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Sample records for hepatic tumours effect

  1. Endovascular treatment of primary hepatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Popiel, M; Gulie, L; Turculeţ, C; Beuran, M

    2008-01-01

    First transcatheter embolization of hepatic artery has been materializing in 1974, in France, for unresectable hepatic tumours. Then, this treatment has become use enough in many countries, especially in Japan, where primary hepatic tumours are very frequent. In this article, we present procedures of interventional endovascular treatment for primary hepatic tumours: chemoembolization, intra–arterial chemotherapy. The study comprises patients with primary hepatic tumours investigated by hepatic–ultrasound and contrast–enhanced CT or MRI. DSA–hepatic angiography is very important to verify the accessory hepatic supply. It has been performed selective catheterization of right/left hepatic branches followed by cytostatics injection. Most of the patients have benefit by hepatic chemoembolization (cytostatics, Lipiodol and embolic materials). The selective intra–arterial chemotherapy (cytostatics without Lipiodol) was performing in cases with contraindications for Lipiodol or embolic materials injection (cirrhosis–Child C, thrombosis of portal vein, hepatic insufficiency). For treatment of primary hepatic tumours we use 5–F–Uracil, Farmarubicin and Mytomicin C. Less numbers of the reservoirs were placed because financial causes. Chemoembolization was better than procedures without Lipiodol or embolic materials. Lipiodol reached in tumoural tissue and the distribution of Lipiodol harmonises with degree of vascularisation. After the chemoembolization procedure, the diameter of tumours decreased gradually depending on the size of tumour. Effective alternative for unresectable primary hepatic tumours (big size, hepatic dysfunction, and other surgical risk factors) is endovascular interventional treatment. PMID:20108517

  2. Benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions in men.

    PubMed Central

    Karhunen, P J

    1986-01-01

    In a consecutive medicolegal necropsy series benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions occurred in 52% of the 95 men aged 35-69 years. The incidence increased with age, mainly due to small bile duct tumours (n = 26; mean age 56.7 years; p less than 0.01; mean size 1.3 mm). The next most common tumours were cavernous hemangiomas (n = 19; mean age 53.9 years; mean size 5.2 mm) that were not related to age. Focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 3; mean size 8.0 mm) tended to occur in a younger age group (mean age 40.3 years; p less than 0.001). Multiple bile duct tumours were present in 46% and hemangiomas in 50% of the men studied. Liver cell adenoma, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and peliosis hepatis were incidental findings (one case of each). Nodular regenerative hyperplasia was associated with the consumption of alcohol and a total dose of 21.5 g of testosterone. These results indicate that benign hepatic tumours and tumour like conditions are not rare in men but may remain undetected because of their small size. Images PMID:3950039

  3. Murine Bioluminescent Hepatic Tumour Model

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Simon; Salwa, Slawomir; Gao, Xuefeng; Tabirca, Sabin; O'Hanlon, Deirdre; O'Sullivan, Gerald C.; Tangney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This video describes the establishment of liver metastases in a mouse model that can be subsequently analysed by bioluminescent imaging. Tumour cells are administered specifically to the liver to induce a localised liver tumour, via mobilisation of the spleen and splitting into two, leaving intact the vascular pedicle for each half of the spleen. Lewis lung carcinoma cells that constitutively express the firefly luciferase gene (luc1) are inoculated into one hemi-spleen which is then resected 10 minutes later. The other hemi-spleen is left intact and returned to the abdomen. Liver tumour growth can be monitored by bioluminescence imaging using the IVIS whole body imaging system. Quantitative imaging of tumour growth using IVIS provides precise quantitation of viable tumour cells. Tumour cell death and necrosis due to drug treatment is indicated early by a reduction in the bioluminescent signal. This mouse model allows for investigating the mechanisms underlying metastatic tumour-cell survival and growth and can be used for the evaluation of therapeutics of liver metastasis. PMID:20689502

  4. Tumour promotion versus tumour suppression in chronic hepatic iron overload.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Steven A; Brown, Kyle E

    2015-06-01

    Although iron-catalysed oxidative damage is presumed to be a major mechanism of injury leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hemochromatosis, these events have been difficult to recapitulate in an animal model. In this study, we evaluated regulators of hepatocarcinogenesis in a rodent model of chronic iron overload. Sprague-Dawley rats were iron loaded with iron dextran over 6 months. Livers were harvested and analysed for markers of oxidative stress, as well as the following proteins: p53, murine double minute 2, the Shc proteins p66, p52, p46; β-catenin, CHOP, C/EBPα and Yes-associated protein. In this model, iron loading is associated with hepatocyte proliferation, and indices of oxidative damage are mildly increased in tandem with augmented antioxidant defenses. Alterations potentially favouring carcinogenesis included a modest but significant decrease in p53 levels and increases in p52, p46 and β-catenin levels compared with control livers. Countering these factors, the iron-loaded livers demonstrated a significant decrease in CHOP, which has recently been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as a reciprocal increase in C/EBPα and decrease in Yes-associated protein. Our results suggest that chronic iron overload elicits both tumour suppressive as well as tumour-promoting mechanisms in rodent liver.

  5. [Alphafetoprotein in hepatic tumours and benign liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Forones, N M; Queiroz, L A; Ferraz, M L; Parise, E R

    1995-01-01

    AFP is an oncofetal protein found in increased levels in hepatocellular carcinoma, liver metastasis and other benign liver diseases. PURPOSE--To know the behaviour of this protein in each of these clinical situations would undoubtedly help us to discriminate between hepatocellular carcinoma and benign diseases. PATIENTS--A hundred forty nine patients were divided into 4 groups: 1. acute hepatitis (AH) n = 24, 2. chronic liver disease, viral or alcoholic (CLD) n = 81, 3. hepatic metastasis (HM) n = 29, 4. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) n = 15. AFP assays were done by ELISA (Abbott Diagnostica, ref. value: 15ng/mL). RESULTS--The results observed were as follows: AFP < 15ng/mL: AH 75%, CLD 86.4%, HM 79.3%, HCC 6.6%, AFP > 15 e < 100ng/mL: AH 25%, CLD 8.6%, HM 20.6%, HCC 20%, AFP > 100ng/mL: AH zero, CLD 4.9%, HM zero, HCC 49%. It is clear that depending on the cut off level, there is a decrease of sensibility which is paralleled by an increase in specificity. CONCLUSIONS--AFP levels are increased in benign liver diseases (AH, CLD) and HM, how ever levels above 100ng/mL occur much more frequently in HCC. In our sample, 93.3% of the HCC showed high levels of AFP, probably because most of the patients had advanced clinical stages of the disease.

  6. Lysis of primary hepatic tumours by lymphokine activated killer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, K H; Shu, S Y; Lee, C S; Chu, C T; Yang, C S; Chang, K J

    1987-01-01

    Lymphokine activated killer cell is a newly described lytic system against a variety of solid tumours and is distinct in several respects from the classic cytolytic T cell and the natural killer systems. This study was conducted to evaluate the lytic activity of lymphokine activated killer cells against fresh autologous and allogeneic, as well as cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Lymphokine activated killer cell was generated by incubating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with various concentrations of recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2, Cetus, USA) for various periods of time. A four hour 51Cr release assay was used to measure cytotoxicity. The results show that fresh and cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells were only slightly susceptible to natural killer cells. Normal hepatocytes were resistant to lymphokine activated killer-mediated lysis. Lymphokine activated killer cells could be generated from mononuclear cells of hepatocellular carcinoma patients and normal subjects with lytic activity against fresh autologous and allogeneic and cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells, but lymphokine activated killer cells from the former was less efficient than that from the latter. It is concluded that the adoptive immunotherapy with combined rIL-2 and lymphokine activated killer may be worth trying in early cases of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:3030899

  7. Clinical management of tumours in geriatric dogs and cats: systemic effects of tumours and paraneoplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Gorman, N T

    1990-04-21

    There are many clinical presentations of neoplastic disease in the dog and cat. Some relate to the presence of a solid mass but many relate to the systemic effect that the tumour has on the animal. This paper covers the broad categories of the systemic metabolic and haematological effects that are associated with tumours in the dog and cat.

  8. Increased tumour necrosis factor alpha production by neutrophils in patients with hepatitis B.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, X; Zhang, Z

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the role of serum and neutrophil tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) in patients with viral hepatitis. METHODS--The activities of serum and neutrophil TNF alpha were measured using a bioassay of in vitro cytotoxicity against L929 cells in 57 patients with viral hepatitis and 20 healthy blood donors. RESULTS--Both serum and neutrophil TNF alpha in patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and subacute fulminant hepatitis (SAFH) increased compared with those in normal controls (p < 0.01). No such differences were seen in patients with acute hepatitis. Serum and neutrophil TNF alpha were obviously reduced in patients with CAH and SAFH during convalescence compared with the active period (p < 0.05; p < 0.01). Furthermore, serum TNF alpha was significantly increased in patients with SAFH and complications compared with those without (p < 0.01), and in patients with SAFH who died compared with those who survived (p < 0.01). Neutrophil TNF alpha was significantly higher in patients with SAFH and secondary bacterial infections (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--Production of serum and neutrophil TNF alpha is increased in patients with CAH and SAFH, suggesting that neutrophil TNF alpha causes liver injury in these patients. PMID:8089217

  9. Effective treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous malignant tumours by electrochemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Mir, L. M.; Glass, L. F.; Sersa, G.; Teissié, J.; Domenge, C.; Miklavcic, D.; Jaroszeski, M. J.; Orlowski, S.; Reintgen, D. S.; Rudolf, Z.; Belehradek, M.; Gilbert, R.; Rols, M. P.; Belehradek, J.; Bachaud, J. M.; DeConti, R.; Stabuc, B.; Cemazar, M.; Coninx, P.; Heller, R.

    1998-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT) enhances the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents by administering the drug in combination with short intense electric pulses. ECT is effective because electric pulses permeabilize tumour cell membranes and allow non-permeant drugs, such as bleomycin, to enter the cells. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the anti-tumour effectiveness of ECT with bleomycin on cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours. This article summarizes results obtained in independent clinical trials performed by five cancer centres. A total of 291 cutaneous or subcutaneous tumours of basal cell carcinoma (32), malignant melanoma (142), adenocarcinoma (30) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (87) were treated in 50 patients. Short and intense electric pulses were applied to tumours percutaneously after intravenous or intratumour administration of bleomycin. The tumours were measured and the response to the treatment evaluated 30 days after the treatment. Objective responses were obtained in 233 (85.3%) of the 273 evaluable tumours that were treated with ECT. Clinical complete responses were achieved in 154 (56.4%) tumours, and partial responses were observed in 79 (28.9%) tumours. The application of electric pulses to the patients was safe and well tolerated. An instantaneous contraction of the underlying muscles was noticed. Minimal adverse side-effects were observed. ECT was shown to be an effective local treatment. ECT was effective regardless of the histological type of the tumour. Therefore, ECT offers an approach to the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours in patients with minimal adverse side-effects and with a high response rate. PMID:9649155

  10. Antiangiogenic and tumour inhibitory effects of downregulating tumour endothelial FABP4

    PubMed Central

    Harjes, U; Bridges, E; Gharpure, K M; Roxanis, I; Sheldon, H; Miranda, F; Mangala, L S; Pradeep, S; Lopez-Berestein, G; Ahmed, A; Fielding, B; Sood, A K; Harris, A L

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a fatty acid chaperone, which is induced during adipocyte differentiation. Previously we have shown that FABP4 in endothelial cells is induced by the NOTCH1 signalling pathway, the latter of which is involved in mechanisms of resistance to antiangiogenic tumour therapy. Here, we investigated the role of FABP4 in endothelial fatty acid metabolism and tumour angiogenesis. We analysed the effect of transient FABP4 knockdown in human umbilical vein endothelial cells on fatty acid metabolism, viability and angiogenesis. Through therapeutic delivery of siRNA targeting mouse FABP4, we investigated the effect of endothelial FABP4 knockdown on tumour growth and blood vessel formation. In vitro, siRNA-mediated FABP4 knockdown in endothelial cells led to a marked increase of endothelial fatty acid oxidation, an increase of reactive oxygen species and decreased angiogenesis. In vivo, we found that increased NOTCH1 signalling in tumour xenografts led to increased expression of endothelial FABP4 that decreased when NOTCH1 and VEGFA inhibitors were used in combination. Angiogenesis, growth and metastasis in ovarian tumour xenografts were markedly inhibited by therapeutic siRNA delivery targeting mouse endothelial FABP4. Therapeutic targeting of endothelial FABP4 by siRNA in vivo has antiangiogenic and antitumour effects with minimal toxicity and should be investigated further. PMID:27568980

  11. The effect of hypobaric hypoxia on misonidazole binding in normal and tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    MacManus, M. P.; Maxwell, A. P.; Abram, W. P.; Bridges, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of hypobaric hypoxia on the in vivo binding of misonidazole was investigated in normal mice and mice bearing T50/80 or CA NT mammary carcinomas. After the intraperitoneal injection of radiolabelled misonidazole, mice were randomised to breathe either room air or air at 0.5 atmospheres. The distribution of misonidazole in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and tumour tissue, 24 h later, was studied by scintillation counting and by autoradiography. Significantly higher misonidazole binding occurred in the livers (x2.5), kidneys (x2.4), spleens (x2.9) and hearts (x1.8) of hypoxic mice compared to controls. Hypobaric hypoxia was associated with a greater than four-fold increase in misonidazole binding within T50/80 tumours. However, significantly higher binding was not demonstrated within CA NT tumours after exposure of tumour-bearing animals to hypoxic conditions. In autoradiographs of hypoxic liver, labelling was intense in regions near to hepatic veins but sparse in areas surrounding portal tracts. This pattern was striking and consistent. In hypoxic kidney, labelling was most intense over tubular cells, less intense over glomeruli and sparse in the renal medulla. It is likely that the hepatic and renal cortical distributions of misonidazole binding reflect local oxygen gradients. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2930698

  12. Effects of nandrolone decanoate on the toxicity and anti-tumour action of CCNU and FU in murine tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, M. C.; Double, J. A.; Mughal, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Pre-treatment with the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate (ND) increases the LD50 of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) and 5-Fluorouracil (FU) in NMRI mice. Administration of ND did not affect the anti-tumour action of CCNU against a transplantable mouse adenocarcinoma of the colon (MAC 13) or the anti-tumour action of FU against MAC 26. In both tumour lines ND had no significant effect on tumour growth. These data suggest that an increase in the anti-tumour selectivity of these agents may be produced by pre-treatment with ND. PMID:7295514

  13. Disparate responses of tumour vessels to angiotensin II: tumour volume-dependent effects on perfusion and oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Thews, O; Kelleher, D K; Vaupel, P

    2000-01-01

    Perfusion and oxygenation of experimental tumours were studied during angiotensin II (AT II) administration whereby the rate of the continuous AT II infusion was chosen to increase the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) by 50–70 mmHg. In subcutaneous DS- sarcomas the red blood cell (RBC) flux was assessed using the laser Doppler technique and the mean tumour oxygen partial pressure (p O 2) was measured polarographically using O 2-sensitive catheter and needle electrodes. Changes in RBC flux with increasing MABP depended mainly on tumour size. In small tumours, RBC flux decreased with rising MABP whereas in larger tumours RBC flux increased parallel to the MABP. As a result of these volume-dependent effects on tumour blood flow, the impact of AT II on tumour p O 2 was also mainly tumour volume-related. In small tumours oxygenation decreased with increasing MABP during AT II infusion, whereas in large tumours a positive relationship between blood pressure and O 2 status was found. This disparate behaviour might be the result of the co-existence of two functionally distinct populations of tumour vessels. In small tumours, perfusion decreases presumably due to vasoconstriction of pre-existing host vessels feeding the tumour. In larger malignancies, newly formed tumour vessels predominate and seem not to have this vasoresponsive capability (lack of smooth muscle cells and/or AT receptors), resulting in an improvement of perfusion which is not tumour-related per se, but is due to the increased perfusion pressure. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901375

  14. Hepatic lentiviral gene transfer prevents the long-term onset of hepatic tumours of glycogen storage disease type 1a in mice.

    PubMed

    Clar, Julie; Mutel, Elodie; Gri, Blandine; Creneguy, Alison; Stefanutti, Anne; Gaillard, Sophie; Ferry, Nicolas; Beuf, Olivier; Mithieux, Gilles; Nguyen, Tuan Huy; Rajas, Fabienne

    2015-04-15

    Glycogen storage disease type 1a (GSD1a) is a rare disease due to the deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) catalytic subunit (encoded by G6pc), which is essential for endogenous glucose production. Despite strict diet control to maintain blood glucose, patients with GSD1a develop hepatomegaly, steatosis and then hepatocellular adenomas (HCA), which can undergo malignant transformation. Recently, gene therapy has attracted attention as a potential treatment for GSD1a. In order to maintain long-term transgene expression, we developed an HIV-based vector, which allowed us to specifically express the human G6PC cDNA in the liver. We analysed the efficiency of this lentiviral vector in the prevention of the development of the hepatic disease in an original GSD1a mouse model, which exhibits G6Pase deficiency exclusively in the liver (L-G6pc(-/-) mice). Recombinant lentivirus were injected in B6.G6pc(ex3lox/ex3lox). SA(creERT2/w) neonates and G6pc deletion was induced by tamoxifen treatment at weaning. Magnetic resonance imaging was then performed to follow up the development of hepatic tumours. Lentiviral gene therapy restored glucose-6 phosphatase activity sufficient to correct fasting hypoglycaemia during 9 months. Moreover, lentivirus-treated L-G6pc(-/-) mice presented normal hepatic triglyceride levels, whereas untreated mice developed steatosis. Glycogen stores were also decreased although liver weight remained high. Interestingly, lentivirus-treated L-G6pc(-/-) mice were protected against the development of hepatic tumours after 9 months of gene therapy while most of untreated L-G6pc(-/-) mice developed millimetric HCA. Thus the treatment of newborns by recombinant lentivirus appears as an attractive approach to protect the liver from the development of steatosis and hepatic tumours associated to GSD1a pathology.

  15. Hyperplasia and prolapse of hepatocytes into hepatic veins during longterm methyltestosterone therapy: possible relationships of these changes to the developement of peliosis hepatis and liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Paradinas, F J; Bull, T B; Westaby, D; Murray-Lyon, I M

    1977-07-01

    We report the pathological changes in liver biopsies from 10 patients (four female transexuals and six impotent males) after treatment with 150 mg methyltestosterone daily for periods of up to 3 years, and in a hemihepatectomy specimen from a female transexual who developed a liver adenoma after 37 months of this treatment. Hepatocyte hyperplasia and mild focal sinusoidal dilatation was found in most cases. In some cases there were microcysts and dissociation of hepatocytes. In nine patients there was accumulation of hepatocytes between the endothelium and the supporting collagen of hepatic veins which often resulted in either partial occlusion of their lumina or disruption of their walls. These vascular changes do not appear to have been reported before. It is postulated that a single pathological process-hyperplasia, perhaps related to the anabolic effect of methyltestosterone--could be partly responsible both for the formation of cysts through mechanical obstruction of hepatic veins and for the formation of nodules and tumours.

  16. Tumour growth of colorectal rat liver metastases is inhibited by hepatic arterial infusion of the mTOR-inhibitor temsirolimus after portal branch ligation.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Jens; Ziemann, Christian; Gittler, Anika; Benz-Weißer, Anna; Menger, Michael D; Kollmar, Otto

    2015-04-01

    Portal branch ligation (PBL) can be performed before major hepatic resection of colorectal liver metastases (mCRC) to increase the remnant liver mass. However, PBL may also stimulate mCRC growth through hepatic arterial hyperperfusion and growth factor release. Herein, we studied whether hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of the mTOR-inhibitor temsirolimus (Tem) is capable of inhibiting the growth of colorectal liver metastases after PBL. WAG/Rij rats were randomized to four groups (n=6 each) and underwent subcapsular implantation of 5×10(5) CC531 cells into the left liver lobe. The animals of two groups underwent simultaneous PBL of the tumour bearing liver lobe. Ten days later animals underwent a HAI either of temsirolimus (Tem and PBL Tem) or saline solution (Sham and PBL Sham). Tumour size was analyzed at days 10 and 13 using three-dimensional ultrasound. In Sham controls tumour volume increased by 43%. After PBL Sham tumour volume increased by 52%. In contrast, in animals undergoing HAI of temsirolimus the tumour growth was not only completely inhibited, but tumour volume was found decreased, irrespective of PBL. After HAI of temsirolimus immunohistochemistry revealed an increased cleaved caspase-3 activity, indicating stimulation of apoptotic cell death. In parallel temsirolimus treatment was associated with a significant reduction of PECAM-1 positive cells within the tumour tissue, implying a reduced tumour vascularisation. HAI of temsirolimus is capable of inhibiting the growth of CC531 colorectal rat liver metastases also after PBL.

  17. The effect of tumour size on drug transport and uptake in 3-D tumour models reconstructed from magnetic resonance images

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Wenbo; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw

    2017-01-01

    Drug transport and its uptake by tumour cells are strongly dependent on tumour properties, which vary in different types of solid tumours. By simulating the key physical and biochemical processes, a numerical study has been carried out to investigate the transport of anti-cancer drugs in 3-D tumour models of different sizes. The therapeutic efficacy for each tumour is evaluated by using a pharmacodynamics model based on the predicted intracellular drug concentration. Simulation results demonstrate that interstitial fluid pressure and interstitial fluid loss vary non-linearly with tumour size. Transvascular drug exchange, driven by the concentration gradient of unbound drug between blood and interstitial fluid, is more efficient in small tumours, owing to the low spatial-mean interstitial fluid pressure and dense microvasculature. However, this has a detrimental effect on therapeutic efficacy over longer periods as a result of enhanced reverse diffusion of drug to the blood circulation after the cessation of drug infusion, causing more rapid loss of drug in small tumours. PMID:28212385

  18. A novel charged trinuclear platinum complex effective against cisplatin-resistant tumours: hypersensitivity of p53-mutant human tumour xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Pratesi, G; Perego, P; Polizzi, D; Righetti, S C; Supino, R; Caserini, C; Manzotti, C; Giuliani, F C; Pezzoni, G; Tognella, S; Spinelli, S; Farrell, N; Zunino, F

    1999-01-01

    Multinuclear platinum compounds were rationally designed to bind to DNA in a different manner from that of cisplatin and its mononuclear analogues. A triplatinum compound of the series (BBR 3464) was selected for preclinical development, since, in spite of its charged nature, it was very potent as cytotoxic agent and effective against cisplatin-resistant tumour cells. Anti-tumour efficacy studies were performed in a panel of human tumour xenografts refractory or poorly responsive to cisplatin. The novel platinum compound exhibited efficacy in all tested tumours and an impressive efficacy (including complete tumour regressions) was displayed in two lung carcinoma models, CaLu-3 and POCS. Surprisingly, BBR 3464 showed a superior activity against p53-mutant tumours as compared to those carrying the wild-type gene. The involvement of p53 in tumour response was investigated in an osteosarcoma cell line, SAOS, which is null for p53 and is highly sensitive to BBR 3464, and in the same cells following introduction of the wild-type p53 gene. Thus the pattern of cellular response was investigated in a panel of human tumour cells with a different p53 gene status. The results showed that the transfer of functional p53 resulted in a marked (tenfold) reduction of cellular chemosensitivity to the multinuclear platinum complex but in a moderate sensitization to cisplatin. In addition, in contrast to cisplatin, the triplatinum complex was very effective as an inducer of apoptosis in a lung carcinoma cell line carrying mutant p53. The peculiar pattern of anti-tumour activity of the triplatinum complex and its ability to induce p53-independent cell death may have relevant pharmacological implications, since p53, a critical protein involved in DNA repair and induction of apoptosis by conventional DNA-damaging agents, is defective in several human tumours. We suggest that the peculiar DNA binding properties of the triplatinum complex may contribute to the striking profile of anti-tumour

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors improve hepatic steatosis by modulating expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and adiponectin receptor-2 in rats with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Zhong-Zhuan; Liu, Dong-Fang; Xu, Xin; Mei, Zhe-Chuan; Shen, Wei

    2009-07-01

    1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) are hypotensive drugs that have been shown to prevent Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in high-risk individuals. However, in T2DM, the effects of ACEI on hepatic steatosis are not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ACEI on changes in liver histology and hepatic mRNA expression of adipokines in rats with T2DM. 2. Thirty-six rats were divided into a normal control group, a T2DM group and a fosinopril-treated group. After six weeks of treatment with 5 mg/kg per day fosinopril, an ACEI, changes in liver histology, serum fasting glucose (FG), insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, adiponectin were evaluated, as was hepatic TNF-alpha, IL-6 and adiponectin receptor-2 (adipoR2) mRNA expression. 3. The degree of hepatic steatosis and inflammation, serum FG, insulin, TG, TC, ALT, TNF-alpha and IL-6 concentrations and hepatic TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA expression were significantly higher in rats with T2DM than in normal controls. Serum adiponectin concentrations and hepatic adipoR2 mRNA expression in rats with T2DM were significantly lower than in normal controls. Fosinopril significantly reduced the degree of hepatic steatosis, serum FG, insulin, ALT, TNF-alpha and IL-6 concentrations and hepatic TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA expression. Fosinopril significantly increased serum adiponectin concentrations and hepatic adipoR2 mRNA expression. 4. In conclusion, the ACEI improved insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis in rats with T2DM by increasing circulating adiponectin and hepatic adipoR2 levels, in addition to reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the circulation and liver.

  20. The tumour microenvironment harbours ontogenically distinct dendritic cell populations with opposing effects on tumour immunity

    PubMed Central

    Laoui, Damya; Keirsse, Jiri; Morias, Yannick; Van Overmeire, Eva; Geeraerts, Xenia; Elkrim, Yvon; Kiss, Mate; Bolli, Evangelia; Lahmar, Qods; Sichien, Dorine; Serneels, Jens; Scott, Charlotte L.; Boon, Louis; De Baetselier, Patrick; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Guilliams, Martin; Van Ginderachter, Jo A.

    2016-01-01

    Various steady state and inflamed tissues have been shown to contain a heterogeneous DC population consisting of developmentally distinct subsets, including cDC1s, cDC2s and monocyte-derived DCs, displaying differential functional specializations. The identification of functionally distinct tumour-associated DC (TADC) subpopulations could prove essential for the understanding of basic TADC biology and for envisaging targeted immunotherapies. We demonstrate that multiple mouse tumours as well as human tumours harbour ontogenically discrete TADC subsets. Monocyte-derived TADCs are prominent in tumour antigen uptake, but lack strong T-cell stimulatory capacity due to NO-mediated immunosuppression. Pre-cDC-derived TADCs have lymph node migratory potential, whereby cDC1s efficiently activate CD8+ T cells and cDC2s induce Th17 cells. Mice vaccinated with cDC2s displayed a reduced tumour growth accompanied by a reprogramming of pro-tumoural TAMs and a reduction of MDSCs, while cDC1 vaccination strongly induces anti-tumour CTLs. Our data might prove important for therapeutic interventions targeted at specific TADC subsets or their precursors. PMID:28008905

  1. Analysis of Arg-Gly-Asp mimetics and soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor as therapeutic modalities for concanavalin A induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, R; Shirin, H; Hershkoviz, R; Lider, O; Kenet, G; Aeed, H; Matas, Z; Zaidel, L; Halpern, Z

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: It has been shown that synthetic non-peptidic analogues of Arg-Gly-Asp, a major cell adhesive ligand of extracellular matrix, prevented an increase in serum aminotransferase activity, as a manifestation of concanavalin A induced liver damage in mice. This study examined the effects of an Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic on liver histology and cytokine release in response to concanavalin A administration, and the efficacy of soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha in preventing hepatitis in this model of liver injury. METHODS: Mice were pretreated with either the Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic SF-6,5 or recombinant soluble receptor of TNF alpha before their inoculation with 10 mg/kg concanavalin A. Liver enzymes, histology, and the serum values of TNF alpha and interleukin (IL)6 were examined. RESULTS: The histopathological damage in the liver, and the concanavalin A induced release of TNF alpha and IL6 were significantly inhibited by the synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic (p < 0.001). Liver injury, manifested by the increase in serum aminotransferase and cytokines, as well as by histological manifestations of hepatic damage, was effectively prevented by pretreatment of the mice with the soluble TNF receptor (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the efficacy of a synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic and soluble TNF receptor in the prevention of immune mediated liver damage in mice. Images PMID:9155591

  2. Role of hepatic intra-arterial therapies in metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET): guidelines from the NET-Liver-Metastases Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Andrew; Bester, Lourens; Salem, Riad; Sharma, Ricky A; Parks, Rowan W; Ruszniewski, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Liver metastasis from a neuroendocrine tumour (NET) represents a significant clinical entity. A multidisciplinary group of experts was convened to develop state-of-the-art recommendations for its management. Methods Peer-reviewed published reports on intra-arterial therapies for NET hepatic metastases were reviewed and the findings presented to a jury of peers. The therapies reviewed included transarterial embolization (TAE), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radioembolization (RE). Two systems were used to evaluate the level of evidence in each publication: (i) the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) system, and (ii) the GRADE system. Results Eighteen publications were reviewed. These comprised 11 reports on TAE or TACE and seven on RE. Four questions posed to the panel were answered and recommendations offered. Conclusions Studies of moderate quality support the use of TAE, TACE and RE in hepatic metastases of NETs. The quality and strength of the reports available do not allow any modality to be determined as superior in terms of imaging response, symptomatic response or impact on survival. Radioembolization may have advantages over TAE and TACE because it causes fewer side-effects and requires fewer treatments. Based on current European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) Consensus Guidelines, RE can be substituted for TAE or TACE in patients with either liver-only disease or those with limited extrahepatic metastases. PMID:25186181

  3. The effects of carbogen and nicotinamide on intravascular oxyhaemoglobin saturations in SCCVII and KHT murine tumours.

    PubMed

    Fenton, B M

    1995-05-01

    Considerable effort has been focused on devising methods for manipulating tumour oxygenation and thereby improving tumour radiosensitivity. The combination of nicotinamide and carbogen has been proposed to oxygenate both chronically and acutely hypoxic cells in tumours. However, results have varied markedly with both tumour model and measurement technique. The current objectives were (1) to determine whether changes in radiosensitivity following oxygen manipulation correlated with changes in tumour oxygenation and (2) to assess whether oxygenation was preferentially improved in specific tumour micro-regions. Using two murine tumour lines, the SCCVII carcinoma and the KHT sarcoma, tumour intravascular HbO2 saturations were measured cryospectrophotometrically following nicotinamide, carbogen or the combination. Generally, nicotinamide had minor effects on oxygenation, arguing against a substantial effect on acute hypoxia, while carbogen and the combination produced marked and equivalent improvements in oxygen availability. These results demonstrate that changes in tumour radiosensitivity may not agree with corresponding changes in oxygenation, even within a given tumour model, and that the efficacy of a given manipulative agent may vary substantially with tumour line. One possible explanation for these findings is that different subpopulations of clonogenic vs non-clonogenic cells may be oxygenated by alternative treatments.

  4. An imaging-based tumour growth and treatment response model: Investigating the effect of tumour oxygenation on radiation therapy response

    PubMed Central

    Jeraj, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A multiscale tumour simulation model employing cell-line-specific biological parameters and functional information derived from pre-therapy PET/CT imaging data was developed to investigate effects of different oxygenation levels on the response to radiation therapy. For each tumour voxel, stochastic simulations were performed to model cellular growth and therapeutic response. Model parameters were fitted to published preclinical experiments of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Using the obtained parameters, the model was applied to a human HNSCC case to investigate effects of different uniform and non-uniform oxygenation levels and results were compared for treatment efficacy. Simulations of the preclinical studies showed excellent agreement with published data and underlined the model’s ability to quantitatively reproduce tumour behaviour within experimental uncertainties. When using a simplified transformation to derive non-uniform oxygenation levels from molecular imaging data, simulations of the clinical case showed heterogeneous tumour response and variability in radioresistance with decreasing oxygen levels. Once clinically validated, this model could be used to transform patient-specific data into voxel-based biological objectives for treatment planning and to investigate biologically optimized dose prescriptions. PMID:18677042

  5. The effect of brain tumour laterality on anxiety levels among neurosurgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Mainio, A; Hakko, H; Niemela, A; Tuurinkoski, T; Koivukangas, J; Rasanen, P

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the level of anxiety in patients with a primary brain tumour and to analyse the effect of tumour laterality and histology on the level of anxiety. Recurrent measurements were assessed preoperatively, three months, and one year after operation. Methods: The study population consisted of 101 patients with a primary brain tumour from unselected and homogeneous population in northern Finland. The patients were studied preoperatively with CT or MRI to determine the location of the tumour. The histology of the tumour was defined according to WHO classification. The level of anxiety was obtained by Crown-Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI) scale. Results: The patients with a tumour in the right hemisphere had statistically significantly higher mean anxiety scores compared to the patients with a tumour in the left hemisphere before surgery of the tumour. By three months and by one year after surgical resection of the tumour, the level of anxiety declined in patients with a tumour in the right hemisphere. A corresponding decline was not found in patients with a tumour in the left hemisphere. According to laterality by tumour histology, the level of anxiety decreased significantly in male and female patients with a glioma in the right hemisphere, but a corresponding decline was not significant in the female patients with a meningioma in the right hemisphere. Decreased level of anxiety was not found in patients with gliomas or meningiomas in the left hemisphere by follow up measurements. Conclusions: Primary brain tumour in right hemisphere is associated with anxiety symptoms. The laterality of anxiety seems to reflect the differentiation of the two hemispheres. The level of anxiety declined after operation of right tumour, approaching that of the general population. The effect of right hemisphere gliomas on anxiety symptoms deserves special attention in future research. PMID:12933936

  6. Reversible phospho-Smad3 signalling between tumour suppression and fibrocarcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis B infection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Y-R; Yoshida, K; Jin, Q L; Murata, M; Yamaguchi, T; Tsuneyama, K; Moritoki, Y; Niu, J Q; Matsuzaki, K; Lian, Z-X

    2014-04-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, type I receptor (TβRI) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) phosphorylate Smad3 differentially to create 2 isoforms phosphorylated (p) at the COOH-terminus (C) or at the linker region (L) and regulate hepatocytic fibrocarcinogenesis. This study aimed to compare the differences between how hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affected hepatocytic Smad3 phosphorylated isoforms before and after anti-viral therapy. To clarify the relationship between Smad3 phosphorylation and liver disease progression, we studied 10 random patients in each stage of HBV-related fibrotic liver disease (F1-4) and also 10 patients with HBV-associated HCC. To examine changes in phosphorylated Smad3 signalling before and after anti-HBV therapies, we chose 27 patients with chronic hepatitis B who underwent baseline and follow-up biopsies at 52 weeks from the start of nucleoside analogue treatments (Lamivudine 100 mg daily or Telbivudine 600 mg daily). Fibrosis stage, inflammatory activity and phosphorylated Smad3 positivity in the paired biopsy samples were compared. Hepatocytic pSmad3C signalling shifted to fibrocarcinogenic pSmad3L signalling as the livers progressed from chronic hepatitis B infection to HCC. After nucleoside analogue treatment, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HBV-DNA levels in 27 patients with HBV-related chronic liver diseases were decreased dramatically. Decrease in HBV-DNA restored pSmad3C signalling in hepatocytes, while eliminating prior fibrocarcinogenic pSmad3L signalling. Oral nucleoside analogue therapies can suppress fibrosis and reduce HCC incidence by successfully reversing phosphorylated Smad3 signalling; even liver disease progressed to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B patients.

  7. Reversible phospho-Smad3 signalling between tumour suppression and fibrocarcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis B infection

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Y-R; Yoshida, K; Jin, Q L; Murata, M; Yamaguchi, T; Tsuneyama, K; Moritoki, Y; Niu, J Q; Matsuzaki, K; Lian, Z-X

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, type I receptor (TβRI) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) phosphorylate Smad3 differentially to create 2 isoforms phosphorylated (p) at the COOH-terminus (C) or at the linker region (L) and regulate hepatocytic fibrocarcinogenesis. This study aimed to compare the differences between how hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affected hepatocytic Smad3 phosphorylated isoforms before and after anti-viral therapy. To clarify the relationship between Smad3 phosphorylation and liver disease progression, we studied 10 random patients in each stage of HBV-related fibrotic liver disease (F1–4) and also 10 patients with HBV-associated HCC. To examine changes in phosphorylated Smad3 signalling before and after anti-HBV therapies, we chose 27 patients with chronic hepatitis B who underwent baseline and follow-up biopsies at 52 weeks from the start of nucleoside analogue treatments (Lamivudine 100 mg daily or Telbivudine 600 mg daily). Fibrosis stage, inflammatory activity and phosphorylated Smad3 positivity in the paired biopsy samples were compared. Hepatocytic pSmad3C signalling shifted to fibrocarcinogenic pSmad3L signalling as the livers progressed from chronic hepatitis B infection to HCC. After nucleoside analogue treatment, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HBV-DNA levels in 27 patients with HBV-related chronic liver diseases were decreased dramatically. Decrease in HBV-DNA restored pSmad3C signalling in hepatocytes, while eliminating prior fibrocarcinogenic pSmad3L signalling. Oral nucleoside analogue therapies can suppress fibrosis and reduce HCC incidence by successfully reversing phosphorylated Smad3 signalling; even liver disease progressed to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID:24372395

  8. In vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of experimental murine tumours and human tumour xenografts: effects of blood flow modification.

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, J. C.; Counsell, C. J.; Adams, G. E.; Stratford, I. J.; Wood, P. J.; Dunn, J. F.; Radda, G. K.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of hydralazine on tumours appears to vary depending on tumour type. Blood flow and radiation sensitivity decrease more in murine tumours than human tumour xenografts. In this study a comparison between various tumour types has been made using in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS) to follow the metabolic responses occurring after clamping or intravenous administration of hydralazine (5 mg kg-1). Large increases in the Pi/total phosphate ratio were found with the murine sarcomas, KHT and RIF-1 implanted into C3H/He mice. However little or no effect was seen for the two human xenografted tumours, HX118 and HT29 implanted in MFI nu/nu/01a mice. An intermediate response was observed for KHT tumours grown in nu/nu mice. All tumours showed a large response to clamping. The anaesthetic Hypnorm/Hypnovel has a great influence on the response of the tumour metabolism to hydralazine appearing to both prolong and increase the changes induced. There is evidence to support the theory that the changes in 31P spectra are related to the oxygen status of the tumours. PMID:1931606

  9. Human recombinant erythropoietin (rEpo) has no effect on tumour growth or angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hardee, M E; Kirkpatrick, J P; Shan, S; Snyder, S A; Vujaskovic, Z; Rabbani, Z N; Dewhirst, M W; Blackwell, K L

    2005-12-12

    Tumour hypoxia has been shown to increase mutation rate, angiogenesis, and metastatic potential, and decrease response to conventional therapeutics. Improved tumour oxygenation should translate into increased treatment response. Exogenous recombinant erythropoietin (rEpo) has been recently shown to increase tumour oxygenation in a mammary carcinoma model. The mechanism of this action is not yet understood completely. The presence of Epo and its receptor (EpoR) have been demonstrated on several normal and neoplastic tissues, including blood vessels and various solid tumours. In addition, rEpo has been shown in two recent prospective, randomized clinical trials to negatively impact treatment outcome. In this study, we attempt to characterize the direct effects of rEpo on tumour growth and angiogenesis in two separate rodent carcinomas. The effect of rEpo on R3230 rat mammary adenocarcinomas, CT-26 mouse colon carcinomas, HCT-116 human colon carcinomas, and FaDu human head and neck tumours, all of which express EpoR, was examined. There were no differences in tumour growth or proliferation (measured by Ki-67) between placebo-treated and rEpo-treated tumours. In the mammary window chamber, vascular length density (VLD) measurements in serial images of both placebo-treated and Epo-treated rats revealed no difference in angiogenesis between the Epo-treated tumours and placebo-treated tumours at any time point. These experiments are important because they suggest that the recent clinical detriment seen with the use of Epo is not due to its tumour growth effects or angiogenesis. These studies also suggest that further preclinical studies need to examine rEpo's direct tumour effects in efforts to improve the therapeutic benefits of Epo in solid tumour patients.

  10. Thalidomide increases both intra-tumoural tumour necrosis factor-α production and anti-tumour activity in response to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Z; Joseph, W R; Browne, W L; Mountjoy, K G; Palmer, B D; Baguley, B C; Ching, L-M

    1999-01-01

    5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), synthesized in this laboratory and currently in phase I clinical trial, is a low molecular weight inducer of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Administration of DMXAA to mice with established transplantable tumours elicits rapid vascular collapse selectively in the tumour, followed by extensive haemorrhagic necrosis mediated primarily through the production of TNF-α. In this report we have investigated the synthesis of TNF-α mRNA in hepatic, splenic and tumour tissue. Co-administration of thalidomide with DMXAA increased anti-tumour activity and increased intra-tumoural TNF-α production approximately tenfold over that obtained with DMXAA alone. Thalidomide increased splenic TNF-α production slightly but significantly decreased serum and hepatic levels of TNF-α induced with DMXAA. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced 300-fold higher serum TNF-α than did DMXAA at the maximum tolerated dose, but induced similar amounts of TNF-α in spleen, liver and tumour. Splenic TNF-α activity induced with LPS was slightly increased with thalidomide, but serum and liver TNF-α levels were suppressed. Thalidomide did not increase intra-tumoural TNF-α production induced with LPS, in sharp contrast to that obtained with DMXAA. While thalidomide improved the anti-tumour response to DMXAA, it had no effect on the anti-tumour action of LPS that did not induce a significant growth delay or cures against the Colon 38 tumour. The increase in the anti-tumour action by thalidomide in combination with DMXAA corresponded to an increase in intra-tumoural TNF-α production. Co-administration of thalidomide may represent a novel approach to improving selective intra-tumoural TNF-α production and anti-tumour efficacy of DMXAA. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10360649

  11. Multiscale modelling of solid tumour growth: the effect of collagen micromechanics

    PubMed Central

    Wijeratne, Peter A.; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Hipwell, John H.; Voutouri, Chrysovalantis; Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Evans, Andrew; Hawkes, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce a model of solid tumour growth coupled with a multiscale biomechanical description of the tumour microenvironment, which facilitates the explicit simulation of fibre-fibre and tumour-fibre interactions. We hypothesise that such a model, which provides a purely mechanical description of tumour-host interactions, can be used to explain experimental observations of the effect of collagen micromechanics on solid tumour growth. The model was specified to mouse tumour data and numerical simulations were performed. The multiscale model produced lower stresses than an equivalent continuum-like approach, due to a more realistic remodelling of the collagen microstructure. Furthermore, solid tumour growth was found to cause a passive mechanical realignment of fibres at the tumour boundary from a random to a circumferential orientation. This is in accordance with experimental observations, thus demonstrating that such a response can be explained as purely mechanical. Finally, peritumoural fibre network anisotropy was found to produce anisotropic tumour morphology. The dependency of tumour morphology on the peritumoural microstructure was reduced by adding a load-bearing non-collagenous component to the fibre network constitutive equation. PMID:26564173

  12. Hepatic effects of phthalate esters.

    PubMed Central

    Seth, P K

    1982-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a commonly used plasticizer and microchemical environmental pollutant, produces subtle changes in hepatic function as judged by increase in liver weight and morphological and biochemical alterations. It can modify the biological response of drugs and other xenobiotics. Such interactions appear to occur at the pharmacokinetic phase, as DEHP was found to alter the activity of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes and ethanol metabolism. DEHP produced a time- and route-dependent effect on the hepatic cytochrome P-450 contents and activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase and high and low Km aldehyde dehydrogenases when given orally or intraperitoneally. Under in vitro conditions, DEHP produced no effect on the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase or aniline hydroxylase, while mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and 2-ethylhexanol (2-EH) significantly inhibited their activity at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 15.0 mM. Activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase was also inhibited by dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) after a single oral administration. In view of the possibility of the human exposure to phthalates and other xenobiotics simultaneously, these observations are of great significance. PMID:6754361

  13. The role of tumour necrosis factor in hepatitis B infection: Jekyll and Hyde

    PubMed Central

    Valaydon, Zina; Pellegrini, Marc; Thompson, Alexander; Desmond, Paul; Revill, Peter; Ebert, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major health problem worldwide and is associated with significant long-term morbidity and mortality. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that is capable of integrating in the host nucleus permanently resulting in lifelong infection. To date, there is no definitive cure for HBV, as our current treatments cannot eradicate the viral reservoir that has integrated in the liver. Elucidating the immunopathogenesis is key to finding a therapeutic target for HBV as the virus is not in itself cytopathic but the immune response to the virus causes the majority of the cellular injury. In most cases, the virus reaches a state of equilibrium with low viral replication constrained by host immunity. Multiple cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CHB. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has emerged as a key player; on one hand it can facilitate immune-mediated virological control but on the other hand it can cause collateral hepatocyte damage, cirrhosis and possibly promote hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the immunopathogenesis of HBV, focusing on TNF and whether it can be harnessed in therapeutic strategies to cure HBV infection. PMID:28090316

  14. A numerical study on optimising the cryosurgical process for effective tumour necrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramajayam, K. K.; Kumar, A.; Sarangi, S. K.; Thirugnanam, A.

    2016-10-01

    This study presents the concept of improving the efficacy of cryosurgery using a low thermal conductivity liquid around the interface of a tumour. In the same context, perfluorohexane, a low thermal conductivity liquid has been used for the insulation of tumour. In the presence of a perfluorohexane layer, results demonstrate that the lethal front and the freezing front do not cross the tumour boundary. The results of numerical modelling indicate that there is an optimal thickness of the perfluorohexane layer which enables a perfect insulation to the tumour. Further, the contour plot presents that the optimal thickness of the perfluorohexane layer is 1 mm. The results also suggest that the lethal front reaches the tumour boundary at 100 s when perfluorohexane is used as an insulation at the tumour boundary. It is seen that a change in the thermal conductivity of the insulation at the tumour interface affects the lethal front propagation drastically. Among perfluorohexane, octafluoropropane and water, this study reveals perfluorohexane as the best substitute for the formation of the insulating layer at the tumour interface. The lower thermal conductivity of perfluorohexane provides a good barrier to the healthy tissue surrounding the tumour (as seen from the comparison of gap, i.e. the distance between the lethal front and the tumour interface). Furthermore, the calculation of gap indicates the most optimal configuration for cooling the tumour (termed as the optimal offset). In conclusion, the results presented in the study help in optimising the layer thickness at the tumour interface, the identification of an appropriate substance for making the layer and the use of gap to evaluate the most optimal configuration for freezing the tumours effectively.

  15. Effect of anti-glycolytic agents on tumour cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korshunov, D. A.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    A metabolic change is one of the tumour hallmarks, which has recently attracted a great amount of attention. One of the main metabolic characteristics of tumour cells is a high level of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. The energy production is much less in a glycolysis pathway than that in a tricarboxylic acid cycle. The Warburg effect constitutes a fundamental adaptation of tumour cells to a relatively hostile environment, and supports the evolution of aggressive and metastatic phenotypes. As a result, tumour glycolysis may become an attractive target for cancer therapy. Here, we research the effect of potential anticancer agents on tumour cells in vitro. In our study, we found a high sensitivity of tumour cells to anti-glycolityc drugs. In addition, tumour cells are more resistant to the agents studied in comparison with normal cells. We also observed an atypical cooperative interaction of tumour cells in the median lethal dose of drugs. They formed the specific morphological structure of the surviving cells. This behavior is not natural for the culture of tumour cells. Perhaps this is one of the mechanisms of cells' adaptation to the aggressive environment.

  16. Effect of heterogeneous microvasculature distribution on drug delivery to solid tumour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wenbo; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2014-11-01

    Most of the computational models of drug transport in vascular tumours assume a uniform distribution of blood vessels through which anti-cancer drugs are delivered. However, it is well known that solid tumours are characterized by dilated microvasculature with non-uniform diameters and irregular branching patterns. In this study, the effect of heterogeneous vasculature on drug transport and uptake is investigated by means of mathematical modelling of the key physical and biochemical processes in drug delivery. An anatomically realistic tumour model accounting for heterogeneous distribution of blood vessels is reconstructed based on magnetic resonance images of a liver tumour. Numerical simulations are performed for different drug delivery modes, including direct continuous infusion and thermosensitive liposome-mediated delivery, and the anti-cancer effectiveness is evaluated through changes in tumour cell density based on predicted intracellular concentrations. Comparisons are made between regions of different vascular density, and between the two drug delivery modes. Our numerical results show that both extra- and intra-cellular concentrations in the liver tumour are non-uniform owing to the heterogeneous distribution of tumour vasculature. Drugs accumulate faster in well-vascularized regions, where they are also cleared out more quickly, resulting in less effective tumour cell killing in these regions. Compared with direct continuous infusion, the influence of heterogeneous vasculature on anti-cancer effectiveness is more pronounced for thermosensitive liposome-mediated delivery.

  17. Tumour susceptibility gene 101 and the vacuolar protein sorting pathway are required for the release of hepatitis E virions.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Shigeo; Takahashi, Masaharu; Jirintai, Suljid; Tanaka, Toshinori; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Jiro; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2011-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that an intact PSAP motif in the ORF3 protein is required for the formation and release of membrane-associated hepatitis E virus (HEV) particles with ORF3 proteins on their surface. In this study, we investigated the direct interaction between the ORF3 protein and tumour susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101), a cellular factor involved in the budding of viruses containing the P(T/S)AP late-domain, in PLC/PRF/5 cells expressing the wild-type or PSAP-mutated ORF3 protein and Tsg101 by co-immunoprecipitation. Tsg101 bound to wild-type ORF3 protein, but not to the PSAP-inactive ORF3 protein. To examine whether HEV utilizes the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway to release the virus particles, we analysed the efficiency of virion release from cells upon introduction of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Tsg101 or dominant-negative (DN) mutants of Vps4 (Vps4A and Vps4B). The relative levels of virus particles released from cells depleted of Tsg101 decreased to 6.4 % of those transfected with negative control siRNA. Similarly, virion egress was significantly reduced by the overexpression of DN forms (Vps4AEQ or Vps4BEQ). The relative levels of virus particles released from cells expressing Vps4AEQ and Vps4BEQ were 19.2 and 15.6 %, respectively, while the overexpression of wild-type Vps4A and Vps4B did not alter the levels of virus release. These results indicate that the ORF3 protein interacts with Tsg101 through the PSAP motifs in infected cells, and that Tsg101 and the enzymic activities of Vps4A and Vps4B are involved in HEV release, thus suggesting that HEV requires the MVB pathway for egress of virus particles.

  18. Tumour effect on arginine/ornithine metabolic relationship in hypertrophic mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Manteuffel-Cymborowska, M; Chmurzyńska, W; Peska, M; Grzelakowska-Sztabert, B

    1997-03-01

    The presence of a tumour significantly changes nitrogen metabolism, including that of amino acids and polyamines, in host animals. In this study, we examine whether developing tumours affect the metabolic relationship of arginine and ornithine, precursors of polyamines, in the testosterone-induced hypertrophic mouse kidney model. Androgen-induced changes in the activity of enzymes involved with ornithine biosynthesis (arginase), its consumption (ornithine aminotransferase, OAT and ornithine decarboxylase, ODC) and the hypertrophy of host mouse kidney were not affected by the presence of an ascitic tumour (EAC) and only slightly by a mammary carcinoma (MaCa). The HPLC determined renal level of arginine and ornithine showed a striking homeostasis and was disturbed neither by testosterone nor EAC. The effect of MaCa and testosterone on the levels of both amino acids, although significant, was not very pronounced. Developing tumours, especially ascitic, altered the renal activity of OAT and ODC, but not of arginase, in testosterone-untreated mice. All examined tumours, EAC, L 1210 and MaCa actively metabolized arginine and ornithine. the tumour content of arginine which coincided with the activity of arginase, resulted in a marked increase of the ornithine/arginine ratio in tumours, when compared with kidneys. These results indicate that the androgen-induced anabolic response in mouse kidney is preserved, in spite of tumour requirements for essential metabolites.

  19. Effects of tumour necrosis factor on protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Evans, D A; Jacobs, D O; Wilmore, D W

    1993-08-01

    Increased skeletal muscle breakdown and negative nitrogen balance are features of sepsis that may be mediated by cytokines. The effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) on protein metabolism were studied. When administered to anaesthetized dogs (0.57 x 10(5) units per kg body-weight over 6h), TNF caused urinary nitrogen excretion to increase (mean(s.e.m.) 165(15) mg kg-1 for dogs that received TNF versus 113(8) mg kg-1 for control animals, P < 0.01). Amino acid nitrogen release from the hindlimbs showed no change over the study period, indicating that the additional urinary nitrogen was not derived from peripheral protein stores. In a second study the same dose of TNF or saline was infused after the intestine had been removed. The mean(s.e.m.) urinary nitrogen excretion in control dogs that had undergone enterectomy (101(7) mg kg-1) was similar to that of intact animals, and addition of TNF did not significantly increase nitrogen excretion (86(18) mg kg-1). The results suggest that nitrogen excreted in the urine during administration of TNF is derived, at least initially, from the intestinal tract.

  20. Step-down heating of human melanoma xenografts: effects of the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed Central

    Rofstad, E. K.

    1994-01-01

    Thermosensitisation by step-down heating (SDH) has previously been demonstrated in experimental rodent tumours. The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate whether the SDH effect in tumours in part may be attributed to heat-induced alterations in the capillary network and/or the microenvironment. Two human melanoma xenograft lines differing substantially in vascular parameters were selected for the study. A thermostatically regulated water bath was used for heat treatment. The conditioning treatment (44.5 degrees C or 45.5 degrees C for 15 min) was given in vivo, whereas the test treatment (42.0 degrees C for 45, 90, 135 or 180 min) was given either in vitro or in vivo. Treatment response was measured in vitro using a cell clonogenicity assay. Fraction of occluded vessels following heat treatment was assessed by examination of histological sections from tumours whose vascular network was filled with a contrast agent. Tumour bioenergetic status and tumour pH were measured by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The conditioning heat treatments caused significant vessel occlusion, decreased tumour bioenergetic status and decreased tumour pH in both tumour lines. The SDH effect measured when the test treatment was given in vivo was significantly increased relative to that measured when the test treatment was given in vitro. The magnitude of the increase showed a close relationship to fraction of occluded vessels, tumour bioenergetic status and tumour pH measured 90 min after treatment with 44.5 degrees C or 45.5 degrees C for 15 min. The increased SDH effect in vivo was probably attributable to tumour cells that were heat sensitive owing to the induction of low nutritional status and pH during the conditioning treatment. Consequently, the SDH effect in some tumours may in part be due to heat-induced alterations in the microenvironment. This suggests that SDH may be exploited clinically to achieve increased cell inactivation in tumours relative to the

  1. Effect of endurance training upon lipid metabolism in the liver of cachectic tumour-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Lira, F S; Tavares, F L; Yamashita, A S; Koyama, C H; Alves, M J; Caperuto, E C; Batista, M L; Seelaender, M

    2008-08-01

    The syndrome of cancer cachexia is accompanied by several alterations in lipid metabolism, and the liver is markedly affected. Previous studies showed that moderate exercise training may prevent liver fat accumulation through diminished delivery of lipids to the liver, increased hepatic oxidation and increased incorporation of triacylglycerol (TAG) into very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Our aim was to examine the influence of moderate intensity training (8 weeks) upon TAG content, VLDL assembly and secretion, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and microsomal transfer protein (MTP) gene expression in the liver of cachectic tumour-bearing rats. Animals were randomly assigned to a sedentary control (SC), sedentary tumour-bearing (ST) or exercise-trained control (EC) or to an exercise trained tumour-bearing (ET) group. Trained rats ran on a treadmill (60% VO(2max)) for 60 min day(-1), 5 day week(-1), for 8 weeks. TAG content and the rate of VLDL secretion (followed for 3 h), as well as mRNA expression of apoB and MTP, and total cholesterol, VLDL-TAG, VLDL-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and tumour weight were evaluated. VLDL-cholesterol showed a decrease in ST (p < 0.05) in relation to SC. Serum TAG, VLDL-TAG and tissue TAG content were all increased in ST (p < 0.01), when compared with SC. ST showed a lower rate of VLDL secretion (p < 0.05) and reduced expression of apoB (p < 0.001) and MTP (p < 0.001), when compared with SC. These parameters were restored to control values (p < 0.05) when the animals were submitted to the exercise training protocol. Tumour weight decreased 10-fold after training (p < 0.001). It is possible to affirm, therefore, that endurance training promoted the re-establishment of lipid metabolism in cachectic tumour-bearing animals, especially in relation to VLDL secretion and assembly.

  2. Liver cancer arterial perfusion modelling and CFD boundary conditions methodology: a case study of the haemodynamics of a patient-specific hepatic artery in literature-based healthy and tumour-bearing liver scenarios.

    PubMed

    Aramburu, Jorge; Antón, Raúl; Rivas, Alejandro; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Bilbao, José Ignacio

    2016-11-01

    Some of the latest treatments for unresectable liver malignancies (primary or metastatic tumours), which include bland embolisation, chemoembolisation, and radioembolisation, among others, take advantage of the increased arterial blood supply to the tumours to locally attack them. A better understanding of the factors that influence this transport may help improve the therapeutic procedures by taking advantage of flow patterns or by designing catheters and infusion systems that result in the injected beads having increased access to the tumour vasculature. Computational analyses may help understand the haemodynamic patterns and embolic-microsphere transport through the hepatic arteries. In addition, physiological inflow and outflow boundary conditions are essential in order to reliably represent the blood flow through arteries. This study presents a liver cancer arterial perfusion model based on a literature review and derives boundary conditions for tumour-bearing liver-feeding hepatic arteries based on the arterial perfusion characteristics of normal and tumorous liver segment tissue masses and the hepatic artery branching configuration. Literature-based healthy and tumour-bearing realistic scenarios are created and haemodynamically analysed for the same patient-specific hepatic artery. As a result, this study provides boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics simulations that will allow researchers to numerically study, for example, various intravascular devices used for liver disease intra-arterial treatments with different cancer scenarios. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Betulin elicits anti-cancer effects in tumour primary cultures and cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rzeski, Wojciech; Stepulak, Andrzej; Szymański, Marek; Juszczak, Małgorzata; Grabarska, Aneta; Sifringer, Marco; Kaczor, Józef; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2009-12-01

    Betulin is a pentacyclic triterpene found in many plant species, among others, in white birch bark. The aim of the study was in vitro characterization of the anticancer activity of betulin in a range of human tumour cell lines (neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma-medulloblastoma, glioma, thyroid, breast, lung and colon carcinoma, leukaemia and multiple myeloma), and in primary tumour cultures isolated from patients (ovarian carcinoma, cervical carcinoma and glioblastoma multiforme). In this study, we demonstrated a remarkable anti-proliferative effect of betulin in all tested tumour cell cultures. Neuroblastoma (SK-N-AS) and colon carcinoma (HT-29) were the most sensitive to the anti-proliferative effect of betulin. Furthermore, betulin altered tumour cells morphology, decreased their motility and induced apoptotic cell death. These findings demonstrate the anti-cancer potential of betulin and suggest that they may be applied as an adjunctive measure in cancer treatment.

  4. Angiosarcoma of the liver: a marker tumour for the late effects of Thorotrast in Great Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, P. J.; Langlands, A. O.; Anthony, P. P.; Macsween, R. N.; Scheuer, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Monitoring the incidence of angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL) between 1974 and 1977 has led to the confirmation by a panel of pathologists of 7 new cases of ASL in patients who had received intra-arterial Thorotrast for radiological investigations. A cluster of cases has appeared in and around Edinburgh where the use of Thorotrast was pioneered in Britain in 1933-48, and a mortality study of 113 Edinburgg patients has confirmed a significant excess of liver-tumour deaths in recent years. Deaths from cancers of the lung and breast, and from hepatic cirrhosis, were also in excess, but the limitations of the death-certificate data are described in relation to the clinical and pathological findings. Thorotrast was also used in other centres, and an increased incidence in Britain of liver tumours attributable to this agent is indicated. PMID:7190017

  5. Immunomodulatory and antitumour effects of abnormal Savda Munziq on S180 tumour-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq), a traditional uyghur medicine, has shown anti-tumour properties in vitro. This study attempts to confirm these effects in vivo and measure effects on the immune system. Methods Kunming mice transplanted with Sarcoma 180 cells were treated with ASMq (2–8 g/kg/day) by intra-gastric administration compared to model and cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg/day). After the 14th day post tumour implant, thymus, liver, spleen and tumours were removed, weighed, and processed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were also taken for haematological and biochemical analyses including TNF-α , IL-1 β and IL-2. Splenic lymphocyte function was measured with MTT; lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry. Results ASMq treated animals had reduced tumour volume compared to model and increased concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2 compared to untreated and to cyclophosphamide-treated animals. No histopathological alterations were observed. The absence of viable S180 cells and the presence of necrotic cells and granulation tissue were observed in tumour tissue of treated animals. The effect on T lymphocytes was unclear. Conclusions ASMq confirmed in vivo anti-tumour effects observed in vitro, which may be at least in part mediated by increased immune activity. PMID:22978453

  6. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to a liver condition called hepatitis . What Is Hepatitis? The liver is one of the body's powerhouses. ...

  7. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Hepatitis Print A A A ... an important digestive liquid called bile . What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  8. How effective is temozolomide for treating pituitary tumours and when should it be used?

    PubMed

    Halevy, Carmel; Whitelaw, Benjamin C

    2017-04-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) has been shown as an effective treatment option in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. This review analyses the published case series and demonstrates 42 % of patents show a radiological response and 27 % experience stable disease following TMZ. Prolactinomas and corticotroph tumours respond best to TMZ, showing approximately a 50 % response rate, with non-functioning tumours responding only half as frequently. Other factors that may predict the tumour's TMZ response include MGMT and MSH status, but neither is sufficiently robust to determine treatment decisions. TMZ has an accepted role in treating pituitary carcinoma and adenomas if radiation and surgery have failed to control tumour growth. To use TMZ on the basis of anticipated future aggression, as a primary therapy, or in preference to radiotherapy remains controversial.

  9. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH) could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin), which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance. PMID:20653983

  10. [Effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on the DNA fragmentation intensity in tumour and extratumoral tissues of the human adrenal cortex].

    PubMed

    Levchuk, N I; Pushkar'ov, V M; Kovzun, O I; Mykosha, O S; Hula, N M; Tron'ko, M D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE 18:0) on fragmentation of DNA in the tumoural and extratumour tissues of the adrenal glands in vitro was studied. In this work the following types of tissue were investigated: extratumoural tissue from patients with hormonally active tumours, benign tumour tissue (hormonally active and hormonally inactive), tissue of malignant tumours and hyperplasic tissue of the adrenal glands (Itsenko-Cushing disease). It has been established that the NSE increases the intensity of DNA fragmentation only in the tissue of hormonally inactive tumours. Benign hormonally active tumours, malignant tumours and hyperplastic tissue of the adrenal glands were resistant to the NSE. The possible mechanisms of resistance to the drug are discussed.

  11. Immune regulatory effects of simvastatin on regulatory T cell-mediated tumour immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lee, K J; Moon, J Y; Choi, H K; Kim, H O; Hur, G Y; Jung, K H; Lee, S Y; Kim, J H; Shin, C; Shim, J J; In, K H; Yoo, S H; Kang, K H; Lee, S Y

    2010-08-01

    Statins are potent inhibitors of hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, and have emerged as potential anti-cancer agents based on preclinical evidence. In particular, compelling evidence suggests that statins have a wide range of immunomodulatory properties. However, little is known about the role of statins in tumour immune tolerance. Tumour immune tolerance involves the production of immunosuppressive molecules, such as interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by tumours, which induce a regulatory T cell (T(reg)) response. In this study, we investigated the effect of simvastatin on the production of IL-10, TGF-beta and IDO production and the proliferation of T(regs) using several cancer cell lines, and Lewis lung cancer (3LL) cells-inoculated mouse tumour model. Simvastatin treatment resulted in a decrease in the number of cancer cells (3LL, A549 and NCI-H292). The production of the immune regulatory markers IL-10, TGF-beta in 3LL and NCI-H292 cells increased after treatment with simvastatin. The expression of IDO and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) transcription factor was also increased in the presence of simvastatin. In a murine 3LL model, there were no significant differences in tumour growth rate between untreated and simvastatin-treated mice groups. Therefore, while simvastatin had an anti-proliferative effect, it also exhibited immune tolerance-promoting properties during tumour development. Thus, due to these opposing actions, simvastatin had no net effect on tumour growth.

  12. Anti-metastatic effects of viral and non-viral mediated Nk4 delivery to tumours

    PubMed Central

    Buhles, Alexandra; Collins, Sara A; van Pijkeren, Jan P; Rajendran, Simon; Miles, Michelle; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; O'Hanlon, Deirdre M; Tangney, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The most common cause of death of cancer sufferers is through the occurrence of metastases. The metastatic behaviour of tumour cells is regulated by extracellular growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a ligand for the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant expression/activation of the c-Met receptor is closely associated with metastatic progression. Nk4 (also known as Interleukin (IL)32b) is a competitive antagonist of the HGF c-Met system and inhibits c-Met signalling and tumour metastasis. Nk4 has an additional anti-angiogenic activity independent of its HGF-antagonist function. Angiogenesis-inhibitory as well as cancer-specific apoptosis inducing effects make the Nk4 sequence an attractive candidate for gene therapy of cancer. This study investigates the inhibition of tumour metasasis by gene therapy mediated production of Nk4 by the primary tumour. Optimal delivery of anti-cancer genes is vital in order to achieve the highest therapeutic responses. Non-viral plasmid delivery methods have the advantage of safety and ease of production, providing immediate transgene expression, albeit short-lived in most tumours. Sustained presence of anti-angiogenic molecules is preferable with anti-angiogenic therapies, and the long-term expression mediated by Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) might represent a more appropriate delivery in this respect. However, the incubation time required by AAV vectors to reach appropriate gene expression levels hampers efficacy in many fast-growing murine tumour models. Here, we describe murine trials assessing the effects of Nk4 on the spontaneously metastatic Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) model when delivered to primary tumour via plasmid lipofection or AAV2 vector. Intratumoural AAV-Nk4 administration produced the highest therapeutic response with significant reduction in both primary tumour growth and incidence of lung metastases. Plasmid-mediated therapy also significantly reduced metastatic growth, but with moderate

  13. Effect of thalidomide on tumour necrosis factor production and anti-tumour activity induced by 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, L. M.; Xu, Z. F.; Gummer, B. H.; Palmer, B. D.; Joseph, W. R.; Baguley, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    The investigational anti-tumour agent, 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (5,6-MeXAA), an analogue of flavone acetic acid (FAA), has been scheduled for clinical evaluation. Like FAA, 5,6-MeXAA exhibits excellent experimental anti-tumour activity and is an efficient inducer of cytokines in mice. We have examined the effect of pharmacological suppression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production on the anti-tumour activity of 5,6-MeXAA, taking advantage of previous observations that TNF production in response to endotoxin in vitro is inhibited by thalidomide. Thalidomide at doses of between 8 and 250 mg kg-1 efficiently suppressed serum TNF activity in response to 5,6-MeXAA at its optimal TNF inducing dose of 55 mg kg-1. Suppression was achieved when thalidomide was administered at the same time as, or up to 4 h before, 5,6-MeXAA. Under conditions in which TNF activity was suppressed, the degree of tumour haemorrhagic necrosis and the proportion of cures in the subcutaneous Colon 38 tumour were increased. In mice administered thalidomide (100 mg kg-1) together with 5,6-MeXAA (30 mg kg-1), complete tumour regression was obtained in 100% of mice, as compared with 67% in mice receiving 5,6-MeXAA alone. The results suggest a possible new application for thalidomide and pose new questions about the action of 5,6-MeXAA and related compounds. PMID:7640215

  14. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... clotting problems or chronic liver disease. previous continue Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Although hep A is a ... does — through direct contact with infected body fluids. Hepatitis B and C are even more easily passed in ...

