, on hepatic injury and oxidative stress in GAL-treated rats. Rats received GAL (300 mg/kg; s.c.; 5 days/week) alone or together with CAR (250 mg/kg/daily; i.p.; 5 days/week) or TAU (2.5 % w/w; in rat chow) for 2 months. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-0050x), and glutathione transferase (GST) activities were determined. Hepatic expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and Ki-67 were evaluated. Serum ALT, AST, hepatic MDA, and PC levels were observed to increase in GAL-treated rats. Hepatic Bax expression, but not Bcl-2, increased, Ki-67 expression decreased. GAL treatment caused decreases in GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px activities in the liver. Hepatic mRNA expressions of SOD, but not GSH-Px, also diminished. CAR or TAU treatments caused significant decreases in serum ALT and AST activities. These treatments decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation and ameliorated histopathological findings in the livers of GAL-treated rats. Both CAR and TAU reduced MDA and PC levels and elevated GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px (non significant in TAU + GAL group) activities. These treatments did not alter hepatic mRNA expressions of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes. Our results indicate that CAR and TAU restored liver prooxidant status together with histopathological amelioration in GAL-induced liver damage.

  3. Taurine content in Chinese food and daily intake of Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Jia, J; Lin, Y

    1998-01-01

    The taurine content in Chinese food, including seafood, fresh water fish, meats and some plants, was examined in this study. Seafood was freshly collected from 4 coastal areas in China. Meat and plant food samples were obtained from food markets. The highest concentration of taurine was found in crustaceans and molluses (300-800 mg per 100 g edible portion). The amount of taurine in fish was variable. Beef, pork and lamb contained taurine in concentrations ranging from 30-160 mg per 100 g. No taurine was detected in hen eggs and plants. The daily taurine intake of representative Chinese men (18-45 years old, 60 kg body weight, light physical activity) was also studied in 1990 as a part of the Total Diet Study. Representative food samples were collected from 12 provinces in 4 areas of China. Samples were then combined and cooked according to food categories (meat, seafood, vegetables, etc) The combined meat and seafood samples were analyzed for taurine. The daily taurine intake of a standard man in the 4 areas was calculated based on the amount of food intake obtained from the dietary survey and the taurine concentration in the analyzed food samples. The result showed that the daily taurine intake of a standard Chinese man in the 4 different test areas ranged from 34 to 80 mg per day.

  4. Taurine and glycine activate the same Cl- conductance in substantia nigra dopamine neurones.

    PubMed

    Häusser, M A; Yung, W H; Lacey, M G

    1992-01-31

    Intracellular recordings were made from substantia nigra dopamine neurones in a rat brain slice preparation. Spontaneous firing in these cells was reversibly inhibited by taurine applied by superfusion (300 microM-20 mM) or by focal pressure ejection. Neurones recorded with electrodes filled with KCl were depolarised at resting potential by taurine; the taurine depolarisation reversed polarity at -36.6 +/- 1.0 mV (7 cells). When electrodes filled with K-acetate or K-methyl sulphate were used, taurine caused a hyperpolarisation which reversed at -74.2 +/- 3.8 mV (9 cells). These effects of taurine were accompanied by a fall in input resistance or, in voltage clamp, an increase in conductance. Taurine thus appeared to increase membrane chloride conductance. The effect of taurine persisted in tetrodotoxin, 0-Ca2+/10 mM Mg2+, and bicuculline, but was blocked by strychnine (10 microM). Maximal responses to either taurine or glycine occluded responses to the other amino acid. Taurine therefore acts directly on dopamine neurones in the substantia nigra to increase the same membrane Cl- conductance as that mediating the action of glycine. Taurine may also act at the same recognition site as glycine in these cells.

  5. Intestinal absorption, blood transport and hepatic and muscle metabolism of fatty acids in preruminant and ruminant animals.

    PubMed

    Hocquette, J F; Bauchart, D

    1999-01-01

    Current research on lipid metabolism in ruminants aims to improve the growth and health of the animals and the muscle characteristics associated with meat quality. This review, therefore, focuses on fatty acid (FA) metabolism from absorption to partitioning between tissues and metabolic pathways. In young calves, which were given high-fat milk diets, lipid absorption is delayed because the coagulation of milk caseins results in the retention of dietary fat as an insoluble clot in the abomasum. After weaning, the calves were fed forage- and cereal-based diets containing low levels of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) but leading to high levels of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by the rumen microflora. Such differences in dietary FA affect: i) the lipid transport system via the production of lipoproteins by the intestine and the liver, and (ii) the subsequent metabolism of lipids and FA by tissues. In preruminant calves, high-fat feed stimulates the secretion of triacylglycerols (TG)-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, very-low density lipoproteins (VLDL)). Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) stimulate the production of chylomicrons by the intestine (at peak lipid absorption) and of high density lipoproteins by the liver, leading to high blood concentrations of cholesterol. High levels of non-esterified FA (NEFA) uptake by the liver in high-yielding dairy cows in early lactation leads to TG infiltration of the hepatocytes (fatty liver). This is due to the low chronic capacity of the liver to synthesise and secrete VLDL particles. This abnormality in hepatic FA metabolism involves defects in apolipoprotein B synthesis and low availability of apolipoproteins and lipids for VLDL packaging. Fatty liver in calves is also caused by milk containing either soybean oil (rich in n-6 PUFA), or coconut oil (rich in C12:0 and C14:0). The ability of muscle tissue to use FA as an energy source depends on its mitochondrial content and, hence, on many physiological factors. The

  6. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » For Veterans and the Public Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... the Public Veterans and Public Home How is Hepatitis C Treated? Find the facts about the newest ...

  7. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  8. The effect of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations, expression of hepatic glucose transporters and key gluconeogenic enzymes during the perinatal period in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Franssens, Lies; Lesuisse, Jens; Wang, Yufeng; Willems, Els; Willemsen, Hilke; Koppenol, Astrid; Guo, Xiaoquan; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Everaert, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Chickens have blood glucose concentrations that are twofold higher than those observed in mammals. Moreover, the insulin sensitivity seems to decrease with postnatal age in both broiler and layer chickens. However, little is known about the response of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations and mRNA abundance of hepatic glucose transporters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12 (GLUT1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12) and three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and 2 (PCK1 and 2) or fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP1) in chicks during the perinatal period. In the present study, broiler embryos on embryonic day (ED)16, ED18 or newly-hatched broiler chicks were injected intravenously with bovine insulin (1μg/g body weight (BW)) to examine plasma glucose response and changes in hepatic mRNA abundance of the GLUTs, PCK1 and 2 and FBP1. Results were compared with a non-treated control group and a saline-injected sham group. Plasma glucose levels of insulin-treated ED18 embryos recovered faster from their minimum level than those of insulin-treated ED16 embryos or newly-hatched chicks. In addition, at the minimum plasma glucose level seven hours post-injection (PI), hepatic GLUT2, FBP1 and PCK2 mRNA abundance was decreased in insulin-injected embryos, compared to sham and control groups, being most pronounced when insulin injection occurred on ED16. PMID:26723190

  9. The effect of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations, expression of hepatic glucose transporters and key gluconeogenic enzymes during the perinatal period in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Franssens, Lies; Lesuisse, Jens; Wang, Yufeng; Willems, Els; Willemsen, Hilke; Koppenol, Astrid; Guo, Xiaoquan; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Everaert, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Chickens have blood glucose concentrations that are twofold higher than those observed in mammals. Moreover, the insulin sensitivity seems to decrease with postnatal age in both broiler and layer chickens. However, little is known about the response of insulin on plasma glucose concentrations and mRNA abundance of hepatic glucose transporters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12 (GLUT1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 12) and three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 and 2 (PCK1 and 2) or fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP1) in chicks during the perinatal period. In the present study, broiler embryos on embryonic day (ED)16, ED18 or newly-hatched broiler chicks were injected intravenously with bovine insulin (1μg/g body weight (BW)) to examine plasma glucose response and changes in hepatic mRNA abundance of the GLUTs, PCK1 and 2 and FBP1. Results were compared with a non-treated control group and a saline-injected sham group. Plasma glucose levels of insulin-treated ED18 embryos recovered faster from their minimum level than those of insulin-treated ED16 embryos or newly-hatched chicks. In addition, at the minimum plasma glucose level seven hours post-injection (PI), hepatic GLUT2, FBP1 and PCK2 mRNA abundance was decreased in insulin-injected embryos, compared to sham and control groups, being most pronounced when insulin injection occurred on ED16.

  10. Effect of taurine on chemoshock seizure thresholds in lead-exposed animals

    SciTech Connect

    Huxtable, R.J.; Shindo, S.; Nakagawa, K.

    1986-03-01

    The high levels of taurine found in developing brain have led to postulates that taurine is involved in brain maturation. The authors have examined the effect of taurine on the chemoshock threshold of rats reared in the presence of the environmental toxin, lead. Within 24 h of giving birth, dams were placed on one of four regimens: Group P received 0.4% lead acetate in the drinking water; Group T received 3% taurine in drinking water; Group PT received both taurine and lead acetate; and Group C received distilled water. The pups were weaned at 21 days, but maintained on the same treatments. Pentylene tetrazole seizure thresholds were determined at 42 days. Thresholds in Group P were significantly depressed relative to Group C (56.0 mg/kg v 79.9 mg/kg). Taurine supplementation had no effect on threshold (T = 72.7 mg/kg). However, thresholds in Group PT were significantly higher than those of Group P (PT = 85.2 mg/kg). These data show that whereas taurine was without effect on the threshold of animals not stressed by exposure to lead, it had a protective effect on exposed animals. As human neonates are unable to synthesize taurine, the findings reinforce the concept of taurine being a conditionally essential nutrient in developing humans.

  11. Development of a Novel Cysteine Sulfinic Acid Decarboxylase Knockout Mouse: Dietary Taurine Reduces Neonatal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunkyue; Park, Seung Yong; Schuller-Levis, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    We engineered a CSAD KO mouse to investigate the physiological roles of taurine. The disruption of the CSAD gene was verified by Southern, Northern, and Western blotting. HPLC indicated an 83% decrease of taurine concentration in the plasma of CSAD−/−. Although CSAD−/− generation (G)1 and G2 survived, offspring from G2 CSAD−/− had low brain and liver taurine concentrations and most died within 24 hrs of birth. Taurine concentrations in G3 CSAD−/− born from G2 CSAD−/− treated with taurine in the drinking water were restored and survival rates of G3 CSAD−/− increased from 15% to 92%. The mRNA expression of CDO, ADO, and TauT was not different in CSAD−/− compared to WT and CSAD mRNA was not expressed in CSAD−/−. Expression of Gpx 1 and 3 was increased significantly in CSAD−/− and restored to normal levels with taurine supplementation. Lactoferrin and the prolactin receptor were significantly decreased in CSAD−/−. The prolactin receptor was restored with taurine supplementation. These data indicated that CSAD KO is a good model for studying the effects of taurine deficiency and its treatment with taurine supplementation. PMID:24639894

  12. Taurine Induces Proliferation of Neural Stem Cells and Synapse Development in the Developing Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Shivaraj, Mattu Chetana; Marcy, Guillaume; Low, Guoliang; Ryu, Jae Ryun; Zhao, Xianfeng; Rosales, Francisco J.; Goh, Eyleen L. K.

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. It has been implicated in several processes involving brain development and neurotransmission. However, the role of taurine in hippocampal neurogenesis during brain development is still unknown. Here we show that taurine regulates neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the developing brain as well as in cultured early postnatal (P5) hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal slices derived from P5 mice brains. Taurine increased cell proliferation without having a significant effect on neural differentiation both in cultured P5 NPCs as well as cultured hippocampal slices and in vivo. Expression level analysis of synaptic proteins revealed that taurine increases the expression of Synapsin 1 and PSD 95. We also found that taurine stimulates the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 indicating a possible role of the ERK pathway in mediating the changes that we observed, especially in proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for taurine in neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in developing brain and suggest the involvement of the ERK1/2 pathways in mediating these actions. Our study also shows that taurine influences the levels of proteins associated with synapse development. This is the first evidence showing the effect of taurine on early postnatal neuronal development using a combination of in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems. PMID:22916184

  13. Isolation and derivatization of plasma taurine for stable isotope analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, C.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1980-09-01

    A method for the isolation and derivatization of plasma taurine is described that allows stable isotope determinations of taurine to be made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The isolation procedure can be applied to 0.1 ml of plasma; the recovery of plasma taurine was 70 to 80%. For gc separation, taurine was converted to its dimethylaminomethylene methyl ester derivative which could not be detected by hydrogen flame ionization, but could be monitored readily by NH/sub 3/ chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The derivatization reaction occurred partially on-column and required optimization of injection conditions. Using stable isotope ratiometry multiple ion detection, (M + 2 + H)/sup +//(M + H)/sup +/ ion ratio of natural abundance taurine was determined with a standard deviation of less than +-0.07% of the ratio. The (1,2-/sup 13/C)taurine/taurine mole ratios of standard mixtures could be accurately determined to 0.001. This stable isotope gc-ms method is suitable for studying the plasma kinetics of (1,2-/sup 13/C)taurine in infants who are at risk with respect to taurine depletion.

  14. Conformational Study of Taurine in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortijo, Vanessa; Sanz, M. Eugenia; López, Juan C.; Alonso, José L.

    2009-08-01

    The conformational preferences of the amino sulfonic acid taurine (NH2-CH2-CH2-SO3H) have been investigated in the gas phase by laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW) in the 6-14 GHz frequency range. One conformer has been observed, and its rotational, centrifugal distortion, and hyperfine quadrupole coupling constants have been determined from the analysis of its rotational spectrum. Comparison of the experimental constants with those calculated theoretically identifies the detected conformer unambiguously. The observed conformer of taurine is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond O-H···N between the hydrogen of the sulfonic acid group and the nitrogen atom of the amino group.

  15. Taurine and ellagic acid: two differently-acting natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, R; Ricordy, R; Bartolini, F; Ramadori, L; Perticone, P; De Salvia, R

    1995-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimutagenic compounds are extensively analyzed for their capacity to protect cells from induced damage. We selected two agents, taurine and ellagic acid, treated in the literature as antioxidants, but whose activity is insufficiently known. This paper reports on the ability of these agents to act against damage induced by mitomycin-C and hydrogen peroxide in Chinese hamster ovary cells cultivated in vitro. Cytogenetic and cytofluorimetric analyses were performed. Ellagic acid proved to have more than one mechanism of action, probably as a scavenger of oxygen species produced by H2O2 treatment, and as a protector of the DNA double helix from alkylating agent injury. In our experimental conditions, taurine seems able to scavenge oxygen species.

  16. Intestinal absorption, blood transport and hepatic and muscle metabolism of fatty acids in preruminant and ruminant animals.

    PubMed

    Hocquette, J F; Bauchart, D

    1999-01-01

    Current research on lipid metabolism in ruminants aims to improve the growth and health of the animals and the muscle characteristics associated with meat quality. This review, therefore, focuses on fatty acid (FA) metabolism from absorption to partitioning between tissues and metabolic pathways. In young calves, which were given high-fat milk diets, lipid absorption is delayed because the coagulation of milk caseins results in the retention of dietary fat as an insoluble clot in the abomasum. After weaning, the calves were fed forage- and cereal-based diets containing low levels of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) but leading to high levels of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by the rumen microflora. Such differences in dietary FA affect: i) the lipid transport system via the production of lipoproteins by the intestine and the liver, and (ii) the subsequent metabolism of lipids and FA by tissues. In preruminant calves, high-fat feed stimulates the secretion of triacylglycerols (TG)-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons, very-low density lipoproteins (VLDL)). Diets rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) stimulate the production of chylomicrons by the intestine (at peak lipid absorption) and of high density lipoproteins by the liver, leading to high blood concentrations of cholesterol. High levels of non-esterified FA (NEFA) uptake by the liver in high-yielding dairy cows in early lactation leads to TG infiltration of the hepatocytes (fatty liver). This is due to the low chronic capacity of the liver to synthesise and secrete VLDL particles. This abnormality in hepatic FA metabolism involves defects in apolipoprotein B synthesis and low availability of apolipoproteins and lipids for VLDL packaging. Fatty liver in calves is also caused by milk containing either soybean oil (rich in n-6 PUFA), or coconut oil (rich in C12:0 and C14:0). The ability of muscle tissue to use FA as an energy source depends on its mitochondrial content and, hence, on many physiological factors. The

  17. Arsenic-induced oxidative cerebral disorders: protection by taurine.

    PubMed

    Das, Joydeep; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether the conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, could play any protective role against the potent neurotoxin arsenic (As)-induced oxidative impairment in the rat brain. Administration in the form of NaAsO(2) (at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 2 days, orally), As increased the intracellular accumulation of metallic As, reactive oxygen species, and super oxide radicals. The toxin also augmented the extent of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and the levels of glutathione disulphide. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes, membrane-bound enzymes, acetylcholinesterase, and the levels of reduced glutathione, as well as total thiols, have been significantly decreased due to As exposure. Oral administration of taurine (at a dose of 100 mg/kg/body weight for 5 days) was found to be very effective in the prevention of As-induced oxidative impairment in the brain tissue of the experimental rats. To validate the experimental results, a well-known water-soluble antioxidant, vitamin C, was used as the positive control in the study. Combining all, results suggest that taurine plays a beneficial role against As-induced cerebral oxidative stress.

  18. Agonist action of taurine on glycine receptors in rat supraoptic magnocellular neurones: possible role in osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N; Deleuze, C; Pantaloni, A; Desarménien, M G; Moos, F

    1997-08-01

    1. To evaluate the implication of taurine in the physiology of supraoptic neurones, we (i) investigated the agonist properties of taurine on glycine and GABAA receptors of supraoptic magnocellular neurones acutely dissociated from adult rats, using whole-cell voltage clamp, (ii) studied the effects of taurine and strychnine in vivo by extracellular recordings of supraoptic vasopressin neurones in anaesthetized rats, and (iii) measured the osmolarity-dependent release of endogenous taurine from isolated supraoptic nuclei by HPLC. 2. GABA, glycine and taurine evoked rapidly activating currents that all reversed close to the equilibrium potential for Cl-, indicating activation of Cl(-)-selective channels. Glycine-activated currents were reversibly blocked by strychnine (IC50 of 35 nM with 100 microM glycine), but were unaffected by the GABAA antagonist gabazine (1-3 microM). GABA-activated currents were reversibly antagonized by 3 microM gabazine, but not by strychnine (up to 1 microM). 3. Responses to 1 mM taurine were blocked by strychnine but not by gabazine and showed no additivity with glycine-induced currents, indicating selective activation of glycine receptors. Responses to 10 mM taurine were partially antagonized by gabazine, the residual current being blocked by strychnine. Thus, taurine is also a weak agonist of GABAA receptors. 4. In the presence of gabazine, taurine activated glycine receptors with an EC50 of 406 microM. Taurine activated at most 70% of maximal glycine currents, suggesting that it is a partial agonist of glycine receptors. 5. In vivo, locally applied strychnine (300 nM) increased and taurine (1 mM) decreased the basal electrical activity of vasopressin neurones in normally hydrated rats. The effect of strychnine was markedly more pronounced in water-loaded rats. 6. Taurine, which is concentrated in supraoptic glial cells, could be released from isolated supraoptic nuclei upon hyposmotic stimulation. Decreases in osmolarity of 15 and 30

  19. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  20. [Measurement of C14 beta-radioactivity of stable natural origin taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) in bovine bile].

    PubMed

    Gaetano, G; Bisegna, F; Bisio, V; Parenti, M

    1994-01-01

    Taurine from natural sources has gained great importance as essential nutrient in milk for formula-fed infants. There is a strong request for a method capable of determining the natural origin of taurine. The measure of beta-radioactivity of 14C of taurine by means of liquid scintillation counting proved the most reliable. A simple method is reported.

  1. Protective and therapeutic effectiveness of taurine in diabetes mellitus: a rationale for antioxidant supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sirdah, Mahmoud M

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, 2-amino ethanesulfonic acid, is a conditionally essential β amino acid which is not utilized in protein synthesis. Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in mammals tissues and is one of the three well-known sulfur-containing amino acids; the others are methionine and cysteine which are considered as the precursors for taurine synthesis. Different scientific studies emphasize on the cytoprotective properties of taurine which included antioxidation, antiapoptosis, membrane stabilization, osmoregulation, and neurotransmission. Protective and therapeutic ameliorations of oxidative stress-induced pathologies were also attributed to taurine both in experimental and human models. Data demonstrating the beneficial effectiveness of taurine against type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and their complications are growing and providing a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Although the clinical studies are limited compared to the experimental ones, the present updated systematic review of the literature is set up to provide experimental and clinical evidences regarding the effectiveness of taurine in the context of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Gathering these scientific effects of taurine on diabetes mellitus could provide the physicians and specially the endocrinologists with a comprehensive overview on possible trends in the prevention and management of the disease and its complications through antioxidant supplementation.

  2. Use of taurine additives in enhanced oil recovery with anionic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Prukop, G.; Chea, C.K.

    1990-12-11

    This patent describes a method disclosed for increasing the recovery of oil in enhanced oil recovery operations employing anionic surfactant by blending a taurine with the anionic surfactant. The taurine may also increase the salt and divalent ion tolerance of the aniomic surfactant.

  3. Effect of taurine on advanced glycation end products-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.-S. Chuang, L.-Y.; Guh, J.-Y.; Yang, Y.-L.; Hsu, M.-S.

    2008-12-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGE) play a major role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Taurine is a well documented antioxidant agent. To explore whether taurine was linked to altered AGE-mediated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN, we examined the molecular mechanisms of taurine responsible for inhibition of AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells. We found that AGE (but not non-glycated BSA) caused inhibition of cellular mitogenesis rather than cell death by either necrosis or apoptosis. There were no changes in caspase 3 activity, bcl-2 protein expression, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release in BSA, AGE, or the antioxidant taurine treatments in these cells. AGE-induced the Raf-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was markedly blocked by taurine. Furthermore, taurine, the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor GW5074, and the ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 may have the ability to induce cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression from AGE-treated cells. The ability of taurine, GW5074, or PD98059 to inhibit AGE-induced hypertrophy was verified by the observation that it significantly decreased cell size, cellular hypertrophy index, and protein levels of RAGE, p27{sup Kip1}, collagen IV, and fibronectin. The results obtained in this study suggest that taurine may serve as the potential anti-fibrotic activity in DN through mechanism dependent of its Raf-1/ERK inactivation in AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells.

  4. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. PMID:27344989

  5. Taurine depresses cardiac contractility and enhances systemic heart glucose utilization in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    MacCormack, Tyson J; Callaghan, N I; Sykes, A V; Driedzic, W R

    2016-02-01

    Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, where levels can exceed 200 mmol L(-1). In mammals, intracellular taurine modulates cardiac Ca(2+) handling and carbohydrate metabolism at much lower concentrations but it is not clear if it exerts similar actions in cephalopods. Blood Ca(2+) levels are high in cephalopods and we hypothesized that taurine would depress cardiac Ca(2+) flux and modulate contractility in systemic and branchial hearts of cuttlefish. Heart performance was assessed with an in situ perfused systemic heart preparation and contractility was evaluated using isometrically contracting systemic and branchial heart muscle rings. Stroke volume, cardiac output, and Ca(2+) sensitivity were significantly lower in systemic hearts perfused with supplemental taurine (100 mmol L(-1)) than in controls. In muscle ring preparations, taurine impaired relaxation at high contraction frequencies, an effect abolished by supra-physiological Ca(2+) levels. Taurine did not affect oxygen consumption in non-contracting systemic heart muscle, but extracellular glucose utilization was twice that of control preparations. Collectively, our results suggest that extracellular taurine depresses cardiac Ca(2+) flux and potentiates glucose utilization in cuttlefish. Variations in taurine levels may represent an important mechanism for regulating cardiovascular function and metabolism in cephalopods.

  6. Taurine-induced modulation of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan-Shan; Yu, Kuai; Gu, Yan; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2005-08-15

    The physiological role of taurine, an abundant free amino acid in the neural system, is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate its effect on TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-resistant (TTX-R) Na+ currents in enzymatically dissociated neurons from rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with conventional whole-cell recording manner under voltage-clamp conditions. A TTX-S Na+ current was recorded preferentially from large DRG neurons and a TTX-R Na+ current preferentially from small ones. For TTX-S Na+ channel, taurine of the concentration > or = 10 mM shifted the activation curve in the depolarizing direction and the inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. There was no change in the activation curve for TTX-R Na+ channel and the inactivation curve was shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction slightly in the presence of taurine > or = 20 mM. When the recovery kinetics was examined, the presence of taurine resulted in a slower recovery from inactivation of TTX-S currents and no change of TTX-R ones. All the effects of taurine were weakly concentration-dependent and partly recovered quite slowly after washout. Our data indicate that taurine alters the properties of Na+ currents in intact DRG neurons. These may contribute to the understanding of taurine as a natural neuroprotectant and the potential of taurine as a useful medicine for the treatment of sensory neuropathies.

  7. Taurine induces anti-anxiety by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng Gao; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2007-01-01

    Taurine has a variety of actions in the body such as cardiotonic, host-defensive, radioprotective and glucose-regulatory effects. However, its action in the central nervous system remains to be characterized. In the present study, we tested to see whether taurine exerts anti-anxiety effects and to explore its mechanism of anti-anxiety activity in vivo. The staircase test and elevated plus maze test were performed to test the anti-anxiety action of taurine. Convulsions induced by strychnine, picrotoxin, yohimbine and isoniazid were tested to explore the mechanism of anti-anxiety activity of taurine. The Rotarod test was performed to test muscle relaxant activity and the passive avoidance test was carried out to test memory activity in response to taurine. Taurine (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced rearing numbers in the staircase test while it increased the time spent in the open arms as well as the number of entries to the open arms in the elevated plus maze test, suggesting that it has a significant anti-anxiety activity. Taurine's action could be due to its binding to and activating of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo as it inhibited convulsion caused by strychnine; however, it has little effect on picrotoxin-induced convulsion, suggesting its anti-anxiety activity may not be linked to GABA receptor. It did not alter memory function and muscle activity. Taken together, these results suggest that taurine could be beneficial for the control of anxiety in the clinical situations.

  8. Assessment of taurine bioavailability in pelleted and extruded diets with red drum Sciaenops ocellatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taurine has been reported to be efficacious in supporting growth of carnivorous fish species, particularly when supplemented to diets primarily containing plant feedstuffs. Although taurine may become unavailable to some extent by heat and moisture, and is susceptible to the Maillard reaction with r...

  9. Protective role of taurine in developing offspring affected by maternal alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Pilant; Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Yutthana; Siripornpanich, Vorasith; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption is known to affect offspring growth and development, including growth deficits, physical anomalies, impaired brain functions and behavioral disturbances. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is essential during development, and continually found to be protective against neurotoxicity and various tissue damages including those from alcohol exposure. However, it is still unknown whether taurine can exert its protection during development of central nervous system and whether it can reverse alcohol damages on developed brain later in life. This study aims to investigate protective roles of taurine against maternal alcohol consumption on growth and development of offspring. The experimental protocol was conducted using ICR-outbred pregnant mice given 10 % alcohol, with or without maternal taurine supplementation during gestation and lactation. Pregnancy outcomes, offspring mortality and successive bodyweight until adult were monitored. Adult offspring is supplemented taurine to verify its ability to reverse damages on learning and memory through a water maze task performance. Our results demonstrate that offspring of maternal alcohol exposure, together with maternal taurine supplementation show conserved learning and memory, while that of offspring treated taurine later in life are disturbed. Taurine provides neuroprotective effects and preserves learning and memory processes when given together with maternal alcohol consumption, but not shown such effects when given exclusively in offspring. PMID:26648819

  10. Developmental stability of taurine's activation on glycine receptors in cultured neurons of rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yun-Gang; Chen, Lin

    2008-01-01

    Taurine is an endogenous amino acid that can activate glycine and/or gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors in the central nervous system. During natural development, taurine's receptor target undergoes a shift from glycine receptors to GABA(A) receptors in cortical neurons. Here, we demonstrate that taurine's receptor target in cortical neurons remains stable during in vitro development. With whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that taurine always activated glycine receptors, rather than GABA(A) receptors, in neurons of rat auditory cortex cultured for 5-22 days. Our results suggest that the functional sensitivity of glycine and GABA(A) receptors to taurine is critically regulated by their developmental environments.

  11. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose.

    PubMed

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Gardony, Aaron L; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-10-01

    Energy drinks containing caffeine, taurine, and glucose may improve mood and cognitive performance. However, there are no studies assessing the individual and interactive effects of these ingredients. We evaluated the effects of caffeine, taurine, and glucose alone and in combination on cognitive performance and mood in 24-hour caffeine-abstained habitual caffeine consumers. Using a randomized, double-blind, mixed design, 48 habitual caffeine consumers (18 male, 30 female) who were 24-hour caffeine deprived received one of four treatments (200 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 200 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine), on each of four separate days, separated by a 3-day wash-out period. Between-participants treatment was a glucose drink (50 g glucose, placebo). Salivary cortisol, mood and heart rate were measured. An attention task was administered 30-minutes post-treatment, followed by a working memory and reaction time task 60-minutes post-treatment. Caffeine enhanced executive control and working memory, and reduced simple and choice reaction time. Taurine increased choice reaction time but reduced reaction time in the working memory tasks. Glucose alone slowed choice reaction time. Glucose in combination with caffeine, enhanced object working memory and in combination with taurine, enhanced orienting attention. Limited glucose effects may reflect low task difficulty relative to subjects' cognitive ability. Caffeine reduced feelings of fatigue and increased tension and vigor. Taurine reversed the effects of caffeine on vigor and caffeine-withdrawal symptoms. No effects were found for salivary cortisol or heart rate. Caffeine, not taurine or glucose, is likely responsible for reported changes in cognitive performance following consumption of energy drinks, especially in caffeine-withdrawn habitual caffeine consumers.

  12. Modes of direct modulation by taurine of the glutamate NMDA receptor in rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christopher Y; Sun, Herless S; Shah, Sanket M; Agovic, Mervan S; Friedman, Eitan; Banerjee, Shailesh P

    2014-04-01

    Taurine is an endogenous brain substance with robust neuromodulatory and possible neuroprotective properties. Though other mechanisms of action have been reported, its interaction with the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) receptor is undocumented. We investigated taurine's interaction with the NMDA receptor using electrophysiological and receptor binding approaches. The effects of taurine on field potential responses in layer-5 of prelimbic cortex in rat brain slices evoked by single-pulse electrical stimulation of ventral medial cortex were determined. Picrotoxin (80 µM) was present in all control and drug solutions to block the Cl(-) channels associated with the GABA-, taurine-, and strychnine sensitive glycine- receptors. A typical response consisted of an NBQX (2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo-[f]-quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide)-sensitive negative wave (N1) followed by a positive wave (P1) and a broad negativity (N2), both sensitive to dl-AP5 (dl-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid) inhibition. Taurine exerted a 41.5 ± 8.3% (n = 9) voltage reduction within the late phase of N2. This taurine action was prevented by 100 µM AP5, but not by 10 µM nifedipine, supporting a direct modulation of NMDA receptor function by taurine, without requiring the involvement of the L-type Ca(2+) channel. Taurine did not alter specific [(3)H] MK-801 binding to rat cortical membranes in the presence of glycine or glutamate; but inhibited spermine-potentiated specific [(3)H] MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors by 15-20% in the presence of glycine. In addition, taurine reduced the apparent affinity of the NMDA receptor for glycine (in the presence of spermine) by 10-fold. These results show that taurine interacts directly with the NMDA receptor by multiple mechanisms.

  13. Comparison of mercury sulfides with mercury chloride and methylmercury on hepatic P450, phase-2 and transporter gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, S F; Wu, Q; Zhang, B B; Li, H; Xu, Y S; Du, Y Z; Wei, L X; Liu, J

    2016-09-01

    Zuotai (mainly β-HgS) and Zhusha (also called as cinnabar, mainly α-HgS) are used in traditional medicines in combination with herbs or even drugs in the treatment of various disorders, while mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (MeHg) do not have known medical values but are highly toxic. This study aimed to compare the effects of mercury sulfides with HgCl2 and MeHg on hepatic drug processing gene expression. Mice were orally administrated with Zuotai (β-HgS, 30mg/kg), α-HgS (HgS, 30mg/kg), HgCl2 (33.6mg/kg), or MeHg (3.1mg/kg) for 7days, and the expression of genes related to phase-1 drug metabolism (P450), phase-2 conjugation, and phase-3 (transporters) genes were examined. The mercurials at the dose and duration used in the study did not have significant effects on the expression of cytochrome P450 1-4 family genes and the corresponding nuclear receptors, except for a slight increase in PPARα and Cyp4a10 by HgCl2. The expressions of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase were increased by HgCl2 and MeHg, but not by Zuotai and HgS. HgCl2 decreased the expression of organic anion transporter (Oatp1a1), but increased Oatp1a4. Both HgCl2 and MeHg increased the expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein genes (Mrp1, Mrp2, Mrp3, and Mrp4). Zuotai and HgS had little effects on these transporter genes. In conclusion, Zuotai and HgS are different from HgCl2 and MeHg in hepatic drug processing gene expression; suggesting that chemical forms of mercury not only affect their disposition and toxicity, but also affect their effects on the expression of hepatic drug processing genes. PMID:27473830

  14. Evaluation of transporter-mediated hepatic uptake in a non-radioactive high-throughput assay: a study of kinetics, species difference and plasma protein effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Nouraldeen, Amr; Wilson, Alan G E

    2013-03-01

    1. In this manuscript we describe a non-radioactive, high-throughput method to evaluate hepatic uptake using cryopreserved hepatocytes. We have validated the uptake of pravastatin with different amounts of hepatocytes and the impact of the oil layer used in separation. The time- and concentration-dependent uptake profiles of several anionic and cationic charged drugs were evaluated. The results with our method compare favourably with the literature for pravastatin, atorvastatin and estrone 3-sulfate. 2. Two approaches for kinetic determination (temperature difference and fitting the linear and non-saturable passive diffusion rate in the equation, i.e. V = (V(max) × S)/(K(m) + S) + P(dif) × S) have been evaluated. Kinetic studies indicate that the different approaches for determining passive diffusion can affect K(m) and V(max), but not the clearance of active uptake (V(max)/K(m)). 3. Using pravastatin as a probe substrate, species differences were observed in the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3 activities. Plasma protein significantly reduced the uptake of atorvastatin, but not pravastatin. 4. Our data suggests that evaluation of the role of active uptake in hepatic clearance in humans should consider the relative ratio of active uptake to passive diffusion, species differences and plasma protein binding when applying in vitro uptake data.

  15. Inhibition of beta-amino acid transport by diamide does not involve the brush border membrane surface

    SciTech Connect

    Chesney, R.W.; Gusowski, N.; Albright, P.

    1985-01-01

    Diamide (dicarboxylic acid bis-(N,N-dimethylamide) has been shown in previous studies to block the uptake of the beta-amino acid taurine at its high affinity transport site in rat renal cortex slices. Diamide may act by increasing the efflux of taurine from the slice. Studies performed in rat slices again indicate enhanced efflux over 8-12 minutes. The time course of reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion from renal cortex is similar, indicating a potential interaction between GSH depletion and inhibition of taurine accumulation. The effect of 9 mM diamide on the Na+ -dependent accumulation of taurine (10 and 250 microM) by brush border membrane vesicles was examined, and the taurine uptake value both initially and at equilibrium was the same in the presence and absence of diamide. Isolation of the brush border surface and subsequent transport studies of taurine are not influenced by diamide. Thus, diamide inhibition of taurine uptake does not involve physiochemical alteration of the membrane surface where active amino acid transport occurs, despite the thiol-oxidizing properties of this agent. Further, these studies suggest that diamide either acts at the basolateral surface, rather than the brush border surface of rat renal cortex or requires the presence of an intact tubule, capable of metabolism, prior to its inhibitory action.

