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Sample records for hepatocarcinoma humano hep3b

  1. A methyl jasmonate derivative, J-7, induces apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol; Jin, Cheng-Yun; Kim, Gi-Young; Cheong, JaeHun; Jung, Jee H; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2010-10-01

    The pro-apoptotic activity of J-7, a synthetic methyl jasmonate derivative, on the Hep3B human hepatocarcinoma cell line was investigated. Treatment of Hep3B cells with J-7 resulted in growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis as measured by trypan blue-excluding cells, MTT assay, nuclear staining, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry analysis. The increased apoptotic events in Hep3B cells caused by J-7 were associated with the alteration in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. J-7 treatment induced the expression of death receptor-related proteins such as death receptor 5, which triggered the activation of caspase-8 and the down-regulation of the whole Bid expression. In addition, the apoptosis induction by J-7 was correlated with the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, down-regulation IAP family proteins such as XIAP and cIAP-1, and concomitant degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. However, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects induced by J-7 were significantly inhibited by z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 inhibitor, which demonstrates the important role that caspase-3 plays in the process. Furthermore, blocking the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways showed increased apoptosis and the activation of caspases in J-7-induced apoptosis. The results indicated that J-7 induces the apoptosis of Hep3B cells through a signaling cascade of death-receptor-mediated extrinsic as well as mitochondria-mediated intrinsic caspase pathways, which are associated with the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases signal pathway.

  2. Intracellular glutathione regulates Andrographolide-induced cytotoxicity on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lili; Shen, Kaikai; Liu, Jun; Chen, Ying; Liu, Tianyu; Wang, Zhengtao

    2009-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional herbal plant Andrographis paniculata, was reported to induce apoptosis in hepatoma Hep3B cells in our previous study (Ji LL, Liu TY, Liu J, Chen Y, Wang ZT. Andrographolide inhibits human hepatoma-derived Hep3B cells growth through the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Planta Med 2007; 73: 1397-1401). The present investigation was carried out to observe whether cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) plays important roles in ANDRO-induced apoptosis. ANDRO initially increased intracellular GSH levels which then decreased later, while inhibition of cellular GSH synthesis by L-Buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) augmented ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in Hep3B cells. On the other hand, the thiol antioxidant dithiothreitol (DTT) rescued ANDRO-depleted cellular GSH, and abrogated ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Furthermore, BSO pretreatment augmented ANDRO-decreased expression of antioxidant protein thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), while DTT reversed this decrease. Further results showed that ANDRO increased the activity of the GSH-related antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, this study demonstrates that the intracellular redox system plays important roles in regulating the cytotoxicity of ANDRO on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

  3. Midkine secretion protects Hep3B cells from cadmium induced cellular damage

    PubMed Central

    Yazihan, Nuray; Ataoglu, Haluk; Akcil, Ethem; Yener, Burcu; Salman, Bulent; Aydin, Cengiz

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate role of midkine secretion during Cadmium (Cd) exposure in the human hepatocyte cell line Hep3B cells. METHODS: Different dosages of Cd (0.5-1-5-10 μg/mL) were applied to Hep3B cells and their effects to apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and midkine secretion were evaluated as time dependent manner. Same experiments were repeated with exogenously applied midkine (250-5000 pg/mL) and/or 5 μg/mL Cd. RESULTS: Cd exposure induced prominent apoptosis and LDH leakage beginning from lower dosages at the 48th h. Cd induced midkine secretion with higher dosages (P < 0.001), (control, Cd 0.5-1-5-10 μg/mL respectively: 1123 ± 73, 1157 ± 63, 1242 ± 90, 1886 ± 175, 1712 ± 166 pg/mL). Exogenous 500-5000 pg/mL midkine application during 5 μg/mL Cd toxicity prevented caspase-3 activation (control, Cd toxicity, 250, 500, 1000, 2500, 5000 pg/mL midkine+ Cd toxicity, respectively: 374 ± 64, 1786 ± 156, 1545 ± 179, 1203 ± 113, 974 ± 116, 646 ± 56, 556 ± 63 cfu) LDH leakage and cell death in Hep3B cells (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results showed that midkine secretion from Hep3B cells during Cd exposure protects liver cells from Cd induced cellular damage. Midkine has anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective role during Cd toxicity. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of midkine secretion and cytoprotective role of midkine during Cd exposure. Midkine may be a promising therapeutic agent in different toxic hepatic diseases. PMID:18176965