  15. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A if they've been vaccinated against it. Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a more serious infection. It may lead ... of which cause severe illness and even death. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted from person to person ...

  16. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Hepatitis Page Content Article Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of ... it has been associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses Type Transmission Prognosis A Fecal-oral (stool ...

  17. Effects of pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) on malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs).

    PubMed

    Demestre, Maria; Terzi, Menderes Yusuf; Mautner, Victor; Vajkoczy, Peter; Kurtz, Andreas; Piña, Ana Luisa

    2013-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an inherited genetic disease affecting 1 in 3,500 individuals. A prominent feature of NF1 is the formation of benign tumours of the peripheral nerve sheath (neurofibromas). However, these can become malignant and form highly metastatic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST), which are usually fatal despite aggressive surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Recent studies have shown that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) can induce differentiation and inhibit angiogenesis in several kinds of tumours. The present study was designed to determine the in vitro and in vivo effects of PEDF on MPNST angiogenesis and tumour growth. PEDF inhibited proliferation and augmented apoptosis in S462 MPNST cells after 48 h of treatment in culture. In xenografts of S462 MPNST cells in athymic nude mice, PEDF suppressed MPNST tumour burden, due mainly to inhibition of angiogenesis. These results demonstrate for the first time inhibitory effects of PEDF on the growth of human MPNST via induction of anti-angiogenesis and apoptosis. Our results suggest that PEDF could be a novel approach for future therapeutic purposes against MPNST.

  18. The Cost Effectiveness of Hepatitis Immunization for US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, R. Jake; Saab, Sammy; Meyerhoff, Allen S.

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis B immunization is recommended for all American children, and hepatitis A immunization is recommended for children who live in areas with elevated disease rates. Because hepatitis A and B occur most commonly in young adults, the authors examined the cost effectiveness of college-based vaccination. They developed epidemiologic models to…

  19. Relative clinical effectiveness of carbon ion radiotherapy: theoretical modelling for H&N tumours

    PubMed Central

    Antonovic, Laura; Dasu, Alexandru; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of the efficiency of photon and carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) administered with the same number of fractions might be of limited clinical interest, since a wide range of fractionation patterns are used clinically today. Due to advanced photon treatment techniques, hypofractionation is becoming increasingly accepted for prostate and lung tumours, whereas patients with head and neck tumours still benefit from hyperfractionated treatments. In general, the number of fractions is considerably lower in carbon ion RT. A clinically relevant comparison would be between fractionation schedules that are optimal within each treatment modality category. In this in silico study, the relative clinical effectiveness (RCE) of carbon ions was investigated for human salivary gland tumours, assuming various radiation sensitivities related to their oxygenation. The results indicate that, for hypoxic tumours in the absence of reoxygenation, the RCE (defined as the ratio of D50 for photons to carbon ions) ranges from 3.5 to 5.7, corresponding to carbon ion treatments given in 36 and 3 fractions, respectively, and 30 fractions for photons. Assuming that interfraction local oxygenation changes take place, results for RCE are lower than that for an oxic tumour if only a few fractions of carbon ions are used. If the carbon ion treatment is given in more than 12 fractions, the RCE is larger for the hypoxic than for the well-oxygenated tumour. In conclusion, this study showed that in silico modelling enables the study of a wide range of factors in the clinical considerations and could be an important step towards individualisation of RT treatments. PMID:25858182

  20. A glucose carbonate apatite complex exhibits in vitro and in vivo anti-tumour effects.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Wu, Xin; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Uemura, Mamoru; Hata, Taishi; Nishimura, Junichi; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Sasaki, Jun-Ichi; Imazato, Satoshi; Matsuura, Nariaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2015-01-13

    Tumour targeting nanotechnology has recently made therapeutic progress and several therapeutic nanoparticles have been approved for clinical application. However, an ideal nanotechnology based therapeutic for solid tumours, particularly for systemic administration, still remains a challenge in clinical cancer therapy. We previously reported a pH sensitive in vivo delivery system of doxorubicin, or microRNA, using carbonate apatite (CA) nanoparticles. To further explore utility of CA in cancer therapy, we attempted to transport excess glucose into tumour cells by conjugating glucose (Glc) to the nanoparticle. Despite the non-toxicity of CA and Glc, the complex (CA-[Glc]) exhibited an unexpected anti-cancer effect in vitro and in vivo. CA-[Glc] significantly reduced the growth of colon cancer cell lines. Intravenous injections successfully suppressed solid tumour growth. In mice and monkeys, intravenously injected CA-[Glc] complex resulted in no serious abnormalities in body weight or blood chemistry. Because cancer cells intensively metabolise glucose than normal cells, treatment of cancer using glucose seems paradoxical. However, with the aid of CA, this safe and 'sweet' complex may be a novel anti-cancer reagent.

  1. Anti-tumour effects of lanreotide for pancreatic and intestinal neuroendocrine tumours: the CLARINET open-label extension study

    PubMed Central

    Caplin, Martyn E; Pavel, Marianne; Ćwikła, Jarosław B; Phan, Alexandria T; Raderer, Markus; Sedláčková, Eva; Cadiot, Guillaume; Wolin, Edward M; Capdevila, Jaume; Wall, Lucy; Rindi, Guido; Langley, Alison; Martinez, Séverine; Gomez-Panzani, Edda; Ruszniewski, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In the CLARINET study, lanreotide Autogel (depot in USA) significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic pancreatic/intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). We report long-term safety and additional efficacy data from the open-label extension (OLE). Patients with metastatic grade 1/2 (Ki-67 ≤10%) non-functioning NET and documented baseline tumour-progression status received lanreotide Autogel 120 mg (n=101) or placebo (n=103) for 96 weeks or until death/progressive disease (PD) in CLARINET study. Patients with stable disease (SD) at core study end (lanreotide/placebo) or PD (placebo only) continued or switched to lanreotide in the OLE. In total, 88 patients (previously: lanreotide, n=41; placebo, n=47) participated: 38% had pancreatic, 39% midgut and 23% other/unknown primary tumours. Patients continuing lanreotide reported fewer adverse events (AEs) (all and treatment-related) during OLE than core study. Placebo-to-lanreotide switch patients reported similar AE rates in OLE and core studies, except more diarrhoea was considered treatment-related in OLE (overall diarrhoea unchanged). Median lanreotide PFS (core study randomisation to PD in core/OLE; n=101) was 32.8 months (95% CI: 30.9, 68.0). A sensitivity analysis, addressing potential selection bias by assuming that patients with SD on lanreotide in the core study and not entering the OLE (n=13) had PD 24 weeks after last core assessment, found median PFS remaining consistent: 30.8 months (95% CI: 30.0, 31.3). Median time to further PD after placebo-to-lanreotide switch (n=32) was 14.0 months (10.1; not reached). This OLE study suggests long-term treatment with lanreotide Autogel 120 mg maintained favourable safety/tolerability. CLARINET OLE data also provide new evidence of lanreotide anti-tumour benefits in indolent and progressive pancreatic/intestinal NETs. PMID:26743120

  2. A study on the antitumour effect of total flavonoids from Pteris multifida Poir in H22 tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Canqiu; Chen, Jinwei; Huang, Li

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the inhibitory effect of total flavonoids from Pteris multifida Poir on growth of transplanted H22 tumour in mice. H22 tumour-bearing mice model was established; the experimental animals were divide/d into the model group, Pteris multifida Poir total flavonoids high-, low-dose groups, and CTX group. Pteris multifida Poir groups were administered continuously for 10d, and CTX group was administered every other day. Tumour inhibition rate, thymus index and spleen index were calculated. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-2 were determined, as well as total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum. Compared with the model group, the total flavonoids of Pteris multifida Poir can significantly inhibit tumour growth, with tumour inhibition rates of high-and low-dose groups 49.36% and 33.97%, respectively. They can also evidently increase the spleen and thymus indices of tumour-bearing mice, elevate serum TNF-α and IL-2 levels increase serum T-AOC level and reduce serum MDA level in tumour-bearing mice. The study concluded that total flavonoids from Pteris multifida Poir has an obvious inhibitory effect on transplanted H22 tumours; its mechanism of action may be associated with the improvement of immune function and enhancement of antioxidant capacity in mice.

  3. Metronomic chemotherapy following the maximum tolerated dose is an effective anti-tumour therapy affecting angiogenesis, tumour dissemination and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Vives, Marta; Ginestà, Mireia M; Gracova, Kristina; Graupera, Mariona; Casanovas, Oriol; Capellà, Gabriel; Serrano, Teresa; Laquente, Berta; Viñals, Francesc

    2013-11-15

    In this article, the effectiveness of a multi-targeted chemo-switch (C-S) schedule that combines metronomic chemotherapy (MET) after treatment with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is reported. This schedule was tested with gemcitabine in two distinct human pancreatic adenocarcinoma orthotopic models and with cyclophosphamide in an orthotopic ovarian cancer model. In both models, the C-S schedule had the most favourable effect, achieving at least 80% tumour growth inhibition without increased toxicity. Moreover, in the pancreatic cancer model, although peritoneal metastases were observed in control and MTD groups, no dissemination was observed in the MET and C-S groups. C-S treatment caused a decrease in angiogenesis, and its effect on tumour growth was similar to that produced by the MTD followed by anti-angiogenic DC101 treatment. C-S treatment combined an increase in thrombospondin-1 expression with a decrease in the number of CD133+ cancer cells and triple-positive CD133+/CD44+/CD24+ cancer stem cells (CSCs). These findings confirm that the C-S schedule is a challenging clinical strategy with demonstrable inhibitory effects on tumour dissemination, angiogenesis and CSCs.

  4. Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies - how do they arise?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Whether or not there is a relationship between use of mobile phones (analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless) and head tumour risk (brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, and salivary gland tumours) is still a matter of debate; progress requires a critical analysis of the methodological elements necessary for an impartial evaluation of contradictory studies. Methods A close examination of the protocols and results from all case-control and cohort studies, pooled- and meta-analyses on head tumour risk for mobile phone users was carried out, and for each study the elements necessary for evaluating its reliability were identified. In addition, new meta-analyses of the literature data were undertaken. These were limited to subjects with mobile phone latency time compatible with the progression of the examined tumours, and with analysis of the laterality of head tumour localisation corresponding to the habitual laterality of mobile phone use. Results Blind protocols, free from errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give positive results that reveal a cause-effect relationship between long-term mobile phone use or latency and statistically significant increase of ipsilateral head tumour risk, with biological plausibility. Non-blind protocols, which instead are affected by errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give negative results with systematic underestimate of such risk. However, also in these studies a statistically significant increase in risk of ipsilateral head tumours is quite common after more than 10 years of mobile phone use or latency. The meta-analyses, our included, examining only data on ipsilateral tumours in subjects using mobile phones since or for at least 10 years, show large and statistically significant increases in risk of ipsilateral brain gliomas and acoustic neuromas. Conclusions Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone shows an almost doubling of

  5. Effect of VEGF receptor inhibitor PTK787/ZK222548 combined with ionizing radiation on endothelial cells and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Hess, C; Vuong, V; Hegyi, I; Riesterer, O; Wood, J; Fabbro, D; Glanzmann, C; Bodis, S; Pruschy, M

    2001-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor is a major target for anti-angiogenesis-based cancer treatment. Here we report the treatment effect of ionizing radiation in combination with the novel orally bioavailable VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584 on endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and with tumour xenografts in vivo. Combined treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with increasing doses of PTK787/ZK222584 and ionizing radiation abrogated VEGF-dependent proliferation in a dose-dependent way, but inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation was not due to apoptosis induction. In vivo, a combined treatment regimen of PTK787/ZK222584 (4 × 100 mg/kg) during 4 consecutive days in combination with ionizing radiation (4 × 3 Gy) exerted a substantial tumour growth delay for radiation-resistant p53-disfunctional tumour xenografts derived from SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells while each treatment modality alone had only a minimal effect on tumour size and neovascularization. SW480 tumours from animals that received a combined treatment regimen, displayed not only an extended tumour growth delay but also a significant decrease in the number of microvessels in the tumour xenograft. These results support the model of a cooperative antitumoural effect of angiogenesis inhibitor and irradiation and show that the orally bioavailable VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584 is suitable for combination therapy with irradiation. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747347

  6. Cutting the limits of aminobisphosphonates: new strategies for the potentiation of their anti-tumour effects.

    PubMed

    Marra, M; Abbruzzese, A; Addeo, R; Del Prete, S; Tassone, P; Tonini, G; Tagliaferri, P; Santini, D; Caraglia, M

    2009-11-01

    Therapy with aminobisphosphonate (N-BPs), and zoledronic acid (ZOL) especially, has become a standard of care for patients with malignant bone disease. In addition, preclinical and preliminary clinical data suggest that N-BPs exert their direct or indirect anti-tumour effects on cancer growth factor release, cancer cell adhesion, invasion and viability, cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell apoptosis. Here, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms of the antitumour effects induced by ZOL. Despite their well-established in vitro anti-tumour effects N-BPs have not clear in vivo anti-tumour activity in humans. The bases of these discrepancies will be discussed in the text with a special focus on the pharmacokinetic limits of N-BPs. Moreover, the following molecular and pharmacological strategies in order to overcome N-BPs limitations will be described: i) development of pharmacological combinations with other biological agents; ii) finding of new molecular targets of N-BPs; iii) development of new pharmacological formulations of N-BPs. Finally, a new scenario of integrated bio-medicine and pharmacology will be depicted in order to drive the optimization of anti-cancer activity of N-BPs.

  7. The administration of milk fermented by the probiotic Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 exerts an immunomodulatory effect against a breast tumour in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Félix; Carino, Silvia; Perdigón, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    Antitumour activity is one of the health-promoting effects attributed to probiotics specially analysed from preclinical models, mostly murine. Here, the effect of milk fermented by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei CRL 431, on a murine breast cancer model was analysed. Mice were fed with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei or unfermented milk before and after tumour injection. Rate of tumour development, cytokines in serum, IgA, CD4, CD8, F4/80 and cytokines positive cells in mammary glands were determined. Microvasculature in the tumour tissues was monitored. The effect of fermented milk administration after tumour injection was also evaluated. It was observed that probiotic administration delayed or blocked tumour development. This effect was associated to modulation of the immune response triggered by the tumour. The area occupied by blood vessels decreased in the tumours from mice given fermented milk which agrees with their small tumours, and fewer side effects. Finally, it was observed that probiotic administration after tumour detection was also beneficial to delay the tumour growth. In conclusion, we showed in this study the potential of milk fermented by the probiotic Lactobacillus casei CRL431 to stimulate the immune response against this breast tumour, avoiding or delaying its growth when it was preventively administrated and also when the administration started after tumour cells injection.

  8. Investigation of the effect of physical parameters on the design of tumour targeting agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Joanne Lois

    Tumour targeting using radiolabelled antibodies for radioimmunodetection (RAID) and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been studied for many years. The main factors that have limited clinical success are low tumour uptake, immunogenicity and poor therapeutic ratios. This thesis has applied current technology to make advances in this area of research. The effect of physical parameters (antibody size, valency, affinity and charge) on the design of tumour targeting agents was studied by constructing divalent (DFM) and trivalent (TFM) forms of the murine anti-CEA antibody A5B7 Fab' by chemical cross-linking. This involves partial reduction of the hinge disulphides to expose thiol (-SH) groups and subsequent reaction with a maleimide cross-linker to form a thioether bond at the hinge region. Previous studies have suggested that the stability of thioether bonds is superior to naturally occurring disulphide bonds present at the hinge region of IgG and F(ab')2. The aim was to compare the functional affinities and in vivo tumour targeting in nude mice bearing human tumour xenografts of DFM and TFM to similar sized parent IgG and F(ab')2. Radiolabelling with 131I and 90Y was also compared with a view to determine which combination would be optimal for RIT. Results clearly demonstrated a significantly faster on-rate of DFM compared to all other antibody forms and estimated dosimetry analysis suggested that DFM would be the most suitable antibody form radiolabelled with 131I for RIT. Both F(ab')2 and DFM showed high kidney uptake levels on labelling with which is unacceptable for RIT. Despite the improved tumour: blood ratios for TFM, the increased estimated dose to normal tissues and lower therapeutic effect in RIT studies suggests that the most promising combination with the radionuclide appears to be IgG. A humanised version of A5B7 hFab' has been constructed previously in order to reduce its immunogenicity in man. The in vivo stability of hDFM proved to be superior to hF(ab')2

  9. Imaging and radiation effects of gold nanoparticles in tumour cells.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, Harold N; Muir, Mark F; Taggart, Laura E; McMahon, Stephen J; Coulter, Jonathan A; Hyland, Wendy B; Jain, Suneil; Butterworth, Karl T; Schettino, Giuseppe; Prise, Kevin M; Hirst, David G; Botchway, Stanley W; Currell, Fred J

    2016-01-20

    Gold nanoparticle radiosensitization represents a novel technique in enhancement of ionising radiation dose and its effect on biological systems. Variation between theoretical predictions and experimental measurement is significant enough that the mechanism leading to an increase in cell killing and DNA damage is still not clear. We present the first experimental results that take into account both the measured biodistribution of gold nanoparticles at the cellular level and the range of the product electrons responsible for energy deposition. Combining synchrotron-generated monoenergetic X-rays, intracellular gold particle imaging and DNA damage assays, has enabled a DNA damage model to be generated that includes the production of intermediate electrons. We can therefore show for the first time good agreement between the prediction of biological outcomes from both the Local Effect Model and a DNA damage model with experimentally observed cell killing and DNA damage induction via the combination of X-rays and GNPs. However, the requirement of two distinct models as indicated by this mechanistic study, one for short-term DNA damage and another for cell survival, indicates that, at least for nanoparticle enhancement, it is not safe to equate the lethal lesions invoked in the local effect model with DNA damage events.

  10. Combined effect of clinically relevant doses of emitefur, a new 5-fluorouracil derivative, and radiation in murine tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Shibamoto, Y.; Murata, R.; Miyauchi, S.; Hirohashi, M.; Takagi, T.; Sasai, K.; Shibata, T.; Oya, N.; Takahashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the combined effect of radiation and clinically relevant doses of emitefur (BOF-A2), a newly developed anti-cancer agent consisting of a masked form of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and a potent inhibitor of 5-FU degradation, in two types of murine tumours. In preliminary pharmacokinetic studies, the area under the curve for 5-FU in plasma, after administration of 12.5 mg kg-1 and 25 mg kg-1 emitefur in mice, appeared to be similar to that obtained on the first day and that on the seventh day, respectively, after starting administration of 400-600 mg day-1 in humans. These doses (12.5 and 25 mg kg-1) of emitefur were evaluated either alone or in combination with single (15 Gy), five-fraction (4 Gy each) or ten-fraction (2.8 Gy each) irradiation using a tumour growth delay assay for SCCVII tumours and in combination with four-fraction (5 Gy each) irradiation using an in vivo-in vitro assay for EMT6 tumours. The anti-tumour and radiation-enhancing effects of 12.5 mg kg-1 emitefur were not significant in any except the ten-fraction experiment. On the other hand, multiple doses of 25 mg kg-1 emitefur given either alone or in combination with radiation produced marked effects. The mean tumour growth delay time (the time to double in volume for treated tumours minus that for untreated tumours) was 8.1 days for five administrations of 25 mg kg-1 emitefur. 10.4 days for five fractions of 4 Gy and 22.1 days for five treatments with the combination of the two. Thus, the increase in growth delay afforded by this combination was at least additive. The effect of four fractions of 5 Gy with 25 mg kg-1 emitefur in EMT6 tumours was lower than that of four fractions of 7.5 Gy, but the effect of five fractions of 4 Gy with this dose of emitefur in SCCVII tumours was similar to the effect of five fractions of 6 Gy, and the effect of ten fractions of 2.8 Gy with 25 mg kg-1 emitefur was much higher than that of ten fractions of 4.2 Gy. In conclusion, emitefur given either alone

  11. The effect of green tea on oxidative damage and tumour formation in Lobund-Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Jacintha; Sheridan, Juliette; Mulcahy, Hugh; Tenniswood, Martin; Morrissey, Colm

    2008-11-01

    A number of epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of green tea reduces the incidence of prostate cancer. As the major catechins present in green tea are potent antioxidants, we hypothesized that genetic and cellular damage induced by oxygen free radicals could be significantly reduced by potent antioxidants in green tea, thus reducing the cumulative genetic and cellular damage with age, and slowing or preventing tumour formation. Long-term administration of a decaffeinated green tea extract to Lobund-Wistar rats for periods up to 26 months almost halved the incidence of primary tumours in the genitourinary tract when compared with an age-matched cohort receiving just water. We observed no inhibition of DNA adduct formation or lipid peroxidation in animals consuming green tea compared with animals consuming deionized water. The decrease in tumour formation was associated with an increase in 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxynonenal content (markers of DNA adduct formation and lipid peroxidation, respectively) in the epithelium of the ventral prostate in aging animals. In addition, there was an increase in 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine expression, but no change in 4-hydroxynonenal expression in the seminal vesicles of older animals. An age-associated increase in expression of the antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase in the epithelium of the ventral prostate of aging animals was observed. Furthermore, there was also an increase in manganese superoxide dismutase expression, but no change in catalase expression in the seminal vesicles of older animals. These data demonstrate that consumption of green tea decreases the incidence of genitourinary tract tumours in the Lobund-Wistar rat, but has no effect on age-associated DNA adduct formation and lipid peroxidation in the ventral prostate and seminal vesicles of the aging rat.

  12. Effectiveness of hepatic parenchyma lithotomy of hepatolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, En Liang; Feng, Qian; Yang, Qing Ping; Liao, Wen Jun; Liu, Wang Wei; Huang, Yong; Wu, Lin Quan; Yin, Xiang Bao; Shao, Jiang Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the clinical significance of hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area for the treatment of complex hepatolithiasis. A retrospective study was conducted with 35 patients who had complicated hepatolithiasis in our hospital from January 2008 to December 2013, who underwent hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area. The perioperative and long-term outcomes included the stone clearance rate, operative morbidity and mortality, and the stone recurrence rate. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma were excluded from the study. All patients with hepatic duct stones were mainly located at S2, S4, and S8 regions. Surgical methods included were hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area, or by combined partial hepatectomy. The mean follow-up period was 51 months. One patient died during hospitalization. The surgical morbidity was 17.6%, stone clearance rate was 88.2%, and final clearance rate was 94.1% followed by postoperative choledochoscopic lithotripsy. The stone recurrence rate was 15.6% and the occurrence of postoperative cholangitis was 11.8% during the follow-up period. Hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area is safe with satisfactory short and long-term outcome results for complicated hepatolithiasis. PMID:28272201

  13. Effect of prolactin and bromocriptine on growth of transplanted hormone-dependent mouse mammary tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Briand, P.; Thorpe, S. M.; Daehnfeldt, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Administration of ovine prolactin alone supported growth of hormone-dependent GR mouse mammary tumours. Growth of hormone-independent tumours was not stimulated. Furthermore, administration of bromocriptine, a compound that inhibits release of prolactin from the pituitary gland, was shown to inhibit the growth of hormone-dependent tumours in animals receiving treatment with progesterone + oestrone. Administration of prolactin or bromocriptine to mice bearing tumours that grew independently of progesterone + oestrone treatment had no influence on tumour growth. We conclude that direct as well as indirect evidence has been found for the involvement of prolactin in the growth of transplanted, hormone-dependent GR mouse mammary tumours. PMID:577471

  14. Inhibitory effect of endostatin gene therapy combined with phosphorus-32 colloid on tumour growth in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huiqi; Zhu, Jing; Li, Yong; Fu, Peng; Shen, Baozhong

    2016-07-01

    Eighty healthy male Wistar rats, aged 5 weeks, weighing 100-120 g, were utilized for establishing tumour-bearing models by immediate Walker-256 cancerous ascites injection and randomly divided to four groups (n=20) treated with 0.2 ml solution containing saline, (32)P-colloid (0.3 mCi), endostatin gene (20 μg), endostatin gene combined with colloid (32)P. The effect of endostatin combined with a small dose of (32)P-colloidal on tumour growth in vivo was evaluated and the potential mechanism underlying the combined therapy was explored. We found that (32)P-colloid combined with endostatin exhibited higher inhibitory effect upon tumour growth compared with application of (32)P-colloid or endostatin alone, although three therapies all significantly inhibited tumour growth compared with saline control group. The higher inhibitory effect of (32)P-colloid combined with endostatin upon tumour growth might be attributed to a synergistic effect of inhibiting angiogenesis by endostatin and inducing apoptosis by (32)P-colloid, as demonstrated by microvessel density (MVD) and apoptotic index (AI) measurement. Combined therapy of (32)P-colloid and endostatin probably serves as a novel and efficacious therapy of tumour growth.

  15. Effect of tetrandrine on calcium-dependent tumour necrosis factor-alpha production in glia-neurone mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Yang, Li; Yan, Hong-Li; Wang, Meng; Xiao, Ji-Gao

    2005-10-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha is believed to have a deleterious role in the pathophysiology of brain injury. Tetrandrine has protective effect on neuronal cells, however, the mechanisms involved in its action have not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of tetrandrine on calcium-dependent tumour necrosis factor-alpha production in glia-neurone mixed cultures. Glia-neurone mixed cultures were treated by addition of Ca2+ regulating agents for a period of 6 hr. Tetrandrine or/and TMB-8 were added 30 min. before the stimulation. The supernatant tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Exposure of lipopolysaccharide 10 and 100 ng/ml caused significant increase in tumour necrosis factor-alpha production respectively, with no alteration in cultures treated with 1 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide. Glia-neurone mixed cultures exhibited a marked elevation in tumour necrosis factor-alpha production after exposure to CaCl2, KCl, thapsigargin, BHQ and norepinephrine in the presence of lipopolysaccharide at 1 ng/ml respectively. Tetrandrine 0.3, 1, and 3 microM concentration-dependently reduced tumour necrosis factor-alpha production evoked by CaCl2 or KCl. Tetrandrine preincubation had no significant effect on the response to Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin or BHQ. Norepinephrine-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha production was significantly reduced by tetrandrine and almost abolished by combination of tetrandrine and intracellular Ca2+ release inhibitor TMB-8. These results suggested that tetrandrine at a concentration of 0.3, 1, or 3 microM inhibited tumour necrosis factor-alpha production induced by Ca2+ entry in glia-neurone mixed cultures.

  16. Cytotoxic effects of Argentinean plant extracts on tumour and normal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mamone, L; Di Venosa, G; Valla, J J; Rodriguez, L; Gándara, L; Batlle, A; Heinrich, M; Juarranz, A; Sanz-Rodriguez, F; Casas, A

    2011-05-30

    In the search for possible new anti-cancer agents, we investigated the effects of 75 aqueous and methanol extracts from 41 Argentinean plant species. The effect in cell growth was evaluated in the LM2 mammary adenocarcinoma cells. In a second stage, the highly active selected extracts were assayed in 3 other tumour cell lines: melanoma B16, bladder MB49 and lung A549; and 3 normal cell lines: mammary Hb4a and keratinocytes PAM212 and HaCat. Eight methanol extracts were found to be highly cytotoxic: Collaea argentina leaf, Iochroma australe leaf, Ipomoea bonariensis flower, Jacaranda mimosifolia flower, Solanum amygdalifolium flower, Solanum chacoense leaf, Solanum sisymbriifolium flower and Solanum verbascifolium flower. However, extract inhibition on cell growth was highly dependent on cell type. In general, except for the highly resistant cell lines, the inhibitory concentrations 50% were in the range of 10-150 μg/ml The eight extracts highly inhibited cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner, and in general the methanol extracts were always more active than the aqueous. Murine cells appear to be more sensitive than human cells to the cytotoxic action of the plant extracts. The human melanoma B16 line was the most resistant to four of the extracts. In terms of selectivity, S. verbascifolium was the species which showed most selectivity for tumour cells. Overall, this is one of the first studies focusing on southern South American native plants and their biological effects. Since some species of 5 genera analyzed have been reported to possess different degrees of alkaloid content, we examined microtubule structures after extract treatments. The eight extracts induced destabilization, condensation and aggregation of microtubules in LM2 cells, although no depolarization, typical of Vinca alkaloids damage was observed. In a near future, antitumour activity of purified fractions of the extracts administered at non-toxic doses will be assayed in transplantable

  17. Antitumour and anti-inflammatory effects of palladium(II) complexes on Ehrlich tumour.

    PubMed

    Quilles, Marcela B; Carli, Camila B A; Ananias, Sandra R; Ferreira, Lucas S; Ribeiro, Livia C A; Maia, Danielle C G; Resende, Flávia A; Moro, Antônio C; Varanda, Eliana A; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Mauro, Antonio E; Carlos, Iracilda Z

    2013-01-01

    Palladium(II) complexes are an important class of cyclopalladated compounds that play a pivotal role in various pharmaceutical applications. Here, we investigated the antitumour, anti-inflammatory, and mutagenic effects of two complexes: [Pd(dmba)(Cl)tu] (1) and [Pd(dmba)(N3)tu] (2) (dmba = N,N-dimethylbenzylamine and tu = thiourea), on Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells and peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) from mice bearing solid Ehrlich tumour. The cytotoxic effects of the complexes on EAT cells and PECs were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-3-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of the complexes on the immune system were assessed based on the production of nitric oxide (NO) (Griess assay) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) (ELISA). Finally the mutagenic activity was assessed by the Ames test using the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 98. Cisplatin was used as a standard. The IC50 ranges for the growth inhibition of EAT cells and PECs were found to be (72.8 +/- 3.23) microM and (137.65 +/- 0.22) microM for 1 and (39.7 +/- 0.30) microM and (146.51 +/- 2.67) microM for 2, respectively. The production of NO, IL-12, and TNF-alpha, but not IL-10, was induced by both complexes and cisplatin. The complexes showed no mutagenicity in vitro, unlike cisplatin, which was mutagenic in the strain. These results indicate that the complexes are not mutagenic and have potential immunological and antitumour activities. These properties make them promising alternatives to cisplatin.

  18. Enzastaurin has anti-tumour effects in lung cancers with overexpressed JAK pathway molecules

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, T; Seike, M; Soeno, C; Uesaka, H; Miyanaga, A; Mizutani, H; Kitamura, K; Minegishi, Y; Noro, R; Okano, T; Yoshimura, A; Gemma, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Enzastaurin, an oral serine–threonine kinase inhibitor, was initially developed as an ATP-competitive selective inhibitor against protein kinase Cβ. However, the mechanism by which enzastaurin contributes to tumourigenesis remains unclear. Methods: We analysed the anti-tumour effects of enzastaurin in 22 lung cancer cell lines to ascertain the potential for enzastaurin-based treatment of lung cancer. To identify molecules or signalling pathways associated with this sensitivity, we conducted a gene, receptor tyrosine kinases phosphorylation and microRNA expression profiling study on the same set of cell lines. Results: We identified eight genes by pathway analysis of molecules having gene-drug sensitivity correlation, and used them to build a support vector machine algorithm model by which sensitive cell lines were distinguished from resistant cell lines. Pathway analysis revealed that the JAK/STAT signalling pathway was one of the main ones involved in sensitivity to enzastaurin. Overexpression of JAK1 was observed in the sensitive cells by western blotting. Simultaneous administration of enzastaurin and JAK inhibitor inhibited enzastaurin-induced cell growth-inhibitory effect. Furthermore, lentiviral-mediated JAK1-overexpressing cells were more sensitive to enzastaurin than control cells. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the JAK1 pathway may be used as a single predictive biomarker for enzastaurin treatment. The anti-tumour effect of enzastaurin should be evaluated in lung cancer with overexpressed JAK pathway molecules. PMID:22333600

  19. Improved cytotoxic effects of Salmonella-producing cytosine deaminase in tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Pereira, Beatriz; Medina, Carlos; Camacho, Eva María; Flores, Amando; Santero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the cytotoxic activity of a Salmonella strain carrying a salicylate-inducible expression system that controls cytosine deaminase production, we have modified both, the vector and the producer bacterium. First, the translation rates of the expression module containing the Escherichia coli codA gene cloned under the control of the Pm promoter have been improved by using the T7 phage gene 10 ribosome binding site sequence and replacing the original GUG start codon by AUG. Second, to increase the time span in which cytosine deaminase may be produced by the bacteria in the presence of 5-fluorocytosine, a 5-fluorouracyl resistant Salmonella strain has been constructed by deleting its upp gene sequence. This new Salmonella strain shows increased cytosine deaminase activity and, after infecting tumour cell cultures, increased cytotoxic and bystander effects under standard induction conditions. In addition, we have generated a purD mutation in the producer strain to control its intracellular proliferation by the presence of adenine and avoid the intrinsic Salmonella cell death induction. This strategy allows the analysis and comparison of the cytotoxic effects of cytosine deaminase produced by different Salmonella strains in tumour cell cultures.

  20. Effects of dietary retinyl acetate on the promotion of hepatic enzyme-altered foci by polybrominated biphenyls in initiated rats.

    PubMed

    Rezabek, M S; Sleight, S D; Jensen, R K; Aust, S D

    1989-08-01

    Vitamin A inhibits the development of some chemically-induced tumours. Since polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are hepatic tumour promoters and they affect vitamin A homeostasis in rats, we put forward the hypothesis that dietary levels of vitamin A would influence tumour promotion by PBBs. In the study described here, female Sprague-Dawley rats were initiated on day 1 by ip administration of diethylnitrosamine. On day 7 after initiation, the rats were fed a vitamin A-deficient basal diet that was supplemented with either 2000 IU (low-vitamin A) or 200,000 IU (high-vitamin A) retinyl acetate/kg feed. From day 30 after initiation until the end of the study the following PBBs were added to the diets: Firemaster BP-6 (10 ppm), 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl (10 ppm) or 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl (1 ppm). The control animals received low- or high-vitamin A diets containing no PBBs. On day 180, the rats were necropsied, sections of various tissues were stained for histopathological examination and an evaluation of hepatic enzyme-altered foci was performed. Numbers of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci/cm3 liver and the mean volumes of these foci were lower in the high-vitamin A groups than those in the corresponding low-vitamin A groups, but these differences were not significant. The percentage of the liver volume occupied by foci was significantly greater in the low-vitamin A with 345-HBB group than in the corresponding high-vitamin A group. Thus, high dietary levels of vitamin A had some inhibitory effect on the promotion of hepatic-altered foci by 345-HBB in initiated rats.

  1. Effect of lung flooding and high-intensity focused ultrasound on lung tumours: an experimental study in an ex vivo human cancer model and simulated in vivo tumours in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-intensity focused ultrasound is a valuable tool for minimally invasive tumour ablation. However, due to the air content in ventilated lungs, lung tumours have never been treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound. Lung flooding enables efficient lung sonography and tumour imaging in ex vivo human and in vivo porcine lung cancer models. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of lung flooding and sonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound for lung tumour ablation in ex vivo human and in vivo animal models. Methods Lung flooding was performed in four human lung lobes which were resected from non-small cell lung cancers. B-mode imaging and temperature measurements were simultaneously obtained during high-intensity focused ultrasonography of centrally located lung cancers. The tumour was removed immediately following insonation and processed for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase and H&E staining. In addition, the left lungs of three pigs were flooded. Purified BSA in glutaraldehyde was injected centrally into the left lower lung lobe to simulate a lung tumour. The ultrasound was focused transthoracically through the flooded lung into the simulated tumour with the guidance of sonography. The temperature of the tumour was simultaneously measured. The vital signs of the animal were monitored during the procedure. Results A well-demarcated lesion of coagulation necrosis was produced in four of four human lung tumours. There did not appear to be any damage to the surrounding lung parenchyma. After high-intensity focused ultrasound insonation, the mean temperature increase was 7.5-fold higher in the ex vivo human tumour than in the flooded lung tissue (52.1 K ± 8.77 K versus 7.1 K ± 2.5 K). The transthoracic high-intensity focused ultrasound of simulated tumours in the in vivo model resulted in a mean peak temperature increase up to 53.7°C (±4.5). All of the animals survived the procedure without

  2. Edge effects in game-theoretic dynamics of spatially structured tumours.

    PubMed

    Kaznatcheev, Artem; Scott, Jacob G; Basanta, David

    2015-07-06

    Cancer dynamics are an evolutionary game between cellular phenotypes. A typical assumption in this modelling paradigm is that the probability of a given phenotypic strategy interacting with another depends exclusively on the abundance of those strategies without regard for local neighbourhood structure. We address this limitation by using the Ohtsuki-Nowak transform to introduce spatial structure to the go versus grow game. We show that spatial structure can promote the invasive (go) strategy. By considering the change in neighbourhood size at a static boundary--such as a blood vessel, organ capsule or basement membrane--we show an edge effect that allows a tumour without invasive phenotypes in the bulk to have a polyclonal boundary with invasive cells. We present an example of this promotion of invasive (epithelial-mesenchymal transition-positive) cells in a metastatic colony of prostate adenocarcinoma in bone marrow. Our results caution that pathologic analyses that do not distinguish between cells in the bulk and cells at a static edge of a tumour can underestimate the number of invasive cells. Although we concentrate on applications in mathematical oncology, we expect our approach to extend to other evolutionary game models where interaction neighbourhoods change at fixed system boundaries.

  3. Edge effects in game-theoretic dynamics of spatially structured tumours

    PubMed Central

    Kaznatcheev, Artem; Scott, Jacob G.; Basanta, David

    2015-01-01

    Cancer dynamics are an evolutionary game between cellular phenotypes. A typical assumption in this modelling paradigm is that the probability of a given phenotypic strategy interacting with another depends exclusively on the abundance of those strategies without regard for local neighbourhood structure. We address this limitation by using the Ohtsuki–Nowak transform to introduce spatial structure to the go versus grow game. We show that spatial structure can promote the invasive (go) strategy. By considering the change in neighbourhood size at a static boundary—such as a blood vessel, organ capsule or basement membrane—we show an edge effect that allows a tumour without invasive phenotypes in the bulk to have a polyclonal boundary with invasive cells. We present an example of this promotion of invasive (epithelial–mesenchymal transition-positive) cells in a metastatic colony of prostate adenocarcinoma in bone marrow. Our results caution that pathologic analyses that do not distinguish between cells in the bulk and cells at a static edge of a tumour can underestimate the number of invasive cells. Although we concentrate on applications in mathematical oncology, we expect our approach to extend to other evolutionary game models where interaction neighbourhoods change at fixed system boundaries. PMID:26040596

  4. Tumour homing and therapeutic effect of colloidal nanoparticles depend on the number of attached antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Miriam; Fiandra, Luisa; Alessio, Giulia; Mazzucchelli, Serena; Nebuloni, Manuela; de Palma, Clara; Kantner, Karsten; Pelaz, Beatriz; Rotem, Rany; Corsi, Fabio; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Prosperi, Davide

    2016-12-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to tumours can be achieved by conjugation with specific antibodies. Specific active targeting of the HER2 receptor is demonstrated in vitro and in vivo with a subcutaneous MCF-7 breast cancer mouse model with trastuzumab-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The number of attached antibodies per nanoparticle was precisely controlled in a way that each nanoparticle was conjugated with either exactly one or exactly two antibodies. As expected, in vitro we found a moderate increase in targeting efficiency of nanoparticles with two instead of just one antibody attached per nanoparticle. However, the in vivo data demonstrate that best effect is obtained for nanoparticles with only exactly one antibody. There is indication that this is based on a size-related effect. These results highlight the importance of precisely controlling the ligand density on the nanoparticle surface for optimizing active targeting, and that less antibodies can exhibit more effect.

  5. Tumour homing and therapeutic effect of colloidal nanoparticles depend on the number of attached antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Miriam; Fiandra, Luisa; Alessio, Giulia; Mazzucchelli, Serena; Nebuloni, Manuela; De Palma, Clara; Kantner, Karsten; Pelaz, Beatriz; Rotem, Rany; Corsi, Fabio; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Prosperi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to tumours can be achieved by conjugation with specific antibodies. Specific active targeting of the HER2 receptor is demonstrated in vitro and in vivo with a subcutaneous MCF-7 breast cancer mouse model with trastuzumab-functionalized gold nanoparticles. The number of attached antibodies per nanoparticle was precisely controlled in a way that each nanoparticle was conjugated with either exactly one or exactly two antibodies. As expected, in vitro we found a moderate increase in targeting efficiency of nanoparticles with two instead of just one antibody attached per nanoparticle. However, the in vivo data demonstrate that best effect is obtained for nanoparticles with only exactly one antibody. There is indication that this is based on a size-related effect. These results highlight the importance of precisely controlling the ligand density on the nanoparticle surface for optimizing active targeting, and that less antibodies can exhibit more effect. PMID:27991503

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of the polysaccharide isolated from Tarphochlamys affinis (Acanthaceae) against CCl4-induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xing; Liu, Xi; Huang, Quanfang; Zhang, Shijun; Zheng, Li; Wei, Ling; He, Min; Jiao, Yang; Huang, Jianchun; Fu, Shujie; Chen, Zhaoni; Li, Yongwen; Zhuo, Lang; Huang, Renbin

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the polysaccharide isolated from Tarphochlamys affinis (PTA) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver injury was induced in rats by the administration of CCl4 twice a week for 2 weeks. During the experiment, the model group received CCl4 only; the treatment groups received various drugs plus CCl4, whereas the normal control group received an equal volume of saline. Compared with the CCl4 group, PTA significantly decreased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the serum and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver. Moreover, the content of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced. Histological findings also confirmed the anti-hepatotoxic characterisation. In addition, PTA significantly inhibited the proinflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Further investigation showed that the inhibitory effect of PTA on the pro-inflammatory cytokines was associated with the down-regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). In brief, our results show that the protective effect of PTA against CCl4-induced hepatic injury may rely on its ability to reduce oxidative stress and suppress inflammatory responses.

  7. Delivery of methoxymorpholinyl doxorubicin by interleukin 2-activated NK cells: effect in mice bearing hepatic metastases

    PubMed Central

    Quintieri, L; Rosato, A; Amboldi, N; Vizler, C; Ballinari, D; Zanovello, P; Collavo, D

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of using interleukin 2 (IL-2)-activated natural killer cells (A-NK) to carry methoxymorpholinyl doxorubicin (MMDX; PNU 152243) to liver-infiltrating tumours was explored in mice bearing 2-day established M5076 reticulum cell sarcoma hepatic metastases. In vitro, MMDX was 5.5-fold more potent than doxorubicin against M5076 tumour cells. MMDX uptake by A-NK cells correlated linearly with drug concentration in the incubation medium [correlation coefficient (r) = 0.999]; furthermore, as MMDX incorporation was readily reproducible in different experiments, the amount of drug delivered by A-NK cells could be modulated. In vivo experiments showed that intravenous (i.v.) injection of MMDX-loaded A-NK cells exerted a greater therapeutic effect than equivalent or even higher doses of free drug. The increase in lifespan (ILS) following A-NK cell delivery of 53 μg kg−1 MMDX, a dosage that is ineffective when administered in free form, was similar to that observed in response to 92 μg kg−1 free drug, a dosage close to the 10% lethal dose (ILS 42% vs. 38% respectively). These results correlated with pharmacokinetic studies showing that MMDX encapsulation in A-NK cells strongly modifies its organ distribution and targets it to tissues in which IL-2 activated lymphocytes are preferentially entrapped after i.v. injection. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098738

  8. Photothermal effects induced by laser heating of gold nanorods in suspensions and inoculated tumours during in vivo experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentyuk, G. S.; Ivanov, A. V.; Polyanskaya, N. I.; Maksimova, I. L.; Skaptsov, A. A.; Chumakov, D. S.; Khlebtsov, B. N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2012-05-01

    Photothermal effects are studied under laser irradiation of aqueous suspensions of gold nanorods (in vitro experiments) and mice-inoculated Erlich carcinoma after intravenous injection of gold nanorods with the size 40 × 10 nm and plasmon resonance at the wavelength 810 nm (in vivo experiment). In 24 hours after the injection the polyethylene-glycol-coated nanoparticles accumulated in the tumour with the concentration three — four times greater than in healthy muscle tissue. At concentrations, attained as a result of passive accumulation of nanoparticles in the tumour (4 μg per 1 g of tumour), the efficiency of the tumour heating was higher than that in aqueous solutions having the same concentration of nanoparticles. Various mechanisms of this effect are discussed including the difference in thermal physical parameters of water and biotissue, the aggregation of nanoparticles in tissues, the influence of multiple scattering in biotissue, and the nonuniform accumulation of particles in the tumour. Using the Monte Carlo method for simulating multiple scattering of light, it is shown that there are such proportions between the biotissue scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of nanoparticles, at which the fraction of absorbed photons in the tissue is higher than that in a transparent medium containing the same nanoparticles. The conclusion is made that the regime of hyperthermia is less efficient for antineoplastic therapy than the thermal damage due to fast short-time heating of the tissues up to the destruction temperature.

  9. Photothermal effects induced by laser heating of gold nanorods in suspensions and inoculated tumours during in vivo experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Terentyuk, G S; Ivanov, A V; Polyanskaya, N I; Maksimova, I L; Skaptsov, A A; Chumakov, D S; Khlebtsov, B N; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2012-05-31

    Photothermal effects are studied under laser irradiation of aqueous suspensions of gold nanorods (in vitro experiments) and mice-inoculated Erlich carcinoma after intravenous injection of gold nanorods with the size 40 Multiplication-Sign 10 nm and plasmon resonance at the wavelength 810 nm (in vivo experiment). In 24 hours after the injection the polyethylene-glycol-coated nanoparticles accumulated in the tumour with the concentration three - four times greater than in healthy muscle tissue. At concentrations, attained as a result of passive accumulation of nanoparticles in the tumour (4 {mu}g per 1 g of tumour), the efficiency of the tumour heating was higher than that in aqueous solutions having the same concentration of nanoparticles. Various mechanisms of this effect are discussed including the difference in thermal physical parameters of water and biotissue, the aggregation of nanoparticles in tissues, the influence of multiple scattering in biotissue, and the nonuniform accumulation of particles in the tumour. Using the Monte Carlo method for simulating multiple scattering of light, it is shown that there are such proportions between the biotissue scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of nanoparticles, at which the fraction of absorbed photons in the tissue is higher than that in a transparent medium containing the same nanoparticles. The conclusion is made that the regime of hyperthermia is less efficient for antineoplastic therapy than the thermal damage due to fast short-time heating of the tissues up to the destruction temperature.

  10. Effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination as post-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Parrón, Ignasi; Planas, Caritat; Godoy, Pere; Manzanares-Laya, Sandra; Martínez, Ana; Sala, Maria Rosa; Minguell, Sofia; Torner, Nuria; Jané, Mireia; Domínguez, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis A (HA) has been a vaccine-preventable disease since 1995. In Catalonia, a universal combined hepatitis A+B vaccination program of preadolescents was initiated at the end of 1998. However, outbreaks are reported each year and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine or immunoglobulin (IG) is recommended to avoid cases. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of HAV vaccine and IG in preventing hepatitis A cases in susceptible exposed people. A retrospective cohort study of contacts of HA cases involved in outbreaks reported in Catalonia between January 2006 and December 2012 was made. The rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of HA in susceptible contacts receiving HAV or IG versus those without PEP were calculated. There were 3550 exposed persons in the outbreaks studied: 2381 received one dose of HAV vaccine (Hepatitis A or hepatitis A+B), 190 received IG, and 611 received no PEP. 368 exposed subjects received one dose of HAV vaccine and IG simultaneously and were excluded from the study. The effectiveness of PEP was 97.6% (95% CI 96.2-98.6) for HAV vaccine and 98.3% (95% CI 91.3-99.9) for IG; the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.36). The elevated effectiveness of HAV vaccination for PEP in HA outbreaks, similar to that of IG, and the long-term protection of active immunization, supports the preferential use of vaccination to avoid secondary cases.

  11. Relative biological effectiveness of light ions in human tumoural cell lines: role of protein p53

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggio, L.; Cavinato, M.; Cherubini, R.; Conzato, M.; Cucinotta, F.; Favaretto, S.; Gerardi, S.; Lora, S.; Stoppa, P.; Williams, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Protons and alpha particles of high linear energy transfer (LET) have shown an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with respect to X/gamma rays for several cellular and molecular endpoints in different in vitro cell systems. To contribute to understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in the increased effectiveness of high LET radiation, an extensive study has been designed. The present work reports the preliminary result of this study on two human tumoural cell lines, DLD1 and HCT116, (with different p53 status), which indicate that for these cell lines, p53 does not appear to take a part in the response to radiation induced DNA damage, suggesting an alternative p53-independent pathway and a cell biochemical mechanism dependent on the cell type.

  12. Enhanced anti-tumour effects of Vinca alkaloids given separately from cytostatic therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, H; Pannert, L; Pfeiffer, S; Wachter, F; Amtmann, E; Jeremias, I

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose In polychemotherapy protocols, that is for treatment of neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma, Vinca alkaloids and cell cycle-arresting drugs are usually administered on the same day. Here we studied whether this combination enables the optimal antitumour effects of Vinca alkaloids to be manifested. Experimental Approach Vinca alkaloids were tested in a preclinical mouse model in vivo and in vitro in combination with cell cycle-arresting drugs. Signalling pathways were characterized using RNA interference. Key Results In vitro, knockdown of cyclins significantly inhibited vincristine-induced cell death indicating, in accordance with previous findings, Vinca alkaloids require active cell cycling and M-phase transition for induction of cell death. In contrast, anthracyclines, irradiation and dexamethasone arrested the cell cycle and acted like cytostatic drugs. The combination of Vinca alkaloids with cytostatic therapeutics resulted in diminished cell death in 31 of 36 (86%) tumour cell lines. In a preclinical tumour model, anthracyclines significantly inhibited the antitumour effect of Vinca alkaloids in vivo. Antitumour effects of Vinca alkaloids in the presence of cytostatic drugs were restored by caffeine, which maintained active cell cycling, or by knockdown of p53, which prevented drug-induced cell cycle arrest. Therapeutically most important, optimal antitumour effects were obtained in vivo upon separating the application of Vinca alkaloids from cytostatic therapeutics. Conclusion and Implications Clinical trials are required to prove whether Vinca alkaloids act more efficiently in cancer patients if they are applied uncoupled from cytostatic therapies. On a conceptual level, our data suggest the implementation of polychemotherapy protocols based on molecular mechanisms of drug–drug interactions. Linked Article This article is commented on by Solary, pp 1555–1557 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph

  13. Midkine promoter-driven suicide gene expression and -mediated adenovirus replication produced cytotoxic effects to immortalised and tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, L; Hamada, K; Namba, M; Kadomatsu, K; Muramatsu, T; Matsubara, S; Tagawa, M

    2004-07-01

    We examined possible application of a regulatory region of midkine (MK) gene, which is frequently upregulated in a number of human tumours but not in normal cells, to cancer gene therapy. We examined transcriptional activity of the MK genomic fragments in paired cell lines, immortalized cells and their parental normal fibroblasts, and found that the MK fragments activated a fused reporter or a suicide gene preferentially in the immortalized cells. Recombinant adenoviruses (Ad), in which the MK fragment was inserted upstream to the E1A gene (AdMK), replicated preferentially in the immortalized cells and were cytotoxie to them. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were significantly susceptible to AdMK compared with human normal fibroblasts in vitro and the replication of AdMK was less than that of wild-type Ad in the infected fibroblasts. Hepatocellular carcinoma cells infected with AdMK did not form tumours in immunocompromised mice and intratumoural injection of AdMK into the hepatocellular carcinoma developed in mice retarded the subsequent tumour growth. Expression of E1A and necrosis of tumours were detected in AdMK-injected but not control Ad-injected cases. The MK promoter-driven suicide gene therapy and -mediated replicative Ad can thereby produce cytotoxic effects to immortalized and tumour cells with minimal damage to normal cells.

  14. Piroxicam, indomethacin and aspirin action on a murine fibrosarcoma. Effects on tumour-associated and peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Valdéz, J C; Perdigón, G

    1991-01-01

    Growth of a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma in BALB/c mice was accompanied by an increase in the activation state of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM), as measured by their FcIgG receptor expression, phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase levels. All of these parameters were markedly higher in TAM than in peritoneal macrophages (PM) derived from the same animal. On the other hand, PM from tumour-bearing mice showed lower activation parameters than PM from normal animals. We also studied the effect on tumour development of three inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis: indomethacin, piroxicam and aspirin. Intraperitoneal administration of these drugs during 8 d was followed by the regression of palpable tumours. Indomethacin (90 mg/d) induced 45% regression, while with piroxicam (two 400 mg/d doses and six 200 mg/d doses) and aspirin (1 mg/d) 32% and 30% regressions, respectively, were observed. The growth rate of nonregressing tumours, which had reached different volumes by the end of the treatment, was delayed to a similar extent by the three anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs (NSAID). With respect to TAM, the treatment did not induce any significant change in their activation state, though both piroxicam and indomethacin increased slightly the TAM number. In contrast, NSAID administration was followed by a remarkable increase in the activation parameters of PM when compared with PM from tumour-bearing mice receiving no treatment. Indeed, these parameters were in some cases higher than those of PM from normal mice. The leukocytosis (60,000/microliters) with neutrophilia (80%) induced by tumour growth on peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was reversed by the treatment to values close to normal, in parallel with the reduction of tumour size. A drop in haematocrit was also noted which was most probably a consequence of tumour growth rather than of the treatment. This study reveals that the three NSAID tested have a remarkable antitumour activity, which

  15. Effect on tumour control of time interval between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy: an empirical approach using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Al-Dweri, Feras M O; Guirado, Damián; Lallena, Antonio M; Pedraza, Vicente

    2004-07-07

    In this work, a procedure, based on Monte Carlo techniques, to analyse the effect on the tumour control probability of the time interval between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy is presented. The approach includes the tumour growth as well as the survival of tumour cells undergoing fractionated radiotherapy. Both processes are described in terms of the binomial distribution. We have considered two different growth models, exponential and Gompertz, the parameters of which have been fixed to reproduce the clinical outcome corresponding to a retrospective study for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. In the cases analysed, we have not found significant differences between the results obtained for both growth models. The mean doubling times found for residual clonogens after surgery are less than 40 days. The rate of decrease in local control is around 0.09% per day of delay between surgery and radiotherapy and the corresponding time factor is about 0.11 Gy per day.

  16. Effect on tumour control of time interval between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy: an empirical approach using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dweri, Feras M. O.; Guirado, Damián; Lallena, Antonio M.; Pedraza, Vicente

    2004-07-01

    In this work, a procedure, based on Monte Carlo techniques, to analyse the effect on the tumour control probability of the time interval between surgery and postoperative radiotherapy is presented. The approach includes the tumour growth as well as the survival of tumour cells undergoing fractionated radiotherapy. Both processes are described in terms of the binomial distribution. We have considered two different growth models, exponential and Gompertz, the parameters of which have been fixed to reproduce the clinical outcome corresponding to a retrospective study for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. In the cases analysed, we have not found significant differences between the results obtained for both growth models. The mean doubling times found for residual clonogens after surgery are less than 40 days. The rate of decrease in local control is around 0.09% per day of delay between surgery and radiotherapy and the corresponding time factor is about 0.11 Gy per day.

  17. Tumour markers in diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Warnes, T W; Smith, A

    1987-01-01

    progression remains to be established. In monitoring the response of hepatic metastases, CEA remains the least unsatisfactory marker but should always be used in conjunction with serial ultrasound scans. Tumour markers now play an important role in the diagnosis and monitoring of PLC but a role is also emerging in tumour imaging and drug targeting. The next 20 years should see the introduction of tumour markers of high sensitivity and specificity which make a fundamental contribution not only to detection and monitoring, but also to the effective treatment of liver cancer.

  18. Effectiveness of 10-year vaccination (2001-2010) on Hepatitis A in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-lun; Zhu, Xiang-jun; Shan, Ai-lan; Gao, Zhi-gang; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Ya-xing; Liu, Hui; Wu, Wei-shen; Liu, Yong; He, Hai-yan; Xie, Xiao-hua; Xia, Wei-dong; Li, Chao; Xu, Wen-ti; Li, Zhi-yuan; Lin, Hua-liang; Fu, Wei-ming

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is an effective strategy to prevent and control the transmission of hepatitis A. Hepatitis A immunization program has been taken into effect since 2001 in Tianjin, China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of strategies in the prevention and control of hepatitis A. Data of serological survey, annual hepatitis A incidence, immunization coverage and the positive rate of hepatitis A IgG before and after the immunization program in residents under 15 years old were used to do the analysis. The results indicated that hepatitis A vaccine induced a striking decrease of hepatitis A incidence and a significant increase in the positive rate of anti-HAV IgG among the children younger than 15 years old. Hepatitis A vaccination in children was proved to be effective in the prevention and control of hepatitis A in Tianjin, China.

  19. Central effects of humanin on hepatic triglyceride secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhenwei; Su, Kai; Cui, Lingguang; Tas, Emir; Zhang, Ting; Dong, H. Henry; Yakar, Shoshana

    2015-01-01

    Humanin (HN) is an endogenous mitochondria-associated peptide that has been shown to protect against various Alzheimer's disease-associated insults, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and reactive oxygen species-induced cell death. We have shown previously that HN improves whole body glucose homeostasis by improving insulin sensitivity and increasing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the β-cells. Here, we report that intraperitoneal treatment with one of HN analogs, HNG, decreases body weight gain, visceral fat, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The decrease in hepatic TG accumulation is due to increased activity of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) and increased hepatic TG secretion. Both intravenous (iv) and intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of HNG acutely increase TG secretion from the liver. Vagotomy blocks the effect on both iv and icv HNG on TG secretion, suggesting that the effects of HNG on hepatic TG flux are centrally mediated. Our data suggest that HN is a new player in central regulation of peripheral lipid metabolism. PMID:26058861

  20. Tumour growth results in changes in placental amino acid transport in the rat: a tumour necrosis factor alpha-mediated effect.

    PubMed Central

    Carbó, N; López-Soriano, F J; Fiers, W; Argilés, J M

    1996-01-01

    The implantation of a fast growing tumour (Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma) to late pregnant rats resulted in no changes in fetal growth, this possibly being associated with an important increase in the fetal uptake of maternal-derived amino acids [Carbó, López-Soriano and Argilés (1995) Endocrinology 136, 3579-3584]. The present investigation was undertaken to see whether the presence of the tumour induced changes in placental transport systems. For alanine transport, although no changes in affinity (Km) were observed, tumour growth resulted in a 192% increase in Vmax in the Na(+)-independent component. Kinetic analysis of the Na(+)-dependent component resulted in two clearly different components: while the low-affinity and high-capacity component was unaffected by tumour growth, the high-affinity, low-capacity component of the tumour-bearing rats showed an important increase in Vmax. (78%). With regard to leucine transport, tumour burden induced important increases in the Na(+)-independent component, not only in Km (262%) but also in Vmax. (189%). Since elevated tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) concentrations have been reported in this kind of tumour model, we performed the same type of transport experiments in rats chronically treated with TNF, the results obtained showing great similarities with those observed with tumour growth. The Vmax. of Na(+)-independent alanine transport was also increased by the cytokine (104%) while no changes were observed in affinity. TNF treatment also induced an increase in the Vmax. (67%) of the Na(+)-dependent (high-affinity, low-capacity) component while no changes in affinity were observed. Concerning leucine kinetics, TNF treatment, as in the case of tumour growth, also increased Km (155%) and Vmax. (72%) associated with Na(+)-independent transport. Interestingly, treatment with the cytokine increased both the Km (43%) and Vmax. (64%) of the Na(+)-dependent component. The inhibition patterns suggest the existence of more

  1. Clinical features of gastroenteropancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Bączyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) endocrine tumours (carcinoids and pancreatic islet cell tumours) are composed of multipotent neuroendocrine cells that exhibit a unique ability to produce, store, and secrete biologically active substances and cause distinct clinical syndromes. The classification of GEP tumours as functioning or non-functioning is based on the presence of symptoms that accompany these syndromes secondary to the secretion of hormones, neuropeptides and/or neurotransmitters (functioning tumours). Non-functioning tumours are considered to be neoplasms of neuroendocrine differentiation that are not associated with obvious symptoms attributed to the hypersecretion of metabolically active substances. However, a number of these tumours are either capable of producing low levels of such substances, which can be detected by immunohistochemistry but are insufficient to cause symptoms related to a clinical syndrome, or alternatively, they may secrete substances that are either metabolically inactive or inappropriately processed. In some cases, GEP tumours are not associated with the production of any hormone or neurotransmitter. Both functioning and non-functioning tumours can also produce symptoms due to mass effects compressing vital surrounding structures. Gastroenteropancreatic tumours are usually classified further according to the anatomic site of origin: foregut (including respiratory tract, thymus, stomach, duodenum, and pancreas), midgut (including small intestine, appendix, and right colon), and hindgut (including transverse colon, sigmoid, and rectum). Within these subgroups the biological and clinical characteristics of the tumours vary considerably, but this classification is still in use because a significant number of previous studies, mainly observational, have used it extensively. PMID:26516377

  2. Evidence for anti-tumour effect of allogeneic haematopoietic SCT in cases without sustained donor engraftment.

    PubMed

    Daguindau, E; Lioure, B; Buzyn, A; Robin, M; Faucher, C; Kuentz, M; Tiberghien, P; Deconinck, E

    2010-01-01

    Remissions of haematological malignancies have been reported after allo-SCT, despite donor cell rejection, suggesting that sustained allogeneic engraftment is not mandatory to obtain a lasting anti-tumour effect. To evaluate the potential benefit from transient post-allo-SCT alloreactivity, we took advantage of the Société Française de Greffe de Moëlle et Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC) registry to colligate 14 patients with an efficient and long-lasting allogeneic (GVL) effect after allo-SCT for haematological malignancies, despite transient or absent engraftment. None received a second allogeneic graft after autologous recovery. The median duration of remission after autologous reconstitution was 118 (12-252) months. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that some patients were cured before allo-SCT, this retrospective analysis does strongly suggest that an efficient GVL effect can be observed without sustained donor engraftment, and that the transient presence of donor T cells might be sufficient to induce a powerful GVL effect.

  3. VEGF targets the tumour cell.

    PubMed

    Goel, Hira Lal; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2013-12-01

    The function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer is not limited to angiogenesis and vascular permeability. VEGF-mediated signalling occurs in tumour cells, and this signalling contributes to key aspects of tumorigenesis, including the function of cancer stem cells and tumour initiation. In addition to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, the neuropilins are crucial for mediating the effects of VEGF on tumour cells, primarily because of their ability to regulate the function and the trafficking of growth factor receptors and integrins. This has important implications for our understanding of tumour biology and for the development of more effective therapeutic approaches.

  4. The improving effects on hepatic fibrosis of interferon-γ liposomes targeted to hepatic stellate cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinghua; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Feng; Lu, Weiyue; Wang, Jiyao; Guo, Chuanyong

    2012-07-01

    No satisfactory anti-fibrotic therapies have yet been applied clinically. One of the main reasons is the inability to specifically target the responsible cells to produce an available drug concentration and the side-effects. Exploiting the key role of the activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in both hepatic fibrogenesis and over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), we constructed targeted sterically stable liposomes (SSLs) modified by a cyclic peptide (pPB) with affinity for the PDGFR-β to deliver interferon (IFN)-γ to HSCs. The pPB-SSL-IFN-γ showed satisfactory size distribution. In vitro pPB-SSL could be taken up by activated HSCs. The study of tissue distribution via living-body animal imaging showed that the pPB-SSL-IFN-γ mostly accumulated in the liver until 24 h. Furthermore, the pPB-SSL-IFN-γ showed more significant remission of hepatic fibrosis. In vivo the histological Ishak stage, the semiquantitative score for collagen in fibrotic liver and the serum levels of collagen type IV-C in fibrotic rats treated with pPB-SSL-IFN-γ were less than those treated with SSL-IFN-γ, IFN-γ and the control group. In vitro pPB-SSL-IFN-γ was also more effective in suppressing activated HSC proliferation and inducing apoptosis of activated HSCs. Thus the data suggest that pPB-SSL-IFN-γ might be a more effective anti-fibrotic agent and a new opportunity for clinical therapy of hepatic fibrosis.

  5. Targeting of liver tumour in rats by selective delivery of holmium-166 loaded microspheres: a biodistribution study.

    PubMed

    Nijsen, F; Rook, D; Brandt, C; Meijer, R; Dullens, H; Zonnenberg, B; de Klerk, J; van Rijk, P; Hennink, W; van het Schip, F

    2001-06-01

    Intra-arterial administration of beta-emitting particles that become trapped in the vascular bed of a tumour and remain there while delivering high doses, represents a unique approach in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumours. Studies on selective internal radiation therapy of colorectal liver metastases using yttrium-90 glass microspheres have shown encouraging results. This study describes the biodistribution of 40-microm poly lactic acid microspheres loaded with radioactive holmium-166, after intra-arterial administration into the hepatic artery of rats with implanted liver tumours. Radioactivity measurements showed >95% retention of injected activity in the liver and its resident tumour. The average activity detected in other tissues was < or =0.1%ID/g, with incidental exceptions in the lungs and stomach. Very little 166Ho activity was detected in kidneys (<0.1%ID/g), thereby indicating the stability of the microspheres in vivo. Tumour targeting was very effective, with a mean tumour to liver ratio of 6. 1+/-2.9 for rats with tumour (n=15) versus 0.7+/-0.5 for control rats (n=6; P<0.001). These ratios were not significantly affected by the use of adrenaline. Histological analysis showed that five times as many large (>10) and medium-sized (4-9) clusters of microspheres were present within tumour and peritumoural tissue, compared with normal liver. Single microspheres were equally dispersed throughout the tumour, as well as normal liver parenchyma.