  16. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... or past infection, or immunity to hepatitis A Hepatitis B tests: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), you have ...

  17. Hepatitis C and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis C Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis C What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B . Hepatitis C and HIV About 25% of people living ...

  18. Hepatitis B and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis B Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis B What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living ...

  19. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, A.; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Köksal, F.

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C 2H 7NO 3S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of 32ṠO -2 and 33ṠO -2 radicals. The hyperfine values of 33ṠO -2 radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  20. Thiosulfate as a metabolic product: the bacterial fermentation of taurine.

    PubMed

    Denger, K; Laue, H; Cook, A M

    1997-10-01

    Thiosulfate (S2O32-) is a natural product that is widely utilized in natural ecosystems as an electron sink or as an electron donor. However, the major biological source(s) of this thiosulfate is unknown. We present the first report that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate), the major mammalian solute, is subject to fermentation. This bacterial fermentation was found to be catalyzed by a new isolate, strain GKNTAU, a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, motile rod that formed subterminal spores. Thiosulfate was a quantitative fermentation product. The other fermentation products were ammonia and acetate, and all could be formed by cell-free extracts.

  1. Risk Factors for Development of Cholestatic Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Inhibition of Hepatic Basolateral Bile Acid Transporters Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins 3 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Köck, Kathleen; Ferslew, Brian C.; Netterberg, Ida; Yang, Kyunghee; Urban, Thomas J.; Swaan, Peter W.; Stewart, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired hepatic bile acid export may contribute to development of cholestatic drug-induced liver injury (DILI). The multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 3 and 4 are postulated to be compensatory hepatic basolateral bile acid efflux transporters when biliary excretion by the bile salt export pump (BSEP) is impaired. BSEP inhibition is a risk factor for cholestatic DILI. This study aimed to characterize the relationship between MRP3, MRP4, and BSEP inhibition and cholestatic potential of drugs. The inhibitory effect of 88 drugs (100 μM) on MRP3- and MRP4-mediated substrate transport was measured in membrane vesicles. Drugs selected for investigation included 50 BSEP non-inhibitors (24 non-cholestatic; 26 cholestatic) and 38 BSEP inhibitors (16 non-cholestatic; 22 cholestatic). MRP4 inhibition was associated with an increased risk of cholestatic potential among BSEP non-inhibitors. In this group, for each 1% increase in MRP4 inhibition, the odds of the drug being cholestatic increased by 3.1%. Using an inhibition cutoff of 21%, which predicted a 50% chance of cholestasis, 62% of cholestatic drugs inhibited MRP4 (P < 0.05); in contrast, only 17% of non-cholestatic drugs were MRP4 inhibitors. Among BSEP inhibitors, MRP4 inhibition did not provide additional predictive value of cholestatic potential; almost all BSEP inhibitors were also MRP4 inhibitors. Inclusion of pharmacokinetic predictor variables (e.g., maximal unbound concentration in plasma) in addition to percent MRP4 inhibition in logistic regression models did not improve cholestasis prediction. Association of cholestasis with percent MRP3 inhibition was not statistically significant, regardless of BSEP-inhibition status. Inhibition of MRP4, in addition to BSEP, may be a risk factor for the development of cholestatic DILI. PMID:24154606

  2. Taurine biosynthesis in frog retina: effects of light and dark adaptations

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, C.; Ida, S.; Kuriyama, K.

    1983-01-01

    The retinal uptake and metabolism of cysteine, a precursor for taurine biosynthesis, were analysed using the bull frog. The (/sup 14/C) cysteine uptake into isolated retina had some specific properties: It was rather temperature independent, required Na ions, was inhibited by ouabain but not by dinitrophenol, and exhibited saturation kinetics composed of two components. When retinal homogenate was incubated with 12-30 microM of L-(U-/sup 14/C)cysteine, the accumulation of labeled alanine, cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA), cysteic acid (CA), hypotaurine, and taurine was detected. The metabolic conversions of (/sup 14/C) cysteine to labeled alanine, hypotaurine, and taurine were linear over 90 minutes. Prolonged light adaptation (3 weeks) induced a significant reduction in the formation of labeled CA, CSA, hypotaurine, and taurine from (/sup 14/C) cysteine. On the other hand, it was found that in dark-adapted retinae, the formation of labeled taurine from (/sup 14/C) cysteine increased significantly in spite of the reduction in the formation of labeled CA. These results indicate that biosynthetic pathways exist for taurine from cysteine in frog retina, and that these metabolic pathways are involved in the regulation of retinal taurine content under continuous visual adaptation.

  3. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and taurine either alone or in combination on streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    El Zahraa Z El Ashry, Fatma; Mahmoud, Mona F; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic effects of Cordyceps sinensis, taurine and their combination in comparison with glibenclamide both in vivo and in vitro using streptozotocin rat model. The diabetic rats were orally given glibenclamide, C. sinensis, taurine or Cordyceps and taurine combination for 21 days. Their effects were studied both in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of Cordyceps, taurine and their combination decreased serum glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index and pancreatic malondialdehyde content. Cordyceps significantly increased serum insulin, HDL-cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity levels, β cell function percent, and pancreatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, taurine was unable to elevate pancreatic GSH level to a significant level. These natural products and their combinations were more effective than glibenclamide in reducing insulin resistance index and they had stronger antioxidant properties. Cordyceps and taurine significantly enhanced glucose uptake by diaphragms of normal and diabetic rats in absence and presence of insulin. In conclusion, Cordyceps and taurine either alone or in combination have less potent hypoglycemic effects than glibenclamide; however, they have more ability to reduce insulin resistance and stronger antioxidant properties. PMID:22226943

  4. Taurine homeostasis requires de novo synthesis via cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase during zebrafish early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chia; Ding, Shih-Torng; Lee, Yen-Hua; Wang, Ya-Ching; Huang, Ming-Feng; Liu, I-Hsuan

    2013-02-01

    Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (Csad) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of taurine. There are a number of physiological roles of taurine, such as bile salt synthesis, osmoregulation, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress inhibition. To investigate the role of de novo synthesis of taurine during embryonic development, zebrafish csad was cloned and functionally analyzed. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that csad transcripts are maternally deposited, while whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that csad is expressed in yolk syncytial layer and various embryonic tissues such as notochord, brain, retina, pronephric duct, liver, and pancreas. Knockdown of csad significantly reduced the embryonic taurine level, and the affected embryos had increased early mortality and cardiac anomalies. mRNA coinjection and taurine supplementation rescued the cardiac phenotypes suggesting that taurine originating from the de novo synthesis pathway plays a role in cardiac development. Our findings indicated that the de novo synthesis pathway via Csad plays a critical role in taurine homeostasis and cardiac development in zebrafish early embryos. PMID:22907836

  5. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and taurine either alone or in combination on streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    El Zahraa Z El Ashry, Fatma; Mahmoud, Mona F; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic effects of Cordyceps sinensis, taurine and their combination in comparison with glibenclamide both in vivo and in vitro using streptozotocin rat model. The diabetic rats were orally given glibenclamide, C. sinensis, taurine or Cordyceps and taurine combination for 21 days. Their effects were studied both in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of Cordyceps, taurine and their combination decreased serum glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index and pancreatic malondialdehyde content. Cordyceps significantly increased serum insulin, HDL-cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity levels, β cell function percent, and pancreatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, taurine was unable to elevate pancreatic GSH level to a significant level. These natural products and their combinations were more effective than glibenclamide in reducing insulin resistance index and they had stronger antioxidant properties. Cordyceps and taurine significantly enhanced glucose uptake by diaphragms of normal and diabetic rats in absence and presence of insulin. In conclusion, Cordyceps and taurine either alone or in combination have less potent hypoglycemic effects than glibenclamide; however, they have more ability to reduce insulin resistance and stronger antioxidant properties.

  6. Taurine: the appeal of a safe amino acid for skeletal muscle disorders.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Annamaria; Pierno, Sabata; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2015-07-25

    Taurine is a natural amino acid present as free form in many mammalian tissues and in particular in skeletal muscle. Taurine exerts many physiological functions, including membrane stabilization, osmoregulation and cytoprotective effects, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions as well as modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel function. In addition taurine may control muscle metabolism and gene expression, through yet unclear mechanisms. This review summarizes the effects of taurine on specific muscle targets and pathways as well as its therapeutic potential to restore skeletal muscle function and performance in various pathological conditions. Evidences support the link between alteration of intracellular taurine level in skeletal muscle and different pathophysiological conditions, such as disuse-induced muscle atrophy, muscular dystrophy and/or senescence, reinforcing the interest towards its exogenous supplementation. In addition, taurine treatment can be beneficial to reduce sarcolemmal hyper-excitability in myotonia-related syndromes. Although further studies are necessary to fill the gaps between animals and humans, the benefit of the amino acid appears to be due to its multiple actions on cellular functions while toxicity seems relatively low. Human clinical trials using taurine in various pathologies such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurological disorders have been performed and may represent a guide-line for designing specific studies in patients of neuromuscular diseases.

  7. Taurine: the appeal of a safe amino acid for skeletal muscle disorders.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Annamaria; Pierno, Sabata; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2015-01-01

    Taurine is a natural amino acid present as free form in many mammalian tissues and in particular in skeletal muscle. Taurine exerts many physiological functions, including membrane stabilization, osmoregulation and cytoprotective effects, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions as well as modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel function. In addition taurine may control muscle metabolism and gene expression, through yet unclear mechanisms. This review summarizes the effects of taurine on specific muscle targets and pathways as well as its therapeutic potential to restore skeletal muscle function and performance in various pathological conditions. Evidences support the link between alteration of intracellular taurine level in skeletal muscle and different pathophysiological conditions, such as disuse-induced muscle atrophy, muscular dystrophy and/or senescence, reinforcing the interest towards its exogenous supplementation. In addition, taurine treatment can be beneficial to reduce sarcolemmal hyper-excitability in myotonia-related syndromes. Although further studies are necessary to fill the gaps between animals and humans, the benefit of the amino acid appears to be due to its multiple actions on cellular functions while toxicity seems relatively low. Human clinical trials using taurine in various pathologies such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurological disorders have been performed and may represent a guide-line for designing specific studies in patients of neuromuscular diseases. PMID:26208967

  8. Taurine protects against methotrexate-induced toxicity and inhibits leukocyte death

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Mustafa; Sener, Goeksel; Sehirli, A. Ozer; Eksioglu-Demiralp, Emel; Ercan, Feriha; Sirvanci, Serap; Gedik, Nursal; Akpulat, Sertac; Tecimer, Tuelay; Yegen, Berrak C. . E-mail: byegen@marmara.edu.tr

    2005-11-15

    The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a widely used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae. Regarding the mechanisms of these side effects, several hypotheses have been put forward, among which oxidative stress is noticeable. The present study was undertaken to determine whether taurine, a potent free radical scavenger, could ameliorate MTX-induced oxidative injury and modulate immune response. Following a single dose of methotrexate (20 mg/kg), either saline or taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered for 5 days. After decapitation of the rats, trunk blood was obtained and the ileum, liver, and kidney were removed to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and collagen content, as well as histological examination. Our results showed that MTX administration increased the MDA, MPO activity, and collagen contents and decreased GSH levels in all tissues (P < 0.001), while these alterations were reversed in taurine-treated group (P < 0.05-0.01). Elevated (P < 0.001) TNF-{alpha} level observed following MTX treatment was depressed with taurine (P < 0.01). Oxidative burst of neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate was reduced in saline-treated MTX group (P < 0.001), while taurine abolished this effect. Similarly, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in MTX-treated animals, while taurine reversed these effects (P < 0.05). Reduced cellularity in bone marrow samples of MTX-treated group (P < 0.01) was reversed back to control levels in taurine-treated rats. Severe degeneration of the intestinal mucosa, liver parenchyma, glomerular, and tubular epithelium observed in saline-treated group was improved by taurine treatment. In conclusion, it appears that taurine protects against methotrexate-induced oxidant organ injury and inhibits leukocyte apoptosis and may be of therapeutic potential in alleviating the

  9. Effect of taurine and potential interactions with caffeine on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Shimada, Kayoko; Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2014-05-01

    The major impetus behind the rise in energy drink popularity among adults is their ability to heighten mental alertness, improve physical performance and supply energy. However, accompanying the exponential growth in energy drink usage have been recent case reports and analyses from the National Poison Data System, raising questions regarding the safety of energy drinks. Most of the safety concerns have centered on the effect of energy drinks on cardiovascular and central nervous system function. Although the effects of caffeine excess have been widely studied, little information is available on potential interactions between the other active ingredients of energy drinks and caffeine. One of the active ingredients often mentioned as a candidate for interactions with caffeine is the beta-amino acid, taurine. Although taurine is considered a conditionally essential nutrient for humans and is thought to play a key role in several human diseases, clinical studies evaluating the effects of taurine are limited. However, based on this review regarding possible interactions between caffeine and taurine, we conclude that taurine should neutralize several untoward effects of caffeine excess. In agreement with this conclusion, the European Union's Scientific Committee on Food published a report in March 2003 summarizing its investigation into potential interactions of the ingredients in energy drinks. At the cardiovascular level, they concluded that "if there are any interactions between caffeine and taurine, taurine might reduce the cardiovascular effects of caffeine." Although these interactions remain to be further examined in humans, the physiological functions of taurine appear to be inconsistent with the adverse cardiovascular symptoms associated with excessive consumption of caffeine-taurine containing beverages.

  10. Sub-optimal taurine status may promote platelet hyperaggregability in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2004-01-01

    Although vegan diets typically have a very favorable effect on a range of vascular risk factors, several independent groups have reported that the platelets of vegetarians are more sensitive to pro-aggregatory agonists than are those of omnivores. In light of clear and convincing evidence that platelet function has an important impact on risk for thromboembolic events, it is important to clarify the basis of platelet hyperaggregability in vegetarians. A dietary deficit of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is not likely to explain this phenomenon, since most omnivore diets do not include enough of these fats to discernibly influence platelet function. A more plausible possibility is that relatively poor taurine status--a function of the facts that plants are devoid of taurine and the human capacity for taurine synthesis is limited - is responsible. Plasma taurine levels are lower, and urinary taurine excretion is substantially lower, in vegetarians than in omnivores. Platelets are rich in taurine, which functions physiologically to dampen the calcium influx evoked by aggregating agonists--thereby down-regulating platelet aggregation. Supplemental intakes of taurine as low as 400 mg daily have been reported to markedly decrease the sensitivity of platelets to aggregating agonists ex vivo. Although the average daily intake of taurine from omnivore diets may be only about 150 mg, it is credible to speculate that a supplemental intake of this magnitude could normalize the platelet function of vegetarians in the long term; in any case, this thesis is readily testable clinically. Taurine is just one of a number of nutrients found almost solely in animal products--"carninutrients"--which are rational candidates for supplementation in vegans. PMID:15288361

  11. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-01

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (p<0.01) and both of them were less so after taurine was supplemented (p<0.01). 2) Transmission electron microscopy revealed that brain cortex structures were sparse IUGR rats, showing many scattered apoptotic cells, decreased numbers of synapses, lower glial cell proliferation, and fewer neurons, more sparsely arranged, while these factors were significantly improved with taurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (p<0.001). 4) The results of immunohistochemistry showed that antenatal taurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (p<0.001). It can be concluded that it IUGR has a significant detrimental influence on the development of fetal rat brains, and antenatal supplement of taurine can significantly improve the IUGR

  12. Taurine protects methamphetamine-induced developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Xue; Hu, Zhengtao; Hu, Chunyan; Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Lv, Lei; Wu, Dan; Deng, Yi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Youzhi; Yang, Hanshuo; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2012-05-01

    Investigations have characterized addictive drug-induced developmental cardiovascular malformation in human, non-human primate and rodent. However, the underlying mechanism of malformation caused by drugs during pregnancy is still largely unknown, and preventive and therapeutic measures have been lacking. Using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, we profiled the metabolites from human embryo endothelial cells exposed to methamphetamine (METH) and quantified a total of 226 peaks. We identified 11 metabolites modified robustly and found that taurine markedly increased. We then validated the hypothesis that this dramatic increase in taurine could attribute to its effect in inhibiting METH-induced developmental angiogenesis defect. Taurine supplement showed a more significant potential than other metabolites in protecting against METH-induced injury in endothelial cells. Taurine strongly attenuated METH-induced inhibition of proliferation and migration in endothelial cells. Furthermore, death rate and vessel abnormality of zebrafish embryos treated with METH were greatly reversed by taurine. In addition, taurine supplement caused a rapid decrease in reactive oxygen species generation and strongly attenuated the excitable arise of antioxidase activities in the beginning of METH exposure prophase. Dysregulations of NF-κB, p-ERK as well as Bax, which reflect apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in vascular endothelium, were blocked by taurine. Our results provide the first evidence that taurine prevents METH-caused developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Taurine could serve as a potential therapeutic or preventive intervention of developmental vascular malformation for the pregnant women with drug use. Highlights: ► Metabonomics findings. ► Abnormal development. ► Dysregulations of key proteins.

  13. Sub-optimal taurine status may promote platelet hyperaggregability in vegetarians.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2004-01-01

    Although vegan diets typically have a very favorable effect on a range of vascular risk factors, several independent groups have reported that the platelets of vegetarians are more sensitive to pro-aggregatory agonists than are those of omnivores. In light of clear and convincing evidence that platelet function has an important impact on risk for thromboembolic events, it is important to clarify the basis of platelet hyperaggregability in vegetarians. A dietary deficit of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is not likely to explain this phenomenon, since most omnivore diets do not include enough of these fats to discernibly influence platelet function. A more plausible possibility is that relatively poor taurine status--a function of the facts that plants are devoid of taurine and the human capacity for taurine synthesis is limited - is responsible. Plasma taurine levels are lower, and urinary taurine excretion is substantially lower, in vegetarians than in omnivores. Platelets are rich in taurine, which functions physiologically to dampen the calcium influx evoked by aggregating agonists--thereby down-regulating platelet aggregation. Supplemental intakes of taurine as low as 400 mg daily have been reported to markedly decrease the sensitivity of platelets to aggregating agonists ex vivo. Although the average daily intake of taurine from omnivore diets may be only about 150 mg, it is credible to speculate that a supplemental intake of this magnitude could normalize the platelet function of vegetarians in the long term; in any case, this thesis is readily testable clinically. Taurine is just one of a number of nutrients found almost solely in animal products--"carninutrients"--which are rational candidates for supplementation in vegans.

  14. Taurine concentrations in the diet, plasma, urine and breast milk of vegans compared with omnivores.

    PubMed

    Rana, S K; Sanders, T A

    1986-07-01

    1. The concentration of taurine in the diets, plasma, urine and breast milk were measured in vegans and age- and sex-matched omnivore controls. Plasma and urinary amino acid concentrations were also determined. 2. Taurine was absent from the vegan diet and occurred in variable amounts in the diets of the omnivores. Urinary taurine levels were less than half those of the omnivores but plasma and breast-milk levels were only slightly lower. 3. Dietary energy intakes were similar in the vegans and omnivores, but protein intakes tended to be lower in the vegans.

  15. Rationale for a novel nutraceutical complex 'K-water': potassium taurine bicarbonate (PTB).

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2006-01-01

    Potassium taurine bicarbonate (PTB), an equimolar blend of potassium bicarbonate and taurine, provides a convenient and feasible means of delivering physiologically significant doses of potassium, taurine, and organic base when dissolved in water ("K-water"). This brief essay reviews the versatile and complementary health benefits that likely would accrue in individuals making regular use of K-water; in particular, an adequate intake of PTB could be expected to aid blood pressure control, lessen risk for atherosclerosis and its thromboembolic complications (particularly stroke), promote maintenance of bone density, help to prevent calcium renal stones, and possibly reduce risk for weight gain and diabetes.

  16. Taurine concentrations in the diet, plasma, urine and breast milk of vegans compared with omnivores.

    PubMed

    Rana, S K; Sanders, T A

    1986-07-01

    1. The concentration of taurine in the diets, plasma, urine and breast milk were measured in vegans and age- and sex-matched omnivore controls. Plasma and urinary amino acid concentrations were also determined. 2. Taurine was absent from the vegan diet and occurred in variable amounts in the diets of the omnivores. Urinary taurine levels were less than half those of the omnivores but plasma and breast-milk levels were only slightly lower. 3. Dietary energy intakes were similar in the vegans and omnivores, but protein intakes tended to be lower in the vegans. PMID:3676193

  17. Characterization of ursodeoxycholic and norursodeoxycholic acid as substrates of the hepatic uptake transporters OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 and NTCP.

    PubMed

    König, Jörg; Klatt, Sabine; Dilger, Karin; Fromm, Martin F

    2012-08-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only approved treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis, and norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) is currently tested in clinical trials for future treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis because of beneficial effects in cholestatic Mdr2 knock-out mice. Uptake of UDCA and norUDCA into hepatocytes is believed to be a prerequisite for subsequent metabolism and therapeutic action. However, the molecular determinants of hepatocellular uptake of UDCA and norUDCA are poorly understood. We therefore investigated whether UDCA and norUDCA are substrates of the hepatic uptake transporters OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 and Na(+) -taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), which are localized in the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. Uptake of [(3) H]UDCA and [(14) C]norUDCA into Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells stably expressing OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 or NTCP was investigated and compared with uptake into vector control cells. Uptake ratios were calculated by dividing uptake into transporter-transfected cells by uptake into respective control cells. Uptake ratios of OATP1B1-, OATP1B3- and OATP2B1-mediated UDCA and norUDCA uptake were at maximum 1.23 and 1.49, respectively. Uptake of UDCA was significantly higher into HEK-NTCP cells only at the lowest tested concentration (1 μM, p < 0.001) compared with the control cells with an uptake ratio of 1.34-fold. NorUDCA was not significantly transported by NTCP. The low uptake rates suggest that OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 and NTCP are not relevant for hepatocellular uptake and effects of UDCA and norUDCA in human beings.

  18. More relevant prediction for in vivo drug interaction of candesartan cilexetil on hepatic bile acid transporter BSEP using sandwich-cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hajime; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

      Bile salt export pump (BSEP) plays a major role in biliary secretion of bile salts; therefore, drug-induced cholestasis could occur because of BSEP inhibition by drugs. Drug interaction on hepatic bile canalicular transporters such as BSEP with prodrugs that are rapidly metabolized has not been evaluated well. In the present study, candesartan cilexetil (CIL) was used as a model compound and its inhibitory potential against BSEP was determined in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (hSCH) as well as in BSEP-expressing membrane vesicles. CIL exhibited potent BSEP inhibition with an IC50 value of 6.2 µM in the transport assay using membrane vesicles. In contrast, BSEP inhibition by CIL was not observed in hSCH after 120 min exposure. This discordance is possibly explained by metabolic elimination of CIL in hSCH because BSEP inhibition became reversely pronounced under the conditions where CIL metabolism was suppressed by diisopropyl fluorophosphates. The results observed in hSCH are consistent with the fact that liver dysfunction or jaundice occurs with low frequency in clinical use of CIL, which may not be obtained by membrane vesicle study on the effect of CIL on BSEP.

  19. The inhibition of hepatic bile acids transporters Ntcp and Bsep is involved in the pathogenesis of isoniazid/rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yao Xue; Xu, Xue Fei; Zhang, Qi Zhi; Li, Chun; Deng, Ye; Jiang, Pei; He, Lei Yan; Peng, Wen Xing

    2015-01-01

    Co-treatment of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RFP) is well known for clinically apparent liver injury. However, the mechanism of INH/RFP-induced liver injury is controversial. Emerging evidence shows links between inhibition of bile acids transporters and drug-induced liver injury (DILI). The present study investigates whether sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/Ntcp; SLC10A1) and bile salt export pump (BSEP/Bsep; ABCB11) are involved in the anti-tuberculosis medicines induced liver injury. ICR female mice were intragastrically treated with INH (50 or 100 mg/kg), RFP (100 or 200 mg/kg), or the combination of INH/RFP (50 + 100 mg/kg or 100 + 200 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. Liver histopathological examination, serum biochemical and liver malondialdehyde tests were evaluated. Apparent histopathological alterations and hepatic oxidative stress showed in INH (100 mg/kg), RFP (200 mg/kg) and their combination group. The hepatoxic effect was also indicated by increased serum biomarkers, such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), direct bilirubin (DBil), total bilirubin (TBil) and total bile acids (TBA). Both doses of INH/RFP administration significantly down-regulated the expression of Ntcp and Bsep in liver. Furthermore, the combination of INH and RFP displayed stronger effect on the expression of Ntcp compared with the corresponding dose of INH or RFP alone. In conclusion, down-regulated expression of hepatic Ntcp and Bsep might play an important role in the development of INH and RFP induced liver injury.

  20. Vibrational spectra and molecular conformation of taurine and its related compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Keiichi; Mandai, Yoshitaka; Matsuura, Hiroatsu

    1992-04-01

    IR and Raman spectra have been measured for taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) and its sodium salt in the solid state and Raman spectra for aqueous solutions of taurine with different pH values. Normal coordinate treatment has been carried out. The analysis of the spectra has indicated that, in the solid state, the molecule of taurine takes the gauche form while that of the sodium salt takes the trans form, and that the trans and gauche forms coexist in both acidic and basic aqueous solutions. The CS stretching bands for the gauche and trans forms were observed at 742 cm -1 and 803 cm -1 respectively. These bands were applied to a conformational analysis of other compounds containing a taurine skeleton; sodium taurocholate takes the gauche conformation about the bond axis NCCS.

  1. Anaerobic taurine oxidation: a novel reaction by a nitrate-reducing Alcaligenes sp.

    PubMed

    Denger, K; Laue, H; Cook, A M

    1997-06-01

    Enrichment cultures were prepared under strictly anoxic conditions in medium representing fresh water and containing an organosulfonate as electron donor and carbon source, and nitrate as electron acceptor. The inoculum was from the anaerobic digestor of two communal sewage works. The natural organosulfonates 2-aminoethanesulfonate (taurine), DL-2-amino-3-sulfopropionate (cysteate) and 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate (isethionate) all gave positive enrichments, whereas unsubstituted alkanesulfonates, such as methanesulfonate and arenesulfonates, gave no enrichment. Two representative enrichments were used to obtain pure cultures, and strains NKNTAU (utilizing taurine) and NKNIS (utilizing isethionate) were isolated. Strain NKNTAU was examined in detail. Out of 18 tested organosulfonates, it utilized only one, taurine, and was identified as a novel Alcaligenes sp., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium. Carbon from taurine was converted to cell material and carbon dioxide. The amino group was released as ammonium ion and the sulfonate moiety was recovered as sulfate. Nitrate was reduced to nitrogen gas.

  2. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  3. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an important ... viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  4. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  5. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Lupoid hepatitis; Chronic acute liver disease ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference between healthy body tissue and harmful, outside ...

  6. Hepatitis D

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the hepatitis B virus is also present. Transmission Hepatitis D can be found in the blood, ... other body fluids of people who are infected. Transmission happens when infected body fluid enters another person’s ...

  7. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 507 Hepatitis C WHAT IS HEPATITIS C? HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED? ... treatment may be less likely to work. Hep C treatment is less effective for coinfected people. Cure ...

  8. Taurine attenuates chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Islambulchilar, Mina; Asvadi, Iraj; Sanaat, Zohreh; Esfahani, Ali; Sattari, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Taurine has multiple physiological activities and it is decreased by chemotherapy. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine supplementation on the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Forty young patients aged over 16 (range: 16-23 years) suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (all receiving same chemotherapy regimen) were recruited for the study at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy. The study population was randomized in a double-blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 g per day orally, divided into two doses, taken 6 h after chemotherapeutic agents) for 6 months. Life quality and adverse effects including nausea and vomiting, taste and smell alterations, and weariness were assessed using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test. Of 40 participants, 32 finished the study (14 female and 18 male; mean age 19.2 ± 1.9 years). Four treatment and four placebo arm patients discontinued: one immigrated from the province, one died during the study, and six refused to continue. The results indicated that taurine-supplemented patients reported a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in chemotherapy-induced nausea and/or vomiting after taking taurine during study. Taurine significantly improved chemotherapy-induced taste and smell alterations (P < 0.05). Moreover, taurine significantly reduced weariness compared to placebo group (P < 0.05). This study showed that taurine co-administration decreased chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting during the maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:25323734

  9. New N-acyl taurine from the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuefeng; Xu, Tunhai; Wen, Kewei; Yang, Xian-Wen; Xu, Shi-Hai; Liu, Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    A new N-acyl taurine (1), together with a new natural product, l-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2,4-triazole (4), and two known compounds (2 and 3), were isolated from the sea urchin, Glyptocidaris crenularis. The new N-acyl taurine was elucidated as 2-(5R,15S-dihydroxyeicosanoylamino) ethanesulfonic acid on the basis of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) analyses and the modified Mosher ester method. Compound 2 showed significant toxicity against brine shrimp larvae.

  10. Mechanism of the protective action of taurine in toxin and drug induced organ pathophysiology and diabetic complications: a review.

    PubMed

    Das, Joydeep; Roy, Anandita; Sil, Parames C

    2012-12-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential amino acid, is found in large concentrations in all mammalian tissues and is particularly abundant in aquatic foods. Taurine exhibits membrane stabilizing, osmoregulatory and cytoprotective effects, antioxidative properties, regulates intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, modulates ion movement and neurotransmitters, reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in various organs and controls blood pressure. Recently, emerging evidence from the literature shows the effectiveness of taurine as a protective agent against several environmental toxins and drug-induced multiple organ injuries as the outcome of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, testicular toxicity and cardiotoxicity in several animal models. Besides, taurine is also effective in combating diabetes and its associated complications, including cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy and atherosclerosis. These beneficial effects appear to be due to the multiple actions of taurine on cellular functions. This review summarizes the mechanism of the prophylactic role of taurine against several environmental toxins and drug-induced organ pathophysiology and diabetes.

  11. Mechanism of the protective action of taurine in toxin and drug induced organ pathophysiology and diabetic complications: a review.

    PubMed

    Das, Joydeep; Roy, Anandita; Sil, Parames C

    2012-12-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential amino acid, is found in large concentrations in all mammalian tissues and is particularly abundant in aquatic foods. Taurine exhibits membrane stabilizing, osmoregulatory and cytoprotective effects, antioxidative properties, regulates intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, modulates ion movement and neurotransmitters, reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in various organs and controls blood pressure. Recently, emerging evidence from the literature shows the effectiveness of taurine as a protective agent against several environmental toxins and drug-induced multiple organ injuries as the outcome of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, testicular toxicity and cardiotoxicity in several animal models. Besides, taurine is also effective in combating diabetes and its associated complications, including cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy and atherosclerosis. These beneficial effects appear to be due to the multiple actions of taurine on cellular functions. This review summarizes the mechanism of the prophylactic role of taurine against several environmental toxins and drug-induced organ pathophysiology and diabetes. PMID:22930035

  12. Taurine attenuates hippocampal and corpus callosum damage, and enhances neurological recovery after closed head injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y; Zhao, Y; Qian, K; Sun, M

    2015-04-16

    The protective effects of taurine against closed head injury (CHI) have been reported. This study was designed to investigate whether taurine reduced white matter damage and hippocampal neuronal death through suppressing calpain activation after CHI in rats. Taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 30 min and 4 h again after CHI. It was found that taurine lessened the corpus callosum damage, attenuated the neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields and improved the neurological functions 7 days after CHI. Moreover, it suppressed the over-activation of calpain, enhanced the levels of calpastatin, and reduced the degradation of neurofilament heavy protein, myelin basic protein and αII-spectrin in traumatic tissue 24 h after CHI. These data confirm the protective effects of taurine against gray and white matter damage due to CHI, and suggest that down-regulating calpain activation could be one of the protective mechanisms of taurine against CHI.

  13. The effect of taurine and enriched environment on behaviour, memory and hippocampus of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rahmeier, Francine Luciano; Zavalhia, Lisiane Silveira; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Huf, Fernanda; Géa, Luiza Paul; Meurer, Rosalva Thereza; Machado, Aryadne Cardoso; Gomez, Rosane; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been studied recently as a major cause of cognitive deficits, memory and neurodegenerative damage. Taurine and enriched environment have stood out for presenting neuroprotective and stimulating effects that deserve further study. In this paper, we examined the effects of taurine and enriched environment in the context of diabetes, evaluating effects on behaviour, memory, death and cellular activity. Eighty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (E=enriched environment; C=standard housing). Some animals (24/group) underwent induction of diabetes, and within each group, some animals (half of diabetics (D) and half of non-diabetics (ND)/group) were treated for 30days with taurine (T). Untreated animals received saline (S). In total, there were eight subgroups: DTC, DSC, NDTC, NDSC, DTE, DSE, NDTE and NDSE. During the experiment, short-term memory was evaluated. After 30th day of experiment, the animals were euthanized and was made removal of brains used to immunohistochemistry procedures for GFAP and cleaved caspase-3. As a result, we observed that animals treated with taurine showed better performance in behavioural and memory tasks, and the enriched environment had positive effects, especially in non-diabetic animals. Furthermore, taurine and enriched environment seemed to be able to interfere with neuronal apoptosis and loss of glial cells, and in some instances, these two factors seemed to have synergistic effects. From these data, taurine and enriched environment may have important neurostimulant and neuroprotective effects. PMID:27471162

  14. Taurine and Epidermal Growth Factor Belong to the Signature of First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Koido, Kati; Innos, Jürgen; Haring, Liina; Zilmer, Mihkel; Ottas, Aigar; Vasar, Eero

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of two amino acid derivatives taurine and spermine in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and their response to antipsychotic treatment. The levels of taurine and spermine were significantly up-regulated in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients compared to control subjects (CS). Treatment of FEP patients with antipsychotic drugs significantly reduced the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This positive effect was accompanied by a significant reduction of taurine and spermine to the levels measured in CS. General linear model was used to establish associations of taurine and spermine with the levels of cytokines and growth factors, measured in our previous experiments using the same study sample. There was a strong association between taurine and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Both biomarkers significantly correlated with the disease symptoms as well as with the effectiveness of antipsychotic treatment. Accordingly one can conclude that taurine and EGF belong to the signature of FEP. Most probably they reflect altered oxidative stress and corrupted function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in FEP. PMID:27471446

  15. Neuroprotective actions of taurine on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Yun; Ma, Peng-Sheng; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Ru; Hao, Yin-Ju; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Li, Yu-Xiang; Yu, Jian-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the nervous system, which has been proved to possess antioxidation, osmoregulation and membrane stabilization. Previously it has been demonstrated that taurine exerts ischemic brain injury protective effect. This study was designed to investigate whether the protective effect of taurine has the possibility to be applied to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with left carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% oxygen to generate the experimental group. The cerebral damage area was measured after taurine post-treatment with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, Hematoxyline-Eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), myeloperoxtidase (MPO), ATP and Lactic Acid productions were assayed with ipsilateral hemisphere homogenates. Western-blot and immunofluorescence assay were processed to detect the expressions of AIF, Cyt C, Bax, Bcl-2 in brain. We found that taurine significantly reduced brain infarct volume and ameliorated morphological injury obviously reversed the changes of SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, T-AOC, ATP, MPO, and Lactic Acid levels. Compared with hypoxic-ischemic group, it showed marked reduction of AIF, Cyt C and Bax expressions and increase of Bcl-2 after post-treatment. We conclude that taurine possesses an efficacious neuroprotective effect after cerebral hypoxic-ischemic damage in neonatal rats. PMID:27345710

  16. Taurine and Epidermal Growth Factor Belong to the Signature of First-Episode Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Koido, Kati; Innos, Jürgen; Haring, Liina; Zilmer, Mihkel; Ottas, Aigar; Vasar, Eero

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of two amino acid derivatives taurine and spermine in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and their response to antipsychotic treatment. The levels of taurine and spermine were significantly up-regulated in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients compared to control subjects (CS). Treatment of FEP patients with antipsychotic drugs significantly reduced the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This positive effect was accompanied by a significant reduction of taurine and spermine to the levels measured in CS. General linear model was used to establish associations of taurine and spermine with the levels of cytokines and growth factors, measured in our previous experiments using the same study sample. There was a strong association between taurine and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Both biomarkers significantly correlated with the disease symptoms as well as with the effectiveness of antipsychotic treatment. Accordingly one can conclude that taurine and EGF belong to the signature of FEP. Most probably they reflect altered oxidative stress and corrupted function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in FEP. PMID:27471446

  17. Comparison of taurine, GABA, Glu, and Asp as scavengers of malondialdehyde in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Wei; Yu, Pingfeng; Xi, Zhijiang; Xu, Lijian; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if amino acid neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine, glutamate (Glu), and aspartate (Asp) can scavenge activated carbonyl toxicants. In vitro, direct reaction between malondialdehyde (MDA) and amino acids was researched using different analytical methods. The results indicated that scavenging activated carbonyl function of taurine and GABA is very strong and that of Glu and Asp is very weak in pathophysiological situations. The results provided perspective into the reaction mechanism of taurine and GABA as targets of activated carbonyl such as MDA in protecting nerve terminals. In vivo, we studied the effect of taurine and GABA as antioxidants by detecting MDA concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. It was shown that MDA concentration was decreased significantly, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of acute epileptic state rats, after the administration of taurine and GABA. The results indicated that the peripherally administered taurine and GABA can scavenge free radicals and protect the tissue against activated carbonyl in vivo and in vitro.