  4. Peroxiredoxin 3 is resistant to oxidation-induced apoptosis of Hep-3b cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-G; Li, L; Liu, C-H; Hong, S; Zhang, M-J

    2014-06-01

    Although peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) was reported to be overexpressed in liver cancer, the precise function of PRX3 in the development and/or progression of liver cancer remained to be obscure. The present study was conducted to investigate the response of PRX3 to oxidative stress in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. After successful knockdown of PRX3 expression by small interfering RNA, we treated HCC cell lines Hep-3b and Hep-G2 with gradient concentrations of H2O2 and detected cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. After low-dose (5-20 μmol/l) H2O2 treatment, the ROS level was significantly higher in PRX3-knockdown Hep-3b cells than in controls. In addition, PRX3 down-regulation resulted in decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and increased caspase 3 activity of Hep-3b cells. We did not notice significant difference between PrxIII knockdown and control Hep-G2 cells in ROS level, cell viability or apoptosis. Our results suggest that PRX3 is an indispensable ROS scavenger that protects tumor cells against oxidative damage and subsequent apoptosis, which provides a clue that PRX3 may be involved in the chemotherapeutic resistance of liver cancer. The underlying mechanism for PRX3 function needs further investigation.

  5. Minor phenolics from Angelica keiskei and their proliferative effects on Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Kil, Yun-Seo; Park, Jiyoung; Jafari, Mahtab; Woo, Hyun Ae; Seo, Eun Kyoung

    2017-07-15

    A new coumarin, (-)-cis-(3'R,4'R)-4'-O-angeloylkhellactone-3'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and two new chalcones, 3'-[(2E)-5-carboxy-3-methyl-2-pentenyl]-4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone (4) and (±)-4,2',4'-trihydroxy-3'-{2-hydroxy-2-[tetrahydro-2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-2-furanyl]ethyl}chalcone (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of Angelica keiskei (Umbelliferae), together with six known compounds: (R)-O-isobutyroyllomatin (2), 3'-O-methylvaginol (3), (-)-jejuchalcone F (6), isoliquiritigenin (7), davidigenin (8), and (±)-liquiritigenin (9). The structures of the new compounds were determined by interpretation of their spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR data. All known compounds (2, 3, and 6-9) were isolated as constituents of A. keiskei for the first time. To identify novel hepatocyte proliferation inducer for liver regeneration, 1-9 were evaluated for their cell proliferative effects using a Hep3B human hepatoma cell line. All isolates exhibited cell proliferative effects compared to untreated control (DMSO). Cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress induced by glucose oxidase were also examined on Hep3B cells and mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 cells and all compounds showed significant dose-dependent protection against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Vitamin C enhances anticancer activity in methotrexate‑treated Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yiang, Giou-Teng; Chou, Pei-Lun; Hung, Yu-Ting; Chen, Jen-Ni; Chang, Wei-Jung; Yu, Yung-Luen; Wei, Chyou-Wei

    2014-09-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) has been widely used for rheumatoid arthritis therapy for a long time. MTX is also used as an anticancer drug for various tumors. However, many studies have shown that high-dose MTX treatment for cancer therapy may cause liver and renal damage. Alhough the mechanisms involved in MTX-induced liver and renal damage require further research, many studies have indicated that MTX-induced cytotoxicity is associated with increases in oxidative stress and caspase activation. In order to reduce MTX-induced side-effects and increase anticancer efficiency, currently, combination treatments of low-dose MTX and other anticancer drugs are considered and applied for various tumor treatments. The present study showed that MTX induces increases in H2O2 levels and caspase-9/-3 activation leading to cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. Importantly, this study is the first to demonstrate that vitamin C can efficiently aid low-dose MTX in inducing cell death in Hep3B cells. Therefore, the present study provides a possible powerful therapeutic method for tumors using a combined treatment of vitamin C and low-dose MTX.