  6. Light-oxygen effect in cells and its potential applications in tumour therapy (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, S D; Ivanov, Andrei V

    1999-12-31

    The light-oxygen effect (POE) represents damage (and at low optical doses, activation) of cells by photogeneration of molecular singlet oxygen from O{sub 2} dissolved in cells, in accordance with the reaction: {sup 3}O{sub 2}+h{nu}{yields}{sup 1}O{sub 2}{yields} biological effect. The phases of evolution of the LOE are similar to the phases, observed in cell experiments, of the photodynamic effect (PDE) the mechanism of which is the basis of the familiar method of photodynamic cancer therapy. The reported proofs of the occurrence of the LOE are in the form of detailed spectra of the biological action of optical radiation on cells recorded in four spectral intervals with the aid of tunable lasers. Allowances are made for the relationships governing a new type of cell excitation, associated with reversible structural transitions in the biomembrane. A demonstration is reported of the same efficiency of cw and pulsed irradiation. An analysis is made of the reasons why the optical doses initiating the PDE and the LOE are comparable. The results are given of the first experimental applications of the LOE in tumour therapy. Identification of the primary photoacceptor (O{sub 2}) in cell biostimulation and photodestruction provides a scientific basis for the development of low-intensity laser light-oxygen cancer therapy methods. (lasers in medicine)

  7. Effects of preset sequential administrations of sunitinib and everolimus on tumour differentiation in Caki-1 renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Santos, C D; Tijeras-Raballand, A; Serova, M; Sebbagh, S; Slimane, K; Faivre, S; de Gramont, A; Raymond, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sunitinib (VEGFR/PDGFR inhibitor) and everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) are both approved for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as first-line and second-line therapy, respectively. In the clinics, sunitinib treatment is limited by the emergence of acquired resistance, leading to a switch to second-line treatment at progression, often based on everolimus. No data have been yet generated on programmed alternating sequential strategies combining alternative use of sunitinib and everolimus before progression. Such strategy is expected to delay the emergence of acquired resistance and improve tumour control. The aim of our study was to assess the changes in tumours induced by three different sequences administration of sunitinib and everolimus. Methods: In human Caki-1 RCC xenograft model, sunitinib was alternated with everolimus every week, every 2 weeks, or every 3 weeks. Effects on necrosis, hypoxia, angiogenesis, and EMT status were assessed by immunohisochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: Sunitinib and everolimus programmed sequential regimens before progression yielded longer median time to tumour progression than sunitinib and everolimus monotherapies. In each group of treatment, tumour growth control was associated with inhibition of mTOR pathway and changes from a mesenchymal towards an epithelial phenotype, with a decrease in vimentin and an increase in E-cadherin expression. The sequential combinations of these two agents in a RCC mouse clinical trial induced antiangiogenic effects, leading to tumour necrosis. Conclusions: In summary, our study showed that alternate sequence of sunitinib and everolimus mitigated the development of mesenchymal phenotype compared with sunitinib as single agent. PMID:25422908

  8. Tumour angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, F.

    1985-01-01

    Tumours induce the growth of host blood vessels to support their proliferation. This process of angiogenesis is evoked by specific chemical signals. Recognition of these angiogenic factors has led to experimental methods for cancer diagnosis and for inhibiting malignant growth by specifically blocking neovascularisation. The clinical potential of these techniques is discussed. PMID:2413796

  9. Oral Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21253197

  10. Therapeutic effect of interleukin 12 on mouse haemangiosarcomas is not associated with an increased anti-tumour cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity.

    PubMed Central

    Vizler, C.; Rosato, A.; Calderazzo, F.; Quintieri, L.; Fruscella, P.; Wainstok de Calmanovici, R.; Mantovani, A.; Vecchi, A.; Zanovello, P.; Collavo, D.

    1998-01-01

    In syngeneic mice, the H5V polyoma middle-T oncogene-transformed endothelioma cell line induces Kaposi's sarcoma-like cavernous haemangiomas that regress transiently, probably because of an anti-tumour immune response, but eventually grow progressively and kill the host. To evaluate the generation of tumour-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), spleen cells of tumour-bearing mice were restimulated with irradiated H5V cells in mixed leucocyte-tumour cell cultures. Tumour-specific CTLs were demonstrable only when low numbers of H5V stimulator cells were used (<1 H5V cell per 50 splenocytes). We found that H5V cells secrete immunosuppressive mediators because CTL generation was blocked when H5V cells culture supernatants were added to allogeneic mixed leucocyte cultures. As numerous tumour-derived immunosuppressive mediators may interfere with interleukin 12 (IL-12) production, we tested whether IL-12 treatment of the tumour-bearing mice would augment their immune response and thus suppress tumour growth. Indeed, IL-12 inhibited tumour growth and prevented mortality, but did not increase anti-H5V CTL generation either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, the anti-tumour activity in IL-12-treated mice was abrogated by anti-interferon (IFN)-gamma monoclonal antibody (MAb) co-administration. These results strongly suggest that the anti-tumour effect of IL-12 is principally mediated by IFN-gamma release that in turn blocks H5V cell proliferation and induces the release of factors that suppress angiogenesis. PMID:9484826

  11. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity enhances the anti-tumour effects of a Toll-like receptor 7 agonist in an established cancer model.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Saito, Kuniaki; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2015-04-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been shown to have anti-tumour activity in basic research and clinical studies. However, TLR agonist monotherapy does not sufficiently eliminate tumours. Activation of the innate immune response by TLR agonists is effective at driving adaptive immunity via interleukin-12 (IL-12) or IL-1, but is counteracted by the simultaneous induction of immunosuppressive cytokines and other molecules, including IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). In the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect of the TLR7 agonist, imiquimod (IMQ), in the absence of IDO activity. The administration of IMQ in IDO knockout (KO) mice inoculated with tumour cells significantly suppressed tumour progression compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice, and improved the survival rate. Moreover, injection with IMQ enhanced the tumour antigen-specific T helper type 1 response in IDO-KO mice with tumours. Combination therapy with IMQ and an IDO inhibitor also significantly inhibited tumour growth. Our results indicated that the enhancement of IDO expression with TLR agonists in cancer treatment might impair host anti-tumour immunity while the inhibition of IDO could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of TLR agonists via the increase of T helper type 1 immune response.

  12. Effects of He-Ne laser acupuncture-point irradiation on serology hepatitis virus markers in chronic hepatitis B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue-lan; Huang, Bing-chen; Ni, Liu-da

    1993-03-01

    For most of the patients with chronic hepatitis B the immunologic function is deficient. Immunopotentiation and immunoregulation can be used as effective treatments. Laser irradiation can potentiate the cellular immune function of the human body and has good effects on improving clinical symptoms, cutting short the process of diseases, and promoting HBsAg negative change. Thereby we have a randomized opportunity to study the effect of He-Ne laser acupoint irradiation on serological HBV markers (HBVM) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB).

  13. [Abdominal tomometry. Application to study of the liver. Experimental study, initial clinical results and perspectives in the exploration of tumour pathology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lamarque, J L; Bruel, J M; Dondelinger, R; Sénac, J P; Rabischong, P; Bonnel, F; Laval-Jeantet, M; Laval-Jeantet, A M

    1977-04-01

    Over a period of two months, 120 patients were studied using an Acta-Scanner tomometer for various hepatic disorders. In parallel, comparative tomometric and pathological studies were carried out in cadavers and isolated livers. These made possible the recognition of normal structures in tomometry and the identification of certain hepatic images which might be potential sources of error. Serial axial transverse sections were used to reconstruct the volume of the liver in space, thus making in possible to eliminate certain forms of pseudo-tumoural hepatomegaly. Systematic densitometric analysis was made by radiological anatomical study and in hepatic pathology. This new type of analysis led to a quantified diagnosis of certain diffuse hepatic diseases and a histological approach to tumour lesions. Hepatography using liposoluble agents in very low dosage was used in hepatic tomometry after animal experimentation. The method, free of untoward effects, makes possible the diagnosis of hepato-splenic tumor lesions less than one centimetre in diameter.

  14. Anti‐inflammatory effects of infliximab in mice are independent of tumour necrosis factor α neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Assas, B. M.; Levison, S. E.; Little, M.; England, H.; Battrick, L.; Bagnall, J.; McLaughlin, J. T.; Paszek, P.; Else, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Infliximab (IFX) has been used repeatedly in mouse preclinical models with associated claims that anti‐inflammatory effects are due to inhibition of mouse tumour necrosis factor (TNF)‐α. However, the mechanism of action in mice remains unclear. In this study, the binding specificity of IFX for mouse TNF‐α was investigated ex vivo using enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry and Western blot. Infliximab (IFX) did not bind directly to soluble or membrane‐bound mouse TNF‐α nor did it have any effect on TNF‐α‐induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF‐κB) stimulation in mouse fibroblasts. The efficacy of IFX treatment was then investigated in vivo using a TNF‐α‐independent Trichuris muris‐induced infection model of chronic colitis. Infection provoked severe transmural colonic inflammation by day 35 post‐infection. Colonic pathology, macrophage phenotype and cell death were determined. As predicted from the in‐vitro data, in‐vivo treatment of T. muris‐infected mice with IFX had no effect on clinical outcome, nor did it affect macrophage cell phenotype or number. IFX enhanced apoptosis of colonic immune cells significantly, likely to be driven by a direct effect of the humanized antibody itself. We have demonstrated that although IFX does not bind directly to TNF‐α, observed anti‐inflammatory effects in other mouse models may be through host cell apoptosis. We suggest that more careful consideration of xenogeneic responses should be made when utilizing IFX in preclinical models. PMID:27669117

  15. Microencapsulation of human cells: its effects on growth of normal and tumour cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, S. M.; Hopwood, D.; Newman, E. L.; Cuschieri, A.

    1991-01-01

    The growth kinetics of established human colorectal tumour cell lines (HT29, HT115 and COLO 320DM) and human diploid fibroblasts (Flow 2002) were studied in conventional culture and in microcapsules formed from alginate-poly(L-lysine)-alginate membranes. The tumour lines grew rapidly in microcapsules but, in the case of the substrate-adherent lines HT29 and HT115, only after a prolonged lag phase. This phase was reduced by serial passage in microcapsules. The anchorage-independent line COLO 320DM showed no lengthening in lag phase. Microencapsulated fibroblasts underwent negligible growth but remained viable. Some evidence for functional differentiation (microvilli, cell-cell junctions) of the tumour line HT115 within the microcapsules was observed. We conclude that the use of microcapsules provides an alternative system with some advantages for the study of human cancer and its metastases in vitro. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:2039691

  16. The effect of silymarin on hepatic regeneration after partial hepatectomy: is silymarin effective in hepatic regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Cetinkunar, Suleyman; Tokgoz, Serhat; Bilgin, Bulent Caglar; Erdem, Hasan; Aktimur, Recep; Can, Serpil; Erol, Huseyin Serkan; Isgoren, Atilla; Sozen, Selim; Polat, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Silymarin from Silybum marianum was found to reduce liver injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of silymarin on hepatic regeneration in partially hepatectomized rats. Methods: Thirty Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 animals as sham, control and experimental groups. In the sham group (n=10) abdominal incision was closed after laparotomy. In the control group (n=10), the rats underwent 70% hepatectomy after laparotomy. In the experimental group (n=10) after partial 70% hepatectomy, silymarin (200 mg/kg/d) were given to rats for 10 days. Rats in three groups were sacrificed on 10 days. Aspartate (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), ALP, LDH and total bilirubin levels were measured using intracardiac blood samples. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and tissue glutathion (GSH) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. To reveal the increase in the mass of the remnant liver tissue in the control and experimental groups relative weight of the liver was calculated. Histopathological analysis of the liver was performed using a semi-quantitative scoring system. Results: A statistically significant difference among three groups was not shown for AST and ALT levels. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups as for total bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Increases in relative liver weights were seen with time in Groups 2 and 3. A statistically significant difference was not found for tissue malondialdehyde, Glutathion and Superoxide dismutase levels between hepatectomy and hepatectomy + silymarin groups. On liver tissue sections of the rats in the hepatectomy + silymarin group, increased regeneration and lipid peroxidation were observed accompanied by decreased antioxidant response. Conclusion: It has been observed that silymarin with many established functions such as antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and energy antioxidant effects, does

  17. Improvement effect on the depth-dose distribution by CSF drainage and air infusion of a tumour-removed cavity in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Maruhashi, Akira

    2006-03-07

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without craniotomy for malignant brain tumours was started using an epi-thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor in June 2002. We have tried some techniques to overcome the treatable-depth limit in BNCT. One of the effective techniques is void formation utilizing a tumour-removed cavity. The tumorous part is removed by craniotomy about 1 week before a BNCT treatment in our protocol. Just before the BNCT irradiation, the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the tumour-removed cavity is drained out, air is infused to the cavity and then the void is made. This void improves the neutron penetration, and the thermal neutron flux at depth increases. The phantom experiments and survey simulations modelling the CSF drainage and air infusion of the tumour-removed cavity were performed for the size and shape of the void. The advantage of the CSF drainage and air infusion is confirmed for the improvement in the depth-dose distribution. From the parametric surveys, it was confirmed that the cavity volume had good correlation with the improvement effect, and the larger effect was expected as the cavity volume was larger.

  18. Improvement effect on the depth-dose distribution by CSF drainage and air infusion of a tumour-removed cavity in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Maruhashi, Akira

    2006-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without craniotomy for malignant brain tumours was started using an epi-thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor in June 2002. We have tried some techniques to overcome the treatable-depth limit in BNCT. One of the effective techniques is void formation utilizing a tumour-removed cavity. The tumorous part is removed by craniotomy about 1 week before a BNCT treatment in our protocol. Just before the BNCT irradiation, the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the tumour-removed cavity is drained out, air is infused to the cavity and then the void is made. This void improves the neutron penetration, and the thermal neutron flux at depth increases. The phantom experiments and survey simulations modelling the CSF drainage and air infusion of the tumour-removed cavity were performed for the size and shape of the void. The advantage of the CSF drainage and air infusion is confirmed for the improvement in the depth-dose distribution. From the parametric surveys, it was confirmed that the cavity volume had good correlation with the improvement effect, and the larger effect was expected as the cavity volume was larger.

  19. Effect of native and modified bull seminal ribonuclease on tumour and testicular cells and phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated pig lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Matousek, J; Stanĕk, R; Dostál, J; Mácha, J

    1979-01-01

    The carboxymethylated, oxidized and reduced forms of AS RNase inhibited transplantability and DNA synthesis of tumour cells BP-8 and EL-4 incubated in vitro. With tumour cells EL-4 the results under in vitro conditions did not not correspond to those obtained under the conditions in vivo. The survival of mice given injections of EL-4 cells and of the native and carboxymethylated AS RNase was only slightly prolonged. Mice that received intra-abdominally BP-8 cells and both carboxymethylated and oxidized and reduced forms of AS RNase survived two or three times longer than the controls. Succinylation and maleylation of AS RNase eliminated any antitumoral effect. Aspermatogenic activity of AS RNase was abolished by any modification of the molecule which had substantially reduced, or removed, the RNase activity. Neither native nor modified forms of AS RNase had an inhibitory effect on unstimulated pig lymphocytes. The DNA synthesis of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes was inhibited by the native and carboxymethylated AS RNase only. Bovine pancreatic A RNase had any inhibitory effect on neither tumour nor testicular cells.

  20. Effective Downsizing of a Large Oesophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour with Neoadjuvant Imatinib Enabling an Uncomplicated and without Tumour Rupture Laparoscopic-Assisted Ivor-Lewis Oesophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Costa Neves, Mafalda; Giakoustidis, Alexandros; Benson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant imatinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) is increasingly used nowadays. As oesophagectomy is associated with high morbidity and mortality, a preoperative downsizing of an oesophageal GIST to limit the extent of resection would be ideal. Because these tumours are rare and neoadjuvant treatment with imatinib is recent, there is limited literature available regarding neoadjuvant administration of imatinib in patients with oesophageal GISTs. A 50-year-old woman presented with total dysphagia. An upper endoscopy and biopsy revealed a large submucosal KIT-positive GIST obstructing the mid oesophagus. CT confirmed a lesion measuring 99 mm × 50 mm × 104 mm. Because the size and location of the tumour increased the risk of intraoperative rupture, it was decided to administer preoperative imatinib. The patient had an excellent clinical and radiological response. Her dysphagia gradually resolved and the follow-up CT scans of the first 10 months showed a gradually reducing tumour size to 54 mm × 33 mm × 42 mm. The patient underwent an uneventful laparoscopic-assisted Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy. Postoperatively, the patient continued with adjuvant imatinib. At the last follow-up, 1 year from operation and 38 months from the diagnosis, the patient is disease free. PMID:26075122

  1. Effective Downsizing of a Large Oesophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour with Neoadjuvant Imatinib Enabling an Uncomplicated and without Tumour Rupture Laparoscopic-Assisted Ivor-Lewis Oesophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Neofytou, Kyriakos; Costa Neves, Mafalda; Giakoustidis, Alexandros; Benson, Charlotte; Mudan, Satvinder

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant imatinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) is increasingly used nowadays. As oesophagectomy is associated with high morbidity and mortality, a preoperative downsizing of an oesophageal GIST to limit the extent of resection would be ideal. Because these tumours are rare and neoadjuvant treatment with imatinib is recent, there is limited literature available regarding neoadjuvant administration of imatinib in patients with oesophageal GISTs. A 50-year-old woman presented with total dysphagia. An upper endoscopy and biopsy revealed a large submucosal KIT-positive GIST obstructing the mid oesophagus. CT confirmed a lesion measuring 99 mm × 50 mm × 104 mm. Because the size and location of the tumour increased the risk of intraoperative rupture, it was decided to administer preoperative imatinib. The patient had an excellent clinical and radiological response. Her dysphagia gradually resolved and the follow-up CT scans of the first 10 months showed a gradually reducing tumour size to 54 mm × 33 mm × 42 mm. The patient underwent an uneventful laparoscopic-assisted Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy. Postoperatively, the patient continued with adjuvant imatinib. At the last follow-up, 1 year from operation and 38 months from the diagnosis, the patient is disease free.

  2. Expanding the prion concept to cancer biology: dominant-negative effect of aggregates of mutant p53 tumour suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jerson L.; Rangel, Luciana P.; Costa, Danielly C. F.; Cordeiro, Yraima; De Moura Gallo, Claudia V.

    2013-01-01

    p53 is a key protein that participates in cell-cycle control, and its malfunction can lead to cancer. This tumour suppressor protein has three main domains; the N-terminal transactivation domain, the CTD (C-terminal domain) and the core domain (p53C) that constitutes the sequence-specific DBD (DNA-binding region). Most p53 mutations related to cancer development are found in the DBD. Aggregation of p53 into amyloid oligomers and fibrils has been shown. Moreover, amyloid aggregates of both the mutant and WT (wild-type) forms of p53 were detected in tumour tissues. We propose that if p53 aggregation occurred, it would be a crucial aspect of cancer development, as p53 would lose its WT functions in an aggregated state. Mutant p53 can also exert a dominant-negative regulatory effect on WT p53. Herein, we discuss the dominant-negative effect in light of p53 aggregation and the fact that amyloid-like mutant p53 can convert WT p53 into more aggregated species, leading into gain of function in addition to the loss of tumour suppressor function. In summary, the results obtained in the last decade indicate that cancer may have characteristics in common with amyloidogenic and prion diseases. PMID:24003888

  3. Engineering Salmonella as intracellular factory for effective killing of tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Eva María; Mesa-Pereira, Beatriz; Medina, Carlos; Flores, Amando; Santero, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella have many desirable properties as antitumour-agent due to its ability to proliferate inside tumours and induce tumour regression. Additionally, this bacterium can be genetically engineered to deliver therapeutic proteins intratumourally. The main limitation of this approach is the efficient release of therapeutic molecules from intratumoural bacteria. Here we have developed an inducible autolysis system based in the lysis operon of the lambda phage that, in response to anhydrotetracycline, lysates Salmonella thus releasing its content. The system was combined with a salicylate cascade system that allows efficient production of therapeutic molecules in response to aspirin and with a sifA mutation that liberates bacteria from the vacuoles to a cytosolic location. The combination of these three elements makes this strain a putative powerful instrument in cancer treatment. We have used this engineered strain for the intracellular production and delivery of Cp53 peptide. The engineered strain is able to sequentially produce and release the cytotoxic peptide while proliferating inside tumour cells, thus inducing host cell death. Our results show that temporal separation of protein production from protein release is essential to efficiently kill tumour cells. The combined system is a further step in the engineering of more efficient bacteria for cancer therapy. PMID:27464652

  4. Analysis of cost-effectiveness of different strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma screening in hepatitis B virus carriers.

    PubMed

    Kang, J Y; Lee, T P; Yap, I; Lun, K C

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to calculate the efficacy of screening to detect hepatocellular carcinoma at a resectable stage in hepatitis B virus carriers. Data relating to tumour incidence, efficacy of screening tests and tumour growth times were obtained from a literature review. Various tests were costed according to charges currently prevailing at the authors' institution. The cost per early tumour detected is inversely proportional to tumour incidence. It is relatively low for populations with high incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma for example, male carriers over the age of 30. Both the costs and the proportions of early tumour detected increase with increasing frequency of screening. However, the use of ultrasonography at 10 monthly intervals or both ultrasonography and alpha-fetoprotein estimation at yearly intervals will detect 90% of tumours early at a cost of S$20,000 (US$11,800) per early tumour detected. The results would be significantly altered if tumour growth times were markedly different from those reported in the literature.

  5. Effects of biliary obstruction on hepatic clearance of bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.O.; Wilton, P.B.; Barke, R.A.; Gerding, D.N.; Forstrom, L.A.; Shafer, R.B.; Vennes, J.A. )

    1989-08-01

    High surgical mortality in patients with obstructive jaundice and sepsis have been attributed to reticuloendothelial system (RES) depression. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of mechanical biliary obstruction on RES clearance of pathogenic bacteria by comparing the phagocytic index (K) with the directly measured hepatic uptake of indium 111-labeled bacteria injected into the portal vein of normal dogs and dogs with partial (PBO) or complete biliary obstruction (CBO). No significant difference was observed between the K in normal dogs (0.19 +/- 0.08; n = 6) and that in dogs with PBO (0.24 +/- 0.06; n = 5) or CBO (0.21 +/- 0.03; n = 4). There was no significant difference in uptake of radiolabel by the liver among the three groups of dogs. In our model, biliary obstruction had no effect on hepatic RES function and may not represent a significant determinant of mortality in patients with obstructive jaundice.

  6. Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chuanfang; Gong, Yan; Brok, Jesper; Boxall, Elizabeth H; Gluud, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Data sources Electronic databases and hand searches. Review methods Randomised clinical trials were assessed for methodological quality. Meta-analysis was undertaken on three outcomes: the relative risks of hepatitis B occurrence, antibody levels to hepatitis B surface antigen, and adverse events. Results 29 randomised clinical trials were identified, five of which were considered high quality. Only three trials reported inclusion of mothers negative for hepatitis B e antigen. Compared with placebo or no intervention, vaccination reduced the occurrence of hepatitis B (relative risk 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.40; four trials). No significant difference in hepatitis B occurrence was found between recombinant vaccine and plasma derived vaccine (1.00, 0.71 to 1.42; four trials) and between high dose versus low dose vaccine (plasma derived vaccine 0.97, 0.55 to 1.68, three trials; recombinant vaccine 0.78, 0.31 to 1.94, one trial). Compared with placebo or no intervention, hepatitis B immunoglobulin or the combination of plasma derived vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin reduced hepatitis B occurrence (immunoglobulin 0.50, 0.41 to 0.60, one trial; vaccine and immunoglobulin 0.08, 0.03 to 0.17, three trials). Compared with vaccine alone, vaccine plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin reduced hepatitis B occurrence (0.54, 0.41 to 0.73; 10 trials). Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin seem safe, but few trials reported adverse events. Conclusion Hepatitis B vaccine, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, and vaccine plus immunoglobulin prevent hepatitis B occurrence in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. PMID:16443611

  7. Effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 on growth-regulatory genes in tumour-derived human oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, I. C.; Patel, V.; Sandy, J. R.; Prime, S. S.; Yeudall, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effect of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1) on c-myc, RB1, junB and p53 expression together with pRb phosphorylation, in carcinoma-derived and normal human oral keratinocytes with a range of inhibitory responses to this ligand. Amplification of c-myc was observed in eight of eight tumour-derived cell lines and resulted in corresponding mRNA expression. The down-regulation of c-myc expression by TGF-beta 1 predominantly reflected growth inhibition by TGF-beta 1, but in two of eight tumour-derived cell lines which were partially responsive to TGF-beta 1 c-myc expression was unaltered by this ligand. While RB1 mRNA levels were unaltered by TGF-beta 1, the ligand caused the accumulation of the underphosphorylated form of the Rb protein in all cells irrespective of TGF-beta 1-induced growth arrest. junB expression was up-regulated by TGF-beta 1 in cells with a range of growth inhibitory responses. All cells contained mutant p53. TGF-beta 1 did not affect p53 mRNA expression in both tumour-derived and normal keratinocytes and there was no alteration in p53 protein levels in keratinocytes expressing stable p53 protein following TGF-beta 1 treatment. The data indicate that TGF-beta-induced growth control can exist independently of the presence of mutant p53 and the control of Rb phosphorylation and c-myc down-regulation. It may be that TGF-beta growth inhibition occurs via multiple mechanisms and that the loss of one pathway during tumour progression does not necessarily result in the abrogation of TGF-beta-induced growth control. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7547241

  8. Pro- and anti-tumour effects of B cells and antibodies in cancer: a comparison of clinical studies and preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Guy, Thomas V; Terry, Alexandra M; Bolton, Holly A; Hancock, David G; Shklovskaya, Elena; Fazekas de St. Groth, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    The primary immune role of B cells is to produce antibodies, but they can also influence T cell function via antigen presentation and, in some contexts, immune regulation. Whether their roles in tumour immunity are similar to those in other chronic immune responses such as autoimmunity and chronic infection, where both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles have been described, remains controversial. Many studies have aimed to define the role of B cells in antitumor immune responses, but despite this considerable body of work, it is not yet possible to predict how they will affect immunity to any given tumour. In many human cancers, the presence of tumour-infiltrating B cells and tumour-reactive antibodies correlates with extended patient survival, and this clinical observation is supported by data from some animal models. On the other hand, T cell responses can be adversely affected by B cell production of immunoregulatory cytokines, a phenomenon that has been demonstrated in humans and in animal models. The isotype and concentration of tumour-reactive antibodies may also influence tumour progression. Recruitment of B cells into tumours may directly reflect the subtype and strength of the anti-tumour T cell response. As the response becomes chronic, B cells may attenuate T cell responses in an attempt to decrease host damage, similar to their described role in chronic infection and autoimmunity. Understanding how B cell responses in cancer are related to the effectiveness of the overall anti-tumour response is likely to aid in the development of new therapeutic interventions against cancer.

  9. The effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Steger, G. G.; Kaboo, R.; deKernion, J. B.; Figlin, R.; Belldegrun, A.

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can induce specific and non-specific anti-tumour cytotoxicity and also stimulates the proliferation and function of peripheral lymphocytes and thymocytes. GM-CSF and interleukin 2 (IL-2) act synergistically on peripheral lymphocytes for the induction of a highly effective cytotoxic cell population. Thus, the goal of our investigation was to study the effects of GM-CSF upon expansion, proliferation and in vitro killing activity of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). TILs from seven consecutive tumours were cultured with GM-CSF (500 or 1000 nmol ml-1) without IL-2 supplementation, with suboptimal doses of IL-2 (8 and 40 U ml-1) plus GM-CSF (1000 nmol ml-1), and with a dose of IL-2 (400 U ml-1) which sufficed alone to induce TIL development plus GM-CSF (500 or 1000 nmol ml-1). GM-CSF alone or together with suboptimal doses of IL-2 was not able to induce or facilitate TIL development in these cultures. When GM-CSF at both concentrations studied was added to optimal doses of IL-2 the resulting TIL populations proliferated significantly better and faster (+66%), resulting in a higher cell yield (+24%) at the time of maximal expansion of the TIL cultures. The length of the culture periods of TILs was not affected by GM-CSF when compared with the control cultures supplemented with IL-2 alone. In vitro killing activity of TIL populations stimulated with IL-2 and GM-CSF remained unspecific, but lysis of the autologous tumour targets as well as the allogeneic renal tumour targets was significantly enhanced (+138%) as compared with the corresponding control TILs stimulated with IL-2 alone. Lysis of the natural killer (NK)-sensitive control cell line K562 and the NK-resistant Daudi cell line remained unchanged even though FACS analysis of TILs cultured with IL-2 and 1000 nmol of GM-CSF demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of cells expressing the CD56

  10. Effect of acute smoke exposure on hepatic protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Garrett, R J; Jackson, M A

    1979-05-01

    In vivo hepatic protein synthesis was monitored in female rats under control and smoke-exposed conditions. During the 15 min period after i.v. administration of [3H]proline protein synthesis was 206 +/- 35 nmol of proline per mg of DNA for sham-control animals. When animals were subjected to acute exposure to cigarette smoke, protein synthesis was inhibited and the extent of inhibition was positively correlated with the dosage of smoke (32%, 15 puffs; 66%, 60 puffs). The inhibitory effect of whole smoke on protein synthesis was unaltered by passing the smoke through either charcoal or cambridge filters. Carbon monoxide in smoke is not removed by either type of filter. At a level comparable to that in cigarette smoke carbon monoxide depressed hepatic protein synthesis to the same extent as did whole or filtered smoke.

  11. Immune stimulatory and anti-tumour properties of haemin.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, A; Wang, J; Stenzel, K H; Novogrodsky, A

    1993-01-01

    IL-2 induces tumour regression in some patients with metastatic disease, but the dose of IL-2 is limited by severe toxicity. Agents that increase the expression of IL-2 receptors in the effector cells could be used to improve the effectiveness of IL-2 in mediating its anti-tumour effect. We have reported that haemin increased the expression of IL-2 receptors in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and synergized with IL-2 in the induction of mitogenicity, cytotoxicity and cytokine production. We now report on haemin-induced immune stimulation and tumour regression in mice. Haemin-induced mitogenicity in mouse splenocytes was potentiated up to two-fold by IL-2. The combination of haemin and IL-2 was also effective in inducing cytotoxicity for natural killer (NK)-resistant target cells. Maximal induction of cytotoxicity was attained at an optimal concentration of haemin of 10 microM. Higher concentrations were less effective. Splenocytes isolated from mice that had been treated in vivo with haemin and IL-2 incorporated twice the amount of 3H-thymidine compared with splenocytes from mice treated with either haemin or IL-2 alone. Cytotoxicity of splenocytes for NK-resistant target cells was not increased following in vivo administration of haemin and IL-2 when fresh splenocytes were tested. Cytotoxicity was enhanced, however, up to five-fold following 48 h in vitro incubation with IL-2. Administration of haemin and IL-2 resulted in a significant decrease (40%) of established hepatic metastases in mice. Either IL-2 or haemin alone at the dose used were ineffective. The anti-tumour effect of haemin and IL-2 was enhanced (63% decrease in metastases) by administration of the thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine. Since haemin can safely be administered to patients, it may represent a new class of biologic response modifiers that could enhance IL-2-mediated anti-tumour effects. PMID:8370158

  12. The effect of PLC-γ2 inhibitors on the growth of human tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Linda; Reynisdóttir, Inga; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2012-08-01

    The phosphoinositide specific-phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ1 and 2) enzymes are plausible anticancer targets implicated in cell motility important to invasion and dissemination of tumour cells. A host of known PLC-γ2 inhibitors were tested against the NCI60 panel of human tumour cell lines as well as their commercially available structural derivatives. A class of thieno[2,3-b]pyridines showed excellent growth arrest with derivative 3 giving GI(50) = 58 nM for the melanoma MDA-MB-435 cell line. The PLC-γ2 is uniquely expressed in haematopoietic cells and the leukaemia tumour cell lines were growth restricted on average GI(50) = 275 nM by derivative 3 indicating a specific interaction with this isoform. Furthermore, a moderate growth inhibition was found for compound classes of indoles and 1H-pyrazoles. It is likely that the active compounds do not only inhibit the PLC-γ2 isoform but other PLCs as well due to their conserved binding site. The compounds tested were identified by applying the tools of chemoinformatics, which supports the use of in silico methods in drug design.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Heneghan, Michael A; Al-Chalabi, Thawab; McFarlane, Ian G

    2006-02-01

    In > 80% of patients with autoimmune hepatitis, steroid therapy alone or in combination with azathioprine results in disease remission. Treatment response results in reversal of fibrosis and excellent long-term survival in many patients, whereas untreated patients may expect a 10-year survival of < 30%. The use of azathioprine monotherapy (2 mg/kg/day) has gained widespread acceptance in maintaining remission in clinical practice. Although all patients with autoimmune hepatitis may not need treatment, particularly those with mild disease, alternative strategies are required in patients who have failed to achieve remission on standard therapy of steroids with or without azathioprine, or patients with azathioprine-induced drug toxicity. In such circumstances, the use of salvage therapy in the form of ciclosporin, tacrolimus or mycophenolate mofetil may be warranted. Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients who present with subacute liver failure or decompensated cirrhosis. Salvage therapy results in an exponential rise in cost with each increment in therapeutic escalation. As an alternative to standard therapy, it has also been suggested that novel therapies such as ciclosporin, tacrolimus or mycophenolate mofetil be initiated to achieve remission. However, a > 10-fold cost differential exists between the charges associated with more potent immunosuppression and standard therapy. Therefore, in evaluating novel immunosuppression in autoimmune hepatitis, it behoves clinicians not only to consider end points pertaining to efficacy, but also end points pertaining to cost-effectiveness. Moreover, the exact role of pharmacogenomics and genotyping of thiopurine methyltransferase in patients with autoimmune hepatitis needs to be fully defined.

  14. Enhanced oral bioavailability and anti-tumour effect of paclitaxel by 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei-Qiong; Wang, Bin; Gan, Hui; Fu, Shou-Ting; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Wu, Zhuo-Na; Zhan, Da-Wei; Gu, Ruo-Lan; Dou, Gui-Fang; Meng, Zhi-Yun

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of paclitaxel in combination with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 on its anti-tumour effect in nude mice. In the Caco-2 transport assay, the apparent permeability from the apical side to the basal side (P(app)) (A-B) and P(app) (B-A) of paclitaxel were measured when co-incubated with different concentrations of 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3. The results indicated that the penetration of paclitaxel through the Caco-2 monolayer from the apical side to the basal side was facilitated by 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 inhibited P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and the maximum inhibition was achieved at 80 µM (p < 0.05). The pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel after oral co-administration of paclitaxel (40 mg/kg) with various doses of 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 in rats were investigated by an in vivo pharmacokinetic experiment. The results showed that the AUC of paclitaxel co-administered with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 was significantly higher (p < 0.001 at 10 mg/kg) compared with the control. The relative bioavailability (RB) % of paclitaxel with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 was 3.4-fold (10 mg/kg) higher than that of the control. The effect of paclitaxel orally co-administered with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 against human tumour MCF-7 xenografts in nude mice was also evaluated. Paclitaxel (20 mg/kg) co-administered with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 (10 mg/kg) exhibited an effective anti-tumour activity with the relative tumor growth rate (T/C) values of 39.36% (p <0.05). The results showed that 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 enhanced the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel in rats and improved the anti-tumour activity in nude mice, indicating that oral co-administration of paclitaxel with 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 could provide an effective strategy in addition to the established i.v. route.

  15. The effects of fluoride on cell migration, cell proliferation, and cell metabolism in GH4C1 pituitary tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Schulz, A; Solano-Agama, C; Arreola-Mendoza, L; Reyes-Márquez, B; Barbier, O; Del Razo, L M; Mendoza-Garrido, M E

    2009-10-28

    The consumption of drinking water rich in fluoride has toxic effects on the central nervous system. In cell biology research, fluoride is currently used as a phosphatase inhibitor. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on different physiological processes in GH4C1 pituitary tumour cells. We used a range of different fluoride concentrations, from levels below normal human serum concentrations (0.23 and 1.2 micromol/L) to those observed in chronically exposed persons (10.7 micromol/L) and above (107 and 1072 micromol/L). Treatment of 10.7 micromol/L fluoride resulted in a discrete induction of DNA synthesis, without a change in cell number. Cell migration, a behaviour stimulated by growth factors, was increased in cells treated with 2.4 micromol/L. At this fluoride concentration, changes in phosphorylation status of both cytoskeletal and cytosolic protein fractions, as well as in actin cytoskeletal arrangements were observed. The GH4C1 fluoride treated cells had significantly less cellular protein than control cells, suggesting an effect of fluoride on hormone secretion and protein synthesis in this endocrine cell. The bioreduction of MTT was significantly increased with a wide range of fluoride concentrations. With the highest fluoride concentration, 1072 micromol/L, all of the analysed parameters were significantly reduced, suggesting that this dose is highly toxic in GH4C1 cells. Our results show that biologically relevant concentrations of fluoride are capable of increasing cell migration in tumour cells, suggesting that exposure to fluoride could stimulate tumour invasion.

  16. Resistance to tumour challenge after tumour laser thermotherapy is associated with a cellular immune response

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, K; Myllymäki, L; Jansner, K; Stenram, U; Tranberg, K-G

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILT) of an experimental liver tumour is superior to surgical excision, at least partly due to a laser-induced immunological effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the time–response relationship of the ILT-induced immunisation and the cellular response of macrophages and lymphocytes. A dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinoma was transplanted into the liver of syngeneic rats. Rats with tumour were treated 6–8 days later (tumour size 0.25–0.40 cm3) with ILT of tumour or resection of the tumour-bearing lobe. Two groups of rats without tumour were treated with resection of a normal liver lobe or ILT of normal liver. A challenging tumour was implanted into the liver of each rat 2, 5 or 10 weeks after primary treatment. Rats were killed 6, 12 and 48 days (or earlier due to their condition) after challenge (n=8 in all groups). Immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine lymphocytes (CD8, CD4) and macrophages (ED1, ED2) in rats having had treatment of a primary tumour. Interstitial laser thermotherapy of the first tumour was followed by eradication of challenging tumour and absence of tumour spread. This contrasted with rapid growth and spread of challenging tumour in the other groups. In the challenging vital tumour tissue and in the interface between the tumour and surroundings, the number of ED1 macrophages and CD8 lymphocytes was higher in rats having been treated with the ILT of tumour than in those having undergone resection of the tumour-bearing lobe. The number of ED2 macrophages and CD4 lymphocytes was low and did not vary between these two groups. Interstitial laser thermotherapy elicited an immune response that eradicated a challenging tumour and was associated with increased numbers of tumour-infiltrating macrophages and CD8 lymphocytes. PMID:16091763

  17. Multimodal approach to assess tumour vasculature and potential treatment effect with DCE-US and DCE-MRI quantification in CWR22 prostate tumour xenografts.

    PubMed

    Arteaga-Marrero, N; Rygh, C B; Mainou-Gomez, J F; Nylund, K; Roehrich, D; Heggdal, J; Matulaniec, P; Gilja, O H; Reed, R K; Svensson, L; Lutay, N; Olsen, D R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare intratumoural heterogeneity and longitudinal changes assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in prostate tumour xenografts. In vivo DCE-US and DCE-MRI were obtained 24 h pre- (day 0) and post- (day 2) radiation treatment with a single dose of 7.5 Gy. Characterization of the tumour vasculature was determined by Brix pharmacokinetic analysis of the time-intensity curves. Histogram analysis of voxels showed significant changes (p < 0.001) from day 0 to day 2 in both modalities for kep , the exchange rate constant from the extracellular extravascular space to the plasma, and kel , the elimination rate constant of the contrast. In addition, kep and kel values from DCE-US were significantly higher than those derived from DCE-MRI at day 0 (p < 0.0001) for both groups. At day 2, kel followed the same tendency for both groups, whereas kep showed this tendency only for the treated group in intermediate-enhancement regions. Regarding kep median values, longitudinal changes were not found for any modality. However, at day 2, kep linked to DCE-US was correlated to MVD in high-enhancement areas for the treated group (p = 0.05). In contrast, correlation to necrosis was detected for the control group in intermediate-enhancement areas (p < 0.1). Intratumoural heterogeneity and longitudinal changes in tumour vasculature were assessed for both modalities. Microvascular parameters derived from DCE-US seem to provide reliable biomarkers during radiotherapy as validated by histology. Furthermore, DCE-US could be a stand-alone or a complementary technique.

  18. The global effect of follicle-stimulating hormone and tumour necrosis factor α on gene expression in cultured bovine ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oocytes mature in ovarian follicles surrounded by granulosa cells. During follicle growth, granulosa cells replicate and secrete hormones, particularly steroids close to ovulation. However, most follicles cease growing and undergo atresia or regression instead of ovulating. To investigate the effects of stimulatory (follicle-stimulating hormone; FSH) and inhibitory (tumour necrosis factor alpha; TNFα) factors on the granulosa cell transcriptome, bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir and pools of granulosa cells were cultured in vitro for six days under defined serum-free conditions with treatments present on days 3–6. Initially dose–response experiments (n = 4) were performed to determine the optimal concentrations of FSH (0.33 ng/ml) and TNFα (10 ng/ml) to be used for the microarray experiments. For array experiments cells were cultured under control conditions, with FSH, with TNFα, or with FSH plus TNFα (n = 4 per group) and RNA was harvested for microarray analyses. Results Statistical analysis showed primary clustering of the arrays into two groups, control/FSH and TNFα/TNFα plus FSH. The effect of TNFα on gene expression dominated that of FSH, with substantially more genes differentially regulated, and the pathways and genes regulated by TNFα being similar to those of FSH plus TNFα treatment. TNFα treatment reduced the endocrine activity of granulosa cells with reductions in expression of FST, INHA, INBA and AMH. The top-ranked canonical pathways and GO biological terms for the TNFα treatments included antigen presentation, inflammatory response and other pathways indicative of innate immune function and fibrosis. The two most significant networks also reflect this, containing molecules which are present in the canonical pathways of hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation and transforming growth factor β signalling, and these were up regulated. Upstream regulator analyses also predicted TNF, interferons γ and

  19. Dual targeting of Angiopoetin-2 and VEGF potentiates effective vascular normalisation without inducing empty basement membrane sleeves in xenograft tumours

    PubMed Central

    Coutelle, O; Schiffmann, L M; Liwschitz, M; Brunold, M; Goede, V; Hallek, M; Kashkar, H; Hacker, U T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Effective vascular normalisation following vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition is associated with endothelial cell regression leaving empty basement membrane sleeves (BMS). These long-lived BMS permit the rapid regrowth of tumour vasculature upon treatment cessation and promote resistance to VEGF-targeting drugs. Previous attempts at removing BMS have failed. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) is a vascular destabilizing factor that antagonises normalisation. We hypothesised that Ang2 inhibition could permit vascular normalisation at significantly reduced doses of VEGF inhibition, avoiding excessive vessel regression and the formation of empty BMS. Methods: Mice xenografted with human colorectal cancer cells (LS174T) were treated with low (0.5 mg kg−1) or high (5 mg kg−1) doses of the VEGF-targeting antibody bevacizumab with or without an Ang2 blocking peptibody L1-10. Tumour growth, BMS formation and normalisation parameters were examined including vessel density, pericyte coverage, adherence junctions, leakiness, perfusion, hypoxia and proliferation. Results: Dual targeting of VEGF and Ang2 achieved effective normalisation at only one-tenth of the dose required with bevacizumab alone. Pericyte coverage, vascular integrity, adherence junctions and perfusion as prerequisites for improved access of chemotherapy were improved without inducing empty BMS that facilitate rapid vascular regrowth. Conclusions: Dual targeting of VEGF and Ang2 can potentiate the effectiveness of VEGF inhibitors and avoid the formation of empty BMS. PMID:25562438

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 could mediate the protective effects of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Sun, Xue-Jun; Liu, Ji; Kang, Zhi-Min; Deng, Xiao-Ming

    2011-10-01

    1. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) has been shown to play a pivotal role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis when the liver undergoes sublethal stress, such as ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of HO-1 in hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning against liver injury after I/R. 2. A total hepatic ischaemia (30 min) and reperfusion (60 min) injury model in rats was used in the present study. Preconditioned groups were exposed to HBO 24 h prior to the induction of I/R injury. Other groups were injected with zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) intraperitoneally 1 h before I/R to inhibit HO-1 activity. At the end of the reperfusion period, blood and liver samples were collected for the analysis of liver injury markers, morphological changes, and HO-1 expression and activity in the liver. 3. In untreated rats, I/R induced an increase in hepatic injury markers, such as plasma transaminases, inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), and tissue malondialdehyde. However, HBO preconditioning attenuated the I/R-induced increases in these hepatic injury markers, and prevented both the necrosis and apoptosis of hepatocytes induced by I/R injury. Furthermore, HBO preconditioning significantly increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in the liver. In rats in which HO-1 activity had been inhibited with ZnPP pretreatment, the protective effects of HBO preconditioning against I/R injury were abolished. 4. In conclusion, HBO preconditioning can protect the liver against I/R injury and it appears that this effect might be mediated by the induction of HO-1.

  1. Protective Effect of Zingiber officinale Against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Tumour by Regulating Inflammatory Mediator and Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Rubila, Sundararaj; Ranganathan, Thottiam Vasudevan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate Zingiber officinale paste against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA)-induced tumours in Swiss albino mice. Experimental animals received Z. officinale paste (low dose 100 mg/kg bw and high dose 500 mg/kg bw) orally for eight alternative days. Treatment with Z. officinale paste showed significant increase in haemoglobin level and decrease in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) level. Z. officinale paste reduced the inflammatory mediators and cytokine levels, such as inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), tumour necrosis factor level (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Treatment with Z. officinale paste also significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme level, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione transferase (GST), and decreased the lipid peroxidation. Treatment also increased the vitamin C and E levels in treated animals compared with the DLA-bearing host. Histopathological studies also confirmed the protective influence of Z. officinale paste against DLA. The present study suggested that Z. officinale paste could be used as natural spice and a potent antitumour agent.

  2. Effect of β-carotene on immunity function and tumour growth in hepatocellular carcinoma rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bokang; Liu, Su; Wang, Qibo; Lin, Xiaojun

    2012-07-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer and immunity activity of β-carotene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rats. Three days after transplantation, forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, each group consisting of 10 animals. These groups were control group (untreated), low-dose β-carotene-treated group (20 mg/kg), middle-dose group (40 mg/kg) and high-dose (60 mg/kg) group. β-Carotene-treated groups were fed with β-carotene (20, 40, 60 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 30 days. Control group was treated with the same volume of physiological saline. Another ten rats were served as the normal group. Results showed that 30 days of β-carotene treatment could significantly inhibit tumour growth, enhance blood NK, IL-2, TNF-α, WBC, TP, ALB and A/G levels, and decrease blood ALT, AST and ALP activities in HCC rats. Pathological analysis of liver tissue showed that β-carotene treatment may decrease damage of liver tissue in HCC rats. It can be concluded that β-carotene may improve the immunity function and inhibit tumour growth in HCC rats.

  3. Effect of swine hepatitis E virus on the livers of experimentally infected Mongolian gerbils by swine hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifei; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Soomro, Majid Hussain; Mao, Jingjing; Du, Fang; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Can

    2015-10-02

    Previous studies have shown that hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted between rats, pigs, cattle, rabbits, chicken, cats, and deer. Because wild and domestic rodents have anti-HEV antibodies, they are considered potential reservoirs of HEV. In the current study, Mongolian gerbils were experimentally infected with swine hepatitis E virus and the effects of this infection were investigated. After inoculation with HEV, the liver-to-body weight ratio increased at 7 dpi. Mongolian gerbils demonstrated significant increase (p<0.05) in Aspartate Transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) concentrations in the sera, and HEV IgG was detected at 21 days post-inoculation (dpi). Real-time PCR revealed that the copies of HEV RNA in the liver were detected at 7 dpi, and peaked at 28 dpi at a concentration of 7.73 logs g(-1). Using both light and electron microscopy, hepatic lesions were observed in the HEV inoculated animals. In the experimental group, characteristic viral hepatitis lesions were prominent in the liver. HEV antigen was detected in the liver by immunohistochemistry, and HEV ORF3 antigen was detectable in liver by Western blot. These results clearly demonstrate that viral load of HEV in livers was dynamic, and ultrastructural hepatic injury in HEV infected Mongolian gerbils and anti-HEV IgG positive seroconversion were observed during infection.

  4. Inhibitory effect of various breads on DMH-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumours in rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guangying; Zeng, Sien; Takashima, Tiri; Nozoe, Koichiro; Shobayashi, Megumi; Kakugawa, Koji; Murakami, Kaori; Jikihara, Hiroshi; Zhou, Lihua; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Bread is rich in dietary fibre and many phytochemical compounds, which may influence chemoprevention of colon cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of three kinds of bread on DMH-induced colorectal tumours in F344 rats. F344 rats were divided into four groups (Steinmetz Three-Grain bread, Steinmetz Country bread, White bread, and MF). All groups were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 8 consecutive weeks from 5 weeks of age. To investigate the antioxidant effect of bread, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging rate of bread and the serum levels of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in rats were examined. The number of colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the incidence of colorectal tumours were studied after 34 weeks of DMH treatment. The Steinmetz Three-Grain and Steinmetz Country bread groups had higher scavenging rates of the DPPH free radical and lower serum levels of 8-OHdG and incidence of ACF, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas of colon than the White bread and MF group. Steinmetz Three-Grain bread and Steinmetz Country bread have various ingredient combinations that may inhibit colorectal cancer progression.

  5. Synchrotron activation radiotherapy: Effects of dose-rate and energy spectra to tantalum oxide nanoparticles selective tumour cell radiosentization enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, E.; Lerch, M.; Tehei, M.; Konstantinov, K.; Guatelli, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Corde, S.

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is unique in its ability to deliver dose at high dose rates using kiloelectronvolt photons. We are investigating the use of Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) nano-structured particles (NSPs) that are to date unexplored in synchrotron radiation fields as they have high atomic number (Z=73) are biocompatible and are therefore potential radio sensitizers. We exposed cell culture flasks containing 9L gliosarcoma tumour cells or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) non-tumour cells to the NSPs and treated the cells using a broad synchrotron beam (140 keV median energy; average dose rate of 50 Gy/s) at the Australian Synchrotron. We compare the results with those from similar cells treated using a conventional 150 kVp orthovoltage field (dose rate of 0.0127 Gy/s). The results reveal that the high dose-rate synchrotron irradiation is more effective at killing the 9L cells relative to the MDCK cells than the orthovoltage irradiation. On the other hand, the NSPs are more effective at radiosensitizing the 9L cells compared to the MDCK cells in the orthovoltage radiation field, which is due to the NSP energy dependence in the kilovoltage energy range. Both the dose rate and energy spectrum need to be considered in future studies with synchrotron activation radiotherapy (SART).

  6. A 3D model of tumour angiogenic microenvironment to monitor hypoxia effects on cell interactions and cancer stem cell selection.

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Krzysztof; Weglarczyk, Kazimierz; Collet, Guillaume; Paprocka, Maria; Guichard, Alan; Sarna, Michal; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef; Sarna, Tadeusz; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2017-03-10

    Tumour microenvironment determines the fate of treatments. Reconstitution of tumour conditions is mandatory for alternative in vitro methods devoted to cancer development and the selection of therapeutic strategies. This work describes a 3D model of melanoma growth in its environment. Introducing means to mimic tumour angiogenesis, which turns on tumour progression, the model shows that melanoma tumour spheroids allow reconstitution of solid tumours with stromal cells. Angiogenesis evidenced the differential recruitment of endothelial cells (EC) from early progenitors (EEPCs) to mature ECs. Hypoxia was the key parameter that selected and stabilized melanoma cancer stem like cells (CSCs) phenotype based on aldehyde dehydrogenase expression as the best criterion. The 3D-tumour-model demonstrated the distinct reactivity of ECs toward tumour cells in terms of cellular cross-talk and humoral response. Intra-spheroid cell-to-cell membrane dye exchanges, mediated by intercellular interactions, uncovered the melanoma-to-EEPC cooperation. The resulting changes in tumour milieu were evidenced by the chemokinic composition and hypoxia-related variations in microRNA expression assessed in each cellular component of the spheroids. This method brings new tools to decipher the molecular mechanism of tumour-mediated cell recruitment and for in vitro assessment of therapeutic approaches.

  7. Molecular investigation of the direct anti-tumour effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in a panel of canine cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, R; Saeki, K; Watanabe, M; Nakaoka, N; Ong, S M; Hanafusa, M; Choisunirachon, N; Fujita, N; Nishimura, R; Nakagawa, T

    2017-03-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been suggested as effective adjunctive anti-tumour agents in human and veterinary medicine. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with their anti-tumour effects and correlations with the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) and related molecules in tumours remain controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the expression profiles of COX and related molecules with NSAID sensitivity and to explore the molecular mechanisms of anti-tumour effects. The expression profiles of COXs, prostaglandins (PGs), PGD2 synthases, and PGE2 synthases were obtained, and their correlations with in vitro sensitivity to the NSAIDs piroxicam, carprofen, and robenacoxib were examined, using 26 canine cancer cell lines. Subsequently, microarray analysis was performed using one melanoma cell line to gain insight into mechanisms by which NSAIDs could exert cytotoxic effects. No strong correlation was observed between the cellular expression of COX and related molecules and sensitivity to NSAID treatment. Additionally, NSAIDs inhibited cell growth only at considerably higher concentrations than those required for functional COX inhibition. Microarray data demonstrated that five genes (SLC16A6, PER2, SLC9A8, HTR2B, and BRAF) were significantly upregulated and that four genes (LOC488305, H2AFJ, LOC476445, and ANKRD43) were significantly downregulated by NSAID exposure to the melanoma cell line. These results suggest that the direct in vitro anti-tumour effects of NSAIDs might be mediated by COX/PG-independent pathways. Novel candidate genes that could potentially be involved in the anti-tumour effects of NSAIDs were identified. Further validation and elucidation of their associated mechanisms will contribute to patient selection in clinical settings and the development of effective combination therapies.

  8. Effect of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor beta (TNF beta) on activation, proliferation and differentiation of human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zola, H; Nikoloutsopoulos, A

    1989-01-01

    Activation, proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes are processes controlled by T cells, and the control is mediated in part by the action of lymphokines derived from T cells. In this study we have examined the ability of tumour necrosis factor-beta (TNF beta), a T-cell product, to induce a state of activation in resting B cells, to induce proliferation of already activated B cells, and to stimulate differentiation. Recombinant tumour necrosis factor beta (rTNF beta) was used alone and in conjunction with known stimulators. As judged by several markers of activation (CD23, CDw40, LFA-1, 4F2, MHC class I and class II), rTNF beta did not contribute to the activation of resting B cells, either alone or in conjunction with anti-IgM and IL-4. However, the activation marker detected by the monoclonal antibody Leu 21 did show a greater degree of up-regulation by anti-IgM + IL-4 + rTNF beta when compared with anti-IgM + IL-4. rTNF beta induced proliferation of B cells, but only if activating stimuli were also present. Two other factors which induce proliferation of activated B cells, low molecular weight B-cell growth factor (LMW-BCGF) and IL-2, showed additive effects with rTNF beta. No evidence of changes in differentiation status of the B cells was seen. PMID:2787779

  9. Effect of actin cytoskeleton disruption on electric pulse-induced apoptosis and electroporation in tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Deyou; Tang, Liling; Zeng, Chao; Wang, Jianfei; Luo, Xiao; Yao, Chenguo; Sun, Caixin

    2011-02-01

    Electric pulses are known to affect the outer membrane and intracellular structures of tumour cells. By applying electrical pulses of 450 ns duration with electric field intensity of 8 kV/cm to HepG2 cells for 30 s, electric pulse-induced changes in the integrity of the plasma membrane, apoptosis, viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential were investigated. Results demonstrated that electric pulses induced cell apoptosis and necrosis accompanied with the decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the formation of pores in the membrane. The role of cytoskeleton in cellular response to electric pulses was investigated. We found that the apoptotic and necrosis percentages of cells in response to electric pulses decreased after cytoskeletal disruption. The electroporation of cell was not affected by cytoskeletal disruption. The results suggest that the disruption of actin skeleton is positive in protecting cells from killing by electric pulses, and the skeleton is not involved in the electroporation directly.

  10. Restorative effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on hepatic function in an experimental regression model of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanuo; Shi, Yan; Sun, Yan; Liu, Luying; Bai, Xianyong; Wang, Dong; Li, Hongxing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible pathological process, in which fibrotic tissue is excessively deposited in the liver during the repair process that follows hepatic injury. Early prevention or treatment of hepatic fibrosis has great significance on the treatment of chronic hepatic diseases. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a water-soluble monomer extracted from safflower, which serves numerous pharmacological roles. However, it remains to be elucidated how HSYA regulates hepatic fibrogenesis. The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of HSYA on the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. A rat model of hepatic fibrosis was established in the present study, and the rats were administered various doses of HSYA. The effects of HSYA on pathological alterations of the liver tissue in rats with hepatic fibrosis were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining. In order to explore the anti-hepatic fibrosis effects and underlying mechanisms of HSYA, serum levels, and hepatic function and hepatic fibrosis indices were evaluated. The results demonstrated that HSYA can improve the general condition of rats with hepatic fibrosis and relieve cellular swelling of the liver, fatty degeneration, necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and fibroplastic proliferation. Subsequent to administration of HSYA, globulin was increased during hepatic fibrosis caused by tetrachloromethane. However, total cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and levels of hyaluronic acid, laminin, procollagen III N-terminal peptide, collagen type IV and hydroxyproline were significantly reduced. The results additionally demonstrated that HSYA could enhance superoxide dismutase activity and reduce malondialdehyde levels, inhibiting lipid peroxidation caused by free radicals. PMID:27909717

  11. Correlation of distribution of sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanines with their photodynamic effect in tumour and skin of mice bearing CaD2 mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Q.; Moan, J.

    1995-01-01

    A chemical extraction assay and fluorescence microscopy incorporating a light-sensitive thermoelectrically cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used to study the kinetics of uptake, retention and localisation of disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (A1PcS2) and tetrasulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (A1PcS4) at different time intervals after an i.p. injection at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 body weight (b.w.) in tumour and surrounding normal skin and muscle of female C3D2/F1 mice bearing CaD2 mammary carcinoma. Moreover, the photodynamic effect on the tumour and normal skin using sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanines (A1PcS1, A1PcS2, A1pcS4) and Photofrin was compared with respect to dye, dye dose and time interval between dye administration and light exposure. The maximal concentrations of A1PcS2 in the tumour tissue were reached 2-24 h after injection of the dye, while the amounts of A1PcS4 peaked 1-2 h after the dye administration. A1PcS2 was simultaneously localised in the interstitium and in the neoplastic cells of the tumour, whereas A1PcS4 appeared to localise only in the stroma of the tumour. The photodynamic efficiency (light was applied 24 h after dye injection at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 b.w.) of the tumours was found to decrease in the following order: A1PcS2 > A1PcS4 > Photofrin > A1PcS1. Furthermore, photodynamic efficacy was strongly dependent upon dye doses and time intervals between dye administration and light exposure: the higher the dose, the higher the photodynamic efficiency. The most efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the tumour was reached (day 20 tumour-free) when light exposure took place 2 h after injection of A1PcS2 (10 mg kg-1). A dual intratumoral localisation pattern of the dye, as found for A1PcS2, seems desirable to obtain a high photodynamic efficiency. The kinetic patterns of uptake, retention and localisation of A1PcS2 and A1PcS4 are roughly correlated with their photodynamic effect on the tumour and normal skin. Images

  12. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: double trouble for tumours: bi-functional and redirected T cells as effective cancer immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Marr, L A; Gilham, D E; Campbell, J D M; Fraser, A R

    2012-02-01

    Cancer is one of the most important pathological conditions facing mankind in the 21st century, and is likely to become the most important cause of death as improvements continue in health, diet and life expectancy. The immune response is responsible for controlling nascent cancer through immunosurveillance. If tumours escape this control, they can develop into clinical cancer. Although surgery and chemo- or radiotherapy have improved survival rates significantly, there is a drive to reharness immune responses to treat disease. As T cells are one of the key immune cells in controlling cancer, research is under way to enhance their function and improve tumour targeting. This can be achieved by transduction with tumour-specific T cell receptor (TCR) or chimaeric antigen receptors (CAR) to generate redirected T cells. Virus-specific cells can also be transduced with TCR or CAR to create bi-functional T cells with specificity for both virus and tumour. In this review we outline the development and optimization of redirected and bi-functional T cells, and outline the results from current clinical trials using these cells. From this we discuss the challenges involved in generating effective anti-tumour responses while avoiding concomitant damage to normal tissues and organs.

  13. The relationship between tumour necrosis factor-α gene polymorphism and susceptibility and clearance of the persistent hepatitis B virus infection in a Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T-C; Zhao, Y-Q; Hu, G-L; Liu, X-Q; Huang, X-K

    2014-03-01

    To date, many studies conducted in the Chinese population have determined the correlation between the tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-238G/A, -308G/A, -857C/T and -863C/A polymorphisms and persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, their results remain inconclusive. With the aim of confirming this correlation, we performed a meta-analysis of 19 studies. The dichotomous data are presented as the OR with a 95% CI. The results of our study indicate that carriers of the TNF-α-857T allele among the pooled Chinese population were more likely to show spontaneous clearance of HBV (T vs C: OR = 0.824, 95% CI = 0.713-0.953, p 0.009; TT vs CC: OR = 0.701, 95% CI = 0.507-0.970, p 0.032; TC vs CC: OR = 0.804, 95% CI = 0.683-0.947, p 0.009; TT + TC vs CC: OR = 0.835, 95% CI = 0.716-0.974, p 0.021). The TNF-α-308A allele was associated with significantly reduced persistent HBV infection risk in the Chinese (A vs G: OR = 0.585, 95% CI = 0.456-0.751, p 0.002; AG vs GG: OR = 0.519, 95% CI = 0.341-0.789, p <0.000; AA + AG vs GG: OR = 0.512, 95% CI = 0.339-0.772, p 0.001). Persistent HBV infection susceptibility is associated with the TNF-α-308G/A gene polymorphism in the Chinese population, whereas HBV clearance is associated with the TNF-α-857C/T gene polymorphism.

  14. Effect of hepatic irradiation on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of adriamycin in children

    SciTech Connect

    Holcenberg, J.S.; Kun, L.E.; Ring, B.J.; Evans, W.E.

    1981-07-01

    The effect of hepatic irradiation on adriamycin toxicity and pharmacokinetics was studied in 10 children who received adriamycin with concurrent abdominal irradiation for Wilms' tumor. Hepatic irradiation to 2400 to 2700 rad at 100 to 150 rad per fraction did not alter the clinical toxicity or plasma pharmacokinetics of adriamycin.

  15. Photodynamic activity of BAM-SiPc, an unsymmetrical bisamino silicon(IV) phthalocyanine, in tumour-bearing nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Leung, S C H; Lo, P-C; Ng, D K P; Liu, W-K; Fung, K-P; Fong, W-P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose Ever since the discovery of photodynamic therapy, there has been a continuous search for more potent photosensitizers. Towards that end, we have synthesized a number of novel phthalocyanine derivatives. The unsymmetrical bisamino silicon(IV) phthalocyanine BAM-SiPc is one of the most potent compounds. In in vitro cell culture, it exhibits high phototoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines. Experimental approach In the present investigation, the in vivo effect of BAM-SiPc was studied in the tumour-bearing nude mice model. The biodistribution of BAM-SiPc was followed to evaluate its tumour selectivity and rate of clearance. The tumour volume in the hepatocarcinoma HepG2- and the colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29-bearing nude mice was measured after photodynamic therapy. The level of intrinsic toxicity induced was also investigated. Finally, the metabolism of BAM-SiPc in the ‘normal' WRL68 liver cells and the hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells was compared. Key results The results not only showed significant tumour regression of HepG2 and growth inhibition of HT29 in the tumour-bearing nude mice, but also no apparent hepatic or cardiac injury with the protocol used. Histological analyses showed that apoptosis was induced in the solid tumour. BAM-SiPc could be metabolized by WRL68 liver cells but not by the hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Unfortunately, BAM-SiPc did not show any specific targeting towards the tumour tissue. Conclusions and implications The efficiency of BAM-SiPc in inhibiting tumour growth makes it a good candidate for further evaluation. Enhancement of its uptake in tumour tissue by conjugation with biomolecules is currently under investigation. PMID:18332853

  16. HIV and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis C (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... the medicines for any side effects. What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused ...

  17. Protective effects of L-carnosine on CCl4 -induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Alsheblak, Mehyar Mohammad; Elsherbiny, Nehal M; El-Karef, Amro; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M

    2016-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of L-carnosine (CAR), an endogenous dipeptide of alanine and histidine, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Liver injury was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of CCl4, twice weekly for six weeks. CAR was administered to rats daily, at dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. At the end of six weeks, blood and liver tissue specimens were collected. Results show that CAR treatment attenuated the hepatic morphological changes, necroinflammation and fibrosis induced by CCl4, as indicated by hepatic histopathology scoring. In addition, CAR treatment significantly reduced the CCl4-induced elevation of liver-injury parameters in serum. CAR treatment also combatted oxidative stress; possibly by restoring hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) levels. Moreover, CAR treatment prevented the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as indicated by reduced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the liver, and decreased hepatic inflammation as demonstrated by a reduction in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and restoration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. In conclusion, CCl4-induced hepatic injury was alleviated by CAR treatment. The results suggest that these beneficial, protective effects are due, at least in part, to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities.

  18. Role of AMP-activated protein kinase activators in antiproliferative multi-drug pituitary tumour therapies: effects of combined treatments with compounds affecting the mTOR-p70S6 kinase axis in cultured pituitary tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Tulipano, G; Faggi, L; Cacciamali, A; Spinello, M; Cocchi, D; Giustina, A

    2015-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated under conditions that deplete cellular ATP levels and elevate AMP levels. We have recently shown that AMPK can represent a valid target for improving the medical treatment of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas and the effects of its activation or inhibition in pituitary tumour cells are worthy of further characterisation. We aimed to determine whether AMPK may have a role in combined antiproliferative therapies based on multiple drugs targeting cell anabolic functions at different levels in pituitary tumour cells to overcome the risk of cell growth escape phenomena. Accordingly, we tried to determine whether a rationale exists in combining compounds activating AMPK with compounds targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway. AMPK down-regulation by specific small-interfering RNAs confirmed that activated AMPK had a role in restraining growth of GH3 cells. Hence, we compared the effects of compounds directly targeting the mTOR-p70S6K axis, namely the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and the p70S6K inhibitor PF-4708671, with the effects of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) on cell signalling and cell growth, in rat pituitary GH3 cells. AICAR was able to reduce growth factor-induced p70S6K activity, as shown by the decrease of phospho-p70S6K levels. However, it was far less effective than rapamycin and PF-4708671. We observed significant differences between the growth inhibitory effects of the three compounds in GH3 and GH1 cells. Interestingly, PF-4708671 was devoid of any effect. AICAR was at least as effective as rapamycin and the co-treatment was more effective than single treatments. AICAR induced apoptosis of GH3 cells, whereas rapamycin caused preferentially a decrease of cell proliferation. Finally, AICAR and rapamycin differed in their actions on growth factor-induced extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation

  19. Effect of ethionine on hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal calcium uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.K.; Zinermon, W.D.; Latoni, L.