  18. The effect of taurine and enriched environment on behaviour, memory and hippocampus of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rahmeier, Francine Luciano; Zavalhia, Lisiane Silveira; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Huf, Fernanda; Géa, Luiza Paul; Meurer, Rosalva Thereza; Machado, Aryadne Cardoso; Gomez, Rosane; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been studied recently as a major cause of cognitive deficits, memory and neurodegenerative damage. Taurine and enriched environment have stood out for presenting neuroprotective and stimulating effects that deserve further study. In this paper, we examined the effects of taurine and enriched environment in the context of diabetes, evaluating effects on behaviour, memory, death and cellular activity. Eighty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (E=enriched environment; C=standard housing). Some animals (24/group) underwent induction of diabetes, and within each group, some animals (half of diabetics (D) and half of non-diabetics (ND)/group) were treated for 30days with taurine (T). Untreated animals received saline (S). In total, there were eight subgroups: DTC, DSC, NDTC, NDSC, DTE, DSE, NDTE and NDSE. During the experiment, short-term memory was evaluated. After 30th day of experiment, the animals were euthanized and was made removal of brains used to immunohistochemistry procedures for GFAP and cleaved caspase-3. As a result, we observed that animals treated with taurine showed better performance in behavioural and memory tasks, and the enriched environment had positive effects, especially in non-diabetic animals. Furthermore, taurine and enriched environment seemed to be able to interfere with neuronal apoptosis and loss of glial cells, and in some instances, these two factors seemed to have synergistic effects. From these data, taurine and enriched environment may have important neurostimulant and neuroprotective effects.

  19. Taurine Attenuates Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced Breast Tumorigenesis in Rats: A Plasma Metabolomic Study.

    PubMed

    He, Y U; Li, Qingdi Quentin; Guo, Song Chao

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Taurine, the most abundant free amino acid, plays a role in several biological processes in humans and has been shown to have activity against breast cancer and other tumors. To investigate the role and mechanism of taurine action in breast cancer, we used dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast carcinogenesis in rats as a model of breast cancer. The administration of taurine significantly reduced the DMBA-induced breast cancer rate from 80% to 40% in rats (p<0.05). Metabolomic studies using time-of-flight gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 23 differential metabolites in the plasma of taurine-administered rats. Bioinformatic analysis further revealed that these metabolites are involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including energy, glucose, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism, suggesting that the antitumor activity of taurine in rats is mediated through altered metabolism of breast cancer cells. We propose that these differential metabolites may be potential biomarkers for monitoring cancer therapy and prognosis in the clinic. This study provides a scientific basis for further investigations of the antitumor mechanism of taurine and the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat breast cancer. PMID:26851007

  20. Taurine suppresses the spread of cell death in electrically coupled RPE cells

    PubMed Central

    Udawatte, Chandani; Qian, Haohua; Mangini, Nancy J.; Kennedy, Brian G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether taurine exerts a protective effect on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells exposed to a cytotoxic agent, cytochrome C (cyC), shown previously to induce apoptosis and produce cell death in electrically coupled neighboring cells. Methods Monolayer cultures of confluent human RPE (ARPE-19) cells, which express gap-junctional proteins, were incubated in culture medium with or without taurine. After scrape loading cyC into the cells, we assayed these cells for caspase 3 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining to determine the spread of apoptosis. Results We found that cyC, too large a molecule to traverse gap junctional channels, produced apoptosis in cells injured by the scrape as well as those distant from the site of the scrape, presumably by the intercellular transmission of a toxic agent through the gap junctions that couple these cells. Incubation in taurine, or the gap-junction blocker, octanol, before application of cyC, reduced significantly the fraction of cells undergoing apoptosis. Voltage clamp recordings from electrically coupled Xenopus oocytes transfected with Cx43 showed that junctional communication was unaffected by taurine. Conclusions Our results indicate that taurine can serve to suppress cell death in RPE cells independent of any effect on gap junctions. We have considered various avenues by which taurine can exert its protective effect, but the precise mechanism involved under these experimental conditions has yet to be identified. PMID:18958305

  1. Quantification of taurine in energy drinks using ¹H NMR.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Monika; Felbinger, Christine; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Wiest, Johannes; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The consumption of so called energy drinks is increasing, especially among adolescents. These beverages commonly contain considerable amounts of the amino sulfonic acid taurine, which is related to a magnitude of various physiological effects. The customary method to control the legal limit of taurine in energy drinks is LC-UV/vis with postcolumn derivatization using ninhydrin. In this paper we describe the quantification of taurine in energy drinks by (1)H NMR as an alternative to existing methods of quantification. Variation of pH values revealed the separation of a distinct taurine signal in (1)H NMR spectra, which was applied for integration and quantification. Quantification was performed using external calibration (R(2)>0.9999; linearity verified by Mandel's fitting test with a 95% confidence level) and PULCON. Taurine concentrations in 20 different energy drinks were analyzed by both using (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis. The deviation between (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis results was always below the expanded measurement uncertainty of 12.2% for the LC-UV/vis method (95% confidence level) and at worst 10.4%. Due to the high accordance to LC-UV/vis data and adequate recovery rates (ranging between 97.1% and 108.2%), (1)H NMR measurement presents a suitable method to quantify taurine in energy drinks.

  2. Alterations of taurine in the brain of chronic kainic acid epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Baran, H

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of taurine in the kainic acid (KA, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) chronic model of epilepsy, six months after KA application. The KA-rats used were divided into a group of animals showing weak behavioural response to KA (WDS, rare focal convulsion; rating scale <2 up to 3 h after KA injection) and a group of strong response to KA (WDS, seizures; rating >3 up to 3 h after KA injection). The brain regions investigated were caudate nucleus, substantia nigra, septum, hippocampus, amygdala/piriform cortex, and frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices. KA-rats with rating <2 developed spontaneous WDS which occurred chronically and six months after KA injection increased taurine levels were found in the hippocampus (125.4% of control). KA-rats with rating >3 developed spontaneous recurrent seizures and six months after injection increased taurine levels were found in the caudate nucleus (162.5% of control) and hippocampus (126.6% of control), while reduced taurine levels were seen in the septum (78.2% of control). In summary, increased taurine levels in the hippocampus may involve processes for membrane stabilisation, thus favouring recovery after neuronal hyperactivity. The increased taurine levels in the caudate nucleus could be involved in the modulation of spontaneous recurrent seizure activity.

  3. Chitosan film enriched with an antioxidant agent, taurine, in fenestration defects.

    PubMed

    Ozmeriç, N; Ozcan, G; Haytaç, C M; Alaaddinoğlu, E E; Sargon, M F; Senel, S

    2000-09-01

    A natural polysaccharide, chitosan (poly-N-acetyl glucosaminoglycan), which is a nontoxic and bioabsorbable polymer, has been shown to have hemostatic and antibacterial effects. An amino acid, taurine, is considered to be beneficial for regulating the inflammation process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the synergistic effects of taurine and chitosan in the experimental defects at the vestibular bone of maxillary canine teeth in six dogs. Chitosan films were prepared as delivery system with or without taurine and placed in the randomly chosen defects. Biopsies were performed on the postoperative seventh day and routine histological procedures were performed for light and electron microscopic evaluations. For each group, 30 different microscopic areas were examined and the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in these areas were counted. The mean numbers of both macrophages and neutrophils were found statistically different between the chitosan film incorporated with taurine and free chitosan groups (p < 0.0001 p > 0.05). In addition to the increase in cell counts in both groups, the cytological alterations were more obvious in the chitosan film group incorporated with taurine. Accordingly, taurine appears to enhance the acceleration effect of chitosan on wound healing at early periods. This effect could be considered beneficial in tissue repair in destructive diseases like periodontitis.

  4. Identification of a Vibrio cholerae chemoreceptor that senses taurine and amino acids as attractants

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, So-ichiro; Takahashi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Itoh, Yasuaki; Sumita, Kazumasa; Uchida, Yumiko; Homma, Michio; Imada, Katsumi; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, was found to be attracted by taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a major constituent of human bile. Mlp37, the closest homolog of the previously identified amino acid chemoreceptor Mlp24, was found to mediate taxis to taurine as well as L-serine, L-alanine, L-arginine, and other amino acids. Methylation of Mlp37 was enhanced upon the addition of taurine and amino acids. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated that a purified periplasmic fragment of Mlp37 binds directly to taurine, L-serine, L-alanine and L-arginine. Crystal structures of the periplamic domain of Mlp37 revealed that L-serine and taurine bind to the membrane-distal PAS domain in essentially in the same way. The structural information was supported by characterising the in vivo properties of alanine-substituted mutant forms of Mlp37. The fact that the ligand-binding domain of the L-serine complex had a small opening, which would accommodate a larger R group, accounts for the broad ligand specificity of Mlp37 and allowed us to visualise ligand binding to Mlp37 with fluorescently labelled L-serine. Taken together, we conclude that Mlp37 serves as the major chemoreceptor for taurine and various amino acids. PMID:26878914

  5. Dietary taurine reduces zinc-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yen-Hung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Hsieh, You-Liang; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2011-05-01

    Taurine is an agent for treating the heavy metal intoxication and presence of metals such as zinc, copper, and iron may have a role in heavy metal toxicity, a study was undertaken to investigate the effect of taurine on the toxicity of zinc in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups and fed different diets with or without supplement of 5% taurine and 150 to 600 ppm zinc for 2 mo. It was found that the body weight of rats, the ratios of liver and kidney weight to body weight, and the level of glutathione in the liver were decreased with increasing the dose of zinc. The levels of zinc in the liver, kidney, and plasma, the levels of malondialdehyde in the plasma, the levels of thiobarbiture acid-reactive substances in the liver, the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase in the plasma, the levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the plasma of rats were increased with the increasing dose of zinc. Hence, symptoms of zinc toxicity in rats included loss of body weight, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. However, these toxic effects of zinc were significantly reduced when the rats fed diet with supplement of taurine. Furthermore, the level of zinc in the feces of rats treated with taurine and zinc was higher than that of rats treated with zinc alone. It indicated that taurine thereby leading to a decreased absorption of dietary zinc and promoted excretion. PMID:22417375

  6. In female rats, ethylene glycol treatment elevates protein expression of hepatic and renal oxalate transporter sat-1 (Slc26a1) without inducing hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Breljak, Davorka; Brzica, Hrvoje; Vrhovac, Ivana; Micek, Vedran; Karaica, Dean; Ljubojević, Marija; Sekovanić, Ankica; Jurasović, Jasna; Rašić, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja; Lovrić, Mila; Schnedler, Nina; Henjakovic, Maja; Wegner, Waja; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C.; Sabolić, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the sex-dependent expression of hepatic and renal oxalate transporter sat-1 (Slc26a1) changes in a rat model of ethylene glycol (EG)-induced hyperoxaluria. Methods Rats were given tap water (12 males and 12 females; controls) or EG (12 males and 12 females; 0.75% v/v in tap water) for one month. Oxaluric state was confirmed by biochemical parameters in blood plasma, urine, and tissues. Expression of sat-1 and rate-limiting enzymes of oxalate synthesis, alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and hydroxy-acid oxidase 1 (Hao1), was determined by immunocytochemistry (protein) and/or real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRNA). Results EG-treated males had significantly higher (in μmol/L; mean ± standard deviation) plasma (59.7 ± 27.2 vs 12.9 ± 4.1, P < 0.001) and urine (3716 ± 1726 vs 241 ± 204, P < 0.001) oxalate levels, and more abundant oxalate crystaluria than controls, while the liver and kidney sat-1 protein and mRNA expression did not differ significantly between these groups. EG-treated females, in comparison with controls had significantly higher (in μmol/L) serum oxalate levels (18.8 ± 2.9 vs 11.6 ± 4.9, P < 0.001), unchanged urine oxalate levels, low oxalate crystaluria, and significantly higher expression (in relative fluorescence units) of the liver (1.59 ± 0.61 vs 0.56 ± 0.39, P = 0.006) and kidney (1.77 ± 0.42 vs 0.69 ± 0.27, P < 0.001) sat-1 protein, but not mRNA. The mRNA expression of Adh1 was female-dominant and that of Hao1 male-dominant, but both were unaffected by EG treatment. Conclusions An increased expression of hepatic and renal oxalate transporting protein sat-1 in EG-treated female rats could protect from hyperoxaluria and oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:26526882

  7. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Hepatitis A Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis * A is a virus , or infection, ...

  8. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Autoimmune Hepatitis Page Content On this page: What is autoimmune ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is autoimmune hepatitis? Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic—or long lasting— ...

  9. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  10. Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase: Characterization, inhibition, and metabolic role in taurine formation

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase, an enzyme that plays a major role in the formation of taurine from cysteine, has been purified from rat liver to homogeneity and characterized. The physical properties of the enzyme were studied, along with its substrate specificity. Multiple forms of the enzyme were found in rat liver, kidney, and brain with isoelectric points ranging from pH 5.6 to 4.9. These multiple forms did not differ in their substrate specificity. It was found by using gel electrofocusing and polyclonal antibodies raised to the liver enzyme that the different forms of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase are identical in the various rat tissues studied. Various inhibitors of the enzyme were tested both in vitro and in vivo in order to evaluate the role of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase in taurine formation in mammalian tissues. In in vitro studies, cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase was irreversibly inhibited by {beta}-ethylidene-DL-aspartate (Ki = 10 mM), and competitive inhibition was found using mercaptomethylsuccinate (Ki = 0.1 mM) and D-cysteinesulfinate (Ki = 0.32 mM) when L-cysteinesulfinate was used as a substrate. In order to be able to test these inhibitors in vivo, L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate was evaluated as a probe for the in vivo measurement of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. The metabolism of cysteinesulfonate and the product of its transamination, {beta}-sulfopyruvate, was studied, and it was found that L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate is an accurate and convenient probe for cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. Using L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate, it was found that D-cysteinesulfinate inhibits cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity by greater than 90% in the intact mouse and that inhibition lasts for up to fifteen hours.

  11. Effect of vitamin B6 status of the lactating rat on taurine biosynthesis and availability to the pup

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbo, P. )

    1990-02-26

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase (CD), a pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate-dependent enzyme, is believed to be rate-limiting for taurine biosynthesis in the rat. Although taurine is synthesized by the pup, it is abundant in milk of the lactating rat. CD activity has been shown to be reduced in vitamin B6-deficient, lactating rats and their pups, without much change in taurine concentration of certain tissues. To further understand the effect of B6 status of lactating rats on taurine biosynthesis and availability to their pups, pregnant dams were fed either a B6-deficient or B6-adequate (20 mg/kg) diet during gestation and 10 days postpartum. After this time period, all dams were gavaged {sup 35}S cysteine and {sup 3}H taurine, milk and tissues of the dams and pups collected, and taurine isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. There was no difference in the {sup 35}S/{sup 3}H ratio in the heart or liver for the adequate and deficient dams. The {sup 35}S/{sup 3}H ratio was slightly but significantly greater in the liver of the B6-adequate pups compared to the B6-deficient pups without a difference in the level of {sup 3}H taurine (pmol/gram protein) in the milk or pup's liver. Results indicate that a B6 deficiency can influence taurine biosynthesis in the pup without impairing secretion of taurine in milk.

  12. Estradiol decreases taurine level by reducing cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase via the estrogen receptor-α in female mice liver.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiwang; Zhao, Jianjun; Cao, Wei; Liu, Jiali; Cui, Sheng

    2015-02-15

    Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) and cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) are two rate-limiting enzymes in taurine de novo synthesis, and their expressions are associated with estrogen concentration. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between 17β-estradiol (E₂) and taurine in female mice liver. We initially observed the mice had lower levels of CSAD, CDO, and taurine during estrus than diestrus. We then, respectively, treated the ovariectomized mice, the cultured hepatocytes, and Hep G2 cells with different doses of E₂, and the CSAD and CDO expressions and taurine levels were analyzed. The results showed that E₂ decreased taurine level in the serum and the cultured cells by inhibiting CSAD and CDO expressions. Furthermore, we identified the molecular receptor types through which E₂ plays its role in regulating taurine synthesis, and our results showed that estrogen receptor-α (ERα) expression was much higher than estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) in the liver and hepatocytes, and the inhibiting effects of E₂ on CSAD, CDO, and taurine level were partially abrogated in the ICI-182,780-pretreated liver and hepatocytes, and in ERα knockout mice. These results indicate that estradiol decreases taurine content by reducing taurine biosynthetic enzyme expression in mice liver.

  13. The Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Membranous Web and Associated Nuclear Transport Machinery Limit Access of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Viral Replication Sites

    PubMed Central

    Neufeldt, Christopher J.; Joyce, Michael A.; Van Buuren, Nicholas; Levin, Aviad; Kirkegaard, Karla; Gale Jr., Michael; Tyrrell, D. Lorne J.; Wozniak, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-strand RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and a major cause of liver disease worldwide. HCV replicates in the cytoplasm, and the synthesis of viral proteins induces extensive rearrangements of host cell membranes producing structures, collectively termed the membranous web (MW). The MW contains the sites of viral replication and assembly, and we have identified distinct membrane fractions derived from HCV-infected cells that contain replication and assembly complexes enriched for viral RNA and infectious virus, respectively. The complex membrane structure of the MW is thought to protect the viral genome limiting its interactions with cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and thereby preventing activation of cellular innate immune responses. Here we show that PRRs, including RIG-I and MDA5, and ribosomes are excluded from viral replication and assembly centers within the MW. Furthermore, we present evidence that components of the nuclear transport machinery regulate access of proteins to MW compartments. We show that the restricted assess of RIG-I to the MW can be overcome by the addition of a nuclear localization signal sequence, and that expression of a NLS-RIG-I construct leads to increased immune activation and the inhibition of viral replication. PMID:26863439

  14. The Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Membranous Web and Associated Nuclear Transport Machinery Limit Access of Pattern Recognition Receptors to Viral Replication Sites.

    PubMed

    Neufeldt, Christopher J; Joyce, Michael A; Van Buuren, Nicholas; Levin, Aviad; Kirkegaard, Karla; Gale, Michael; Tyrrell, D Lorne J; Wozniak, Richard W

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-strand RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and a major cause of liver disease worldwide. HCV replicates in the cytoplasm, and the synthesis of viral proteins induces extensive rearrangements of host cell membranes producing structures, collectively termed the membranous web (MW). The MW contains the sites of viral replication and assembly, and we have identified distinct membrane fractions derived from HCV-infected cells that contain replication and assembly complexes enriched for viral RNA and infectious virus, respectively. The complex membrane structure of the MW is thought to protect the viral genome limiting its interactions with cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and thereby preventing activation of cellular innate immune responses. Here we show that PRRs, including RIG-I and MDA5, and ribosomes are excluded from viral replication and assembly centers within the MW. Furthermore, we present evidence that components of the nuclear transport machinery regulate access of proteins to MW compartments. We show that the restricted assess of RIG-I to the MW can be overcome by the addition of a nuclear localization signal sequence, and that expression of a NLS-RIG-I construct leads to increased immune activation and the inhibition of viral replication. PMID:26863439

  15. Analysis of the repaglinide concentration increase produced by gemfibrozil and itraconazole based on the inhibition of the hepatic uptake transporter and metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Toshiyuki; Hisaka, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Ito, Kiyomi

    2013-02-01

    The plasma concentration of repaglinide is reported to increase greatly when given after repeated oral administration of itraconazole and gemfibrozil. The present study analyzed this interaction based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating inhibition of the hepatic uptake transporter and metabolic enzymes involved in repaglinide disposition. Firstly, the plasma concentration profiles of inhibitors (itraconazole, gemfibrozil, and gemfibrozil glucuronide) were reproduced by a PBPK model to obtain their pharmacokinetic parameters. The plasma concentration profiles of repaglinide were then analyzed by a PBPK model, together with those of the inhibitors, assuming a competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 by itraconazole, mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8 by gemfibrozil glucuronide, and inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 by gemfibrozil and its glucuronide. The plasma concentration profiles of repaglinide were well reproduced by the PBPK model based on the above assumptions, and the optimized values for the inhibition constants (0.0676 nM for itraconazole against CYP3A4; 14.2 μM for gemfibrozil against OATP1B1; and 5.48 μM for gemfibrozil glucuronide against OATP1B1) and the fraction of repaglinide metabolized by CYP2C8 (0.801) were consistent with the reported values. The validity of the obtained parameters was further confirmed by sensitivity analyses and by reproducing the repaglinide concentration increase produced by concomitant gemfibrozil administration at various timings/doses. The present findings suggested that the reported concentration increase of repaglinide, suggestive of synergistic effects of the coadministered inhibitors, can be quantitatively explained by the simultaneous inhibition of the multiple clearance pathways of repaglinide.

  16. Fentanyl pharmacokinetics is not dependent on hepatic uptake by organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 in human beings.

    PubMed

    Ziesenitz, Victoria C; König, Sonja K; Mahlke, Nina; Jantos, Ricarda; Skopp, Gisela; Weiss, Johanna; Haefeli, Walter E; Mikus, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    A recent study investigating the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in Sprague-Dawley rats suggested fentanyl to be a substrate of rat organic anion-transporting polypeptide Oatp. In human beings, the most important OATP for the pharmacokinetics of many drugs is OATP1B1. Therefore, genetic variants of OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1) might modulate fentanyl pharmacokinetics and efficacy in human beings. Sixteen healthy male and female volunteers, homozygous for SLCO1B1*1a (genetic wild-type) (n = 11) or *15 (deficient haplotype carrying the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs2306283 and rs4149056 and exhibiting altered transport activity; n = 5), were included in this randomized crossover study. The participants received fentanyl (5 μg/kg) intravenously alone or with the OATP inhibitor rifampicin (600 mg single oral dose). The pharmacokinetics of fentanyl and norfentanyl were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, fentanyl uptake in vitro was evaluated in OATP1B1 overexpressing HEK293 cells and compared to a mock-transfected cell line. In the clinical trial, fentanyl clearance was 18.8 ± 8.2 mL/min. kg in SLCO1B1*1a and 19.5 ± 1.8 mL/min/kg in SLCO1B1*15 carriers and not significantly different between the genotypes. During rifampicin, fentanyl clearance was 15.0 ± 4.4 mL/min/kg in SLCO1B1*1a and 16.7 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg in SLCO1B1*15 carriers (p > 0.5). In addition, in vitro data also indicate that fentanyl is not transported by OATP1B1. In conclusion, our data indicate that OATP1B1 has no impact on fentanyl pharmacokinetics in human beings.

  17. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. Results There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59–1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69–1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3–126.6, 126.7–152.9, and 153.0–308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37–1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26–0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction < 0.01). Conclusions We observed no overall association between serum taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS. PMID:26866594

  18. Taurine and cholestasis associated to TPN. Experimental study in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Moran, J M; Salas, J; Botello, F; Macià, E; Climent, V

    2005-10-01

    Taurine seems to be essential in the newborn for bile acid (BA) tauroconjugation, and its deficiency has been implicated in total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (TPN-AC). Our purpose was to study the relationship between taurine (Ta) and TPN-AC in rabbits, which have a similar biliary metabolism to that of humans. We used 40 young rabbits, fed for 10 days according to the following four groups: GA [10] given TPN, with amino acid solution (AA) but without taurine (Ta) or its AA-precursors (methionine, cysteine, and serine); GB [10] the same but only without taurine; GC [10] the same but with taurine and its precursors; and GD [10] the control group with oral nutrition and saline infusion. Complete blood and bile analytical data were obtained and analyzed, including plasma AA and BA. Liver samples were studied under optical and electron microscopy. Serum: In GC there was a 20% increase in the AA-precursors, but paradoxically it was greater in GA. Bile: In GC there was 30% more excretion of total and free BA compared with less than 20% in GA and GB. Regarding toxic BA, there was a 15% decline in GLC3S excretion, but more than 20% in LCA excretion, than in GA and GB. Moreover, in GC the glyco-/tauro-conjugate ratio was worse than in the other groups. Histomorphology: While in GA and GB liver steatosis was diffuse (microsteatohepatitis type), in GC there was macrosteatosis with mitochondria-surrounded lipid droplets. In GA and GB, the canaliculi appeared dilated, with abundant bile plugs and loss of microvilli. There are signs that taurine may protect against TPN-AC. The mechanism does not seem to be BA tauroconjugation, but probably taurine's antioxidant, membrane stabilization (with Ca2+ and HCO3-), and/or osmotic effects. PMID:16172874

  19. Characterization of taurine binding, uptake, and release in the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Hanretta, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    The neurotransmitter criteria of specific receptors, inactivation, and release were experimentally examined for taurine in the hypothalamus. Specific membrane binding and synaptosomal uptake of taurine both displayed high affinity and low affinity systems. The neurotransmitter criterion of release was studied in superfused synaptosomes. Exposure of synaptosomes which had been preloaded with a concentration of (/sup 3/H)taurine in the high affinity uptake range (1.5 ..mu..M) to either 56 mM K/sup +/ or 100 ..mu..M veratridine evoked a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent release. Exposure of synaptosomes which had been preloaded with a concentration of (/sup 3/H)taurine in the low affinity uptake range (2 mM) to 56 mM K/sup +/ induced a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent release, whereas 100 /sup +/M veratridine did not, either in the presence or absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. Based on these results, as well as other observations, a model is proposed in which the high affinity uptake system is located on neuronal membranes and the low affinity uptake system is located on glial membranes. The mechanisms of binding, uptake, and release in relation to the cellular location of each are discussed. We conclude that the neurotransmitter criterion of activation by re-uptake is satisfied for taurine in the hypothalamus. However, the failure to demonstrate both a specific taurine receptor site and a Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent evoked release, necessitates that we conclude that taurine appears not to function as a hypothalamic neurotransmitter, at least not in the classical sense.

  20. Effects of simvastatin and taurine on delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    LIN, CHENG; ZHAO, YUANLI; WAN, GANG; ZHU, ANLIN; WANG, HAO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to observe the effects of simvastatin and taurine on delayed cerebral vasospasm (DCVS) following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rabbits. A total of 48 New Zealand white rabbits were allocated at random into four groups (control, SAH, SAH + simvastatin and SAH + taurine groups; n=12 each). The rabbit model of DCVS was established using a double hemorrhage method, which involved injecting autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna in the SAH groups. The SAH + simvastatin group was administered oral simvastatin (5 mg/kg) daily between days 0–6. The SAH + taurine group was administered oral taurine (50 mg/kg) daily between days 0–6. Starch (50 mg/kg) was administered orally to the animals in the other two groups (control and SAH groups). The control group were not subjected to any other injections or treatment. The internal diameter and internal diameter/wall thickness of the basilar artery (BA) were measured. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were determined using immunohistochemical and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods following the sacrifice of all animals on day 7. The activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the BA was also measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The BA walls in the SAH + simvastatin and SAH + taurine groups exhibited reduced narrowing and corrugation of the tunica elastica interna compared with the SAH group. At the protein and cDNA levels, it was found that cerebral vasospasm of the BA in the SAH + simvastatin and SAH + taurine groups was alleviated, as indicated by the reduced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NF-κB compared with the SAH group (P<0.05). In conclusion, simvastatin and taurine reduced DCVS following SAH in rabbits, which suggests that these compounds may exert anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:27073449

  1. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  2. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  3. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in particular genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, can complement historic and archaeological records to elucidate these past events. However, SNP ascertainment in cattle has been optimized for taurine breeds, imposing limitations to the study of diversity in zebu cattle. As amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are discovered and genotyped as the samples are assayed, this type of marker is free of ascertainment bias. In order to obtain unbiased assessments of genetic differentiation and structure in taurine and zebu cattle, we analyzed a dataset of 135 AFLP markers in 1,593 samples from 13 zebu and 58 taurine breeds, representing nine continental areas. Results We found a geographical pattern of expected heterozygosity in European taurine breeds decreasing with the distance from the domestication centre, arguing against a large-scale introgression from European or African aurochs. Zebu cattle were found to be at least as diverse as taurine cattle. Western African zebu cattle were found to have diverged more from Indian zebu than South American zebu. Model-based clustering and ancestry informative markers analyses suggested that this is due to taurine introgression. Although a large part of South American zebu cattle also descend from taurine cows, we did not detect significant levels of taurine ancestry in these breeds, probably because of systematic backcrossing with zebu bulls. Furthermore, limited zebu introgression was found in Podolian taurine breeds in Italy. Conclusions The assessment of cattle diversity reported here contributes an unbiased global view to genetic differentiation and structure of taurine and zebu cattle

  4. Viral hepatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Deinhardt, F.; Gust, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Three forms of viral hepatitis can be recognized: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis non-A, non-B. Hepatitis A is caused by a picornavirus, is transmitted by the faceal—oral route, does not become chronic, and no chronic virus carriers exist. The virus can be grown in cell cultures, and killed as well as live attenuated virus vaccines are under development. Hepatitis B is caused by an enveloped virus containing a circular, double-stranded form of DNA. The disease is transmitted parenterally through inoculation of blood or blood products containing virus or through close personal contact with a virus-positive person. Hepatitis B becomes chronic in a certain number of cases and can lead to cirrhosis and primary liver cell carcinoma. The blood and certain body secretions of individuals with a persistent or chronic infection may remain infectious for many years. The hepatitis B virus cannot be grown in cell cultures but the entire genome has been sequenced and cloned in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. An inactivated virus vaccine has been prepared from hepatitis B surface antigen present in the plasma of hepatitis B virus carriers and further vaccines are under development. The agents of hepatitis non-A, non-B have not been identified. It is possible to distinguish between a predominantly parenterally transmitted and an orally transmitted form of hepatitis non-A, non-B. The latter is reported to be caused by a picornavirus that does not, however, have any antigenic relationship with hepatitis A virus. PMID:6817933

  5. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, E A

    1995-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis can present as either acute or chronic disease in children. Clinical and laboratory features, including association with extrahepatic autoimmune syndromes and prompt response to immunosuppressive treatment, circulating autoantibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia, suggest an immune etiology. However, the disease mechanism remains uncertain. Different types of autoimmune hepatitis are defined on the basis of which autoantibodies are present: anti-smooth muscle (type 1), anti-liver/kidney microsomal (type 2), or anti-soluble liver antigen (type 3). Diseases which may be clinically similar to autoimmune hepatitis must be excluded before the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis is established: Wilson's disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis, chronic hepatitis B or C, and drug-induced liver disease are among the most important entities. Corticosteroids alone or with azathioprine constitute the usual treatment for autoimmune hepatitis. Although some children achieve a complete remission, or even recovery, and can stop immunosuppressive treatment, others required low-dose prednisone treatment indefinitely.

  6. Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with transportation and energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the implication of energy usage as it applies to the area of transportation. Some topics covered are efficiencies of various transportation…

  7. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. ...

  8. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  9. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...

  10. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  11. Taurine release by astrocytes modulates osmosensitive glycine receptor tone and excitability in the adult supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Choe, Katrina Y; Olson, James E; Bourque, Charles W

    2012-09-01

    Cells can release the free amino acid taurine through volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs), and it has been hypothesized that taurine released from glial cells is capable of inhibiting action potential (AP) firing by activating neuronal glycine receptors (GlyRs) (Hussy et al., 1997). Although an inhibitory GlyR tone is widely observed in the brain, it remains unknown whether this specifically reflects gliotransmission because most neurons also express VRACs and other endogenous molecules can activate GlyRs. We found that VRACs are absent in neurons of the rat supraoptic nucleus (SON), suggesting that glial cells are the exclusive source of taurine in this nucleus. Application of strychnine to rat hypothalamic explants caused a depolarization of SON neurons associated with a decrease of chloride conductance and could excite these cells in the absence of fast synaptic transmission. This inhibitory GlyR tone was eliminated by pharmacological blockade of VRACs, by cellular taurine depletion, by metabolic inactivation of glia with fluorocitrate, and after retraction of astrocytic processes that intercalate neuronal somata and dendrites. Finally, GlyR tone varied inversely with extracellular fluid tonicity to mediate the osmotic control of AP firing by SON neurons. These findings establish taurine as a physiological gliotransmitter and show that gliotransmission is a spatially constrained process that can be modulated by the morphological rearrangement of astrocytes. PMID:22956842

  12. Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, ameliorates arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Mahua; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C

    2007-12-01

    Arsenic is a potent environmental toxin. Present study has been designed to evaluate the protective role of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) against arsenic induced cytotoxicity in murine hepatocytes. Sodium arsenite (NaAsO(2)) was chosen as the source of arsenic. Incubation of hepatocytes with the toxin (1 mM) for 2 h reduced the cell viability as well as intra-cellular antioxidant power. Increased activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) due to toxin exposure confirmed membrane damage. Toxin treatment caused reduction in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In addition, the same treatment reduced the level of glutathione (GSH), elevated the level of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and increased the extent of lipid peroxidation. Incubation of hepatocytes with taurine, both prior to and in combination with NaAsO(2), attenuated the extent of lipid peroxidation and enhanced the activities of enzymatic as well as non enzymatic antioxidants. Besides, taurine administration normalized the arsenic-induced enhanced levels of the marker enzymes ALT and ALP in hepatocytes. The cytoprotective activity of taurine against arsenic poisoning was found to be comparable to that of a known antioxidant, vitamin C. Combining all, the results suggest that taurine protects mouse hepatocytes against arsenic induced cytotoxicity.

  13. Possible anxiolytic effects of taurine in the mouse elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si Wei; Kong, Wei Xi; Zhang, Yi Jing; Li, Yu Lei; Mi, Xiao Juan; Mu, Xiao Shuo

    2004-08-01

    The effects of taurine, an inhibitory amino acid, on the behavior of male mice were examined in the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety. Acute taurine treatment (60 mg/kg, PO) significantly increased the percentage of time spent in the open arms. Moreover, when taurine was administered daily for seven days and the plus-maze test was conducted 40 minutes after the last administration, a significant increase of the percentage of time in the open arms was observed even at dose of 2.5 mg/kg, however the open arm entries and the total entries were unaffected at any dose tested. In order to get a comprehensive profile of drug action, detailed behavioral analyses were further exerted. Single administration of 60 mg/kg taurine can significantly reduce the total rears. The results suggest that taurine have some anxiolytic-like properties, although its effects seem more limited and are not consistent with those presented by classic anxiolytics, such as diazepam.

  14. Effect of Oral Taurine on Morbidity and Mortality in Elderly Hip Fracture Patients: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Bruins, Arnoud A.; Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Witlox, Joost; Teerlink, Tom; Schoorl, Margreet G.; De Bandt, Jean Pascal; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Hip fracture patients represent a large part of the elderly surgical population and face severe postoperative morbidity and excessive mortality compared to adult surgical hip fracture patients. Low antioxidant status and taurine deficiency is common in the elderly, and may negatively affect postoperative outcome. We hypothesized that taurine, an antioxidant, could improve clinical outcome in the elderly hip fracture patient. A double blind randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial was conducted on elderly hip fracture patients. Supplementation started after admission and before surgery up to the sixth postoperative day. Markers of oxidative status were measured during hospitalization, and postoperative outcome was monitored for one year after surgery. Taurine supplementation did not improve in-hospital morbidity, medical comorbidities during the first year, or mortality during the first year. Taurine supplementation lowered postoperative oxidative stress, as shown by lower urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels (Generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis average difference over time; regression coefficient (Beta): −0.54; 95% CI: −1.08–−0.01; p = 0.04), blunted plasma malondialdehyde response (Beta: 1.58; 95% CI: 0.00–3.15; p = 0.05) and a trend towards lower lactate to pyruvate ratio (Beta: −1.10; 95% CI: −2.33–0.12; p = 0.08). We concluded that peri-operative taurine supplementation attenuated postoperative oxidative stress in elderly hip fracture patients, but did not improve postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:26035756

  15. Effect of taurine on the proteomic profile of the cytosolic and microsomal fractions of rat hepatocytes during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Sharanova, N E; Vasilyev, A V; Gapparov, M M G

    2012-06-01

    The proteomic features of the cytosolic and microsomal fractions of rat hepatocytes were studied during long-term dietary consumption of taurine (12 months) as a modulator of energy homeostasis. We identified proteomic markers of the effect of taurine on regulation of cell homeostasis. A protein with unknown biological function was revealed.

  16. Fusidic Acid Inhibits Hepatic Transporters and Metabolic Enzymes: Potential Cause of Clinical Drug-Drug Interaction Observed with Statin Coadministration.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anshul; Harris, Jennifer J; Lin, Jianrong; Bulgarelli, James P; Birmingham, Bruce K; Grimm, Scott W

    2016-10-01

    Fusidic acid (FA), which was approved in the 1960s in many European and Asian countries, has gained renewed interest due to its continued effectiveness against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus As rhabdomyolysis has been reported upon coadministration of FA with statins, we aimed to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to FA-statin drug-drug interactions. Because of the association between rhabdomyolysis and increased exposure to statins, we investigated if cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and transporters involved in the disposition of various statins are inhibited by FA. FA was found to inhibit BCRP and OATP1B1 but not P-gp. In overexpressing cell systems, FA inhibited BCRP-mediated efflux (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], ∼50 to 110 μM) and OATP1B1-mediated uptake (IC50, ∼4 to 35 μM) of statins at clinically relevant concentrations achievable in the intestine and liver (based on a 550-mg oral dose of FA, the expected maximum theoretical gastrointestinal concentration is ∼4 mM, and the maximum total or unbound concentration in the inlet to the liver was reported to be up to 223 μM or 11 μM, respectively, upon multiple dosing). Similarly, FA inhibited metabolism of statins in human liver microsomes (IC50, ∼17 to 195 μM). These data suggest that FA inhibits at least 3 major dispositional pathways (BCRP, OATP1B1, and CYP3A) and thus affects the clearance of several statins. We confirmed that FA is eliminated via phase 1 metabolism (primarily via CYP3A); however, there is also some phase 2 metabolism (mediated primarily by UGT1A1). Taken together, these data provide evidence for molecular mechanisms that may explain the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis when FA is administered with statins.

  17. Caffeamide 36-13 Regulates the Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Signs of High-Fat-Fed Mice on Glucose Transporter 4, AMPK Phosphorylation, and Regulated Hepatic Glucose Production

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Shih, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    This study was to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of (E)-3-[3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-1-(piperidin-1-yl)prop-2-en-1-one] (36-13) (TS), one of caffeic acid amide derivatives, on high-fat (HF-) fed mice. The C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the control (CON) group and the experimental group, which was firstly fed a HF diet for 8 weeks. Then, the HF group was subdivided into four groups and was given TS orally (including two doses) or rosiglitazone (Rosi) or vehicle for 4 weeks. Blood, skeletal muscle, and tissues were examined by measuring glycaemia and dyslipidemia-associated events. TS effectively prevented HF diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglyceride, insulin, leptin, and free fatty acid (FFA) and weights of visceral fa; moreover, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. TS treatment significantly increased the protein contents of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle; TS also significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation in liver, whereas it reduced the expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Moreover, TS enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (phospho-AMPK) both in skeletal muscle and liver tissue. Therefore, it is possible that the activation of AMPK by TS resulted in enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, contrasting with diminished gluconeogenesis in liver. TS exhibits hypolipidemic effect by decreasing the expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS). Thus, antidiabetic properties of TS occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production by PEPCK and G6Pase downregulation and improved insulin sensitization. Thus, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic state by TS in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of GLUT4, G6Pase, and FAS and phosphorylation of AMPK. PMID:25140189

  18. Positive correlation between serum taurine and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Zhao, Xu; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum taurine level and serum adiponectin or leptin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups for a period of 8 weeks (normal diet, N group; high-fat diet, HF group; high-fat diet + taurine, HFT group). Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v), and the same amount of distilled water was orally administrated to N and HF groups. In serum, adiponectin level was higher in HFT group compared to HF group. The serum taurine level was negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC) level and positively correlated with serum adiponectin level. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation has beneficial effects on total cholesterol and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

  19. The effect of taurine on high potassium-and noradrenaline-induced contraction in rabbit ear artery.

    PubMed Central

    Franconi, F.; Giotti, A.; Manzini, S.; Martini, F.; Stendardi, I.; Zilletti, L.

    1982-01-01

    1 Intraluminal administration of taurine (40 mM) did not affect the contractile tone of rabbit isolated ear artery 2 Taurine (10-80 mM) exerted a powerful concentration-dependent, vasodilator action in arteries contracted with high potassium medium. 3 In the same experimental conditions, the taurine analogues beta-alanine and homotaurine, had no effect. 4 Taurine (40-80 mM) did not affect in a significant manner the tonic component of the noradrenaline (5x10(-6 M)-induced contraction. 5 When noradrenaline (5x10(-6M) was followed by the administration of high potassium medium a further increase in intraluminal pressure was observed. Under these conditions taurine (40 mM) reversed specifically the component due to the high potassium medium. PMID:7066608

  20. A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Mark J S

    2014-01-01

    A case study is reported whereby an individual with known sulfite and sulfonamide allergies develops hypersensitivity to taurine above a threshold level as well as to the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium, compounds that are not normally associated with allergic reactions. Sulfites, sulfonamides, taurine and acesulfame potassium all contain a SO3 moiety. Challenge tests provide evidence for the hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium. The subject is also allergic to thiuram mix and thimerosal, sulfur containing compounds, as well as to various food products. This may be the first case where hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium have been documented and reported. Several mechanistic explanations are provided for the untoward reactions to taurine and acesulfame potassium.

  1. Hepatic handling of a synthetic gamma-labeled bile acid (/sup 75/SeHCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Galatola, G.; Jazrawi, R.P.; Bridges, C.; Joseph, A.E.; Northfield, T.C.

    1988-03-01

    /sup 75/Se-homocholic acid-taurine (/sup 75/SeHCAT) is the first available gamma-labeled bile acid, and should therefore be handled more efficiently and specifically by the liver than previous hepatoscintigraphic agents. We have measured serum and hepatic kinetics for /sup 75/SeHCAT, and compared them with those for the conventional hepatobiliary scintigraphic agent 99mTc-hepatoiminodiacetic acid, and with serum kinetics for the corresponding natural bile acid, (/sup 14/C)cholic acid-taurine. We used a dynamic scintigraphic technique and serial blood sampling in 8 subjects. Initial hepatic uptake rate was identical to initial serum disappearance rate (14% dose/min) for /sup 75/SeHCAT, but significantly lower for 99mTc-hepatoiminodiacetic acid (6% vs. 14% dose/min, p less than 0.001). Hepatic transit time was shorter for /sup 75/SeHCAT (13 min vs. 22 min, p less than 0.02), net hepatic excretory rate was more rapid (1.4% vs. 0.8% dose/min, p less than 0.001), and urinary excretion was lower (1.0% vs. 9.0% dose, p less than 0.001). Initial and late-plasma disappearance rates were significantly lower for /sup 75/SeHCAT (14.3% and 1.5% dose/min) than for (/sup 14/C)cholic acid-taurine (21.3% and 2.8% dose/min, respectively), and plasma clearance was also lower (2/sup 75/ vs. 670 ml/min). In vitro, /sup 75/SeHCAT was bound to serum proteins more completely than (/sup 14/C)cholic acid-taurine (90.4% vs. 86.5%, p less than 0.005). We conclude that /sup 75/SeHCAT provides a hepatoscintigraphic agent that is handled more efficiently and specifically by the liver than the conventionally used agent 99mTc-hepatoiminodiacetic acid. It is not cleared from the serum as rapidly as (/sup 14/C)cholic acid-taurine, probably due to its stronger protein binding. The clinical value of /sup 75/SeHCAT in assessing liver disease should be investigated.

  2. Antioxidant properties of taurine in rat alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Castranova, V.; Banks, M.A.; Porter, D.W.; Martin, W.G. West Virginia Univ., Morgantown )

    1990-02-26

    Isolated rat alveolar macrophages (RAM) which had taken-up and accumulated extracellular (0-500 {mu}M) taurine (TAU) were exposed to 0.45 {plus minus} 0.05 ppm ozone for 30 minutes in a modified tissue culture flask containing TAU-supplemented medium. Recovered cells were assayed for oxidant damage and media analyzed for leakage of intracellular components. Cell viability significantly increased, while recovery of cells decreased (possibly due to increased adherence) with increasing TAU. At 100 {mu}M (rat plasma TAU level), TAU protected against the ozone-induced increase in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence, diminished leakages of lipid peroxidation products and protein into the medium, and partially restored the ozone-inactivated Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity of RAM. Efflux of oxidized glutathione was maximized and K{sup +} leakage was minimized by the addition of 250 {mu}M TAU. At 250-500 {mu}M TAU, leakages of lipid peroxidation products and protein were enhanced, while the intracellular TAU content dramatically increased. These results indicate that TAU has both direct and indirect antioxidant properties at low levels and pro-oxidant properties at high levels in RAM.

  3. Simultaneous Spectral Editing for γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Taurine Using Double Quantum Coherence Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hao; Peeling, James

    2000-03-01

    Conventional double quantum (DQ) editing techniques recover resonances of one metabolite at a time and are thus inefficient for monitoring metabolic changes involving several metabolites. A DQ coherence transfer double editing sequence using a dual-band DQ coherence read pulse is described here. The sequence permits simultaneous spectral editing for two metabolites with similar J coupling constants in a single scan. Simultaneous editing for taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is demonstrated using solution phantoms and rat brain tissue. Selectivity of the double editing sequence for the target metabolites is as good as that achieved using conventional DQ editing which selects each metabolite individually. With experimental parameters of the double editing sequence chosen to optimize GABA editing, the sensitivity for GABA detection is the same as that with GABA editing only, while the sensitivity for taurine detection is decreased slightly compared to that with taurine editing only.

  4. Novel validated spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and human urine.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El Din, M K; Wahba, M E K

    2015-03-01

    Two sensitive, selective, economic and validated spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine. Method Ι is based on fluorimetric determination of the amino acid through its reaction with Hantzsch reagent to form a highly fluorescent product measured at 490 nm after excitation at 419 nm. Method ΙΙ is based on the reaction of taurine with tetracyanoethylene yielding a fluorescent charge transfer complex, which was measured at λex /em of (360 nm/450 nm). The proposed methods were subjected to detailed validation procedures, and were statistically compared with the reference method, where the results obtained were in good agreement. Method Ι was further applied to determine taurine in energy drinks and spiked human urine giving promising results. Moreover, the stoichiometry of the reactions was studied, and reaction mechanisms were postulated.

  5. Eye Findings on Vigabatrin and Taurine Treatment in Two Patients with Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Gabriella-Ana; Hukin, Juliette; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia G; Aroichane, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    We describe for the first time two patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency, who were found to have abnormal electroretinogram (ERG) examinations at baseline, or 6 months after vigabatrin treatment was started. This was somewhat reversible with L-taurine treatment, or minimally progressive. The mechanism of injury to the retina may be induced by elevations of γ-aminobutyric acid causing peripheral photoreceptor and ganglion cell damage, and this can be exacerbated by the use of vigabatrin. The use of taurine supplementation in tandem with vigabatrin may allow reversal of retinopathy and mitigate or slow down further deterioration. Further prospective clinical trials are required to evaluate this further. We recommend starting L-taurine therapy together with vigabatrin if a trial of vigabatrin is commenced in a patient with SSADH deficiency. Close monitoring of visual fields or ERG is also recommended at baseline and during vigabatrin therapy. PMID:27104484

  6. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Marcais, O; Larrey, D

    1994-01-01

    Acute and chronic autoimmune hepatitis are uncommon inflammatory liver diseases, mainly occurring in young women, in association with hypergammaglobulinemia and serum autoantibodies. Different types have been described: type 1 characterized by anti-smooth muscle and anti-nuclear antibodies; type 2 characterized by anti-LKM1 antibodies; type 3 characterized by anti-SLA antibodies. Other types, still not clearly defined, may exist. Autoimmune hepatitis are associated with HLA A1 B8 DR3 and HLA DR4. Without any treatment, the disease leads to cirrhosis and, uncommonly, to fulminant hepatitis. Large doses of corticosteroids usually allow to control the disease. Relapse of hepatitis is frequent after corticosteroid withdrawal. Concomitant administration of immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine allows to reduce corticosteroid dosage and contributes to maintain the remission of the disease. Liver transplantation may be indicated in cases of severe cirrhosis or fulminant hepatitis.

  7. Post-operative monitoring of cortical taurine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    De Micheli, E; Pinna, G; Alfieri, A; Caramia, G; Bianchi, L; Colivicchi, M A; Della Corte, L; Bricolo, A

    2000-01-01

    Intracerebral MD enables the retrieval of endogenous substances from the extracellular fluid (ECF) of the brain and has been demonstrated to be a sensitive technique for early detection of subtle vasospasm-induced neurometabolic abnormalities in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to monitor cortical extracellular concentrations of energy metabolism markers, such as glucose and lactate, neurotransmitter amino acids, such as glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine to identify any neurochemical patterns of cerebral ischemia. A prospective clinical study was conducted on a group of 16 patients with non-severe SAH operated on within 72 hours after initial bleeding. Following aneurysm clipping, an MD catheter was inserted in the cortical region where vasospasm could be expected to develop, and perfused with artificial CSF at 0.3 microl/min flow rate. Dialysate was collected every 6 hours and then analyzed on High Performance Liquid Cromatography (HPLC) for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine. Mean ECF taurine concentrations ranged from 1.4 + 0.7 to 12.3 + 7.8 micromol/l in single patients: global mean value was 5.8 + 3.8 micromol/l. In this series, the highest absolute taurine value was 25.7 micromol/l, observed in a patient who developed clinical and radiological signs of cerebral ischemia. Nine patients presented clinical disturbances related to cerebral vasospasm. In this setting, representing a mild-to-moderate hypoxic condition, MD data demonstrated that lactate is the most sensitive marker of cellular energy imbalance. Increased lactate levels positively correlated with glutamate (P<0.0001), aspartate (P<0.0001), GABA (P<0.0001) and taurine (P<0.0001) concentrations. These results suggest that also in humans increased taurine levels reflect a condition of cellular stress. This study confirms that MD is a sensitive technique to reveal subtle metabolic abnormalities possibly resulting in cell damage.

  8. Perinatal taurine exposure alters renal potassium excretion mechanisms in adult conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Malila, Pisamai; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J Michael

    2010-08-24

    Perinatal taurine exposure has long-term effects on the arterial pressure and renal function. This study tests its influence on renal potassium excretion in young adult, conscious rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow and given water alone (C), 3% beta-alanine in water (taurine depletion, TD) or 3% taurine in water (taurine supplementation, TS), either from conception until delivery (fetal period; TDF or TSF) or from delivery until weaning (lactation period; TDL or TSL). In Experiment 1, male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water, while in Experiment 2, beta-alanine and taurine were treated from conception until weaning and then female pups were fed normal rat chow and 5% glucose in drinking water (CG, TDG or TSG) or water alone (CW, TDW or TSW). At 7-8 weeks of age, renal potassium excretion was measured at rest and after an acute saline load (5% of body weight) in conscious, restrained rats. Although all male groups displayed similar renal potassium excretion, TSF rats slightly increased fractional potassium excretion at rest but not in response to saline load, whereas TDF did the opposite. Plasma potassium concentration was only slightly altered by the diet manipulations. In female offspring, none of the perinatal treatments significantly altered renal potassium excretion at rest or after saline load. High sugar intake slightly decreased potassium excretion at rest in TDG and TSG, but only the TDG group displayed a decreased response to saline load. The present data indicates that perinatal taurine exposure only mildly influences renal potassium excretion in adult male and female rats.

  9. Effect of taurine supplementation on fat and energy absorption in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    De Curtis, M; Santamaria, F; Ercolini, P; Vittoria, L; De Ritis, G; Garofalo, V; Ciccimarra, F

    1992-09-01

    In 10 children with cystic fibrosis and persisting steatorrhoea, supplementation with taurine (30-40 mg/kg/day) was given for two months as an adjunct to the usual pancreatic enzyme treatment. A three day fat and energy balance was performed in patients with cystic fibrosis, before and after the supplementation, and in seven healthy controls who did not receive taurine. Faecal fat was measured by a gravimetric method and stool energy was determined using a bomb calorimeter. Patients with cystic fibrosis, before and after taurine, and healthy controls received the same fat and energy intake (calculated by a dietitian). In patients with cystic fibrosis taurine did not produce any improvement of steatorrhoea (mean (SD) faecal fat 8.7 (3.3) v 11.2 (7.0) g/day, respectively before and after the supplementation), of faecal energy loss (0.978 (0.468) v 1.133 (0.539) MJ/day), of faecal fat expressed as percent of fat intake (13.4 (5.6) v 15.1 (9.8)%), and of faecal energy expressed as percent of energy intake (9.9 (3.6) v 11.2 (5.7)%). Healthy controls had significant lower fat (3.5 (2.3) g/day) and energy 0.576 (0.355) MJ/day faecal losses. In conclusion, taurine failed to decrease significantly fat and energy losses. Our study does not support the use of taurine supplementation in the nutritional management of cystic fibrosis. PMID:1417050

  10. Taurine ameliorates water avoidance stress-induced degenerations of gastrointestinal tract and liver.

    PubMed

    Zeybek, Ali; Ercan, Feriha; Cetinel, Sule; Cikler, Esra; Sağlam, Beyhan; Sener, Göksel

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the role of taurine, is a potent free radical scavenger, on water avoidance stress (WAS)-induced degeneration of the gastric, ileal, and colonic mucosa and liver parenchyma. Wistar albino rats were exposed to chronic WAS (WAS group) 2 hr daily for 5 days. After exposing animals to chronic WAS (WAS + taurine group), 50 mg/kg taurine was injected IP for 3 days. Control animals received vehicle solution only. The stomach, ileum, colon, and liver samples were investigated under light microscope for histopathologic changes. To demonstrate the topography of the luminal mucosa of the stomach, ileum, and colon, scanning electron microscope was used and for hepatocyte ultastructure transmission electron microscope was used. Malondialdehyde (MDA, a biomarker of oxidative damage) and glutathione (GSH, a biomarker of protective oxidative injury) levels were also determined in all tissues. In the WAS group, the stomach epithelium showed ulceration in some areas, dilatations of the gastric glands, and degeneration of gastric glandular cells; prominent congestion of the capillaries was apparent. In the WAS group, severe vascular congestion was observed along with degeneration of ileal and colonic epithelium. Prominent vascular congestion and dilated sinusoids, activated Kupffer cells, dilated granular endoplasmic reticulum membranes, and focal pyknotic nuclei were observed in liver parenchyma. MDA levels (stomach, P < 0.01; ileum, colon, and liver P < 0.05) were increased and GSH levels (P < 0.01) were decreased in all tissues in the WAS group compared with the control group. The morphology of gastric, ileal, and colonic mucosa and liver parenchyma in the WAS + taurine group (stomach and ileum, P < 0.05; colon and liver, P < 0.01) showed a significant amelioration when compared to the WAS group. Increased MDA and decreased GSH levels in the WAS group were ameliorated with taurine treatment. Based on the results, taurine supplementation effectively attenuates the

  11. Effects of taurine on cadmium exposure in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of Carassius auratus

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Il-Su; Shin, Kyung-Ok; Chung, Keun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the effects of taurine on cadmium poisoning in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of wild goldfish. For this experiment, 80 wild goldfish were divided into four experimental groups: 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 0 mg/L of taurine (Group I), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 20 mg/kg of taurine (Group II), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 40 mg/L of taurine (Group III), and 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 80 mg/L of taurine (Group IV). The results were as follows: The cadmium concentration in muscle tissue of wild goldfish was 0.65-3.21 mg/kg wet wt in Group I, whereas it decreased in Group IV. Levels of cadmium in gill tissue of wild goldfish were 16.57-42.39 mg/kg wet wt in Group I, 15.23-43.01 mg/kg wet wt in Group II, 15.11-39.56 mg/kg wet wt in Group III, and 13.15-38.55 mg/kg wet wt in Group IV (P < 0.05), suggesting that the cadmium concentration decreased in the experimental groups compared to control. The cadmium concentration in bone tissue of wild goldfish after 28 days was 0.52-9.75 mg/kg in Group II, whereas it increased in Group III (P < 0.05). In conclusion, taurine may have a preventive effect against cadmium accumulation in biological tissues. PMID:23423777

  12. Taurine ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by reducing insulin resistance and leptin level in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Da Hee; Kim, Jung Yeon; Lee, Bong Gn; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja; Chung, Hyunju; Yoo, Myung Chul; Yang, Hyung-In; Kang, Ja-Heon; Hwang, Yoo Chul; Ahn, Kue Jeong; Chung, Ho-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether taurine supplementation improves metabolic disturbances and diabetic complications in an animal model for type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether taurine has therapeutic effects on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and diabetic complications in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term duration of diabetes. Fourteen 50-week-old OLETF rats with chronic diabetes were fed a diet supplemented with taurine (2%) or a non-supplemented control diet for 12 weeks. Taurine reduced blood glucose levels over 12 weeks, and improved OGTT outcomes at 6 weeks after taurine supplementation, in OLETF rats. Taurine significantly reduced insulin resistance but did not improve β-cell function or islet mass. After 12 weeks, taurine significantly decreased serum levels of lipids such as triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Taurine significantly reduced serum leptin, but not adiponectin levels. However, taurine had no therapeutic effect on damaged tissues. Taurine ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, at least in part, by improving insulin sensitivity and leptin modulation in OLETF rats with long-term diabetes. Additional study is needed to investigate whether taurine has the same beneficial effects in human diabetic patients. PMID:23114424

  13. Spectral Editing Technique for the in Vitroand in VivoDetection of Taurine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, D. L.; Norwood, T. J.

    1998-07-01

    In vivo1H NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a useful noninvasive tool for the investigation of numerous metabolic and physiological states. Taurine is potentially a useful indicator in neonate development and is involved in a number of physiological processes. However, it could not previously be observed in thein vivo1H spectrum because of overlap with adjacent resonances. We have developed a spectral editing technique based upon double quantum filtration which allows the taurine resonances to be resolved from adjacent peaks. The experiment is demonstrated both on perchloric acid rodent brain extract and on rodent brain homogenate.

  14. Detection of Taurine in Biological Tissues by 33S NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musio, Roberta; Sciacovelli, Oronzo

    2001-12-01

    The potential of 33S NMR spectroscopy for biochemical investigations on taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is explored. It is demonstrated that 33S NMR spectroscopy allows the selective and unequivocal identification of taurine in biological samples. 33S NMR spectra of homogenated and intact tissues are reported for the first time, together with the spectrum of a living mollusc. Emphasis is placed on the importance of choosing appropriate signal processing methods to improve the quality of the 33S NMR spectra of biological tissues.

  15. Potential role of curcumin and taurine combination therapy on human myeloid leukemic cells propagated in vitro.

    PubMed

    El-Houseini, Motawa E; Refaei, Mohammed Osman; Amin, Ahmed Ibrahim; Abol-Ftouh, Mahmoud A

    2013-10-01

    Curcumin and taurine are natural products that have been used in this study evaluating their therapeutic effect on myeloid leukemic cells propagated in vitro. Sixty patients with myeloid leukemia and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. All patient groups were admitted to the Medical Oncology Department of the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. There were statistically significant differences between treated leukemic cells compared to normal mononuclear leukocytes in cell density, interferon-γ and immunophenotypic profile, mainly CD4+, CD8 + and CD25+. This work highlights the possibility of using curcumin and taurine as a potential useful therapy in the management of patients suffering from chronic and acute myeloid leukemias.

  16. Measuring the orientation of taurine in the active site of the non-heme Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent taurine hydroxylase (TauD) using electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Casey, Thomas M; Grzyska, Piotr K; Hausinger, Robert P; McCracken, John

    2013-09-12

    The position and orientation of taurine near the non-heme Fe(II) center of the α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent taurine hydroxylase (TauD) was measured using Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy. TauD solutions containing Fe(II), α-KG, and natural abundance taurine or specifically deuterated taurine were prepared anaerobically and treated with nitric oxide (NO) to make an S = 3/2 {FeNO}(7) complex that is suitable for robust analysis with EPR spectroscopy. Using ratios of ESEEM spectra collected for TauD samples having natural abundance taurine or deuterated taurine, (1)H and (14)N modulations were filtered out of the spectra and interactions with specific deuterons on taurine could be studied separately. The Hamiltonian parameters used to calculate the amplitudes and line shapes of frequency spectra containing isolated deuterium ESEEM were obtained with global optimization algorithms. Additional statistical analysis was performed to validate the interpretation of the optimized parameters. The strongest (2)H hyperfine coupling was to a deuteron on the C1 position of taurine and was characterized by an effective dipolar distance of 3.90 ± 0.25 Å from the {FeNO}(7) paramagnetic center. The principal axes of this C1-(2)H hyperfine coupling and nuclear quadrupole interaction tensors were found to make angles of 26 ± 5 and 52 ± 17°, respectively, with the principal axis of the {FeNO}(7) zero-field splitting tensor. These results are discussed within the context of the orientation of substrate taurine prior to the initiation of hydrogen abstraction.

  17. Measuring the orientation of taurine in the active site of the non-heme Fe(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent taurine hydroxylase (TauD) using electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Casey, Thomas M; Grzyska, Piotr K; Hausinger, Robert P; McCracken, John

    2013-09-12

    The position and orientation of taurine near the non-heme Fe(II) center of the α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent taurine hydroxylase (TauD) was measured using Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy. TauD solutions containing Fe(II), α-KG, and natural abundance taurine or specifically deuterated taurine were prepared anaerobically and treated with nitric oxide (NO) to make an S = 3/2 {FeNO}(7) complex that is suitable for robust analysis with EPR spectroscopy. Using ratios of ESEEM spectra collected for TauD samples having natural abundance taurine or deuterated taurine, (1)H and (14)N modulations were filtered out of the spectra and interactions with specific deuterons on taurine could be studied separately. The Hamiltonian parameters used to calculate the amplitudes and line shapes of frequency spectra containing isolated deuterium ESEEM were obtained with global optimization algorithms. Additional statistical analysis was performed to validate the interpretation of the optimized parameters. The strongest (2)H hyperfine coupling was to a deuteron on the C1 position of taurine and was characterized by an effective dipolar distance of 3.90 ± 0.25 Å from the {FeNO}(7) paramagnetic center. The principal axes of this C1-(2)H hyperfine coupling and nuclear quadrupole interaction tensors were found to make angles of 26 ± 5 and 52 ± 17°, respectively, with the principal axis of the {FeNO}(7) zero-field splitting tensor. These results are discussed within the context of the orientation of substrate taurine prior to the initiation of hydrogen abstraction. PMID:23937570

  18. Interactions among arsenic, zinc, and taurine in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Uthus, E.O.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    A 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment was done using day-old cockerel chicks to ascertain whether Zn and taurine (Tau), through changing methionine (Met) or sulfate metabolism, affect signs of As deprivation. The dietary variables were supplements of As, 0 or 2 ..mu..g/g; Zn, 10 or 40 ..mu..g/g; and Tau, 0 or 0.84%. The basal diet contained (per g): 15 ng As, 7 ..mu..g Zn, and 5.65 mg Met. For comparison purposes two additional groups of chicks were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2 ..mu..g As, 40 ..mu..G Zn, 0 Tau, and 0.5 Met. After 26 days, Tau supplementation alleviated many perturbations caused by an apparent methionine deficiency. For example, final body wt was increased from 596 g to 741 g. However, Tau was much less effective than Met in inhibiting the elevation in plasma Mo caused by Met lack. An interaction between Tau and Zn affected several indices including liver Zn concentration. Tau decreased the liver Zn concentration when dietary Zn was 40 ..mu..g/g. An interaction between Tau and As affected plasma urea. Supplemental As elevated urea in chicks fed 0 Tau, but depressed urea in chicks fed 0.84% Tau. Kidney arginase tended to follow a similar trend. The findings show that Tau can fulfill some of the Met requirements of chicks and that Tau interacts with Zn and As. Some findings also support the hypothesis that As has a physiological role that affects arginine and Met metabolism.

  19. The neuroprotective effects of taurine against nickel by reducing oxidative stress and maintaining mitochondrial function in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangcheng; He, Mindi; Zhong, Min; Li, Li; Lu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-03-17

    Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the toxicity of nickel. Taurine is recognized as an efficient antioxidant and is essential for mitochondrial function. To investigate whether taurine could protect against the neurotoxicity of nickel, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to various concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2; 0.5mM, 1mM and 2mM) for 24h or to 1mM NiCl2 for various periods (0 h, 12h, 24h and 48 h). Our results showed that taurine efficiently reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by NiCl2. Along with this protective effect, taurine pretreatment not only significantly reversed the increase of ROS production and mitochondrial superoxide concentration, but also attenuated the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration in neurons exposed to NiCl2 for 24h. Moreover, nickel exposure reduced ATP production, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased mtDNA content. These types of oxidative damage in the mitochondria were efficiently ameliorated by taurine pretreatment. Taken together, our results indicate that the neuroprotective effects of taurine against the toxicity of nickel might largely depend on its roles in reducing oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. Taurine may have great pharmacological potential in treating the adverse effects of nickel in the nervous system.

  20. Taurine in drinking water recovers learning and memory in the adult APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin V; Yoon, Jin H; Kang, Bo Ram; Cho, Soo Min; Lee, Sejin; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kim, Joo Won; Cho, Yakdol; Woo, Jiwan; Kim, YoungSoo

    2014-12-12

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD. We orally administered taurine via drinking water to adult APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model for 6 weeks. Taurine treatment rescued cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice up to the age-matching wild-type mice in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests without modifying the behaviours of cognitively normal mice. In the cortex of APP/PS1 mice, taurine slightly decreased insoluble fraction of Aβ. While the exact mechanism of taurine in AD has not yet been ascertained, our results suggest that taurine can aid cognitive impairment and may inhibit Aβ-related damages.

  1. Taurine in drinking water recovers learning and memory in the adult APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin V.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kang, Bo Ram; Cho, Soo Min; Lee, Sejin; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kim, Joo Won; Cho, Yakdol; Woo, Jiwan; Kim, YoungSoo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD. We orally administered taurine via drinking water to adult APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model for 6 weeks. Taurine treatment rescued cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice up to the age-matching wild-type mice in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests without modifying the behaviours of cognitively normal mice. In the cortex of APP/PS1 mice, taurine slightly decreased insoluble fraction of Aβ. While the exact mechanism of taurine in AD has not yet been ascertained, our results suggest that taurine can aid cognitive impairment and may inhibit Aβ-related damages. PMID:25502280

  2. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;161(1):58-66. PMID 24863637 ... Development Conference Statement: Management of hepatitis B. Ann Intern Med . 2009;150:104-10. PMID: 19124811 www. ...

  3. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Change Plan Wallet card for patients to record their alcohol use over a 4-week period as a way to monitor and reduce their drinking behavior. Glossary Definitions of terms commonly used with viral hepatitis and ...

  4. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... All babies should get the vaccine, but older children and adults can get it too. If you travel to countries where Hepatitis B is common, you should get the vaccine. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  5. Hepatic Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Micheal; Forouhar, Faripour; Wu, George Y

    2013-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in affected organs. Pulmonary involvement is the most common site of disease activity. However, hepatic involvement is also common in sarcoidosis, occurring in up to 70% of patients. Most patients with liver involvement are asymptomatic. Therefore, the majority of cases are discovered incidentally, frequently by the finding of elevated liver enzymes. Pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, fatigue, pruritus, and jaundice may be associated with liver involvement. Portal hypertension and cirrhosis are complications linked to long-standing hepatic sarcoidosis. Liver biopsy is usually required to confirm the diagnosis. It is important to differentiate hepatic sarcoidosis from other autoimmune and granulomatous liver diseases. Not all cases of hepatic sarcoidosis require treatment. For symptomatic patients, the first line treatment includes corticosteroids or ursodeoxycholic acid. Various immunosuppressant agents can be used as second line agents. Rarely, severe cases require liver transplantation.

  6. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Heneghan, Michael A; Yeoman, Andrew D; Verma, Sumita; Smith, Alastair D; Longhi, Maria Serena

    2013-10-26

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease of the hepatic parenchyma that can present in acute or chronic forms. In common with many autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis is associated with non-organ-specific antibodies in the context of hepatic autoimmunity. This dichotomy has made definition of a unifying hypothesis in the pathophysiology of the disease difficult, although data from the past 8 years have drawn attention to the role of regulatory T cells. Several triggers have been identified, and the disease arises in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical and biochemical remission is achievable in up to 85% of cases. For the remaining patients, alternative immunosuppression strategies are an option. Liver transplantation provides an excellent outcome for patients with acute liver failure or complications of end-stage liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Variant or overlapping syndromes are worthy of consideration when unexpected disease features arise.

  7. J-Modulation in ID NMR 1H Spectrum of Taurine and Aspartate Using Spin-Echo Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oturak, Halil; Sağlam, Adnan; Bahçeli, Semiha

    1999-05-01

    This study reports on a theoretical calculation of Hahn's spin-echo experiment in case of a model A2B2 spin system with a strongly coupling character and gives the experimental results of one-dimension 1H high-resolution NMR spectra of taurine and aspartate. The calculated amplitudes of the spin-echoes for two different proton groups of taurine are given. Using results of our calculations for taurine, the computer simulations of J-modulation are implemented. It is shown that the agreement be-tween the experimental and simulated spectra is good.

  8. Significance of the taurine-glycine ratio as an indicator of stress

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, N.

    1987-01-01

    For the quantification of stress effects, several methods and systems have been developed. Among others, biochemical techniques seem to be very promising. The following paper deals with the applicability of the taurine-glycine ratio as a biochemical stress index. The effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cu) as well as starvation have been investigated in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

  9. Protective effect of taurine on myocardial antioxidant status in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Shiny, K S; Kumar, S Hari Senthil; Farvin, K H Sabeena; Anandan, R; Devadasan, K

    2005-10-01

    We have examined the protective effect of taurine on the myocardial antioxidant defense system in isoprenaline (isoproterenol)-induced myocardial infarction in rats, an animal model of myocardial infarction in man. Levels of diagnostic marker enzymes in plasma, lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione, and the activity of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes and anti-peroxidative enzymes in the heart tissue were determined. Intraperitoneal administration of taurine significantly prevented the isoprenaline-induced increases in the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase in the plasma of rats. Taurine exerted an antioxidant effect against isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction by preventing the accumulation of lipid peroxides and by maintaining the level of reduced glutathione and the activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase at near normality. The results indicated that the cardioprotective potential of taurine was probably due to the increase of the activity of the free radical enzymes, or to a counteraction of free radicals by its antioxidant nature, or to a strengthening of myocardial membrane by its membrane stabilizing property.