    1988-02-01

    Ethionine, an ethyl analog of methionine, produces a variety of physiological and pathological effects in animals. These range from acute effects in the liver, kidney, pancreas, and other organs to liver carcinogenesis. Female rats when injected with ethionine exhibit a rapid decrease in hepatic adenosine triphosphate levels followed by a marked inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis and accumulation of triglycerides. Since calcium transport in mitochondria and microsomes is ATP dependent, it becomes interesting to find out if ethionine administration has any effect on subcellular calcium transport. Calcium has recently gained an increased controversy regarding its role in chemical induced lethal cell damage. Certain groups believe that influx of extracellular calcium across the damaged plasma membrane might actually mediate the irreversible damage to the cell, whereas according to other, entry of calcium into the cell is secondary to the damage. The present study was carried out to investigate the calcium (/sup 45/Ca) transport in mitochondria and microsomes following ethionine administration. The effect of carbon tetrachloride on calcium uptake in ethionine treated rats was also studied.

  20. Extrarenal teratoid Wilms' tumour.

    PubMed

    Chowhan, A K; Reddy, M K; Javvadi, V; Kannan, T

    2011-06-01

    We report an unusual case of extrarenal teratoid Wilms' tumour in a 15-month-old male child. The tumour was retroperitoneal in location and consisted of triphasic Wilms' tumour elements, along with the presence of heterologous components. The heterologous teratoid elements were composed of predominantly glandular epithelium with the presence of focal skeletal muscle, adipose and neuroglial tissues. Although extrarenal Wilms' tumours have been documented in the literature, only a few cases have been noted to date. We present the relevant clinical, radiological, histomorphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical features of this rare tumour, and discuss the various theories of its histogenesis.

  1. Inhibitory effect of oestradiol on activation of rat hepatic stellate cells in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, I; Mizobuchi, Y; Yasuda, M; Shiba, M; Ma, Y; Horie, T; Liu, F; Ito, S

    1999-01-01

    Background—Hepatic stellate cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. 
Aims—To examine the inhibitory effect of oestradiol on stellate cell activation. 
Methods—In vivo, hepatic fibrosis was induced in rats by dimethylnitrosamine or pig serum. In vitro, rat stellate cells were activated by contact with plastic dishes resulting in their transformation into myofibroblast-like cells. 
Results—In the dimethylnitrosamine and pig serum models, treatment with oestradiol at gestation related doses resulted in a dose dependent suppression of hepatic fibrosis with restored content of hepatic retinyl palmitate, reduced collagen content, lower areas of stellate cells which express α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin, and lower procollagen type I and III mRNA levels in the liver. In cultured stellate cells, oestradiol inhibited type I collagen production, α-SMA expression, and cell proliferation. These findings suggest that oestradiol is a potent inhibitor of stellate cell transformation. 
Conclusion—The antifibrogenic role of oestradiol in the liver may contribute to the sex associated differences in the progression from hepatic fibrosis to cirrhosis. 

 Keywords: hepatic stellate cells; hepatic fibrosis; oestradiol; α smooth muscle actin; retinyl palmitate PMID:9862839

  2. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on hepatic function in the duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, J.F.; Dieter, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    1. The indocyanine green dye clearance test for hepatic function was determined in mallard ducks before and during the chronic ingestion (7 months) of representative paraffinic or aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons (PH). 2. No mortality or visible symptoms of toxicity occured in any of the tests. Ingestion of 4000 ppm aromatic PH produced significant increases in liver (25%), plasma clearance of indocyanine green (33%) and hepatic blood flow (30%). 3. Although the aromatics elicited a greater hepatic stress response than the paraffins, the ducks tolerated high concentrations of PH for extended periods.

  3. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  4. Metabolic fluxes in the liver of rats bearing the Walker-256 tumour: influence of the circulating levels of substrates and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    da Veiga, Renata P; da Silva, Mário H R Alves; Teodoro, Graziele R; Yamamoto, Nair Seiko; Constantin, Jorgete; Bracht, Adelar

    2008-01-01

    Studies on fatty acid and amino acid metabolism in the liver of Walker-256 tumour-bearing rats have revealed several changes. Comparisons, however, have been based on experiments performed with non-physiological, frequently unrealistic, substrate concentrations. The aim of the present work was to examine the influence of physiological substrate concentrations on gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis and related parameters. Isolated livers were perfused and substrates were infused at concentrations that were reported to occur in healthy and tumour-bearing rats. Ketogenesis and the mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio were smaller in the tumour-bearing condition at low (0.2 mM) and high (0.8 mM) oleate concentrations. In the absence of oleate, gluconeogenesis from alanine (0.7 mM) and gluconeogenesis plus the associated changes in oxygen uptake due to lactate/pyruvate (2/0.2 and 6/0.3 mM) were smaller in livers of tumour-bearing rats. However, the response of gluconeogenesis from lactate/pyruvate in livers of tumour-bearing rats to 0.8 mM oleate was more pronounced so that a trend towards normalization was apparent at high substrate and oleate concentrations. Gluconeogenesis from 0.7 mM alanine was not significantly changed by oleate in the tumour-bearing state; in the control condition, stimulation occurred at 0.2 mM oleate and inhibition at 0.8 mM oleate. This diminution almost equalized the hepatic alanine-dependent gluconeogenesis of both control and tumour-bearing rats. Ureogenesis was smaller in the tumour-bearing state and was not affected by oleate. It was concluded that the high concentrations of fatty acids and lactate/pyruvate, which predominate in rats bearing the Walker-256 tumour, could be effective in normalizing the gluconeogenic response of livers from tumour-bearing rats.

  5. A model of vascular tumour growth in mice combining longitudinal tumour size data with histological biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ribba, Benjamin; Watkin, Emmanuel; Tod, Michel; Girard, Pascal; Grenier, Emmanuel; You, Benoît; Giraudo, Enrico; Freyer, Gilles

    2011-02-01

    Optimising the delivery of antiangiogenic drugs requires the development of drug-disease models of vascular tumour growth that incorporate histological data indicative of cytostatic action. In this study, we formulated a model to analyse the dynamics of tumour progression in nude mice xenografted with HT29 or HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. In 30 mice, tumour size was periodically measured, and percentages of hypoxic and necrotic tissue were assessed using immunohistochemistry techniques on tumour samples after euthanasia. The simultaneous analysis of histological data together with longitudinal tumour size data prompted the development of a semi-mechanistic model integrating random effects of parameters. In this model, the peripheral non-hypoxic tissue proliferates according to a generalised-logistic equation where the maximal tumour size is represented by a variable called 'carrying capacity'. The ratio of the whole tumour size to the carrying capacity was used to define the hypoxic stress. As this stress increases, non-hypoxic tissue turns hypoxic. Hypoxic tissue does not stop proliferating, but hypoxia constitutes a transient stage before the tissue becomes necrotic. As the tumour grows, the carrying capacity increases owing to the process of angiogenesis. The model is shown to correctly predict tumour growth dynamics as well as percentages of necrotic and hypoxic tissues within the tumour. We show how the model can be used as a theoretical tool to investigate the effects of antiangiogenic treatments on tumour growth. This model provides a tool to analyse tumour size data in combination with histological biomarkers such as the percentages of hypoxic and necrotic tissue and is shown to be useful for gaining insight into the effects of antiangiogenic drugs on tumour growth and composition.

  6. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect. PMID:24753740

  7. Ophthalmological side effects of interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Medhat, Eman; Esmat, Gamal; Hamza, Eman; Abdel Aziz, Amr; Fouad Fathalah, Waleed; Zakaria, Zeinab; Mostafa, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Background Egypt has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Ophthalmological side effects are recognized complications of interferon (IFN) therapy. This study aimed to evaluate IFN-induced ophthalmological manifestations in patients receiving PEGylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) and to assess the effect of IFN duration, response and systemic risk factors on the severity. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with chronic HCV who were candidates for PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. All patients were subjected to clinical and ophthalmological examination, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasound, colored fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography, follow up was made at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Results IFN-induced retinopathy had been found in (9/100; 9%), 5 (5/9; 55.5%) of them had bilateral lesions, (3/9; 33.3%) were treatment responders and (6/9; 66.6%) non responders. The time of retinopathy appearance was mainly at W12. Retinopathy was asymptomatic in most of the affected patients (7/9; 77.77%) and reversible, cotton wool spots was the major associated sign. Patients with older age, DM and or HTN, and non-responders to antiviral therapy were associated with more severe retinopathy. Conclusions Retinopathy is not a rare complication of IFN therapy for chronic HCV infection, but fortunately it’s asymptomatic and reversible. Ophthalmological assessment at base-line and at follow up during IFN treatment is very important. PMID:27275462

  8. Transmission model of hepatitis B virus with the migration effect.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Islam, Saeed; Arif, Muhammad; ul Haq, Zahoor

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a globally infectious disease. Mathematical modeling of HBV transmission is an interesting research area. In this paper, we present characteristics of HBV virus transmission in the form of a mathematical model. We analyzed the effect of immigrants in the model to study the effect of immigrants for the host population. We added the following flow parameters: "the transmission between migrated and exposed class" and "the transmission between migrated and acute class." With these new features, we obtained a compartment model of six differential equations. First, we find the basic threshold quantity Ro and then find the local asymptotic stability of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria. Previous similar publications have not added the kind of information about the numerical results of the model. In our case, from numerical simulation, a detailed discussion of the parameters and their numerical results is presented. We claim that with these assumptions and by adding the migrated class, the model informs policy for governments, to be aware of the immigrants and subject them to tests about the disease status. Immigrants for short visits and students should be subjected to tests to reduce the number of immigrants with disease.

  9. Effect of structurally diverse peroxisome proliferators on rat hepatic sulfotransferase.

    PubMed

    Witzmann, F; Coughtrie, M; Fultz, C; Lipscomb, J

    1996-01-05

    Exposure to perfluorocarboxylic acids, pthalate esters, and some hypolipidemic agents results in the proliferation of peroxisomes in the rodent liver. The structural diversity of these compounds suggests mechanistic diversity in their toxicity as well. To establish reliable biomarkers of peroxisome proliferation (PP) in compounds with distinct chemical toxicities, this study investigated the effect of in vivo exposure to perfluoro-n-octanoic acid, perfluoro-n-decanoic acid, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and clofibrate on two-dimensional electrophoretic protein patterns of rat hepatic sulfotransferases, ST1A1, ST1C1 and ST2A1. After exposure to peroxisome proliferative doses, both ST1A1 and ST1C1 abundance in whole liver homogenates was significantly reduced, but only as a result of perfluorocarboxylic and exposure. The well-established PPs, DEHP and clofibrate had no effect on sulfotransferase expression whatsoever. The observed down-regulation of these STs is significant with respect to their normal detoxication activities and its potential correlation to carcinogenesis warrants further study. The present investigation supports previous studies that demonstrate the unique features of perfluorocarboxylic acid toxicity, relative to classic peroxisome proliferators and endorses the continued use of 2D protein-mapping of Sts and other proteins as biomarkers of chemical toxicity.

  10. LASERS IN MEDICINE: Light-oxygen effect in cells and its potential applications in tumour therapy (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, S. D.; Ivanov, Andrei V.

    1999-12-01

    The light-oxygen effect (POE) represents damage (and at low optical doses, activation) of cells by photogeneration of molecular singlet oxygen from O2 dissolved in cells, in accordance with the reaction: 3O2+hν→1O2→ biological effect. The phases of evolution of the LOE are similar to the phases, observed in cell experiments, of the photodynamic effect (PDE) the mechanism of which is the basis of the familiar method of photodynamic cancer therapy. The reported proofs of the occurrence of the LOE are in the form of detailed spectra of the biological action of optical radiation on cells recorded in four spectral intervals with the aid of tunable lasers. Allowances are made for the relationships governing a new type of cell excitation, associated with reversible structural transitions in the biomembrane. A demonstration is reported of the same efficiency of cw and pulsed irradiation. An analysis is made of the reasons why the optical doses initiating the PDE and the LOE are comparable. The results are given of the first experimental applications of the LOE in tumour therapy. Identification of the primary photoacceptor (O2) in cell biostimulation and photodestruction provides a scientific basis for the development of low-intensity laser light-oxygen cancer therapy methods.

  11. Effects of glyphosate on hepatic tissue evaluating melanomacrophages and erythrocytes responses in neotropical anuran Leptodactylus latinasus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Iglesias, Juan Manuel; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Moreno, Liliana; Tripole, Susana; de Oliveira, Classius; Natale, Guillermo Sebastián

    2016-05-01

    Glyphosate (GLY) is the most used herbicide worldwide and its effects on anurans are well known. Pollutants can cause physiological and morphological effects. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of GLY on hepatic melanomacrophages as a response to environmental stressors. Three treatments were exposed to different concentrations of pure GLY (100, 1000, and 10,000 μg g(-1), respectively), and there was also a control group. After the experimental time, liver and blood were analyzed. Melanomacrophages (MMCs) were located between the hepatocyte cordons, close to sinusoids. GLY increased the melanin area in MMCs of Leptodactylus latinasus exposed since lowest concentration until highest concentration. GLY also changed the occurrence of hepatic catabolism pigments into melanomacrophages and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities; therefore, it can interfere with the hepatic metabolism. In conclusion, GLY promotes alterations in the hepatic tissue and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities. Furthermore, MMCs may be useful as morphological responses of GLY effects.

  12. Antiproliferative effect of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin in vitro and in human tumour xenografted athymic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, P. Y.; Bressolle, F.; Pinguet, F.

    1998-01-01

    The anti-tumour activity of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MEBCD), a cyclic oligosaccharide known for its interaction with the plasma membrane, was investigated in vitro and in vivo and compared with that of doxorubicin (DOX) in the human tumour models MCF7 breast carcinoma and A2780 ovarian carcinoma. In vitro proliferation was assessed using the MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out using xenografted Swiss nude mice injected weekly i.p. with MEBCD at 300 or 800 mg kg(-1) or DOX at 2 mg kg(-1), during 2 months. Under these conditions, MEBCD was active against MCF7 and A2780 cell lines and tumour xenografts. For each tumour model, the tumoral volume of the xenografted mice treated with MEBCD was at least twofold reduced compared with the control group. In the MCF7 model, MEBCD (800 mg kg(-1)) was more active than DOX (2 mg kg(-1)). After 56 days of treatment with MEBCD, no toxicologically meaningful differences were observed in macroscopic and microscopic parameters compared with controls. The accumulation of MEBCD in normal and tumour tissues was also assessed using a chromatographic method. Results indicated that after a single injection of MEBCD, tumour, liver and kidneys accumulated the highest concentrations of MEBCD. These results provided a basis for the potential therapeutic application of MEBCD in cancer therapy. PMID:9820174

  13. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, T H; Amin, M R; Bashar, M A; Ahmed, Z; Matin, A; Hasan, G Z; Islam, M D; Hossain, M Z

    2011-04-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour in infancy is rare, mainly benign with little tendency to recur after excision or effective curettage. This pigmented neoplasm of neural crest origin occurring in infants before 1 year of age. The most common site of occurrence is the anterior maxillary alveolar ridge (70%), following by the skull, brain and mandible. The genital organ is the most frequent extra cranial site. We report a 6 months old male baby with a similar tumour arising from right half of cheek involving the maxilla. We diagnosed the case after histological report. We remove the tumour through a sub-labial incision. The mass was blackish in colour, and was mobilized from all side including from the maxillary sinuses. The author thought that this should be reported for improving the clinical awareness and treatment of pigmented soft tissue mass in children. Almost one year follow up of the patients showed no recurrence.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of screening for hepatitis C in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William W.L.; Tu, Hong-Anh; Feld, Jordan J.; Wong, Tom; Krahn, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Background: The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Canadians is estimated at 0.3% to 0.9%. Of those with chronic HCV infection, 10% to 20% will experience advanced liver disease by 30 years of infection. Targeted screening seems a plausible strategy. We aimed to estimate the health and economic effects of various screening and treatment strategies for chronic HCV infection in Canada. Methods: We used a state-transition model to examine the cost-effectiveness of 4 screening strategies: no screening; screen and treat with pegylated interferon plus ribavarin; screen and treat with pegylated interferon and ribavarin–based direct-acting antiviral agents; and screen and treat with interferon-free direct-acting antivirals. We considered Canadian residents in 2 age groups: 25–64 and 45–64 years of age. We obtained model data from the literature. We predicted deaths related to chronic HCV infection, costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results: We found that screening and treating would prevent at least 9 HCV-related deaths per 10 000 persons screened over the lifetime of the cohort. Screening was associated with QALY increases of 0.0032 to 0.0095 and cost increases of $124 to $338 per person, which translated to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $34 359 to $44 034 per QALY gained, relative to no screening, depending on age group screened and antiviral therapy received. Interpretation: A selective one-time HCV screening program for people 25–64 or 45–64 years of age in Canada would likely be cost-effective. Identification of silent cases of chronic HCV infection and the offer of treatment when appropriate could extend the lives of Canadians at reasonable cost. PMID:25583667

  15. Adverse effects of oral antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Kayaaslan, Bircan; Guner, Rahmet

    2017-01-01

    Oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) are currently the backbone of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection treatment. They are generally well-tolerated by patients and safe to use. To date, a significant number of patients have been treated with NAs. Safety data has accumulated over the years. The aim of this article is to review and update the adverse effects of oral NAs. NAs can cause class adverse effects (i.e., myopathy, neuropathy, lactic acidosis) and dissimilar adverse effects. All NAs carry a “Black Box” warning because of the potential risk for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, these adverse effects are rarely reported. The majority of cases are associated with lamivudine and telbivudine. Adefovir can lead to dose- and time-dependent nephrotoxicity, even at low doses. Tenofovir has significant renal and bone toxicity in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, bone and renal toxicity in patients with CHB are not as prominent as in HIV infection. Entecavir and lamivudine are not generally associated with renal adverse events. Entecavir has been claimed to increase the risk of lactic acidosis in decompensated liver disease and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. However, current studies reported that entecavir could be safely used in decompensated cirrhosis. An increase in fetal adverse events has not been reported with lamivudine, telbivudine and tenofovir use in pregnant women, while there is no adequate data regarding entecavir and adefovir. Further long-term experience is required to highlight the adverse effects of NAs, especially in special patient populations, including pregnant women, elderly and patients with renal impairment. PMID:28261380

  16. Tumour physics.

    PubMed

    Drechsel, Willy Dieter

    2008-06-01

    During the cell division dynamic processes take place, the origin of which are to find in the physical characteristics of cell components. The most important characteristics are the electrical charge and the energy of the moving base components in a viscous cytoplasm. The interactions between the components lead as well known, to the emergence of hydrogen bonds between two DNA strands. The computations show that the strength of these bindings depends on three factors: first it is dependent on the length of a monotonous sequence, second it is dependent on the viscosity of the cytoplasm, and third it is dependent on the replication speed. In the study in detail is stated, how it affects the effectiveness of the DNA repair mechanism, mutation susceptibility, and thus also affects the cancer susceptibility.

  17. Malignant tumours after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fahlenkamp, D; Reinke, P; Kirchner, S; Schnorr, D; Lindeke, A; Loening, S A

    1996-10-01

    In 1243 patients after renal transplantation, 39 malignant tumours were detected in 37 patients. The average latency period between transplantation and tumour disease was 72 months. Tumours included 8 malignant lymphomas, 7 dermatomas and 24 visceral tumours. The patients who developed a tumour had received fewer blood transfusions before transplantation than a tumour-free control group of 60 patients with renal transplants. Rejection crises occurred in a significantly smaller number of tumour patients compared with the control group.

  18. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot analysis and RT-PCR in liver, respectively. Changes in FAT/CD36 expression were studied in-vitro in a human monocyte cell line U937 after irradiation in presence or absence of infliximab (IFX). Nile Red staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (12-48 h) increase in fat droplets. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were elevated. An early increase (3-6 h) in the serum level of HDL-C, TG and cholesterol was measured after single dose irradiation followed by a decrease thereafter. Furthermore, expression of the fat transporter protein FAT/CD36 was increased, immunohistochemistry revealed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, apolipoprotein-B100, -C3 and enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein-lipase, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase, malonyl-CoA-decarboxylase) involved in fat metabolism were induced at 12-24 h. Early activation of the NFkβ pathway (IκBα) by TNF-α was seen, followed by a significant elevation of serum markers for liver damage (AST and GLDH). TNF-α blockage by anti-TNF-α in cell culture (U937) prevented the increase of FAT/CD36 caused by irradiation. Selective liver irradiation is a model for rapid induction of steatosis hepatis and fat accumulation could be triggered by irradiation-induced inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-α). PMID:25197426

  19. Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Enhance the Anti-tumour Effects of the mTOR Inhibitor Everolimus against Melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jie; Wu, Shan; Kong, Yan; Chi, Zhihong; Si, Lu; Sheng, Xinan; Cui, Chuanliang; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Jue; Guo, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway is activated in most melanomas, but mTOR inhibitors used singly have limited activity against advanced melanomas. The application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is a promising cancer therapy approach. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic anti-tumour efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in conjunction with nsPEFs against melanoma. The combined treatment of nsPEFs and everolimus gradually decreased cell growth concurrent with nsPEF intensity. nsPEFs alone or combined with everolimus could promote melanoma cell apoptosis, accompanied with a loss in cellular mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in Ca2+ levels. In vivo experiments showed that a combination of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus and nsPEFs improved the inhibitory effect, and all skin lesions caused by nsPEFs healed in 1 week without any observed adverse effect. Combination treatment induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through the upregulation of the pro-apoptotic factor Bax and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. Everolimus and nsPEFs synergistically inhibited angiogenesis by decreasing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (VEGFR), and CD34. Our findings indicate that nsPEFs in combination with an mTOR inhibitor can be used as a potential treatment approach for advanced melanoma.

  20. The Effect of Tumour Necrosis Factor-α on Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Differentiation and the Related Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaochen; Tan, Guang-Rong; Yu, Mengfei; Cai, Xia; Zhou, Yi; Ding, Huifen; Xie, Han; Qu, Fan; Zhang, Runju; Lam, Carolina Un; Cui, Peng; Fu, Baiping

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal regeneration plays an integral role in the treatment of periodontal diseases, with important clinical significance for the preservation and functional recovery of affected teeth. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which were found in the periodontal ligament tissues possessing properties of pluripotency and self-renewing, could repair damaged periodontium with great promise. However, in a chronic inflammatory micro-environment, these cells suffered from reduced capacity to differentiate and regenerate. There has been a growing appreciation that tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in periodontal tissues drives cellular responses to chronic periodontitis. Several new advances, including an increased understanding of the mechanism of interaction between TNF-α and PDLSCs provides insight into inflamed cell regeneration, which in turn reveal strategies to improve the effectiveness of therapy. Here we gave a comprehensive review on the role of TNF-α in chronic periodontitis, its effect on PDLSCs differentiation and periodontal regeneration, related signaling pathways and concluded with future perspectives of research on PDLSCs-based periodontal tissue regeneration.

  1. Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Enhance the Anti-tumour Effects of the mTOR Inhibitor Everolimus against Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Wu, Shan; Kong, Yan; Chi, Zhihong; Si, Lu; Sheng, Xinan; Cui, Chuanliang; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Jue; Guo, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway is activated in most melanomas, but mTOR inhibitors used singly have limited activity against advanced melanomas. The application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is a promising cancer therapy approach. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic anti-tumour efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in conjunction with nsPEFs against melanoma. The combined treatment of nsPEFs and everolimus gradually decreased cell growth concurrent with nsPEF intensity. nsPEFs alone or combined with everolimus could promote melanoma cell apoptosis, accompanied with a loss in cellular mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in Ca2+ levels. In vivo experiments showed that a combination of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus and nsPEFs improved the inhibitory effect, and all skin lesions caused by nsPEFs healed in 1 week without any observed adverse effect. Combination treatment induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through the upregulation of the pro-apoptotic factor Bax and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. Everolimus and nsPEFs synergistically inhibited angiogenesis by decreasing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (VEGFR), and CD34. Our findings indicate that nsPEFs in combination with an mTOR inhibitor can be used as a potential treatment approach for advanced melanoma. PMID:28054548

  2. Prooxidative effect of copper--metallothionein in the acute cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Suntres, Zacharias E; Lui, Edmund M K

    2006-01-16

    This study was concerned with the role of copper (Cu) and Cu-metallothionein (Cu-MT) in oxidative stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative injury was examined in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells isolated from host mice pretreated with 0, 1 or 2mg of CuSO(4) (ip) 24h earlier. Control Ehrlich cells contained low levels of Cu and Cu treatment produced dose-related increases in cellular Cu and Cu-MT levels and corresponding increases in sensitivity to oxidative toxicity of H(2)O(2) (LC(50), cell blebbing, lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and increase in intracellular free [Ca(2+)](i)). Hydrogen peroxide treatment also resulted in the oxidation of MT thiolates, reduction in the binding of Cu to MT resulting in translocation of Cu to other subcellular sites. d-penicillamine, a Cu-chelating agent, obliterated the sensitization effect of Cu-pretreatment and reduced the redistribution of MT-bound Cu, suggesting the participation of Cu ions derived from MT in promoting oxidant stress. Additional experiments with desferoxamine and mannitol have revealed the involvement of a Cu-dependent Fenton reaction in the mediation of the prooxidative effect of Cu-MT. These data suggest that cells with high levels of Cu-MT may be particularly susceptible to oxidative stress.

  3. Synergistic effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor by alveolar macrophages of rats.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Y; Kido, M; Tanaka, I; Fujino, A; Higashi, T; Yokosaki, Y

    1993-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by alveolar macrophages. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke in vivo, and production of TNF by alveolar macrophages was measured in the presence of mineral fibres in vitro. For smoke exposure, rats were divided into two groups. Five were exposed to a daily concentration of 10 mg/m3 of cigarette smoke for an eight hour period, and five rats (controls) were not exposed to smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed after exposure to smoke and the recovered alveolar macrophages were incubated with either chrysotile or ceramic fibres on a microplate for 24 hours. Activity of TNF in the supernatant was determined by the L-929 fibroblast cell bioassay. When alveolar macrophages were not stimulated by mineral fibres, production of TNF by rats exposed to smoke and unexposed rats was essentially the same. When alveolar macrophages were stimulated in vitro by chrysotile or ceramic fibres, production of TNF by alveolar macrophages from rats exposed to smoke was higher than that by alveolar macrophages from unexposed rats. The findings suggest that cigarette smoke and mineral fibres have a synergistic effect on TNF production by alveolar macrophages.

  4. Synergistic effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor by alveolar macrophages of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Y; Kido, M; Tanaka, I; Fujino, A; Higashi, T; Yokosaki, Y

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of mineral fibres and cigarette smoke on the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by alveolar macrophages. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke in vivo, and production of TNF by alveolar macrophages was measured in the presence of mineral fibres in vitro. For smoke exposure, rats were divided into two groups. Five were exposed to a daily concentration of 10 mg/m3 of cigarette smoke for an eight hour period, and five rats (controls) were not exposed to smoke. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed after exposure to smoke and the recovered alveolar macrophages were incubated with either chrysotile or ceramic fibres on a microplate for 24 hours. Activity of TNF in the supernatant was determined by the L-929 fibroblast cell bioassay. When alveolar macrophages were not stimulated by mineral fibres, production of TNF by rats exposed to smoke and unexposed rats was essentially the same. When alveolar macrophages were stimulated in vitro by chrysotile or ceramic fibres, production of TNF by alveolar macrophages from rats exposed to smoke was higher than that by alveolar macrophages from unexposed rats. The findings suggest that cigarette smoke and mineral fibres have a synergistic effect on TNF production by alveolar macrophages. Images PMID:8217857

  5. Comparative Neuroprotective Effects of Dexamethasone and Minocycline during Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Gamal, Maha; Abdel Wahab, Zainab; Eshra, Mohamed; Rashed, Laila; Sharawy, Nivin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Encephalopathy and brain edema are serious complications of acute liver injury and may lead to rapid death of patients. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in the cytotoxic brain oedema and the neuroprotective effects of both minocycline and dexamethasone. Methods. 48 male albino rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, acute liver injury (ALI) group, minocycline pretreated ALI group, and dexamethasone pretreated ALI group. 24 hours after acute liver injury serum ammonia, liver enzymes, brain levels of heme oxygenase-1 gene, iNOS gene expression, nitrite/nitrate, and cytokines were measured. In addition, the grades of encephalopathy and brain water content were assessed. Results. ALI was associated with significant increases in all measured inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress, iNOS gene expression, and nitrite/nitrate. Both minocycline and dexamethasone significantly modulated the inflammatory changes and the oxidative/nitrosative stress associated with ALI. However, only minocycline but not dexamethasone significantly reduced the cytotoxic brain oedema. Conclusion. Both minocycline and dexamethasone could modulate inflammatory and oxidative changes observed in brain after ALI and could be novel preventative therapy for hepatic encephalopathy episodes.

  6. Effectiveness of the Targeted Hepatitis B Vaccination Program in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Anders; Biggar, Robert J.; Ladefoged, Karin; Melbye, Mads; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Krause, Tyra Grove

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program in Greenland, which targets children born to mothers who are positive for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), we determined vaccination coverage, levels of postvaccination antibodies, and frequency of breakthrough infections in at-risk children. Methods. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study with data from nationwide registries. We identified all children born to HBsAg-positive mothers from 1992 to 2007 and collected data on their HBV vaccination status. In 2008 to 2010, we tested the children for HBV core antibody, HBsAg, and anti-HBsAg antibody (HBsAb). Results. Of 4050 pregnant women, 3.2% were HBsAg positive. Of 207 children born to these women, 20% received no vaccinations, and only 58% received at least 3 vaccinations. At follow-up, HBsAb levels in vaccinated children were much lower than expected, and 8 (6%) of 140 at-risk children had breakthrough infections, with 4 chronically infected (persistently HBsAg positive). Conclusions. The prevention program targeting children at risk for HBV in Greenland is ineffective. HBV vaccination should be included in the universal childhood vaccination program, and postvaccination HBsAb levels should be monitored. PMID:21940914

  7. The cost-effectiveness of using hepatitis A/B combined vaccine versus hepatitis B vaccine alone for high-risk heterosexuals.

    PubMed

    Rein, David B; Weinbaum, Cindy M

    2008-10-03

    Previous studies estimated that vaccinating high-risk heterosexuals (HRH) with combination hepatitis A/B vaccine was a cost-effective alternative to vaccinating HRH against hepatitis B alone. Since then, the incidence of hepatitis A has declined dramatically in the United States. We re-estimate the cost-effectiveness of this policy accounting for modern declines in incidence. According to our estimates, vaccinating with combination vaccine resulted in a cost of $120,000 per quality adjusted life year gained (2.79 times the 2005 United States Gross Domestic Product per capita), a ratio that is less favorable than those for most other vaccination strategies.

  8. Effects of acute hepatic and renal failure on pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in rats.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yun, Hyo-In

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hepatic and renal failure on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))- and glycerol-treated rats. After intravenous administration of flunixin (2 mg/kg), the plasma concentration of flunixin was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both acute hepatic and renal failure resulted in significantly increased area under the curve (AUC), prolonged elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), and reduced total body clearance (Cl(tot)) compared with respective controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatic failure as well as renal failure modified the pharmacokinetics of flunixin.

  9. A jaundiced bodybuilder Cholestatic hepatitis as side effect of injectable anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Boks, Marije N; Tiebosch, Anton T; van der Waaij, Laurens A

    2016-12-12

    The use of anabolic steroids is prevalent in recreational athletes. This case report describes a young amateur bodybuilder who was referred to our outpatient clinic with jaundice and loss of appetite due to cholestatic hepatitis. Additional tests including a liver biopsy made it likely that the hepatitis was caused by the injectable anabolic steroid trenbolone enanthate. Cholestatic hepatitis may not be limited to the use of oral anabolic-androgenic steroids, as is widely assumed. Therefore, and because of other side effects, the recreational use of all forms of anabolic steroids should be discouraged.

  10. The increased gastroprotective effect of pioglitazone in cholestatic rats: role of nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Moezi, Leila; Janahmadi, Zeinab; Amirghofran, Zahra; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of gastric ulcers is high in cholestatic patients, but the exact mechanism of this increased frequency remains uncertain. It has been shown that pioglitazone accelerates the healing of pre-existing gastric ulcers. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of pioglitazone, on the gastric mucosal lesions in cholestatic rats. Cholestasis was induced by surgical ligation of common bile duct and sham-operated rats served as control. Different groups of sham and cholestatic animals received solvent or pioglitazone (5, 15, 30 mg/kg) for 7 days. On the day eight rats were killed after oral ethanol administration and the area of gastric lesions was measured. The serums of rats were also collected to determine serum levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β and bilirubin. The ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage was significantly more severe in cholestatic rats than sham-operated ones. Pretreatment with pioglitazone dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by ethanol in both sham and cholestatic rats, but this effect was more prominent in cholestatic ones. The effect of pioglitazone was associated with a significant fall in serum levels of TNF-α in cholestatic rats. L-NAME, a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and decreased pioglitazone-induced gastroprotective effect in cholestatic rats, while aminoguanidine, a selective inducible NOS inhibitor, potentiated pioglitazone-induced gastroprotective effect in the cholestatic rats. Chronic treatment with pioglitazone exerts an enhanced gastroprotective effect on the stomach ulcers of cholestatic rats compared to sham rats probably due to constitutive NOS induction and/or inducible NOS inhibition and attenuating release of TNF-α.

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of eburicoic acid and dehydroeburicoic acid from Antrodia camphorata in a mouse model of acute hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Lee, Chao-Ying; Hou, Wen-Chi; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2013-12-01

    The hepatoprotective effects of eburicoic acid (TR1) and dehydroeburicoic acid (TR2) from Antrodia camphorata (AC) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage were investigated in mice. TR1 and TR2 was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 7 days prior to the administration of CCl4. Pretreatment with TR1 and TR2 prevented the elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4-treated mice. The activities of antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], nitric oxide (NO) production, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were decreased after the treatment with TR1 and TR2 in CCl4-treated mice. Western blotting revealed that TR1 and TR2 significantly decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions and increased the expression of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) in CCl4-treated mice. Therefore, we speculate that TR1 and TR2 protect the liver from CCl4-induced hepatic damage via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  12. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... B to come back?Should I get the hepatitis B vaccine?What are the side effects of antiviral medicines?Will my liver ever be normal again? Last Updated: October 1996 This article ... B, hepatitis virus, Interferon alpha-2b, jaundice, Lamivudine, liver ...

  13. Cytotoxicity of alpha-particle-emitting astatine-211-labelled antibody in tumour spheroids: no effect of hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Hauck, M L; Larsen, R H; Welsh, P C; Zalutsky, M R

    1998-03-01

    The high linear energy transfer, alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide astatine-211 (211At) is of interest for certain therapeutic applications; however, because of the 55- to 70-microm path length of its alpha-particles, achieving homogeneous tracer distribution is critical. Hyperthermia may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-particle endoradiotherapy if it can improve tracer distribution. In this study, we have investigated whether hyperthermia increased the cytotoxicity of an 211At-labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) in tumour spheroids with a radius (approximately 100 microm) greater than the range of 211At alpha-particles. Hyperthermia for 1 h at 42 degrees C was used because this treatment itself resulted in no regrowth delay. Radiolabelled chimeric MAb 81C6 reactive with the extracellular matrix antigen tenascin was added to spheroids grown from the D-247 MG human glioma cell line at activity concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 250 kBq ml(-1). A significant regrowth delay was observed at 125 and 250 kBq ml(-1) in both hyperthermia-treated and untreated spheroids. For groups receiving hyperthermia, no increase in cytotoxicity was seen compared with normothermic controls at any activity concentration. These results and those from autoradiographs indicate that hyperthermia at 42 degrees C for 1 h had no significant effect on the uptake or distribution of this antitenascin MAb in D-247 MG spheroids.

  14. Cytotoxicity of alpha-particle-emitting astatine-211-labelled antibody in tumour spheroids: no effect of hyperthermia.

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, M. L.; Larsen, R. H.; Welsh, P. C.; Zalutsky, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    The high linear energy transfer, alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide astatine-211 (211At) is of interest for certain therapeutic applications; however, because of the 55- to 70-microm path length of its alpha-particles, achieving homogeneous tracer distribution is critical. Hyperthermia may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-particle endoradiotherapy if it can improve tracer distribution. In this study, we have investigated whether hyperthermia increased the cytotoxicity of an 211At-labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) in tumour spheroids with a radius (approximately 100 microm) greater than the range of 211At alpha-particles. Hyperthermia for 1 h at 42 degrees C was used because this treatment itself resulted in no regrowth delay. Radiolabelled chimeric MAb 81C6 reactive with the extracellular matrix antigen tenascin was added to spheroids grown from the D-247 MG human glioma cell line at activity concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 250 kBq ml(-1). A significant regrowth delay was observed at 125 and 250 kBq ml(-1) in both hyperthermia-treated and untreated spheroids. For groups receiving hyperthermia, no increase in cytotoxicity was seen compared with normothermic controls at any activity concentration. These results and those from autoradiographs indicate that hyperthermia at 42 degrees C for 1 h had no significant effect on the uptake or distribution of this antitenascin MAb in D-247 MG spheroids. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9514054

  15. Effect of chronic excess of tumour necrosis factor-alpha on contractile proteins in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cheema, I R; Hermann, C; Postell, S; Barnes, P

    2000-01-01

    The effect of chronic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) treatment on the synthesis of specific myofibrillar proteins such as heavy chain myosin, light chain myosin and G-actin in rat diaphragm were evaluated. Muscles (diaphragm) from control and experimental groups (TNF-alpha i.v. at 50 microg/kg body wt for 5 days) were incubated in the presence of 35S-methionine for 2 h. Myofibrillar protein extracts were prepared and protein was electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels. Heavy chain myosin, light chain myosin and G-actin were identified by Western blot analysis using specific monoclonal antibodies. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) followed by Western blot analysis revealed two types of heavy chain myosin (206 and 212 kD), all four types of light chain myosin (15, 16.5, 18 and 20 kD) and a single type of G-actin (42 kD). Chronic TNF-alpha treatment produced a significant decline in the synthesis of all types of myofibrillar proteins, namely heavy chain myosin, light chain myosin and G-actin. TNF-alpha impaired peptide-chain initiation in diaphragm muscle which was reversed by the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) therapy of TNF-alpha treated rats. These findings indicate a significant role for TNF-alpha in the translational regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.

  16. Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors by tivozanib has potential anti-tumour effects on human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Momeny, Majid; Moghaddaskho, Farima; Gortany, Narges K.; Yousefi, Hassan; Sabourinejad, Zahra; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Mirshahvaladi, Shahab; Eyvani, Haniyeh; Barghi, Farinaz; Ahmadinia, Leila; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Dehpour, Ahmad R.; Amanpour, Saeid; Tavangar, Seyyed M.; Dardaei, Leila; Emami, Amir H.; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Ghaffari, Seyed H.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) remains one of the most fatal human malignancies due to its high angiogenic and infiltrative capacities. Even with optimal therapy including surgery, radiotherapy and temozolomide, it is essentially incurable. GBM is among the most neovascularised neoplasms and its malignant progression associates with striking neovascularisation, evidenced by vasoproliferation and endothelial cell hyperplasia. Targeting the pro-angiogenic pathways is therefore a promising anti-glioma strategy. Here we show that tivozanib, a pan-inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, inhibited proliferation of GBM cells through a G2/M cell cycle arrest via inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) signalling pathway and down-modulation of Aurora kinases A and B, cyclin B1 and CDC25C. Moreover, tivozanib decreased adhesive potential of these cells through reduction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Tivozanib diminished GBM cell invasion through impairing the proteolytic cascade of cathepsin B/urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)/matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Combination of tivozanib with EGFR small molecule inhibitor gefitinib synergistically increased sensitivity to gefitinib. Altogether, these findings suggest that VEGFR blockade by tivozanib has potential anti-glioma effects in vitro. Further in vivo studies are warranted to explore the anti-tumour activity of tivozanib in combinatorial approaches in GBM. PMID:28287096

  17. Endolymphatic sac tumour.

    PubMed

    Zulkarnaen, Mohammad; Tang, Ing Ping; Wong, Siong Lung

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of a papillary tumour at the cerebellopontine angle in a 41-year-old man. He presented with left-sided facial and ear pain associated with dizziness, nystagmus and hearing loss. CT scan of the temporal bone showed a destructive tumour at the left cerebellopontine angle. Surgical excision was performed and the diagnosis of the endolymphatic sac tumour was made. Endolymphatic tumour is a low grade adenocarcinoma that originates from the endolymphatic sac. The definitive diagnosis requires a combination of clinical features, radiological finding and pathological correlation.

  18. Tumour progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour’s survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  19. Tumour necrosis factor-α and its receptors in the beneficial effects of vagal stimulation after myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Kong, Shan-Shan; Liu, Jin-Jun; Hwang, Tyzh-Chang; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Lu, Yi; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2011-05-01

    1. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) often activates the sympathetic system and inhibits the vagal system. Long-term vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) exerts several beneficial effects on the ischaemic heart, including an anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether short-term VNS during AMI could inhibit tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression and the effect of TNF receptor (TNFR), key components in inflammatory responses to AMI, in a rodent model. 2. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, namely a control (C), VNS (S), AMI (M) and an AMI group subjected to prior VNS (MS). In the S and MS groups, the right vagus nerve was stimulated electrically for 4 h; in the M and MS groups, AMI was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Haemodynamic data were monitored continuously using a multichannel physiological recorder. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, creatine kinase (CK) leakage and infarct size were determined. The expression of TNF-α and its receptors were analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISA. 3. Compared with the control group, rats in the M group had low blood pressure, high left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, a depressed maximum dP/dt of LV pressure, higher LDH and CK leakage, a larger infarct size, increased TNF-α levels and an increased TNFR1/TNFR2 ratio. However, these presumably harmful effects of AMI were all significantly ameliorated by VNS during AMI (MS group). 4. In conclusion, VNS can rectify ischaemia-induced cardiac dysfunction partly via inhibition of a TNF-α-mediated signalling pathway.

  20. [Immunological safety and sensitizing effect of an MB-7-based vaccine against hepatitis A].

    PubMed

    Smerdova, M A; Usova, S V; Smolina, M P; Netesov, S V; Maĭdaniuk, A G; Muntianova, M A; Nemtsov, Iu V; Kriuk, N I; Iashin, V V; Karpovich, L G; Kalashnikova, T V

    2004-01-01

    The influence of a vaccine based on the MB-7 strain of hepatitis A virus (VP-MB-7) designed at the "Vector" Center of Virology and Biotechnology was studied. VP-MB-7 was found to provoke no allergic response and to have an activating effect on the specific and non-specific responses of cell and humoral immunity similar to those evoked by hepatitis A vaccine "Hep-A-in Vac".

  1. Effects of raloxifene on portal hypertension and hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Lee, Wen-Shin; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Hsin, I-Fang; Hsu, Shao-Jung; Chang, Ting; Huang, Hui-Chun; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2017-05-05

    Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been used extensively for osteoporosis. In addition to the effect of osteoporosis treatment, emerging evidences show that raloxifene affects the vascular function in different tissues. Cirrhosis is characterized with portal hypertension and complicated with hepatic encephalopathy. Portal hypertension affects portal-systemic shunt which leads to hepatic encephalopathy that the vascular modulation might influence severity of hepatic encephalopathy. Herein, we evaluated the impact of raloxifene on bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced cirrhotic rats. The female Sprague-Dawley rats received BDL plus ovariectomy or sham-operation. Four weeks later, rats were divided into 2 subgroups respectively to receive of raloxifene (10mg/kg/day) or saline (vehicle) for 14 days. On the 43th day, motor activities and hemodynamic parameters were measured. Hepatic and vascular mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The histopathological change of liver was examined. We found that the liver biochemistry, ammonia level and motor activity were similar between cirrhotic rats with or without raloxifene administration. The hemodynamic parameters were not significantly different except that raloxifene reduced portal venous inflow. Raloxifene exacerbated hepatic fibrosis and up-regulated hepatic endothelin-1 and cyclooxygenase 2 protein expressions. In addition, raloxifene modulated the mRNA expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase and endothelin-1 in the superior mesenteric artery and collateral vessel. In conclusion, raloxifene aggravates hepatic fibrosis and decreases portal venous inflow in cirrhotic rats without adversely affecting portal hypertension and hepatic encephalopathy. The modulation of hepatic and vascular endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase expressions may play a role in the mechanism.

  2. The effect of diet on tumor necrosis factor stimulation of hepatic lipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Feingold, K.R.; Soued, M.; Serio, M.K.; Adi, S.; Moser, A.H.; Grunfeld, C. )

    1990-06-01

    In this study, we determined the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on serum lipid levels and hepatic lipid synthesis in animals whose diets and feeding conditions were varied to induce changes in baseline serum lipid levels and/or rates of hepatic lipid synthesis. In animals studied at both the nadir and peak of the diurnal cycle of hepatic lipid synthesis, TNF acutely increases serum triglyceride levels, stimulates hepatic fatty acid synthesis, and increases the quantity of newly synthesized fatty acids found in the serum. Similarly, in animals ingesting either high-sucrose or cholesterol-enriched diets, TNF induces the characteristic rapid increase in serum triglyceride levels, hepatic fatty acid synthesis, and quantity of labeled fatty acids in the serum. In animals fed a diet high in triglycerides, using either corn oil or lard, TNF stimulates hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increases the quantity of newly synthesized fatty acids in the serum, but serum triglyceride levels do not change. However, TNF inhibits gastric emptying, which results in a marked decrease in fat absorption in TNF-treated animals. It is likely that a decrease in the dietary contribution to serum triglyceride levels during high-triglyceride feeding counterbalances the increased hepatic contribution induced by TNF treatment. In animals fasted before TNF administration there was no acute change in either serum lipid levels, hepatic fatty acid synthesis, or the quantity of labeled fatty acids in the serum. Thus, TNF stimulates hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increases serum triglyceride levels under many diverse dietary conditions, suggesting that there is a strong linkage between the immune system and lipid metabolism that is independent of most dietary manipulations and may be of fundamental importance in the body's response to infection.

  3. Thiamine deficiency in fulminant hepatic failure and effects of supplementation.

    PubMed

    Labadarios, D; Rossouw, J E; McConnell, J B; Davis, M; Williams, R

    1977-01-01

    Nine out of 24 patients with acute hepatocellular necrosis leading to fulminant hepatic failure showed biochemical evidence of thiamine deficiency early in the course of their illness, probably as a result of inadequate intake of the vitamin. This was corrected by twice daily administration of intravenous vitamin supplements containing thiamine hydrochloride (100 mg b.d.). These studies indicate that conversion of thiamine hydrochloride to its biologically active co-enzyme form, thiamine pyrophosphate, is possible even in the presence of severe acute hepatocellular necrosis, and it is suggested that supplements of the vitamin should be included in the routine management of patients with acute hepatic failure.

  4. In vivo study on the effects of curcumin on the expression profiles of anti-tumour genes (VEGF, CyclinD1 and CDK4) in liver of rats injected with DEN.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chu Zhu; Huang, Wei Zhe; Zhang, Ge; Tang, Dan Ling

    2013-10-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of curcumin, derived from plant Curcuma longa, on oxidative toxicity, and the possible molecular mechanism of antitumour of curcumin in liver cancer rats. Results showed that blood levels of Gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glutathione S-transferase, and liver level of MD were significantly decreased after curcumin feeding. Levels of the liver malondialdehyde MDA, nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis results showed that curcumin treatment significantly decreased liver vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CyclinD1 and CDK4 mRNA expression levels and CyclinD1 and CDK4 proteins levels in liver cancer rats. These findings were confirmed by histopathology. It is concluded that curcumin can protect the liver from the damage caused by N-nitrosodiethylamine. Moreover, curcumin has the potential to be used in a therapy for liver cancer. The present data provide evidence to support the presence of free radicals and VEGF, CyclinD1 and CDK4 mRNA in rat tumour cells. Studies are in progress in order to further characterize the role of VEGF, CyclinD1 and CDK4 mRNA in liver cancer cells and in hepatic therapeutics.

  5. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Hepatitis B » Hepatitis B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis B Entire Lesson for Veterans and the Public ...

  6. Progressive dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Hamish; Tannenburg, Anthony; Walker, David G; Coyne, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) is a benign tumour characterised by cortical location and presentation with drug resistant partial seizures in children. Recently the potential for malignant transformation has been reported, however progression without malignant transformation remains rare. We report a case of clinical and radiologic progression of a DNET in a girl 10 years after initial biopsy.

  7. Inhibitory effects of marine-derived DNA-binding anti-tumour tetrahydroisoquinolines on the Fanconi anaemia pathway

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Sandra; Pérez, Laura; Galmarini, Carlos M; Aracil, Miguel; Tercero, Juan C; Gago, Federico; Albella, Beatriz; Bueren, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We have previously shown that cells with a defective Fanconi anaemia (FA) pathway are hypersensitive to trabectedin, a DNA-binding anti-cancer tetrahydroisoquinoline (DBAT) whose adducts functionally mimic a DNA inter-strand cross link (ICL). Here we expand these observations to new DBATs and investigate whether our findings in primary untransformed cells can be reproduced in human cancer cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Initially, the sensitivity of transformed and untransformed cells, deficient or not in one component of the FA pathway, to mitomycin C (MMC) and three DBATs, trabectedin, Zalypsis and PM01183, was assessed. Then, the functional interaction of these drugs with the FA pathway was comparatively investigated. KEY RESULTS While untransformed FA-deficient haematopoietic cells were hypersensitive to both MMC and DBATs, the response of FA-deficient squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells to DBATs was similar to that of their respective FA-competent counterparts, even though these FA-deficient SCC cells were hypersensitive to MMC. Furthermore, while MMC always activated the FA pathway, the DBATs inhibited the FA pathway in the cancer cell lines tested and this enhanced their response to MMC. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our data show that although DBATs functionally interact with DNA as do agents that generate classical ICL, these drugs should be considered as FA pathway inhibitors rather than activators. Moreover, this effect was most significant in a variety of cancer cells. These inhibitory effects of DBATs on the FA pathway could be exploited clinically with the aim of ‘fanconizing’ cancer cells in order to make them more sensitive to other anti-tumour drugs. PMID:23937566

  8. The effects of season and devil facial tumour disease on the reproductive physiology of the male Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Keeley, T; McGreevy, P D; O'Brien, J K

    2012-01-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is the cause of the rapid decline of wild Tasmanian devils. Female devils are seasonal breeders with births peaking during autumn (i.e. March) but the degree of reproductive seasonality in male devils is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the potential effects of season and DFTD on reproductive function in male devils (n=55). Testicular (1.90±0.23 g) and epididymal (0.90±0.06 g) weights were maximal during autumn and spring (P<0.05), whereas prostate (3.71±0.74 g) and Cowper's gland (0.68±0.22; 0.52±0.21 g) weights peaked during autumn (P<0.001). The motility of spermatozoa from the cauda epididymides extracted post-mortem was similar (P>0.05) across season and disease state (31.5±13.1% total motility). Testicular and epididymal weights were no different between animals displaying late or early-stage DTFD signs or disease-free animals (P>0.1). The accessory sex glands were larger in late-stage DFTD animals than in animals with early-stage disease signs or which were disease-free (P<0.01) but effects of season on this result can't be excluded. Serum testosterone concentrations peaked during summer (0.25±0.18 ng mL(-1)) but values were not different from the preceding and subsequent seasons (P>0.05), nor influenced by disease stage (P>0.1). Seasonal and DFTD-related changes in serum cortisol concentrations were not evident (P>0.1). Male devil reproduction does not appear to be restricted by season nor inhibited by DFTD.

  9. [Effect of metformin on the formation of hepatic fibrosis in type 2 diabetic rats].

    PubMed

    Qiang, Gui-Fen; Zhang, Li; Xuan, Qi; Yang, Xiu-Ying; Shi, Li-Li; Zhang, Heng-Ai; Chen, Bai-Nian; Du, Guan-Hua

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the metformin on the formation of hepatic fibrosis in type 2 diabetic rats and discuss its mechanism of liver-protecting activity. After SD rats were fed with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for four weeks, low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) was injected intraperitoneally to make the animal mode of type 2 diabetes. Then, all diabetic rats was fed with the high-fat diet and metformin (ig, 100 mg x kg(-1)) was given orally to metformin group for four months. After the last administration, fasting blood glucose was determined. The livers were removed to calculate the hepatic coefficient and to make HE and Picro acid-Sirius red staining, immunohistochemistry (alpha-SMA and TGFbeta1) and TUNEL staining in order to evaluate the effect of metformin on the hepatic fibrosis. The animal model of type 2 diabetes with hepatic fibrosis was successfully made. Metformin can significantly alleviate the lesions of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, markedly reduce the expressions of alpha-SMA and TGFbeta1 in liver tissue of type 2 diabetic rats. However, TUNEL staining result suggested that metformin could not reduce apoptosis of hepatocytes. The results suggest that metformin can inhibit the formation of hepatic fibrosis in type 2 diabetes.

  10. Inhibitory effects of retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs) on the growth of human prostate cancer cells and LNCaP prostate tumour xenografts in SCID mice

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, C K; Brodie, A M H; Njar, V C O

    2006-01-01

    In recent studies, we have identified several highly potent all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs). On the basis of previous effects of liarozole (a first-generation RAMBA) on the catabolism of ATRA and on growth of rat Dunning R3227G prostate tumours, we assessed the effects of our novel RAMBAs on human prostate tumour (PCA) cell lines. We examined three different PCA cell lines to determine their capacity to induce P450-mediated oxidation of ATRA. Among the three different cell lines, enhanced catabolism was detected in LNCaP, whereas it was not found in PC-3 and DU-145. This catabolism was strongly inhibited by our RAMBAs, the most potent being VN/14-1, VN/50-1, VN/66-1, and VN/69-1 with IC50 values of 6.5, 90.0, 62.5, and 90.0 nM, respectively. The RAMBAs inhibited the growth of LNCaP cells with IC50 values in the μM-range. In LNCaP cell proliferation assays, VN/14-1, VN/50-1, VN/66-1, and VN/69-1 also enhanced by 47-, 60-, 70-, and 65-fold, respectively, the ATRA-mediated antiproliferative activity. We then examined the molecular mechanism underlying the growth inhibitory properties of ATRA alone and in combination with RAMBAs. The mechanism appeared to involve the induction of differentiation, cell-cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis (TUNEL), involving increase in Bad expression and decrease in Bcl-2 expression. Treatment of LNCaP tumours growing in SCID mice with VN/66-1 and VN/69-1 resulted in modest but statistically significant tumour growth inhibition of 44 and 47%, respectively, while treatment with VN/14-1 was unexpectedly ineffective. These results suggest that some of our novel RAMBAs may be useful agents for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:16449997

  11. Effect of soluble P55 tumour-necrosis factor binding fusion protein on the local Shwartzman and Arthus reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, K. E.; Williams, T. J.; Feldmann, M.; Rossi, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    1. In this study, the effects of a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, and a soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) binding/IgG fusion protein, p55-sf2, on the priming and challenge stages of the local Shwartzman reaction (LSR) were assessed and compared with their effects on the acute inflammatory response induced by recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (rhTNF), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a reversed passive Arthus (RPA) reaction in rabbit skin. 2. The LSR was induced in skin by giving an intradermal (i.d.) priming injection of LPS followed by two i.v. challenge injections 20 h and 22 h later. Accumulation of 51-Cr-labelled red blood cells and [125I]-albumin were measured at 24 h as markers of haemorrhage and oedema formation, respectively. 3. The RPA reaction was induced in the rabbit by giving i.d. injections of Arthus anti-serum (anti-bovine-gamma-globulin, BGG) followed 5 min later by an i.v. injection of the antigen (BGG). Oedema formation and the accumulation of 111In-labelled neutrophils produced in the RPA reaction and in response to i.d. injection of rhTNF and LPS were measured over the 4 h period after inducing the responses. 4. A single local injection of cycloheximide (10 micrograms/site) did not inhibit neutrophil accumulation or oedema formation produced by 100% Arthus anti-sera. Although LPS injected i.d. induced a marked dose-dependent neutrophil accumulation, there was little associated plasma leakage. Cycloheximide (10 micrograms/site) did not significantly inhibit the neutrophil accumulation induced by LPS (0.1 microgram/site). In the LSR, priming i.d. injections of LPS caused a dose-dependent increase in haemorrhage and plasma leakage at skin sites after challenge with LPS (two injections of 100 micrograms, i.v.). Co-injection of a single dose of cycloheximide (10 micrograms/site) with LPS (30 micrograms/site) caused a marked reduction in the amount of haemorrhage. Local cycloheximide (10 micrograms/site) administered

  12. Identification of FISH biomarkers to detect chromosome abnormalities associated with prostate adenocarcinoma in tumour and field effect environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To reduce sampling error associated with cancer detection in prostate needle biopsies, we explored the possibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the histologically benign prostate tissue from patients with adenocarcinoma of prostate. Methods Tumour specimens from 33 radical prostatectomy (RP) cases, histologically benign tissue from 17 of the 33 RP cases, and 26 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) control cases were evaluated with Locus Specific Identifier (LSI) probes MYC (8q24), LPL (8p21.22), and PTEN (10q23), as well as with centromere enumerator probes CEP8, CEP10, and CEP7. A distribution of FISH signals in the tumour and histologically benign adjacent tissue was compared to that in BPH specimens using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results The combination of MYC gain, CEP8 Abnormal, PTEN loss or chromosome 7 aneusomy was positive in the tumour area of all of the 33 specimens from patients with adenocarcinomas, and in 88% of adjacent histologically benign regions (15 out of 17) but in only 15% (4 out of 26) of the benign prostatic hyperplasia control specimens. Conclusions A panel of FISH markers may allow detection of genomic abnormalities that associate with adenocarcinoma in the field adjacent to and surrounding the tumour, and thus could potentially indicate the presence of cancer in the specimen even if the cancer focus itself was missed by biopsy and histology review. PMID:24568597

  13. Effects of a cloned cell line with NK activity on bone marrow transplants, tumour development and metastasis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, John F.; Dennert, Gunther

    1982-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells cloned in vitro have been transferred into NK-deficient hosts. These cells have been shown to have a role in the rejection of allogeneic bone marrow grafts, resistance to both radiation-induced thymic leukaemia and challenge with melanoma tumour cells. It appears that NK cells have an important role in immune surveillance.

  14. On the surviving fraction in irradiated multicellular tumour spheroids: calculation of overall radiosensitivity parameters, influence of hypoxia and volume effects.

    PubMed

    Horas, Jorge A; Olguin, Osvaldo R; Rizzotto, Marcos G

    2005-04-21

    We model the heterogeneous response to radiation of multicellular tumour spheroids assuming position- and volume-dependent radiosensitivity. We propose a method to calculate the overall radiosensitivity parameters to obtain the surviving fraction of tumours. A mathematical model of a spherical tumour with a hypoxic core and a viable rim which is a caricature of a real tumour is constructed. The model is embedded in a two-compartment linear-quadratic (LQ) model, assuming a mixed bivariated Gaussian distribution to attain the radiosensitivity parameters. Ergodicity, i.e., the equivalence between ensemble and volumetric averages is used to obtain the overall radiosensitivities for the two compartments. We obtain expressions for the overall radiosensitivity parameters resulting from the use of both a linear and a nonlinear dependence of the local radiosensitivity with position. The model's results are compared with experimental data of surviving fraction (SF) for multicellular spheroids of different sizes. We make one fit using only the smallest spheroid data and we are able to predict the SF for the larger spheroids. These predictions are acceptable particularly using bounded sensitivities. We conclude with the importance of taking into account the contribution of clonogenic hypoxic cells to radiosensitivity and with the convenience of using bounded local sensitivities to predict overall radiosensitivity parameters.

  15. Comparison of the potential therapeutic effects of interleukin 2 or interleukin 4 secretion by a single tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, P. M.; Flemming, C. L.; Russell, S. J.; McKay, I. A.; MacLennan, K. A.; Box, G. M.; Eccles, S. A.; Collins, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering of a variety of rodent tumour cells to secrete either interleukin 2 (IL-2), or interleukin 4 (IL-4), has been demonstrated to reduce their tumorigenicity. However the mechanisms of action of secreted IL-2 and IL-4 have not been compared in a single rodent tumour. Here we demonstrate that the weakly immunogenic murine fibrosarcoma FS29 had reduced growth rate and in some cases was rejected by syngeneic animals, when modified to secrete either IL-2 or IL-4, but not IL-5. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumour nodules undergoing regression showed stimulation of a largely lymphocytic infiltrate by IL-2 and a macrophage and granulocyte infiltrate, with a small number of lymphocytes by IL-4. Indeed, secretion of low levels of IL-2 and IL-4 in combination resulted in optimal rejection, suggesting that the two cytokines might mobilise different and complementary effector cell mechanisms. Both IL-2 and IL-4-secreting cells failed to induce the rejection of admixed, unmodified FS29 cells. The loss of cytokine secreting cells from such admixtures occurred more rapidly for IL-2-secreting cells. Injection of IL-4-secreting, but not IL-2-secreting FS29 cells could protect mice from a delayed challenge with unmodified FS29 cells. These data suggest that IL-4 secretion stimulates the better long-term host anti-tumour response. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:8347485

  16. Treatment of spontaneous tumours by temporary local ligation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Frederick M.; Kaplan, Martin M.; Meranze, David R.; Gradess, Morton

    1960-01-01

    Previous work in some human cases and in laboratory animals has indicated that temporary local ligation of spontaneous tumours has a selective destructive effect on these tumours, with only temporary inflammation resulting in normal tissues. In the experiments described in this paper, 49 spontaneous accessible tumours in dogs were treated by this method, with periods of ligation of from 4 to 11 hours. Success, as measured by selective necrosis of tumour tissue as compared with normal tissue, was achieved in 29 out of 41 benign tumours, including lipomas, angiomas, adenomas and mixed mammary tumours. Treatment failures were encountered in two cases each of papillomas and fibromas, six mixed mammary tumours and two testicular tumours. Total necrosis of tumour cells occurred in all eight malignant tumours encountered in this series. The outstanding feature was the specific destruction of tumour tissue by a bodily process without participation of any outside agent. Emphasis was placed on an adequate inflammatory response following temporary anoxia, although a precise definition of this inflammation could not be offered. Post-ligation bacterial multiplication, which may be expected to occur in necrotic tumour tissue, is considered to be a secondary effect rather than a possible primary cause of regression and disappearance of the tumour. If ligation treatment can be shown to be successful for a particular type of tumour, it may be possible to apply it to human patients for the treatment of areas not amenable to surgery. The results reported here warrant new experimental approaches to the study of neoplasms at the cellular level to define more precisely the anoxic and inflammatory processes involved in the selective lethal effect on tumour tissues; and the authors suggest that trials should be undertaken of combinations of chemotherapy or irradiation with ligation to reduce ligation time and extend the possible benefits. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7

  17. The effects of tramadol on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mona F.; Gamal, Samar; Shaheen, Mohamed A.; El-Fayoumi, Hassan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic. It has a cardioprotective effect against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in isolated rat heart. We hypothesized that tramadol may exert a similar protective effect on hepatic I/R injury. Hence, the current investigation was designed to study the possible protective effects of tramadol on experimentally-induced hepatic I/R injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Tramadol was administered 30 min before ischemia following which the rats were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Results: Tramadol attenuated hepatic injury induced by I/R as evidenced by the reduction of transaminases, structural changes, and apoptotic cell death. It decreased the level of inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), TNF-α/interleukin-10 (IL-10) ratio, and nuclear factor-κB gene expression. It also increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 levels in hepatic tissues. Furthermore, it reduced oxidative stress parameters except manganese superoxide dismutase activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that tramadol has hepatoprotective effects against hepatic I/R injury via anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antioxidant effects. PMID:27298497

  18. Combined effect of sesamin and soybean phospholipid on hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    We studied the combined effect of sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamine) and soybean phospholipid on lipid metabolism in rats. Male rats were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin, and containing 0 or 50 g/kg soybean phospholipid, for 19 days. Sesamin and soybean phospholipid decreased serum triacylglycerol concentrations and the combination of these compounds further decreased the parameter in an additive fashion. Soybean phospholipid but not sesamin reduced the hepatic concentration of triacylglycerol. The combination failed to cause a strong decrease in hepatic triacylglycerol concentration, presumably due to the up-regulation of Cd36 by sesamin. Combination of sesamin and soybean phospholipid decreased the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in an additive fashion. Sesamin strongly increased the parameters of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Soybean phospholipid increased hepatic activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase although it failed to affect the activity of other enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Sesamin strongly increased hepatic concentration of carnitine. Sesamin and soybean phospholipid combination further increased this parameter, accompanying a parallel increase in mRNA expression of carnitine transporter. These changes can account for the strong decrease in serum triacylglycerol in rats fed a diet containing both sesamin and soybean phospholipid.

  19. Effect of Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Estrogen Metabolic Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Marwa; Shouman, Samia; El-Merzebany, Mahmoud; Kilic, Gokhan; Veenstra, Timothy; Saeed, Muhammad; Wagih, Mohamed; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion; Patel, Deepa; Salama, Salama

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been linked to breast cancer development. Estrogen metabolic pathway is also involved in breast carcinogenesis and DNA adducts formation. In this study we investigated the effect of TNF-α on the estrogen metabolic pathway in MCF-7, a breast cancer cell line. Capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for analysis of estrogen metabolites and estrogen-DNA adducts levels respectively. Reporter gene assay, Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to assess the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes and enzymes. TNF-α significantly increased the total EM and decreased the estrone (E1) / 17-β estradiol (E2) ratio. Moreover, it altered the expression of genes and enzymes involved in E2 activation and deactivation pathways e.g. Cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1), Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). In addition, there were increased levels of some catechol estrogens e.g. 4-hydroxy-estrone (4-OHE1) and 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) with decreased levels of methylated catechols e.g. 2-methoxy estradiol (2-MeOE2). DNA adducts especially 4-OHE1-[2]-1-N3 Adenine was significantly increased. TNF-α directs the estrogen metabolism into more hormonally active and carcinogenic products in MCF-7. This may implicate a new possible explanation for inflammation associated breast cancer. PMID:22866165

  20. Effects of tumour necrosis factor-α on BrdU incorporation in cultured human enterocytes

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, J.; Feighery, C.; O'Farrelly, C.; Martin, G.; Weir, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation is a useful method for studying the pattern of DNA synthesis in proliferating cells. The distribution pattern of incorporated BrdU in villus enterocytes of duodenal explants was analysed after exposure to TNFα in organ culture. TNFα caused a consistent, low level uptake of BrdU in the portion of the nucleus close to the nuclear membrane, this pattern was absent from the control cultures. As these epithelial cells are terminally arrested in G0, the BrdU incorporation was thought not to be due to S phase DNA synthesis, but rather a response to the cytotoxic influence of TNFα. Microtitre plate proliferation assays of cell density and DNA synthesis were devised to study the effects of TNFα on confluent monolayers of the human foetal jejunal cell line I407 and the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line L929. Both cell lines showed a similar response to TNFα. Exposure to TNFα alone did not reduce cell numbers but did cause a significant increase in DNA synthesis (p < 0.05). When cycloheximtde was added in tandem with TNFα there was a significant reduction in cell number (p < 0.001) and level of DNA synthesis (p < 0.01) indicative of cell death. The DNA of cells exposed to TNFα and cycloheximide was fragmented when viewed on an electrophoresis gel. The results show that BrdU incorporation might be a good indicator of damage to the DNA of cells after cytotoxic insult. TNFα may be responsible for villus enterocyte damage in enteropathies such as coeliac disease and GVHR of the small bowel. PMID:18475613

  1. Hepatitis A outbreaks: the effect of a mass vaccination programme.

    PubMed

    Torner, N; Broner, S; Martinez, A; Godoy, P; Batalla, J; Dominguez, A

    2011-04-01

    A Hepatitis A vaccination programme of people belonging to risk groups begun in Catalonia in 1995 and a universal vaccination programme of pre-adolescents 12 years of age with the hepatitis A + B vaccine was added in 1998. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of hepatitis A outbreaks occurring in Catalonia between 1991 and 2007 to determine the associated risk factors and optimize the use of vaccination. Incidence rates of outbreaks, cases and hospitalizations associated with outbreaks and the rate ratios (RR) of person-to-person transmission outbreaks between the periods before and after mass vaccination and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. A rate of 2.45 outbreaks per million persons per year was found. The rate of cases affected in these outbreaks was 1.28 per 10(5) persons per year and the rate of hospitalizations was 0.45 per million persons per year. In person-to-person outbreaks, the highest incidence rate (5.26 and 6.33 per million persons per year) of outbreaks according to the age of the index case was in the 5 to 14 year age group in both periods (RR:0.83; 95% CI:0.48-1.43). A significant increase was observed in the 25 to 44 year age group (RR: 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.77). Hepatitis A vaccination has made an important impact on burden and characteristics of outbreaks and could provide greater benefits to the community if the vaccine was administrated to children during their first years of life.