  10. The effect of taurine on mesenteric blood flow and organ injury in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Erdem, A; Sevgili, A M; Akbiyik, F; Atilla, P; Cakar, N; Balkanci, Z D; Iskit, A B; Guc, M O

    2008-08-01

    Endotoxin decreases mesenteric blood flow and inflicts organ injury via free radicals. We investigated whether taurine, an endogenous antioxidant and vasodilator, could attenuate the deleterious effects of endotoxin in a mouse model of sepsis. Swiss albino mice were allocated into four groups and treated either with taurine (150 mg/kg, i.p. at 0(th), 8(th), 16(th) h) or its solvent sterile saline (NaCl 0.9%, w/v) while E. coli endotoxin (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or its solvent saline were also given at 8(th) h. At 24(th) h the animals were anaesthetized and the mesenteric blood flow was measured by using perivascular ultrasonic Doppler-flowmeter. The animals were then exsanguinated, the spleen, liver, and kidneys were isolated for histopathological examination. Thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), glutathione, and myeloperoxidase activity were determined in the liver samples. Endotoxin significantly decreased the mesenteric blood flow and glutathione levels in liver while TBARS and myeloperoxidase activity were increased. However, taurine did not block the deleterious effects of endotoxin nor it did attenuate the histopathological injury. Therefore, we concluded that endotoxin-induced organ injury via free radicals is resistant to blockade by taurine. PMID:18163178

  11. Impact of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Roşca, A E; Stoian, I; Badiu, C; Gaman, L; Popescu, B O; Iosif, L; Mirica, R; Tivig, I C; Stancu, C S; Căruntu, C; Voiculescu, S E; Zăgrean, L

    2016-01-01

    Supraphysiological administration of anabolic androgenic steroids has been linked to increased blood pressure. The widely distributed amino acid taurine seems to be an effective depressor agent in drug-induced hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of chronic high dose administration of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) and taurine on blood pressure in rats and to verify the potentially involved mechanisms. The study was conducted in 4 groups of 8 adult male Wistar rats, aged 14 weeks, treated for 12 weeks with: DECA (A group); vehicle (C group); taurine (T group), or with both drugs (AT group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at the beginning of the study (SBP1), 2 (SBP2) and 3 months (SBP3) later. Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasma end products of nitric oxide metabolism (NOx) were also determined. SBP3 and SBP2 were significantly increased compared to SBP1 only in the A group (P<0.002 for both). SBP2, SBP3 and ACE activity showed a statistically significant increase in the A vs C (P<0.005), andvs AT groups (P<0.05), while NOx was significantly decreased in the A and AT groups vs controls (P=0.01). ACE activity was strongly correlated with SBP3 in the A group (r=0.71, P=0.04). These findings suggest that oral supplementation of taurine may prevent the increase in SBP induced by DECA, an effect potentially mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme.

  12. Kinetic studies on the inhibition of GABA-T by gamma-vinyl GABA and taurine.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Saba A J; Suliman, Fakhr Eldin O; Barghouthi, Samira

    2003-08-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T, EC 2.6.1.19) is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of gamma-aminobutyric acid. The kinetics of this reaction are studied in vitro, both in the absence, and in the presence of two inhibitors: gamma-vinyl GABA (4-aminohex-5-enoic acid), and a natural product, taurine (ethylamine-2-sulfonic acid). A kinetic model that describes the transamination process is proposed. GABA-T from Pseudomonas fluorescens is inhibited by gamma-vinyl GABA and taurine at concentrations of 51.0 and 78.5 mM. Both inhibitors show competitive inhibition behavior when GABA is the substrate and the inhibition constant (Ki) values for gamma-vinyl GABA and taurine were found to be 26 +/- 3 mM and 68 +/- 7 mM respectively. The transamination process of alpha-ketoglutarate was not affected by the presence of gamma-vinyl GABA, whereas, taurine was a noncompetitive inhibitor of GABA-T when alpha-ketoglutarate was the substrate. The inhibition dissociation constant (Kii) for this system was found to be 96 +/- 10 mM. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) in the absence of inhibition, was found to be 0.79 +/- 0.11 mM, and 0.47 +/- 0.10 mM for GABA and alpha-ketoglutarate respectively.

  13. Hepatitis C FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  14. Hepatitis B FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  15. Hepatitis A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  16. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  17. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  18. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  19. Investigation on the adsorption characteristics of sodium benzoate and taurine on gold nanoparticle film by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Thomas, S.; Tokas, R. B.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of sodium benzoate and taurine adsorbed on gold nanoparticle (AuNp) film on silanised glass slides have been studied by attenuated total reflection technique (ATR). The surface morphology of the AuNp films has been measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. The ATR spectra of sodium benzoate and taurine deposited on AuNp film are compared with ATR spectra of their powdered bulk samples. A new red-shifted band appeared along with the symmetric and asymmetric stretches of carboxylate group of sodium benzoate leading to a broadening of the above peaks. Similar behavior is also seen in the case of symmetric and asymmetric stretches of sulphonate group of taurine. The results indicate presence of both chemisorbed and physisorbed layers of both sodium benzoate and taurine on the AuNp film with bottom layer chemically bound to AuNp through carboxylate and sulphonate groups respectively.

  20. Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bharti; Kumar Dharma, Vijay; Chawla, Sumit; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Following acute infection, 20% of people eliminate the virus over weeks or months and are often asymptomatic. The remaining 80% of people will develop chronic disease, of which approximately 20% will eventually develop liver cirrhosis and 1–5% will develop liver cancer. About 150 million people are chronically infected with HCV, and more than 350 000 people die every year from hepatitis C related liver diseases. The economic cost of hepatitis C is significant both to the individual and to the society. In the United States the average lifetime cost of the disease was estimated at $33 407 USD with the cost of a liver transplant approximately $200 000 USD. PEG-IFN and ribavirin treatment is also expensive and, at an average cost of approximately GB £7000 in the UK for a treatment course, is unaffordable in developing countries. Hepatitis C, not only brings down the quality of the life of individuals but also affect progress of the nation by adding financial burden. If we prevent the disease from occurring or find a perfect cure of the disease, in form of a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine, it will be a boon to not only to the individual but to the nation as a whole. PMID:24165512

  1. Taurine Supplementation Reduces Blood Pressure and Prevents Endothelial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Post-Weaning Protein-Restricted Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Aline R.; Batista, Thiago M.; Victorio, Jamaira A.; Clerici, Stefano P.; Delbin, Maria A.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Davel, Ana P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that exerts protective effects on vascular function and structure in several models of cardiovascular diseases through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Early protein malnutrition reprograms the cardiovascular system and is linked to hypertension in adulthood. This study assessed the effects of taurine supplementation in vascular alterations induced by protein restriction in post-weaning rats. Methods and Results Weaned male Wistar rats were fed normal- (12%, NP) or low-protein (6%, LP) diets for 90 days. Half of the NP and LP rats concomitantly received 2.5% taurine supplementation in the drinking water (NPT and LPT, respectively). LP rats showed elevated systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure versus NP rats; taurine supplementation partially prevented this increase. There was a reduced relaxation response to acetylcholine in isolated thoracic aortic rings from the LP group that was reversed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) or apocynin incubation. Protein expression of p47phox NADPH oxidase subunit was enhanced, whereas extracellular (EC)-SOD and endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation at Ser 1177 (p-eNOS) were reduced in aortas from LP rats. Furthermore, ROS production was enhanced while acetylcholine-induced NO release was reduced in aortas from the LP group. Taurine supplementation improved the relaxation response to acetylcholine and eNOS-derived NO production, increased EC-SOD and p-eNOS protein expression, as well as reduced ROS generation and p47phox expression in the aortas from LPT rats. LP rats showed an increased aortic wall/lumen ratio and taurine prevented this remodeling through a reduction in wall media thickness. Conclusion Our data indicate a protective role of taurine supplementation on the high blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling induced by post-weaning protein restriction. The beneficial vascular effect of taurine was

  2. Rising taurine and ethanol concentrations in nucleus accumbens interact to produce the dopamine-activating effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Mia; Chau, Peipei; Adermark, Louise; Söderpalm, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol misuse and addiction is a worldwide problem causing enormous individual suffering as well as financial costs for the society. To develop pharmacological means to reduce suffering, we need to understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of ethanol in the brain. Ethanol is known to increase extracellular levels of both dopamine and taurine in the nucleus accumbens (nAc), a part of the brain reward system, but the two events have not been connected. In previous studies we have demonstrated that glycine receptors in the nAc are involved in modulating both basal- and ethanol-induced dopamine output in the same brain region. By means of in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats we here demonstrate that the endogenous glycine receptor ligand taurine mimics ethanol in activating the brain reward system. Furthermore, administration of systemic ethanol diluted in an isotonic (0.9% NaCl) or hypertonic (3.6% NaCl) saline solution was investigated with respect to extracellular levels of taurine and dopamine in the nAc. We found that ethanol given in a hypertonic solution, contrary to an isotonic solution, failed to increase concentrations of both taurine and dopamine in the nAc. However, a modest, non-dopamine elevating concentration of taurine in the nAc disclosed a dopamine elevating effect of systemic ethanol also when given in a hypertonic solution. We conclude that the elevations of taurine and dopamine in the nAc are closely related and that in order for ethanol to induce dopamine release, a simultaneous increase of extracellular taurine levels in the nAc is required. These data also -provide support for the notion that the nAc is the primary target for ethanol in its dopamine-activating effect after systemic administration and that taurine is a prominent participant in activating the brain reward system.

  3. Influence of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on haemostasis profile in rats: a thrombelastographic study.

    PubMed

    Roşca, Adrian E; Badiu, Corin; Uscătescu, Valentina; Stoian, Irina; Mirică, Radu; Braga, Radu I; Pavel, Bogdan; Zăgrean, Leon

    2013-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone with thrombogenic potential in high doses and long-term administration. Taurine, a widely distributed amino-sulfonic acid, is known for its beneficial effects in hypercoagulable states. In order to assess the impact of chronic administration of high doses of AAS and taurine upon haemostasis process in rats, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups: control group (group C) - no treatment; androgen group (group A) - received 10 mg/kg per week of nandrolone decanoate (DECA); taurine (group T) - received oral supplementation of 2% taurine in drinking water; androgen and taurine group (group AT) - concomitant administration of DECA and taurine. After 12 weeks, blood samples were collected and haemostasis parameters were assessed with the thrombelastographic (TEG) analysis system: reaction time, clot kinetics (K, α), final clot strength, coagulation index and the clot lysis (Ly30). Nandrolone significantly decreased reaction time in group A compared with control (P<0.001), whereas taurine significantly increase reaction time (P=0.01), and this effect was maintained in group AT compared with group A (P=0.009). Similar differences between groups have been recorded for the clot kinetics parameters K, α. The final clot strength and coagulation index were significantly increased in group A versus group C (P=0.04, respectively P<0.001), but not in group AT versus group C (P>0.05). There were no differences in clot lysis, as shown by Ly30. Nandrolone produces an accelerated clot development and an increased clot firmness in Wistar rats. Taurine association ensures a protective effect against this hypercoagulable state, partially restoring the altered parameters of the coagulation profile. PMID:23160242

  4. Therapeutic effect of taurine against aluminum-induced impairment on learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters in rats.

    PubMed

    Wenting, Lu; Ping, Liu; Haitao, Jiao; Meng, Qiao; Xiaofei, Ren

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the therapeutic effect of taurine against aluminum (Al)-induced neurological disorders in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were randomly allotted into six groups: control (saline only), Al exposure (281.4 mg/kg/day for 1 month), Al + taurine (Al administration as previously plus taurine, doses were 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day, respectively, for the next 1 month) and prevention group (along with the Al administration as previously, 400 mg/kg/day taurine was treated for 1 month. During the next 1 month, rats were given taurine 400 mg/kg/day only). Starting from the sixth week, the body weight gain was significantly reduced in Al exposure group compared with saline (P < 0.05), and at the eighth week, the gain in prevention group was increased compared with Al (P < 0.05). Brain coefficient was gained in Al exposure compared with saline or prevention group (P < 0.05). Al exposure resulted in learning and memory impairment by increasing the escape latency and searching distance, meanwhile, decreasing the swimming time in the quadrant of platform and the numbers of crossing the platform (P < 0.05). Unsurprisingly, taurine treatment (400, 800 mg/kg/day and prevention) significantly protected against Al-induced brain dysfunction (P < 0.05). The Al exposure led to significant decreases in levels of γ-GABA and Tau, meanwhile, increased in level of Asp and Glu compared with saline (P < 0.05). And yet, taurine treatment partially reversed the deteriorated changes. The results suggested that taurine probably has neuroprotective effect against Al-induced learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters dysfunction.

  5. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): < 90 cm, n = 141), obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p < 0.01), the exception being the intake of plant lipid and of animal calcium. In the obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between dietary taurine intake, weight and hip circumference (p < 0.05) in the normal group. However, there was no significant correlation between dietary taurine intake and anthropometric and body composition data in the obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity.

  6. Influence of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on haemostasis profile in rats: a thrombelastographic study.

    PubMed

    Roşca, Adrian E; Badiu, Corin; Uscătescu, Valentina; Stoian, Irina; Mirică, Radu; Braga, Radu I; Pavel, Bogdan; Zăgrean, Leon

    2013-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone with thrombogenic potential in high doses and long-term administration. Taurine, a widely distributed amino-sulfonic acid, is known for its beneficial effects in hypercoagulable states. In order to assess the impact of chronic administration of high doses of AAS and taurine upon haemostasis process in rats, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups: control group (group C) - no treatment; androgen group (group A) - received 10 mg/kg per week of nandrolone decanoate (DECA); taurine (group T) - received oral supplementation of 2% taurine in drinking water; androgen and taurine group (group AT) - concomitant administration of DECA and taurine. After 12 weeks, blood samples were collected and haemostasis parameters were assessed with the thrombelastographic (TEG) analysis system: reaction time, clot kinetics (K, α), final clot strength, coagulation index and the clot lysis (Ly30). Nandrolone significantly decreased reaction time in group A compared with control (P<0.001), whereas taurine significantly increase reaction time (P=0.01), and this effect was maintained in group AT compared with group A (P=0.009). Similar differences between groups have been recorded for the clot kinetics parameters K, α. The final clot strength and coagulation index were significantly increased in group A versus group C (P=0.04, respectively P<0.001), but not in group AT versus group C (P>0.05). There were no differences in clot lysis, as shown by Ly30. Nandrolone produces an accelerated clot development and an increased clot firmness in Wistar rats. Taurine association ensures a protective effect against this hypercoagulable state, partially restoring the altered parameters of the coagulation profile.

  7. Hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Juan; Mínguez, Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a severe complication of cirrhosis that is related to the effects of ammonia. Analysis of interorgan ammonia trafficking has identified an important role of skeletal muscle in ammonia removal and has highlighted the importance of the nutritional status. Ammonia causes neurotransmitter abnormalities and induces injury to astrocytes that is partially mediated by oxidative stress. These disturbances lead to astrocyte swelling and brain edema, which appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurological manifestations. Inflammatory mediators worsen brain disturbances. New methods for assessing hepatic encephalopathy include clinical scales, neuropsychological tests, imaging of portal-systemic circulation, and magnetic resonance of the brain. Reappraisal of current therapy indicates the need for performing placebo-controlled trials and the lack of evidence for administering diets with restricted protein content. Liver transplant should be considered in selected patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Future prospects include new drugs that decrease plasma ammonia, measures to reduce brain edema, and liver-support devices. PMID:18293278

  8. Protective effects of taurine against alloxan-induced diabetic cataracts and refraction changes in New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Shang-Min; Chen, Ya-Yu; Chen, Yi-Chen; Lin, Shiun-Long; Tseng, Jung-Kai

    2012-10-01

    The present study examined the protective effects of taurine on alloxan-induced diabetic cataracts and lens damage in male New Zealand White rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into three treatment groups: (1) normal control (vehicle administration); (2) diabetes (100 mg/kg alloxan administration); and (3) diabetes + taurine (1% [w/v] taurine dissolved in drinking water and alloxan administration). The results showed that alloxan-induced diabetes caused significant (p < 0.05) hyperglycemia, hyperopic refraction shifts, cataract formation and lens damage compared with the normal control group. In contrast, the administration of taurine for 24 weeks significantly ameliorated the alloxan-induced elevated levels of blood glucose, level of hyperopic refraction error shifts in the eyes and progression of diabetic cataract formation in the lens in rabbits. Moreover, histopathology showed that the taurine supplement reduced the incidence of lens lesions induced by hyperglycemia. Overall, the studies demonstrate that taurine exhibits potent protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetic cataracts and refraction changes in rabbits. PMID:22940558

  9. Determination of the natural abundance δ15N of taurine by gas chromatography-isotope ratio measurement mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tea, Illa; Antheaume, Ingrid; Besnard, Jorick; Robins, Richard J

    2010-12-15

    The measurement of the nitrogen isotope ratio of taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonic acid) in biological samples has a large number of potential applications. Taurine is a small water-soluble molecule which is notoriously difficult to analyze due to its polarity and functionality. A method is described which allows the determination of the natural abundance δ(15)N values of taurine and structural analogues, such as 3-amino-1-propanesulphonic acid (APSA), by isotope ratio mass spectrometry interfaced to gas chromatography (GC-irm-MS). The one-step protocol exploits the simultaneous derivatization of both functionalities of these aminosulphonic acids by reaction with triethylorthoacetate (TEOA). Conditions have been established which ensure quantitative reaction thus avoiding any nitrogen isotope fractionation during derivatization and workup. The differences in the δ(15)N values of derivatized and non-derivatized taurine and APSA all fall within the working range of 0.4‰ (-0.02 to 0.39‰). When applied to four sources of taurine with various δ(15)N values, the method achieved excellent reproducibility and accuracy. The optimized method enables the determination of the natural abundance δ(15)N values of taurine over the concentration range 1.5-7.84 µmol.mL(-1) in samples of biological origin.

  10. Taurine Protected Against the Impairments of Neural Stem Cell Differentiated Neurons Induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Liu, Huazhen; Gu, Zeyun; Liu, Sining; Ji, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cell transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a promising approach for neurological recovery both structurally and functionally. However, one big obstacle is to promote differentiation of NSCs into neurons and the followed maturation. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of taurine on the differentiation of NSCs and subsequent maturation of their neuronal lineage, when exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The results suggested that taurine (5-20 mM) promoted the viability and proliferation of NSCs, and it protected against 8 h of OGD induced impairments. Furthermore, 20 mM taurine promoted NSCs to differentiate into neurons after 7 days of culture, and it also protected against the suppressive impairments of 8 h of OGD. Consistently, taurine (20 mM) promoted the neurite sprouting and outgrowth of the NSC differentiated neurons after 14 days of differentiation, which were significantly inhibited by OGD (8 h). At D21, the mushroom spines and spine density were promoted or restored by 20 mM taurine. Taken together, the enhanced viability and proliferation of NSCs, more differentiated neurons and the promoted maturation of neurons by 20 mM taurine support its therapeutic application during stem cell therapy to enhance neurological recovery. Moreover, it protected against the impairments induced by OGD, which may highlight its role for a more direct therapeutic application especially in an ischemic stroke environment. PMID:26415593

  11. Hepatic sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, Alexandros; Karavalaki, Maria; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2006-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown aetiology. Histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas represents the main finding. It affects mostly young people, targeting primary the lung and hilar lymph nodes although liver involvement is often encountered. Hepatic sarcoidosis covers a broad spectrum from asymptomatic hepatic granulomas formation and slightly deranged liver function tests to clinically evident disease with cholestasis or, in advanced cases, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Other granulomatous diseases (mainly systemic infections like tuberculosis) should be excluded prior to treatment, as longstanding corticosteroid administration is the main stem of therapy. In advanced cases, liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapeutic option.

  12. Defective canalicular transport and toxicity of dietary ursodeoxycholic acid in the abcb11-/- mouse: transport and gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renxue; Liu, Lin; Sheps, Jonathan A; Forrest, Dana; Hofmann, Alan F; Hagey, Lee R; Ling, Victor

    2013-08-15

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP), encoded by the abcb11 gene, is the major canalicular transporter of bile acids from the hepatocyte. BSEP malfunction in humans causes bile acid retention and progressive liver injury, ultimately leading to end-stage liver failure. The natural, hydrophilic, bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is efficacious in the treatment of cholestatic conditions, such as primary biliary cirrhosis and cholestasis of pregnancy. The beneficial effects of UDCA include promoting bile flow, reducing hepatic inflammation, preventing apoptosis, and maintaining mitochondrial integrity in hepatocytes. However, the role of BSEP in mediating UDCA efficacy is not known. Here, we used abcb11 knockout mice (abcb11-/-) to test the effects of acute and chronic UDCA administration on biliary secretion, bile acid composition, liver histology, and liver gene expression. Acutely infused UDCA, or its taurine conjugate (TUDC), was taken up by the liver but retained, with negligible biliary output, in abcb11-/- mice. Feeding UDCA to abcb11-/- mice led to weight loss, retention of bile acids, elevated liver enzymes, and histological damage to the liver. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that genes encoding Mdr1a and Mdr1b (canalicular) as well as Mrp4 (basolateral) transporters were upregulated in abcb11-/- mice. We concluded that infusion of UDCA and TUDC failed to induce bile flow in abcb11-/- mice. UDCA fed to abcb11-/- mice caused liver damage and the appearance of biliary tetra- and penta-hydroxy bile acids. Supplementation with UDCA in the absence of Bsep caused adverse effects in abcb11-/- mice. PMID:23764895

  13. Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Liddle, C

    1996-04-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome was isolated during the late 1980s using molecular cloning techniques. It is recognized as the cause of most cases of percutaneously transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Prevalence of antibodies to HCV(anti-HCV) in the general Australian population is 0.3%. However, among regular intravenous drug users the prevalence exceeds 90%. The predominant risk factors for HCV are intravenous drug use, tattoos, exposure to blood products, occupational risk and ethnicity. In contrast to hepatitis B, sexual spread and vertical transmission of HCV from mother to neonate are relatively uncommon. The risk of acquiring HCV from a single HCV-contaminated needlestick accident is about 5%. Most cases of acute HCV infection are asymptomatic, but 50 to 80% progress to chronic disease. The percentage of those with chronic HCV progressing to cirrhosis is not accurately known, but is probably 20%. Treatment strategies for HCV, utilizing recombinant interferons, are proving useful in patients with mild to moderate liver disease, but fare less well in patients with cirrhosis. Currently, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C, so pre-exposure prophylaxis is not possible. Equally, no post-exposure intervention, for example with gamma globulin, has been shown to be beneficial, though there may be a role for early interferon therapy.

  14. Protective effect of taurine on the light-induced disruption of isolated frog rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Pasantes-Morales, H.; Ademe, R.M.; Quesada, O.

    1981-01-01

    Isolated frog rod outer segments (ROS) incubated in a Krebs-bicarbonate medium, and illuminated for 2 h, show a profound alteration in their structure. This is characterized by distention of discs, vesiculation, and a marked swelling. The light-induced ROS disruption requires the presence of bicarbonate and sodium chloride. Replacement of bicarbonate by TRIS or HEPES protects ROS structure. Also, substitution of sodium chloride by sucrose or choline chloride maintains unaltered the ROS structure. Deletion of calcium, magnesium, or phosphate does not modify the effect produced by illumination. An increased accumulation of labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water is observed in illuminated ROS, as compared with controls in the dark. The presence of taurine, GABA, or glycine, at concentrations of 5-25 mM, effectively counteracts the light-induced ROS disruption. Taurine (25 mM) reduces labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water levels to those observed in the dark incubated ROS.

  15. Potential role of curcumin and taurine combination therapy on human myeloid leukemic cells propagated in vitro.

    PubMed

    El-Houseini, Motawa E; Refaei, Mohammed Osman; Amin, Ahmed Ibrahim; Abol-Ftouh, Mahmoud A

    2013-10-01

    Curcumin and taurine are natural products that have been used in this study evaluating their therapeutic effect on myeloid leukemic cells propagated in vitro. Sixty patients with myeloid leukemia and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. All patient groups were admitted to the Medical Oncology Department of the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. There were statistically significant differences between treated leukemic cells compared to normal mononuclear leukocytes in cell density, interferon-γ and immunophenotypic profile, mainly CD4+, CD8 + and CD25+. This work highlights the possibility of using curcumin and taurine as a potential useful therapy in the management of patients suffering from chronic and acute myeloid leukemias. PMID:23418874

  16. Synthesis of taurine-fluorescein conjugate and evaluation of its retina-targeted efficiency in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meihong; Song, Jiaqi; Lu, Bingzheng; Huang, Huizhi; Chen, Yizhen; Yin, Wei; Zhu, Wenbo; Su, Xinwen; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2014-12-01

    In this work, retinal penetration of fluorescein was achieved in vitro by covalent attachment of taurine to fluorescein, yielding the F-Tau conjugate. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) were used to confirm the successful synthesis of F-Tau. The cellular uptake of F-Tau in adult retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMECs) was visualized via confocal scanning microscopy. The results indicated an improvement of solubility and a reduction of logP of F-Tau compared with fluorescein. As compared with fluorescein, F-Tau showed little toxicity, and was retained longer by cells in uptake experiments. F-Tau also displayed higher transepithelial permeabilities than fluorescein in ARPE-19 and hRMECs monolayer cells (P<0.05). These results showed that taurine may be a useful ligand for targeting small-molecule hydrophobic pharmaceuticals into the retina. PMID:26579416

  17. The Multifaceted Origin of Taurine Cattle Reflected by the Mitochondrial Genome

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Anna; Malusà, Arianna; Pala, Maria; Kashani, Baharak Hooshiar; Perego, Ugo A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Liotta, Luigi; Semino, Ornella; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    A Neolithic domestication of taurine cattle in the Fertile Crescent from local aurochsen (Bos primigenius) is generally accepted, but a genetic contribution from European aurochsen has been proposed. Here we performed a survey of a large number of taurine cattle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions from numerous European breeds confirming the overall clustering within haplogroups (T1, T2 and T3) of Near Eastern ancestry, but also identifying eight mtDNAs (1.3%) that did not fit in haplogroup T. Sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome showed that four mtDNAs formed a novel branch (haplogroup R) which, after the deep bifurcation that gave rise to the taurine and zebuine lineages, constitutes the earliest known split in the mtDNA phylogeny of B. primigenius. The remaining four mtDNAs were members of the recently discovered haplogroup Q. Phylogeographic data indicate that R mtDNAs were derived from female European aurochsen, possibly in the Italian Peninsula, and sporadically included in domestic herds. In contrast, the available data suggest that Q mtDNAs and T subclades were involved in the same Neolithic event of domestication in the Near East. Thus, the existence of novel (and rare) taurine haplogroups highlights a multifaceted genetic legacy from distinct B. primigenius populations. Taking into account that the maternally transmitted mtDNA tends to underestimate the extent of gene flow from European aurochsen, the detection of the R mtDNAs in autochthonous breeds, some of which are endangered, identifies an unexpected reservoir of genetic variation that should be carefully preserved. PMID:19484124

  18. Persistent GABAA/C responses to gabazine, taurine and beta-alanine in rat hypoglossal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Chesnoy-Marchais, D

    2016-08-25

    In hypoglossal motoneurons, a sustained anionic current, sensitive to a blocker of ρ-containing GABA receptors, (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA) and insensitive to bicuculline, was previously shown to be activated by gabazine. In order to better characterize the receptors involved, the sensitivity of this atypical response to pentobarbital (30μM), allopregnanolone (0.3μM) and midazolam (0.5μM) was first investigated. Pentobarbital potentiated the response, whereas the steroid and the benzodiazepine were ineffective. The results indicate the involvement of hybrid heteromeric receptors, including at least a GABA receptor ρ subunit and a γ subunit, accounting for the pentobarbital-sensitivity. The effects of the endogenous β amino acids, taurine and β-alanine, which are released under various pathological conditions and show neuroprotective properties, were then studied. In the presence of the glycine receptor blocker strychnine (1μM), both taurine (0.3-1mM) and β-alanine (0.3mM) activated sustained anionic currents, which were partly blocked by TPMPA (100μM). Thus, both β amino acids activated ρ-containing GABA receptors in hypoglossal motoneurons. Bicuculline (20μM) reduced responses to taurine and β-alanine, but small sustained responses persisted in the presence of both strychnine and bicuculline. Responses to β-alanine were slightly increased by allopregnanolone, indicating a contribution of the bicuculline- and neurosteroid-sensitive GABAA receptors underlying tonic inhibition in these motoneurons. Since sustained activation of anionic channels inhibits most mature principal neurons, the ρ-containing GABA receptors permanently activated by taurine and β-alanine might contribute to some of their neuroprotective properties under damaging overexcitatory situations. PMID:27246441

  19. Impact of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on blood pressure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Roşca, A.E.; Stoian, I.; Badiu, C.; Gaman, L.; Popescu, B.O.; Iosif, L.; Mirica, R.; Tivig, I.C.; Stancu, C.S.; Căruntu, C.; Voiculescu, S.E.; Zăgrean, L.

    2016-01-01

    Supraphysiological administration of anabolic androgenic steroids has been linked to increased blood pressure. The widely distributed amino acid taurine seems to be an effective depressor agent in drug-induced hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of chronic high dose administration of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) and taurine on blood pressure in rats and to verify the potentially involved mechanisms. The study was conducted in 4 groups of 8 adult male Wistar rats, aged 14 weeks, treated for 12 weeks with: DECA (A group); vehicle (C group); taurine (T group), or with both drugs (AT group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at the beginning of the study (SBP1), 2 (SBP2) and 3 months (SBP3) later. Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasma end products of nitric oxide metabolism (NOx) were also determined. SBP3 and SBP2 were significantly increased compared to SBP1 only in the A group (P<0.002 for both). SBP2, SBP3 and ACE activity showed a statistically significant increase in the A vs C (P<0.005), andvs AT groups (P<0.05), while NOx was significantly decreased in the A and AT groups vs controls (P=0.01). ACE activity was strongly correlated with SBP3 in the A group (r=0.71, P=0.04). These findings suggest that oral supplementation of taurine may prevent the increase in SBP induced by DECA, an effect potentially mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme. PMID:27254659

  20. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.

  1. Impact of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Roşca, A E; Stoian, I; Badiu, C; Gaman, L; Popescu, B O; Iosif, L; Mirica, R; Tivig, I C; Stancu, C S; Căruntu, C; Voiculescu, S E; Zăgrean, L

    2016-01-01

    Supraphysiological administration of anabolic androgenic steroids has been linked to increased blood pressure. The widely distributed amino acid taurine seems to be an effective depressor agent in drug-induced hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of chronic high dose administration of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) and taurine on blood pressure in rats and to verify the potentially involved mechanisms. The study was conducted in 4 groups of 8 adult male Wistar rats, aged 14 weeks, treated for 12 weeks with: DECA (A group); vehicle (C group); taurine (T group), or with both drugs (AT group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at the beginning of the study (SBP1), 2 (SBP2) and 3 months (SBP3) later. Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasma end products of nitric oxide metabolism (NOx) were also determined. SBP3 and SBP2 were significantly increased compared to SBP1 only in the A group (P<0.002 for both). SBP2, SBP3 and ACE activity showed a statistically significant increase in the A vs C (P<0.005), andvs AT groups (P<0.05), while NOx was significantly decreased in the A and AT groups vs controls (P=0.01). ACE activity was strongly correlated with SBP3 in the A group (r=0.71, P=0.04). These findings suggest that oral supplementation of taurine may prevent the increase in SBP induced by DECA, an effect potentially mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme. PMID:27254659

  2. A new taurine derivative from South China Sea marine sponge Axinella sp.

    PubMed

    Huang, Riming; Peng, Yan; Zhou, Xuefeng; Yang, Xianwen; Liu, Yonghong

    2013-01-01

    A new (1) and two known (2 and 3) acylated taurine derivatives were isolated from the South China Sea marine sponge Axinella sp. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral analysis. Compounds 1-3 did not inhibit the growth of hepatoma carcinoma cell (HepG2), lung carcinoma cell (A549), human breast carcinoma (MCF-7), no-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H460) and human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines.

  3. Differential regulation of taurine biosynthesis in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2016-02-16

    Animals have varied taurine biosynthesis capability, which was determined by activities of key enzymes including cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD). However, whether CDO and CSD are differentially regulated across species remains unexplored. In the present study, we examined the regulations of CDO and CSD in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder, the two fish species with high and low taurine biosynthesis ability respectively. Our results showed that the expression of CDO was lower in rainbow trout but more responsive to cysteine stimulation compared to that in Japanese flounder. On the other hand, both the expression and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)) of CSD were higher in rainbow trout than those of Japanese flounder. A three-residue substrate recognition motif in rainbow trout CSD with sequence of F126/S146/Y148 was identified to be responsible for high k(cat), while that with sequence of F88/N108/F110 in Japanese flounder led to low k(cat), as suggested by site-directed mutagenesis studies. In summary, our results determined new aspects of taurine biosynthesis regulation across species.

  4. Differential regulation of taurine biosynthesis in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2016-01-01

    Animals have varied taurine biosynthesis capability, which was determined by activities of key enzymes including cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD). However, whether CDO and CSD are differentially regulated across species remains unexplored. In the present study, we examined the regulations of CDO and CSD in rainbow trout and Japanese flounder, the two fish species with high and low taurine biosynthesis ability respectively. Our results showed that the expression of CDO was lower in rainbow trout but more responsive to cysteine stimulation compared to that in Japanese flounder. On the other hand, both the expression and catalytic efficiency (kcat) of CSD were higher in rainbow trout than those of Japanese flounder. A three-residue substrate recognition motif in rainbow trout CSD with sequence of F126/S146/Y148 was identified to be responsible for high kcat, while that with sequence of F88/N108/F110 in Japanese flounder led to low kcat, as suggested by site-directed mutagenesis studies. In summary, our results determined new aspects of taurine biosynthesis regulation across species. PMID:26880478

  5. Taurine enhances antinociception produced by a COX-2 inhibitor in an inflammatory pain model.

    PubMed

    de Rienzo-Madero, Beatriz; Coffeen, Ulises; Simón-Arceo, Karina; Mercado, Francisco; Jaimes, Orlando; Magis-Weinberg, Lucía; Contreras, Bernardo; Pellicer, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    The temporal activation of the sensory systems, especially in pain, determines intermediate states that define the future of the response to sensory stimulation. In this work, we interfere pharmacologically with those states that produce peripheral and central sensitisation after an acute inflammatory process, inhibiting at the periphery the COX-2 with celecoxib and using taurine (glycine A receptor agonist) for central pain relief. We tested the paw withdrawal reflex latencies to thermo- and mechanonociception after the induction of an acute inflammatory process with carrageenan. Celecoxib at low doses [0.13 and 1.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)] in combination with taurine (300 mg/kg, i.p.) produces a decrease of the nociceptive response in thermo- and mechanonociception, as compared with the effect of both drugs alone. We propose that the enhancement of the analgesic effect of celecoxib in combination with taurine could be due the simultaneous action of these drugs at both, peripheral and central levels.

  6. The effect of urea and taurine as hydrophilic penetration enhancers on stratum corneum lipid models.

    PubMed

    Mueller, J; Oliveira, J S L; Barker, R; Trapp, M; Schroeter, A; Brezesinski, G; Neubert, R H H

    2016-09-01

    To optimize transdermal application of drugs, the barrier function of the skin, especially the stratum corneum (SC), needs to be reduced reversibly. For this purpose, penetration enhancers like urea or taurine are applied. Until now, it is unclear if this penetration enhancement is caused by an interaction with the SC lipid matrix or related to effects within the corneocytes. Therefore, the effects of both hydrophilic enhancers on SC models with different dimensionality, ranging from monolayers to multilayers, have been investigated in this study. Many sophisticated methods were applied to ascertain the mode of action of both substances on a molecular scale. The experiments reveal that there is no specific interaction when 10% urea or 5% taurine solutions are added to the SC model systems. No additional water uptake in the head group region and no decrease of the lipid chain packing density have been observed. Consequently, we suppose that the penetration enhancing effect of both substances might be based on the introduction of large amounts of water into the corneocytes, caused by the enormous water binding capacity of urea and a resulting osmotic pressure in case of taurine.