  2. Comparative hepatic effects of perfluorooctanoic acid and WY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmentally persistent chemical commonly found in humans and wildlife. Induction of liver tumors by PFOA in rodents is thought to be mediated by PPARα activation, although hepatic hypertrophy persists in PPARα-null mice. This study evaluated hepatocyte proliferation, hypertrophy and inflammation in CD-1, SV/129 (WT) or PPARα knock-out (KO) mice after 7 daily treatments of PFOA-NH4+ (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg, p.o.) or the prototype PPARα-agonist Wyeth 14,643 (WY, 50 mg/kg). Tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy, and proliferation was quantified by PCNA labeling index (LI). PFOA produced hepatocyte hypertrophy and increased LI in WT mice dose-dependently; these changes were similar to those elicited by WY. Ultrastructural alterations (primarily peroxisome proliferation) were similar between WY- and PFOA-treated WT mice. WY-treated KO mice were not different from KO-controls. Dose-dependent increase in accumulation of large, clear cytoplasmic vacuoles was seen in PFOA-exposed KO mice, but no hepatic inflammation was indicated, while increased LI was detected only at the 10 mg/kg. These data suggest that PPARα is required for WY- and PFOA-induced alterations in WT mouse liver. Hepatic enlargement in PPAR KO mice may be, in part, due to an accumulation of cytoplasmic vacuoles that contain PFOA. Perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent compound in the environment that has raised human health concer

  3. Effect of sulfonylureas on hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, T.B.

    1986-08-01

    In isolated rat livers perfused with oleic acid (0.1 mM), infusion of tolbutamide or glyburide decreased the rate of ketogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was maximal at 2.0 mM and 10 M concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide, respectively. Neither tolbutamide nor glyburide inhibited ketogenesis in livers perfused with octanoate. The inhibition of hepatic ketogenesis by sulfonylureas was independent of perfusate oleic acid concentration. Additionally, in rat livers perfused with oleic acid in the presence of L-(-)-carnitine (10 mM), submaximal concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide did not inhibit hepatic ketogenesis. Finally, glyburide infusion into livers perfused with (U- $C)oleic acid (0.1 mM) increased the rate of UC label incorporation into hepatic triglycerides by 2.5-fold. These data suggest that both tolbutamide and glyburide inhibit long-chain fatty acid oxidation by inhibition the key regulatory enzyme, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, most probably by competing with L-(-)-carnitine.

  4. Monte Carlo study of the dose enhancement effect of gold nanoparticles during X-ray therapies and evaluation of the anti-angiogenic effect on tumour capillary vessels.

    PubMed

    Amato, Ernesto; Italiano, Antonio; Leotta, Salvatore; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are a promising radiosensitizer agent in radiotherapy. Through a simulation performed with the Geant4 Monte Carlo code, we evaluated the dose enhancement effect of GNPs during therapies with an x-ray tube operating at 150 kV (E = 55 keV and E(max) = 150 keV) and we studied the impact of GNP diffusion out of the tumour vessels, in terms of antiangiogenic and cytotoxic effects. Firstly, a single x-ray beam was assumed to irradiate a parallelepiped volume of soft tissue, in which a GNP-doped "target" volume was placed at different depths. Average dose enhancement factors (DEF) in presence of GNPs were obtained as a function of the target depth and GNP concentration, uniformly distributed; values ranging between 1.6 for 10 mg Au/g at 0 cm and 7.2 for 200 mg Au/g at 5 cm were determined. Furtherly, a second geometry was adopted, in which a blood capillary vessel (10 μm thick and 10 μm of inner radius) was placed at the centre of a cubic volume of soft tissue; doses and DEFs to the capillary endothelium as well as to the surrounding viable tumour were evaluated, for different models of GNP diffusion. Our results indicate that the radial DEF profiles around the vessel are in close relationship with the radial profiles of GNP concentration assumed, except for at sharp gradients of concentration. DEFs at the endothelium ranged from 1.6 to 6.5, for GNP concentrations in the blood of 10 and 200 mg/ml, respectively. These data can be helpful for the development of new and more specific GNP-based radiosensitizers of potential interest in radiotherapy, exploiting the combined benefit of anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic dose enhancement effects.

  5. Implications for immunosurveillance of altered HLA class I phenotypes in human tumours.

    PubMed

    Garrido, F; Ruiz-Cabello, F; Cabrera, T; Pérez-Villar, J J; López-Botet, M; Duggan-Keen, M; Stern, P L

    1997-02-01

    HLA class I downregulation is a frequent event associated with tumour invasion and development. Altered HLA class I tumour phenotypes can have profound effects on T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell antitumour responses. Here, Federico Garrido and colleagues analyse these altered tumour phenotypes in detail, indicating their potential relevance for implementation of immunotherapeutic protocols and strategies to overcome tumour escape mechanisms.

  6. Regressive Effect of Myricetin on Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shu-Fang; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Peng; Qiu, Yu-Yu; Jiang, Yu-Yu; Tang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w) while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles showed that myricetin significantly altered the expression profiles of 177 genes which were involved in 12 biological pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and peroxisome. Further research indicated that myricetin elevated hepatic nuclear Nrf2 translocation, increased the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), reduced the protein expression of PPARγ, and normalized the expressions of genes that were involved in peroxisome and the PPAR signaling pathway. Our data indicated that myricetin might represent an effective therapeutic agent to treat HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via activating the Nrf2 pathway and the PPAR signaling pathway. PMID:27973423

  7. Regressive Effect of Myricetin on Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shu-Fang; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Peng; Qiu, Yu-Yu; Jiang, Yu-Yu; Tang, Xue

    2016-12-11

    Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w) while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles showed that myricetin significantly altered the expression profiles of 177 genes which were involved in 12 biological pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and peroxisome. Further research indicated that myricetin elevated hepatic nuclear Nrf2 translocation, increased the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), reduced the protein expression of PPARγ, and normalized the expressions of genes that were involved in peroxisome and the PPAR signaling pathway. Our data indicated that myricetin might represent an effective therapeutic agent to treat HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via activating the Nrf2 pathway and the PPAR signaling pathway.

  8. Preparation of corn (Zea mays) peptides and their protective effect against alcohol-induced acute hepatic injury in NH mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Mei; Guo, Ping; Hu, Xin; Xu, Li; Zhang, Xue-Zhong

    2007-07-01

    CPS [corn (Zea mays) peptides] were prepared from corn gluten meal by proteolysis with alcalase, an alkaline protease. The molecular-mass distribution of CPS is from 200 to 1000 Da as determined by MS. The amino acid composition of CPS was also analysed by HPLC. CPS contains almost no free amino acids. The protective effect of CPS against acute hepatic injuries induced by alcohol was verified in NH mice that were fed with different dosages of CPS for 30 days and subsequently given an acute dose of alcohol orally. As a result, CPS reduced both hepatic malondialdehyde and triacylglycerol levels, along with enhanced hepatic GSH (glutathione) levels, relative to the control. Hepatic histological changes were also observed. The result indicates that CPS is capable of attenuating ethanol-induced hepatic injury. The effect of CPS on removing superoxide anion in vitro was also studied as an additional proof that CPS is capable of abating hepatic superoxidant stress.

  9. Protective effect of morin on dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Seung; Jung, Kyung Hee; Park, In-Suh; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Don-Haeng; Hong, Soon-Sun

    2009-04-01

    Morin, a plant-derived flavonoid, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of morin on hepatic fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Oral administration of morin remarkably prevented weight loss in the body and liver from DMN and inhibited the elevation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and total bilirubin levels. For the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis-related factors, we investigated expressions of collagen type I, transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) in mRNA and protein levels. We observed that morin significantly reduced the expression of collagen type I, TGF-beta(1), and alpha-SMA on hepatic fibrosis induced by DMN. Taken together, this study demonstrated that morin showed hepatoprotective and antifibrogenic effects against DMN-induced hepatic injury. This suggests that morin may be useful in preventing the development of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  10. Antioxidant effects of xanthohumol and functional impact on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Hartkorn, Andreas; Hoffmann, Florian; Ajamieh, Hussam; Vogel, Susanne; Heilmann, Jörg; Gerbes, Alexander L; Vollmar, Angelika M; Zahler, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    Therapeutic effects of dietary flavonoids have been attributed mainly to their antioxidant capacity. Xanthohumol (1), a prominent flavonoid of the hop plant, Humulus lupulus, was investigated for its antioxidant potential and for its effect on NF-kappaB activation. To examine the biological relevance of 1, a hepatic ischemia/reperfusion model was chosen as a widely accepted model of oxidative stress generation. The impact of 1 on endogenous antioxidant systems, on the NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway as well as on apoptotic parameters, and on hepatic tissue damage was evaluated. Compound 1 markedly decreased the level of reactive oxygen species in vitro. Furthermore, levels of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants were restored after pretreatment in postischemic hepatic tissue, and lipid peroxidation was attenuated. NF-kappaB activity was reduced in vitro as well as in hepatic tissue after ischemia/reperfusion upon pretreatment with 1. In addition, the phosphorylation of Akt was markedly inhibited. Surprisingly, 1 decreased the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-X and increased caspase-3 like-activity, a proapoptotic parameter. Moreover, hepatic tissue damage as well as TNF-alpha levels increased in xanthohumol-pretreated liver tissue after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, xanthohumol did not protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat liver, despite its antioxidant and NF-kappaB inhibitory properties.

  11. Comprehensive insights into microcystin-LR effects on hepatic lipid metabolism using cross-omics technologies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongyao; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Bing; Yin, Jinbao; Yu, Yunjiang; Yang, Liuyan

    2016-09-05

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) can induce hepatic tissue damages and molecular toxicities, but its effects on lipid metabolism remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of MC-LR exposure on mice lipid metabolism and uncovered the underlying mechanism through metabonomic, transcriptomic and metagenomic analyses after administration of mice with MC-LR by gavage for 28 d. Increased liver weight and abdominal fat weight, and evident hepatic lipid vacuoles accumulation were observed in the mice fed with 0.2mg/kg/d MC-LR. Serum nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that MC-LR treatment altered the levels of serum metabolites including triglyceride, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and very low density lipoprotein. Digital Gene Expression technology was used to reveal differential expression of hepatic transcriptomes, demonstrating that MC-LR treatment disturbed hepatic UFA biosynthesis and activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathways via Pparγ, Fabp1 and Fabp2 over-expression. Metagenomic analyses of gut microbiota revealed that MC-LR exposure also increased abundant ratio of Firmicutes vs. Bacteroidetes in gut and altered biosynthetic pathways of various microbial metabolic and pro-inflammatory molecules. In conclusion, oral MC-LR exposure can induce hepatic lipid metabolism disorder mediated by UFA biosynthesis and PPAR activation, and gut microbial community shift may play an important role in the metabolic disturbance.

  12. Contrasting effects of fish oil and safflower oil on hepatic peroxisomal and tissue lipid content.

    PubMed

    Neschen, Susanne; Moore, Irene; Regittnig, Werner; Yu, Chun Li; Wang, Yanlin; Pypaert, Marc; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I

    2002-02-01

    To examine the mechanism by which fish oil protects against fat-induced insulin resistance, we studied the effects of control, fish oil, and safflower oil diets on peroxisomal content, fatty acyl-CoA, diacylglycerol, and ceramide content in rat liver and muscle. We found that, in contrast to control and safflower oil-fed rats, fish oil feeding induced a 150% increase in the abundance of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in liver but lacked similar effects in muscle. This was paralleled by an almost twofold increase in hepatic peroxisome content (both P < 0.002 vs. control and safflower). These changes in the fish oil-fed rats were associated with a more than twofold lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol, as well as intramuscular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA, content. In conclusion, these data strongly support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids protect against fat-induced insulin resistance by serving as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha ligands and thereby induce hepatic, but not intramuscular, peroxisome proliferation. In turn, an increased hepatic beta-oxidative capacity results in lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol and intramyocellular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA content.

  13. The Effects of Physiological and Environmental Factors on Hepatic Perfusion and First-Pass Metabolism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, Marlene Woodruff

    The interaction of three important parameters; hepatic blood flow (Q_{rm H} ), plasma protein binding (f), and hepatic intrinsic clearance (CL_{rm int}) determines the disposition of agents undergoing extensive first-pass metabolism. This collection of studies focuses on the interaction of these parameters in man and the rat in the presence and absence of a given physiological and environmental perturbation. Potential mechanisms implicated in the "Food Effect" phenomenon whereby concomitant food intake increases the bioavailability a basic lipophilic drug are examined. These investigations provide insight as to the physiological response of the liver in the face of nutritional, pharmacological and physiological perturbations. The measurement of hepatic blood flow is a necessary endeavor before and understanding of the hepatic circulation or hepatic clearance concepts can be realized. Preliminary studies were performed to improve our understanding of the factors affecting the interpretation of hepatic blood flow estimates. It has been postulated that this food effect is caused at least in part by a transient increase in Q _{rm H} with its associated decrease in hepatic first-pass metabolism. Posture was manipulated in such a manner as to simulate the hepatic blood flow pattern observed in postprandial subjects. Although transient changes in Q_{rm H } comparable in magnitude and duration to those encountered after food consumption were observed, the AUC _{rm oral} for propanolol was not affected. It is important to assess the free concentration being presented to the organ which is highly extracting the drug. Single macronutrient feedings of glucose and vitamin-free casein to male Sprague-Dawley rats did not produce significant changes in the serum protein binding of a model basic lipophilic drug (quinidine) in systemic or hepatic blood. It has been postulated that food intake may have a greater influence on the bioavailability of metoprolol (a high clearance drug

  14. Hepatic progenitor cell resistance to TGF-{beta}1's proliferative and apoptotic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J. Brian; Rice, Lisa; Sadiq, Tim; Brittain, Evan; Song, Lujun; Wang Jian; Gerber, David A. . E-mail: David_Gerber@med.unc.edu

    2005-04-01

    The success of hepatocellular therapies using stem or progenitor cell populations is dependent upon multiple factors including the donor cell, microenvironment, and etiology of the liver injury. The following experiments investigated the impact of TGF-{beta}1 on a previously described population of hepatic progenitor cells (HPC). The majority of the hepatic progenitor cells were resistant to endogenously produced TGF-{beta}1's proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects unlike more well-differentiated cellular populations (e.g., mature hepatocytes). Surprisingly, in vitro TGF-{beta}1 supplementation significantly inhibited de novo hepatic progenitor cell colony formation possibly via an indirect mechanism(s). Therefore despite the HPC's direct resistance to supplemental TGF-{beta}1, this cytokine's inhibitory effect on colony formation could have a potential negative impact on the use of these cells as a therapy for patients with liver disease.

  15. Fractionated Radiotherapy with 3 x 8 Gy Induces Systemic Anti-Tumour Responses and Abscopal Tumour Inhibition without Modulating the Humoral Anti-Tumour Response

    PubMed Central

    Habets, Thomas H. P. M.; Oth, Tammy; Houben, Ans W.; Huijskens, Mirelle J. A. J.; Senden-Gijsbers, Birgit L. M. G.; Schnijderberg, Melanie C. A.; Brans, Boudewijn; Dubois, Ludwig J.; Lambin, Philippe; De Saint-Hubert, Marijke; Germeraad, Wilfred T. V.; Tilanus, Marcel G. J.; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that fractionated radiotherapy (RT) can result in distant non-irradiated (abscopal) tumour regression. Although preclinical studies indicate the importance of T cells in this infrequent phenomenon, these studies do not preclude that other immune mechanisms exhibit an addition role in the abscopal effect. We therefore addressed the question whether in addition to T cell mediated responses also humoral anti-tumour responses are modulated after fractionated RT and whether systemic dendritic cell (DC) stimulation can enhance tumour-specific antibody production. We selected the 67NR mammary carcinoma model since this tumour showed spontaneous antibody production in all tumour-bearing mice. Fractionated RT to the primary tumour was associated with a survival benefit and a delayed growth of a non-irradiated (contralateral) secondary tumour. Notably, fractionated RT did not affect anti-tumour antibody titers and the composition of the immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes. Likewise, we demonstrated that treatment of tumour-bearing Balb/C mice with DC stimulating growth factor Flt3-L did neither modulate the magnitude nor the composition of the humoral immune response. Finally, we evaluated the immune infiltrate and Ig isotype content of the tumour tissue using flow cytometry and found no differences between treatment groups that were indicative for local antibody production. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the 67NR mammary carcinoma in Balb/C mice is associated with a pre-existing antibody response. And, we show that in tumour-bearing Balb/C mice with abscopal tumour regression such pre-existing antibody responses are not altered upon fractionated RT and/or DC stimulation with Flt3-L. Our research indicates that evaluating the humoral immune response in the setting of abscopal tumour regression is not invariably associated with therapeutic effects. PMID:27427766

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Tanshinone IIA on Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya-Wei; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB pathways in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is one therapeutic approach to hepatic fibrosis. Tanshinone IIA (C19H18O3, Tan IIA) is a lipophilic diterpene isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, with reported anti-inflammatory activity. We tested whether Tan IIA could inhibit HSC activation. Materials and Methods The cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/ml). Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. HSC-T6 cells were pretreated with Tan IIA (1, 3 and 10 µM), then induced by LPS (100 ng/ml). NF-κB activity was evaluated by the luciferase reporter gene assay. Western blotting analysis was performed to measure NF-κB-p65, and phosphorylations of MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38). Cell chemotaxis was assessed by both wound-healing assay and trans-well invasion assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect gene expression in HSC-T6 cells. Results All concentrations of drugs showed no cytotoxicity against HSC-T6 cells. LPS stimulated NF-κB luciferase activities, nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65, and phosphorylations of ERK, JNK and p38, all of which were suppressed by Tan IIA. In addition, Tan IIA significantly inhibited LPS-induced HSCs chemotaxis, in both wound-healing and trans-well invasion assays. Moreover, Tan IIA attenuated LPS-induced mRNA expressions of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, iNOS, and α-SMA in HSC-T6 cells. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that Tan IIA decreased LPS-induced HSC activation. PMID:25076488

  17. Tumour-induced neoneurogenesis and perineural tumour growth: a mathematical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolas, Georgios; Bianchi, Arianna; Syrigos, Konstantinos N.

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that tumours induce the formation of a lymphatic and a blood vasculature around themselves. A similar but far less studied process occurs in relation to the nervous system and is referred to as neoneurogenesis. The relationship between tumour progression and the nervous system is still poorly understood and is likely to involve a multitude of factors. It is therefore relevant to study tumour-nerve interactions through mathematical modelling: this may reveal the most significant factors of the plethora of interacting elements regulating neoneurogenesis. The present work is a first attempt to model the neurobiological aspect of cancer development through a system of differential equations. The model confirms the experimental observations that a tumour is able to promote nerve formation/elongation around itself, and that high levels of nerve growth factor and axon guidance molecules are recorded in the presence of a tumour. Our results also reflect the observation that high stress levels (represented by higher norepinephrine release by sympathetic nerves) contribute to tumour development and spread, indicating a mutually beneficial relationship between tumour cells and neurons. The model predictions suggest novel therapeutic strategies, aimed at blocking the stress effects on tumour growth and dissemination.

  18. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is a contagious viral infection that can easily affect children and adults. It is one of the most common types of hepatitis virus. Often when you hear about hepatitis A ...

  19. Effect of Trichlorfon on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Crucian Carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Xu, WeiNa; Liu, WenBin; Shao, XianPing; Jiang, GuangZhen; Li, XianngFei

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxic effects of the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Seventy-five fish were divided into five groups (each group in triplicate), and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L of trichlorfon and fed with commercial feed for 30 d. At the end of the experiment, plasma and hepatic lipid metabolic biochemical status were analyzed. Triglyceride contents were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in liver but decreased in plasma after 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L trichlorfon treatments. Plasma insulin contents were markedly (P < 0.05) increased when trichlorfon concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 4.0 mg/L. There were no significant differences in hepatic hormone-sensitive lipase contents between the trichlorfon-treated fish and the controls. Hepatic cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B100 contents were decreased in the fish when trichlorfon concentration was 2.0 mg/L. Furthermore, electron microscope observations showed rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatation and mitochondrial vacuolization in hepatocytes with trichlorfon exposure. On the basis of morphological and physiological evidence, trichlorfon influenced crucian carp hepatic pathways of lipid metabolism and hepatocellular ultrastructure, which resulted in lipid accumulation in the liver. PMID:22897202

  20. Mediated effect of endotoxin and lead upon hepatic metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Kuttner, R.E.; Ebata, T.; Schumer, W.

    1984-10-01

    A test was made of the possibility that gram-negative bacterial cell wall lipopolysaccharides acted directly on key glucoregulatory enzymes in rat liver cytosol to cause the characteristic hypoglycemia of severe endotoxemia. Fasted male rats were sensitized to endotoxin by the simultaneous intravenous injection of lead acetate. The minimum systemic dosage of endotoxin necessary to perturb the normal pattern of hepatic glycolytic intermediates was determined by serial testing with diminishing dosages of endotoxin. The hepatocyte concentration of endotoxin was then calculated from this minimum dosage by use of literature data on the fraction of endotoxin delivered to liver cells after a systemic intravenous injection of radiochromium labeled lipopolysaccharides. Accepting a molecular weight of 118,000 daltons for the smallest endotoxin monomer capable of evoking a physiologic response, the molar amount of endotoxin present in 1 gram of hepatocytes was readily calculated. The concentration of glucoregulatory enzymes in parenchymal cells was then estimated from other literature sources. It was found that the amount of endotoxin in the hepatocytes was insufficient to combine directly with even 1 per cent of the quantity of a single key glucoregulatory enzyme in liver parenchyma. Since a one to one stoichiometric reaction between endotoxin and enzyme could not occur in the liver cytosol, a direct interaction mechanism between agonist and biocatalyst can be ruled out. It is concluded that bacterial endotoxin must act on hepatic glucoregulation by an indirect mechanism presumably based upon the release and operation of mediators.

  1. Gallic acid indanone and mangiferin xanthone are strong determinants of immunosuppressive anti-tumour effects of Mangifera indica L. bark in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    García-Rivera, Dagmar; Delgado, René; Bougarne, Nadia; Haegeman, Guy; Berghe, Wim Vanden

    2011-06-01

    Vimang is a standardized extract derived from Mango bark (Mangifera Indica L.), commonly used as anti-inflammatory phytomedicine, which has recently been used to complement cancer therapies in cancer patients. We have further investigated potential anti-tumour effects of glucosylxanthone mangiferin and indanone gallic acid, which are both present in Vimang extract. We observed significant anti-tumour effects of both Vimang constituents in the highly aggressive and metastatic breast cancer cell type MDA-MB231. At the molecular level, mangiferin and gallic acid both inhibit classical NFκB activation by IKKα/β kinases, which results in impaired IκB degradation, NFκB translocation and NFκB/DNA binding. In contrast to the xanthone mangiferin, gallic acid further inhibits additional NFκB pathways involved in cancer cell survival and therapy resistance, such as MEK1, JNK1/2, MSK1, and p90RSK. This results in combinatorial inhibition of NFκB activity by gallic acid, which results in potent inhibition of NFκB target genes involved in inflammation, metastasis, anti-apoptosis and angiogenesis, such as IL-6, IL-8, COX2, CXCR4, XIAP, bcl2, VEGF. The cumulative NFκB inhibition by gallic acid, but not mangiferin, is also reflected at the level of cell survival, which reveals significant tumour cytotoxic effects in MDA-MB231 cells. Altogether, we identify gallic acid, besides mangiferin, as an essential anti-cancer component in Vimang extract, which demonstrates multifocal inhibition of NFκB activity in the cancer-inflammation network.

  2. New frontiers for astrocytic tumours.

    PubMed

    Nano, Rosanna; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Corti, Maurizio; Paolini, Alessandro; Pasi, Francesca; Corbella, Franco; DI Liberto, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common type of primary brain tumour, remains an unsolved clinical problem. A great deal of work has been done in an effort to understand the biology and genetics of glioblastoma multiforme, but clinically effective treatments remain elusive. It is well known that malignant gliomas develop resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. In this review we evaluated the literature data regarding therapeutic progress for the treatment of astrocytic tumours, focusing our attention on new frontiers for glioblastoma. The research studies performed in in vitro and in vivo models show that the application of hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles is safe and could be a promising tool in the treatment of glioblastoma patients. Our efforts are focused towards new fields of research, for example nanomedicine and the study of the uptake and cytotoxic effects of magnetic nanoparticles. The improvement of the quality of life of patients, by increasing their survival rate is the best result to be pursued, since these tumours are considered as ineradicable.

  3. Cocoa butter and safflower oil elicit different effects on hepatic gene expression and lipid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Carolina; Parini, Paolo; Ostojic, Jovanca; Cheung, Louisa; Hu, Jin; Zadjali, Fahad; Tahir, Faheem; Brismar, Kerstin; Norstedt, Gunnar; Tollet-Egnell, Petra

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cocoa butter and safflower oil on hepatic transcript profiles, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy rats. Cocoa butter-based high-fat feeding for 3 days did not affect plasma total triglyceride (TG) levels or TG-rich VLDL particles or hepatic insulin sensitivity, but changes in hepatic gene expression were induced that might lead to increased lipid synthesis, lipotoxicity, inflammation and insulin resistance if maintained. Safflower oil increased hepatic beta-oxidation, was beneficial in terms of circulating TG-rich VLDL particles, but led to reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity. The effects of safflower oil on hepatic gene expression were partly overlapping with those exerted by cocoa butter, but fewer transcripts from anabolic pathways were altered. Increased hepatic cholesterol levels and increased expression of hepatic CYP7A1 and ABCG5 mRNA, important gene products in bile acid production and cholesterol excretion, were specific effects elicited by safflower oil only. Common effects on gene expression included increased levels of p8, DIG-1 IGFBP-1 and FGF21, and reduced levels of SCD-1 and SCD-2. This indicates that a lipid-induced program for hepatic lipid disposal and cell survival was induced by 3 days of high-fat feeding, independent on the lipid source. Based on the results, we speculate that hepatic TG infiltration leads to reduced expression of SCD-1, which might mediate either neutral, beneficial or unfavorable effects on hepatic metabolism upon high-fat feeding, depending on which fatty acids were provided by the diet.

  4. Effect of Helicteres isora bark extract on blood glucose and hepatic enzymes in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G; Murugesan, A G; Rajasekara Pandian, M

    2006-04-01

    The effect of oral administration of an aqueous extract of the bark of Helicteres isora was investigated on blood glucose and plasma antioxidant status in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The study was also undertaken to evaluate the role of hepatic enzymes in experimental diabetes. Oral administration of a bark extract of Helicteres isora (100, 200 mg/kg) in STZ diabetic rats caused a significant increase in body weight, hepatic hexokinase activity and significant decrease in hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase, serum acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Based on these findings, we suggest that Helicteres isora possesses hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity and is able to ameliorate biochemical damage in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  5. Effect of naked eukaryotic expression plasmid encoding rat augmenter of liver regeneration on acute hepatic injury and hepatic failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Liu, Dian-Wu; Liu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Long-Mei; Wang, Li-Qin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the protective effect of eukaryotic expression plasmid encoding augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) on acute hepatic injury and hepatic failure in rats. METHODS: The PCR-amplified ALR gene was recombined with pcDNA3 plasmid, and used to treat rats with acute hepatic injury. The rats with acute hepatic injury induced by intraperitoneal injection of 2 mL/kg 50% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were randomly divided into saline control group and recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid treatment groups. Recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid DNA (50 or 200 μg/kg) was injected into the rats with acute hepatic injury intraven-ously, intraperitoneally, or intravenously and intraperitoneally in combination 4 h after CCl4 administration, respectively. The recombinant plasmid was injected once per 12 h into all treatment groups four times, and the rats were decapitated 12 h after the last injection. Hepatic histopathological alterations were observed after HE staining, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in liver tissue was detected by immunohistochemical staining, and the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was determined by biochemical method. The recombinant plasmid DNA (200 μg/kg) and saline were intraperitoneally injected into the rats with acute hepatic failure induced by intraperitoneal injection of 4 mL/kg 50% CCl4 after 4 h of CCl4 administration, respectively. Rats living over 96 h were considered as survivals. RESULTS: The sequence of ALR cDNA of recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid was accordant with the reported sequence of rat ALR cDNA. After the rats with acute hepatic injury were treated with recombinant pcDNA3-ALR plasmid, the degree of liver histopathological injury markedly decreased. The pathologic liver tissues, in which hepatic degeneration and necrosis of a small amount of hepatocytes and a large amount of infiltrating inflammatory cells were observed, and they became basically normal in the

  6. Additive Effects of Nicotine and High-Fat Diet on Hepatic Steatosis in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Theodore C.; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Parveen, Meher; Najjar, Sonia M.; Liu, Yanjun; Mangubat, Michael; Shin, Chang-Sung; Lyzlov, Alexei; Ivey, Rasheed; Shaheen, Magda; French, Samuel W.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease and may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We hypothesize that in the presence of nicotine, high-fat diet (HFD) causes more severe hepatic steatosis in obese mice. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal chow diet or HFD and received twice daily injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight, ip) or saline for 10 wk. Light microscopic image analysis revealed significantly higher lipid accumulation in livers from mice on HFD plus nicotine (190 ± 19 μm2), compared with mice on HFD alone (28 ± 1.2 μm2). A significant reduction in the percent volume of endoplasmic reticulum (67.8%) and glycogen (49.2%) was also noted in hepatocytes from mice on HFD plus nicotine, compared with mice on HFD alone. The additive effects of nicotine on the severity of HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was associated with significantly greater oxidative stress, increased hepatic triglyceride levels, higher incidence of hepatocellular apoptosis, inactivation (dephosphorylation) of AMP-activated protein kinase, and activation of its downstream target acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase. Treatment with acipimox, an inhibitor of lipolysis, significantly reduced nicotine plus HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. We conclude that: 1) greater oxidative stress coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase mediate the additive effects of nicotine and HFD on hepatic steatosis in obese mice and 2) increased lipolysis is an important contributor to hepatic steatosis. We surmise that nicotine exposure is likely to exacerbate the metabolic abnormalities induced by high-fat intake in obese patients. PMID:23093702

  7. [Effects of calcitriol and alfacalcidol on an osteoporosis model in rats with hepatic failure].

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, A; Ishibashi, Y; Kuriyama, K; Tachiiri, T; Kusajima, H; Kojima, E; Momo, K

    1999-01-01

    To predict the potential utility of calcitriol in human osteoporosis with hepatic dysfunction, we examined the effects of calcitriol and alfacalcidol in ovariectomized (OVX) aged-rats with CCl4-induced hepatic failure. In OVX+CCl4 rats, GOT, GTP, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin increased and hepatic enzyme activity (cytochrome b5 and P450) decreased. Repeated oral doses of calcitriol (0.1 and 0.2 microgram/kg) for 51 days inhibited a decrease in serum calcium concentration. This effect was more potent than that of alfacalcidol at the same dose. Both drugs tended to inhibit a decrease in femoral calcium contents. Calcitriol (0.2 microgram/kg) prevented a decrease in femoral bone density (dry and ash weight per volume), unlike alfacalcidol. Soft X-ray imaging analysis revealed that both drugs tended to inhibit the decrease in femoral bone density. There were no differences in the femoral bone strength between OVX+CCl4 and sham-operated rats. The serum calcitriol concentrations increased after the last doses of calcitriol, while they did not increase after the last dose of alfacalcidol. All these effects of calcitriol were related to the serum calcitriol levels. These results suggest that calcitriol, unlike alfacalcidol, may have a clinical therapeutic effect in osteoporosis with hepatic dysfunction.

  8. OVERVIEW OF AN INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATION ON EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF MODEL HEPATOTOXICANTS ON HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the Effects of Methapyrilene and Clofibrate on Hepatic Gene Expression: A Collaboration Between Laboratories and a Comparison of Platform and Analytical Approaches

    Roger G. Ulrich1, John C. Rockett2, G. Gordon Gibson3 and Syril Pettit4

    1 Rosetta Inpharmat...

  9. Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidase and Lysyl Oxidase-Like Enzymes Has Tumour-Promoting and Tumour-Suppressing Roles in Experimental Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Maria; Adamo, Hanibal; Bergh, Anders; Halin Bergström, Sofia

    2016-01-25

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and LOX-like (LOXL) enzymes are key players in extracellular matrix deposition and maturation. LOX promote tumour progression and metastasis, but it may also have tumour-inhibitory effects. Here we show that orthotopic implantation of rat prostate AT-1 tumour cells increased LOX and LOXLs mRNA expressions in the tumour and in the surrounding non-malignant prostate tissue. Inhibition of LOX enzymes, using Beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), initiated before implantation of AT-1 cells, reduced tumour growth. Conversely, treatment that was started after the tumours were established resulted in unaffected or increased tumour growth. Moreover, treatment with BAPN did not suppress the formation of spontaneous lymph node metastases, or lung tumour burden, when tumour cells were injected intravenously. A temporal decrease in collagen fibre content, which is a target for LOX, was observed in tumours and in the tumour-adjacent prostate tissue. This may explain why early BAPN treatment is more effective in inhibiting tumour growth compared to treatment initiated later. Our data suggest that the enzymatic function of the LOX family is context-dependent, with both tumour-suppressing and tumour-promoting properties in prostate cancer. Further investigations are needed to understand the circumstances under which LOX inhibition may be used as a therapeutic target for cancer patients.

  10. Hepatitis E.

    PubMed

    Krawczynski, K; Aggarwal, R; Kamili, S

    2000-09-01

    Hepatitis E, previously known as enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis, is an infectious viral disease with clinical and morphologic features of acute hepatitis. Its causative agent, hepatitis E virus, consists of small, 32- to 34-nm diameter, icosahedral, nonenveloped particles with a single-stranded, positive-sense, 7.5-kb RNA. The virus has two main geographically distinct strains, Asian and Mexican; recently, novel isolates from nonendemic areas and a genetically related swine HEV have been described. HEV is responsible for large epidemics of acute hepatitis and a proportion of sporadic hepatitis cases in the Indian subcontinent, southeast and central Asia, the Middle East, parts of Africa, and Mexico. The virus is excreted in feces and is transmitted predominantly by fecal-oral route, usually through contaminated water. Person-to-person transmission is uncommon. Clinical attack rates are the highest among young adults. Recent evidence suggests that humans with subclinical HEV infection and animals may represent reservoirs of HEV; however, further data are needed. Diagnosis of hepatitis E is usually made by detection of specific IgM antibody, which disappears rapidly over a few months; IgG anti-HEV persists for at least a few years. Clinical illness is similar to other forms of acute viral hepatitis except in pregnant women, in whom illness is particularly severe with a high mortality rate. Subclinical and unapparent infections may occur; however, chronic infection is unknown. No specific treatment is yet available. Use of clean drinking water and proper sanitation is currently the most effective method of prevention. Passive immunization has not been proved to be effective, and recombinant vaccines for travelers to disease-endemic areas and for pregnant women currently are being developed.

  11. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... related side effects. The hepatic function panel evaluates: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). This enzyme, found in the liver, ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Mononucleosis Hepatitis Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase ( ...

  12. Ionone Derivatives from the Mycelium of Phellinus linteus and the Inhibitory Effect on Activated Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiow-Chyn; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Hung, Hsin-Yi; Pan, Tai-Long; Chen, Fu-An; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Three new γ-ionylideneacetic acid derivatives, phellinulins A–C (1–3), were characterized from the mycelium extract of Phellinus linteus. The chemical structures were established based on the spectroscopic analysis. In addition, phellinulin A (1) was subjected to the examination of effects on activated rat hepatic stellate cells and exhibited significant inhibition of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27164091

  13. [Efficiency of remaxol in preventing unwanted side effects of the antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Baranova, I P; Zykova, O A; Krasnova, L I; Romantsov, M G; Nikol'skaia, M V; Aftaeva, L N

    2013-01-01

    The article briefly addresses issues pertaining to the problem of complications encountered in antiviral therapy of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Data on the effectiveness of remaxol as a means of preventing the development of complication in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C in early stages of antiviral treatment.

  14. Enzymic degradation of plasma arginine using arginine deiminase inhibits nitric oxide production and protects mice from the lethal effects of tumour necrosis factor alpha and endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J Brandon; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Ensor, C Mark; Bomalaski, John S; Clark, Mike A

    2002-01-01

    Septic shock is mediated in part by nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). NO is synthesized primarily from extracellular arginine. We tested the ability of an arginine-degrading enzyme to inhibit NO production in mice and to protect mice from the hypotension and lethality that occur after the administration of TNFalpha or endotoxin. Treatment of BALB/c mice with arginine deiminase (ADI) formulated with succinimidyl succinimide polyethylene glycol of M(r) 20000 (ADI-SS PEG(20000)) eliminated all measurable plasma arginine (from normal levels of approximately 155 microM arginine to 2 microM). In addition, ADI-SS PEG(20000) also inhibited the production of NO, as quantified by plasma nitrate+nitrite. Treatment of mice with TNFalpha or endotoxin resulted in a dose-dependent increase in NO production and lethality. Pretreatment of mice with ADI-SS PEG(20000) resulted in increased resistance to the lethal effects of TNFalpha and endotoxin. These observations are consistent with NO production resulting, to some extent, from the metabolism of extracellular arginine. The toxic effects of TNFalpha and endotoxin may be partially inhibited by enzymic degradation of plasma arginine by ADI-SS PEG(20000). Interestingly, pretreatment with ADI-SS PEG(20000) did not inhibit the anti-tumour activity of TNFalpha in vitro or in vivo. This treatment may allow greater amounts of TNFalpha, as well as other cytokines, to be administered while abrogating side effects such as hypotension and death. PMID:11964159

  15. Effect of Liverubin™ on hepatic biochemical profile in patients of alcoholic liver disease: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nanda, V; Gupta, V; Sharma, S N; Pasricha, A; Karmakar, A Kumar; Patel, A; Bhatt, V M; Kantroo, B L; Kumar, B; Paul, N K Ketar; Attam, R

    2014-12-01

    Liverubin™ is an available drug in the Indian market that contains silymarin, the major active complex extracted from the medicinal plant milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.). The study retrospectively tracked and analyzed the data of 602 patients, out of which 230 were alcohol induced; 131 with alcohol-induced liver damage (ALD), 13 with liver cirrhosis, and 86 with fatty liver; to assess the effects of water soluble Silymarin (Liverubin™) on important hepatic biochemical parameters. The data was collected from 32 major cities treated by 72 physicians across India who were observed for the specified treatment duration of 11 months. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics. At the end of the treatment the hepatic biochemical profile was appreciably improved: the mean % of change in the levels of important hepatic biochemical parameters was observed as follows: total bilirubin 63.48% (direct bilirubin: 64.96%; indirect bilirubin: 61.63%). The serum SGOT and SGPT changed at a mean % of 65.43 and 69.31 respectively while serum alkaline phosphatase was changed at a mean % rate of 39.81. Liverubin™ proved to be safe & well-tolerated among the studied population and no significant treatment related adverse events were reported during the study. Liverubin™ treatment is found to bring about effective lowering of abnormally elevated hepatic biochemical parameters. Liverubin™, water soluble active Silymarin, in the popularly prescribed doses of 140-mg tid is observed to be a promising safe and effective drug in cases of alcoholic liver disease.

  16. Growth Hormone Mediates Its Protective Effect in Hepatic Apoptosis through Hnf6

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kewei; Wang, Minhua; Gannon, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Growth hormone (GH) not only supports hepatic metabolism but also protects against hepatocyte cell death. Hnf6 (or Oc1) belonging to the Onecut family of hepatocyte transcription factors known to regulate differentiated hepatic function, is a GH-responsive gene. We evaluate if GH mediates Hnf6 activity to attenuate hepatic apoptotic injury. Methods We used an animal model of hepatic apoptosis by bile duct ligation (BDL) with Hnf6 -/- (KO) mice in which hepatic Hnf6 was conditionally inactivated. GH was administered to adult wild type WT and KO mice for the 7 days of BDL to enhance Hnf6 expression. In vitro, primary hepatocytes derived from KO and WT liver were treated with LPS and hepatocyte apoptosis was assessed with and without GH treatment. Results In WT mice, GH treatment enhanced Hnf6 expression during BDL, inhibited Caspase -3, -8 and -9 responses and diminished hepatic apoptotic and fibrotic injury. GH-mediated upregulation of Hnf6 expression and parallel suppression of apoptosis and fibrosis in WT BDL liver were abrogated in KO mice. LPS activated apoptosis and suppressed Hnf6 expression in primary hepatocytes. GH/LPS co-treatment enhanced Hnf6 expression with corresponding attenuation of apoptosis in WT-derived hepatocytes, but not in KO hepatocytes. ChiP-on-ChiP and electromobility shift assays of KO and WT liver nuclear extracts identified Ciap1 (or Birc2) as an Hnf6-bound target gene. Ciap1 expression patterns closely follow Hnf6 expression in the liver and in hepatocytes. Conclusion GH broad protective actions on hepatocytes during liver injury are effected through Hnf6, with Hnf6 transcriptional activation of Ciap1 as an underlying molecular mediator. PMID:27936029

  17. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis C Hepatitis C What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a viral infection that ... can cure most cases of hepatitis C. Acute hepatitis C Acute hepatitis C is a short-term ...

  18. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis C Hepatitis A What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis A is a viral infection that ... spreading hepatitis A to others . How common is hepatitis A? In the United States, hepatitis A has ...

  19. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Châu và vùng Thái Bình Dương Hepatitis C Hepatitis B What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a viral infection that ... to prevent spreading hepatitis B to others . Acute hepatitis B Acute hepatitis B is a short-term ...

  20. The determinants of tumour immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Blankenstein, Thomas; Coulie, Pierre G.; Gilboa, Eli; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Many standard and targeted therapies, as well as radiotherapy, have been shown to induce an anti-tumour immune response, and immunotherapies rely on modulating the host immune system to induce an anti-tumour immune response. However, the immune response to such therapies is often reliant on the immunogenicity of a tumour. Tumour immunogenicity varies greatly between cancers of the same type in different individuals and between different types of cancer. So, what do we know about tumour immunogenicity and how might we therapeutically improve tumour immunogenicity? We asked four leading cancer immunologists around the world for their opinions on this important issue. PMID:22378190

  1. Lysyl oxidase-like-2 promotes tumour angiogenesis and is a potential therapeutic target in angiogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Zaffryar-Eilot, Shelly; Marshall, Derek; Voloshin, Tali; Bar-Zion, Avinoam; Spangler, Rhyannon; Kessler, Ofra; Ghermazien, Haben; Brekhman, Vera; Suss-Toby, Edith; Adam, Dan; Shaked, Yuval; Smith, Victoria; Neufeld, Gera

    2013-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagen, plays an essential role in developmental angiogenesis. We found that administration of the LOXL2-neutralizing antibody AB0023 inhibited bFGF-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel plug assays and suppressed recruitment of angiogenesis promoting bone marrow cells. Small hairpin RNA-mediated inhibition of LOXL2 expression or inhibition of LOXL2 using AB0023 reduced the migration and network-forming ability of endothelial cells, suggesting that the inhibition of angiogenesis results from a direct effect on endothelial cells. To examine the effects of AB0023 on tumour angiogenesis, AB0023 was administered to mice bearing tumours derived from SKOV-3 ovarian carcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. AB0023 treatment significantly reduced the microvascular density in these tumours but did not inhibit tumour growth. However, treatment of mice bearing SKOV-3-derived tumours with AB0023 also promoted increased coverage of tumour vessels with pericytes and reduced tumour hypoxia, providing evidence that anti-LOXL2 therapy results in the normalization of tumour blood vessels. In agreement with these data, treatment of mice bearing LLC-derived tumours with AB0023 improved the perfusion of the tumour-associated vessels as determined by ultrasonography. Improved perfusion and normalization of tumour vessels after treatment with anti-angiogenic agents were previously found to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into tumours and to result in an enhancement of chemotherapeutic efficiency. Indeed, treatment with AB0023 significantly enhanced the anti-tumourigenic effects of taxol. Our results suggest that inhibition of LOXL2 may prove beneficial for the treatment of angiogenic tumours.

  2. The radiosensitizing effect of the aurora kinase inhibitors, ENMD-2076, on canine mast cell tumours in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shiomitsu, K; Sajo, E; Rubin, C; Sehgal, I

    2016-03-01

    ENMD-2076 is an aurora kinase inhibitor that also has multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor properties. In this study, the mRNA and the protein expression of aurora-A and aurora-B were evaluated in three canine mast cell tumour cell lines. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was seen in the cells treated, and it affected the cell cycle with cells in the G2/M phase being selectively killed. The cells were also evaluated for radiosensitivity with/without ENMD-2076, and radiosensitization was seen after 3 Gy and 6 Gy exposures with ENMD-2076 for 48 h. Protein expression of caspase-3 was gradually increased, and the expression intensity was highest at 24 h post irradiation in cells without ENMD-2076 treatment, which indicates that radiation exposure with ENMD-2076-induced cell death faster than radiation treatment alone. Our study results suggest the potential usefulness of treating canine mast cell tumours with aurora kinase inhibitors alone or in conjunction with radiation therapy.

  3. In vivo tumour and metastasis reduction and in vitro effects on invasion assays of the ruthenium RM175 and osmium AFAP51 organometallics in the mammary cancer model.

    PubMed

    Bergamo, A; Masi, A; Peacock, A F A; Habtemariam, A; Sadler, P J; Sava, G

    2010-01-01

    We have compared the organometallic arene complexes [(eta(6)-biphenyl)M(ethylenediamine)Cl](+) RM175 (M=Ru(II)) and its isostructural osmium(II) analogue AFAP51 (M=Os(II)) for their ability to induce cell detachment resistance from fibronectin, collagen IV and poly-l-lysine, and cell re-adhesion after treatment, their effects on cell migration and cell viability, on matrix metalloproteinases production, and on primary tumour growth of MCa mammary carcinoma, the effect of human serum albumin on their cytotoxicity. There are differences between ruthenium and osmium. The Os complex is up to 6x more potent than RM175 towards highly-invasive breast MDA-MB-231, human breast MCF-7 and human epithelial HBL-100 cancer cells, but whereas RM175 was active against MCa mammary carcinoma in vivo and caused metastasis reduction, AFAP51 was not. Intriguingly the presence of human serum albumin in the growth medium enhanced the cytotoxicity of both compounds. RM175 increased the resistance of MDA-MB-231 cells to detachment from substrates and both compounds inhibited the production of MMP-2. These data confirm the key role of ruthenium itself in anti-metastatic activity. It will be interesting to explore the activity of osmium arene complexes in other tumour models and the possibility of changing the non-arene ligands to tune the anticancer activity of osmium in vivo.

  4. Effect of dietary selenium concentration and duration of selenium feeding on hepatic glutathione concentrations in rats

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoeuf, R.A.; Zentner, K.L.; Hoekstra, W.G.

    1985-11-01

    Studies were conducted in rats to determine the effect of dietary selenium (Se) concentration on hepatic glutathione concentrations and enzyme activities associated with the maintenance of the cellular glutathione status. Male rats were fed 0.1, 3.0, or 6.0 ppm Se as Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ for 2, 4, or 6 weeks at which time they were killed and analyses were performed. Both 3.0 and 6.0 ppm Se caused a significant dose-dependent increase in hepatic-reduced glutathione (GSH) by 4 weeks of feeding compared to 0.1 ppm Se. The increase in GSH was preceded by significant, dose-dependent increases in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as the GSSG to GSH ratio. Increases in GSSG and the GSSG to GSH ratio as well as in glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were observed by 2 weeks of high Se feeding. The current findings substantiate previous results demonstrating effects of high Se on hepatic glutathione concentrations and further suggest that increased cellular GSSG concentrations or the GSSG to GSH ratio caused by 3.0 and 6.0 ppm dietary Se signals for adaptive changes in hepatic glutathione metabolism.

  5. Effect of Oral Administration of Emtricitabine on Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus Replication in Chronically Infected Woodchucks

    PubMed Central

    Korba, Brent E.; Schinazi, R. F.; Cote, Paul; Tennant, Bud C.; Gerin, John L.

    2000-01-01

    Emtricitabine [(−)FTC] [(−)-β-2′,3′-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3′-thiacytidine] has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in cell culture, with a potency and selectivity that are essentially identical to those of lamivudine. The antiviral activity of oral administration of (−)FTC against WHV replication in chronically infected woodchucks, an established and predictive model for antiviral therapy against HBV, was examined in a placebo-controlled study. (−)FTC significantly reduced viremia and intrahepatic WHV replication in a dose-dependent manner that was comparable to the antiviral activity of lamivudine observed in previous studies conducted by our laboratories. No effect on the levels of hepatic WHV RNA or the levels of woodchuck hepatitis surface antigen or anti-woodchuck hepatitis surface and core antibodies in the serum of the treated animals was observed. No evidence of drug-related toxicity was observed in any of the animals treated. PMID:10817750

  6. Effect of schisandrin B and sesamin mixture on CCl(4)-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Ya-Ling; Yang, Suh-Ching; Huang, Guan-Cheng; Tsi, Daniel; Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Jiun-Rong; Li, Joe-Sharg

    2009-02-01

    To study the effects of schisandrin B and sesamin mixture on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatic oxidative stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned to five groups: control group (olive oil injection), CCl(4) group (CCl(4) injection), silymarin group (CCl(4) injection combined with supplementation of silymarin, 7.5 mg/kg/day), low dose group (CCl(4) injection combined with supplementation of schisandrin B and sesamin mixture at a low dose, 43 mg/kg/day) and high dose group (CCl(4) injection combined with the supplementation of schisandrin B and sesamin mixture at a high dose, 215 mg/kg/day). The hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities of rats in the low dose and high dose groups were increased significantly compared with those in the CCl(4) group. The hepatic reduced glutathione concentration in the silymarin, low dose and high dose groups were increased significantly (48%, 45% and 53%, respectively) when compared with those of the CCl(4) group. In addition, the concentration of glutathione in the erythrocytes of the low dose group was significantly higher than the CCl(4) group by 25%. These results suggest that the schisandrin B-sesamin mixture exerted a hepatoprotective effect by improving the antioxidative capacity in rats under CCl(4)-induced hepatic oxidative stress.

  7. Tumour macrophages as potential targets of bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tumour cells communicate with the cells of their microenvironment via a series of molecular and cellular interactions to aid their progression to a malignant state and ultimately their metastatic spread. Of the cells in the microenvironment with a key role in cancer development, tumour associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the most notable. Tumour cells release a range of chemokines, cytokines and growth factors to attract macrophages, and these in turn release numerous factors (e.g. VEGF, MMP-9 and EGF) that are implicated in invasion-promoting processes such as tumour cell growth, flicking of the angiogenic switch and immunosuppression. TAM density has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis in breast cancer, suggesting that these cells may represent a potential therapeutic target. However, there are currently no agents that specifically target TAM's available for clinical use. Bisphosphonates (BPs), such as zoledronic acid, are anti-resorptive agents approved for treatment of skeletal complication associated with metastatic breast cancer and prostate cancer. These agents act on osteoclasts, key cells in the bone microenvironment, to inhibit bone resorption. Over the past 30 years this has led to a great reduction in skeletal-related events (SRE's) in patients with advanced cancer and improved the morbidity associated with cancer-induced bone disease. However, there is now a growing body of evidence, both from in vitro and in vivo models, showing that zoledronic acid can also target tumour cells to increase apoptotic cell death and decrease proliferation, migration and invasion, and that this effect is significantly enhanced in combination with chemotherapy agents. Whether macrophages in the peripheral tumour microenvironment are exposed to sufficient levels of bisphosphonate to be affected is currently unknown. Macrophages belong to the same cell lineage as osteoclasts, the major target of BPs, and are highly phagocytic cells shown to be sensitive to

  8. IL-4Rα aptamer-liposome-CpG oligodeoxynucleotides suppress tumour growth by targeting the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Jie; Dou, Xiao-Qian; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Gui-Li; Xiang, Shen-Si; Gao, Xin; Fu, Jie; Song, Hai-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Tumour immunosuppressive microenvironments inhibit antigen-specific cellular responses and interfere with CpG-mediated immunotherapy. Overcoming tumour microenvironment (TME) immunosuppression is an important strategy for effective therapy. This study investigated the ability of a tumour-targeting IL-4Rα aptamer-liposome-CpG ODN delivery system to introduce CpG into tumours and overcome the immunosuppressive TME. The IL-4Rα-liposome-CpG delivery system was prepared. FAM-CpG visualisation was used to demonstrate tumour targeting in vitro and in vivo. Anti-tumour effects of this delivery system were evaluated in CT26 tumour-bearing mice. Mechanisms for conquering the TME were investigated. FAM-CpG was better distributed into the tumours upon treatment with IL-4Rα-liposome-FAM-CpG compared to distribution in the control group in vitro and in vivo. IL-4Rα-aptamer-liposome-CpG treatment inhibited distinct myeloid-derived suppressor cell populations in tumours and bone marrow. Similar profiles were observed for regulatory T cells in tumours. In CT26 tumour-bearing mice, IL-4Rα-liposome-CpG treatment exhibited enhanced anti-tumour activity. Increased mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-12, and decreased mRNA levels of VEGF, IL-6, IL-10, MMP9, arginase-1, inducible NOS, CXCL9, p-Stat3, and NF-κB were observed in tumours upon IL-4R-liposome-CpG-treatment. The results suggested that pharmacologic targeting by the IL-4R aptamer-liposome-CpG system improves TME therapeutic benefit and provides a rationale for cancer immunotherapies.

  9. Effect of a lignan-enriched fructus schisandrae extract on hepatic glutathione status in rats: protection against carbon tetrachloride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ko, K M; Ip, S P; Poon, M K; Wu, S S; Che, C T; Ng, K H; Kong, Y C

    1995-04-01

    The effect of a lignan-enriched extract of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (FS) on hepatic glutathione (GSH) status was examined in both control and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. FS treatment caused a dose-dependent enhancement in hepatic GSH status, as evidenced by significant increases in hepatic GSH level and activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate and glutathione reductase (GRD), as well as a decreased susceptibility of hepatic tissue homogenates to in vitro peroxide-induced GSH depletion. The beneficial effect of FS treatment on hepatic GSH status became more evident after CCl4 challenge. Pretreating rats with FS extract at increasing daily doses ranged from 0.2 to 3.2 g/kg for 3 days caused a dose-dependent protection against the CCl4-induced impairment in hepatic GSH status. The enhancement in hepatic GSH status was associated with corresponding decreases in tissue malondialdehyde levels and plasma alanine aminotransferases activities, indicating a significant reduction in the extent of oxidative hepatocellular damage. Our results indicate that the molecular mechanism of hepatoprotection afforded by FS pretreatment may involve the facilitation of GSH regeneration via the GRD-catalyzed and NADPH-mediated reaction.

  10. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits oxidative damage and preventive effects on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Mao-Chuan; Wang, Qian; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Cao, Liang-Qi; Chen, Xi-Ling; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yun-Jian; Li, Wen; Zhang, Long-Juan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on hepatic fibrogenesis and on cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatic fibrosis was used to assess the effect of daily intraperitoneal injections of EGCG on the indexes of fibrosis. Histological and hepatic hydroxyproline examination revealed that EGCG significantly arrested progression of hepatic fibrosis. EGCG caused significant amelioration of liver injury (reduced activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). The development of CCl(4)-induced hepatic fibrosis altered the redox state with a decreased hepatic glutathione and increased the formation of lipid peroxidative products, which were partially normalized by treatment with EGCG, respectively. Moreover, EGCG markedly attenuated HSC activation as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity. In cultured stellate cell, the expression of MMP-2 mRNA and protein were substantially reduced by EGCG treatment. Concanavalin A-induced activation of secreted MMP-2 was inhibited by EGCG through the influence of membrane type 1-MMP activity. These results demonstrate that administration of EGCG may be useful in the treatment and prevention of hepatic fibrosis.

  11. Effects of recombinant human adenovirus-p53 on the regression of hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yehong; Yang, Puye; Chen, Na; Lin, Shumei; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a scarring process that may progress to hepatic cirrhosis and even hepatic carcinoma if left untreated. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play essential roles in the development of hepatic fibrosis. The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a transcription factor that is involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and DNA repair. Recombinant human adenovirus-p53 (Ad-p53) has been demonstrated to act as a promising antitumor gene therapy in various types of cancer. However, there is limited infomration regarding the therapeutic effect of Ad-p53 on the regression of hepatic fibrosis. In order to examine the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the effects of Ad-p53 on HSCs, a rat model of hepatic fibrosis was established and HSC-T6 cells were cultured under different conditions. The expression of p53, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), which is a marker of activated HSCs, was detected by immunohistochemical assays and RT-qPCR. In vitro, five different concentrations (1×106, 5×106, 1×107, 2×107 and 5×107 PFU/ml) of Ad-p53 were selected for use in the MTT assay to analyze the proliferation of HSCs at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Flow cytometric analysis was applied to determine the effect of three different concentrations of Ad-p53 (5×106, 1×107 and 2×107 PFU/ml) on the cell cycle and the apoptosis of HSC-T6 cells at 24 and 48 h. The results of immunohistochemical studies and RT-qPCR showed that Ad-p53 upregulated the expression of p53, and downregulated the expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA. The MTT assay revealed that when treated with various doses of Ad-p53, the proliferation of HSCs was inhibited within a certain range of concentrations and time periods. Analysis of flow cytometric data showed that Ad-p53 arrested the cell cycle in G1 phase and significantly induced apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ad-p53 promotes apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation of HSCs in

  12. Long term effect of curcumin in restoration of tumour suppressor p53 and phase-II antioxidant enzymes via activation of Nrf2 signalling and modulation of inflammation in prevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Das, Laxmidhar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of carcinogenesis may be a consequence of attenuation of oxidative stress via activation of antioxidant defence system, restoration and stabilization of tumour suppressor proteins along with modulation of inflammatory mediators. Previously we have delineated significant role of curcumin during its long term effect in regulation of glycolytic pathway and angiogenesis, which in turn results in prevention of cancer via modulation of stress activated genes. Present study was designed to investigate long term effect of curcumin in regulation of Nrf2 mediated phase-II antioxidant enzymes, tumour suppressor p53 and inflammation under oxidative tumour microenvironment in liver of T-cell lymphoma bearing mice. Inhibition of Nrf2 signalling observed during lymphoma progression, resulted in down regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes, p53 as well as activation of inflammatory signals. Curcumin potentiated significant increase in Nrf2 activation. It restored activity of phase-II antioxidant enzymes like GST, GR, NQO1, and tumour suppressor p53 level. In addition, curcumin modulated inflammation via upregulation of TGF-β and reciprocal regulation of iNOS and COX2. The study suggests that during long term effect, curcumin leads to prevention of cancer by inducing phase-II antioxidant enzymes via activation of Nrf2 signalling, restoration of tumour suppressor p53 and modulation of inflammatory mediators like iNOS and COX2 in liver of lymphoma bearing mice.

  13. The use of rapid and cost-effective blood-based biomarkers in combination with tumour TNM stage for individual head and neck cancer patient treatment selection.

    PubMed

    Laytragoon Lewin, Nongnit; Lewin, Freddi; Andersson, Bengt-Åke; Löfgren, Sture; Rutqvist, Lars Erik

    2017-04-01

    Head and neck (H&N) cancer is an aggressive disease and the incidence has increased in younger population worldwide. Tumour TNM staging is the main basis for treatment decision despite significant variation in clinical outcome. Survival time of these patients has marginally improved during the last 30 years. Various biomarkers with cumbersome analysis, high cost, time consumption and requirement of special laboratory facilities have been investigated. However, none of these biomarkers have been shown to be suitable to use for individual H&N cancer patient treatment selection in the clinic. For practical use in clinical settings, the given biomarkers must be simple to analyse, rapid, cost effective and available in routine laboratories. With this intension, we suggested the combination of standard TNM staging and biomarkers associated with inflammation such as neutrophils, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, plasma C-reactive protein or plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) and single-nucleotide polymorphism in TNFa rs1800629 using blood-based analysis. The optimal treatment outcome of H&N cancer by using combination of TNM stage and these blood-based biomarkers for individual patient selection need further investigation.

  14. Effect of hepatoprotectors on lipid metabolism in hepatitis induced by carbon tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect

    Vengerovskii, A.I.; Chuchalin, V.S.; Paul's; O.V.; Saratikov, A.S.

    1987-09-01

    The authors study the effect of the widely used hepatoprotective agents- the flavonoid silybinin and the phosphatidylcholine-containing substance essentiale - on the combination of disturbances of lipid metabolism present in severe toxic hepatitis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. It was found that CCl/sub 4/ caused a profound disturbance of lipid metabolism. The hepatoprotective effect of silybinin and essentiale is due to their antioxidant action and to normalization of function of the liver phospholipids.

  15. Effects of creatine supplementation on biomarkers of hepatic and renal function in young trained rats.

    PubMed

    Souza, William Marciel; Heck, Thiago Gomes; Wronski, Evanio Castor; Ulbrich, Anderson Zampier; Boff, Everton

    2013-11-01

    Creatine supplementation has been widely used by athletes and young physical exercise practioneers in order of increasing muscle mass and enhancing athletic performance, but their use/overuse may represent a health risk on hepatic and renal impaired function. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 40 days of oral creatine supplementation on hepatic and renal function biomarkers in a young animal model. Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were divided in five groups (n = 7): control (CONTR), oral creatine supplementation (CREAT), moderate exercise training (EXERC), moderate exercise training plus oral creatine supplementation (EXERC + CREAT) and pathological group (positive control for liver and kidney injury) by the administration of rifampicin (RIFAMPICIN). Exercise groups were submitted to 60 min/day of swimming exercise session with a 4% of body weight workload for six weeks. The EXERC + CREAT showed the higher body weight at the end of the training protocol. The CREAT and EXERC + CREAT group showed an increase in hepatic (Aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) and renal (urea and creatinine) biomarkers levels (p < 0.05). Our study showed that the oral creatine supplementation promoted hepatic and renal function challenge in young rats submitted to moderate exercise training.

  16. Protective Effect of N-Acetylserotonin against Acute Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuna; Zheng, Jie; Jiang, Zhengchen; Shi, Caixing; Li, Jin; Du, Xiaodong; Wang, Hailiang; Jiang, Jiying; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of N-acetylserotonin (NAS) against acute hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. Adult male mice were randomly divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R + NAS. The hepatic I/R injury model was generated by clamping the hepatic artery, portal vein, and common bile duct with a microvascular bulldog clamp for 30 min, and then removing the clamp and allowing reperfusion for 6 h. Morphologic changes and hepatocyte apoptosis were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. Activated caspase-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The activation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data show that NAS rescued hepatocyte morphological damage and dysfunction, decreased the number of apoptotic hepatocytes, and reduced caspase-3 activation. Our work demonstrates that NAS ameliorates hepatic IR injury. PMID:23994834

  17. Hepatotherapeutic effect of Aloe vera in alcohol-induced hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Saka, W A; Akhigbe, R E; Ishola, O S; Ashamu, E A; Olayemi, O T; Adeleke, G E

    2011-07-15

    There is a lack of reliable hepatotherapeutic drugs in modern medicine in the management of alcohol/drug-induced liver damage. Aloe vera extract has been used in folklore medicine for its medicinal values. This study evaluates the hepatotherapeutic activity of aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; the negative control, positive control and the extract-treated groups. The negative control received only distilled water daily. The positive control received alcohol, while the extract-treated group received aqueous extract of Aloe vera and alcohol. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the positive control and extract-treated rats with alcohol. The hepatotherapeutic effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine transaminases and liver histopathology. Alanine transaminase activities were comparable in all groups. Alcohol treatment alone significantly (p < 0.05) increased total serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities. Alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction was abrogated by Aloe vera extract. Histopathological examination revealed that alcohol induced hepatic damage. Aloe vera treatment maintained hepatic architecture similar to that seen in the control. This study shows that aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel is hepatotherapeutic and thus lends credence to the use of the plant in folklore medicine in the management of alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction.

  18. Transient effects of empty liposomes on hepatic macrophage populations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pervin, Munmun; Golbar, Hossain M.; Bondoc, Alexandra; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes have been used as a vehicle for encapsulating chemicals or toxins in toxicological studies. We investigated the transient effects of empty liposomes on hepatic macrophages by applying a single intravenous injection at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight in 6-week-old male F344 rats. One day after injection, the numbers of hepatic macrophages reacting to CD163, CD68, Iba-1, MHC class II, Gal-3 and CD204 were significantly increased in liposome-treated rats. CD163+ Kupffer cells and CD68+ macrophages with increased phagocytic activity in hepatic lobules were most sensitive. The histological architecture of the liver was not changed following liposome injection; however, hepatocytes showed increased proliferating activity, demonstrable with proliferation marker immunostaining and by an increase in gene profiles related to the cell cycle. In the liposome-treated rats, interestingly, AST and ALT values were significantly decreased, and MCP-1, IL-1β and TGF-β1 mRNAs were significantly increased. Collectively, the present study found that hepatic macrophages activated by liposomes can influence liver homeostasis. This information would be useful for background studies on liposomes. PMID:27182120

  19. Tumour Cell Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Laura; Baker, Ann-Marie; Graham, Trevor A.

    2016-01-01

    The population of cells that make up a cancer are manifestly heterogeneous at the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic levels. In this mini-review, we summarise the extent of intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) across human malignancies, review the mechanisms that are responsible for generating and maintaining ITH, and discuss the ramifications and opportunities that ITH presents for cancer prognostication and treatment. PMID:26973786

  20. Pulsation-limited oxygen diffusion in the tumour microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milotti, Edoardo; Stella, Sabrina; Chignola, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia is central to tumour evolution, growth, invasion and metastasis. Mathematical models of hypoxia based on reaction-diffusion equations provide seemingly incomplete descriptions as they fail to predict the measured oxygen concentrations in the tumour microenvironment. In an attempt to explain the discrepancies, we consider both the inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen-consuming cells in solid tumours and the dynamics of blood flow in the tumour microcirculation. We find that the low-frequency oscillations play an important role in the establishment of tumour hypoxia. The oscillations interact with consumption to inhibit oxygen diffusion in the microenvironment. This suggests that alpha-blockers–a class of drugs used to treat hypertension and stress disorders, and known to lower or even abolish low-frequency oscillations of arterial blood flow –may act as adjuvant drugs in the radiotherapy of solid tumours by enhancing the oxygen effect.

  1. Pulsation-limited oxygen diffusion in the tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Milotti, Edoardo; Stella, Sabrina; Chignola, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia is central to tumour evolution, growth, invasion and metastasis. Mathematical models of hypoxia based on reaction-diffusion equations provide seemingly incomplete descriptions as they fail to predict the measured oxygen concentrations in the tumour microenvironment. In an attempt to explain the discrepancies, we consider both the inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen-consuming cells in solid tumours and the dynamics of blood flow in the tumour microcirculation. We find that the low-frequency oscillations play an important role in the establishment of tumour hypoxia. The oscillations interact with consumption to inhibit oxygen diffusion in the microenvironment. This suggests that alpha-blockers–a class of drugs used to treat hypertension and stress disorders, and known to lower or even abolish low-frequency oscillations of arterial blood flow –may act as adjuvant drugs in the radiotherapy of solid tumours by enhancing the oxygen effect. PMID:28045083

  2. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » For Veterans and the Public Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... the Public Veterans and Public Home How is Hepatitis C Treated? Find the facts about the newest ...

  3. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cholangitis Wilson Disease Liver Disease A-Z Autoimmune Hepatitis What is autoimmune hepatitis? Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic—or long lasting— ... bacteria, viruses, toxins, and medications. What causes autoimmune hepatitis? A combination of autoimmunity, environmental triggers, and a ...

  4. Effects of anti-ulcer agents on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis rats.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Yomota, Eiji; Nogi, Koji; Onoda, Yuichi

    2002-01-01

    Patients with hepatic injury have an increased incidence of gastric ulcers and erosions. In this study, the effect of D-galactosamine(GalN)-induced hepatitis on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions and the protective effect of anti-ulcer agents in rats were examined. Subcutaneous injection of GalN (1 g/kg) remarkably increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities suggesting induction of hepatic injury. Gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol were significantly aggravated in GalN-induced hepatitis rats. Orally administered ecabet (CAS 86408-72-2; 20-200 mg/kg) dose dependently inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in GalN-induced hepatitis rats. Sucralfate (CAS 54182-58-0) tended to inhibit the gastric mucosal lesions at a dose of 200 mg/kg but teprenone (CAS 6809-52-5), cimetidine (CAS 51481-61-9) and rebamipide (CAS 90098-04-7) had little effect. All anti-ulcer agents had no effect on the serum ALT and AST activities increased by GalN pretreatment. These results indicate that the gastric mucosa of GalN-induced hepatitis rats is more susceptible to injury induced by luminal irritants such as ethanol. Ecabet potently inhibited gastric mucosal lesions suggesting its clinical utility for the gastric mucosal damage in patients with hepatic injury.

  5. [Marked therapeutic effects of hybrid liposomes on the hepatic metastasis of colon carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Funamoto, Kota; Ichihara, Hideaki; Matsushita, Taku; Matsumoto, Yoko; Ueoka, Ryuichi

    2009-04-01

    Hybrid liposomes (HLs) composed of vesicular and micellar surfactants have inhibitory effects on the growth of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Successful clinical chemotherapy with drug-free HLs to patient with lymphoma has been reported after approval by the Committe of Bioethics. However, the therapeutic effects of HLs on the metastasis of colon carcinoma cells have not yet been elucidated. In this study, the therapeutic effects of HLs composed of L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and polyoxyethylene (23) dodecyl ether [C(12)(EO)(23)] on the metastasis of colon carcinoma (Colon26) cells were examined in vivo. Marked high therapeutic effects were obtained in the hepatic metastasis mice model after the treatment with HLs. Furthermore, optical microscopic analysis indicated that HLs could induce the apoptosis of colon carcinoma cells in vivo. No toxicity was observed in the hepatic metastasis mice model after intravenously injecting HLs. Therapeutic effects along with the induction of apoptosis by HLs without any drugs on hepatic metastasis were revealed on the basis of optical microscopic analysis for the first time in vivo.

  6. Combined therapy of transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization with intratumoral dendritic cell infusion for hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical safety

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Y; Mizukoshi, E; Tsuji, H; Sakai, Y; Kitahara, M; Arai, K; Yamashita, T; Yokoyama, K; Mukaida, N; Matsushima, K; Matsui, O; Kaneko, S

    2007-01-01

    The curative treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), do not prevent tumour recurrence effectively. Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapies are believed to contribute to the eradication of the residual and recurrent tumour cells. The current study was designed to assess the safety and bioactivity of DC infusion into tumour tissues following transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization (TAE) for patients with cirrhosis and HCC. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated into phenotypically confirmed DCs. Ten patients were administered autologous DCs through an arterial catheter during TAE treatment. Shortly thereafter, some HCC nodules were treated additionally to achieve the curative local therapeutic effects. There was no clinical or serological evidence of adverse events, including hepatic failure or autoimmune responses in any patients, in addition to those due to TAE. Following the infusion of 111Indium-labelled DCs, DCs were detectable inside and around the HCC nodules for up to 17 days, and were associated with lymphocyte and monocyte infiltration. Interestingly, T lymphocyte responses were induced against peptides derived from the tumour antigens, Her-2/neu, MRP3, hTERT and AFP, 4 weeks after the infusion in some patients. The cumulative survival rates were not significantly changed by this strategy. These results demonstrate that transcatheter arterial DC infusion into tumour tissues following TAE treatment is feasible and safe for patients with cirrhosis and HCC. Furthermore, the antigen-non-specific, immature DC infusion may induce immune responses to unprimed tumour antigens, providing a plausible strategy to enhance tumour immunity. PMID:17223971

  7. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  8. Cost-effectiveness of sofosbuvir in the treatment of patients with hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Leleu, H; Blachier, M; Rosa, I

    2015-04-01

    In France, 190,306 patients were suffering from chronic hepatitis C in 2012. These patients have a decreased life expectancy and are susceptible to complications associated with chronic hepatitis. Current treatments are poorly tolerated and their effectiveness varies depending on the genotype of the virus. Sofosbuvir, a new class of treatment, has demonstrated in five phase III trials sustained viral response (SVR) rates of over 90% across genotypes, higher than current treatments and has a tolerance profile similar to placebo. The objective was to determine the cost-effectiveness of using sofosbuvir in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. A Markov model was used to compare treatment strategies with and without sofosbuvir. The model simulated the natural history of HCV infection. SVR rates were based on data from clinical trials. Utilities associated with different stages of disease were based on data from the literature. French direct medical costs were used. Price for sofosbuvir was the price used in the early access program for severe fibrosis stages. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for sofosbuvir versus current reference treatments was € 16,278/QALY and varied from 40,000 €/QALY for F0 stages to 12,080 €/QALY for F4 stages. The sensitivity analyses carried out confirmed the robustness of this result. Sofosbuvir is a cost-effective treatment option for patients with hepatitis C.

  9. Nuclear ploidy of neonatal rat livers: effects of two hepatic carcinogens (mirex and dimethylnitrosamine)

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.; Abraham, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of two hepatic carcinogens, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) (genotoxic) and mirex (epigenetic), on polyploidization in 12-d-old neonatal rats was investigated by Coulter counteranalysis and (/sup 3/H) thymidine uptake in isolated hepatic nuclear classes. DMN disturbed the normal ploidy development in the neonatal liver and the proportion of nuclei in the ploidy classes by inducing the premature formation of a significant population of tetraploids with a concommitant reduction in diploids. A great proportion of the replicative activity was present in tetraploid nuclei as measured by the incorporation of (/sup 3/H) thymidine. The labeling index and number of mitoses were also increased. In contrast to DMN, mirex had no influence on polyploidization. The neonatal rats used in these studies thus offer an opportunity to investigate in vivo the mode of action of genotoxic versus epigenetic compounds with reference to their effect on DNA.

  10. Indications for use of hepatitis B vaccine, based on cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Mulley, A G; Silverstein, M D; Dienstag, J L

    1982-09-09

    To formulate indications for the use of hepatitis B vaccine, we examined the cost effectiveness of three strategies: vaccinating everyone; screening everyone and vaccinating those without evidence of immunity; and neither vaccinating nor screening, but passively immunizing those with known exposure. Estimates of the hepatitis attack rate, prevalence of immunity, and frequency of known exposure were made for three representative populations: homosexual men, surgical residents, and the general population of the United States. Screening followed by vaccination of homosexual men and vaccination without prior screening of surgical residents would result in savings of medical costs. Neither screening nor vaccination is the lowest-cost strategy for the general population. Vaccination of susceptible persons will save medical costs for populations with annual attack rates above 5 per cent. Vaccination may be considered cost effective (or cost saving when indirect costs are included) for populations with attack rates as low as 1 to 2 per cent.

  11. Radiotherapy in Phyllodes Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Balukrishna; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Paul, M J; Backianathan, Selvamani

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Phyllodes Tumour (PT) of the breast is a relatively rare breast neoplasm (<1%) with diverse range of pathology and biological behaviour. Aim To describe the clinical course of PT and to define the role of Radiotherapy (RT) in PT of the breast. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of hospital data of patients with PT presented from 2005 to 2014 was done. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the results. Simple description of data was done in this study. Age and duration of symptoms were expressed in median and range. Percentages, tables and general discussions were used to understand the meaning of the data analyzed. Results Out of the 98 patients, 92 were eligible for analysis. The median age of presentation was 43 years. A total of 64/92 patients were premenopausal. There was no side predilection for this tumour but 57/92 patients presented as an upper outer quadrant lump. Fifty percent of the patients presented as giant (10 cm) PT. The median duration of symptoms was 12 months (range: 1-168 months). A 60% of patients had Benign (B), 23% had Borderline (BL) and 17% had malignant (M) tumours. The surgical treatment for benign histology included Lumpectomy (L) for 15%, Wide Local Excision (WLE) for 48%, and Simple Mastectomy (SM) for 37%. All BL and M tumours were treated with WLE or SM. There was no recurrence in B and BL group when the margin was ≥1 cm. All non-metastatic M tumours received adjuvant RT irrespective of their margin status. Total 3/16 patients with M developed local recurrence. Total 6/16 M patients had distant metastases (lung or bone). Our median duration of follow up was 20 months (range: 1-120 months). Conclusion Surgical resection with adequate margins (>1 cm) gave excellent local control in B and BL tumours. For patients with BL PT, local radiotherapy is useful, if margins are close or positive even after the best surgical resection. There is a trend towards improved local control with adjuvant radiotherapy for

  12. Protease digestion of hepatitis A virus: disparate effects on capsid proteins, antigenicity, and infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, S M; Amphlett, E; Sangar, D

    1991-01-01

    High concentrations of either trypsin or chymotrypsin caused nearly complete cleavage of capsid protein VP2 of hepatitis A virus but did not significantly reduce the infectivity, thermostability, or antigenicity of the virus. Chymotrypsin also had a lesser effect on VP1. These findings indicate the presence of a protease-accessible VP2 surface site which neither contributes significantly to the dominant antigenic site nor plays a role in the attachment of the virus to putative cell receptors. Images PMID:1654460

  13. Recombinant human alpha fetoprotein synergistically potentiates the anti-cancer effects of 1′-S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate when used as a complex against human tumours harbouring AFP-receptors

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Norhafiza M.; In, Lionel L.A.; Soh, Tchen Lin; Azmi, Mohamad Nurul; Ibrahim, Halijah; Awang, Khalijah; Dudich, Elena; Tatulov, Eduard; Nagoor, Noor Hasima

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that 1′-S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) isolated from rhizomes of the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff (Zingiberaceae) induces apoptosis-mediated cell death in tumour cells via dysregulation of the NF-κB pathway. However there were some clinical development drawbacks such as poor in vivo solubility, depreciation of biological activity upon exposure to an aqueous environment and non-specific targeting of tumour cells. In the present study, all the problems above were addressed using the novel drug complex formulation involving recombinant human alpha fetoprotein (rhAFP) and ACA. Experimental Design To study the synergistic effect of both agents on human cancer xenografts, athymic nude (Nu/Nu) mice were used and treated with various combination regimes intraperitoneally. Serum levels of tumour markers for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were assessed using sandwich ELISA. IHC and Western blotting were also conducted on in vivo tumour biopsies to investigate the involvement of NF-κB regulated genes and inflammatory biomarkers. Quantification and correlation between drug efficacies and AFP-receptors were done using IF-IC and Pearson's correlation analysis. Results Mice exposed to combined treatments displayed higher reductions in tumour volume compared to stand alone agents, consistent with in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Milder signs of systemic toxicity, such as loss in body weight and inflammation of vital organs were also demonstrated compared to stand alone treatments. Tumour marker levels were consistent within all rhAFP/ACA treatment groups where levels of CEA and PSA were initially elevated upon commencement of treatment, and consecutively reduced corresponding to a decrease in tumour bulk volume. Both IHC and Western blotting results indicated that the combined action of rhAFP/ACA was not only able to down-regulate NF-κB activation

  14. Relevance of high-dose chemotherapy in solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Nieboer, P; de Vries, E G E; Mulder, N H; van der Graaf, W T A

    2005-05-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of solid tumours. Based on a steep dose-response relationship for especially alkylating agents on tumour cell survival, high-dose chemotherapy was considered of interest for the treatment of solid tumours. Results of phase 1 and 2 studies with high-dose chemotherapy in a variety of tumour types showed good response rates. Nowadays, several phase 3 studies are available especially in metastatic and high-risk breast cancer patients. The high expectations of high-dose chemotherapy did not come true. This review analyses results of randomised studies and comments on the discrepancy between findings in patients versus those in tissue culture. Potential factors involved are the presence of tumour stem cells with different characteristics from more mature tumour cells, limitations in drug escalation in the clinic, transplant mortality, trial design and tumour cell contamination of the haematopoietic stem cell transplant. Maturation of the results from recent studies indicating a more modest benefit in, e.g., adjuvant breast cancer balanced versus long-term side effects will ultimately determine the role of high-dose chemotherapy in certain solid tumours. In case of well-defined indications for high-dose chemotherapy, further selection of patients based on patient and tumour characteristics as well as the introduction of new agents will most likely play a role.

  15. Effects of atrazine on hepatic metabolism and endocrine homeostasis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Salaberria, Iurgi; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Asensio, Vega; Olsvik, Pål A; Andersen, Rolf A; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2009-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world and is now under scrutiny for its alleged capacity to disrupt the endocrine system. Exhibiting negligible interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER), ATZ's mode of action remains to be elucidated. ATZ may act as an inducer of the enzyme aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogens, although other mechanisms should also be taken into consideration such as impairment of hepatic metabolism. Therefore we administered juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) a dose of either 2 or 200 microg ATZ/kg, or of carrier control phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and we measured plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (Vtg) 6 days after exposure. Simultaneously we analyzed hepatic gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GST-P), and catalase (CAT) activity. Although sex steroid levels showed no significant alterations, we found a dose-dependent increase in Vtg and a concomitant decrease in CYP1A. There was no effect of ATZ on GST-P mRNA levels but GST-P was positively correlated with CYP1A. Also, CYP1A was negatively correlated with liver CAT and E2, and varied with T concentrations in a hormetic manner. The results showed that ATZ can alter hepatic metabolism, induce estrogenic effects and oxidative stress in vivo, and that these effects are linked.

  16. Effects of atrazine on hepatic metabolism and endocrine homeostasis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Salaberria, Iurgi Hansen, Bjorn Henrik; Asensio, Vega; Olsvik, Pal A.; Andersen, Rolf A.; Jenssen, Bjorn Munro

    2009-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world and is now under scrutiny for its alleged capacity to disrupt the endocrine system. Exhibiting negligible interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER), ATZ's mode of action remains to be elucidated. ATZ may act as an inducer of the enzyme aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogens, although other mechanisms should also be taken into consideration such as impairment of hepatic metabolism. Therefore we administered juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) a dose of either 2 or 200 {mu}g ATZ/kg, or of carrier control phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and we measured plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (Vtg) 6 days after exposure. Simultaneously we analyzed hepatic gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GST-P), and catalase (CAT) activity. Although sex steroid levels showed no significant alterations, we found a dose-dependent increase in Vtg and a concomitant decrease in CYP1A. There was no effect of ATZ on GST-P mRNA levels but GST-P was positively correlated with CYP1A. Also, CYP1A was negatively correlated with liver CAT and E2, and varied with T concentrations in a hormetic manner. The results showed that ATZ can alter hepatic metabolism, induce estrogenic effects and oxidative stress in vivo, and that these effects are linked.

  17. The spatial organization of intra-tumour heterogeneity and evolutionary trajectories of metastases in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Weiwei; Lim, Tony Kiat-Hon; Zhang, Tong; Phang, Su-Ting; Tiang, Zenia; Guan, Peiyong; Ng, Ming-Hwee; Lim, Jia Qi; Yao, Fei; Li, Zheng; Ng, Poh Yong; Yan, Jie; Goh, Brian K.; Chung, Alexander Yaw-Fui; Choo, Su-Pin; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Soon, Wendy Wei-Jia; Sung, Ken Wing-Kin; Foo, Roger Sik-Yin; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has one of the poorest survival rates among cancers. Using multi-regional sampling of nine resected HCC with different aetiologies, here we construct phylogenetic relationships of these sectors, showing diverse levels of genetic sharing, spanning early to late diversification. Unlike the variegated pattern found in colorectal cancers, a large proportion of HCC display a clear isolation-by-distance pattern where spatially closer sectors are genetically more similar. Two resected intra-hepatic metastases showed genetic divergence occurring before and after primary tumour diversification, respectively. Metastatic tumours had much higher variability than their primary tumours, suggesting that intra-hepatic metastasis is accompanied by rapid diversification at the distant location. The presence of co-existing mutations offers the possibility of drug repositioning for HCC treatment. Taken together, these insights into intra-tumour heterogeneity allow for a comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary trajectories of HCC and suggest novel avenues for personalized therapy. PMID:28240289

  18. The spatial organization of intra-tumour heterogeneity and evolutionary trajectories of metastases in hepatocellular carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Weiwei; Lim, Tony Kiat-Hon; Zhang, Tong; Phang, Su-Ting; Tiang, Zenia; Guan, Peiyong; Ng, Ming-Hwee; Lim, Jia Qi; Yao, Fei; Li, Zheng; Ng, Poh Yong; Yan, Jie; Goh, Brian K.; Chung, Alexander Yaw-Fui; Choo, Su-Pin; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Soon, Wendy Wei-Jia; Sung, Ken Wing-Kin; Foo, Roger Sik-Yin; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has one of the poorest survival rates among cancers. Using multi-regional sampling of nine resected HCC with different aetiologies, here we construct phylogenetic relationships of these sectors, showing diverse levels of genetic sharing, spanning early to late diversification. Unlike the variegated pattern found in colorectal cancers, a large proportion of HCC display a clear isolation-by-distance pattern where spatially closer sectors are genetically more similar. Two resected intra-hepatic metastases showed genetic divergence occurring before and after primary tumour diversification, respectively. Metastatic tumours had much higher variability than their primary tumours, suggesting that intra-hepatic metastasis is accompanied by rapid diversification at the distant location. The presence of co-existing mutations offers the possibility of drug repositioning for HCC treatment. Taken together, these insights into intra-tumour heterogeneity allow for a comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary trajectories of HCC and suggest novel avenues for personalized therapy.

  19. Diagnosing Musculoskeletal Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Simon R.; Spooner, David; Sneath, Rodney S.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 we became aware of a worrying increase in apparent errors in the histopathological diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumours in our Unit. As a result all cases seen over the past 8 years were reviewed by an independent panel. Of the 1996 cases reviewed there was an error in 87. In 54 cases (2.7%) this had led to some significant change in the active management of the patient. The main areas where errors arose were in those very cases where clinical and radiological features were not helpful in confirming or refuting the diagnosis. The incidence of errors rose with the passage of time, possibly related to a deterioration in the pathologist’s health. The error rate in diagnosing bone tumours in previously published series ranges from 9 to 40%. To ensure as accurate a rate of diagnosis as possible multidisciplinary working and regular audit are essential. PMID:18521309

  20. Enhancement by Wy-14,643, a hepatic peroxisome proliferator, of diethylnitrosamine-initiated hepatic tumorigenesis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, J. K.; Rao, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), at a concentration of 100 parts/10(6) in drinking water for 14 days, caused the development, by 48 weeks, of very few liver tumours in 5 of 18 (27%) male F=344 rats fed control diet. When the DEN treatment was followed one week later by continuous feeding of the hypolipidemic hepatic peroxisome proliferator, Wy-14,643, at 0.1% dietary level, all of 28 rats (100%) developed, between 38 and 48 weeks, a significantly higher number of liver tumours. Furthermore, laparotomy at 22 weeks revealed that several rats fed Wy-14,643 after DEN initiation had developed visible liver nodules, suggesting that Wy-14,643 also accelerates the appearance of these tumours. Administration of another peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate, at 0.5% level in the diet after DEN initiation, also caused a substantial enhancement of liver tumorigenesis. The enhancement of liver-tumour development by clofibrate, however, was less than that by Wy-14,643. The marked enhancing effect of Wy-14,643 may be due to its profound hepatomegalic and peroxisome proliferative properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:728341

  1. Effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines in blood donors: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kupek, Emil; de Souza, Denise ER; Petry, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Background Although various studies have demonstrated efficacy of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines, their effectiveness in health care settings has not been researched adequately. This gap is particularly visible for blood donors, a group of significant importance in the reduction of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B. Methods This is a double cohort study of 1411 repeat blood donors during the period 1998–2002, involving a vaccinated and an unvaccinated cohort, with matching of the two in terms of sex, age and residence. Average follow-up was 3.17 person-years. The outcome measure was infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), defined by testing positive on serologic markers HBsAg or anti-HBC. All blood donors were from the blood bank in Joaçaba, federal state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Results The cohorts did not differ significantly regarding sex, age and marital status but the vaccinated cohort had higher mean number of blood donations and higher proportion of those residing in the county capital Joaçaba. Hepatitis B incidences per 1000 person-years were zero among vaccinated and 2,33 among non-vaccinated, resulting in 100% vaccine effectiveness with 95% confidence interval from 30,1% to 100%. The number of vaccinated persons necessary to avoid one HBV infection in blood donors was estimated at 429 with 95% confidence interval from 217 to 21422. Conclusion The results showed very high effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-HBV vaccines in blood donors. Its considerable variation in this study is likely due to the limited follow-up and the influence of confounding factors normally balanced out in efficacy clinical trials. PMID:17986330

  2. Hop bitter acids exhibit anti-fibrogenic effects on hepatic stellate cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saugspier, Michael; Dorn, Christoph; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Gehrig, Manfred; Heilmann, Jörg; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2012-04-01

    Female inflorescences of the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. contain a variety of secondary metabolites with bitter acids (BA) as quantitatively dominating secondary metabolites. The use of hops in beer brewing has a long history due to the antibacterial effects of the BA and their typical bitter taste. Furthermore, hop cones are used in traditional medicine and for pharmaceutical purposes. Recent studies indicate that BA may affect activity of the transcription factor NFκB. NFκB plays a key role in the activation process of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which is the key event of hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BA on HSC (activation) and their potential to inhibit molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. HSC were isolated from murine and human liver tissue and incubated with a characterized fraction of bitter acids purified from a CO(2) hop extract. At a concentration of 25μg/ml BA started to induce LDH leakage. Already at lower concentrations BA lead to a dose dependent inhibition of HSC proliferation and inhibited IκB-α-phosphorylation, nuclear p65 translocation and binding activity in a dose dependent way (up to 10μg/ml). Accordingly, the same BA-doses inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory and NFκB regulated genes as MCP-1 and RANTES, but did not affect expression of genes not related to NFκB signaling. In addition to the effect on activated HSC, BA inhibited the in vitro activation process of freshly isolated HSC as evidenced by delayed expression of collagen I and α-SMA mRNA and protein. Together, these findings indicate that BA inhibit NFκB activation, and herewith the activation and development of profibrogenic phenotype of HSC. Thus, bitter acids appear as potential functional nutrients for the prevention or treatment hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease.

  3. Cystic duct carcinoma mimicking a middle bile duct tumour

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Elsa; Mendes, Miguel; Vale, Sílvio; Esteves, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Cystic duct carcinoma was defined by Farrar as a tumour restricted to the cystic duct, making it a rare disease. The authors describe a case of a cystic duct carcinoma that fulfils Farrar’s strict diagnostic criteria and that became clinically relevant by compressing the common hepatic duct, thus causing cholestasis. A cholecystectomy was performed with en bloc resection of the cystic and extrahepatic bile duct with a regional lymphadenectomy. PMID:25819819

  4. Mouse Model of Devil Facial Tumour Disease Establishes That an Effective Immune Response Can be Generated Against the Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pinfold, Terry L.; Brown, Gabriella K.; Bettiol, Silvana S.; Woods, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    The largest carnivorous marsupial in Australia, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is facing extinction in the wild due to a transmissible cancer known as Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD). DFTD is a clonal cell line transmitted from host to host with 100% mortality and no known immunity. While it was first considered that low genetic diversity of the population of devils enabled the allograft transmission of DFTD recent evidence reveals that genetically diverse animals succumb to the disease. The lack of an immune response against the DFTD tumor cells may be due to a lack of immunogenicity of the tumor cells. This could facilitate transmission between devils. To test immunogenicity, mice were injected with viable DFTD cells and anti-DFTD immune responses analyzed. A range of antibody isotypes against DFTD cells was detected, indicating that as DFTD cells can induce an immune response they are immunogenic. This was supported by cytokine production, when splenocytes from mice injected with DFTD cells were cultured in vitro with DFTD cells and the supernatant analyzed. There was a significant production of IFN-γ and TNF-α following the first injection with DFTD cells and a significant production of IL-6 and IL-10 following the second injection. Splenocytes from naïve or immunized mice killed DFTD cells in in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Thus, they are also targets for immunological destruction. We conclude that as an immune response can be generated against DFTD cells they would be suitable targets for a vaccine. PMID:24904594

  5. Mouse Model of Devil Facial Tumour Disease Establishes That an Effective Immune Response Can be Generated Against the Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Pinfold, Terry L; Brown, Gabriella K; Bettiol, Silvana S; Woods, Gregory M

    2014-01-01

    The largest carnivorous marsupial in Australia, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is facing extinction in the wild due to a transmissible cancer known as Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD). DFTD is a clonal cell line transmitted from host to host with 100% mortality and no known immunity. While it was first considered that low genetic diversity of the population of devils enabled the allograft transmission of DFTD recent evidence reveals that genetically diverse animals succumb to the disease. The lack of an immune response against the DFTD tumor cells may be due to a lack of immunogenicity of the tumor cells. This could facilitate transmission between devils. To test immunogenicity, mice were injected with viable DFTD cells and anti-DFTD immune responses analyzed. A range of antibody isotypes against DFTD cells was detected, indicating that as DFTD cells can induce an immune response they are immunogenic. This was supported by cytokine production, when splenocytes from mice injected with DFTD cells were cultured in vitro with DFTD cells and the supernatant analyzed. There was a significant production of IFN-γ and TNF-α following the first injection with DFTD cells and a significant production of IL-6 and IL-10 following the second injection. Splenocytes from naïve or immunized mice killed DFTD cells in in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Thus, they are also targets for immunological destruction. We conclude that as an immune response can be generated against DFTD cells they would be suitable targets for a vaccine.

  6. [Adrenal tumours in childhood].

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, G A; Pozo-Román, J; Argente, J

    2013-09-01

    This special article aims to summarise the current knowledge regarding the two groups of tumours with their origin in the adrenal gland: 1) adrenocortical tumours, derived from the cortex of the adrenal gland and 2) phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, neuroendocrine tumours derived from nodes of neural crest derived cells symmetrically distributed at both sides of the entire spine (paragangliomas [PG]). These PGs can be functioning tumors that secrete catecholamines, which confers their typical dark colour after staining with chromium salts (chromaffin tumors). Among these, the term phaeochromocytoma (PC) is restricted to those PGs derived from the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (intra-adrenal PGs), whereas the term PG is used for those sympathetic or parasympathetic ones in an extra-adrenal location. We analyse the state of the art of their pathogenic and genetic bases, as well as their clinical signs and symptoms, the tests currently available for performing their diagnosis (biochemical, hormonal, imaging and molecular studies) and management (surgery, pre- and post-surgical medical treatment), considering the current and developing strategies in chemo- and radiotherapy.

  7. Tumours of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Mackey, L. J.; Misdorp, W.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequent renal tumours of animals are renal cell carcinoma and nephroblastoma. Renal cell carcinomas are seen mainly in dogs and cattle and nephroblastoma is encountered in pigs, puppies, and calves. Renal cell carcinomas are usually papillary in the dog. They show a marked propensity for vascular invasion, penetration of the posterior vena cava, and subsequent pulmonary metastasis. Nephroblastoma, which is morphologically identical to Wilms' tumour of children, is almost always a benign tumour in animals. It is one of the most frequent neoplasms of pigs, possibly owing to the fact that most pigs are slaughtered (and examined) when a few months old. Lymphosarcoma involving the kidney is particularly frequent in the cat, but is also seen in other species as part of a generalized disease. ImagesFig. 5,6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 1,2Fig. 3,4Fig. 16,17,18,19Fig. 9,10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14,15 PMID:1086154

  8. Inverse relationship between cirrhosis and massive tumours in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sarpel, Umut; Ayo, Diego; Lobach, Iryna; Xu, Ruliang; Newman, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    Background A subset of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) present with massive tumours. It is unknown why certain patients develop these massive tumours, and whether this presentation is specific to the underlying viral aetiology or patient demographics such as gender, race and age. Methods All patients with HCC at Bellevue Hospital Center, New York from 1998 to 2012 were identified and relevant demographic and clinical information was collected. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) images were reviewed and the maximal tumour diameter on axial sections was recorded. Cirrhosis was defined histologically or by radiographical criteria. The two cohorts of massive and non-massive HCC were compared. Results A total of 361 patients with HCC were identified, of which 58 were categorized as having a massive HCC using a 13 cm size cut-off. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of massive HCC with age <40 years; hepatitis B or Asian ethnicity; and a lack of cirrhosis or platelet count >100. Discussion Massive HCC represents a tumour subtype that is associated with young, chronic hepatitis B carriers with non-cirrhotic livers. The clinical implications of this finding are that patients with massive HCC are typically excellent resection candidates barring the presence of gross vascular invasion or distant metastases. PMID:23043662

  9. Bioencapsulation of the hepatitis B surface antigen and its use as an effective oral immunogen.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Celine A; Streatfield, Stephen J; Lamphear, Barry J; Fake, Gina M; Keener, Todd K; Walker, John H; Clements, John D; Turner, Debra D; Tizard, Ian R; Howard, John A

    2012-04-19

    Hepatitis B remains a major global health problem despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Segments of the population lack access to or respond poorly to the parenteral vaccine, perpetuating the infection-transmission cycle. A low cost, orally delivered vaccine has the potential to alleviate many of these problems. Here we describe the expression of a bioencapsulated hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in maize and its immunogenicity, demonstrating for the first time a commercially feasible oral subunit vaccine production system for a major disease. This work surmounts previous barriers to plant-produced vaccines by expressing HBsAg at much higher levels and retaining antigen immunogenicity post-processing: factors which facilitated a robust immune response in mice without the need for an adjuvant. This method provides a practical solution to the delivery of a low-cost, stable oral vaccine.

  10. Effects of acute doxorubicin treatment on hepatic proteome lysine acetylation status and the apoptotic environment

    PubMed Central

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J; Kouzi, Samir A; Bero, Joseph D; Tran, Ngan TK; Yang, Sendra; Mabolo, Raean

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine if doxorubicin (Dox) alters hepatic proteome acetylation status and if acetylation status was associated with an apoptotic environment. METHODS: Doxorubicin (20 mg/kg; Sigma, Saint Louis, MO; n = 8) or NaCl (0.9%; n = 7) was administered as an intraperitoneal injection to male F344 rats, 6-wk of age. Once animals were treated with Dox or saline, all animals were fasted until sacrifice 24 h later. RESULTS: Dox treatment decreased proteome lysine acetylation likely due to a decrease in histone acetyltransferase activity. Proteome deacetylation may likely not be associated with a proapoptotic environment. Dox did not increase caspase-9, -8, or -3 activation nor poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 cleavage. Dox did stimulate caspase-12 activation, however, it likely did not play a role in apoptosis induction. CONCLUSION: Early effects of Dox involve hepatic proteome lysine deacetylation and caspase-12 activation under these experimental conditions. PMID:25225604

  11. Anti-fibrotic effects of the Masson pine pollen aqueous extract on hepatic fibrosis rat model

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Tao; Jin, Xue-Yuan; Zhao, Lin; Ma, Long; Li, Rui-Sheng; Zhao, Ping; Guo, Chang-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To observe the antifibrotic effects of Masson Pine Pollen aqueous extract. Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CG), hepatic fibrosis model (MG), MPPAE low dose (LG), MPPAE high dose (HG), and MPP original powder (MPPOP; OG) groups. Each group was treated with specific protocols and sacrificed 8 weeks later. Multiple indicators such as serum transaminase, HE staining of the liver tissue, and relevant indexes to fibrosis were determined. Results: Severe hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissues was observed in livers of the MG group rats, while aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels and collagen content obviously increased, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and MMPs expression decreased, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine concentrations increased, while mRNA expressions of hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-related cytokines such as transforming growth factor-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor, transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB p65, and signaling protein α-smooth muscle actin were all increased significantly. Conclusions: MPPAE effectively inhibited the fibrotic process in this CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis rat model. It may be associated with synergic functions of antioxidant activity, inhibitory activity on HSC proliferation, collagen synthesis, and MMPs expression induction. PMID:26191155

  12. Effect of sinapic acid against dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Su; Kim, Kung Wook; Chung, Hae Young; Yoon, Sik; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Sinapic acid is a member of the phenylpropanoid family and is abundant in cereals, nuts, oil seeds, and berries. It exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects of sinapic acid on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced chronic liver injury in rats. Sinapic acid remarkably prevented DMN-induced loss of body weight. This was accompanied by a significant increase in levels of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and liver malondialdehyde content. Furthermore, sinapic acid reduced hepatic hydroxyproline content, which correlated with a reduction in the expression of type I collagen mRNA and histological analysis of collagen in liver tissue. Additionally, the expression of hepatic fibrosis-related factors such as α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), were reduced in rats treated with sinapic acid. Sinapic acid exhibited strong scavenging activity. In conclusion, we find that sinapic acid exhibits hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced liver injury, most likely due to its antioxidant activities of scavenging radicals, its capacity to suppress TGF-β1 and its ability to attenuate activation of hepatic stellate cells. This suggests that sinapic acid is a potentially useful agent for the protection against liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  13. Effect of Kruppel-like factor 4 on Notch pathway in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yin-Kai; Tan, Jun; Dou, Dong-Wei; Chen, Ding; Chen, Lu-Jia; Ren, Huan-Ping; Chen, Li-Bo; Xiong, Xin-Gao; Zheng, Hai

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) and the Notch pathway was determined to investigate the effect of KLF4 on the activation of hepatic stellate cells and underlying mechanisms. Fifty SPF BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups. A liver fibrosis model was established in 25 mice as the experimental group, and the remaining 25 mice served as controls. On the day 0, 7, 14, and 35, liver tissues were removed for immunofluorescent detection. The Notch pathway inhibitor DAPT was added to the primary original hepatic stellate cells, and KLF4 and Notch-associated factor expression was detected by qRT-PCR. Additionally, the hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 was used to establish control and experimental groups, and was cultured in vitro. LX-2 cells in the experimental groups were treated with DAPT and the Notch activator transforming growth factor-beta 1 separately, whereas those in the control group were given isotonic culture medium. After 48 h, KLF4 expression was examined by Western blotting. After transient transfection of LX-2 cells to increase KLF4, the expression of Notch factor was examined. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that, with the aggravation of liver fibrosis, the absorbance (A) values of KLF4 were decreased (day 0: 980.73±153.19; day 7: 1087.99±230.23; day 14: 390.95±93.56; day 35: 245.99±87.34). The expression of Notch pathway- related factors (Notch-1, Notch-2, and Jagged-1) in the hepatic stellate cell membrane was negatively correlated to KLF4 expression. With the increase of KLF4 expression, Notch-2 (0.73±0.13) and Jagged-1 (0.43±0.12) expression decreased, whereas Notch-1 level was not detectable. When the Notch pathway was inhibited, KLF4 levels generally increased (18.12±1.31). Our results indicate that KLF4 expression is negatively correlated to the Notch pathway in hepatic stellate cells, which may provide a reference for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  14. [Phyllodes tumour: a rare, rapidly growing breast tumour].

    PubMed

    den Exter, Paul L; Hornstra, Bonne J; Vree, Robbert

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented at the breast outpatient clinic with a giant tumour of her left breast. The size, rapid growth and radiological characteristics of the lesion led us to suspect a phyllodes tumour. A histological examination of a needle biopsy confirmed this diagnosis. An additional CT scan revealed no signs of metastases. We performed a mastectomy during which a tumour measuring 48 x 33 x 25 cm was resected. Histological examination revealed a borderline phyllodes tumour. Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast and pre-operatively these are often difficult to differentiate from fibroadenomas. Phyllodes tumours have a variable clinical course with the ability to metastasize and a propensity to recur locally. Complete excision with wide margins is essential to prevent local recurrence. In our case, the surgical margins were limited and our patient was therefore treated with postoperative radiation therapy.

  15. Carryover effects of dichloroacetic acid on hepatic tumorigenesis in mice.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of drinking water chlorination. Chronic DCA exposure has been shown to increase liver tumors in mice, although carryover effects and interactions with other promotional agents are not known. Here we evaluated effects...

  16. [The ABC of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Van Bambeke, F

    2008-03-01

    Viral hepatitis has long been under-diagnosed. Hepatitis A is an acute disease, while patients infected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are likely to develop chronical infections and severe complications (cancer, cirrhosis). The current treatment of hepatitis B and C consists in alpha interferon (preferably under its pegylated form), in combination with ribavirin for hepatitis C. The frequent and severe adverse effects of interferon-based therapy constitute, however, a major limiting factor (reactions at the injection site, flu-like syndrome, neurological disorders, ...). For hepatitis B, two alternatives are available so far, namely lamivudine and adefovir (used as a prodrug with highe oral bioavailability).

  17. Prophylactic effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on interleukin 8 and tumour necrosis factor α production in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ameho, C; Adjei, A; Harrison, E; Takeshita, K; Morioka, T; Arakaki, Y; Ito, E; Suzuki, I; Kulkarni, A; Kawajiri, A; Yamamoto, S

    1997-01-01

    Background—It is well established that glutamine supplemented elemental diets result in less severe intestinal damage in experimental colitis. However, few studies have examined the mode of action of glutamine in reducing intestinal damage. 
Aims—To examine the effects of glutamine supplemented elemental diets on the potent inflammatory cytokines interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis which presents with both acute and chronic features of ulcerative colitis. 
Methods—Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into three dietary groups and fed 20% casein (controls), or 20% casein supplemented with either 2% glutamine (2% Gln) or 4% glutamine (4% Gln). After two weeks they received intracolonic TNBS to induce colitis.
Results—Both Gln groups of rats gained more weight than the control group (p<0.05) which had progressive weight loss. Colon weight, macroscopic, and microscopic damage scores for the Gln groups were lower than in the control group (p<0.05). IL-8 and TNF-α concentrations in inflamed colonic tissues were lower in the Gln groups than in the control group (p<0.05), and correlated well with disease severity. Bacterial translocation was lower both in incidence (p<0.05) and in the number of colony forming units (p<0.05) for the Gln groups, than in the control group. With respect to all indices studied, the 4% Gln group performed better than did the 2% Gln group. 
Conclusion—Prophylactic glutamine supplementation modulates the inflammatory activities of IL-8 and TNF-α in TNBS induced colitis. 

 Keywords: glutamine; trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid; inflammatory bowel disease; rats; interleukin 8; tumour necrosis factor α PMID:9391247

  18. The effects of booster vaccination on combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine in both anti-HBs and anti-HAV negative children 5-15 years after hepatitis B vaccine primary immunization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongdi; Gu, Hua; Cheng, Suyun; Shen, Lingzhi; Cui, Fujiang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yao, Jun; Xia, Shichang; Lv, Huakun; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the changes in both anti-HAV lgG and anti-HBs lgG levels and compared the antibody seroconversion rates of different doses of combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine in children. Children who were vaccinated as infants with Hepatitis B vaccine were revaccinated at 5-15 y of age, then the antibody titers were monitored. Among 283 children, this study found that the anti-HAV seroconversion rates (defined as anti-HAV ≥ 1 mIU/ml) after the first and the third dose were 79.9% and 100% respectively; these observed differences were statistically significant (P<0.05); the corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 4.72 ± 2.63 mIU/ml and 13.46 ± 1.16 mIU/ml respectively. The anti-HBs seroconversion rates (defined as an anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/ml) were 82.3% and 99.0% respectively; these observed differences were statistically significant (P<0.05); and the corresponding titers were 319.95 ± 5.16 mIU/ml and 418.59 ± 3.89 mIU/ml respectively. After the first booster dose, the difference in anti-HAV seroconversion rate was statistically significant in children aged 5-9 y and 10-15 y (P<0.05), as was the difference of anti-HBs seroconversion, whereas after the third dose the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). This study demonstrated that the immunization effects of booster vaccination with combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine is successful for children. A single booster dose is adequate for younger children, while three doses are needed for older children.

  19. Effect of Green Tea Extract Encapsulated Into Chitosan Nanoparticles on Hepatic Fibrosis Collagen Fibers Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy in Rat Hepatic Fibrosis Model.

    PubMed

    Safer, Abdel-Majeed A; Hanafy, Nomany A; Bharali, Dhruba J; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of Green Tea Extract (GTE) encapsulated into Chitosan Nanoparticles (CS-NPs) on hepatic fibrosis in rat model as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The bioactive compounds in GTE encapsulated into CS-NPs were determined using LC-MS/MS method. Additionally, the uptake of GTE-CS NPs in HepG2 cells showed enhanced uptake. In experimental fibrosis model, AFM was used as a high resolution microscopic tool to investigate collagen fibers as an indicator of hepatic fibrosis induced by treatment with CCl4. Paraffin sections of fibrotic liver tissues caused by CC4 treatment of rats and the effect of GTE-CS NPs treatment with or without CCl4 on hepatic fibrosis were examined. Liver tissues from the different groups of animals were de-waxed and processed as for normal H/E staining and Masson's trichrome staining to locate the proper area of ECM collagen in the CCl4 group versus collagen in liver tissues treated with the GTE-CS NPs with or without CCl4. Selected areas of paraffin sections were trimmed off and fixed flat on top of mica and inserted in the AFM stage. H/E staining, Masson's trichrome stained slides, and AFM images revealed that collagen fibers of 250 to 300 nm widths were abundant in the fibrotic liver samples while those of GTE-CS NPs were clear as in the control group. Data confirmed the hypothesis that GTE-CS NPs are effective in removing all the extracellular collagen caused by CCl4 in the hepatic fibrosis rat liver.

  20. Transillumination imaging of intraocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Kjersem, Bård; Krohn, Jørgen

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss a recently described modification of a standard photo slit lamp system for ocular transillumination, with special emphasis on the light transmission through the eye wall and the photographic technique. Transillumination photography was carried out with the Haag-Streit Photo-Slit Lamp BX 900 (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland). After having released the background lighting optic fibre cable from its holder, the patient was positioned at the slit lamp, and the fibre tip was gently pressed against the sclera or the cornea of the patient's eye. During about 1/1000 of a second, the eye was illuminated by the flash and the scleral shadow of the tumour was exposed to the camera sensor. The images were of good diagnostic quality, making it easy to outline the tumours and to evaluate the involvement of intraocular structures. None of the examined patients experienced discomfort or negative side effects. The method is recommended in cases where photographic transillumination documentation of intraocular pathologies is considered important.

  1. Radiologically-guided thermal ablation of renal tumours.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, F; Balageas, P; Le Bras, Y; Rigou, G; Boutault, J-R; Bouzgarrou, M; Grenier, N

    2012-04-01

    Thermal ablation techniques for renal tumours have become the norm in surgically at-risk patients. These percutaneous treatments are locally effective, particularly for tumours measuring less than 4cm. Larger tumours may be treated by adapting the technique and strategy. Multidisciplinary discussion is essential before any decision, in order to decide on the most appropriate technique. Radiofrequency is simple, effective and inexpensive. Cryotherapy is more complex and should be preferred when the tumour is large or there is vascular or urinary tract contact. Microwaves can be used to treat larger tumours. Morbidity is low, but good knowledge of these techniques and of dissection is required to avoid injury to neighbouring digestive or urinary structures.

  2. Insulin’s direct hepatic effect explains the inhibition of glucose production caused by insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Edgerton, Dale S.; Kraft, Guillaume; Smith, Marta; Farmer, Ben; Williams, Phillip E.; Coate, Katie C.; Printz, Richard L.; O’Brien, Richard M.; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    Insulin can inhibit hepatic glucose production (HGP) by acting directly on the liver as well as indirectly through effects on adipose tissue, pancreas, and brain. While insulin’s indirect effects are indisputable, their physiologic role in the suppression of HGP seen in response to increased insulin secretion is not clear. Likewise, the mechanisms by which insulin suppresses lipolysis and pancreatic α cell secretion under physiologic circumstances are also debated. In this study, insulin was infused into the hepatic portal vein to mimic increased insulin secretion, and insulin’s indirect liver effects were blocked either individually or collectively. During physiologic hyperinsulinemia, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and glucagon levels were clamped at basal values and brain insulin action was blocked, but insulin’s direct effects on the liver were left intact. Insulin was equally effective at suppressing HGP when its indirect effects were absent as when they were present. In addition, the inhibition of lipolysis, as well as glucagon and insulin secretion, did not require CNS insulin action or decreased plasma FFA. This indicates that the rapid suppression of HGP is attributable to insulin’s direct effect on the liver and that its indirect effects are redundant in the context of a physiologic increase in insulin secretion. PMID:28352665

  3. The effect of cold on serum thyroid hormones and hepatic 5 prime mono-deiodinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hesslink, R.L. Jr.; Quesada, M.; D'Alesandro, M.; Homer, L.D.; Reed, J.L.; Christopherson, R.; Young, B.A. Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton )

    1991-03-11

    Cold exposed swine have an increases serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and increased T{sub 3} production rate. It is thought that hepatic thyroxine (T{sub 4}) deiodination (5DI) contributes to circulating T{sub 3} concentrations. The authors investigated the effects of cold exposure (14 days) on energy intake, serum free T{sub 3} (FT{sub 3}) and free T{sub 4} (FT{sub 4}) levels; and 5DI in 5-month boars. Hepatic 5DI activity was determined by measuring the {sup 125}I generated from trace amounts of {sup 125}I T{sub 4}. FT{sub 3} and FT{sub 4} were assayed by RIA. Swine were housed in either 20C (control; n = 5) or 4C (cold; n = 7) chambers and given food ad libitum. Cold exposure increased energy intake by 42%. The increase (93%) in hepatic 5DI V{sub max} after cold exposure parallels the increase in whole animal T{sub 3} production and may account for FT{sub 3} values found after cold exposure.

  4. A safe and effective dose of cisplatin in hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Akihiko; Suda, Takeshi; Kamimura, Kenya; Tsuchiya, Atsunori; Tamura, Yasushi; Takamura, Masaaki; Igarashi, Masato; Kawai, Hirokazu; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is an anticancer agent that is commonly used in hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to clarify the safe and effective dose of CDDP in HAI for HCC. The hypervascular area was measured in 42 HCCs before and after HAI with CDDP. Serum platinum concentration was quantified in the peripheral and/or middle hepatic veins by atomic absorption spectrometry. The relation between the HCC response and CDDP dose was statistically analyzed. The multiple HCC nodules in an individual case generally demonstrated the same response to CDDP. The free-platinum concentration stayed relatively constant in the hepatic vein during HAI followed by a rapid decline, while total-platinum gradually increased then slowly disappeared over several days. After CDDP-HAI, 15 HCCs shrunk and 27 HCCs grew. The reduction rate in the shrunken nodules was tended to be correlated with CDDP dose after standardization with the target liver volume. On the other hand, the growth rate of the enlarged HCCs was significantly correlated with CDDP dose after normalization with creatinine clearance. These data support a recommendation of CDDP-HAI infusion where the amount of CDDP (mg) administered is less than patient creatinine clearance (mL/min/1.73 m2) upon an assumption of HCC doubling time of 90 days, and the targeted liver is smaller than 200 times the CDDP dose (mg). A further analysis is required to define appropriate injection speeds. PMID:24133631

  5. Cost effectiveness of antenatal hepatitis B screening and vaccination of infants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, I L

    1990-11-01

    Over a 2-year study period 5,858 public antenatal patients were screened with the Welcome hepatitis B surface antigen HA screening kit; 52 (0.89%) were positive (carriers) and 45 (87%) of these were identifiable as high risk patients and would have been diagnosed by selective screening; the remaining 7 (13%) would have been missed. Using a subsample of 1,000 women, it was found that high risk factors were present in 237 (23.7%). Restriction of screening to the high risk group cost an estimated $97 per carrier identified; universal screening cost $354 to identify each carrier. Screening only the high risk group would have missed the 7 carriers in the low risk group, which was estimated to number 4,470 patients (76.3% of the total). Estimated cost of screening the low risk group was $14,036, or $2,005 per carrier identified. The advent of highly effective vaccines enables the almost complete prevention of vertical transmission of hepatitis B. In mid-1988, vaccine costs in terms of hepatitis B prevention per baby were estimated to be $2,432 for vaccination of babies born to mothers in the high risk group, irrespective of maternal serology; and $9,729 for universal vaccination. Carrier rates vary between populations. For our clinic patients, universal screening and vaccination of all babies of high risk group mothers are considered appropriate. Selective screening may be more appropriate in a low risk private practice.

  6. Curative effect of combined lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, and stem cell transplantation on decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Yan, Y; Zhou, J; Huang, L W; He, C P; Ling, K; Zhou, H C; Wen, Q M; Wang, X M

    2014-02-21

    This study assessed the clinical efficacy of lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil combined with autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation as treatment for patients with hepatitis B and decompensated liver cirrhosis. In total, 77 patients with hepatitis B and decompensated liver cirrhosis were randomly divided into two groups. Under general symptomatic and supportive treatment, the patients in group A (37 cases) were treated with lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil, whereas those in group B (40 cases) were treated with autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation in combination with lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil. After 4 weeks of treatment, the liver function indicators and clinical signs and symptoms of the patients in group B improved more significantly than those of patients in group A. Lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil in combination with autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation effectively prevented hepatitis B virus infection and bone marrow stem cell damage. This combination treatment facilitates the differentiation of bone marrow stem cells into normal liver cells to restore liver structure and improve liver function, thereby improving the quality of life of patients.

  7. A cost-effectiveness analysis of universal childhood hepatitis A vaccination in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Gui-Hua; Pan, Xin-Juan; Wang, Xue-Liang

    2008-08-18

    The socioeconomic improvement has impacted hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection with a shift from high to intermediate endemicity in many parts of China. The first China-developed inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, with significantly low price, was licensed in 2002, prompting us to evaluate whether universal childhood vaccination is advisable now in China. We considered vaccination scheduled at ages 12 and 18 months for all healthy children, and assumed that a single cohort was enrolled in 2005. A Markov model was used to predict hepatitis A outcomes and costs. Vaccination was compared with no vaccination, and the cost-effectiveness of vaccination was evaluated from the health system and the societal perspectives. The analysis was run separately in five regions (covering all the 31 provinces of Mainland China) defined by anti-HAV prevalence (around 50%, 50-69%, 70-79%, 80-89% and 90%-). The study projects that with the Chinese low-cost vaccine, vaccination could gain quality adjusted life years (QALYs) through the whole country and save health system or societal costs in the lowest, lower, intermediate and higher infection regions. Vaccination should also be cost-effective in the highest infection region because of low additional costs per QALY gained. However, vaccination would increase the probability of death due to hepatitis A in the highest and higher infection regions by 38 and 37 per million enrolled, respectively, and as vaccine protection loss increases the risk would also occur in intermediate and lower infection regions. The trend that the lower infection level the region has, the more cost-effective vaccination would be is obvious. Sensitivity analyses prove that our conclusions are robust. Considering the potential risk of vaccination, as well as unbalanced socioeconomic developments and significant differences in HAV infection through the whole country, the study suggests that universal childhood hepatitis A vaccination should be first administrated in

  8. Effects of resveratrol and other polyphenols in hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Leixuri; Portillo, Maria Puy; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bujanda, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease covers a wide spectrum of liver pathologies which range from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Polyphenols are members of a very large family of plant-derived compounds that can have beneficial effects on human health, and thus their study has become an increasingly important area of human nutrition research. The aim of the present review is to compile published data concerning the effects of both isolated polyphenols as well as polyphenol extracts, on hepatocyte and liver fat accumulation under different steatosis-inducing conditions. The results reported clearly show that this group of biomolecules is able to reduce fat accumulation, but further studies are needed to establish the optimal dose and treatment period length. With regard to the potential mechanisms of action, there is a good consensus. The anti-lipidogenic effect of polyphenols is mainly due to reduced fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis, increased in fatty acid oxidation, and reduced of oxidative stress and inflammation. As a general conclusion, it can be stated that polyphenols are biomolecules which produce hepatoprotective effects. To date, these beneficial effects have been demonstrated in cultured cells and animal models. Thus, studies performed in humans are needed before these molecules can be considered as truly useful tools in the prevention of liver steatosis. PMID:24966607

  9. Effects of resveratrol and other polyphenols in hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Leixuri; Portillo, Maria Puy; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bujanda, Luis

    2014-06-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease covers a wide spectrum of liver pathologies which range from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Polyphenols are members of a very large family of plant-derived compounds that can have beneficial effects on human health, and thus their study has become an increasingly important area of human nutrition research. The aim of the present review is to compile published data concerning the effects of both isolated polyphenols as well as polyphenol extracts, on hepatocyte and liver fat accumulation under different steatosis-inducing conditions. The results reported clearly show that this group of biomolecules is able to reduce fat accumulation, but further studies are needed to establish the optimal dose and treatment period length. With regard to the potential mechanisms of action, there is a good consensus. The anti-lipidogenic effect of polyphenols is mainly due to reduced fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis, increased in fatty acid oxidation, and reduced of oxidative stress and inflammation. As a general conclusion, it can be stated that polyphenols are biomolecules which produce hepatoprotective effects. To date, these beneficial effects have been demonstrated in cultured cells and animal models. Thus, studies performed in humans are needed before these molecules can be considered as truly useful tools in the prevention of liver steatosis.

  10. Longitudinal Effects of MRI-Measured Hepatic Steatosis on Biomarkers of Glucose Homeostasis and Hepatic Apoptosis in Obese Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace; Giannini, Cosimo; Pierpont, Bridget; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Santoro, Nicola; Kursawe, Romy; Shaw, Melissa; Duran, Elvira; Goldberg, Rachel; Dziura, James; Caprio, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We used fast-gradient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the longitudinal associations between the hepatic fat content (HFF), glucose homeostasis, and a biomarker of hepatocellular apoptosis in obese youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Baseline and longitudinal liver and abdominal MRI were performed with an oral glucose tolerance test in 76 obese youth followed for an average of 1.9 years. Cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) was measured at baseline and follow-up as a biomarker of hepatic apoptosis. The relationship between baseline HFF and metabolic parameters and circulating levels of CK-18 at follow-up were assessed using a bivariate correlation. RESULTS At baseline, 38% had hepatic steatosis based on %HFF ≥5.5% with alterations in indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion. At follow-up, BMI increased in both groups and baseline %HFF correlated strongly with the follow-up %HFF (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). Over time, markers of insulin sensitivity and 2-h glucose improved significantly in the group without fatty liver, in contrast with the persistence of the insulin resistance and associated correlates in the fatty liver group. Baseline HFF correlated with 2-h glucose (r = 0.38, P = 0.001), whole-body insulin sensitivity (r = −0.405, P = 0.001), adiponectin (r = −0.44, P < 0.001), CK-18 levels, (r = 0.63, P < 0.001), and disposition index (r = −0.272, P = 0.021) at follow-up. In a multivariate analysis, we showed that baseline HFF is an independent predictor of 2-h glucose and whole-body insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS In obese youth, the phenotype of MRI-measured hepatic steatosis is persistent. Baseline HFF strongly modulates longitudinally 2-h blood glucose, biomarkers of insulin resistance, and hepatocellular apoptosis. PMID:22933439

  11. Metabolic scaling in solid tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milotti, E.; Vyshemirsky, V.; Sega, M.; Stella, S.; Chignola, R.

    2013-06-01

    Tumour metabolism is an outstanding topic of cancer research, as it determines the growth rate and the global activity of tumours. Recently, by combining the diffusion of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolites in the extracellular environment, and the internal motions that mix live and dead cells, we derived a growth law of solid tumours which is linked to parameters at the cellular level. Here we use this growth law to obtain a metabolic scaling law for solid tumours, which is obeyed by tumours of different histotypes both in vitro and in vivo, and we display its relation with the fractal dimension of the distribution of live cells in the tumour mass. The scaling behaviour is related to measurable parameters, with potential applications in the clinical practice.

  12. Metabolic scaling in solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Milotti, E.; Vyshemirsky, V.; Sega, M.; Stella, S.; Chignola, R.

    2013-01-01

    Tumour metabolism is an outstanding topic of cancer research, as it determines the growth rate and the global activity of tumours. Recently, by combining the diffusion of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolites in the extracellular environment, and the internal motions that mix live and dead cells, we derived a growth law of solid tumours which is linked to parameters at the cellular level1. Here we use this growth law to obtain a metabolic scaling law for solid tumours, which is obeyed by tumours of different histotypes both in vitro and in vivo, and we display its relation with the fractal dimension of the distribution of live cells in the tumour mass. The scaling behaviour is related to measurable parameters, with potential applications in the clinical practice. PMID:23727729

  13. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Hodson, Pamela; Hua, Bobby; Pyecroft, Stephen; Taylor, Robyn; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine; Madsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic selection on cancer evolution. Since first observed in 1996, this transmissible cancer has caused local population declines by >90%. So far, four chromosomal DFTD variants (strains) have been described and karyotypic analyses of 253 tumours showed higher levels of tetraploidy in the oldest strain. We propose that increased ploidy in the oldest strain may have evolved in response to effects of genomic decay observed in asexually reproducing organisms. In this study, we focus on the evolutionary response of DFTD to a disease suppression trial. Tumours collected from devils subjected to the removal programme showed accelerated temporal evolution of tetraploidy compared with tumours from other populations where no increase in tetraploid tumours were observed. As ploidy significantly reduces tumour growth rate, we suggest that the disease suppression trial resulted in selection favouring slower growing tumours mediated by an increased level of tetraploidy. Our study reveals that DFTD has the capacity to rapidly respond to novel selective regimes and that disease eradication may result in novel tumour adaptations, which may further imperil the long-term survival of the world's largest carnivorous marsupial. PMID:24567746

  14. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Hodson, Pamela; Hua, Bobby; Pyecroft, Stephen; Taylor, Robyn; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine; Madsen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic selection on cancer evolution. Since first observed in 1996, this transmissible cancer has caused local population declines by >90%. So far, four chromosomal DFTD variants (strains) have been described and karyotypic analyses of 253 tumours showed higher levels of tetraploidy in the oldest strain. We propose that increased ploidy in the oldest strain may have evolved in response to effects of genomic decay observed in asexually reproducing organisms. In this study, we focus on the evolutionary response of DFTD to a disease suppression trial. Tumours collected from devils subjected to the removal programme showed accelerated temporal evolution of tetraploidy compared with tumours from other populations where no increase in tetraploid tumours were observed. As ploidy significantly reduces tumour growth rate, we suggest that the disease suppression trial resulted in selection favouring slower growing tumours mediated by an increased level of tetraploidy. Our study reveals that DFTD has the capacity to rapidly respond to novel selective regimes and that disease eradication may result in novel tumour adaptations, which may further imperil the long-term survival of the world's largest carnivorous marsupial.

  15. Histochemical and histoenzymatic liver changes in Guérin tumour-grafted rats.

    PubMed

    Bădescu, A; Cotuţiu, C; Mârza, D

    1981-01-01

    In order to follow up the morphological changes of the rat liver as a reaction to the tumour graft, three groups of Guérin tumour-grafted animals were used: a first control group, a second one treated with leucotrophine (LT) and a third one treated with LT and thiamine diphosphate (TDP). The tumour-grafted rats showed hepatic changes affecting mainly the organelles involved in cellular respiration and synthesis, as well as some morphological changes of Kupffer cells expressing an increased endocytosis. The protection by immunostimuli determined the diminution of histochemical and histoenzymatic changes both in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells.

  16. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor may want you to get the hepatitis B vaccine (and maybe the hepatitis A vaccine, too), if you don't already have these viruses. If you have hepatitis C, you are more likely to catch hepatitis A or hepatitis B, which would cause more damage to your liver. ...

  17. Effect of dietary lysine on hepatic lysine catabolism in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lysine is frequently a first- or second-limiting amino acid in poultry diets. Improving the efficiency of lysine use for protein synthesis would effectively lower the lysine requirement and decrease feed costs. Understanding how lysine is degraded and how the degradation is regulated would identif...

  18. Cardiovascular and Hepatic Toxicity of Cocaine: Potential Beneficial Effects of Modulators of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Manuela; Antonilli, Letizia; Togna, Anna Rita; Grassi, Maria Caterina; Badiani, Aldo; Saso, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is thought to play an important role in the pharmacological and toxic effects of various drugs of abuse. Herein we review the literature on the mechanisms responsible for the cardiovascular and hepatic toxicity of cocaine with special focus on OS-related mechanisms. We also review the preclinical and clinical literature concerning the putative therapeutic effects of OS modulators (such as N-acetylcysteine, superoxide dismutase mimetics, nitroxides and nitrones, NADPH oxidase inhibitors, xanthine oxidase inhibitors, and mitochondriotropic antioxidants) for the treatment of cocaine toxicity. We conclude that available OS modulators do not appear to have clinical efficacy. PMID:26823954

  19. The Effects of Probiotics and Symbiotics on Risk Factors for Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Viramontes Hörner, Daniela; Avery, Amanda; Stow, Ruth

    2017-01-05

    Alterations in the levels of intestinal microbiota, endotoxemia, and inflammation are novel areas of interest in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics and symbiotics are a promising treatment option for HE due to possible beneficial effects in modulating gut microflora and might be better tolerated and more cost-effective than the traditional treatment with lactulose, rifaximin or L-ornithine-L-aspartate. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted for randomized controlled clinical trials in adult patients with cirrhosis, evaluating the effect of probiotics and symbiotics in changes on intestinal microflora, reduction of endotoxemia, inflammation, and ammonia, reversal of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), and improvement of quality of life. Nineteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Probiotics and symbiotics increased beneficial microflora and decreased pathogenic bacteria and endotoxemia compared with placebo/no treatment, but no effect was observed on inflammation. Probiotics significantly reversed MHE [risk ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 2.05; P=0.005] and reduced OHE development (risk ratio, 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.80; P=0.0002) compared with placebo/no treatment. Symbiotics significantly decreased ammonia levels compared with placebo (15.24; 95% CI: -26.01, -4.47; P=0.006). Probiotics did not show any additional benefit on reversal of MHE and prevention of OHE development when compared with lactulose, rifaximin, and L-ornithine-L-aspartate. Only 5 trials considered tolerance with minimal side effects reported. Although further research is warranted, probiotics and symbiotics should be considered as an alternative therapy for the treatment and management of HE given the results reported in this systematic review.