  7. Caffeine and taurine containing energy drink increases left ventricular contractility in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Doerner, Jonas M; Kuetting, Daniel L; Luetkens, Julian A; Naehle, Claas P; Dabir, Darius; Homsi, Rami; Nadal, Jennifer; Schild, Hans H; Thomas, Daniel K

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the impact of a caffeine and taurine containing energy drink (ED) on myocardial contractility in healthy volunteers using cardiac MR and cardiac MR based strain analysis. 32 healthy volunteers (mean age 28 years) were investigated before and 1 h after consumption of a caffeine and taurine containing ED. For assessment of global cardiac functional parameters balanced SSFP-Cine imaging was performed, whereas CSPAMM tagging was used to evaluate global and regional myocardial strain. In addition, ten randomly chosen subjects were investigated once more using a caffeine only protocol to further evaluate the effect of caffeine solely. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded throughout all studies. ED consumption led to a significant increase in peak systolic strain (PSS) and peak systolic strain rate (PSSR) 1 h after consumption (PSS: w/o ED -22.8 ± 2.1%; w ED -24.3 ± 2.4%, P = <0.0001 and PSSR: w/o ED -1.2 ± 0.1 1/s; w ED -1.3 ± 0.2 1/s, P = 0.0056), which was not observed in the caffeine only group. In contrast, global left ventricular function was unchanged (P = 0.2076). No significant changes of vital parameters and diastolic filling pattern were detected 1 h after ED consumption. Consumption of a caffeine and taurine containing ED results in a subtle, but significant increase of myocardial contractility 1 h after consumption. PMID:25425431

  8. Caffeine and taurine containing energy drink increases left ventricular contractility in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Doerner, Jonas M; Kuetting, Daniel L; Luetkens, Julian A; Naehle, Claas P; Dabir, Darius; Homsi, Rami; Nadal, Jennifer; Schild, Hans H; Thomas, Daniel K

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the impact of a caffeine and taurine containing energy drink (ED) on myocardial contractility in healthy volunteers using cardiac MR and cardiac MR based strain analysis. 32 healthy volunteers (mean age 28 years) were investigated before and 1 h after consumption of a caffeine and taurine containing ED. For assessment of global cardiac functional parameters balanced SSFP-Cine imaging was performed, whereas CSPAMM tagging was used to evaluate global and regional myocardial strain. In addition, ten randomly chosen subjects were investigated once more using a caffeine only protocol to further evaluate the effect of caffeine solely. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded throughout all studies. ED consumption led to a significant increase in peak systolic strain (PSS) and peak systolic strain rate (PSSR) 1 h after consumption (PSS: w/o ED -22.8 ± 2.1%; w ED -24.3 ± 2.4%, P = <0.0001 and PSSR: w/o ED -1.2 ± 0.1 1/s; w ED -1.3 ± 0.2 1/s, P = 0.0056), which was not observed in the caffeine only group. In contrast, global left ventricular function was unchanged (P = 0.2076). No significant changes of vital parameters and diastolic filling pattern were detected 1 h after ED consumption. Consumption of a caffeine and taurine containing ED results in a subtle, but significant increase of myocardial contractility 1 h after consumption.

  9. Renal excretory responses of taurine-depleted rats to hypotonic and hypertonic saline infusion.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, M S; Warren, B K; Azuma, J; Schaffer, S W

    1998-01-01

    Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were given either tap water (control) or 3% beta-alanine (taurine-depleted) for three weeks. To prepare for the kidney function studies, the animals were then implanted with femoral vessels and bladder catheters. Two days after surgery, each rat was given an intravenous infusion of saline at the rate of 50 microliter/min and urine samples were collected at specific time intervals. An isotonic saline solution (0.9% NaCl) was infused for determination of baseline parameters and was followed by the infusion of a hypotonic saline solution (0.45% NaCl). Two days later, the infusion protocol was repeated in the same animals; however, a hypertonic saline solution (1.8% NaCl) was substituted for the hypotonic saline solution. Renal excretion of fluid and sodium increased in the control, but not taurine-depleted, rats during the hypotonic saline infusion. Interestingly, diuretic and natriuretic responses were similar between the groups during hypertonic saline infusion. The results suggest that taurine-depletion in rats affects renal excretory responses to a hypotonic, but not a hypertonic, saline solution.

  10. Taurine protects hamster bronchioles from acute NO2-induced alterations. A histologic, ultrastructural, and freeze-fracture study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R E; Shaked, A A; Solano, D F

    1986-12-01

    In this study the authors describe the use of dietary taurine to protect hamster lung epithelium from acute nitrogen dioxide (NO2) injury. The conclusions were based on histologic, ultrastructural, and freeze-fracture analyses. Hamsters were pretreated for 14 days with 0.5% taurine in their drinking water. They were then exposed to either 7 or 30 ppm NO2 for 24 hours. The lungs from animals of these experimental groups were compared with those from hamsters treated with only NO2, and those given only taurine and with untreated controls. After treatment, hamsters were anesthetized and perfusion-fixed through the right side of the heart with a solution containing 1% glutaraldehyde, 4% paraformaldehyde, and 0.2 M cacodylate. The trachea and lungs were removed en bloc and stored overnight in cacodylate buffer at 4 C. Terminal and respiratory bronchioles, including alveolar ducts and peribronchiolar alveoli, were dissected from each lobe and processed for embedding in Epon and freeze-fracture replication. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed the typical inflammatory cell infiltrate in the bronchiolar and alveolar duct regions in the lungs of hamsters exposed to NO2. The bronchiolar epithelium appeared flattened because of loss and breakage of cilia on ciliated cells and apical protrusions of Clara cells. Clara-cell secretory granules were reduced or absent. Freeze-fracture replicas of tight junctions of bronchiolar epithelium analyzed by morphometric techniques demonstrated a reduction and fragmentation of fibrils. Only animals exposed to 30 ppm NO2 exhibited physiologic intercellular penetration of horseradish peroxidase. Hamsters pretreated with taurine and then exposed to NO2 showed none of these alterations. They exhibited the same morphologic features as the untreated controls and the hamsters treated only with taurine. On the basis of this evidence, it is suggested that prophylactic dietary taurine can prevent acute NO2-induced morphologic lung

  11. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J. Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficit influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8–10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low (0.3–0.5 Hz) and high frequency (0.5–4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups, while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3–4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very low frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in

  12. Subnanomolar concentrations of thrombin enhance the volume-sensitive efflux of taurine from human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Tooba A; Ward, Caroline E; Fisher, Stephen K

    2005-11-01

    The ability of subnanomolar concentrations of thrombin to protect both neurons and glia from ischemia and other metabolic insults has recently been reported. In this study, we demonstrate an additional neuroprotective property of thrombin; its ability to promote the release of the organic osmolyte, taurine, in response to hypoosmotic stress. Incubation of human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells with hypo-osmolar buffers (320-227 mOsM) resulted in a time-dependent release of taurine. Inclusion of thrombin (EC(50) = 60 pM) resulted in a marked increase in taurine efflux that, although evident under isotonic conditions (340 mOsM), was maximal at an osmolarity of 270 mOsM (3-4-fold stimulation). Thrombin-stimulated taurine efflux was dependent upon its protease activity and could be mimicked by addition of the peptide SFLLRN, a proteinase activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) subtype-specific ligand. Inclusion of anion channel blockers known to inhibit the volume-sensitive organic osmolyte anion channel attenuated thrombin-stimulated taurine release. Depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) with either 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) or thapsigargin, or alternatively, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with bisindolylmaleimide or chelerythrine resulted in a 30 to 50% inhibition of thrombin-stimulated taurine efflux. Under conditions in which intracellular Ca(2+) was depleted and PKC activity inhibited, thrombin-stimulated taurine efflux was reduced by >85%. The results indicate that activation of PAR-1 receptors by thrombin facilitates the ability of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells to release osmolytes in response to a reduction in osmolarity via a mechanism that is dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) and PKC activity. PMID:16051696

  13. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Shen, Chao-Yu; Kang, Chao-Kai; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Chang, Chia-Che; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2014-09-15

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation.

  14. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  15. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  16. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  17. Chemoprotective Effect of Taurine on Potassium Bromate-Induced DNA Damage, DNA-Protein Cross-Linking and Oxidative Stress in Rat Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Ali, Shaikh Nisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is widely used as a food additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. It induces multiple organ toxicity in humans and experimental animals and is a probable human carcinogen. The present study reports the protective effect of dietary antioxidant taurine on KBrO3-induced damage to the rat intestine. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, KBrO3 alone, taurine alone and taurine+ KBrO3. Administration of KBrO3 alone led to decrease in the activities of intestinal brush border membrane enzymes while those of antioxidant defence and carbohydrate metabolism were also severely altered. There was increase in DNA damage and DNA-protein cross-linking. Treatment with taurine, prior to administration of KBrO3, resulted in significant attenuation in all these parameters but the administration of taurine alone had no effect. Histological studies supported these biochemical results showing extensive intestinal damage in KBrO3-treated animals and greatly reduced tissue injury in the taurine+ KBrO3 group. These results show that taurine ameliorates bromate induced tissue toxicity and oxidative damage by improving the antioxidant defence, tissue integrity and energy metabolism. Taurine can, therefore, be potentially used as a therapeutic/protective agent against toxicity of KBrO3 and related compounds. PMID:25748174

  18. Effects of taurine on myocardial cGMP/cAMP ratio, antioxidant ability, and ultrastructure in cardiac hypertrophy rats induced by isoproterenol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qunhui; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Feng, Ying; Lv, Qiufeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is the most abundant free amino acid in the human body and accounts for more than 50% of the total amino acid pool in the mammalian heart. To investigate the preventive effects of taurine on cardiac hypertrophy in rats, myocardial injury was established by hypodermic injection of isoprenaline (ISO) (10 mg/kg d) for 7 days. The preventive effects of taurine (100 mg/kg d, 200 mg/kg d, and 300 mg/kg d, i.p) on heart coefficient; ultrastructure of cardiac muscle; the levels of creatine kinase heart isoenzyme (CK-MB), cAMP, and cGMP; and antioxidant ability were investigated. The results showed that taurine could significantly prevent the increase of heart coefficient induced by ISO. Compared with the model group, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg taurine significantly decrease the levels of cAMP and cGMP, while 300 mg/kg taurine could significantly decrease the levels of cAMP in myocardium, and all the three concentrations of taurine could significantly increase the ratio of cGMP/cAMP. The level of serum CK-MB was significantly increased by ISO; 200 mg/kg taurine could significantly decrease it, but 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg taurine had no significant effect. As for the antioxidant ability, ISO administration could significantly increase the myocardial level of MDA but had no significant effects on the myocardial levels of SOD, GSH, GSH-Px, and T-AOC. However, taurine administration could significantly decrease the myocardial level of MDA and increase the levels of GSH and T-AOC compared with the model group. The serum levels of SOD, GSH-Px, GSH, and T-AOC were significantly reduced by ISO administration, but the level of MDA showed no significant changes compared with the control group. Taurine administration could significantly increase the serum levels of SOD, GSH-Px, GSH, and T-AOC and decrease the level of MDA compared with the model group. All the results indicated that 200 mg/kg taurine had better effects. The ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes showed that taurine

  19. Alteration of GABA system in frog retina following short light and dark adaptations - a quantitative comparison with retinal taurine.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, C; Ida, S; Kuriyama, K

    1981-08-31

    Effect of short light and dark adaptations on retinal GABA and taurine was studied using bull frog (Rana catesbiana). The retinal GABA was increased significantly in light-adapted state, and this increase was accompanied by the increases of L-glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity and [3H]-GABA release. The activation of retinal GABA-transaminase succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GABA-T:SSADH) was also observed after a lag period of several hours. Under the same experimental conditions, however, no significant changes were noted in retinal taurine content and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) activity. These findings suggest that a short light adaptation induces differential effects on retinal GABA and taurine, and the activation of GABAergic neurons in the retina may be involved in the process of short light adaptation. PMID:6973382

  20. Hepatic transport of PKI166, an epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitor of the pyrrolo-pyrimidine class, and its main metabolite, ACU154.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tappei; Weiss, H Markus; Kretz, Olivier; Gross, Gerhard; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2004-11-01

    PKI166, a specific inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of two epidermal growth factor receptors, was under development for the treatment of cancer. In preclinical studies PKI166 was mainly cleared by metabolism, and its metabolites were eliminated by biliary excretion, emphasizing the role of liver transport processes for its disposition. Here the transport properties of [14C]PKI166 and its main metabolite [14C]ACU154, an O-glucuronide, were analyzed using 1) Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells stably transfected with human multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and/or human organic anion-transporting peptide 2 (OATP2) and 2) liver canalicular membrane vesicles (CMVs) prepared from Wistar and mrp2-deficient TR- rats. Analysis of transport through MDCKII cells revealed that [14C]ACU154 was a substrate of MRP2 and OATP2. Rat mrp2 was shown to transport [14C]ACU154 with a Km of approximately 1 microM. [14C]PKI166 efficiently crossed MDCKII cells, particularly toward the apical side, but expression of MRP2 and/or OATP2 did not increase the flux. The effect of PKI166 and ACU154 on transport of [3H]estradiol-17beta-d-glucuronide (EG; via mrp2/MRP2 and OATP2) or [3H]taurocholic acid (TCA; via bile salt export pump (bsep) was analyzed. PKI166 inhibited the transport of [3H]EG by OATP2. ACU154 did strongly inhibit [3H]TCA uptake into CMVs from Wistar but not from TR- rats, demonstrating a dependence of bsep inhibition on mrp2 activity. ATP-dependent uptake of [3H]EG into CMVs from Wistar rats was inhibited by ACU154 but up to 4-fold increased by PKI166. In conclusion, OATP2 and MRP2/mrp2 were identified as transporters involved in ACU154 transport into bile. Both PKI166 and its O-glucuronide ACU154 affected mrp2/MRP2-, OATP2-, and/or bsep-mediated transport processes.

  1. Effect of taurine supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia and markers of oxidative stress in high fructose diet induced insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Methods Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were carried out, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) was calculated, homocysteine (Hcy), lipid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress were measured in male Wistar rats weighing 170-190 g. The rats were divided into four groups, kept on either control diet or high fructose diet (HFD), and simultaneously supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine via intra-peritoneal (i.p.) route for 35 days. Results Fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lower paraoxonase (PON) activity, and higher nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) concentration, when compared to rats fed on control diet. Supplementing the fructose-fed rats with taurine has ameliorated the rise in HOMA by 56%, triglycerides (TGs) by 22.5%, total cholesterol (T-Chol) by 11%, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 21.4%. Taurine also abolished any significant difference of TAC, PON activity and NOx concentration among treated and control groups. TAC positively correlated with PON in both rats fed on the HFD and those received taurine in addition to the HFD. Fructose-fed rats showed 34.7% increase in Hcy level. Taurine administration failed to prevent the observed HHcy in the current dosage and duration. Conclusion Our results indicate that HFD could induce IR which could further result in metabolic syndrome (MS), and that taurine has a protective role against the metabolic

  2. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Festi, Davide; Marasco, Giovanni; Ravaioli, Federico; Colecchia, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and it can manifest with a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities of varying severity, acuity and time course with important clinical implications. According to recent guidelines, HE has been classified into different types, depending on the severity of hepatic dysfunction, the presence of porto-systemic shunts and the number of previous episodes or persistent manifestations. From a clinical point of view, HE can be recognized as unimpaired, covert (that deals with minimal and grade 1 according to the grading of mental state), and overt (that is categorized from grade 2 to grade 4). Different and only partially known pathogenic mechanisms have been identified, comprising ammonia, inflammatory cytokines, benzodiazepine-like compounds and manganese deposition. Different therapeutic strategies are available for treating HE, in particular the overt HE, since covert HE needs to be managed case by case. Recognition and treatment of precipitating factors represent fundamental part of the management. The more effective treatments, which can be performed separately or combined, are represented by non-absorbable disaccharides (lactulose and lactitol) and the topic antibiotic rifaximin; other possible therapies, mainly used in patients non responders to previous treatments, are represented by branched chain amino acids and metabolic ammonia scavengers. PMID:27571468

  3. Protect Yourself from Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop yellowish eyes and skin. All the hepatitis viruses can cause acute, or short-term, hepatitis. Some can also cause chronic hepatitis, in which the infection lasts a long time, sometimes for your whole life. Chronic hepatitis can eventually lead to scarring of ...

  4. High-temperature Raman study of L-alanine, L-threonine and taurine crystals related to thermal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaignac, A. L. O.; Lima, R. J. C.; Façanha Filho, P. F.; Moreno, A. J. D.; Freire, P. T. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this work high-temperature Raman spectra are used to compare temperature dependence of the lattice mode wavenumber of L-alanine, L-threonine and taurine crystals. Anharmonic effects observed are associated with intermolecular N-H· · ·O hydrogen bond that plays an important role in thermal decomposition process of these materials. Short and strong hydrogen bonds in L-alanine crystal were associated with anharmonic effects in lattice modes leading to low thermal stability compared to taurine crystals. Connection between thermal decomposition process and anharmonic effects is furnished for the first time.

  5. Effects of Taurine or Trehalose supplementation on functional competence of cryopreserved Karan Fries semen.

    PubMed

    Chhillar, Shivani; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Kumar, Raj; Atreja, Suresh Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Cryopreserved semen is commonly used for assisted reproduction in livestock including cattle. However, spermatozoa undergo numerous physiological and biochemical changes during freezing and thawing process that affects their fertilizing ability. The aim of present study was to improve the post thaw quality of crossbreed cattle "Karan Fries" (Holstein-Friesian×Tharparkar) spermatozoa. A total of nine ejaculates from three randomly chosen Karan Fries bulls were extended and cryopreserved in Tris-egg yolk citrate (EYTC) extender supplemented with 50mM Taurine or 100mM Trehalose. Semen samples cryopreserved without these additives in EYTC extender were taken as a control. Cryopreserved semen were thawed and assessed for semen quality parameters like sperm motility, viability and plasma membrane integrity. Extent of capacitation was measured by estimating the number of sperm that underwent an acrosome reaction with Lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) addition by dual staining with giemsa and trypan blue stains. Oxidative stress in terms of rate of H(2)O(2) production and membrane lipid peroxidation were assessed in spermatozoa. Intracellular calcium concentration was also measured using fluorescent dye Fura-2AM. Post-thaw semen evaluation showed that supplementation of Taurine or Trehalose to EYTC extender significantly (P<0.05) increased motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa. Percentage of cryocapacitated spermatozoa was also significantly (P<0.05) decreased in presence of these additives. Similarly, rate of H(2)O(2) production, lipid peroxidation and intracellular calcium were found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher in spermatozoa cryopreserved in absence of these additives. The results obtained clearly indicated that supplementation of Taurine or Trehalose to EYTC extender prior to cryopreservation improves Karan Fries sperm quality. PMID:22974707

  6. Hepatic Perfusion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Rahul; Gamblin, T Clark; Turaga, Kiran K

    2016-04-01

    Isolated hepatic perfusion uses the unique vascular supply of hepatic malignancies to deliver cytotoxic chemotherapy. The procedure involves vascular isolation of the liver and delivery of chemotherapy via the hepatic artery and extraction from retrohepatic vena cava. Benefits of hepatic perfusion have been observed in hepatic metastases of ocular melanoma and colorectal cancer and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Percutaneous and prophylactic perfusions are avenues of ongoing research.

  7. Quality and safety issues related to traditional animal medicine: role of taurine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calculus Bovis (:C.Bovis) is one of the most precious and commonly-used medicinal materials in Japan and China. As the natural occurrence is very rare, a source of supply for C. Bovis is far behind the actual need and great efforts have been taken for some substitutes of natural C. Bovis. Unfortunately, very little information is available on the quality and/or clinical efficacy of medication based on C. Bovis. To ensure sustainable use of traditional therapeutic agents derived from C. Bovis, we felt that several issues needed to be addressed: 1) the source of the C. Bovis materials and quality control; 2) the role of taurine in the efficacy of C. Bovis. Methods Nine samples of natural C. Bovis and its substitutes were collected. ICP-MS was used for elemental analysis and the characterization was performed by principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) as multivariate approaches. The efficacy of C. Bovis was evaluated for morphology, viability and beating pattern on cultured cardiac myocytes and/or fibroblasts. Results PCA and multi-elemental focus was effective in discriminating C. Bovis samples derived from different habitats. A satisfactory classification using SIMCA was obtained among Australia C. Bovis, other habitats and the substitutes. Australian samples had better batch uniformity than other habitats and were composed of fewer elements. We have used Australian C. Bovis for assessment on its bioactive compounds. Rat cardiac cells incubated with C. Bovis extract (0.01-0.1mg/ml) maintained normal morphology, viability and beating pattern. Cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts treated for 48 h with CA (0.5mM) or DCA (0.1mM) caused cell injury, as reflected by changes in appearance and a reduction of viability detected by the MTS assay. In cardiomyocytes, 0.5 h exposure of CA (0.5mM) markedly decreased the velocity ratio of beating, whereas the simultaneous addition of 1 mM taurine largely prevented the

  8. Taurine Bromamine: Reactivity of an Endogenous and Exogenous Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Amino Acid Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Bertozo, Luiza De Carvalho; Morgon, Nelson Henrique; De Souza, Aguinaldo Robinson; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias

    2016-01-01

    Taurine bromamine (Tau-NHBr) is produced by the reaction between hypobromous acid (HOBr) and the amino acid taurine. There are increasing number of applications of Tau-NHBr as an anti-inflammatory and microbicidal drug for topical usage. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of the chemical reactivity of Tau-NHBr with endogenous and non-endogenous compounds. Tau-NHBr reactivity was compared with HOBr, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and taurine chloramine (Tau-NHCl). The second-order rate constants (k2) for the reactions between Tau-NHBr and tryptophan (7.7 × 102 M−1s−1), melatonin (7.3 × 103 M−1s−1), serotonin (2.9 × 103 M−1s−1), dansylglycine (9.5 × 101 M−1s−1), tetramethylbenzidine (6.4 × 102 M−1s−1) and H2O2 (3.9 × M−1s−1) were obtained. Tau-NHBr demonstrated the following selectivity regarding its reactivity with free amino acids: tryptophan > cysteine ~ methionine > tyrosine. The reactivity of Tau-NHBr was strongly affected by the pH of the medium (for instance with dansylglycine: pH 5.0, 1.1 × 104 M−1s−1, pH 7.0, 9.5 × 10 M−1s−1 and pH 9.0, 1.7 × 10 M−1s−1), a property that is related to the formation of the dibromamine form at acidic pH (Tau-NBr2). The formation of singlet oxygen was observed in the reaction between Tau-NHBr and H2O2. Tau-NHBr was also able to react with linoleic acid, but with low efficiency compared with HOBr and HOCl. Compared with HOBr, Tau-NHBr was not able to react with nucleosides. In conclusion, the following reactivity sequence was established: HOBr > HOCl > Tau-NHBr > Tau-NHCl. These findings can be very helpful for researchers interested in biological applications of taurine haloamines. PMID:27110829

  9. Taurine Bromamine: Reactivity of an Endogenous and Exogenous Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Amino Acid Derivative.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho Bertozo, Luiza; Morgon, Nelson Henrique; De Souza, Aguinaldo Robinson; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias

    2016-01-01

    Taurine bromamine (Tau-NHBr) is produced by the reaction between hypobromous acid (HOBr) and the amino acid taurine. There are increasing number of applications of Tau-NHBr as an anti-inflammatory and microbicidal drug for topical usage. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of the chemical reactivity of Tau-NHBr with endogenous and non-endogenous compounds. Tau-NHBr reactivity was compared with HOBr, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and taurine chloramine (Tau-NHCl). The second-order rate constants (k₂) for the reactions between Tau-NHBr and tryptophan (7.7 × 10² M(-1)s(-1)), melatonin (7.3 × 10³ M(-1)s(-1)), serotonin (2.9 × 10³ M(-1)s(-1)), dansylglycine (9.5 × 10¹ M(-1)s(-1)), tetramethylbenzidine (6.4 × 10² M(-1)s(-1)) and H₂O₂ (3.9 × M(-1)s(-1)) were obtained. Tau-NHBr demonstrated the following selectivity regarding its reactivity with free amino acids: tryptophan > cysteine ~ methionine > tyrosine. The reactivity of Tau-NHBr was strongly affected by the pH of the medium (for instance with dansylglycine: pH 5.0, 1.1 × 10⁴ M(-1)s(-1), pH 7.0, 9.5 × 10 M(-1)s(-1) and pH 9.0, 1.7 × 10 M(-1)s(-1)), a property that is related to the formation of the dibromamine form at acidic pH (Tau-NBr₂). The formation of singlet oxygen was observed in the reaction between Tau-NHBr and H₂O₂. Tau-NHBr was also able to react with linoleic acid, but with low efficiency compared with HOBr and HOCl. Compared with HOBr, Tau-NHBr was not able to react with nucleosides. In conclusion, the following reactivity sequence was established: HOBr > HOCl > Tau-NHBr > Tau-NHCl. These findings can be very helpful for researchers interested in biological applications of taurine haloamines. PMID:27110829

  10. Increased taurine in pre-weaned juvenile mdx mice greatly reduces the acute onset of myofibre necrosis and dystropathology and prevents inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terrill, Jessica R.; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mdx mouse model for the fatal muscle wasting disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) shows a very mild pathology once growth has ceased, with low levels of myofibre necrosis in adults. However, from about 3 weeks of post-natal age, muscles of juvenile mdx mice undergo an acute bout of severe necrosis and inflammation: this subsequently decreases and stabilises to lower adult levels by about 6 weeks of age. Prior to the onset of this severe dystropathology, we have shown that mdx mice are deficient in the amino acid taurine (potentially due to weaning), and we propose that this exacerbates myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to increase taurine availability to pre-weaned juvenile mdx mice (from 14 days of age), to evaluate the impact on levels of myofibre necrosis and inflammation (at 22 days) during the acute period of severe dystropathology. Results: Untreated 22 day old mdx muscle was not deficient in taurine, with similar levels to normal C57 control muscle. However taurine treatment, which increased the taurine content of young dystrophic muscle (by 40%), greatly reduced myofibre necrosis (by 75%) and prevented significant increases in 3 markers of inflammation. Conclusion: Taurine was very effective at preventing the acute phase of muscle damage that normally results in myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice, supporting continued research into the use of taurine as a therapeutic intervention for protecting growing muscles of young DMD boys

  11. Characterization of a broad-scope amino acid transport system in sand dollars

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.P.; Bellis, S.; Stephens, G.C. )

    1988-03-01

    Both echinoderm embryos and adults take up {sup 14}C-labelled-{alpha}-amino acids by an apparent broad-scope transport system. This transporter can be characterized as follows: alanine transport is not blocked by {alpha}-(methylamino)isobutyric acid. Leucine and other lipophilic neutral amino acids are preferentially transported. Transport is sodium dependent and blocked by 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxyclic acid. Lysine and aspartate transport is inhibited by lipophilic neutral amino acids. Taurine, a {beta}-neutral amino acid is translocated via a second and independent carrier.

  12. A maternal low protein diet has pronounced effects on mitochondrial gene expression in offspring liver and skeletal muscle; protective effect of taurine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance, and eventually type 2 diabetes in adult life. Gestational protein restriction in rodents gives rise to a low birth weight phenotype in the offspring. Results We examined gene expression changes in liver and skeletal muscle of mice subjected to gestational protein restriction (LP) or not (NP), with or without taurine supplementation in the drinking water. LP offspring had a 40% lower birth weight than NP offspring, with taurine preventing half the decrease. Microarray gene expression analysis of newborn mice revealed significant changes in 2012 genes in liver and 967 genes in skeletal muscle of LP offspring. Taurine prevented 30% and 46% of these expression changes, respectively. Mitochondrial genes, especially those involved with oxidative phosphorylation, were more abundantly changed than other genes. The mitochondrial genes were mainly upregulated in liver, but downregulated in skeletal muscle, despite no change in citrate synthase activity in either tissue. Taurine preferentially rescued genes concerned with fatty acid metabolism in liver and with oxidative phosphorylation and TCA cycle in skeletal muscle. A mitochondrial signature was seen in the liver of NP offspring with taurine supplementation, as gene sets for mitochondrial ribosome as well as lipid metabolism were over represented in 4-week-old offspring subjected to gestational taurine supplementation. Likewise, 11 mitochondrial genes were significantly upregulated by gestational taurine supplementation in 4-week-old NP offspring. Conclusions Gestational protein restriction resulted in lower birth weight associated with significant gene expression changes, which was different in liver and muscle of offspring. However, a major part of the birth weight decrease and the expression changes were prevented by maternal taurine supplementation, implying taurine is a key factor in determining expression

  13. Dietary protein deficiency affects n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids hepatic storage and very low density lipoprotein transport in rats on different diets.

    PubMed

    Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J

    1994-04-01

    Fatty livers and the similarity between the skin lesions in kwashiorkor and those described in experimental essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency have led to the hypothesis that protein and EFA deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition. The relationship between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and hepatic lipid composition was studied after 28 d of protein depletion to determine the interactions between dietary protein levels and EFA availability. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 or 2% casein and 5% fat as either soybean oil rich in EFA, or salmon oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, or hydrogenated coconut oil poor in EFA. Animals were divided into six groups, SOC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil), SOd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil), COC (20% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil) and SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil). After 28 d, liver steatosis and reduced VLDL-phospholipid contents (P < 0.001) were observed in protein-deficient rats. In protein deficiency, triacylglycerol and phospholipid fatty acid compositions in both liver and VLDL showed a decreased polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio. This ratio was higher with the salmon oil diets and lower with the hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Furthermore, independent of the oil in the diet, protein deficiency decreased linoleic and arachidonic acids in VLDL phospholipids. Conversely, despite decreased proportions of EPA at low protein levels, DHA levels remained higher in rats fed salmon oil diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Viral hepatitis: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Satsangi, Sandeep; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2016-07-01

    Viral hepatitis is a cause for major health care burden in India and is now equated as a threat comparable to the "big three" communicable diseases - HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus are predominantly enterically transmitted pathogens and are responsible to cause both sporadic infections and epidemics of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus are predominantly spread via parenteral route and are notorious to cause chronic hepatitis which can lead to grave complications including cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Around 400 million people all over the world suffer from chronic hepatitis and the Asia-Pacific region constitutes the epicentre of this epidemic. The present article would aim to cover the basic virologic aspects of these viruses and highlight the present scenario of viral hepatitis in India. PMID:27546957

  15. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  16. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  17. Ameliorative Effects of Taurine Against Methimazole-Induced Cytotoxicity in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Reza; Babaei, Hossein; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Methimazole is used as an antithyroid drug to control the symptoms of hyperthyroidism and maintain patients in a euthyroid state. Administration of this drug is associated with agranulocytosis and hepatotoxicity, which are the two most significant adverse effects. The present investigation was conducted to study the protective role of taurine against cytotoxicity induced by methimazole and its proposed reactive intermediary metabolite, N-methylthiourea, in an in vitro model of isolated rat hepatocytes. At different points in time, markers such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and hepatocyte glutathione content were evaluated. Treating hepatocytes with methimazole resulted in cytotoxicity characterized by the reduction in cell viability, an increase in ROS formation and lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and a reduction in cellular glutathione content. Furthermore, a significant amount of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was formed when rat hepatocytes were treated with methimazole. N-methylthiourea toxicity was accompanied by a reduction in cellular GSH content, but no significant changes in lipid peroxidation, ROS formation, GSSG production, or changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were detected. Administration of taurine (200 μM) effectively reduced the toxic effects of methimazole or its metabolite in isolated rat hepatocytes. PMID:23264945

  18. Taurine as a marker for the identification of natural Calculus Bovis and its substitutes.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kayoko; Azuma, Yuko; Kawase, Masaya; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Schaffer, Stephen W; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    Calculus Bovis (C. Bovis) is a commonly used animal-derived therapeutic preparation. To meet the increasing clinical demand for the preparation, two artificial substitutes for Bos Taurus have been introduced in China: artificial C. Bovis and in vitro cultured C. Bovis. However, information on their efficacy and safety is inadequate. Therefore, we investigated the biological differences between the commonly used natural preparation and its two substitutes, with the aim of not only identifying the differences but also providing a procedure to distinguish between the different preparations.In the study, we prepared 9 natural C. Bovis, 2 artificial C. Bovis, and 2 in vitro cultured C. Bovis preparations for evaluation. Differences were noted between the three preparations relative to their effect on viability of cardiac fibroblasts from 1-day-old Wistar rats. Although natural C. Bovis had no effect on cell viability, 1-h treatment of the cells with 0.25 mg/ml of the substitutes significantly reduced cell viability, as detected by the MTS assay. Based on liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the preparations also differed in composition. Indeed, the substitutes contained more taurine, cholic acid, iron, magnesium, and calcium than the natural preparations. They also differed spectroscopically.The present results reveal significant biological differences between natural C. Bovis and two of its substitutes. Since the substitutes appear to contain more taurine, cholic acid, and elements, these constituents may serve as markers to distinguish between natural C. Bovis and its substitutes.

  19. Taurine as a marker for the identification of natural Calculus Bovis and its substitutes.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kayoko; Azuma, Yuko; Kawase, Masaya; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Schaffer, Stephen W; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    Calculus Bovis (C. Bovis) is a commonly used animal-derived therapeutic preparation. To meet the increasing clinical demand for the preparation, two artificial substitutes for Bos Taurus have been introduced in China: artificial C. Bovis and in vitro cultured C. Bovis. However, information on their efficacy and safety is inadequate. Therefore, we investigated the biological differences between the commonly used natural preparation and its two substitutes, with the aim of not only identifying the differences but also providing a procedure to distinguish between the different preparations.In the study, we prepared 9 natural C. Bovis, 2 artificial C. Bovis, and 2 in vitro cultured C. Bovis preparations for evaluation. Differences were noted between the three preparations relative to their effect on viability of cardiac fibroblasts from 1-day-old Wistar rats. Although natural C. Bovis had no effect on cell viability, 1-h treatment of the cells with 0.25 mg/ml of the substitutes significantly reduced cell viability, as detected by the MTS assay. Based on liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the preparations also differed in composition. Indeed, the substitutes contained more taurine, cholic acid, iron, magnesium, and calcium than the natural preparations. They also differed spectroscopically.The present results reveal significant biological differences between natural C. Bovis and two of its substitutes. Since the substitutes appear to contain more taurine, cholic acid, and elements, these constituents may serve as markers to distinguish between natural C. Bovis and its substitutes. PMID:23392879

  20. Assessing signatures of selection through variation in linkage disequilibrium between taurine and indicine cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Signatures of selection are regions in the genome that have been preferentially increased in frequency and fixed in a population because of their functional importance in specific processes. These regions can be detected because of their lower genetic variability and specific regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns. Methods By comparing the differences in regional LD variation between dairy and beef cattle types, and between indicine and taurine subspecies, we aim at finding signatures of selection for production and adaptation in cattle breeds. The VarLD method was applied to compare the LD variation in the autosomal genome between breeds, including Angus and Brown Swiss, representing taurine breeds, and Nelore and Gir, representing indicine breeds. Genomic regions containing the top 0.01 and 0.1 percentile of signals were characterized using the UMD3.1 Bos taurus genome assembly to identify genes in those regions and compared with previously reported selection signatures and regions with copy number variation. Results For all comparisons, the top 0.01 and 0.1 percentile included 26 and 165 signals and 17 and 125 genes, respectively, including TECRL, BT.23182 or FPPS, CAST, MYOM1, UVRAG and DNAJA1. Conclusions The VarLD method is a powerful tool to identify differences in linkage disequilibrium between cattle populations and putative signatures of selection with potential adaptive and productive importance. PMID:24592996

  1. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Maha A.E.