  20. Effect of Maotai liquor in inducing metallothioneins and on hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming-Liang; Wu, Jun; Wang, Hai-Qin; Xue, Lie-Ming; Tan, Ying-Zhi; Ping, Liu; Li, Cheng-Xiu; Huang, Neng-Hui; Yao, Yu-Mei; Ren, Lan-Zheng; Ye, Lan; Li, Ling; Jia, Mei-Lin

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possible mechanism why drinking Maotai liquor dose not cause hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: After being fed with Maotai for 56 days consecutively, the male SD rats were decollated for detecting the biological indexes, and the livers were harvested to examine the liver indexes and the level of hepatic metallothioneins (MT). Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) proliferation and collagen generation were also observed. RESULTS: Hepatic MT contents were 216.0 ng·g-1 ± 10.8 ng·g-1 in the rats of Maotai group and 10.0 ng·g-1 ± 2.8 ng·g-1 in the normal control group, which was increased obviously in Maotain group (P < 0.05). In the rats with grade CCL2 poisoning induced by Maotai, hepatic MT content was 304.8 ng·g-1 ± 12.1 ng·g-1 whereas in the controls with grade CCL4 poisoning, it was 126.4 ng·g-1 ± 4.8 ng·g-1 (P < 0.05). MDA was 102.0 nmol·g-1 ± 3.4 nmol·g-1 in Maotai group and 150.8 nmol·g-1 ± 6.7 nmol·g-1 in the control group (P < 0.05). When both of the groups were suffering from grade CCL4 poisoning, hepatic MT contents was negatively correlated with MDA (r = -0.8023, n = 20, P < 0.01). The 570 nmA values of each tube with HSC regeneration at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 g·L-1 of Maotai were 0.818, 0.742, 0.736, 0.72, 0.682, and 0.604, respectively. From the concentration of 10 g·L-1, Maotai began to show obvious inhibitory effects against HSC, and the inhibition was concentration-dependent (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Type I collagen contents in HSC were 61.4, 59.9, 50.1, 49.2, 48.7, 34.4 μg·g-1 at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 g·L-1 of Maotai. At the concentration of 100-200 g·L-1, Maotai had obvious inhibitory effect against the secretion of type I collagen (P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis was conducted on cells with Maotai concentrations of 0, 50, 100 g·L-1 respectively and the ash values of β-actin gene expression were 0.88, 0.74, and 0.59, respectively, suggesting that at the concentration of 100 g·L-1

  1. Tumour blood vessel normalisation by prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor repaired sensitivity to chemotherapy in a tumour mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Shinji; Imanishi, Masaki; Maekawa, Yoichi; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi; Tomita, Shuhei

    2017-01-01

    Blood vessels are important tissue structures that deliver oxygen and nutrition. In tumour tissue, abnormal blood vessels, which are hyperpermeable and immature, are often formed; these tissues also have irregular vascularisation and intravasation. This situation leads to hypoperfusion in tumour tissue along with low oxygen and nutrition depletion; this is also called the tumour microenvironment and is characterised by hypoxia, depleted nutrition, low pH and high interstitial pressure. This environment induces resistance to anticancer drugs, which causes an increase in anticancer drug doses, leading to increased side effects. We hypothesised that normalised tumour blood vessels would improve tumour tissue perfusion, resupply nutrition and re-oxygenate the tumour tissue. Chemotherapy would then be more effective and cause a decrease in anticancer drug doses. Here we report a neovascularisation-inducing drug that improved tumour vascular abnormalities, such as low blood flow, blood leakage and abnormal vessel structure. These results could lead to not only an increased chemo-sensitivity and tissue-drug distribution but also an up-regulated efficiency for cancer chemotherapy. This suggests that tumour blood vessel normalisation therapy accompanied by angiogenesis may be a novel strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:28361934

  2. Tumour blood vessel normalisation by prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor repaired sensitivity to chemotherapy in a tumour mouse model.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Shinji; Imanishi, Masaki; Maekawa, Yoichi; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi; Tomita, Shuhei

    2017-03-31

    Blood vessels are important tissue structures that deliver oxygen and nutrition. In tumour tissue, abnormal blood vessels, which are hyperpermeable and immature, are often formed; these tissues also have irregular vascularisation and intravasation. This situation leads to hypoperfusion in tumour tissue along with low oxygen and nutrition depletion; this is also called the tumour microenvironment and is characterised by hypoxia, depleted nutrition, low pH and high interstitial pressure. This environment induces resistance to anticancer drugs, which causes an increase in anticancer drug doses, leading to increased side effects. We hypothesised that normalised tumour blood vessels would improve tumour tissue perfusion, resupply nutrition and re-oxygenate the tumour tissue. Chemotherapy would then be more effective and cause a decrease in anticancer drug doses. Here we report a neovascularisation-inducing drug that improved tumour vascular abnormalities, such as low blood flow, blood leakage and abnormal vessel structure. These results could lead to not only an increased chemo-sensitivity and tissue-drug distribution but also an up-regulated efficiency for cancer chemotherapy. This suggests that tumour blood vessel normalisation therapy accompanied by angiogenesis may be a novel strategy for cancer therapy.

  3. An imaging-based computational model for simulating angiogenesis and tumour oxygenation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikarla, Vikram; Jeraj, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Tumour growth, angiogenesis and oxygenation vary substantially among tumours and significantly impact their treatment outcome. Imaging provides a unique means of investigating these tumour-specific characteristics. Here we propose a computational model to simulate tumour-specific oxygenation changes based on the molecular imaging data. Tumour oxygenation in the model is reflected by the perfused vessel density. Tumour growth depends on its doubling time (T d) and the imaged proliferation. Perfused vessel density recruitment rate depends on the perfused vessel density around the tumour (sMVDtissue) and the maximum VEGF concentration for complete vessel dysfunctionality (VEGFmax). The model parameters were benchmarked to reproduce the dynamics of tumour oxygenation over its entire lifecycle, which is the most challenging test. Tumour oxygenation dynamics were quantified using the peak pO2 (pO2peak) and the time to peak pO2 (t peak). Sensitivity of tumour oxygenation to model parameters was assessed by changing each parameter by 20%. t peak was found to be more sensitive to tumour cell line related doubling time (~30%) as compared to tissue vasculature density (~10%). On the other hand, pO2peak was found to be similarly influenced by the above tumour- and vasculature-associated parameters (~30-40%). Interestingly, both pO2peak and t peak were only marginally affected by VEGFmax (~5%). The development of a poorly oxygenated (hypoxic) core with tumour growth increased VEGF accumulation, thus disrupting the vessel perfusion as well as further increasing hypoxia with time. The model with its benchmarked parameters, is applied to hypoxia imaging data obtained using a [64Cu]Cu-ATSM PET scan of a mouse tumour and the temporal development of the vasculature and hypoxia maps are shown. The work underscores the importance of using tumour-specific input for analysing tumour evolution. An extended model incorporating therapeutic effects can serve as a powerful tool for analysing

  4. Multiple Effects of Silymarin on the Hepatitis C Virus Lifecycle

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, Jessica; Negash, Amina; Kane, Olivia J.; Martinez, Laura E.; Nahmias, Yaakov; Bourne, Nigel; Owen, David M.; Grove, Joe; Brimacombe, Claire; McKeating, Jane A.; Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Lohmann, Volker; Cao, Feng; Tavis, John E.; Polyak, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Silymarin, an extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), and its purified flavonolignans have been recently shown to inhibit HCV infection, both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we further characterized silymarin's antiviral actions. Silymarin had antiviral effects against HCVcc infection that included inhibition of virus entry, RNA and protein expression, and infectious virus production. Silymarin did not block HCVcc binding to cells, but inhibited the entry of several viral pseudoparticles (pp), and fusion of HCVpp with liposomes. Silymarin but not silibinin inhibited JFH-1 genotype 2a NS5B-dependent RNA polymerase activity at concentrations 5–10 times higher than required for anti-HCVcc effects. Furthermore, silymarin had inefficient activity on the genotype 1b BK and four 1b RDRPs derived from HCV-infected patients. Moreover, silymarin did not inhibit HCV replication in 5 independent genotype 1a, 1b, and 2a replicon cell lines that did not produce infectious virus. Silymarin inhibited microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity, apolipoprotein B secretion, and infectious virion production into culture supernatants. Silymarin also blocked cell-to-cell spread of virus. While inhibition of in-vitro NS5B polymerase activity is demonstrable, the mechanisms of silymarin's antiviral action appear to include blocking of virus entry and transmission, possibly by targeting the host cell. PMID:20512985

  5. The effects of cyclopropane carboxylate on hepatic pyruvate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Steinhelper, M E; Olson, M S

    1985-11-15

    The effects of cyclopropane carboxylate on gluconeogenesis and pyruvate decarboxylation from [1-14C]-labeled pyruvate and lactate were investigated in perfused livers from fasted rats. With high concentrations of pyruvate (greater than or equal to 0.5 mM) in the perfusion medium, infusion of cyclopropane carboxylate inhibited pyruvate decarboxylation and gluconeogenesis by 30 and 40%, respectively. With low, more physiological concentrations of pyruvate (50 microM) or with lactate (1 mM), cyclopropane carboxylate, at a concentration which elicits maximal inhibition of pyruvate decarboxylation from pyruvate (greater than or equal to 0.5 mM), did not affect either pyruvate decarboxylation or gluconeogenesis. Evidence is presented for the rapid formation of the coenzyme-A ester of cyclopropane carboxylate in perfused livers. Infusion of l-(-)carnitine (20 mM) prevented the inhibitory effects of cyclopropane carboxylate on pyruvate decarboxylation and gluconeogenesis from pyruvate (greater than or equal to 0.5 mM). Interestingly, no decrease in the tissue level of cyclopropanecarboxyl-CoA occurs under these conditions. The present study suggests that cyclopropane carboxylate, through a presently ill-defined mediator, inhibits pyruvate decarboxylation and gluconeogenesis by interfering with the pyruvate----oxalacetate----phosphoenolpyruvate----pyruvate cycle when pyruvate (greater than or equal to 0.5mM) supports gluconeogenesis.

  6. Modelling hepatitis C therapy—predicting effects of treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Perelson, Alan S.; Guedj, Jeremie

    2015-06-30

    Mathematically modelling changes in HCV RNA levels measured in patients who receive antiviral therapy has yielded many insights into the pathogenesis and effects of treatment on the virus. By determining how rapidly HCV is cleared when viral replication is interrupted by a therapy, one can deduce how rapidly the virus is produced in patients before treatment. This knowledge, coupled with estimates of the HCV mutation rate, enables one to estimate the frequency with which drug resistant variants arise. Modelling HCV also permits the deduction of the effectiveness of an antiviral agent at blocking HCV replication from the magnitude of themore » initial viral decline. One can also estimate the lifespan of an HCV-infected cell from the slope of the subsequent viral decline and determine the duration of therapy needed to cure infection. The original understanding of HCV RNA decline under interferon-based therapies obtained by modelling needed to be revised in order to interpret the HCV RNA decline kinetics seen when using direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). In addition, there also exist unresolved issues involving understanding therapies with combinations of DAAs, such as the presence of detectable HCV RNA at the end of therapy in patients who nonetheless have a sustained virologic response.« less

  7. Modelling hepatitis C therapy—predicting effects of treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Perelson, Alan S.; Guedj, Jeremie

    2015-06-30

    Mathematically modelling changes in HCV RNA levels measured in patients who receive antiviral therapy has yielded many insights into the pathogenesis and effects of treatment on the virus. By determining how rapidly HCV is cleared when viral replication is interrupted by a therapy, one can deduce how rapidly the virus is produced in patients before treatment. This knowledge, coupled with estimates of the HCV mutation rate, enables one to estimate the frequency with which drug resistant variants arise. Modelling HCV also permits the deduction of the effectiveness of an antiviral agent at blocking HCV replication from the magnitude of the initial viral decline. One can also estimate the lifespan of an HCV-infected cell from the slope of the subsequent viral decline and determine the duration of therapy needed to cure infection. The original understanding of HCV RNA decline under interferon-based therapies obtained by modelling needed to be revised in order to interpret the HCV RNA decline kinetics seen when using direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). In addition, there also exist unresolved issues involving understanding therapies with combinations of DAAs, such as the presence of detectable HCV RNA at the end of therapy in patients who nonetheless have a sustained virologic response.

  8. Plumbagin inhibits tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth through the Ras signalling pathway following activation of the VEGF receptor-2

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Li; Liu, Junchen; Zhai, Dong; Lin, Qingxiang; He, Lijun; Dong, Yanmin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Binbin; Chen, Yihua; Yi, Zhengfang; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Angiogenesis-based therapy is an effective anti-tumour strategy and previous reports have shown some beneficial effects of a naturally occurring bioactive compound plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone). Here, we sought to determine the biological effects of plumbagin on signalling mechanisms during tumour angiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of plumbagin were evaluated in various in vitro assays which utilised human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tube formation. Plumbagin was also evaluated in vivo using chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and mouse corneal micropocket models., Human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models were used to evaluate the effects of plumbagin on angiogenesis. Immunofluorescence, GST pull-down and Western blotting were employed to explore the underlying mechanisms of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)2-mediated Ras signalling pathways. KEY RESULTS Plumbagin not only inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation but also suppressed chicken chorioallantoic membrane neovascularzation and VEGF-induced mouse corneal angiogenesis. Moreover, plumbagin suppressed tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth in human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models. At a molecular level, plumbagin blocked the Ras/Rac/cofilin and Ras/MEK signalling pathways mediated by VEGFR2 in HUVECs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Plumbagin inhibited tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth by interference with the VEGFR2-mediated Ras signalling pathway in endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrate a molecular basis for the effects of plumbagin and suggest that this compound might have therapeutic ant-tumour effects. PMID:21658027

  9. Drug therapies for chronic hepatitis C infection: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William W. L.; Lee, Karen M.; Singh, Sumeet; Wells, George; Feld, Jordan J.; Krahn, Murray

    2017-01-01

    Background: Before 2011, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin was the standard therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents were then approved. Although these treatments appear to be more effective, they are substantially more expensive. In anticipation of the need for information regarding the comparative cost-effectiveness of new regimens in a recent therapeutic review, we conducted the analysis to inform listing decision in Canada. Methods: A state-transition model was developed in the form of a cost-utility analysis. Regimens included in the analysis were comprehensive. The cohort under consideration had a mean age of 50 years. The cohort was defined by treatment status and cirrhosis status. Inputs for the model were derived from published sources and validated by clinical experts. Results: For each genotype 1 population, at least 1 of the interferon-free agents appeared to be economically attractive compared with pegylated interferon-ribavirin, at a willingness-to-pay of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life-year. The drug that was the most cost-effective varied by population. For genotype 2-4 population, the direct-acting antiviral therapies appeared not to be economically attractive compared with pegylated interferon-ribavirin for the treatment-naive; however, there were direct-acting antiviral therapies that appeared to be attractive when compared with no treatment for the treatment-experienced. Interpretation: Public health policy should be informed by consideration of health benefit, social and ethical values, feasibility and cost-effectiveness. Our analysis assists the development of reimbursements and policies for interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agent regimens for chronic hepatitis C infection by informing the last criterion. Considering the rapid development of treatments for chronic hepatitis C, further update and expanded reviews will be necessary.

  10. The profile of melatonin production in tumour-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana Carolina Franco; Martins, Eivor; Afeche, Solange Castro; Cipolla-Neto, José; Costa Rosa, Luís Fernando Bicudo Pereira

    2004-09-24

    The pineal gland is involved in the regulation of tumour growth through the anticancer activity of melatonin, which presents immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant effects. In this study we measured melatonin content directly in the pineal gland, in an attempt to clarify the modulation of pineal melatonin secretory activity during tumour growth. Different groups of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma bearing rats were sacrificed at 12 different time points during 24h (12h:12h light/dark cycle) on different days during the tumour development (on the first, seventh and fourteenth day after tumour inoculation). Melatonin content in the pineal gland was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. During tumour development the amount of melatonin secreted increased from 310.9 ng/mg of protein per day from control animals, to 918.1 ng/mg of protein per day 14 days after tumour implantation, and there were changes in the pineal production profile of melatonin. Cultured pineal glands obtained from tumour-bearing rats turned out to be less responsive to noradrenaline, suggesting the existence, in vivo, of putative factor(s) modulating pineal melatonin production. The results demonstrated that during tumour development there is a modification of pineal melatonin production daily profile, possibly contributing to cachexia, associated to changes in pineal gland response to noradrenaline stimulation.

  11. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation, sometimes leading to serious liver damage. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated ...

  12. Toxic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Toxic hepatitis is an inflammation of your liver in reaction to certain substances to which you're exposed. Toxic hepatitis can be caused by alcohol, chemicals, drugs or ...

  13. Imaging biomarkers of brain tumour margin and tumour invasion.

    PubMed

    Price, S J; Gillard, J H

    2011-12-01

    Invasion of tumour cells into the normal brain is one of the major reasons of treatment failure for gliomas. Although there is a good understanding of the molecular and cellular processes that occur during this invasion, it is not possible to detect the extent of the tumour with conventional imaging. However, there is an understanding that the degree of invasion differs with individual tumours, and yet they are all treated the same. Newer imaging techniques that probe the pathological changes within tumours may be suitable biomarkers for invasion. Imaging methods are now available that can detect subtle changes in white matter organisation (diffusion tensor imaging), tumour metabolism and cellular proliferation (using MR spectroscopy and positron emission tomography) occurring in regions of tumour that cannot be detected by conventional imaging. The role of such biomarkers of invasion should allow better delineation of tumour margins, which should improve treatment planning (especially surgery and radiotherapy) and provide information on the invasiveness of an individual tumour to help select the most appropriate therapy and help stratify patients for clinical trials.

  14. Precise control of caval and hepatic vessels: Surgical technique to treat level III caval thrombus concomitant to renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Bin; Liu, Ning; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Yiduo; Yang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaowen; Sun, Chao; Liu, Jing; Zhu, Weidong; Chen, Shuqiu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We investigated the surgical techniques, safety, and prevention of complications of nephrectomy and removal of tumour thrombus for treating level III inferior vena cava (IVC) concomitant to renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We did this by precise controlling IVC and hepatic vessels without a vascular bypass. Methods: In this series, we included 5 patients with level III IVC tumour thrombus below the hepatic vein concomitant to RCC. After precisely controlling the IVC and hepatic vessels, we then removed the thrombus en bloc with the renal vein. Blood loss volume, IVC clamping time, hypotension time, resuscitation, cardiocerebrovascular complications, and postoperative organ dysfunction were observed. Results: Surgery was successfully performed without perioperative death. Blood loss volume was 900 to 1500 mL, operation time was 165 to 250 minutes, vascular clamping time was 8 to 12 minutes, and intraoperative hypotension time was 9 to 12 minutes. Serious perioperative complications were not observed. Local recurrence was not observed during the 9 to 24 months of follow-up. One patient exhibited disease-free survival, 3 developed lung or liver metastasis, and 1 died 11 months after surgery. Conclusion: Precise control of IVC and hepatic pedicle vessels, without vascular bypass, is a safe and effective surgical treatment for level III tumor thrombus below the hepatic vein concomitant to RCC. The procedure was conducted without increased risks of intraoperative hypotensive shock, difficult resuscitation, pulmonary embolism, and multiple organ dysfunctions. PMID:26600890

  15. Uterine Tumour Resembling Ovarian Sex Cord Tumour- A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Tolgay Tuyan; Gül, Ayhan; Ugurluoglu, Ceyhan; Çelik, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Uterine Tumour Resembling Ovarian Sex-Cord Tumours (UTROSCTs) are an extremely rare type of uterine body tumours arising from the endometrial stroma. Epidemiology, aetiology, pathogenesis, management and natural history of UTROSCTs are still a question of debate, as there is little available data in the literature. Although rare, the possibility of UTROSCTs should be kept in mind, when a patient presents with abnormal bleeding and an enlarged uterus. UTROSCTs appear dirty white/cream-coloured, gelatinous, well-circumscribed mass with smooth surface on macroscopic examination. We present a rare case of endometrial stromal tumour with sex-cord-like differentiation which was successfully treated by hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The clinical manifestations, pathologic characteristics, diagnosis and management of these tumours are reviewed here. PMID:28208949

  16. Anticytoproliferative effect of Vitamin C on rat hepatic stellate cell

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min; Chao, Guo; Liang, Minqing; Song, Jianhua; Wu, Ka

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the potential therapeutical benefit of Vitamin (VC), a potent antioxidant, on suppressing proliferation of immortalized rat liver stellate cell line (HSC-T6) in vitro, and to discuss the underlying mechanism. HSC-T6 was co-treated with different concentrations of VC (50, 100, 200 μmol/L) on designed time points. Then, cell viability was assessed by using MTT analysis, and the changes of cytomorphology was observed with apoptosis-specific TUNEL and immunohistochemical stains, as well as the intracellular target genes was determined by using RT-PCR, respectively. As the outcomes, VC-treated HSC-T6 showed significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the vehicle control. Cytologically, VC increased TUNEL-labeled positive cells in cultured HSC-T6, which the cell count was greater than vehicle control. Meanwhile, VC-treated HSC-T6 showed elevated immunoreactive for TGF-β1-labeled cells. Moreover, VC contributed to down-regulated expressions of intracellular c-myc, cyclin D1, mTOR mRNAs in HSC-T6. Collectively, these preliminary findings have demonstrated that VC-mediated anti-proliferative effect on HSCs is involved in molecular mechanisms of promoting apoptosis and blocking endogenous collagenation. PMID:27398165

  17. Hepatic effects of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1995-10-01

    The effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} deposited in the liver of dogs were studied in beagles exposed to initial lung depositions ranging from 5.7 to 2979.7 Bq/g lung. Approximately 20% of the initial lung deposition was translocated to the liver by 1500 days after exposure. Life-span observations revealed that the liver contained 40% of the final body burden of plutonium, second only to the skeleton. Elevated serum liver enzyme activities were observed in dogs with final liver depositions of {ge}0.4 Bq/g, cumulative dose to the liver of {ge}0.18 Gy and annual dose rate {ge}0.02 Gy/year. Enzyme elevations were seen at one dose level lower than that in which bone or lung tumors were observed. Linear regression analysis revealed strong to moderate correlation between cumulative dose and dose rate and time to observed increases in liver enzyme activities. Liver tumors were late occurring neoplasms observed at lower exposure levels where life span was not shortened by lung and bone tumors. 22 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Effect of DDT on hepatic gap junctional intercellular communication in rats.

    PubMed

    Tateno, C; Ito, S; Tanaka, M; Oyamada, M; Yoshitake, A

    1994-03-01

    The effects of in vivo exposure to DDT on hepatic gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and connexin gene/protein expression in Sprague-Dawley rats were examined by in vivo/in vitro dye-transfer assay, immunohistochemical staining, and by Western and Northern blot analyses. In the dose-response study, three dose levels of DDT (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg/day) were administered orally to rats once a day for 2 weeks. The average size of the dye spread after injection of Lucifer Yellow and the area of Cx32 spots per hepatocyte decreased in a dose-dependent manner, but there was no effect on the number of Cx32 spots per hepatocyte. In the time-course study, DDT (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally once a day for up to 6 weeks. Hepatic GJIC decreased at week 1 but recovered at week 6. The average area of Cx32 spots per hepatocyte gradually decreased at weeks 2 and 4, and remained at the same level at week 6, correlating with the decreased Cx32 protein level in plasma membranes. The average area of Cx26 spots per hepatocyte in the peripheral zones clearly decreased at week 1, but quickly recovered at week 2 and increased at week 6; however, no clear change of the Cx26 protein level in plasma membranes was observed. No changes of Cx32 and Cx26 mRNA levels were observed in DDT groups. These results suggest that DDT, a liver tumor-promoting agent, inhibits hepatic GJIC in vivo dose-dependently in rats and that aberrant Cx32 and Cx26 protein expression and/or localization may be responsible for this effect.

  19. Effect of stress on hepatic 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and its influence on carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Altuna, María Eugenia; Lelli, Sandra Marcela; San Martín de Viale, Leonor C; Damasco, María Cristina

    2006-10-01

    Stress activates the synthesis and secretion of catecholamines and adrenal glucocorticoids, increasing their circulating levels. In vivo, hepatic 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD1) stimulates the shift of 11-dehydrocorticosterone to corticosterone, enhancing active glucocorticoids at tissue level. We studied the effect of 3 types of stress, 1 induced by bucogastric overload with 200 mmol/L HCl causing metabolic acidosis (HCl), the second induced by bucogastric overload with 0.45% NaCl (NaCl), and the third induced by simulated overload (cannula), on the kinetics of hepatic HSD1 of rats and their influence on the activity of the gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glycemia, and glycogen deposition. Compared with unstressed controls, all types of stress significantly increased HSD1 activity (146% cannula, 130% NaCl, and 253% HCl), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity (51% cannula, 48% NaCl, and 86% HCl), and glycemia (29% cannula, 30% NaCl, and 41% HCl), but decreased hepatic glycogen (68% cannula, 68% NaCl, and 78% HCl). Owing to these results, we suggest the following events occur when stress is induced: an increase in hepatic HSD1 activity, augmented active glucocorticoid levels, increased gluconeogenesis, and glycemia. Also involved are the multiple events indirectly related to glucocorticoids, which lead to the depletion of hepatic glycogen deposits, thereby contributing to increased glycemia. This new approach shows that stress increments the activity of hepatic HSD1 and suggests that this enzyme could be involved in the development of the Metabolic Syndrome.

  20. The effect of hepatic vascular exclusion on hepatic blood flow and oxygen supply--uptake ratio in the pig.

    PubMed

    López Santamaria, M; Gamez, M; Murcia, J; Paz Cruz, J A; Bueno, J; Canser, E; Qi, B; Lobato, R; Martinez, L; Jara, P; Tovar, J A

    1997-10-01

    The hemodynamic disturbances produced by total hepatic vascular exclusion (THVE) for 40 minutes were studied in 7 pigs (19-22 kg). THVE was produced by clamping the hepatic pedicle and inferior vena cava, above and below the liver, for a 40-minutes period, followed by unclamping. Compared to baseline values, 30 minutes after onset of THVE, there was a decrease in cardiac output (3.86 +/- 0.55 vs 1.23 +/- 0.23 L x min-1), systemic arterial pressure (97.54 +/- 13.58 vs 43.43 +/- 11.38 mm Hg), and pulmonary artery pressure (16.57 +/- 6.38 vs 12.57 +/- 3.58) and an increase in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance (1772 +/- 198 vs 2351 +/- 462, and 182 +/- 66 vs 361 +/- 124 dyn x s x cm-5 respectively). As a result of diminished cardiac output, the systemic oxygen supply decreased (461 +/- 131 vs 101 +/- 46 ml x min-1), but the systemic oxygen extraction rate rose from 17.3% t0 31.2%. Thirty minutes after unclamping, the changes had reversed and all the parameters tended to normalize. Total hepatic blood flow 30 minutes after unclamping was higher than at baseline (5.08 +/- 1.2 vs 6.66 +/- 0.67 ml x min-1 x 100 g-1), because of the increase in portal blood flow (4.52 +/- 1.21 vs 6.07 +/- 0.70 ml x min-1 x 100 g-1). There were no significant differences in hepatic oxygen supply and uptake at baseline and after unclamping (152.6 +/- 23.0 vs 187.0 +/- 34.7 and 22.7 +/- 4.9 vs 28.7 +/- 8.4 ml O2 respectively). AST rose (29 +/- 7 vs 136 +/- 91 U/l), but there was no change in the remaining liver enzymes, glucose, creatinine and serum electrolytes, so we conclude that the hemodynamic disturbances produced by 40 minutes of THVE are manageable and spontaneously reversible. Liver metabolism was not greatly disturbed, so THVE was judged to be a viable technique to be added to the surgeon's range of options.

  1. Effects of humic acid-metal complexes on hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase, carnitine acetyltransferase and catalase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fungjou Lu; Youngshin Chen . Dept. of Biochemistry); Tienshang Huang . Dept. of Medicine)

    1994-03-01

    A significant increase in activities of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase and carnitine acetyltransferase was observed in male Balb/c mice intraperitoneally injected for 40 d with 0.125 mg/0.1 ml/d humic acid-metal complexes. Among these complexes, the humic acid-As complex was relatively effective, whereas humic acid-25 metal complex was more effective, and humic acid-26 metal complex was most effective. However, humic acid or metal mixtures, or metal such as As alone, was not effective. Humic acid-metal complexes also significantly decreased hepatic catalase activity. A marked decrease of 60-kDa polypeptide in liver cytoplasm was also observed on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after the mice had been injected with the complexes. Morphological analysis of a histopathological biopsy of such treated mice revealed several changes in hepatocytes, including focal necrosis and cell infiltration, mild fatty changes, reactive nuclei, and hypertrophy. Humic acid-metal complexes affect activities of metabolic enzymes of fatty acids, and this results in accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and increase of the lipid peroxidation. The products of lipid peroxidation may be responsible for liver damage and possible carcinogenesis. Previous studies in this laboratory had shown that humic acid-metal complex altered the coagulation system and that humic acid, per se, caused vasculopathy. Therefore, humic acid-metal complexes may be main causal factors of not only so-called blackfoot disease, but also the liver cancer prevailing on the southwestern coast of Taiwan.

  2. Anti-insulin effects of amylin and calcitonin-gene-related peptide on hepatic glycogen metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Foix, A M; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Guinovart, J J

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of amylin and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) as anti-insulin agents in hepatic tissue, we have studied whether these two agents counteracted the action of insulin on glycogen metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes. In this system insulin stimulates [14C]glucose incorporation into glycogen and activates glycogen synthase. Incubation of the cells with insulin in the presence of amylin or CGRP markedly blocked the insulin stimulation of these two parameters, whereas amylin or CGRP acting alone did not induce any effect. We also examined the ability of amylin and CGRP to modify the anti-glucagon effects of insulin. In the presence of 100 nM-amylin or -CGRP, 10 nM-insulin was almost unable to counteract the inactivation of glycogen synthase and the activation of phosphorylase induced by glucagon. In contrast, neither amylin nor CGRP modified the effect of glucagon on these two enzymes. Our results indicate that amylin and CGRP are able to impair the action of insulin on hepatic glycogen metabolism. PMID:1905922

  3. Lamivudine compared with newer antivirals for prophylaxis of hepatitis B core antibody positive livers: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Wright, A J; Fishman, J A; Chung, R T

    2014-03-01

    There is concern over the development of de novo hepatitis B in patients receiving liver transplants from hepatitis B surface antigen negative, hepatitis B core antibody positive donors. Current practice is to place such patients on indefinite lamivudine prophylaxis; however, there is a small risk of breakthrough infection and newer antivirals for hepatitis B are available. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of lamivudine compared with the newer agents, tenofovir and entecavir, in the prophylaxis setting using a Markov model. Three strategies were examined which consisted of either lamivudine or entecavir monoprophylaxis with tenofovir add-on therapy after breakthrough or tenofovir monoprophylaxis with emtricitabine add-on therapy after breakthrough. In the base case scenario, lamivudine was the most cost-effective option at a threshold of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year and this remained robust despite parameter uncertainty. Tenofovir had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $3 540 194.77 while other strategies were superior to entecavir therapy. Until drug costs decrease, lamivudine remains the most cost-effective option for hepatitis B prophylaxis in the liver transplant setting.

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hexadecenoic acid (HA), laminin (LN), hydroxyproline (Hyp), and glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and Masson Trichrome (MT) examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis. PMID:22559721

  5. Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Massoud, A; Powell, M; Williams, R; Hindmarsh, P; Brook, C

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 29 January 1997
 OBJECTIVES—Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the preferred method for the excision of pituitary microadenomas in adults. This study was carried out to establish the long term efficacy and safety of TSS in children.
STUDY DESIGN—A 14 year retrospective analysis was carried out on 23 children (16 boys and seven girls), all less than 18 years of age, who had undergone TSS at our centre.
RESULTS—Twenty nine transsphenoidal surgical procedures were carried out. The most common diagnosis was an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secreting adenoma (14 (61%) patients). The median length of follow up was 8.0 years (range 0.3-14.0 years). Eighteen (78%) patients were cured after the first procedure. No death was related to the operation. The most common postoperative complication was diabetes insipidus, which was transient in most patients. Other complications were headaches in two patients and cerebrospinal fluid leaks in two patients. De novo endocrine deficiencies after TSS in children were as follows: three (14%) patients developed panhypopituitarism, eight (73%) developed growth hormone insufficiency, three (14%) developed secondary hypothyroidism, and four (21%) developed gonadotrophin deficiency. Permanent ACTH deficiency occurred in five (24%) patients, though all patients received postoperative glucocorticoid treatment until dynamic pituitary tests were performed three months after TSS.
CONCLUSIONS—TSS in children is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary tumours, provided it is performed by surgeons with considerable experience and expertise. Surgical complications are minimal. Postoperative endocrine deficit is considerable, but is only permanent in a small proportion of patients.

 • Transsphenoidal surgery is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary tumours in children • Transsphenoidal surgery should be performed by surgeons with considerable experience and expertise • Surgical complications of

  6. Autophagy in hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Zhao, Yingying; Wang, Fei; Tao, Lichan; Xiao, Junjie; Yang, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic fibrosis is usually associated with chronic liver diseases caused by infection, drugs, metabolic disorders, or autoimmune imbalances. Effective clinical therapies are still lacking. Autophagy is a cellular process that degrades damaged organelles or protein aggregation, which participates in many pathological processes including liver diseases. Autophagy participates in hepatic fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells and may participate as well through influencing other fibrogenic cells. Besides that, autophagy can induce some liver diseases to develop while it may play a protective role in hepatocellular abnormal aggregates related liver diseases and reduces fibrosis. With a better understanding of the potential effects of autophagy on hepatic fibrosis, targeting autophagy might be a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis in the near future.

  7. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  8. Viral hepatitis and hepatitis B antigen: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Krugman, Saul

    1974-01-01

    Recent advances in hepatitis research have shed new light on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of type B hepatitis infection. The so-called ‘Dane’ particle is probably the complete hepatitis B virion; its outer coat is the hepatitis B (Australia) antigen (HB Ag) and its inner core is an immunologically distinct particle. Subtypes of HB Ag (a, d, y, w and r) are useful indices for epidemiological surveys. Concepts of epidemiology have changed: type B hepatitis is transmissible by contact as well as by inoculation. The presence of HB Ag in blood is indicative of the presence of hepatitis B virus. Tests to detect antigen and use of voluntary blood donors have played a major role in the decreased incidence of post transfusion hepatitis. A special hepatitis B gammaglobulin preparation and a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine have proved to be effective in preliminary studies. PMID:4219230

  9. Anti-fibrotic effects of thalidomide on hepatic stellate cells and dimethylnitrosamine-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Chong, Lee-Won; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2006-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays a central role in cellular necrosis, apoptosis, organ failure, tissue damage, inflammation and fibrosis. These processes, occurring in liver injury, may lead to cirrhosis. Thalidomide, alpha-N-phthalidoglutarimide, (C(13)H(10)N(2))(4), has been shown to have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, possibly mediated through its anti-TNF-alpha effect. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of thalidomide on hepatic fibrosis. A cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) was stimulated with transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) or TNF-alpha. The inhibitory effects of thalidomide on the NFkappaB signaling cascade and fibrosis markers including alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and collagen, were assessed. An in vivo therapeutic study was conducted in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-treated rats, which were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: vehicle (0.7% carboxyl methyl cellulose, CMC), thalidomide (40 mg/kg), thalidomide (200 mg/kg), or silymarin (50 mg/kg), each given by gavage twice daily for 3 weeks starting after 1 week of DMN administration. Thalidomide (100-800 nM) concentration-dependently inhibited NFkappaB transcriptional activity induced by TNF-alpha, including IKKalpha expression and IkappaBalpha phosphorylation in HSC-T6 cells. In addition, thalidomide also suppressed TGF-beta1-induced alpha-SMA expression and collagen deposition in HSC-T6 cells. Fibrosis scores of livers from DMN-treated rats receiving high dose of thalidomide (0.89 +/- 0.20) were significantly reduced in comparison with those of DMN-treated rats receiving vehicle (1.56 +/- 0.18). Hepatic collagen contents of DMN rats were also significantly reduced by either thalidomide or silymarin treatment. Immunohistochemical double staining results showed that alpha-SMA- and NFkappaB-positive cells were decreased in the livers from DMN rats receiving either thalidomide or silymarin treatment. In addition

  10. Intraspinal tumours in the Kenya African.

    PubMed

    Ruberti, R F; Carmagnani, A L

    1976-06-01

    Thirty-one cases of intraspinal tumours in the African have been described, with age, sex incidence, frequency, site and histopathology shown. Intraspinal tumours in this series are compared with the larger series. Extradural and intramedullary tumours together with cervical spine tumours appear to be more frequent in this series. There is a high incidence of dumbell tumours in the neurinomas. Sarcomas are the most common type of tumours and mainly affect the thoracic spine.

  11. Analysis of nanoparticle delivery to tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Stefan; Tavares, Anthony J.; Dai, Qin; Ohta, Seiichi; Audet, Julie; Dvorak, Harold F.; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2016-05-01

    Targeting nanoparticles to malignant tissues for improved diagnosis and therapy is a popular concept. However, after surveying the literature from the past 10 years, only 0.7% (median) of the administered nanoparticle dose is found to be delivered to a solid tumour. This has negative consequences on the translation of nanotechnology for human use with respect to manufacturing, cost, toxicity, and imaging and therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we conduct a multivariate analysis on the compiled data to reveal the contributions of nanoparticle physicochemical parameters, tumour models and cancer types on the low delivery efficiency. We explore the potential causes of the poor delivery efficiency from the perspectives of tumour biology (intercellular versus transcellular transport, enhanced permeability and retention effect, and physicochemical-dependent nanoparticle transport through the tumour stroma) as well as competing organs (mononuclear phagocytic and renal systems) and present a 30-year research strategy to overcome this fundamental limitation. Solving the nanoparticle delivery problem will accelerate the clinical translation of nanomedicine.

  12. Thrombospondin 1 acts as a strong promoter of transforming growth factor β effects via two distinct mechanisms in hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Breitkopf, K; Sawitza, I; Westhoff, J H; Wickert, L; Dooley, S; Gressner, A M

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) is an important activator of latent transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) but little is known of the expression patterns and functions of TSP-1 in liver cells. We therefore analysed if and how TSP-1 acts on TGF-β during fibrogenesis. Methods and results: Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we demonstrated that hepatocytes from normal liver expressed no TSP-1 mRNA whereas Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells did. TSP-1 mRNA and protein were detected in quiescent and activated cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and TSP-1 expression was highly inducible by platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and, to a lesser extent, by tumour necrosis factor α in activated HSC. Furthermore, addition of PDGF-BB directly led to enhanced TGF-β mRNA expression and a TSP-1 dependent increase in TGF-β/Smad signalling. Using either a peptide specifically blocking the interaction of TSP-1 with latent TGF-β or antibodies against TSP-1 not only abrogated activation of latent TGF-β but also reduced the effects of the active dimer itself. Conclusions: Our data suggest that TSP-1 expression is important for TGF-β effects and that it is regulated by the profibrogenic mediator PDGF-BB in HSC. Furthermore, the presence of TSP-1 seems to be a prerequisite for effective signal transduction by active TGF-β not only in rat HSC but also in other cell types such as human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:15831915

  13. Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Milton Prabu, S; Muthumani, M; Shagirtha, K

    2012-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats.

  14. Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Milton Prabu, S.; Muthumani, M.; Shagirtha, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats. PMID:23961183

  15. Effects of salvianolic acids on oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.-K.; Lin, Y.-L.; Huang, Y.-T.

    2010-01-15

    Enhanced oxidative stress is associated with hepatic fibrosis. Salvianolic acids A (Sal A) and B (Sal B) have been reported to be strong polyphenolic antioxidants and free radical scavengers. The present study is to investigate if Sal A and B could attenuate oxidative stress and liver fibrosis in rats. A cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, 10 ng/ml). The inhibitory effects of Sal A and B on intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels were measured with dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) dye assay. alpha-Smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits were measured by Western blotting. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg) twice per week for 6 weeks. Sal A (10 mg/kg), Sal B (50 mg/kg) or S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe, 10 mg/kg), was given by gavage twice per day consecutively for 4 weeks starting 2 weeks after TAA injection. In vitro, PDGF increased the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in HSCs, which was attenuated by Sal A (10 muM) and Sal B (200 muM). Sal A and B attenuated the PDGF-stimulated expressions of alpha-SMA and NADPH oxidase subunits gp91{sup phox} and p47{sup phox} in membrane fractions. In vivo studies showed that the hepatic levels of collagen, malondialdehyde, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta, fibrosis scores and protein expressions of alpha-SMA, heme-oxygenase-1, iNOS, and gp91{sup phox}, and serum levels of ALT, AST, IL-6, and IL-1beta were increased in TAA-intoxicated rats, all of which were attenuated by 4-week treatment of Sal A or Sal B. Our results showed that Sal A and B attenuated PDGF-induced ROS formation in HSCs, possibly through inhibition of NADPH oxidase. Sal A and B treatments were also effective against hepatic fibrosis in TAA-intoxicated rats.

  16. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... monitoring in close succession. CDC now recommends the hepatitis B vaccine for adults with diabetes. What is the recommendation ... As with other vaccines, the effectiveness of the hepatitis B vaccine decreases with age. Decisions to vaccinate should include ...

  17. Protective effects of Parinari curatellifolia flavonoids against acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Olaleye, Mary Tolulope; Amobonye, Ayodeji Emmannuel; Komolafe, Kayode; Akinmoladun, Afolabi Clement

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the hepatoprotective potential of Parinari curatellifolia Planch (Chrysobalanaceae) in experimental rats in order to ascertain the validity of folkloric claims of its effectiveness in the treatment of hepatic-related disorders. Flavonoid extract of P. curatellifolia seed, PCF (10-, 20- or 30 mg/kg body weight) or silymarin (25 mg/kg), dissolved in corn oil, was administered by gavage to experimental animals once daily for 14 consecutive days before liver damage was chemically induced through the administration of acetaminophen (2 g/kg p.o.) on the 14th day. Hepatoprotection was assessed by analyzing liver homogenate and serum for markers of hepatotoxicity – alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities as well as prothrombin time (PT). Evaluation of biochemical indices of oxidative stress – level of lipid peroxides (LPO), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, along with histological assessment of hepatic tissue sections were also carried out. Results revealed that all doses of PCF significantly (P < 0.001) and dose dependently prevented acetaminophen-induced increase in serum activities of hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT, LDH) and PT. Furthermore, PCF (10- and 20 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) reduced lipid peroxidation in liver tissue and restored the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and catalase toward normal levels. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that PCF mitigated the toxicant-induced hepatocellular necrosis, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and enhanced hepatocyte regeneration. The results indicated that P. curatellifolia flavonoids demonstrated remarkable hepatoprotective activity in acute liver injury caused by acetaminophen. PMID:25313285

  18. The hepatoprotective effects of Hypericum perforatum L. on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gokhan; Bayramoglu, Aysegul; Engur, Selin; Senturk, Hakan; Ozturk, Nilgun; Colak, Suat

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the effective role of Hypericum perforatum on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Hence, albino rats were subjected to 45 min of hepatic ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion period. Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE) at the dose of 50 mg/kg body weight (HPE50) was intraperitonally injected as a single dose, 15 min prior to ischemia. Rats were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion period and then, biochemical investigations were made in serum and liver tissue. Liver tissue homogenates were used for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. At the same time alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assayed in serum samples and compared statistically. While the ALT, AST, LDH activities and MDA levels were significantly increased, CAT and GPx activities significantly decreased in only I/R-induced control rats compared to normal control rats (p < 0.05). Treatment with HPE50 significantly decreased the ALT, AST, LDH activities and MDA levels, and markedly increased activities of CAT and GPx in tissue homogenates compared to I/R-induced rats without treatment-control group (p < 0.05). In oxidative stress generated by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion, H. perforatum L. as an antioxidant agent contributes an alteration in the delicate balance between the scavenging capacity of antioxidant defence systems and free radicals in favour of the antioxidant defence systems in the body.

  19. The Paradoxical Effects of Different Hepatitis C Viral Loads on Host DNA Damage and Repair Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chia-Yang; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Yu, Guann-Yi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Tu, Wen-Yu; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Huang, Jee-Fu; Chuang, Wan-Long; Dai, Chia-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatic stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and has been implicated in hepatic inflammation. However, HCV infection and replication are uneven and vary among individual hepatocytes. To investigate the effect of the viral load on host DNA damage, we used an Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein gene (EYFP)-tagged HCV virus to distinguish between HCV intracellular high viral load (HVL) cells and low viral load (LVL) cells. The cell sorting efficiency was confirmed by the high expression of the HCV polyprotein. We found DNA damage γ-H2AX foci in the HVL population. Comet assays demonstrated that HVL was related to the extent of the DNA strand breaks. Surprisingly, the DNA qPCR arrays and western blotting showed that the damage-related genes GPX2, MRE11, phospho-ATM, and OGG1 were significantly up-regulated in LVL cells but inversely down-regulated or consistently expressed in HVL cells. The colony survival assay to examine the repair abilities of these cells in response to irradiation showed that the LVL cells were more resistant to irradiation and had an increased ability to repair radiation-induced damage. This study found that intracellular viral loads drove cellular DNA damage levels but suppressed damage-related gene expression. However, the increase in damage-related gene expression in the LVL cells may be affected by ROS from the HVL cells. These findings provide new insights into the distinct DNA damage and repair responses resulting from different viral loads in HCV-infected cells. PMID:28052067

  20. The Paradoxical Effects of Different Hepatitis C Viral Loads on Host DNA Damage and Repair Abilities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Chi; Lai, Kuan-Ru; Li, Chia-Yang; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Yu, Guann-Yi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Tu, Wen-Yu; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Huang, Jee-Fu; Chuang, Wan-Long; Dai, Chia-Yen; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatic stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and has been implicated in hepatic inflammation. However, HCV infection and replication are uneven and vary among individual hepatocytes. To investigate the effect of the viral load on host DNA damage, we used an Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein gene (EYFP)-tagged HCV virus to distinguish between HCV intracellular high viral load (HVL) cells and low viral load (LVL) cells. The cell sorting efficiency was confirmed by the high expression of the HCV polyprotein. We found DNA damage γ-H2AX foci in the HVL population. Comet assays demonstrated that HVL was related to the extent of the DNA strand breaks. Surprisingly, the DNA qPCR arrays and western blotting showed that the damage-related genes GPX2, MRE11, phospho-ATM, and OGG1 were significantly up-regulated in LVL cells but inversely down-regulated or consistently expressed in HVL cells. The colony survival assay to examine the repair abilities of these cells in response to irradiation showed that the LVL cells were more resistant to irradiation and had an increased ability to repair radiation-induced damage. This study found that intracellular viral loads drove cellular DNA damage levels but suppressed damage-related gene expression. However, the increase in damage-related gene expression in the LVL cells may be affected by ROS from the HVL cells. These findings provide new insights into the distinct DNA damage and repair responses resulting from different viral loads in HCV-infected cells.

  1. Effects of Risk Factors on Anti-HBs Development in Hepatitis B Vaccinated and Nonvaccinated Populations.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Modhusudon; Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Ahmed, Mohammad Firoz; Rahman, Sabita Rezwana

    2015-05-01

    Hepatitis B infection is still a major global health problem even though safe and effective vaccines have been available for more than 30 years. Although development of protective antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) is a common phenomenon after vaccination as well as natural infection, sometimes it does not appear even after complete vaccination. In the present study, whether the impairment of the development of anti-HBs in naturally infected and/or vaccinated populations is associated with immunomodulating risk factors (i.e., age, gender, smoking, and diabetes) and/or other risk factors (i.e., socioeconomic status, dental, and saloon exposure) was investigated through a cross-sectional study. Among 204 nonvaccinated patients, 132 (64.7%) tested positive for anti-HBc, indicating that they had been exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) at least once in their lifetime. Exposure to HBV (anti-HBc positive) was significantly higher among low-income people, dental exposed, and saloon users. Among anti-HBc positive patients, only 44 (33.3%) developed natural immunity with anti-HBs. Impairment in anti-HBs formation was found to be significantly high among cigarette smokers. However, no significant association of anti-HBs development was observed with age, gender, socioeconomic status, diabetes, dental exposure, and using saloon. Consistently, the frequency of developing protective anti-HBs (≥10 IU/L) among a vaccinated population was almost nine times less among smokers. These data suggest that anti-HBs development, either naturally or after vaccination, is significantly lower among smokers. It emphasizes the need to check the anti-HBs status in smokers after vaccination, and a booster vaccination should be administered if the anti-HBs antibody titer decreases below the protective level.

  2. Effects of hepatitis B vaccine boosters on anti-HBs-negative children after primary immunization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shunshun; Ren, Jingjing; Li, Qian; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Yongdi; Xu, Kaijin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shigui; Xie, Tiansheng; Yang, Linna; Li, Jing; Yao, Jun

    2016-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the changes of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titer after booster vaccinations in 5-15-year-old children with negative antibodies (<10 mIU/mL). 225 subjects (mean age, 9.28 ± 2.95 years) included in the study consisted of 123 males and 102 females, with a complete hepatitis B vaccination during infancy. The participants were divided into 3 groups according to their pre-booster anti-HBs level: Group I, <0.1 mIU/mL; Group II, 0.1 to <1.0 mIU/mL; Group III, 1.0 to <10.0 mIU/mL. All the participants were administered 3 doses of booster hepatitis B vaccination (0-1-6 month, 20 µg), and changes in the levels of antibodies were examined at 4 time-points (one month after the first and the third dose, one year and 5 years after the third dose). The seroprotective rate (defined as anti-HBs ≥10.0 mIU/mL) among 225 subjects at the 4 time-points were 93.8%, 100%, 83.6% and 73.4%, respectively (χ(2) = 90.29, p < 0.05). The seroprotective rate (≥10 mIU/mL) and anti-HBs geometric mean titer (GMT) in Group III were always higher than those in the other 2 groups (all p < 0.05). The immune effect of a 3 -dose booster revaccination is good, and the booster-induced immune response was correlated with the pre-booster titer level, and ≥1.0 mIU/mL ensuring a robust positive response, whereas titers below this value may indicate the need for a course of booster vaccination.

  3. Effects of desflurane and isoflurane on hepatic and renal functions and coagulation profile during donor hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Toprak, H I; Şahin, T; Aslan, S; Karahan, K; Şanli, M; Ersoy, M Ö

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effect of two inhalation anesthetics desflurane and isoflurane on postoperative hepatic and renal functions as well as coagulation profiles in living donors undergoing right hepatectomy. This study was performed on 80 patients who were randomly allocated to group D (desflurane, n = 40) or group I (isoflurane, n = 40) after Faculty Ethics Committee approval. After induction, isoflurane or desflurane was used with air/oxygen for anesthetic maintenance. The isoflurane or desflurane concentration was set at one minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). Remifentanil was infused for analgesia as well as cisatracurium. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), international normalized ratio (INR), albumin, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, platelet count, and hemoglobin levels were analyzed preoperatively at end of the operation, and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 30. Both AST and ALT differed significantly and continually except on POD 30. AST showed significant elevations from the end of the operation to POD 2 and ALT, from the end of the operation to POD 5 in group I compared with group D. INR was significantly higher from the end of the operation to POD 3 in group I and to POD 2 in group D. At the end of the operation as well as on POD 1 and POD 2, INR was significantly increased in group I compared with group D. Albumin level was significantly lower at the end of the operation in both groups, but it was not different. No patient developed hepatic or renal failure. Our study showed better postoperative hepatic tests and INR using desflurane than isoflurane at equivalent doses of 1 MAC in living donors undergoing right hepatectomy.

  4. Effect of diethylcarbamazine on chronic hepatic inflammation induced by alcohol in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Santos Rocha, Sura Wanessa; Silva, Bruna Santos; Gomes, Fabiana Oliveira dos Santos; Soares e Silva, Amanda Karolina; Raposo, Catarina; Barbosa, Karla Patrícia Sousa; Torres, Dilênia de Oliveira Cipriano; dos Santos, Ana Célia Oliveira; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2012-08-15

    Some pharmacological studies showed that diethylcarbamazine (DEC) interferes with the arachidonic acid metabolism, acting as an anti-inflammatory drug. The chronic alcohol consumption activates the hepatic inflammatory response associated to T-cell activation and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The present work analyzed the anti-inflammatory effect of DEC on hepatic cells of alcoholic mice. Thirty-two male C57BL/6 mice were equally divided in the following groups: (a) control group (C), which received only water, (b) DEC-treated group, which received 50 mg/kg for 12 day (DEC50), (c) the alcoholic group (EtOH), submitted to only alcohol and (d) the alcohol-DEC treated group (EtOH50), submitted to alcohol plus DEC treatment after the induction of chronic alcoholism for 5 weeks. Biochemical analyses were performed and liver fragments were processed for light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemical and western blot. The level of AST increased significantly in alcoholic group whereas a significant reduction of serum AST was detected in the EtOH50 group. Histological and ultrastructural analysis of alcoholic group showed evident hepatocellular damage, which was strikingly reduced in the alcoholic DEC-treated group. Immunohistochemistry results revealed highly expression of inflammatory markers as MDA, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, VCAM and ICAM by the hepatic cells of the EtOH group; however no immunoreactivity for any of these cytokines was detected after DEC treatment. Western blot analyses showed increased MCP-1 and iNOS expression in EtOH group, which was significantly inhibited by DEC treatment. According to the present results, DEC can be a potential drug for the treatment of chronic inflammation induced by chronic alcoholism.

  5. Evaluation of tumour promoting potency of fish borne toxaphene residues, as compared to technical toxaphene and UV-irradiated toxaphene.

    PubMed

    Besselink, H; Nixon, E; McHugh, B; Rimkus, G; Klungsøyr, J; Leonards, P; De Boer, J; Brouwer, A

    2008-08-01

    In this study the potential impact of food chain-based biotransformation and physico-chemical weathering of toxaphene on its tumour promoting potential was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Human exposure to toxaphene is mainly through consumption of contaminated fish, therefore fish-borne residues of toxaphene (cod liver extract, CLE) were prepared by exposing cod to technical toxaphene (TT) for 63 days. UV-irradiated toxaphene (uvT) was included to represent a physico-chemical weathered toxaphene mixture. In vitro, TT, uvT and CLE all showed a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) with a relative potency of CLE>TT=uvT. Tumour promoting potency was further studied in vivo in a medium term two-stage initiation/promotion bioassay in female Sprague-Dawley rats, using an increase in altered hepatic foci positive for glutathione-S-transferase-P (AHF-GST-P) as read out. No increase in AHF-GST-P occurred following exposure to either TT, uvT, or CLE, except for the positive control group (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Based on this study the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for tumour promoting potency is at least 12.5mg/kg/week, or higher for CLE. Considering current human exposure levels in Europe it is doubtful that consumption of fish at current levels of toxaphene contamination give rise to human health risk.

  6. Hepatitis B and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis B Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis B What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living ...

  7. Cholestatic hepatitis as a possible new side-effect of oxycodone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincent; Stewart, Maxwell; Boyd, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Oxycodone is a widely-used semisynthetic opioid analgesic that has been used for over eighty years. Oxycodone is known to cause side effects such as nausea, pruritus, dizziness, constipation and somnolence. As far as we are aware cholestatic hepatitis as a result of oxycodone use has not been reported so far in the world literature. Case presentation A 34-year-old male presented with cholestatic jaundice and severe pruritus after receiving oxycodone for analgesia post-T11 vertebrectomy. Extensive laboratory investigations and imaging studies did not reveal any other obvious cause for his jaundice and a liver biopsy confirmed canalicular cholestatis suggestive of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The patient's symptoms and transaminases normalised on withdrawal of oxycodone confirming that oxycodone was the probable cause of the patient's hepatotoxicity. Conclusion We conclude that cholestatic hepatitis is possibly a rare side effect of oxycodone use. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this potentially serious picture of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:18452597

  8. Ammonia and amino acid profiles in liver cirrhosis: effects of variables leading to hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Holecek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Hyperammonemia and severe amino acid imbalances play central role in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the article is demonstrated that the main source of ammonia in cirrhotic subjects is activated breakdown of glutamine (GLN) in enterocytes and the kidneys and the main source of GLN is ammonia detoxification to GLN in the brain and skeletal muscle. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) decrease due to activated GLN synthesis in muscle. Aromatic amino acids (AAA; phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) and methionine increase due to portosystemic shunts and reduced ability of diseased liver. The effects on aminoacidemia of the following variables that may affect the course of liver disease are discussed: nutritional status, starvation, protein intake, inflammation, acute hepatocellular damage, bleeding from varices, portosystemic shunts, hepatic cancer, and renal failure. It is concluded that (1) neither ammonia nor amino acid concentrations correlate closely with the severity of liver disease; (2) BCAA/AAA ratio could be used as a good index of liver impairment and for early detection of derangements in amino acid metabolism; (3) variables potentially leading to overt encephalopathy exert substantial but uneven effects; and (4) careful monitoring of ammonia and aminoacidemia may discover important break points in the course of liver disease and indicate appropriate therapeutic approach. Of special importance might be isoleucine deficiency in bleeding from varices, arginine deficiency in sepsis, and a marked rise of GLN and ammonia levels that may appear in all events leading to HE.

  9. Direct inhibitory effects of pioglitazone on hepatic fetuin-A expression.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Akinobu; Mori, Katsuhito; Emoto, Masanori; Nakatani, Shinya; Morioka, Tomoaki; Motoyama, Koka; Fukumoto, Shinya; Imanishi, Yasuo; Koyama, Hidenori; Ishimura, Eiji; Inaba, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Fetuin-A, a circulating glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, is involved in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, regulation of fetuin-A synthesis has remained obscure. We previously reported that pioglitazone treatment significantly reduced serum fetuin-A levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. To clarify whether pioglitazone can directory inhibit hepatic fetuin-A synthesis, we investigated the effects of pioglitazone on fetuin-A expression both in vitro and in vivo. Pioglitazone treatment suppressed mRNA and protein expression of fetuin-A in Fao hepatoma cells. Interestingly, rosiglitazone but not metformin, also inhibited fetuin-A expression. In addition, GW 9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, reversed pioglitazone-induced suppression of fetuin-A, suggesting that thiazolidinedione derivatives may have common characteristics with regard to fetuin-A suppression, possibly through PPARγactivation. Finally, oral administration of pioglitazone to mice for 8 weeks resulted in suppression of hepatic fetuin-A mRNA. These findings suggest that pioglitazone may partially ameliorate insulin resistance through its direct inhibitory effects on fetuin-A expression in the liver.

  10. Comparative effects of Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stevioside on glycaemia and hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Edilene Bega; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; da Costa, Marlom Anselmo; do Prado, Wilson Alves; de Araújo Funari Ferri, Letícia; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of the oral treatment (gavage) with Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni (SRB) and stevioside (STV) on glycaemia and gluconeogenesis of 15-h fasted rats. For this purpose, the rats received SRB (20 mg/kg x day), STV (5.5 mg/kg x day) or an equal volume of water (controls) during 15 days. To measure hepatic gluconeogenesis, liver perfusion and isolated hepatocytes were used. Glycaemia and gluconeogenesis from L-alanine (5 mM), L-glutamine (5 mM) and L-lactate (2 mM) were decreased (P < 0.05) after pre-treatment with SRB. However, the treatment with STV did not influence glycaemia and gluconeogenesis. Moreover, to get further information about the mechanism by which SRB leaves inhibit gluconeogenesis their potential role as a PPARgamma agonist was investigated. The data showed absence of activation of PPARgamma receptors. In summary, our results showed that the reduction of glycaemia promoted by the treatment with SRB leaves was mediated, at least in part, by an inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, this effect did not involve stevioside and the activation of PPARgamma receptors.

  11. Antitumour effects of Phyllanthus emblica L.: induction of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of in vivo tumour promotion and in vitro invasion of human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ngamkitidechakul, C; Jaijoy, K; Hansakul, P; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Sireeratawong, S

    2010-09-01

    Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) is a medicinal fruit used in many Asian traditional medicine systems for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. The present study tested the potential anticancer effects of aqueous extract of PE in four ways: (1) against cancer cell lines, (2) in vitro apoptosis, (3) mouse skin tumourigenesis and (4) in vitro invasiveness. The PE extract at 50-100 microg/mL significantly inhibited cell growth of six human cancer cell lines, A549 (lung), HepG2 (liver), HeLa (cervical), MDA-MB-231 (breast), SK-OV3 (ovarian) and SW620 (colorectal). However, the extract was not toxic against MRC5 (normal lung fibroblast). Apoptosis in HeLa cells was also observed as PE extract caused DNA fragmentation and increased activity of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8, but not caspase-9, and up-regulation of the Fas protein indicating a death receptor-mediated mechanism of apoptosis. Treatment of PE extract on mouse skin resulted in over 50% reduction of tumour numbers and volumes in animals treated with DMBA/TPA. Lastly, 25 and 50 microg/mL of PE extract inhibited invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells in the in vitro Matrigel invasion assay. These results suggest P. emblica exhibits anticancer activity against selected cancer cells, and warrants further study as a possible chemopreventive and antiinvasive agent.

  12. Inhibitory effect of mammea E/BB from Mammea siamensis seed extract on Wilms' tumour 1 protein expression in a K562 leukaemic cell line.

    PubMed

    Rungrojsakul, Methee; Saiai, Aroonchai; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2016-01-01

    Mammea siamensis is used in traditional Thai medicine. This study was designed to extract and isolate an active compound from the M. siamensis seeds and to investigate its activity on Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) protein expression in K562 cells. WT1 is a transcription factor that stimulates cell proliferation. The ethanol saraphi seed (ESS) extract was fractionated using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water to obtain n-hexane saraphi seed (HSS), ethyl acetate saraphi seed (EASS), n-butanol saraphi seed (BSS), and water saraphi seed (WSS) extracts, respectively. The ESS, HSS and EASS extracts had strong cytotoxic effects on K562 cells in the MTT assay. All three fractions decreased WT1 protein levels and decreased total cell numbers. The HSS extract decreased the WT1 protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. HPLC and NMR analyses indicated that the active compound of HSS was mammea E/BB. M. siamensis seeds are thus identified as a promising source of bioactive compounds for potential inhibition of WT1 protein expression.

  13. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... transaminase enzyme levels Treatment There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. You should rest when the symptoms are ... and have not had hepatitis A or the hepatitis A vaccine. Common reasons for getting one or both of these treatments include: You live with someone who has hepatitis ...

  14. Deregulation of FoxM1b leads to tumour metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jung; Gusarova, Galina; Wang, Zebin; Carr, Janai R; Li, Jing; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Qiu, Jin; Park, Yoon-Dong; Williamson, Peter R; Hay, Nissim; Tyner, Angela L; Lau, Lester F; Costa, Robert H; Raychaudhuri, Pradip

    2011-01-01

    The forkhead box M1b (FoxM1b) transcription factor is over-expressed in human cancers, and its expression often correlates with poor prognosis. Previously, using conditional knockout strains, we showed that FoxM1b is essential for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. However, over-expression of FoxM1b had only marginal effects on HCC progression. Here we investigated the effect of FoxM1b expression in the absence of its inhibitor Arf. We show that transgenic expression of FoxM1b in an Arf-null background drives hepatic fibrosis and metastasis of HCC. We identify novel mechanisms of FoxM1b that are involved in epithelial–mesenchymal transition, cell motility, invasion and a pre-metastatic niche formation. FoxM1b activates the Akt-Snail1 pathway and stimulates expression of Stathmin, lysyl oxidase, lysyl oxidase like-2 and several other genes involved in metastasis. Furthermore, we show that an Arf-derived peptide, which inhibits FoxM1b, impedes metastasis of the FoxM1b-expressing HCC cells. The observations indicate that FoxM1b is a potent activator of tumour metastasis and that the Arf-mediated inhibition of FoxM1b is a critical mechanism for suppression of tumour metastasis. PMID:21204266

  15. Effect of curcumin on hepatic heme oxygenase 1 expression in high fat diet fed rats: is there a triangular relationship?

    PubMed

    Öner-İyidoğan, Yildiz; Tanrıkulu-Küçük, Sevda; Seyithanoğlu, Muhammed; Koçak, Hikmet; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Aydin, A Fatih; Beyhan-Özdaş, Şule; Yapişlar, Hande; Koçak-Toker, Necla

    2014-10-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is associated with oxidative stress induced fatty liver. Curcumin, an extract of Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess potent antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of curcumin treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression along with pro-oxidant-antioxidant status and lipid accumulation in rats fed an HFD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed among 4 groups: Group 1, which was fed the control diet (10% of total calories from fat); Group 2, which was fed the HFD (60% of total calories from fat); and groups 3 and 4, which received the HFD supplemented with curcumin and the control diet supplemented with curcumin (1 g/kg diet; w/w), respectively, for 16 weeks. HFD caused increases in hepatic lipid levels, production of reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation. Further, HO-1 expression was significantly decreased. Histopathological examination showed hepatic fat accumulation and slight fibrotic changes. Curcumin treatment reduced hepatic lipids and oxidative stress parameters, and HO-1 expression was significantly increased. These findings suggest that increased HO-1 expression, along with suppressed oxidative stress as well as reduced hepatic fat accumulation and fibrotic changes, contribute to the beneficial effects of curcumin in attenuating the pathogenesis of fatty liver induced metabolic diseases.

  16. Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Heather E. Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro; Zhang, Jun; Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane; Evans, Ronald M.; Moore, David D.; DiGiovanni, John

    2008-10-15

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have

  17. Tumours of bones and joints

    PubMed Central

    Misdorp, W.; Van Der Heul, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of bones and joints are not infrequent in dogs but are rare in other domestic animals. In the dog, most bone tumours are malignant; osteosarcomas are by far the most frequently encountered tumours, especially in giant breeds and boxers. The following main categories of bone tumour are described: bone-forming, cartilage-forming, giant cell, marrow, vascular, miscellaneous, metastatic, unclassified, and tumour-like lesions. The tumours of joints and related structures are classified as synovial sarcomas, fibroxanthomas, and malignant giant cell tumour of soft tissues. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086157

  18. Towards a more realistic biomechanical modelling of breast malignant tumours.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Carolina; Schnabel, Julia A; Brady, Michael

    2012-02-07

    We develop a biomechanical model of an isolated stellate breast tumour under mammographic compression forces for a range of reported mechanical properties, both linear elastic and hyperelastic. We also introduce different volumes of increased density/stiffness around the tumour as well as a solid pressure effect. We show that each of these issues--well known to clinicians but ignored to date in models--has a non-negligible effect on stresses and strains/deformations.

  19. Antihepatofibrotic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Prunella vulgaris on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Xiang; Yu, Chen-Huan; Wu, Fang; Yu, Wen-Ying; Zhong, Yu-Sen; Ying, Hua-Zhong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Prunella vulgaris has been widely used in the folk medicine of Northeastern Asian countries for the treatment of acute liver injury and infectious hepatitis. In the present study, the protective effect of aqueous extract from P. vulgaris was investigated on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in vivo. Our data showed that the administration of aqueous extract from P. vulgaris at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, type III precollagen, and hyaluronic acid in rats with hepatic fibrosis. In addition, aqueous extract from P. vulgaris also reduced the incidence of liver lesions and the formation of fibrous septa, and remarkably decreased the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, platelet derived growth factor, interleukin-4, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Furthermore, aqueous extract from P. vulgaris significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells by regulating the expression of α smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor β 1, and smad2 and also decreased the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins via regulating the expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2,-13. Real-time polymerase chain reaction further revealed that post-treatment with aqueous extract from P. vulgaris decreased the elevated levels of miR-34a and miR-199a-5p in hepatic fibrosis rats. These results demonstrated that aqueous extract from P. vulgaris alleviates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells, promoting collagenolysis and regulating fibrosis-related microRNAs.

  20. The Tumour Microenvironment after Radiotherapy: Mechanisms of Resistance and Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Holly E.; Paget, James T. E.; Khan, Aadil A.; Harrington, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays a central part in curing cancer. For decades, most research on improving treatment outcomes has focussed on modulating radiation-induced biological effects on cancer cells. Recently, we have better understood that components within the tumour microenvironment have pivotal roles in determining treatment outcomes. In this Review, we describe vascular, stromal and immunological changes induced in the tumour microenvironment by irradiation and discuss how they may promote radioresistance and tumour recurrence. Subsequently, we highlight how this knowledge is guiding the development of new treatment paradigms in which biologically targeted agents will be combined with radiotherapy. PMID:26105538

  1. Sympathetic nervous system regulation of the tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Green, Paige A.; Sood, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    The peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) is known to regulate gene expression in primary tumours and their surrounding microenvironment. Activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS in particular modulates gene expression programs that promote metastasis of solid tumours by stimulating macrophage infiltration, inflammation, angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and tumour invasion, and by inhibiting cellular immune responses and programmed cell death. Haematological cancers are modulated by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation of stem cell biology and hematopoietic differentiation programs. In addition to identifying a molecular basis for physiologic stress effects on cancer, these findings have also identified new pharmacologic strategies to inhibit cancer progression in vivo. PMID:26299593

  2. Tumours of the nasal cavity*

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Hauser, B.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the nasal cavity are rare in domestic animals, most cases occurring in the dog. Epithelial tumours are the most common type in carnivores (dogs and cats). In general, the same types of tumour occur in domestic animals as occur in man. There was no significant predisposition for breed in dogs, but in both dogs and cats far more males than females were affected. Metastases occurred only rarely. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:1086156

  3. Twenty-year survey of the epidemiology of hepatitis B in Denmark: effect of immigration.

    PubMed

    Gjørup, I E; Smith, E; Borgwardt, L; Skinhøj, P

    2003-01-01

    Implementation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is being considered in Denmark. Therefore, a 20 y survey on the epidemiology of HBV infection was performed. All notified cases of acute HBV infection in Denmark from 1982 to 2002 were reviewed retrospectively and all available data from 1970 to 2001 on the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in different groups of the Danish population were studied. The notified annual incidence of acute HBV infection has declined from more than 200 cases to fewer than 50 cases in 2001. In the indigenous population there has been a similar decline in prevalence of HBsAg carriers, from 0.15 to 0.03%, but owing to immigration of new HBsAg carriers from developing countries the overall number of carriers has not changed. The small effect of immigration on the incidence of acute HBV infections as well as the decreasing prevalence of HBsAg carriers among Danes should be taken into account when planning new vaccination strategies in Denmark.