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum testosterone level

  2. Thermodynamic characteristics of the acid-base equilibria of taurine in aqueous solutions, according to calorimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gridchin, S. N.; Shekhanov, R. F.; Pyreu, D. F.

    2015-02-01

    Enthalpies of the neutralization and protonation of taurine (HL) are measured by direct calorimetry at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 (KNO3). The standard thermodynamic characteristics of HL protolytic equilibria are calculated.

  3. The role of Ca(2+) mediated signaling pathways on the effect of taurine against Streptococcus uberis infection.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bin; Zhang, Jinqiu; Liu, Ming; Lu, Jinye; Zhang, Yuanshu; Xu, Yuanyuan; Miao, Jinfeng; Yin, Yulong

    2016-08-30

    To provide insight into the mechanisms of taurine attenuation of pro-inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cell line (EpH4-Ev, purchased by ATCC, USA) after Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis, 0140J) challenge, we infected MECs with S. uberis (2.5×10(7)cfumL(-1), MOI=10) for 3h and quantified changes in TLR-2 and calcium (Ca(2+)) mediated signaling pathways. The results indicate that S. uberis infection significantly increases the expression of TLR-2, intracellular Ca(2+) levels, PLC-γ1 and PKC-α, the activities of transcription factors NF-κB and NFAT, and related cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, G-CSF, IL-2, KC, IL-15, FasL, MCP-1, and LIX) in culture supernatants. Taurine administration downregulated all these indices, the activities of NF-κB and NFAT. Cytokine secretions were similar using special PKC inhibitor Go 6983 and NFAT inhibitor VIVIT. Our data indicate that S. uberis infection induces pro-inflammatory response of MECs through a TLR-2 mediated signaling pathway. In addition, taurine can prevent MEC damage by affecting both PLC-γ1-Ca(2+)-PKC-α-NF-κB and PLC-γ1-Ca(2+)-NFATs signaling pathways. This is the first report to demonstrate the mechanisms of taurine attenuated pro-inflammatory response in MECs after S. uberis challenge. PMID:27527761

  4. The reported clinical utility of taurine in ischemic disorders may reflect a down-regulation of neutrophil activation and adhesion.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    1999-10-01

    The first publications regarding clinical use of taurine were Italian reports claiming therapeutic efficacy in angina, intermittent claudication and symptomatic cerebral arteriosclerosis. A down-regulation of neutrophil activation and endothelial adhesion might plausibly account for these observations. Endothelial platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a crucial stimulus to neutrophil adhesion and activation, whereas endothelial nitric oxide (NO) suppresses PAF production and acts in various other ways to antagonize binding and activation of neutrophils. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a neutrophil product which avidly oxidizes many sulfhydryl-dependent proteins, can be expected to inhibit NO synthase while up-regulating PAF generation; thus, a vicious circle can be postulated whereby HOCl released by marginating neutrophils acts on capillary or venular endothelium to promote further neutrophil adhesion and activation. Taurine is the natural detoxicant of HOCl, and thus has the potential to intervene in this vicious circle, promoting a less adhesive endothelium and restraining excessive neutrophil activation. Agents which inhibit the action of PAF on neutrophils, such as ginkgolides and pentoxifylline, have documented utility in ischemic disorders and presumably would complement the efficacy of taurine in this regard. Fish oil, which inhibits endothelial expression of various adhesion factors and probably PAF as well, and which suppresses neutrophil leukotriene production, may likewise be useful in ischemia. These agents may additionally constitute a non-toxic strategy for treating inflammatory disorders in which activated neutrophils play a prominent pathogenic role. Double-blind studies to confirm the efficacy of taurine in symptomatic chronic ischemia are needed.

  5. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth and survival after challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. Plant-source ingredients are considered to be low (< 5 ppm) for taurine content. In add...

  6. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  7. Sulfoacetaldehyde is excreted quantitatively by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus SW1 during growth with taurine as sole source of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Weinitschke, Sonja; von Rekowski, Katharina Styp; Denger, Karin; Cook, Alasdair M

    2005-04-01

    Eighteen enrichment cultures with taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) as the sole source of combined nitrogen under aerobic conditions were all successful, and 24 pure cultures were obtained. Only three of the cultures yielded an inorganic product, sulfate, from the sulfonate moiety of taurine, and the others were presumed to yield organosulfonates. Sulfoacetate, known from Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 under these conditions, was not detected in any culture, but sulfoacetaldehyde (as a hydrazone derivative) was tentatively detected in the outgrown medium of nine isolates. The compound was stable under these conditions and the identification was confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Most sulfoacetaldehyde-releasing isolates were determined to be strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and a representative organism, strain SW1, was chosen for further work. A quantitative enzymic determination of sulfoacetaldehyde and its bisulfite addition complex was developed: it involved the NAD-coupled sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase from R. palustris. A. calcoaceticus SW1 utilized taurine quantitatively and concomitantly with growth in, for example, an adipate-salts medium, and the release of sulfoacetaldehyde was stoichiometric. The deamination reaction involved a taurine dehydrogenase. Enrichment cultures to explore the possible release of organophosphonates from the analogous substrate, 2-aminoethanephosphonate, led to 33 isolates, all of which released inorganic phosphate quantitatively.

  8. Onion peel extract increases hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 messenger RNA expressions in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Min; Moon, Jiyoung; Do, Hyun Ju; Chung, Ji Hyung; Lee, Kyung-Hea; Cha, Yong-Jun; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we hypothesized that onion peel extract (OPE) alters hepatic gene expression to improve blood cholesterol profiles. To investigate the effect of OPE to test our hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with the control, high-fat diet (HFD) or the high-fat diet with 0.2% OPE supplementations (HFD + OPE). Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of genes in cholesterol metabolism and fatty acid metabolism were examined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The OPE in HFD reverted high fat-induced reduction in mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme reductase genes in the liver comparable with the levels of the control group. Onion peel extract slightly increased stearoyl-coA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) expression compared with high-fat feeding. However, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase were not affected by high-fat or OPE feeding. Onion peel extract also enhanced expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 and scavenger receptor class B type I genes when compared with high-fat feeding. However, OPE did not influence high fat-triggered changes in apolipoprotein A1 mRNA levels and liver X receptor α were not affected by either high-fat or OPE feeding. Our results suggest that OPE changes the expression of genes associated with cholesterol metabolism in favor of lowering blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and enhancing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol through increasing mRNA abundance of low-density lipoprotein receptor and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 genes. PMID:22464808

  9. Gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc solid dispersions against absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesions is mediated by enhancement of antioxidant activity and endogenous PGE2 production and attenuation of NO production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Zinc plays a key role in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity, while alcohol dependency can lead to low zinc status. Complexes containing zinc have been reported to have better ability to protect gastric mucosa than the compounds alone. In this study, taurine zinc [Zn(NH3CH2CH2SO3)2] solid dispersions (SDs) were synthesized and investigated in an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. Gastric ulcer index; gastric mucosa malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production; and serum nitric oxide (NO) were assessed and histological analysis of the gastric mucosa tissue was performed. Taurine zinc (100, 200 mg/kg) SDs protected rat gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced injury. Moreover, the gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc SDs was accompanied by a decrease in serum NO and significant increase in gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). When indomethacin, a non-selective COX inhibitor was administered before the last dose of taurine zinc, the gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc was weakened. Furthermore, taurine zinc (200 mg/kg) SDs protected against ulceration more significantly than the same dose of taurine alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between taurine and zinc. These results indicate taurine zinc protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced damage by elevating antioxidants, decreasing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting the production of nitric oxide. The gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc was also partially mediated by endogenous PGE2 production.

  10. Taurine protected kidney from oxidative injury through mitochondrial-linked pathway in a rat model of nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng Yang; Deng, Yao Liang; Sun, Bing Hua

    2009-08-01

    Hyperoxaluria and crystal deposition induce oxidative stress (OS) and renal epithelial cells injury, both mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase are considered as the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taurine is known to have antioxidant activity and shows renoprotective effect. We investigate the effect of taurine treatment on renal protection, and the putative source of ROS, in a rat model of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Rats were administered with 2.5% (V/V) ethylene glycol + 2.5% (W/V) ammonium chloride (4 ml/day), with restriction on intake of drinking water (20 ml/day) for 4 weeks. Simultaneous treatment with taurine (2% W/W, mixed with the chow) was performed. At the end of the study, indexes of OS and renal injury were assessed. Renal tubular ultrastructure changes were analyzed under transmission electron microscopy. Crystal deposition in kidney was scored under light microscopy. Angiotensin II in kidney homogenates was determined by radioimmunoassay. Expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p47phox and Nox-4 mRNAs in kidney was evaluated by real time-polymerase chain reaction. The data showed that oxidative injury of the kidney occurred in nephrolithiasis-induced rats. Hyperplasia of mitochondria developed in renal tubular epithelium. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mitochondria decreased and the mitochondrial membrane showed oxidative injury. Taurine treatment alleviated the oxidative injury of the kidney, improved SOD and GSH-Px activities, as well as the mitochondrial membrane injury, with lesser crystal depositions in the kidney. We could not detect statistical changes in the renal angiotensin II level, and the renal p47phox and Nox-4 mRNAs expression in those rats. The results suggest that mitochondria but not NADPH oxidase may account for the OS and taurine protected kidney from oxidative injury through mitochondrial-linked pathway in this rat

  11. The effects of taurine on vigabatrin, high light intensity and mydriasis induced retinal toxicity in the pigmented rat.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Allan D; Truchot, Nathalie; Pickersgill, Nigel; Thale, Zia Irene; Rosolen, Serge G; Botteron, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to establish a model that may be used for examining the effect of Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity in pigmented rats, and subsequently examine the possible effects of taurine on the retinal toxicity. In the first part of the study, pigmented Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis, low/high light intensities (40/2000 lx) and oral administration of near-MTD (Maximum Tolerated Dose) doses (200 mg/kg/day) of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. The combination of mydriasis and high light intensity applied to Long Evans rats resulted in retinal damage that was increased by the administration of Vigabatrin. In the second part of the study Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis and high/low light intensity (40/2000 lx) while being orally administered low (30 mg/kg/day) or high (200 mg/kg/day) doses of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. In addition, selected groups of animals were administered taurine via the drinking water (20 mg/ml), resulting in systemic taurine concentrations of approximately threefold the endogenous concentration. The combined results of the studies demonstrate that retinal damage can be induced in pigmented animals when combining mydriasis and high light intensity. Retinal damage was functionally evaluated by electroretinography (ERG), then confirmed by histopathology. While depending on mydriasis and high light intensity, administration of Vigabatrin increased the retinal toxicity and resulted in the formation of rosette-like structures in the retina in a dose-related manner. Administration of taurine did not alleviate the Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity, as demonstrated either functionally by ERG or morphologically, although systemic concentrations of 3-fold the endogenous levels were reached, and it was thus not possible to demonstrate a protective effect of taurine in these pigmented animals. PMID:25446799

  12. Hepatic abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, S.; Langer, V.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic abscesses are potentially lethal diseases if early diagnosis and treatment are not instituted. They are prevalent all over the globe and pyogenic abscesses are predominant over amoebic. With better control of intra abdominal and systemic infections by a spectrum of antibiotics, aetiology of pyogenic abscesses are secondary to interventions and diseases in the biliary tree to a large extent today. The common organisms isolated are the Gram negative group. Amoebic abscesses continue to plague some regions of the world where hygiene and sanitation are questionable. Over the years, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis have evolved remarkably. Imaging modalities like ultrasonography and CT scan have become the cornerstone of diagnosis. The absence of ionizing radiation makes MRI an attractive alternative in patients who require multiple follow up scans. Serological testing in amoebic abscesses has become more reliable. Though antibiotics have remained the principal modality of management, percutaneous drainage of abscesses have vastly improved the chances of cure and bring down the morbidity drastically in pyogenic abscesses. Amoebic abscesses respond well to medical treatment with nitroimidazoles, and minimally invasive surgical drainage is an option in cases where open surgery is indicated. PMID:24532886

  13. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatitis A. Children can get hepatitis A at day care center from other children or from child care ... treatment with immunoglobulin therapy. If your child attends day care: Make sure the children and staff at the ...

  14. Hepatitis B Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... IgM; anti-HBe; Hepatitis B e Antibody; HBV DNA Formal name: Hepatitis B Virus Testing Related tests: ... produced by the virus, and others detect viral DNA . The main uses for HBV tests include: To ...

  15. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  16. Taurine supplementation ameliorates glucose homeostasis, prevents insulin and glucagon hypersecretion, and controls β, α, and δ-cell masses in genetic obese mice.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, Junia C; Ribeiro, Rosane Aparecida; Vettorazzi, Jean F; Irles, Esperanza; Rickli, Sarah; Borck, Patrícia C; Porciuncula, Patricia M; Quesada, Ivan; Nadal, Angel; Boschero, Antonio C; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2015-08-01

    Taurine (Tau) regulates β-cell function and glucose homeostasis under normal and diabetic conditions. Here, we assessed the effects of Tau supplementation upon glucose homeostasis and the morphophysiology of endocrine pancreas, in leptin-deficient obese (ob) mice. From weaning until 90-day-old, C57Bl/6 and ob mice received, or not, 5% Tau in drinking water (C, CT, ob and obT). Obese mice were hyperglycemic, glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and exhibited higher hepatic glucose output. Tau supplementation did not prevent obesity, but ameliorated glucose homeostasis in obT. Islets from ob mice presented a higher glucose-induced intracellular Ca(2+) influx, NAD(P)H production and insulin release. Furthermore, α-cells from ob islets displayed a higher oscillatory Ca(2+) profile at low glucose concentrations, in association with glucagon hypersecretion. In Tau-supplemented ob mice, insulin and glucagon secretion was attenuated, while Ca(2+) influx tended to be normalized in β-cells and Ca(2+) oscillations were increased in α-cells. Tau normalized the inhibitory action of somatostatin (SST) upon insulin release in the obT group. In these islets, expression of the glucagon, GLUT-2 and TRPM5 genes was also restored. Tau also enhanced MafA, Ngn3 and NeuroD mRNA levels in obT islets. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the hypertrophy of ob islets tends to be normalized by Tau with reductions in islet and β-cell masses, but enhanced δ-cell mass in obT. Our results indicate that Tau improves glucose homeostasis, regulating β-, α-, and δ-cell morphophysiology in ob mice, indicating that Tau may be a potential therapeutic tool for the preservation of endocrine pancreatic function in obesity and diabetes.

  17. Sulfur X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Living Mammalian Cells: An Enabling Tool for Sulfur Metabolomics. in Situ Observation of Uptake of Taurine Into MDCK Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gnida, M.; Sneeden, E.Yu; Whitin, J.C.; Prince, R.C.; Pickering, I.J.; Korbas, M.; George, G.N.

    2009-06-01

    Sulfur is essential for life, with important roles in biological structure and function. However, because of a lack of suitable biophysical techniques, in situ information about sulfur biochemistry is generally difficult to obtain. Here, we present an in situ sulfur X-ray absorption spectroscopy (S-XAS) study of living cell cultures of the mammalian renal epithelial MDCK cell line. A great deal of information is retrieved from a characteristic sulfonate feature in the X-ray absorption spectrum of the cell cultures, which can be related to the amino acid taurine. We followed the time and dose dependence of uptake of taurine into MDCK cell monolayers. The corresponding uptake curves showed a typical saturation behavior with considerable levels of taurine accumulation inside the cells (as much as 40% of total cellular sulfur). We also investigated the polarity of uptake of taurine into MDCK cells, and our results confirmed that uptake in situ is predominantly a function of the basolateral cell surface.

  18. Comparative study of effects of magnesium and taurine on electrical parameters of natural and artificial membranes. VII. Effects on cellular and paracellular ionic transfer through isolated human amnion.

    PubMed

    Bara, M; Guiet-Bara, A; Durlach, J

    1990-12-01

    The comparative effects of 2 mM magnesium and taurine on various components of the human transamniotic conductance, Gt, were observed. The use of both microelectrodes and metabolic inhibitors enables 10 components of Gt to be distinguished: six cellular components (Na-K ATPase, Na-H antiport, Na-K-2Cl cotransport and Na, K, Cl channels), one coupling component, and three paracellular components (Na, K, Cl). Mg increased all components of Gt while taurine only increased five of them (Na and K channels, coupling, Na and K paracellular conductance). A potentiometric effect of taurine on Mg2+ modified membrane, obtained on paracellular components, was not measured on cellular components. There was only a vicarious effect between Mg and taurine on the non-enzymatic cellular and paracellular transfer of Na and K.

  19. A combination of caffeine and taurine has no effect on short term memory but induces changes in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Bichler, A; Swenson, A; Harris, M A

    2006-11-01

    Red Bull energy drink has become extraordinarily popular amongst college students for use as a study aid. We investigated the combined effects of Red Bull's two active ingredients, caffeine and taurine, on short term memory. Studies on the effects of these two neuromodulators on memory have yielded mixed results, and their combined actions have not yet been investigated. In this double-blind study, college student subjects consumed either caffeine and taurine pills or a placebo and then completed a memory assessment. Heart rate and blood pressure were monitored throughout the testing period. The combination of caffeine and taurine had no effect on short term memory, but did cause a significant decline in heart rate and an increase in mean arterial blood pressure. The heart rate decline may have been caused by pressure-induced bradycardia that was triggered by caffeine ingestion and perhaps enhanced by the actions of taurine.

  20. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  1. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A Text Size ... Prevented? How Is It Treated? What Is It? Hepatitis (pronounced: hep-uh-TIE-tiss) is a disease ...

  2. Hepatitis E Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Marion, Olivier; Abravanel, Florence; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Although most hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are asymptomatic, some can be severe, causing fulminant hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations, including neurological and kidney injuries. Chronic HEV infections may also occur in immunocompromised patients. This review describes how our understanding of the pathogenesis of HEV infection has progressed in recent years. PMID:27527210

  3. Variant innate immune responses of mammary epithelial cells to challenge by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the regulating effect of taurine on these bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liuhai; Xu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Jinye; Liu, Ming; Bin Dai; Miao, Jinfeng; Yin, Yulong

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are important pathogens causing subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis, respectively. Taurine, an organic acid found in animal tissues, has been used for the treatment of various superficial infections and chronic inflammations. We challenged a bovine mammary epithelial cell (MEC) line (MAC-T) or a mouse mammary epithelial cell line (EpH4-Ev) with either E. coli or S. aureus and compared the responses of MECs to these 2 pathogens. We also examined the regulatory effects of taurine on these responses. Receptor analyses showed that both TLR2 and TLR4 are upregulated upon exposure to either E. coli or S. aureus. Taurine pre-treatment dampened upregulation to some extent. E. coli and S. aureus stimulated comparable levels of ROS, which could be inhibited by taurine pre-treatment. E. coli infection elicited a dramatic change in iNOS expression. Taurine significantly decreased iNOS expression in the S. aureus challenged group. Protein microarray demonstrated that 32/40 and 8/40 inflammatory molecules/mediators were increased after E. coli or S. aureus challenge, respectively. The fold changes of most molecules were higher in the E. coli infection group than that in the S. aureus infection group. Taurine negatively regulated the inflammatory profile in both bacterial infections. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α) connected with TLR activation were down-regulated by taurine pre-treatment. The influence of TAK-242 and OxPAPC on cytokine/molecule expression profiles to E. coli challenge are different than to S. aureus. Some important factors (MyD88, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by TLR activation were suppressed either in protein microarray or special assay (PCR/kits) or both. TAK-242 restrained ROS production and NAGase activity similar to the effect of taurine in E. coli challenge groups. The detection of 3 indices (T-AOC, SOD and MDA) reflecting oxidative stress in vivo, showed that

  4. Variant innate immune responses of mammary epithelial cells to challenge by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the regulating effect of taurine on these bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liuhai; Xu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Jinye; Liu, Ming; Bin Dai; Miao, Jinfeng; Yin, Yulong

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are important pathogens causing subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis, respectively. Taurine, an organic acid found in animal tissues, has been used for the treatment of various superficial infections and chronic inflammations. We challenged a bovine mammary epithelial cell (MEC) line (MAC-T) or a mouse mammary epithelial cell line (EpH4-Ev) with either E. coli or S. aureus and compared the responses of MECs to these 2 pathogens. We also examined the regulatory effects of taurine on these responses. Receptor analyses showed that both TLR2 and TLR4 are upregulated upon exposure to either E. coli or S. aureus. Taurine pre-treatment dampened upregulation to some extent. E. coli and S. aureus stimulated comparable levels of ROS, which could be inhibited by taurine pre-treatment. E. coli infection elicited a dramatic change in iNOS expression. Taurine significantly decreased iNOS expression in the S. aureus challenged group. Protein microarray demonstrated that 32/40 and 8/40 inflammatory molecules/mediators were increased after E. coli or S. aureus challenge, respectively. The fold changes of most molecules were higher in the E. coli infection group than that in the S. aureus infection group. Taurine negatively regulated the inflammatory profile in both bacterial infections. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α) connected with TLR activation were down-regulated by taurine pre-treatment. The influence of TAK-242 and OxPAPC on cytokine/molecule expression profiles to E. coli challenge are different than to S. aureus. Some important factors (MyD88, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by TLR activation were suppressed either in protein microarray or special assay (PCR/kits) or both. TAK-242 restrained ROS production and NAGase activity similar to the effect of taurine in E. coli challenge groups. The detection of 3 indices (T-AOC, SOD and MDA) reflecting oxidative stress in vivo, showed that

  5. Morphological development of larval cobia Rachycentron canadum and the influence of dietary taurine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Salze, G; Craig, S R; Smith, B H; Smith, E P; McLean, E

    2011-05-01

    The morphological development of larval cobia Rachycentron canadum from 3 days post hatch (dph) until weaning (27 dph) was examined using S.E.M. Two groups of fish were studied: a control group (CF), reared under standard feeding protocol, and a group in which prey items were enriched with supplemental taurine (4 g l(-1) day(-1) ; TF). TF fish grew faster (P < 0·001), attained greater size (mean ±s.e. 55·1 ± 1·5 v. 33·9 ± 1·0 mm total length) and had better survival (mean ±s.e. 29·3 ± 0·4 v. 7·1 ± 1·2 %) than CF fish. Canonical variance analysis confirmed findings with respect to differences in growth between the treatment groups with separation being explained by two cranial measurements. S.E.M. revealed that 3 dph larvae of R. canadum (in both groups) possess preopercular spines, superficial neuromasts on the head and body, taste buds in the mouth, an olfactory epithelium which takes the form of simple concave depressions, and primordial gill arches. Gill filaments start to form as early as 6 dph and lamellae buds are visible at 8 dph in both groups. In CF fish, the cephalic lateral line system continues its development at 12-14 dph with invagination of both supra- and infraorbital canals. At the same time, a thorn-like or acanthoid crest forms above the eye. At 14 dph, invaginations of the mandibular and preopercular canals are visible and around 22 dph enclosure of all cranial canals nears completion. In CF larvae, however, completely enclosed cranial canals were not observed within the course of the trial, i.e. 27 dph. In TF larvae, grooves of the cephalic lateral line system form 4 days earlier than observed in CF larvae of R. canadum (i.e. at 8 dph), with enclosure commencing at 16 dph, and completed by 27 dph. Along the flanks of 6 dph larvae of either treatment, four to five equally spaced neuromasts delineate the future position of the trunk lateral line. As myomeres are added to the growing larvae, new neuromasts appear such that at 16 dph

  6. Synthesis of hepatic lipase in liver and extrahepatic tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, M.H.; Wong, H.; Davis, R.C.; Schotz, M.C.

    1987-11-01

    Immunoprecipitations of hepatic lipase from pulse-labeled rat liver have demonstrated that hepatic lipase is synthesized in two distinct molecular weight forms, HL-I (Mr = 51,000) and HL-II (Mr = 53,000). Both forms are immunologically related to purified hepatic lipase, but not to lipoprotein lipase. HL-I and HL-II are also kinetically related and represent different stages of intracellular processing. Glycosidase experiments suggest that HL-I is the high mannose microsomal form of the mature, sialylated HL-II enzyme. Hepatic lipase activity was detected in liver and adrenal gland but was absent in brain, heart, kidney, testes, small intestine, lung, and spleen. The adrenal and liver lipase activities were inhibited in a similar dose-dependent manner by hepatic lipase antiserum. Immunoblot analysis of partially purified adrenal lipase showed an immunoreactive band co-migrating with HL-II at 53,000 daltons which was absent in a control blot treated with preimmune serum. Adrenal lipase and authentic hepatic lipase yielded similar peptide maps, confirming the presence of the lipase in adrenal gland. However, incorporation of L-(/sup 35/S)methionine into immunoprecipitable hepatic lipase was not detected in this tissue. In addition, Northern blot analysis showed the presence of hepatic lipase mRNA in liver but not adrenal gland. The presence of hepatic lipase in adrenal gland in the absence of detectable synthesis or messenger suggests that hepatic lipase originates in liver and is transported to this extrahepatic site.

  7. Taurine and pioglitazone attenuate diabetes-induced testicular damage by abrogation of oxidative stress and up-regulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Twab, Sanaa M; Mohamed, Hanaa M; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with impairment of testicular function. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of taurine and pioglitazone against diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection. Both normal and diabetic rats received taurine (100 mg/kg) or pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) orally and daily for 6 weeks. Diabetic rats showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose, homeostasis model of insulin resistance, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Serum insulin, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in diabetic rats. Taurine and pioglitazone alleviated hyperglycemia, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased circulating levels of insulin, testosterone, LH, and FSH. Gene and protein expression of LH and FSH receptors and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17) was significantly (P < 0.001) down-regulated in testes of diabetic rats, an effect which was significantly increased after administration of taurine and pioglitazone. In addition, taurine and pioglitazone significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and enhanced activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes of diabetic rats. In conclusion, taurine and pioglitazone exerted protective effects against diabetes-induced testicular damage through attenuation of hyperglycemia, inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and up-regulation of the pituitary/gonadal axis. PMID:27089006

  8. Simultaneous and rapid determination of caffeine and taurine in energy drinks by MEKC in a short capillary with dual contactless conductivity/photometry detection.

    PubMed

    Vochyánová, Blanka; Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of taurine and caffeine using a laboratory-made instrument enabling separation analysis in a short 10.5 cm capillary. The substances are detected using a contactless conductometry/ultraviolet (UV) photometry detector that enables recording both signals at one place in the capillary. The separation of caffeine and taurine was performed using the MEKC technique in a BGE with the composition 40 mM CHES, 15 mM NaOH, and 50 mM SDS, pH 9.36. Under these conditions, the migration time of caffeine is 43 s and of taurine 60 s; LOD for caffeine is 4 mg/L using photometric detection and LOD for taurine is 24 mg/L using contactless conductometric detection. The standard addition method was used for determination in Red Bull energy drink of caffeine 317 mg/L and taurine 3860 mg/L; the contents in Kamikaze drink were 468 mg/L caffeine and 4110 mg/L taurine. The determined values are in good agreement with the declared contents of these substances. RSD does not exceed 3%.

  9. Investigation of the Protective Effects of Taurine against Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Retinal Changes via Electroretinogram and Retinal Histology with New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Shang-Min; Chen, Yi-Chen; Lin, Shiun-Long

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of orally administered taurine against diabetic retinal changes via electroretinogram (ERG) and retinal histology on rabbits. Rabbits were randomly assigned into groups: Group I (vehicle administration only); Group II (diabetes: induced by 100 mg/kg alloxan injection); Group III (diabetes and fed with 200 mg/kg taurine); and Group IV (diabetes and fed with 400 mg/kg taurine). The body weight and blood glucose levels of the rabbits were monitored weekly. The ERG was measured on weeks 5 and 15. Retinal histology was analyzed in the end of the experiment. Results revealed that a taurine supplement significantly ameliorates the alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and protects the retina from electrophysiological changes. Group II showed a significant (P < 0.05) change in the mean scotopic b-wave amplitude when compared to that of Group I, whereas the diabetic rabbits treated with taurine (Group III and IV) were analogous to Group I. Histologically, the amount of Bipolar and Müller cells showed no difference (P > 0.05) between all groups and when compared with those of Group I. Our study provides solid evidences that taurine possesses an antidiabetic activity, reduced loss of body weight, and less electrophysiological changes of the diabetic retina. PMID:25298779

  10. Simultaneous and rapid determination of caffeine and taurine in energy drinks by MEKC in a short capillary with dual contactless conductivity/photometry detection.

    PubMed

    Vochyánová, Blanka; Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of taurine and caffeine using a laboratory-made instrument enabling separation analysis in a short 10.5 cm capillary. The substances are detected using a contactless conductometry/ultraviolet (UV) photometry detector that enables recording both signals at one place in the capillary. The separation of caffeine and taurine was performed using the MEKC technique in a BGE with the composition 40 mM CHES, 15 mM NaOH, and 50 mM SDS, pH 9.36. Under these conditions, the migration time of caffeine is 43 s and of taurine 60 s; LOD for caffeine is 4 mg/L using photometric detection and LOD for taurine is 24 mg/L using contactless conductometric detection. The standard addition method was used for determination in Red Bull energy drink of caffeine 317 mg/L and taurine 3860 mg/L; the contents in Kamikaze drink were 468 mg/L caffeine and 4110 mg/L taurine. The determined values are in good agreement with the declared contents of these substances. RSD does not exceed 3%. PMID:24285507

  11. Comparative trial of N-acetyl-cysteine, taurine, and oxerutin on skin and kidney damage in long-term experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Odetti, Patrizio; Pesce, Carlo; Traverso, Nicola; Menini, Stefano; Maineri, Elena Pesce; Cosso, Luana; Valentini, Sabina; Patriarca, Stefania; Cottalasso, Damiano; Marinari, Umberto M; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide

    2003-02-01

    This study analyzes the effect of chronic treatment with different antioxidants (N-acetyl-cysteine [NAC], taurine, a combination of NAC and taurine, and oxerutin) on long-term experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats. Glycoxidative damage was evaluated in the skin; glomerular structural changes were studied with morphometry and immunohistochemistry. Oxerutin treatment and the combined NAC plus taurine treatment resulted in reduced accumulation of collagen-linked fluorescence in skin in comparison with untreated diabetic rats. All treatments except taurine reduced glomerular accumulation of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and protected against the increase in glomerular volume typical of diabetes; furthermore, the apoptosis rate was significantly decreased and the glomerular cell density was better preserved. Glycoxidative markers in the skin turned out to be good indicators of the glomerular condition. The findings that emerged from our study support the hypothesis that glomerular damage in diabetes can be prevented or at least attenuated by supplementation with specific antioxidants. Treatment with oxerutin and combined treatment with NAC plus taurine gave the most encouraging results, whereas the results of taurine-only treatment were either negligible or negative and therefore suggest caution in the use of this molecule in single-drug treatment courses.

  12. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  13. Spectrofluorometric determination of common epoxides with sodium sulfide and o-phthalaldehyde and taurine reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, A.; Takitani, S.

    1985-07-01

    A spectrofluorometric method has been developed for the determination of common epoxides. Epoxides in ethanol solution gave an intense blue fluorescence (lambda/sub ex/ ca. 345 nm and lambda/sub em/ ca. 440 nm), after the first reaction with aqueous sodium sulfide at 55/sup 0/C for 20 min and followed by the second reaction with taurine and o-phthalaldehyde reagents at pH 8.3. By the proposed method, 1,2-epoxy-3-phenoxypropane and 1,2-epoxyoctane can be determined in the ranges 0.05-3 nmol/100 ..mu..L and 0.1-8 nmol/100 ..mu..L, respectively, with coefficients of variation of 1.6-2.9%. Some other alkylating agents also showed fluorescence by this method. 16 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Hepatitis: protecting BMETs & CEs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis is the primary occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Not until the 1970s were hepatitis viruses isolated and identified as types A and B. In the late 1970s, hepatitis D was discovered as a major cause of fulminant hepatitis. Soon, it was evident that another type was also at work. Because testing was only available for types A and B, the new category was referred to as non-A, non-B. In the 1980s, scientists identified two more viruses from this non-A, non-B group, namely hepatitis E and hepatitis C. These five types of hepatitis have different modes of transmission. The fecal-to-oral route is the mode of transmission for hepatitis types A and E. But, types B and D are bloodborne pathogens. With the advent of a safe vaccine for hepatitis B, this category is declining. To date, hepatitis C appears to have multiple routes of transmission, with half the cases being posttransfusion. In the United States, 85,000 people per year develop chronic hepatitis C, which ultimately leads to severe liver damage. This paper addresses each of the five viruses that have been grouped by routes of transmission, prevention techniques for BMETs and CEs, and statistics of reported cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) over the last 20 years. PMID:10139739

  15. Free Radical-Scavenging, Anti-Inflammatory/Anti-Fibrotic and Hepatoprotective Actions of Taurine and Silymarin against CCl4 Induced Rat Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M.; Al-Kahtani, Mohammed A.; El-Kersh, Mohamed A.; Al-Omair, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of taurine (TAU) alone or in combination with silymarin (SIL) on CCl4-induced liver damage. Twenty five male rats were randomized into 5 groups: normal control (vehicle treated), toxin control (CCl4 treated), CCl4+TAU, CCl4+SIL and CCl4+TAU+SIL. CCl4 provoked significant increases in the levels of hepatic TBARS, NO and NOS compared to control group, but the levels of endogenous antioxidants such as SOD, GPx, GR, GST and GSH were significantly decreased. Serum pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines including TNF-α, TGF-β1, IL-6, leptin and resistin were increased while the anti-inflammatory (adiponectin) cytokine was decreased in all treated rats. Our results also showed that CCl4 induced an increase in liver injury parameters like serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and bilirubin. In addition, a significant increase in liver tissue hydroxyproline (a major component of collagen) was detected in rats exposed to CCl4. Moreover, the concentrations of serum TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C and FFA were significantly increased by CCl4. Both TAU and SIL (i.e., antioxidants) post-treatments were effectively able to relieve most of the above mentioned imbalances. However, the combination therapy was more effective than single applications in reducing TBARS levels, NO production, hydroxyproline content in fibrotic liver and the activity of serum GGT. Combined treatment (but not TAU- or SIL-alone) was also able to effectively prevent CCl4-induced decrease in adiponectin serum levels. Of note, the combined post-treatment with TAU+SIL (but not monotherapy) normalized serum FFA in CCl4-treated rats. The biochemical results were confirmed by histological and ultrastructural changes as compared to CCl4-poisoned rats. Therefore, on the basis of our work, TAU may be used in combination with SIL as an additional adjunct therapy to cure liver diseases such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and viral hepatitis. PMID:26659465

  16. Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Shao, Andrew; Hathcock, John N

    2008-04-01

    Taurine, glutamine and arginine are examples of amino acids which have become increasingly popular as ingredients in dietary supplements and functional foods and beverages. Animal and human clinical research suggests that oral supplementation of these amino acids provides additional health and/or performance benefits beyond those observed from normal intake of dietary protein. The increased consumer awareness and use of these amino acids as ingredients in dietary supplements and functional foods warrant a comprehensive review of their safety through quantitative risk assessment, and identification of a potential safe upper level of intake. The absence of a systematic pattern of adverse effects in humans in response to orally administered taurine (Tau), l-glutamine (Gln) and l-arginine (Arg) precluded the selection of a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). Therefore, by definition, the usual approach to risk assessment for identification of a tolerable upper level of intake (UL) could not be used. Instead, the newer method described as the Observed Safe Level (OSL) or Highest Observed Intake (HOI) was utilized. The OSL risk assessments indicate that based on the available published human clinical trial data, the evidence for the absence of adverse effects is strong for Tau at supplemental intakes up to 3 g/d, Gln at intakes up to 14 g/d and Arg at intakes up to 20 g/d, and these levels are identified as the respective OSLs for normal healthy adults. Although much higher levels of each of these amino acids have been tested without adverse effects and may be safe, the data for intakes above these levels are not sufficient for a confident conclusion of long-term safety, and therefore these values are not selected as the OSLs.