  4. In vivo study of hepatitis B vaccine effects on inflammation and metabolism gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Heyam; Cao, Jianhua; Li, Xinyun; Zhao, Shuhong

    2012-03-01

    Pharmaceutical companies usually perform safety testing of vaccines, but all requirements of the World Health Organization and drug pharmacopoeias depend on general toxicity testing, and the gene expression study of hepatitis B vaccine is not done routinely to test vaccine quality. In this study, we applied a new technique of gene expression analysis to detect the inflammation and metabolism genes that might be affected by hepatitis B vaccine in mouse liver. Mice were used and divided into three groups: the first and second groups were treated with one or two human doses of vaccine, respectively, and the third group was used as a control. A microarray test showed that expression of 144 genes in the liver was significantly changed after 1 day of vaccination. Seven of these genes, which were related to inflammation and metabolism, were chosen and confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at 1, 4 and 7 days. The expression level of these genes can be considered as a biomarker for the effects of the vaccine.

  5. Female gender lost protective effect against disease progression in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    You, Hong; Kong, Yuanyuan; Hou, Jinlin; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Yuexin; Niu, Junqi; Han, Tao; Ou, Xiaojuan; Dou, Xiaoguang; Shang, Jia; Tang, Hong; Xie, Qing; Ding, Huiguo; Ren, Hong; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Xie, Wen; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Youqing; Li, Yujie; Li, Jie; Chow, Shein-Chung; Zhuang, Hui; Jia, Jidong

    2016-01-01

    Female gender and younger age are protective factors against disease progression in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, it is not clear whether the disease progression still remains slow in elderly females. This study investigated the interaction of female gender and older age on the development of cirrhosis in patients recorded in China Registry of Hepatitis B. A total of 17,809 CHB patients were enrolled in this multi-center cross-sectional study. The prevalence of cirrhosis in female CHB patients increased faster than that in male CHB patients over 50 years old. Multivariate analysis showed that the increase of adjusted ORs for developing cirrhosis in females started to accelerate after 50 years old: 11.19 (95% CI: 5.93–21.11) in women versus 14.75 (95% CI: 8.35–26.07) in men at ages of 50–59 years, 21.67 (95% CI: 11.05–42.47) versus 24.4 (95% CI: 13.00–45.80) at ages 60–69 years, and 18.78 (95% CI: 6.61–53.36) versus 12.09 (95% CI: 4.35–33.61) in those over 70 years. In conclusion, the protective effect of female gender against cirrhosis gradually lost with increasing age, therefore disease progression should be monitored more closely in elderly women with CHB. PMID:27892487

  6. Effect of molecular adsorbent recirculating system in hepatitis C virus-related intractable pruritus.

    PubMed

    Doria, Cataldo; Mandalá, Lucio; Smith, Jan; Vitale, Claudio H; Lauro, Augusto; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Marino, Ignazio R; Foglieni, Carlo Scotti; Magnone, Mario; Scott, Victor L

    2003-04-01

    Intractable pruritus is more common in cholestatic liver diseases and may be the presenting symptom and/or major complaint of hepatitis C and/or hepatitic C virus-related cirrhosis. From September 2000 to May 2002, three patients affected by intractable pruritus secondary to hepatitis C cirrhosis that failed medical treatment were treated with a molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS). MARS is an artificial liver support system that aims to clear the blood of metabolic waste products normally metabolized by the liver. Each patient underwent seven MARS sessions. Liver function tests, the 36-Item Short Form quality-of-life test, visual analog scale for itching, and bile acid measurement in the serum, albumin circuit and ultrafiltrate were performed before and after each MARS session. Moreover, at hospital admission, each patient underwent a psychological workup and abdominal imaging study. Subjective improvement in pruritus and quality of life, along with a decrease in serum bile acid concentration, was observed in every patient; no patient underwent retreatment and/or liver transplantation up to a 9-month follow-up. One patient died 201 days after MARS treatment. Although we observed a decreased level of serum bile acids, one cannot conclude that this was the mechanism of action for the reduction in pruritus intensity in patients in our series. Different toxins and/or a placebo effect might have had a role in this setting.

  7. The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Pramyothin, Pornpen; Samosorn, Patcharavadee; Poungshompoo, Somlak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

    2006-10-11

    This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. PE (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol (96 microl/m) by increasing % MTT and decreasing the release of transaminase. Hepatotoxic markers studied in rats included serum transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride (HTG), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta together with histopathological examination. Pretreatment of rats with PE at oral dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent) at 5 mg/kg, 4 h before ethanol, lowered the ethanol induced levels of AST, ALT and IL-1beta. The 75 mg/kg PE dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PE (75 mg/kg/day) or SL (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/kg/day, p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, IL-1beta back to normal. Histopathological studies confirmed the beneficial roles of PE and SL against ethanol induced liver injury in rats.

  8. The antifibrotic effects of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA on hepatic fibrosis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Qing; Liu, Qi; Xu, Ning; Qian, Ke-Li; Qi, Jing-Hu; Sun, Yin-Chun; Xiao, Lang; Shi, Xiao-Feng

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We constructed CCL4 induced liver fibrosis model successfully. {yields} We proofed that the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had a definite therapy effect to CCL4 induced liver fibrosis. {yields} The therapy effect of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had dose-dependent. -- Abstract: Background/aims: Hepatic fibrosis results from the excessive secretion of matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which proliferate during fibrotic liver injury. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1 is the dominant stimulus for extracellular matrix (ECM) production by stellate cells. Our study was designed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of using short interference RNA (siRNA) to target TGF-{beta}1 in hepatic fibrosis and its mechanism in rats exposed to a high-fat diet and carbon tetrachloride (CCL4). Methods: A total of 40 healthy, male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were randomly divided into five even groups containing of eight rats each: normal group, model group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group and TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group (0.25 mg/kg). CCL4 and a high-fat diet were used for 8 weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. All the rats were then sacrificed to collect liver tissue samples. A portion of the liver samples were soaked in formalin for Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, classifying the degree of liver fibrosis, and detecting the expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1; the remaining liver samples were stored in liquid nitrogen to be used for detecting TGF-{beta}1 by Western blotting and for measuring the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Comparing the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group to the model group, the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group and the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group showed significantly reduced levels of pathological changes, protein expression and the m

  9. Altered Glycosylation in Tumours Focused to Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Peracaula, Rosa; Barrabés, Sílvia; Sarrats, Ariadna; Rudd, Pauline M.; de Llorens, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    The lack of specific and sensitive tumour markers for early detection of cancer is driving a search for new approaches that could identify biomarkers. Markers are needed to alert clinicians at the early stages of tumourogenesis, before the cancer has metastasized, when the therapeutic drugs are more effective. Most tumour markers currently used in clinics are serum glycoproteins, frequently highly glycosylated mucins. Typically, the disease marker is the protein and not the glycan moiety of the corresponding glycoprotein or mucin. The increasing knowledge of the role of glycans in cancer suggests that further studies may assist both in determining their role in every step of tumour progression, and in the design of new therapeutic and diagnosic approaches. Detection of the altered glycans in serum tumour glycoproteins could be a way to achieve specificity in tumour detection. In this review, we focus on the glycan changes of two serum glycoproteins, prostate specific antigen - currently used as a tumour marker of prostate cancer - and human pancreatic ribonuclease in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The detection of glycan changes, associated with subsets of glycoforms in serum glycoproteins that are specific to the tumour situation, could be the basis for developing more specific biomarkers. PMID:19126965

  10. Sodium caprate augments the hypoglycemic effect of berberine via AMPK in inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Lv, Xiaoyan; Li, Jing; Meng, Zhaojie; Wang, Qiujing; Chang, WenGuang; Li, Wei; Chen, Li; Liu, Yanjun

    2012-11-05

    Berberine (BER), a natural product and active ingredient of genera Berberis and Coptis, has been demonstrated to possess anti-diabetic activities. However, the poor bioavailability of this agent greatly limits its clinical application. In our previous study, we demonstrated that co-administration of sodium caprate, an absorption enhancer, with BER could significantly increase the bioavailability of BER without any serious mucosal damage. Here, we investigated the effects of BER on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/gluconeogenesis pathway and the effects of sodium caprate on hypoglycemic action of BER. The ability of BER co-administered with sodium caprate to reduce insulin resistance was investigated in diabetic rat model induced by high-fat diet and low dose STZ. Western blot was performed to evaluate effects of BER on AMPK signaling proteins involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis in diabetic rat and HepG2 hepatocytes. BER reduced body weight and caused a significant improvement in glucose tolerance without altering food intake in diabetic rats. Similarly, BER reduced plasma triglycerides and improved insulin action in diabetic rats. BER down-regulated the elevated expressions of gluconeogenesis key enzymes PEPCK and G6Pase, inhibited the translocation of TORC2 from cytoplasm to nucleus and increased AMPK activity in liver tissues. The effect of BER was higher when co-administered with sodium caprate. BER treatment resulted in reduced glucose production in HepG2 hepatocytes. BER increased AMPK activity, reduced the expression of PEPCK, and the nuclear transcription factors PGC-1, HNF-4α and FOXO1. The effect of BER on gluconeogenesis could be partly blocked by AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. BER could suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rat model of diabetes at least in part via stimulation of AMPK activity and this action of BER is augmented by sodium caprate.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Treating Hepatitis C with Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stahmeyer, Jona T.; Rossol, Siegbert; Liersch, Sebastian; Guerra, Ines; Krauth, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background Infections with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are a global public health problem. Long-term consequences are the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Newly introduced direct acting antivirals, especially interferon-free regimens, have improved rates of sustained viral response above 90% in most patient groups and allow treating patients who were ineligible for treatment in the past. These new regimens have replaced former treatment and are recommended by current guidelines. However, there is an ongoing discussion on high pharmaceutical prices. Our aim was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of treating hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) treatment in Germany. Material and Methods We used a Markov cohort model to simulate disease progression and assess cost-effectiveness. The model calculates lifetime costs and outcomes (quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) of SOF/LDV and other strategies. Patients were stratified by treatment status (treatment-naive and treatment-experienced) and absence/presence of cirrhosis. Different treatment strategies were compared to prior standard of care. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate model robustness. Results Base-case analyses results show that in treatment-naive non-cirrhotic patients treatment with SOF/LDV dominates the prior standard of care (is more effective and less costly). In cirrhotic patients an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 3,383 €/QALY was estimated. In treatment-experienced patients ICERs were 26,426 €/QALY and 1,397 €/QALY for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients, respectively. Robustness of results was confirmed in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Our analysis shows that treatment with SOF/LDV is cost-effective compared to prior standard of care in all patient groups considering international costs per QALY thresholds. PMID:28046099

  12. The use of hydralazine to manipulate tumour temperatures during hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, M W; Prescott, D M; Clegg, S; Samulski, T V; Page, R L; Thrall, D E; Leopold, K; Rosner, G; Acker, J C; Oleson, J R

    1990-01-01

    Hydralazine is an antihypertensive drug which theoretically could increase tumour temperatures during hyperthermia via reduction in tumour blood flow from a vascular 'steal' phenomenon. Doses that are therapeutically effective in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients would probably cause postural hypotension and other side-effects in normotensive patients beyond the hyperthermia treatment session, however. This study was designed to evaluate whether hydralazine, when administered at a safe dose for normotensive patients (0.125 mg/kg, i.v.) would be effective in increasing tumour temperatures during hyperthermia. The working hypothesis was that hydralazine at a dose of 0.125 mg/kg would be effective in raising tumour temperatures during hyperthermia treatment with minimal change in blood pressure. Fourteen human and five canine subjects were given hydralazine (0.125 mg/kg, i.v.) at the midpoint of a hyperthermia session. Temperatures and blood pressures were monitored before and after drug administration. Although hydralazine resulted in slight reduction in blood pressure, it was ineffective in increasing tumour temperatures in human patients (average maximum rise in median temperature was 0.26 +/- 0.32 degrees C). In canine subjects the same dose of hydralazine was effective in reducing blood pressure in four of five subjects studied (mean maximum drop was 22.7 +/- 4.1 mmHg) and the median temperature rose 0.8 +/- 0.7 degrees C. In the canine subjects the greater the decrease in blood pressure, the greater the increase in temperature. These results suggest that a rise in tumour temperature induced by hydralazine is dependent on creating a drop in blood pressure. Future studies in this laboratory will include tumour blood flow manipulation with antihypertensives which have a shorter half-life and a titratable effect. Using this approach, hypotension, which seems to be required to raise tumour temperature, will be more controllable in terms of magnitude

  13. Cyclosporine versus tacrolimus in patients with HCV infection after liver transplantation: Effects on virus replication and recurrent hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hilgard, Philip; Kahraman, Alisan; Lehmann, Nils; Seltmann, Cornelia; Beckebaum, Susanne; Ross, R Stefan; Baba, Hideo A; Malago, Massimo; Broelsch, Christoph E; Gerken, Guido

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of the calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and activity of recurrent hepatitis C in patients post liver transplantation. METHODS: The data of a cohort of 107 patients who received liver transplantation for HCV-associated liver cirrhosis between 1999 and 2003 in our center were retrospectively analyzed. The level of serum HCV-RNA and the activity of recurrent hepatitis were compared between 47 patients who received either cyclosporine or tacrolimus as the primary immunosuppressive agent and an otherwise similar immunosuppressive regimen which did not lead to biliary complications within the first 12 mo after transplantation. RESULTS: HCV-RNA increased within 3 mo after transplantation but the differences between the cyclosporine group and the tacrolimus group were insignificant (P = 0.49 at 12 mo). In addition, recurrent hepatitis as determined by serum transaminases and histological grading of portal inflammation and fibrosis showed no significant difference after 12 mo (P = 0.34). CONCLUSION: Cyclosporine or tacrolimus as a primary immunosuppressive agent does not influence the induction or severity of recurrent hepatitis in HCV-infected patients after liver transplantation. PMID:16521181

  14. Disseminated gestational choriocarcinoma presenting with hepatic and uveal metastases, hook effect, and choriocarcinoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aswani, Yashant; Thakkar, Hemangini; Hira, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)-secreting tumor that comprises vascular channels. It has a tendency for widespread metastasis, common sites for which include the lung, vagina, brain, liver, bone, intestine, and kidney. We describe a 30-year-old female who presented with hepatitis-like features and bilateral diminution of vision, and subsequently developed hemothorax and hemoperitoneum—all rare and seemingly unrelated manifestations which were finally attributable to metastases from gestational choriocarcinoma. To further complicate the clinical scenario, the serum HCG of the patient was mildly raised (due to a phenomenon called hook effect). Subsequently, the patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation and succumbed to her illness. In this report, we discuss the imaging findings of choriocarcinoma, its potential sites of metastases, and the hook effect. PMID:28104943

  15. Protective Effects of Platycodon grandiflorum Aqueous Extract on Thioacetamide-induced Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Won; Park, Sang-Jin; Song, In-Bae; Kim, Myoung-Seok; Kwon, Hyo-Jung; Cho, Eun-Sang; Son, Hwa-Young; Lee, Sang-Wook; Suh, Joo-Won; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yun, Hyo-In

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of aqueous extract from Platycodon grandiflorum (BC703) on thioacetamide (TA)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. We found that BC703 significantly decreased mortality and the change in serum transaminase following TA administration. The group treated with BC703 at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg produced significant hepatoprotective effects against TA-induced liver damage by decreasing the activities of serum enzymes, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation in dose-dependent manners. Histopathological studies further substantiated the protective effect of BC703. These results show the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract from Platycodon grandiflorum on thioacetamide-induced fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:22319234

  16. Anti-fibrotic effects of a methylenedioxybenzene compound, CW209292 on dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Woong; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Ha, Jong-Ryul; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2009-08-01

    A series of methylenedioxybenzene compounds were synthesized and found to have hepatoprotective effects in chemical-induced hepatotoxicity models. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of a synthetic methylenedioxybenzene compound, CW209292, using the dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced chronic liver injury model in rats. Liver injuries were induced in Sprague Dawley rats by injection of DMN (intraperitoneally, 10 microl/kg) 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The rats were treated with CW209292 (per os, 25 or 75 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks. Treatment of rats with DMN for 4 weeks resulted in significant decreases in serum albumin levels, whereas concomitant treatment with CW209292 prevented these decreases. CW209292 treatment also shortened prothrombin time prolonged by DMN, providing evidence that the agent was active in preserving liver function against DMN insult. DMN treatment caused marked increases in plasma bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and hyaluronic acid levels; CW209292 treatment reversed these increases. CW209292 also significantly reduced hepatic hydroxyproline content as well as hepatic fibrosis and inflammation in histological examination. Additionally, immunochemically detectable hepatic collagen type IV and alpha-smooth muscle actin levels were decreased by CW209292 treatment. Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells isolated from DMN-treated rats was inhibited by CW209292. Furthermore, tumor growth factor (TGF)-beta1 mRNA expression was increased in DMN-treated rats, whereas CW209292 treatment prevented these increases. These results suggest that CW209292 exhibits anti-fibrotic effects in Sprague Dawley rats with DMN-induced hepatic fibrosis by blocking the mRNA expression of TGF-beta1 and subsequent inhibition of the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells.

  17. PPARα/γ antagonists reverse the ameliorative effects of osthole on hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in steatohepatitic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Ruijun; Zhu, Zengyan; Xie, Meilin

    2017-02-25

    Our previous studies have indicated that osthole may ameliorate the hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in nonalcoholic steatohepatitic rats, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to determine whether the effects of osthole were mediated by the activation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ (PPARα/γ). A rat model with steatohepatitis was induced by orally feeding high-fat and high-sucrose emulsion for 6 weeks. These experimental rats were then treated with osthole (20 mg/kg), PPARα antagonist MK886 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg), PPARγ antagonist GW9662 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg) and MK886 (1 mg/kg) plus GW9662 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The results showed that after osthole treatment, the hepatic triglycerides, free fatty acids, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and liver index decreased by 52.3, 31.0, 32.4, 28.9, 36.3, 29.3 and 29.9%, respectively, and the score of steatohepatitis also decreased by 70.0%, indicating that osthole improved the hepatic steatosis and inflammation. However, these effects of osthole were reduced or abrogated after simultaneous addition of the specific PPARα antagonist MK886 or/and the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, especially in the co-PPARα/γ antagonists-treated group. Importantly, the osthole-induced hepatic expressions of PPARα/γ proteins were decreased, and the osthole-regulated hepatic expressions of lipogenic and inflammatory gene proteins were also reversed by PPARα/γ antagonist treatment. These findings demonstrated that the ameliorative effect of osthole on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was mediated by PPARα/γ activation, and osthole might be a natural dual PPARα/γ activator.

  18. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour in a lumbar vertebra and the liver of a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Weiss, R; Walz, P H

    2009-01-01

    A 9-year-old castrated male dromedary camel developed weakness and ataxia, progressing to sternal recumbency and hindlimb paralysis. Necropsy revealed multiple liver tumours and a mass in the 3rd lumbar vertebra, compressing the spinal cord. The hepatic and vertebral masses consisted of uniform sheets of primitive cells, with perivascular pseudorosettes and small numbers of neuroblastic Homer-Wright rosettes. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were uniformly positive for vimentin and variably positive for neuron-specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein. The histopathological and immunohistochemical findings indicated a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour (pPNET) exhibiting neuroblastic, glial and ependymomatous differentiation, probably reflecting the tumour's primitive multipotential neuroepithelial nature. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case in the camel of a pPNET, presumably intraosseous in origin with hepatic metastasis, and morphologically similar to Ewing's sarcoma in man.

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) Leaves on Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Ken; Okuda, Sakiko; Nobushi, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) leaves exhibited marked antitumour-promoting activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. From the active fraction of the ethanol extract of the gymnema leaves, three triterpenoids were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice. The tested compounds showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 50-555 nmol/ear.

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) Leaves on Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yasukawa, Ken; Okuda, Sakiko; Nobushi, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) leaves exhibited marked antitumour-promoting activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. From the active fraction of the ethanol extract of the gymnema leaves, three triterpenoids were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice. The tested compounds showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 50–555 nmol/ear. PMID:24734106

  1. Differential effects of pentoxifylline on the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by monocytes and T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schandené, L; Vandenbussche, P; Crusiaux, A; Alègre, M L; Abramowicz, D; Dupont, E; Content, J; Goldman, M

    1992-01-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylxanthine compound known to inhibit the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by monocytic cells. In this study, we found that PTX differentially regulates the production of TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Indeed, PTX at high concentrations triggers the production of IL-6 but not of TNF-alpha by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Further experiments indicated that monocytes are responsible for this PTX-induced IL-6 production. When PBMC were stimulated with LPS, PTX was found to inhibit the secretion of TNF-alpha as well as the accumulation of TNF-alpha messenger RNA (mRNA). In contrast, no inhibitory effect was observed on the induction of IL-6. Similar results were obtained when PBMC were stimulated with OKT3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). In addition, the in vivo administration of PTX in transplant patients receiving the first dose of OKT3 allowed to decrease the systemic release of TNF-alpha but not of IL-6. Since monocytes represent a major source of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in these settings, additional experiments were performed in vitro on purified T cells stimulated with the CLB-T3/3, an anti-CD3 mAb which does not require the presence of accessory cells to activate T cells. In this system, PTX was found to inhibit the secretion of both TNF-alpha and IL-6 by T cells. We suggest that cAMP could be involved in these differential effects of PTX on production of TNF-alpha and of IL-6. Images Figure 3 PMID:1385797

  2. Modulatory effect of Areca nut on the action of mace (Myristica fragrans, Houtt) on the hepatic detoxification system in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Rao, A R

    1993-07-01

    The present paper reports the modifying potential of areca nut (Areca catechu), an ingredient of the habitual masticatory betel quid, on the induction of the hepatic detoxification system in mice by mace (the aril of nutmeg, Myristica fragrans) a known chemopreventor of chemically induced carcinogenesis. The modulatory effect of areca nut was assessed by determining the levels of enzymes of the hepatic detoxification system, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P-450, and the content of acid-soluble sulphhydryl (-SH). Mice were fed either control diet or diet containing 0.25, 0.5 or 1% areca nut for 45 days. During the last 10 days the diet was supplemented with 0.5 or 1% mace. At 0.5 and 1% in the diet, areca nut decreased mace-induced increases in hepatic GST and -SH levels and elevated further increases in the levels of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P-450.

  3. Multicellular Streaming in Solid Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef

    As early as 400 BCE, the Roman medical encyclopaedist Celsus recognized that solid tumours are stiffer than surrounding tissue. However, cancer cell lines are softer, and softer cells facilitate invasion. This paradox raises several questions: Does softness emerge from adaptation to mechanical and chemical cues in the external microenvironment, or are soft cells already present inside a primary solid tumour? If the latter, how can a more rigid tissue contain more soft cells? Here we show that in primary tumour samples from patients with mammary and cervix carcinomas, cells do exhibit a broad distribution of rigidities, with a higher fraction of softer and more contractile cells compared to normal tissue. Mechanical modelling based on patient data reveals that, surprisingly, tumours with a significant fraction of very soft cells can still remain rigid. Moreover, in tissues with the observed distributions of cell stiffnesses, softer cells spontaneously self-organize into lines or streams, possibly facilitating cancer metastasis.

  4. Tumour biology: Herceptin acts as an anti-angiogenic cocktail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Yotaro; Xu, Lei; di Tomaso, Emmanuelle; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2002-03-01

    Malignant tumours secrete factors that enable them to commandeer their own blood supply (angiogenesis), and blocking the action of these factors can inhibit tumour growth. But because tumours may become resistant to treatments that target individual angiogenic factors by switching over to other angiogenic molecules, a cocktail of multiple anti-angiogenic agents should be more effective. Here we show that herceptin, a monoclonal antibody against the cell-surface receptor HER2 (for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2; ref. 4), induces normalization and regression of the vasculature in an experimental human breast tumour that overexpresses HER2 in mice, and that it works by modulating the effects of different pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. As a single agent that acts against multiple targets, herceptin, or drugs like it, may offer a simple alternative to combination anti-angiogenic treatments.

  5. Oral administration of Aloe vera and honey reduces Walker tumour growth by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis in tumour tissue.

    PubMed

    Tomasin, Rebeka; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2011-04-01

    Cancer is diagnosed in approximately 11 million people and is responsible for almost 8 million deaths worldwide every year. Research in cancer control has shown the importance of co-adjuvant therapies. Aloe vera may reduce tumour mass and metastasis rates, while honey may inhibit tumour growth. This study verified the influence of Aloe vera and honey on tumour growth and in the apoptosis process by assessing tumour size, the cell proliferation rate (Ki67-LI) and Bax/Bcl-2 expression at 7, 14 and 20 days after Walker 256 carcinoma implant in Wistar rats distributed into two groups: the WA group - tumour-bearing rats that received a gavage with a 670 µL/kg dose of Aloe vera and honey solution daily, and the CW group - tumour-bearing rats which received only a 0.9% NaCl solution. The effect of Aloe vera and honey against tumour growth was observed through a decrease in relative weight (%) and Ki67-LI in tumours from the WA group compared with those from the CW group. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in tumours from the WA group at all tested timepoints. These data suggest Aloe vera and honey can modulate tumour growth by reducing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis susceptibility.

  6. Study on the Antifibrotic Effects of Recombinant Shark Hepatical Stimulator Analogue (r-sHSA) in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Yang; Yang, Xiaohong; Ye, Boping

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is an effusive wound healing process, characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), as the consequence of chronic liver injury of any etiology. Current therapeutic repertoire for hepatic fibrosis is limited to withdrawal of the noxious agent, which is not always feasible. Hence, in this article, the antifibrotic effects and possible mechanisms of r-sHSA, a recombinant protein with hepatoprotection potential, were investigated. Using NIH/3T3 (mouse embro-fibroblast cell line), skin fibroblasts (human skin fibroblasts, SFBs) and HSC-T6 (rat hepatic stellate cell line), the in vitro effect of r-sHSA was evaluated by measuring the expression levels of alpha-1 Type I collagen (Col1A1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). It turned out those fibrosis indicators were typically inhibited by r-sHSA, suggesting its capacity in HSCs inactivation. The antifibrotic activity of r-sHSA was further investigated in vivo on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, in view of significant improvement of the biochemical and histological indicators. More specifically, CCl4-intoxication induced a significant increase in serological biomarkers, e.g., transaminase (AST, ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as disturbed hepatic antioxidative status; most of the parameters were spontaneously ameliorated to a large extent by withdrawal of CCl4, although the fibrotic lesion was observed histologically. In contrast, r-sHSA treatment markedly eliminated fibrous deposits and restored architecture of the liver in a dose dependent manner, concomitantly with the phenomena of inflammation relief and HSCs deactivation. To sum up, these findings suggest a therapeutic potential for r-sHSA in hepatic fibrosis, though further studies are required. PMID:26295240

  7. Stevia rebaudiana ethanolic extract exerts better antioxidant properties and antiproliferative effects in tumour cells than its diterpene glycoside stevioside.

    PubMed

    López, Víctor; Pérez, Sergio; Vinuesa, Arturo; Zorzetto, Christian; Abian, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Steviol glycosides are currently being used as natural sweeteners by the food industry and Stevia rebaudiana has long been used as a sweet plant in South America for patients suffering from diabetes. In this study, a Stevia rebaudiana ethanolic extract (SREE) was prepared, analysed and tested for antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging properties and antiproliferative effects in cervix (HeLa), pancreatic (MiaPaCa-2) and colonic (HCT116) cancer cells. The antiproliferative mechanism was confirmed by testing the effects on cyclin D1-CDK4. Bioassays were also performed for the diterpene glycoside stevioside. Our results demonstrate that the extract acts as an antioxidant being able to scavenge free radicals, but this activity was not due to stevioside. The extract also induced cell death in the three cell lines, being more active against cervix cancer cells (HeLa); however, the concentration of stevioside needed to produce antiproliferative effects was higher than the amount of steviol glycosides found in a lower dose of extract inducing cell death. In addition, the extract clearly inhibited CDK4 whereas stevioside did not, concluding that the antiproliferative activity of stevia may be due to inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases performed by other compounds of the extract.

  8. Potent hepatoprotective effect in CCl4-induced hepatic injury in mice of phloroacetophenone from Myrcia multiflora

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Gris, Eliana Fortes; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Correia, João Francisco Gomes; Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant properties of phloroacetophenone (2′,4′,6′-trihydroxyacetophenone – THA), an acetophenone derived from the plant Myrcia multiflora. Material & Method The free radical scavenging activity in vitro and induction of oxidative hepatic damage by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (0.5 ml/kg, i.p.) were tested in male Swiss mice (25±5 g). Results This compound exhibited in vitro antioxidant effects on FeCl2–ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mouse liver homogenate, scavenging hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The in vivo assays showed that THA significantly (p<0.01) prevented the increases of hepatic LPO as measured by the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, mitochondrial swelling. It also protected hepatocytes against protein carbonylation and oxidative DNA damage. Consistent with these observations, THA pre-treatment normalized the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, and increased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in CCl4-treated mice. In addition, THA treatment significantly prevented the elevation of serum enzymatic activities of alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as histological alterations induced by CCl4. Silymarin (SIL) (24 mg/kg), a known hepatoprotective drug used for comparison, led to a significant decrease (p<0.01) in activities of theses enzymes in way very similar to that observed in pre-treatment with THA. Conclusion These results suggest that the protective effects are due to reduction of oxidative damage induced by CCl4 resulting from the antioxidant properties of THA. PMID:21483585

  9. Anti-adipogenic and antiviral effects of l-carnitine on hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tsukuda, Yoko; Suda, Goki; Tsunematsu, Seiji; Ito, Jun; Sato, Fumiyuki; Terashita, Katsumi; Nakai, Masato; Sho, Takuya; Maehara, Osamu; Shimazaki, Tomoe; Kimura, Megumi; Morikawa, Kenichi; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Ogawa, Koji; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Chuma, Makoto; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been reported to hijack fatty acid metabolism in infected hepatocytes, taking advantage of lipid droplets for virus assembly. In this study, we analyzed the anti-HCV activity of l-carnitine, a substance involved in the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria. JFH-1 or HCV replicon-transfected Huh7.5.1 cells were treated with or without l-carnitine to examine its anti-HCV effects. The effects of l-carnitine on HCV entry, HCV-induced adipogenesis and lipid droplet formation, and HCV-induced oxidative stress were examined. Treatment of JFH-1-infected cells with l-carnitine inhibited HCV propagation in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, l-carnitine had no anti-HCV activity in the HCV replicon system, which is lacking viral assembly. In addition, l-carnitine did not affect HCV entry. However, l-carnitine treatment decreased intracellular lipid droplets, which are crucial for HCV assembly in JFH-1-infected cells. The expression level of CPT-1 was decreased in JFH-1-infected cells, and l-carnitine treatment restored this expression. HCV-infected cells exhibited increased production of reactive oxygen species and glutathione oxidation. l-carnitine decreased oxidative stress induced by JFH-1-infection, as shown by glutathione/glutathione disulfide assays and MitoSOX staining. l-carnitine exhibited anti-HCV activity, possibly by inhibiting HCV assembly and through its anti-adipogenic activity in HCV-infected cells. Moreover, l-carnitine has antioxidant properties in HCV-infected hepatocytes. Overall, these results indicated that l-carnitine may be an effective adjunctive agent in antiviral therapies to treat chronic hepatitis C. J. Med. Virol. 89:857-866, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Antifibrotic effects of triptolide on hepatic stellate cells and dimethylnitrosamine-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Chong, Lee-Won; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Yang, Kuo-Ching; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2011-07-01

    Triptolide (C₃₈H₄₂O₆N₂, TP, a diterpene triepoxide derived from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.), is a potent immunosuppresive and antiinflammatory agent. The present study investigated whether TP exerted antihepatofibrotic effects in vitro and in vivo. A cell line of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) was stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. The inhibitory effects of TP on the nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) signaling cascade and fibrosis markers, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen, were assessed. An in vivo therapeutic study was conducted in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-treated rats. The rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control rats, DMN rats receiving vehicle only and DMN rats receiving TP (20 μg/kg). Treatment was given by gavage twice daily for 3 weeks starting 1 week after the start of DMN administration. TP (5-100 nM) concentration-dependently inhibited the NFκB transcriptional activity induced by TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in HSC-T6 cells. In addition, TP also suppressed TNF-α and TGF-β1-induced collagen deposition and α-SMA secretion in HSC-T6 cells. In vivo, TP treatment significantly reduced hepatic fibrosis scores, collagen contents, IL-6 and TNF-α levels, and the number of α-SMA and NFκB-positive cells in DMN rats. The results showed that TP exerted antifibrotic effects in both HSC-T6 cells and DMN rats.

  11. Modeling toxicodynamic effects of trichloroethylene on liver in mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Reisfeld, Brad; Zurlinden, Todd; Kreps, Meagan N.; Erickson, Stephen W.; Blossom, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to industrial solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) in female MRL+/+ mice generates disease similar to human autoimmune hepatitis. The current study was initiated to investigate why TCE-induced autoimmunity targeted the liver. Compared to other tissues the liver has an unusually robust capacity for repair and regeneration. This investigation examined both time-dependent and dose-dependent effects of TCE on hepatoprotective and pro-inflammatory events in liver and macrophages from female MRL+/+ mice. After a 12-week exposure to TCE in drinking water a dose-dependent decrease in macrophage production of IL-6 at both the transcriptional and protein level was observed. A longitudinal study similarly showed that TCE inhibited macrophage IL-6 production. In terms of the liver, TCE had little effect on expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Tnfa, Saa2 or Cscl1) until the end of the 40-week exposure. Instead, TCE suppressed hepatic expression of genes involved in IL-6 signaling (Il6r, gp130, and Egr1). Linear regression analysis confirmed liver histopathology in the TCE-treated mice correlated with decreased expression of Il6r. A toxicodynamic model was developed to estimate the effects of TCE on IL-6 signaling and liver pathology under different levels of exposure and rates of repair. This study underlined the importance of longitudinal studies in mechanistic evaluations of immuntoxicants. It showed that later-occurring liver pathology caused by TCE was associated with early suppression of hepatoprotection rather than an increase in conventional pro-inflammatory events. This information was used to create a novel toxicodynamic model of IL-6-mediated TCE-induced liver inflammation. PMID:25026505

  12. Modeling toxicodynamic effects of trichloroethylene on liver in mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kathleen M; Reisfeld, Brad; Zurlinden, Todd J; Kreps, Meagan N; Erickson, Stephen W; Blossom, Sarah J

    2014-09-15

    Chronic exposure to industrial solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) in female MRL+/+mice generates disease similar to human autoimmune hepatitis. The current study was initiated to investigate why TCE-induced autoimmunity targeted the liver. Compared to other tissues the liver has an unusually robust capacity for repair and regeneration. This investigation examined both time-dependent and dose-dependent effects of TCE on hepatoprotective and pro-inflammatory events in liver and macrophages from female MRL+/+mice. After a 12-week exposure to TCE in drinking water a dose-dependent decrease in macrophage production of IL-6 at both the transcriptional and protein level was observed. A longitudinal study similarly showed that TCE inhibited macrophage IL-6 production. In terms of the liver, TCE had little effect on expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Tnfa, Saa2 or Cscl1) until the end of the 40-week exposure. Instead, TCE suppressed hepatic expression of genes involved in IL-6 signaling (Il6r, gp130, and Egr1). Linear regression analysis confirmed liver histopathology in the TCE-treated mice correlated with decreased expression of Il6r. A toxicodynamic model was developed to estimate the effects of TCE on IL-6 signaling and liver pathology under different levels of exposure and rates of repair. This study underlined the importance of longitudinal studies in mechanistic evaluations of immuntoxicants. It showed that later-occurring liver pathology caused by TCE was associated with early suppression of hepatoprotection rather than an increase in conventional pro-inflammatory events. This information was used to create a novel toxicodynamic model of IL-6-mediated TCE-induced liver inflammation.

  13. FoxO1 integrates direct and indirect effects of insulin on hepatic glucose production and glucose utilization.

    PubMed

    O-Sullivan, InSug; Zhang, Wenwei; Wasserman, David H; Liew, Chong Wee; Liu, Jonathan; Paik, Jihye; DePinho, Ronald A; Stolz, Donna Beer; Kahn, C Ronald; Schwartz, Michael W; Unterman, Terry G

    2015-05-12

    FoxO proteins are major targets of insulin action. To better define the role of FoxO1 in mediating insulin effects in the liver, we generated liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) and IR/FoxO1 double knockout (LIRFKO) mice. Here we show that LIRKO mice are severely insulin resistant based on glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and genetic deletion of hepatic FoxO1 reverses these effects. (13)C-glucose and insulin clamp studies indicate that regulation of both hepatic glucose production (HGP) and glucose utilization is impaired in LIRKO mice, and these defects are also restored in LIRFKO mice corresponding to changes in gene expression. We conclude that (1) inhibition of FoxO1 is critical for both direct (hepatic) and indirect effects of insulin on HGP and utilization, and (2) extrahepatic effects of insulin are sufficient to maintain normal whole-body and hepatic glucose metabolism when liver FoxO1 activity is disrupted.

  14. Primitive neuroectodermal adrenal gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Y P; Lang, Brian H H; Tam, S C; Wong, K P

    2014-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, also called primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland, is extremely rare. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report on a woman with adult-onset primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the adrenal gland presenting with progressive flank pain. Computed tomography confirmed an adrenal tumour with invasion of the left diaphragm and kidney. Radical surgery was performed and the pain completely resolved; histology confirmed the presence of primitive neuroectodermal tumour, for which she was given chemotherapy. The clinical presentation of this condition is non-specific, and a definitive diagnosis is based on a combination of histology, as well as immunohistochemical and cytogenic analysis. According to the literature, these tumours demonstrate rapid growth and aggressive behaviour but there are no well-established guidelines or treatment strategies. Nevertheless, surgery remains the mainstay of local disease control; curative surgery can be performed in most patients. Adjuvant chemoirradiation has been advocated yet no consensus is available. The prognosis of patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumours remains poor.

  15. Hepatitis B virus and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Arbuthnot, Patrick; Kew, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Individuals who are chronic carriers have a greater than 100-fold increased relative risk of developing the tumour. Several mechanisms of HBV-induced HCC have been proposed. Integration of HBV DNA into the genome of hepatocytes occurs commonly, although integration at cellular sites that are important for regulation of hepatocyte proliferation appears to be a rare event. Functions of the HBx protein are also potentially oncogenic. These include transcriptional activation of cellular growth regulatory genes, modulation of apoptosis and inhibition of nucleotide excision repair of damaged cellular DNA. The effects of HBx are mediated by interaction with cellular proteins and activation of cell signalling pathways. Variations in HBV genome sequences may be important in hepatocarcinogenesis, although their significance has not yet been completely elucidated. Necroinflammatory hepatic disease, which often accompanies chronic HBV infection, may contribute indirectly to hepatocyte transformation in a number of ways, including by facilitating HBV DNA integration, predisposing to the acquisition of cellular mutations and generating mutagenic oxygen reactive species. Although HCC is a malignancy with a poor prognosis, the availability of an effective vaccine against HBV infection, and its inclusion in the Expanded Programme of Immunization of many countries, augurs well for the eventual elimination of HBV-associated HCC. PMID:11454100

  16. MicroRNA regulation of endothelial TREX1 reprograms the tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, RaeAnna; Espinosa-Diez, Cristina; Kanner, Nathan; Chatterjee, Namita; Ruhl, Rebecca; Hipfinger, Christina; Advani, Sunil J.; Li, Jie; Khan, Omar F.; Franovic, Aleksandra; Weis, Sara M.; Kumar, Sushil; Coussens, Lisa M.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Chen, Clark C.; Cheresh, David A.; Anand, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    Rather than targeting tumour cells directly, elements of the tumour microenvironment can be modulated to sensitize tumours to the effects of therapy. Here we report a unique mechanism by which ectopic microRNA-103 can manipulate tumour-associated endothelial cells to enhance tumour cell death. Using gain-and-loss of function approaches, we show that miR-103 exacerbates DNA damage and inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Local, systemic or vascular-targeted delivery of miR-103 in tumour-bearing mice decreased angiogenesis and tumour growth. Mechanistically, miR-103 regulation of its target gene TREX1 in endothelial cells governs the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines into the tumour microenvironment. Our data suggest that this inflammatory milieu may potentiate tumour cell death by supporting immune activation and inducing tumour expression of Fas and TRAIL receptors. Our findings reveal miR-mediated crosstalk between vasculature and tumour cells that can be exploited to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation. PMID:27886180

  17. Toxic effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in primary rat hepatic cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Welder, A A; Robertson, J W; Melchert, R B

    1995-08-01

    Hepatic complications in athletes and bodybuilders after abusing anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) have been reported. Hepatic injury, including cholestasis, peliosis hepatis, hyperplasia, and tumors, have been attributed to abuse of the 17 alpha-alkylated AAS. Some of these pathological conditions have been reversed when individuals were converted to nonalkylated AAS regimens. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the direct toxic effects of commonly abused AAS (both 17 alpha-alkylated and nonalkylated) in primary hepatic cell cultures. Primary cultures, established from 60-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were exposed to doses of 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-6), and 1 x 10(-4)M 19-nortestosterone, fluoxymesterone, testosterone cypionate, stanozolol, danazol, oxymetholone, testosterone, estradiol, and methyltestosterone for 1, 4, and 24 hr. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, neutral red (NR) retention, and glutathione (GSH) depletion were evaluated to determine plasma membrane damage, cell viability, and possible oxidative injury, respectively. Those cultures exposed to the 17 alpha-alkylated AAS, methyltestosterone and stanozolol, at doses of 1 x 10(-4) M for 24 hr and the 17 alpha-alkylated AAS, oxymetholone, at 1 x 10(-4) M for 4 and 24 hr showed significant increased in LDH release and decreases in NR retention while there were no significant differences with the nonalkylated steroids (testosterone cypionate, 19-nortestosterone, testosterone, and estradiol). GSH depletion was evaluated in cultures treated with 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-6), and 1 x 10(-4) M concentrations of methyltestosterone, stanozolol, and oxymetholone for 1, 2, 4, and 6 hr. Cultures exposed to 1 x 10(-4) M oxymetholone were significantly depleted of GSH at 2, 4, and 6 hr; cultures exposed to 1 x 10(-4) M methyltestosterone were significantly depleted of GSH at 4 and 6 hr; and cultures exposed to stanozolol were not significantly depleted of GSH at any of the time periods tested. These

  18. The effects of low-frequency vibrations on hepatic profile of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damijan, Z.

    2008-02-01

    Body vibrations training has become popular in sports training, fitness activity, it is still a rare form of physical rehabilitation.. Vibrations are transmitted onto the whole body or some body parts of an exercising person via a vibration platform subjected to mechanical vertical vibrations. During the training session a participant has to maintain his body position or do exercises that engage specific muscles whilst vibrations of the platform are transmitted onto the person's body. This paper is the continuation of the earlier study covering the effects of low-frequency vibrations on selected physiological parameters of the human body. The experiments were conducted to find the answer to the question if vibration exposure (total duration of training sessions 6 hours 20 min) should produce any changes in hepatic profile of blood. Therefore a research program was undertaken at the University of Science and Technology AGH UST to investigate the effects of low-frequency vibration on selected parameters of hepatic profile of human blood. Cyclic fluctuations of bone loading were induced by the applied harmonic vibration 3.5 Hz and amplitude 0.004 m. The experiments utilizing two vibrating platforms were performed in the Laboratory of Structural Acoustics and Biomedical Engineering AGH-UST. The applied vibrations were harmless and not annoying, in accordance with the standard PN-EN ISO 130901-1, 1998. 23 women volunteers had 19 sessions on subsequent working days, at the same time of day. during the tests the participants remained in the standing position, passive. The main hypothesis has it that short-term low-frequency vibration exposure might bring about the changes of the hepatic profile of blood, including: bilirubin (BILIRUBIN), alkaline phosphatase (Alp), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and albumin (ALBUMIN) levels. Research data indicate the low-frequency vibrations exposure produces statistically significant decrease of

  19. Effect of chlorpromazine on hepatic transport of indocyanine green in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsao, S C; Sawada, Y; Iga, T; Hanano, M

    1983-03-15

    The effect of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) on the hepatic transport of indocyanine green (ICG) was studied in the rat, in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity of CPZ in vivo, by comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters of ICG after bolus and chronic administration of CPZ. Delays were shown in both plasma disappearance and biliary excretion of ICG in the CPZ-treated rats (10 and 15 mg/kg intraportal bolus administration). Significant decreases were observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters, V2 and total body clearance (CLtot) in CPZ 10 mg/kg treated rats and k34, V2 and CLtot in CPZ 15 mg/kg treated rats, while a significant increase was observed in k21 in both CPZ-treated groups; V1 was not altered. The apparent liver-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,app) of ICG at 50 min after i.v. administration was decreased significantly in CPZ 15 mg/kg treated rats when compared to control rats, suggesting an alteration in the distribution of ICG to the liver by CPZ. Bile flow rates decreased immediately after bolus intraportal administration of CPZ in both CPZ-treated groups, and they then returned progressively to the basal levels. The output of bile acids was also inhibited by CPZ in a time-dependent and reversible manner and the bile acid independent fraction of bile flow was decreased significantly in both CPZ-treated groups. Chronic treatment with CPZ (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p., per day for 3 weeks) did not alter either the pharmacokinetic parameters or the bile secretion profile of ICG, although there were significant decreases in body and liver weights in CPZ-treated groups. This may have been due to the rapid metabolism and excretion of CPZ in the rat when compared to humans. It is proposed that the acute toxic effect of CPZ on hepatic transport of ICG in the rat may be due mainly to the time-dependent and reversible cholestasis induced by CPZ, and that chronic treatment with CPZ may not alter the hepatic transport of ICG in the rat.

  20. Hepatitis A/B vaccination of adults over 40 years old: comparison of three vaccine regimens and effect of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Van der Wielen, Marie; Van Damme, Pierre; Chlibek, Roman; Smetana, Jan; von Sonnenburg, Frank

    2006-06-29

    Challenged by contrasting data on low immune responses in the elderly with a combined hepatitis A/B vaccine, a randomised, controlled study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity of three hepatitis A and B vaccination regimens (group 1: combined hepatitis A/B vaccine Twinrix [GSK]; group 2: co-administered hepatitis A vaccine, Havrix [GSK]+hepatitis B vaccine Engerix -B [GSK], group 3: co-administered hepatitis A vaccine, Vaqta [Sanofi-Pasteur MSD]+hepatitis B vaccine HB VAX PRO [Sanofi-Pasteur MSD]) and the effect of influencing factors in subjects >40 years. On completion of the full vaccination course, anti-HBs seroprotection (SP) rates were 92, 80 and 71% in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively; anti-HAV seropositivity (S+) rates were 97, 99 and 99%, respectively. In group 1, anti-HBs SP rate was non-inferior as well as superior and anti-HAV S+ rate was non-inferior to that in groups 2 and 3. Anti-HBs response was most significantly influenced by the vaccine regimen, followed by age, gender and BMI (stepwise multiple regression analysis). BMI had the most significant influence on HAV response followed by age, gender and vaccine regimen. In conclusion, Twinrix induced superior hepatitis B SP rates and similar hepatitis A S+ rates compared to concomitant administration of monovalent vaccines in subjects aged >40 years.

  1. Early immunisation with dendritic cells after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation elicits graft vs tumour reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Gigi, V; Stein, J; Askenasy, N; Yaniv, I; Ash, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Perspectives of immunotherapy to cancer mediated by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in conjunction with dendritic cell (DC)-mediated immune sensitisation have yielded modest success so far. In this study, we assessed the impact of DC on graft vs tumour (GvT) reactions triggered by allogeneic BMT. Methods: H2Ka mice implanted with congenic subcutaneous Neuro-2a neuroblastoma (NB, H2Ka) tumours were irradiated and grafted with allogeneic H2Kb bone marrow cells (BMC) followed by immunisation with tumour-inexperienced or tumour-pulsed DC. Results: Immunisation with tumour-pulsed donor DC after allogeneic BMT suppressed tumour growth through induction of T cell-mediated NB cell lysis. Early post-transplant administration of DC was more effective than delayed immunisation, with similar efficacy of DC inoculated into the tumour and intravenously. In addition, tumour inexperienced DC were equally effective as tumour-pulsed DC in suppression of tumour growth. Immunisation of DC did not impact quantitative immune reconstitution, however, it enhanced T-cell maturation as evident from interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion, proliferation in response to mitogenic stimulation and tumour cell lysis in vitro. Dendritic cells potentiate GvT reactivity both through activation of T cells and specific sensitisation against tumour antigens. We found that during pulsing with tumour lysate DC also elaborate a factor that selectively inhibits lymphocyte proliferation, which is however abolished by humoral and DC-mediated lymphocyte activation. Conclusion: These data reveal complex involvement of antigen-presenting cells in GvT reactions, suggesting that the limited success in clinical application is not a result of limited efficacy but suboptimal implementation. Although DC can amplify soluble signals from NB lysates that inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, early administration of DC is a dominant factor in suppression of tumour growth. PMID:23511628

  2. Tumour necrosis factor-α expression and cell recruitment in Sephadex particle-induced lung inflammation: effects of dexamethasone and cyclosporin A

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cara M M; Smith, Lance; Flanagan, Brian F; Steve Clegg, L; Coleman, John W

    1997-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cytokine with diverse properties consistent with a possible role in inflammatory disease. We investigated whether TNF-α is induced during the progression of lung inflammation elicited by a particulate non-antigenic stimulus, and whether pharmacological control of TNF-α expression influences recruitment of specific inflammatory cell types. A single intravenous injection of Sephadex particles into rats led to extensive granulomatous inflammation in lung alveolar and bronchial tissue that peaked in intensity after 24–72 h. Mononuclear cells were the principal component of granulomas, but neutrophils and eosinophils were also abundant. Numbers of mononuclear cells, neutrophils and eosinophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) peaked at 72 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Messenger RNA encoding TNF-α was induced in lung epithelial cells, lung granulomas and BAL cells 6 h after Sephadex administration and remained elevated for 72 h before declining to baseline by 7 days. In BAL cell populations TNF-α protein was localized to mononuclear cells at all times points pre- and post-Sephadex administration. Treatment of rats with dexamethasone significantly reduced the Sephadex-induced recruitment of mononuclear cells, neutrophils and eosinophils into the bronchoalveolar cavity, and significantly reduced TNF-α mRNA expression by BAL cells. Treatment of rats with cyclosporin A was without effect on Sephadex-induced elevations of mononuclear cell numbers and expression of TNF-α, but did reduce significantly recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils to BAL cell populations. These results show that a sequential asthma-like recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells into lung tissue can be induced by single exposure to a non-antigenic stimulus. Pharmacological and histological studies reveal that mononuclear cell mobilization relates closely to induced TNF-α expression, whereas mobilization of

  3. Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir regimen promises an effective pan-genotypic hepatitis C virus cure

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Fazia; Kahveci, Alp S; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global pandemic, with nearly 200 million infected patients worldwide. HCV is the most common blood-borne infection in the US with numerous health implications including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Traditional genotype-based HCV therapies with interferon resulted in moderate success in the sustained elimination of viral genome. Recent clinical trials of the once-daily combination tablet of sofosbuvir, a nonstructural (NS) 5B polymerase inhibitor, and velpatasvir, an NS5A inhibitor, demonstrate sustained virologic response rates of about 95%, regardless of prior treatment experience or presence of cirrhosis across all HCV genotypes. Patients reported improvements in general health, fatigue, and emotional and mental well-being after completing combination therapy. The combination treatment is effective, but does need to be administered with caution in patients receiving certain medications or with certain diseases. Herein, we review the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir combination regimen for all HCV genotypes. PMID:28260862

  4. Experimental schistosomal hepatitis: protective effect of coenzyme-Q10 against the state of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ahmad A; Shoheib, Zeinab S; Abdel-Aleem, Ghada A; Shareef, Mohamed M

    2008-10-01

    Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) eggs trapped in the host liver elicit a chain of oxidative processes that may be, at least in part, responsible for the pathology and progression of fibrosis associated with schistosomal hepatitis. This study was designed to assess the protective effect of the antioxidant coenzyme-Q10 (Co-Q10) against experimental S. mansoni-induced oxidative stress in the liver, and its potential role as an adjuvant to praziquantel (PZQ) therapy. The oxidative stress and overall liver function were improved under Co-Q10 therapy as evidenced by significant reduction in oxidative stress markers and preservation of antioxidant factors. Liver fibrosis was also reduced with a positive impact on liver function. Moreover, addition of Co-Q10 to PZQ therapy caused: significant reduction of liver egg load, significant improvement of the redox status, and lastly decreased liver fibrosis.

  5. Hepatitis B vaccine effectiveness in the face of global HBV genotype diversity.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adrian; Mossman, Sally; Olivieri, Antonio; De Ridder, Marc; Leroux-Roels, Geert

    2011-12-01

    Recombinant hepatitis B vaccines are of the A2 genotype; one of ten known genotypes whose distribution varies globally. Reports of rare HBV infections in blood donors with an imbalance of non-A2 genotype HBV in vaccinated subjects have raised questions about the cross-protection afforded by HBV-A2 vaccines. Infections in HBV vaccinees were asymptomatic and transient, indicating that vaccination prevented clinical disease. Preclinical data demonstrate cross-reactivity and cross-protection by A2 vaccines against non-A2 HBV genotypes. Substantial improvements in HBV control have been demonstrated in countries with diverse genotype distribution that have introduced universal childhood HBV vaccination programs. Available data show that current HBV-A2 vaccines are highly effective in preventing infections and clinical disease caused by all known HBV genotypes.

  6. The hypolipidemic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols via inhibiting lipogenesis and promoting hepatic lipid clearance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mon-Yuan; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Yang, Yi-Sun; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2010-01-27

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) was shown to lower the plasma lipid level and reduce the liver damage. In the present study, we investigated if Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) exerted a hypolipidemic effect and its putative mechanism on liver. HPE exhibited more potency to decrease plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than the crude extract HSE, and increased HDL cholesterol dose-dependently. It decreased the lipid content of hepatocyte through the activation of AMPK and reduction of SREBP-1, thus inhibiting the expression of fatty acid synthase and HMG-CoA reductase. LDLR and LDL binding of HepG2 cells were enhanced when treated with HPE. In conclusion, HPE is worthy of being further investigated and could be developed as an adjunctive for hepatic lipid control and hypolipidemic therapy.

  7. Divergent antiviral effects of bioflavonoids on the hepatitis C virus life cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Yeh, George K.; Maloney, Eden M.; Wang, Julie; and others

    2012-11-25

    We have previously demonstrated that quercetin, a bioflavonoid, blocks hepatitis C virus (HCV) proliferation by inhibiting NS5A-driven internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of the viral genome. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of antiviral activity of quercetin and six additional bioflavonoids. We demonstrate that catechin, naringenin, and quercetin possess significant antiviral activity, with no associated cytotoxicity. Infectious virion secretion was not significantly altered by these bioflavonoids. Catechin and naringenin demonstrated stronger inhibition of infectious virion assembly compared to quercetin. Quercetin markedly blocked viral translation whereas catechin and naringenin demonstrated mild activity. Similarly quercetin completely blocked NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation in an IRES reporter assay, whereas catechin and naringenin had only a mild effect. Moreover, quercetin differentially inhibited HSP70 induction compared to catechin and naringenin. Thus, the antiviral activity of these bioflavonoids is mediated through different mechanisms. Therefore combination of these bioflavonoids may act synergistically against HCV.

  8. "In vitro" effect of cumene hydroperoxide on hepatic elongation factor-2 and its protection by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Parrado, J; Absi, E H; Machado, A; Ayala, A

    2003-12-05

    We have examined by immunoblotting the effect of three oxidant compounds on the level of hepatic elongation factor-2 (eEF-2). Rat liver homogenates were exposed to cumene hydroperoxide (CH), 2-2'-azobis (2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and H(2)O(2). Only CH treatment produced the disappearance of eEF-2, probably due to a phenomena of peptide bond cleavage. The direct implication of free radical species in this process is evident because of the fact that the inclusion of a free radical scavenger such as melatonin prevented the eEF-2 depletion. The results also suggest that the disappearance of eEF-2 induced by CH can be linked to a lipid peroxidant process, which could account for the decline of protein synthesis in aging and other circumstances where lipid peroxidation is high.

  9. The effect of recombinant human growth hormone with or without rosiglitazone on hepatic fat content in HIV-1 infected individuals; a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Kotler, Donald P; He, Qing; Engelson, Ellen S; Albu, Jeanine B; Glesby, Marshall J

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatic fat is related to insulin resistance (IR) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in HIV+ and uninfected individuals. Growth hormone (GH) reduces VAT but increases IR. We evaluated the effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) and rosiglitazone (Rosi) on hepatic fat in a substudy of a randomized controlled trial. Methods HIV+ subjects with abdominal obesity and IR (QUICKI ≤ 0.33) were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, Rosi 4 mg twice daily, the combination, or double placebo. Hepatic fat was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), visceral fat by MRI, and IR by frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests at baseline and week 12. Results 31 subjects were studied at both time points. Significant correlations between hepatic fat and VAT (r = 0.41, p=0.02) and QUICKI (r = 0.39, p<0.05) were seen at baseline. Insulin resistance rose with rhGH but not Rosi. When rhGH treatment groups were combined, hepatic fat expressed as percent change decreased significantly (p<0.05) but did not change in Rosi (p=0.71). There were no correlations between changes in hepatic fat and VAT (p=0.4) or QUICKI (p=0.6). In a substudy of 21 subjects, a trend was noticed between changes in hepatic fat and serum IGF-1 (p=0.09). Conclusions Hepatic fat correlates significantly with both VAT and IR, but changes in hepatic fat do not correlate with changes in VAT and glucose metabolism. Hepatic fat content is reduced by rhGH but Rosi has no effect. These results suggest an independent effect of growth hormone or IGF-1 on hepatic fat. The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00130286). PMID:25536669

  10. Warfarin inhibits metastasis of Mtln3 rat mammary carcinoma without affecting primary tumour growth.

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, P.; George, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Coumarin anticoagulants inhibit metastasis in several animal models, but the mechanism of this effect is uncertain. In order to determine the role of cytotoxic and/or cytostatic actions of coumarins on the tumour cells, we have studied the effects of warfarin on tumour cell growth in a model in which tumour metastasis is inhibited by this drug. Clonogenic assay, growth curve analysis and thymidine labelling index revealed that warfarin had no effects on Mtln3 mammary carcinoma cell growth in vitro at concentrations below 1 mM. The growth rate of subcutaneously implanted Mtln3 tumour deposits in female F344 rats, assessed by weight and by stathmokinetic analysis of the tumour tissue, was identical in warfarin-treated and control animals. Spontaneous metastasis from such tumours to the lungs was, however, significantly reduced in warfarin-treated animals (median 0 pulmonary tumours per animal in warfarin treated, eight tumours per animal in control animals; P less than 0.05, Mann-Whitney). The mean plasma warfarin concentration in warfarin treated rats was 1.63 microM. These results suggest that warfarin treatment of the host animal can inhibit tumour metastasis without having any direct or indirect effect on the growth rate of the tumour cells. PMID:2930682

  11. Selective cytoprotective effect of histamine on doxorubicin-induced hepatic and cardiac toxicity in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, DJMartinel; Nicoud, MB; Sterle, HA; Carabajal, E; Tesan, F; Perazzo, JC; Cremaschi, GA; Rivera, ES; Medina, VA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential protective effect of histamine on Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced hepatic and cardiac toxicity in different rodent species and in a triple-negative breast tumor-bearing mice model. Male Sprague Dawley rats and Balb/c mice were divided into four groups: control (received saline), histamine (5 mg/kg for rats and 1 mg/kg for mice, daily subcutaneous injection starting 24 h before treatment with Dox), Dox (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally injected three times a week for 2 weeks) and Dox+histamine (received both treatments). Tissue toxicity was evaluated by histopathological studies and oxidative stress and biochemical parameters. The combined effect of histamine and Dox was also investigated in vitro and in vivo in human MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer model. Heart and liver of Dox-treated animals displayed severe histological damage, loss of tissue weight, increased TBARS levels and DNA damage along with an augment in serum creatine kinase-myocardial band. Pretreatment with histamine prevented Dox-induced tissue events producing a significant preservation of the integrity of both rat and mouse myocardium and liver, through the reduction of Dox-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Histamine treatment preserved anti-tumor activity of Dox, exhibiting differential cytotoxicity and increasing the Dox-induced inhibition of breast tumor growth. Findings provide preclinical evidence indicating that histamine could be a promising candidate as a selective cytoprotective agent for the treatment of Dox-induced cardiac and hepatic toxicity, and encourage the translation to clinical practice. PMID:27551485

  12. The Effect of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection on BDCA3+ Dendritic Cell Frequency and Function

    PubMed Central

    van der Aa, Evelyn; Buschow, Sonja I.; Biesta, Paula J.; Janssen, Harry L. A.; Woltman, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection results from inadequate HBV-specific immunity. BDCA3+ dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells considered to be important for antiviral responses because of specific characteristics, including high interferon-λ production. BDCA3+ DCs may thus also have a role in the immune response against HBV, and immunotherapeutic strategies aiming to activate DCs, including BDCA3+ DCs, in patient livers may represent an interesting treatment option for chronic HBV. However, neither the effect of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection on the frequency and function of BDCA3+ DCs in liver and blood, nor the effect of the viral surface protein (HBsAg) that is abundantly present in blood of infected individuals are known. Here, we provide an overview of BDCA3+ DC frequency and functional capacity in CHB patients. We find that intrahepatic BDCA3+ DC numbers are increased in CHB patients. BDCA3+ DCs from patient blood are not more mature at steady state, but display an impaired capacity to mature and to produce interferon-λ upon polyI:C stimulation. Furthermore, in vitro experiments exposing blood and intrahepatic BDCA3+ DCs to the viral envelope protein HBsAg demonstrate that HBsAg does not directly induce phenotypical maturation of BDCA3+ DCs, but may reduce IFN-λ production via an indirect unknown mechanism. These results suggest that BDCA3+ DCs are available in the blood and on site in HBV infected livers, but measures may need to be taken to revive their function for DC-targeted therapy. PMID:27529176

  13. Therapeutic Effect of Captopril, Pentoxifylline, and Cordyceps Sinensis in Pre-Hepatic Portal Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed F.; El-Maraghy, Nabila N.; Ghaney, Rasha H. Abdel; Elshazly, Shimaa M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Portal hypertension is an important and potentially fatal complication of liver disease whereby cellular and fibrotic alterations manifest to increase portal venous pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of captopril, pentoxifylline (PTX), and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Settings and Design: Wister male rats were divided at random into 3 main groups: the first group: control rats. The second group: sham-operated rats and the third group: prehepatic portal hypertensive rats (PHPHT) induced by regulated pre-hepatic portal vein ligation. After 14 days, Group 3 was subdivided into 5 subgroups. Subgroup (1): portal vein-ligated (PVL) was killed at once; Subgroup (2): received distilled water for 30 days (untreated PVL group); subgroups 3-5 were treated with captopril (60 mg/kg, orally); PTX (100 mg/kg, orally); and C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, orally), respectively, as a single daily dose for 30 days. Patients and Methods: Portal pressure, nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant enzymes, Liver enzymes, and creatinine levels were measured to evaluate the status of the liver state. Results: Portal vein ligation produced significant increments in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure concomitant with significant decrements in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity. Treatment with captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis resulted in a significant reduction in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure and observable increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions: captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis have promising effect in controlling PHPHT and reducing hyperdynamic circulatory state through reduction of portal pressure and NO level. PMID:22626797

  14. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on hepatic glycoprotein secretion in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, M.F.; Nauss, J.M.; Donohue, T.M. Jr.; Tuma, D.J.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion were studied in rat liver slices. Liver slices from rats fed ethanol for 4-5 wk showed a decreased ability to incorporate (/sup 14/C)glucosamine into medium trichloracetic acid-precipitable proteins when compared to the pair-fed controls; however, the labeling of hepatocellular glycoproteins was unaffected by chronic ethanol treatment. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled secretory (serum) glycoproteins with antiserum against rat serum proteins showed a similar marked inhibition in the appearance of glucosamine-labeled proteins in the medium of slices from ethanol-fed rats. Minimal effects, however, were noted in the labeling of intracellular secretory glycoproteins. Protein synthesis, as determined by measuring (/sup 14/C)leucine incorporation into medium and liver proteins, was decreased in liver slices from ethanol-fed rats as compared to the pair-fed controls. This was the case for both total proteins as well as immunoprecipitable secretory proteins, although the labeling of secretory proteins retained in the liver slices was reduced to a lesser extent than total radiolabeled hepatic proteins. When the terminal sugar, (/sup 14/C)fucose, was employed as a precursor in order to more closely focus on the final steps of hepatic glycoprotein secretion, liver slices obtained from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibited impaired secretion of fucose-labeled proteins into the medium. When ethanol (5 or 10 mM) was added to the incubation medium containing liver slices from the ethanol-fed rats, the alterations in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion caused by the chronic ethanol treatment were further potentiated. The results of this study indicate that liver slices prepared from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibit both impaired synthesis and secretion of proteins and glycoproteins, and these defects are further potentiated by acute ethanol administration.

  15. The occurrence of intracranial rhabdoid tumours in mice depends on temporal control of Smarcb1 inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhi-Yan; Richer, Wilfrid; Fréneaux, Paul; Chauvin, Céline; Lucchesi, Carlo; Guillemot, Delphine; Grison, Camille; Lequin, Delphine; Pierron, Gaelle; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Nicolas, André; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stéphanie; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Ayrault, Olivier; Surdez, Didier; Delattre, Olivier; Bourdeaut, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumours (RTs) are highly aggressive tumours of infancy, frequently localized in the central nervous s