  17. [Therapeutic effects of taurine in epilepsy: a clinical and polyphysiographic study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Marchesi, G F; Quattrini, A; Scarpino, O; Dellantonio, R

    1975-01-01

    A study was carried out after i.v. administration of 200 mg/Kg of taurine on 37 epileptic patients in whom frequency and duration of seizures was considerable. Twenty-two subjects were given taurine for 15 consecutive days and then, once a week for a period of 6 weeks. In 5 control cases, the daily dosage wascontinued up to the 30th day; in 5 more, up to the 45th day and finally, in 5 up to the 60th day. Out of 37 patients 15 had temporal lobe epilepsy, 10 were cases of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, 5 had generalised epilepsy, either convulsive or non-convulsive, 4 had H.H.E. syndrome and three brothers had myoclonic familial progressive epilepsy. In each group the results were similar and may be summarised as follows: I) both interictal activity and electroclinical seizures were reduced by about 30% within the first 10 days of administration; II) between the 30th and 45th day the ictal and interictal activity returned to its initial values; III) after this period, on the 60th day, values were similar to the initial ones; IV) as far as interictal activity is concerned, the same effect was found during nocturnal sleep; V) no significant changes were noticed in nocturnal sleep cycles and stages; VI) there was no apparent evidence that any phase of sleep might facilitate any improvement. Improvement was observed in about 50% of the cases (21) both physically and psychologically. The physical improvement was noticed above all in the appearence of the skin while the psychological improvement was mostly related to both attention and memory. Any pathological aspect of personality did not appear to be modified. PMID:819984

  18. Biochemical requirements for inhibition of Connexin26-containing channels by natural and synthetic taurine analogs.

    PubMed

    Tao, Liang; Harris, Andrew L

    2004-09-10

    Previous work has shown that protonated taurine and aminosulfonate pH buffers, including HEPES, can directly and reversibly inhibit connexin channels that contain connexin26 (Cx26) (Bevans, C. G., and Harris, A. L. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 3711-3719). The structural requirements for this inhibition were explored by studies of the effects of structural analogs of taurine on the activity of Cx26-containing reconstituted hemichannels from native tissue. Several analogs inhibited the channels, with a range of relative affinities and efficacies. Each active compound contains a protonated amine separated from an ionized sulfonate or sulfinate moiety by several methylene groups. The inhibition is eliminated if the sulfonate/sulfinate moiety or the amine is not present. Compounds that contain a protonated amine but lack a sulfonate/sulfinate moiety do not inhibit but do competitively block the effect of the active compounds. Compounds that lack the protonated amine do not significantly inhibit or antagonize inhibition. The results suggest involvement of the protonated amine in binding and of the ionized sulfur-containing moiety in effecting the inhibition. The maximal effect of the inhibitory compounds is enhanced when a carboxyl group is linked to the alpha-carbon. Inhibition but not binding is stereospecific, with l-isomers being inhibitory and the corresponding d-isomers being inactive but able to antagonize inhibition by the l-isomers. Whereas not all connexins are sensitive to aminosulfonates, the well defined structural requirements described here argue strongly for a highly specific regulatory interaction with some connexins. The finding that cytoplasmic aminosulfonates inhibit connexin channels whereas other cytoplasmic compounds antagonize the inhibition suggests that gap junction channels are regulated by a complex interplay of cytoplasmic ligands.

  19. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  20. Hepatic encephalopathy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lizardi-Cervera, Javier; Almeda, Paloma; Guevara, Luis; Uribe, Misael

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complication that presents in as many as 28% of patients with cirrhosis, and reported up to ten years after the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Commonly, it is observed in patients with severe hepatic failure and is characterized by neuropsychiatric manifestations that can range in severity from a mild alteration in mental state to a coma; additionally, some neuromuscular symptoms can be observed. This complication of either acute or chronic hepatic disease is the result of a diminished hepatic reservoir and inability to detoxify some toxins that originate in the bowel. Today, the role of astrocytes, specifically the Alzheimer type II cells, is known to be very important in the pathogenesis of the hepatic encephalopathy, and will be reviewed later. In conclusion, the objectives of this review are: To understand the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, To recognize the precipitating factors, as well as preventive measures for the development of the hepatic encephalopathy, To describe the new classification of hepatic encephalopathy and its clinical implications, To recognize the clinical manifestations and stages of the disease, To understand the main diagnostic tests used to detect the hepatic encephalopathy, To describe the main therapeutic treatments of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:15115963

  1. Isolation and Total Synthesis of Stolonines A–C, Unique Taurine Amides from the Australian Marine Tunicate Cnemidocarpa stolonifera

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Trong D.; Pham, Ngoc B.; Ekins, Merrick; Hooper, John N. A.; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Cnemidocarpa stolonifera is an underexplored marine tunicate that only occurs on the tropical to subtropical East Coast of Australia, with only two pyridoacridine compounds reported previously. Qualitative analysis of the lead-like enhanced fractions of C. stolonifera by LC-MS dual electrospray ionization coupled with PDA and ELSD detectors led to the identification of three new natural products, stolonines A–C (1–3), belonging to the taurine amide structure class. Structures of the new compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses and later verified by total synthesis. This is the first time that the conjugates of taurine with 3-indoleglyoxylic acid, quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid present in stolonines A–C (1–3), respectively, have been reported. An immunofluorescence assay on PC3 cells indicated that compounds 1 and 3 increased cell size, induced mitochondrial texture elongation, and caused apoptosis in PC3 cells. PMID:26204949

  2. Isolation and Total Synthesis of Stolonines A-C, Unique Taurine Amides from the Australian Marine Tunicate Cnemidocarpa stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trong D; Pham, Ngoc B; Ekins, Merrick; Hooper, John N A; Quinn, Ronald J

    2015-07-22

    Cnemidocarpa stolonifera is an underexplored marine tunicate that only occurs on the tropical to subtropical East Coast of Australia, with only two pyridoacridine compounds reported previously. Qualitative analysis of the lead-like enhanced fractions of C. stolonifera by LC-MS dual electrospray ionization coupled with PDA and ELSD detectors led to the identification of three new natural products, stolonines A-C (1-3), belonging to the taurine amide structure class. Structures of the new compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses and later verified by total synthesis. This is the first time that the conjugates of taurine with 3-indoleglyoxylic acid, quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid present in stolonines A-C (1-3), respectively, have been reported. An immunofluorescence assay on PC3 cells indicated that compounds 1 and 3 increased cell size, induced mitochondrial texture elongation, and caused apoptosis in PC3 cells.

  3. Isolation and Total Synthesis of Stolonines A-C, Unique Taurine Amides from the Australian Marine Tunicate Cnemidocarpa stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trong D; Pham, Ngoc B; Ekins, Merrick; Hooper, John N A; Quinn, Ronald J

    2015-07-01

    Cnemidocarpa stolonifera is an underexplored marine tunicate that only occurs on the tropical to subtropical East Coast of Australia, with only two pyridoacridine compounds reported previously. Qualitative analysis of the lead-like enhanced fractions of C. stolonifera by LC-MS dual electrospray ionization coupled with PDA and ELSD detectors led to the identification of three new natural products, stolonines A-C (1-3), belonging to the taurine amide structure class. Structures of the new compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses and later verified by total synthesis. This is the first time that the conjugates of taurine with 3-indoleglyoxylic acid, quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid present in stolonines A-C (1-3), respectively, have been reported. An immunofluorescence assay on PC3 cells indicated that compounds 1 and 3 increased cell size, induced mitochondrial texture elongation, and caused apoptosis in PC3 cells. PMID:26204949

  4. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. From Hollywood's "Walk of Stars" to Main Street, USA, people from all walks ... that includes many well-known names: Legendary television star Larry Hagman was diagnosed with advanced hepatitis C ...

  5. The effect of supplementation of amino acids and taurine to modified KSOM culture medium on rat embryo development.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuomi; Morimoto, Kayoko; Shima, Kaoru; Yoshimura, Yuki; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Osamu; Matsuda, Junichiro; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-11-01

    The rat is widely used as a laboratory animal for research. In particular, genetically engineered rats are essential for production of animal models of several diseases. Although embryo manipulation techniques are needed to produce them, such technology for rat preimplantation embryos is not as advanced as it is for mouse embryos. One reason is that in vitro culture systems for preimplantation embryos are limited in rats. Therefore, we intended to develop a new culture system for rat preimplantation embryos focusing on supplementation of amino acids as nutrition to the culture media. First, we found that taurine, glycine, glutamate, and alanine were abundant in the oviductal fluid of Wistar rats. The profile of taurine and these three amino acids was unchanged during the estrous cycle and from Days 0 to 3 of pregnancy (Day 0; vaginal plug was confirmed). Second, we assessed the effect of phosphate and phenol red on the development of rat zygotes and confirmed that they caused two-cell block. Third, we examined the effect of changing the medium on zygote development because addition of amino acids into culture medium causes ammonium accumulation, which is detrimental to embryo development. Blastocyst formation was suppressed in cultures with no medium change (P = 0.004; decreased to approximately one-fourth of that with medium change). Fourth, we examined the effect of supplementation of these three amino acids and taurine to modified potassium simplex optimized medium (KSOM). The zygote development rates were increased by the three amino acids and taurine in a concentration-dependent manner at 48, 72, and 96 hours (P = 0.001, 0.005, and 0.009, respectively) in culture. Finally, we confirmed that blastocysts cultured in modified KSOM had the capacity to develop to full term after implantation. These results showed that not only the supply of nutrients but also removal of wastes and toxicants is important for culture of rat preimplantation embryos.

  6. Combination hepatitis a-hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, A J; Balfour, J A

    1997-09-01

    The adult formulation of this combination hepatitis A-hepatitis B vaccine contains 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU) of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A virus strain HM175 and 20mug of recombinant DNA yeast-derived hepatitis B surface antigen adsorbed onto aluminium salts in 1ml for injection. The paediatric formulation contains half this dosage in 0.5ml for injection. The combination vaccine has been shown to be highly immunogenic in healthy young adults after the full dosage schedule of 3 doses at 0, 1 and 6 months. Trials in older adults and children indicate that immunogenicity is adequate in these groups also. The immunogenicity of the combination vaccine appears to be similar to that of hepatitis A vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine administered separately. Possible advantages for the combination vaccine recipient include fewer injections and lower costs. Local adverse reactions such as soreness at the injection site, redness and swelling occur often with the first dose of the series, but the incidence falls with subsequent doses. Local reactions are usually mild and transient, and reported systemic reactions (fatigue, headache) are thought not to have a causal link with the vaccine. PMID:18020513

  7. [Effect of taurine on the functional status of the insular apparatus and adrenal cortex of the rat with experimental diabetes].

    PubMed

    Mizina, T Iu; Dokshina, G A

    1987-01-01

    The effect of taurine on the regulation of function of the insular apparatus and adrenal cortex of rats with experimental alloxan diabetes was studied. The assessment of the state of the endocrine glands was based on the determination of the content of immunoreactive insulin, total, free and protein-bound 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS) in the blood of rats and a study of the secretory ability of the adrenals and pancreatic fragments in vitro. A single administration of taurine (300 mg/kg per os) to the rats with experimental alloxan diabetes was accompanied by the reduction of the content of immunoreactive insulin, total and free 11-OCS in the blood, a secretory ability of the adrenal cortex and insulin excretory function of the pancreas. The ability of the pancreatic islet tissue to produce insulin in vitro in response to the natural stimulator glucose was disturbed in the rats with experimental diabetes. Taurine (12 mumol/ml) added to the incubation medium containing isolated adrenals and fragments of the pancreas from the diabetic animals, caused a decrease in a high secretory ability of the cortical substance of the adrenal glands and a partial reduction of the insulin secretory ability of the pancreatic tissue.

  8. Effects of in vitro ozone exposure on peroxidative damage, membrane leakage, and taurine content of rat alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, M.A.; Porter, D.W.; Martin, W.G.; Castranova, V. )

    1990-08-01

    Rat alveolar macrophages (AM) were isolated by pulmonary lavage, allowed to adhere to a tissue culture flask, and then exposed to 0.45 +/- 0.05 ppm ozone. After exposures ranging from 0 to 60 min, the medium was decanted and cells were harvested. Cells were assayed for oxidant damage and media analyzed for leakage of intracellular components. Increasing length of exposure to ozone resulted in a decreased number of adherent AM and decreased cell viability. Resting and zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence increased immediately after ozone exposure and reached a maximum at 15-30 min, then declined to initial levels after 60 min of ozone exposure. Lipid peroxidation and leakage of protein and K+ ions increased with increasing length of exposure to ozone, while leakage of reduced and oxidized glutathione increased through 30 min, then declined (reduced) or leveled off (oxidized). Activity of the Na+/K+ ATPase decreased with time while intracellular taurine concentration exhibited an initial rise, peaked at 30 min, and then returned to the untreated level. Leakage of taurine into the medium increased with time of exposure, suggesting that exposure of AM to ozone results in a shift from bound to free intracellular taurine. These data indicate that in vitro exposure of AM to ozone results in a time-dependent alteration of cell function, membrane integrity, and viability.

  9. Taurine protects against As2O3-induced autophagy in pancreas of rat offsprings through Nrf2/Trx pathway.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Yao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Liping; Qiu, Tianming; Liu, Shuang; Qi, Baoxu; Zheng, Yue; Kong, Yuan; Yang, Guang; Chen, Min; Liu, Xiaofang; Sun, Xiance

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic was increasingly to blame as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our previous study, we had found iAs stimulated autophagic flux and caused autophagic cell death through ROS pathway in INS-1 cells. Since NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the thioredoxin (Trx) system was a crucial line of defense against ROS, we investigated whether Nrf2/Trx pathway contributed to As2O3-stimulated autophagy and the role of taurine in this study. After treatment with 2 mg/kg BW-8 mg/kg BW As2O3 for 57 d, the expression of Nrf2 protein was decreased significantly in offsprings' pancreas. The expression of Trx gene was decreased significantly in pancreas subsequently. Finally, the generation of reactive oxygen species stimulated autophagy in arsenic-treated pancreas. Taurine could reverse arsenic-inhibited Nrf2 and Trx and inhibit autophagy. In short, inhibition of Nrf2/Trx pathway might play an important role in the pathogenesis of arsenic-related diabetes. Taurine could serve as nutrition supplementation against arsenic-related diabetes in high arsenic exposure area.

  10. Taurine protects against As2O3-induced autophagy in pancreas of rat offsprings through Nrf2/Trx pathway.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Yao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Liping; Qiu, Tianming; Liu, Shuang; Qi, Baoxu; Zheng, Yue; Kong, Yuan; Yang, Guang; Chen, Min; Liu, Xiaofang; Sun, Xiance

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic was increasingly to blame as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our previous study, we had found iAs stimulated autophagic flux and caused autophagic cell death through ROS pathway in INS-1 cells. Since NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the thioredoxin (Trx) system was a crucial line of defense against ROS, we investigated whether Nrf2/Trx pathway contributed to As2O3-stimulated autophagy and the role of taurine in this study. After treatment with 2 mg/kg BW-8 mg/kg BW As2O3 for 57 d, the expression of Nrf2 protein was decreased significantly in offsprings' pancreas. The expression of Trx gene was decreased significantly in pancreas subsequently. Finally, the generation of reactive oxygen species stimulated autophagy in arsenic-treated pancreas. Taurine could reverse arsenic-inhibited Nrf2 and Trx and inhibit autophagy. In short, inhibition of Nrf2/Trx pathway might play an important role in the pathogenesis of arsenic-related diabetes. Taurine could serve as nutrition supplementation against arsenic-related diabetes in high arsenic exposure area. PMID:26775255

  11. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  12. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people at risk for contracting hepatitis. But frequent hand washing and good hygiene practices can reduce this risk. All kids in ... to prevent viral hepatitis you should: Follow good hygiene and avoid crowded, ... their hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before eating. ...

  13. Inorganic Nanoparticle as a Carrier for Hepatitis B Viral Capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekhtyar, Yu.; Romanova, M.; Kachanovska, A.; Skrastiņa, D.; Reinhofa, R.; Pumpens, P.; Patmalnieks, A.

    Virus like particles (VLP) are used to transport immune response-modulating agents to target cells to treat them. In order to deliver a high concentration of VLP to the cell, a number of VLP can be attached to a nanoparticle to be used as a nanolorry. In this study, SiO2 nanoparticles were attached to Hepatitis B VLP. Spectrophotometry measurements, electron, and fluorescent microscopy evidence showed that the SiO2 - Hepatitis B VLP complexes were formed.

  14. [Update chronic viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ziegenhagen, D J

    2016-03-01

    More than 500,000 people in Germany have chronic viral hepatitis. The interferon-based treatments formerly used in hepatitis B have been widely replaced by life-long oral medication with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues. Treatment for chronic hepatitis C has been improved substantially by the development of new and very expensive drug combinations. Up to 90% of patients can now be cured with certainty, and one to two years after successful treatment there is no relevant risk of recurrence. These individuals expect to receive insurance cover under appropriate conditions. Vaccination programmes are very efficient at decreasing the incidence of hepatitis B, but no vaccine against hepatitis C is likely to become available in the next decade. PMID:27111951

  15. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  16. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  17. Dynamic Regulation of Hepatic Lipid Droplet Properties by Diet

    PubMed Central

    Crunk, Amanda E.; Monks, Jenifer; Murakami, Aya; Jackman, Matthew; MacLean, Paul S.; Ladinsky, Mark; Bales, Elise S.; Cain, Shannon; Orlicky, David J.; McManaman, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLD) are organelle-like structures that function in neutral lipid storage, transport and metabolism through the actions of specific surface-associated proteins. Although diet and metabolism influence hepatic CLD levels, how they affect CLD protein composition is largely unknown. We used non-biased, shotgun, proteomics in combination with metabolic analysis, quantitative immunoblotting, electron microscopy and confocal imaging to define the effects of low- and high-fat diets on CLD properties in fasted-refed mice. We found that the hepatic CLD proteome is distinct from that of CLD from other mammalian tissues, containing enzymes from multiple metabolic pathways. The hepatic CLD proteome is also differentially affected by dietary fat content and hepatic metabolic status. High fat feeding markedly increased the CLD surface density of perilipin-2, a critical regulator of hepatic neutral lipid storage, whereas it reduced CLD levels of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, an enzyme regulator of homocysteine levels linked to fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Collectively our data demonstrate that the hepatic CLD proteome is enriched in metabolic enzymes, and that it is qualitatively and quantitatively regulated by diet and metabolism. These findings implicate CLD in the regulation of hepatic metabolic processes, and suggest that their properties undergo reorganization in response to hepatic metabolic demands. PMID:23874434

  18. Rhodopsin topography and rod-mediated function in cats with the retinal degeneration of taurine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, S G; Kemp, C M; Borruat, F X; Chaitin, M H; Faulkner, D J

    1987-10-01

    Cats on a taurine-deficient diet were studied with imaging fundus reflectometry and full-field electroretinography. The pattern of rhodopsin loss and the natural history of the disease were determined from maps of the rhodopsin distribution in the central and nasal retina of cats with different degrees of severity of the retinopathy. Rhodopsin loss is first detectable in a focal region of the central retina. Subsequently, there are decreases in rhodopsin in the paracentral and nasal midperipheral retina. The horizontal streak of high rhodopsin levels is preferentially reduced in this retinopathy. The b-wave amplitude of the rod-dominated ERG is markedly reduced in cats with only mildly decreased levels of rhodopsin in the peripheral retina. In an affected cat with moderate rhodopsin loss in the central retina but minimal loss nasally, a light-microscopic study of the retina showed that there was disorganization and shortening of rod outer segments and loss of rod photoreceptor cells in the areas of reduced rhodopsin levels.

  19. Regulation of cytoplasmic calcium: interactions between prostaglandins, prostacyclin, thromboxane A2, zinc, copper and taurine.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, D F; Manku, M S; Cunnane, S; Karmazyn, M; Morgan, R O; Ally, A I; Karmall, R A

    1978-02-01

    The regulation of cytoplasmic calcium is a key process in nerve tissue. Using a smooth muscle model we have shown that prostaglandin (PG) E2 probably regulates entry from extracellular fluid, whereas the release from intracellular stores depends on the interplay between thromboxane (TX) A2, PGEI and prostacyclin. Hormones and other agents interact with this system in the following ways: vasopressin, angiotensin and inositol mobilize arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids and increase synthesis of PGE2 and TXA2, cortisol blocks this action. Prolactin and zinc mobilize dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and increase synthesis of PGEI. These effects can be blocked by cortisol, lithium and taurine, three agents which on their own have no effect on basal PG production. Epileptogenic agents like penicillin and picrotoxin also stimulate PG synthesis, while diphenylhydantoin is a PG antagonist and diazepam is a TXA2 antagonist. The effects of all these agents occur at concentrations which are physiological in the case of the natural ones, and readily attained in human plasma in the case of the drgus. In view of recent evidence that calcium may be important in demyelination and considering the established role it plays in nerve conduction and synaptic transmission, we suggest that these observations may be of significance in understanding Friedreich's ataxia.

  20. Accurate analysis of taurine, anserine, carnosine and free amino acids in a cattle muscle biopsy sample.

    PubMed

    Imanari, Mai; Higuchi, Mikito; Shiba, Nobuya; Watanabe, Akira

    2010-06-01

    We have established an analysis method for some free amino acids (FAAs), as well as taurine (Tau), anserine (Ans) and carnosine (Car), in a fresh biopsy sample from cattle muscle. A series of model biopsy samples, corresponding to the mixtures of lean meat, fat and connective tissue, was prepared and showed high correlation coefficients between the compound concentration and the 3-methylhistidine (3-MeHis) content derived from hydrolysis of the biopsy sample (r = 0.74-0.95, P < 0.01). Interference from blood contamination could not be neglected, because the concentration of some FAAs in blood was comparable to that in muscle. However, it was possible to control the contamination of Tau, Ans, Car, glutamic acid, glutamine, asparatic acid and alanine to less than 5.0% when the blood contamination was controlled to less than 23%.These results suggest the necessity of measuring 3-MeHis as an index of lean meat and hemoglobin as an index of blood contamination when compounds in muscle biopsy samples are evaluated. We have carried out a series of these analyses using one biopsy sample and reveal differences in Tau, Ans, Car and some FAAs in beef muscle after different feeding regimes.

  1. Characterization of Doayo and Kapsiki taurine cattle breeds of Cameroon in their natural environment.

    PubMed

    Ebangi, A Lot; Achukwi, M D; Messine, O; Abba, D

    2011-08-01

    Data were collected on live weight (LW), heart girth (HG), height-at-withers (HW), trunk length (TL), age, sex, and coat color of 207 taurines cattle--122 of the Doayo (Namchi) breed and 85 of the Kapsiki (Kirdi) breed. The animals, aged 1 to 20 years, were selected from 60 herds randomly selected from villages of Poli of Faro and Mokolo of Tsanga, divisions of the North and Far North Regions of Cameroon. The data were analyzed using the SAS program with a linear model, applying standard tests. Results indicated no breed effect (P > 0.05) in the growth trends of LW, HG, HW, and TL. HG and TL were highly significantly (P < 0.0001) related to LW. The growth pattern for the two breeds was the same since the linear contrast of least square means for the traits at various age groups did not differ (P > 0.05) significantly. The breeds attained maturity as from 4 years. In the absence of breed effect (P > 0.05), a single regression equation was established for the estimation of live weight as thus LW = -244.42 (±22.57) kg + 2.49 (±0.23) HG + 1.04 (±0.25) TL, with HG contributing up to 70% of total variation and TL, 2%. This equation could be used to develop a measuring band useful in the rural environment for commercial and clinical veterinary purposes.

  2. Identification of human metabolites of (-)-N-{2-[(R)-3-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-2-carbonyl)piperidino]ethyl}-4-fluorobenzamide (YM758), a novel If channel inhibitor, and investigation of the transporter-mediated renal and hepatic excretion of these metabolites.

    PubMed

    Umehara, Ken-ichi; Shirai, Nobuaki; Iwatsubo, Takafumi; Noguchi, Kiyoshi; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka

    2009-08-01

    (-)-N-{2-[(R)-3-(6,7-Dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-2-carbonyl)piperidino]ethyl}-4-fluorobenzamide (YM758) is a novel inhibitor of the "funny" If current channel (If channel) that is expressed in the sinus node of heart and is being developed as a treatment for stable angina and atrial fibrillation. Its metabolites were identified in human urine, plasma, and feces by radio-high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses after oral administration of [(14)C]YM758. 6,7-Dimethoxy-2-[(3R)-piperidin-3-ylcarbonyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (YM-252124), (5R)-5-[(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)carbonyl]piperidin-2-one (YM-385459), 2-{[(3R)-1-{2-[(4-fluorobenzoyl)amino]ethyl}piperidin-3-yl]carbonyl}-7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisonolin-6-yl beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (AS2036329), and the unchanged drug were detected as major constituents in both urine and plasma, whereas N-(4-fluorobenzoyl)glycine (YM-385461) was detected in plasma, but not in urine. The renal and hepatic uptake transporters for these metabolites were investigated by assessing their inhibitory effect on uptake activity in human (h) organic cation transporter (OCT) 1-3/rat (r) Oct1-3, human organic anion transporter (OAT) 1/rOat1, hOAT3/rOat3, and organic anion-transporting protein 1B1/1B3-expressing HEK293 cells. IC(50) values of YM-252124 for 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium uptake via hOCT2 and rOct2 were 93.9 and 1700 microM, respectively, suggesting that this metabolite is secreted into urine via hOCT2/rOct2 and that the large difference in the inhibitory potentials between hOCT2 and rOct2 explains the species difference in the urinary excretion ratio of the radioactivity. The renal secretion of YM-385461, one derivative of p-aminohippuric acid, via hOAT1/rOat1, and hepatic uptake of YM-252124 via hOCT1/rOct1 was also expected. This kind of study was useful in investigating the relationship between the urinary/hepatic

  3. Mechanisms of trazodone-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effects of melatonin and/or taurine toward freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Taziki, Shohreh; Sattari, Mohammad Reza; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2013-10-01

    It has been reported that the bioactive intermediate metabolites of trazodone might cause hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to investigate the exact mechanism of hepatocellular injury induced by trazodone as well as the protective effects of taurine and/or melatonin against this toxicity. Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were used. Trazodone was cytotoxic and caused cell death with LC50 of 300 µm within 2 h. Trazodone caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, malondialdehyde accumulation, depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), rise of oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, which confirms the role of oxidative stress in trazodone-induced cytotoxicity. Preincubation of hepatocytes with taurine prevented ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, depletion of intracellular reduced GSH, and increase of oxidized GSSG. Taurine could also protect mitochondria against trazodone-induced toxicity. Administration of melatonin reduced the toxic effects of trazodone in isolated rat hepatocytes. PMID:24023050

  4. Comparative study of effects of magnesium and taurine on electrical parameters of natural and artificial membranes. VIII. Effect on the ultrastructure of human amniotic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guiet-Bara, A; Bara, M; Durlach, J

    1991-03-01

    The ultrastructure of human amniotic epithelial cells from normal pregnancies, at term, was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The results were analysed by a stereological method which indicates the ratio between the volume of the intercellular space (R1, the microvilli (R2), and the podocytes (R3) versus the cell volume. At low concentration (2 mM), MgCl2 decreased R1 and R3 and had no significant effect on R2. In contrast, taurine (2 mM) increased R1 and had no significant effect on R2 and R3. There is no vicarious action between Mg and taurine. These data are in contrast to the results obtained after electrophysiological studies, which indicates that the structural targets for Mg and taurine are different from the targets responsible for ionic transfer.

  5. Effects of S-Adenosylmethionine and Its Combinations With Taurine and/or Betaine on Glutathione Homeostasis in Ethanol-induced Acute Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo Yeon; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to ethanol abuse and severe oxidative stress are risk factors for hepatocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and its combinations with taurine and/or betaine on the level of glutathione (GSH), a powerful antioxidant in the liver, in acute hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol. Methods To examine the effects of SAMe and its combinations with taurine and/or betaine on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity, AML12 cells and C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with SAMe, taurine, and/or betaine, followed by ethanol challenge. Cell viability was detected with an MTT assay. GSH concentration and mRNA levels of GSH synthetic enzymes were measured using GSH reductase and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were measured with commercially available kits. Results Pretreatment of SAMe, with or without taurine and/or betaine, attenuated decreases in GSH levels and mRNA expression of the catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), the rate-limiting enzyme for GSH synthesis, in ethanol-treated cells and mice. mRNA levels of the modifier subunit of GCL and glutathione synthetase were increased in mice treated with SAMe combinations. SAMe, taurine, and/or betaine pretreatment restored serum ALT and AST levels to control levels in the ethanol-treated group. Conclusions Combinations of SAMe with taurine and/or betaine have a hepatoprotective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by maintaining GSH homeostasis. PMID:27722142

  6. Amodiaquine-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes and the cytoprotective effects of taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, R.; Babaei, H.; Eghbal, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Amodiaquine is an antimalarial drug used in the prophylaxis and treatment of this disease. However, hepatotoxicity as a life-threatening adverse effect is associated with its clinical use. We evaluated amodiaquine-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes as an in vitro model for studying drug-induced hepatotoxicity. This study attempts to investigate the protective effects of taurine and N-acetyl cysteine against the cytotoxicity induced by amodiaquine. Hepatocytes were prepared by the method of collagenase enzyme perfusion via portal vein. This technique is based on liver perfusion with collagenase after removal of calcium ion (Ca2+) with a chelator (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) 0.5 mM). Cells were treated with different concentrations of amodiaquine, taurine and N-acetyl cysteine. Cell death, protein carbonylation, reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarization were assessed as toxicity markers. Amodiaquine cytotoxic mechanism involved protein carbonylation as well as reactive oxygen species formation and lipid peroxidation. In addition, mitochondria seem to be a target for amodiaquine to induce cellular damage. Administration of taurine (200 μM) and/or N-acetyl cysteine (200 μM) reduced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation caused by amodiaquine. Furthermore, amodiaquine-induced mitochondrial injury was significantly mitigated by taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine. In glutathione-depleted cells, only N-acetyl cysteine protected hepatocytes against amodiaquine, and taurine showed no protective properties in this situation. Taurine and N-acetyl cysteine protect hepatocytes against amodiaquine probably via their antioxidant properties and counteracting oxidative stress. PMID:25657778

  7. Amodiaquine-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes and the cytoprotective effects of taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine.

    PubMed

    Heidari, R; Babaei, H; Eghbal, M A

    2014-01-01

    Amodiaquine is an antimalarial drug used in the prophylaxis and treatment of this disease. However, hepatotoxicity as a life-threatening adverse effect is associated with its clinical use. We evaluated amodiaquine-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes as an in vitro model for studying drug-induced hepatotoxicity. This study attempts to investigate the protective effects of taurine and N-acetyl cysteine against the cytotoxicity induced by amodiaquine. Hepatocytes were prepared by the method of collagenase enzyme perfusion via portal vein. This technique is based on liver perfusion with collagenase after removal of calcium ion (Ca(2+)) with a chelator (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) 0.5 mM). Cells were treated with different concentrations of amodiaquine, taurine and N-acetyl cysteine. Cell death, protein carbonylation, reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarization were assessed as toxicity markers. Amodiaquine cytotoxic mechanism involved protein carbonylation as well as reactive oxygen species formation and lipid peroxidation. In addition, mitochondria seem to be a target for amodiaquine to induce cellular damage. Administration of taurine (200 μM) and/or N-acetyl cysteine (200 μM) reduced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation caused by amodiaquine. Furthermore, amodiaquine-induced mitochondrial injury was significantly mitigated by taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine. In glutathione-depleted cells, only N-acetyl cysteine protected hepatocytes against amodiaquine, and taurine showed no protective properties in this situation. Taurine and N-acetyl cysteine protect hepatocytes against amodiaquine probably via their antioxidant properties and counteracting oxidative stress. PMID:25657778

  8. Neonatal taurine and alanine modulate anxiety-like behavior and decelerate cortical spreading depression in rats previously suckled under different litter sizes.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Elian da Silva; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2015-11-01

    The amino acids taurine and alanine play a role in several physiological processes, including behavior and the electrical activity of the brain. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment with taurine or alanine on anxiety-like behavior and the excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD), using rats suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L9 and L15). From postnatal days 7 to 27, the animals received per gavage 300 mg/kg/day of taurine or alanine or both. At 28 days, we tested the animals in the elevated plus maze, and at 33-35 days, we recorded CSD and analyzed its velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration. Compared with water-treated controls, the L9 groups treated with taurine or alanine displayed anxiolytic behavior (higher number of entries in the open arms; p < 0.05), and reduced CSD velocity (p < 0.001). The effect of both amino acids on CSD was also found in the L15 groups and in five additional L9 groups (naïve, water, taurine, alanine, or both) treated at adulthood (90-110 days). The L15 condition resulted in smaller durations and higher CSD velocities compared with the L9 condition. Besides reinforcing previous evidence of behavioral modulation by taurine and alanine, our data are the first confirmation that treatment with these amino acids decelerates CSD regardless of lactation conditions (normal versus unfavorable lactation) or age at amino acid administration (young versus adult). The results suggest a modulating role for both amino acids on anxiety behavior and neuronal electrical activity.

  9. A Comparison of Phenotypic Traits Related to Trypanotolerance in Five West African Cattle Breeds Highlights the Value of Shorthorn Taurine Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, David; Peylhard, Moana; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Flori, Laurence; Sylla, Souleymane; Bolly, Seydou; Sakande, Hassane; Chantal, Isabelle; Thevenon, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal African Trypanosomosis particularly affects cattle and dramatically impairs livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. African Zebu (AFZ) or European taurine breeds usually die of the disease in the absence of treatment, whereas West African taurine breeds (AFT), considered trypanotolerant, are able to control the pathogenic effects of trypanosomosis. Up to now, only one AFT breed, the longhorn N’Dama (NDA), has been largely studied and is considered as the reference trypanotolerant breed. Shorthorn taurine trypanotolerance has never been properly assessed and compared to NDA and AFZ breeds. Methodology/Principal Findings This study compared the trypanotolerant/susceptible phenotype of five West African local breeds that differ in their demographic history. Thirty-six individuals belonging to the longhorn taurine NDA breed, two shorthorn taurine Lagune (LAG) and Baoulé (BAO) breeds, the Zebu Fulani (ZFU) and the Borgou (BOR), an admixed breed between AFT and AFZ, were infected by Trypanosoma congolense IL1180. All the cattle were genetically characterized using dense SNP markers, and parameters linked to parasitaemia, anaemia and leukocytes were analysed using synthetic variables and mixed models. We showed that LAG, followed by NDA and BAO, displayed the best control of anaemia. ZFU showed the greatest anaemia and the BOR breed had an intermediate value, as expected from its admixed origin. Large differences in leukocyte counts were also observed, with higher leukocytosis for AFT. Nevertheless, no differences in parasitaemia were found, except a tendency to take longer to display detectable parasites in ZFU. Conclusions We demonstrated that LAG and BAO are as trypanotolerant as NDA. This study highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds, which display strong local adaptation to trypanosomosis. Thanks to further analyses based on comparisons of the genome or transcriptome of the breeds, these results open up the way for better knowledge

  10. The hepatitis C crisis.

    PubMed

    St John, Tina M; Sandt, Lorren

    2005-01-01

    An estimated 170 million persons (3% of the world's population) are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 3 to 4 million persons are newly infected each year. Of those infected, 70%-85% develop chronic viremia with the potential for devastating long-term sequelae, including chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The passivity in the public health sector and in the medical community at large with respect to hepatitis C portends a myriad of societal, fiscal, and personal costs for the United States within the next two decades unless immediate actions are taken to intervene in the natural history of this emerging public health crisis. PMID:15822840

  11. Do salt cravings in children with autistic disorders reveal low blood sodium depleting brain taurine and glutamine?

    PubMed

    Good, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Because boys are four times more likely than girls