  7. Vitamin C enhances anticancer activity in methotrexate-treated Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    YIANG, GIOU-TENG; CHOU, PEI-LUN; HUNG, YU-TING; CHEN, JEN-NI; CHANG, WEI-JUNG; YU, YUNG-LUEN; WEI, CHYOU-WEI

    2014-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) has been widely used for rheumatoid arthritis therapy for a long time. MTX is also used as an anticancer drug for various tumors. However, many studies have shown that high-dose MTX treatment for cancer therapy may cause liver and renal damage. Alhough the mechanisms involved in MTX-induced liver and renal damage require further research, many studies have indicated that MTX-induced cytotoxicity is associated with increases in oxidative stress and caspase activation. In order to reduce MTX-induced side-effects and increase anticancer efficiency, currently, combination treatments of low-dose MTX and other anticancer drugs are considered and applied for various tumor treatments. The present study showed that MTX induces increases in H2O2 levels and caspase-9/-3 activation leading to cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. Importantly, this study is the first to demonstrate that vitamin C can efficiently aid low-dose MTX in inducing cell death in Hep3B cells. Therefore, the present study provides a possible powerful therapeutic method for tumors using a combined treatment of vitamin C and low-dose MTX. PMID:24969544

  8. Hispolon induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells by modulating ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2011-07-13

    Hispolon is an active phenolic compound of Phellinus igniarius , a mushroom that has recently been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. This study investigated the antiproliferative effect of hispolon on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells by using the MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride) staining, and flow cytometric analyses. Hispolon inhibited cellular growth of Hep3B cells in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, through the induction of cell cycle arrest at S phase measured using flow cytometric analysis and apoptotic cell death, as demonstrated by DNA laddering. Hispolon-induced S-phase arrest was associated with a marked decrease in the protein expression of cyclins A and E and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, with concomitant induction of p21waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1. Exposure of Hep3B cells to hispolon resulted in apoptosis as evidenced by caspase activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation. Hispolon treatment also activated JNK, p38 MAPK, and ERK expression. Inhibitors of ERK (PB98095), but not those of JNK (SP600125) and p38 MAPK (SB203580), suppressed hispolon-induced S-phase arrest and apoptosis in Hep3B cells. These findings establish a mechanistic link between the MAPK pathway and hispolon-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Hep3B cells.

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of drug sodium iron chlorophyllin addition to Hep 3B cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenhai; Yang, Fengying; Zhou, Xinwen; Jin, Hong; Yang, Peng-yuan

    2012-09-21

    The human hepatoma 3B cell line was chosen as an experimental model for in vitro test of drug screening. The drugs included chlorophyllin and its derivatives such as fluo-chlorophyllin, sodium copper chlorophyllin, and sodium iron chlorophyllin. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method was used in this study to obtain the primary screening results. The results showed that sodium iron chlorophyllin had the best LC(50) value. Proteomic analysis was then performed for further investigation of the effect of sodium iron chlorophyllin addition to the Hep 3B cell line. The proteins identified from a total protein extract of Hep 3B before and after the drug addition were compared by two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis. Then 32 three-fold differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. There are 29 unique proteins among those identified proteins. These proteins include proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), T-complex protein, heterogeneous nuclear protein, nucleophosmin, heat shock protein A5 (HspA5) and peroxiredoxin. HspA5 is one of the proteins which are involved in protecting cancer cells against stress-induced apoptosis in cultured cells, protecting them against apoptosis through various mechanisms. Peroxiredoxin has anti-oxidant function and is related to cell proliferation, and signal transduction. It can protect the oxidation of other proteins. Peroxiredoxin has a close relationship with cancer and can eventually become a disease biomarker. This might help to develop a novel treatment method for carcinoma cancer.

  10. Antiproliferative activity and phenotypic modification induced by selected Peruvian medicinal plants on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Carraz, Maëlle; Lavergne, Cédric; Jullian, Valérie; Wright, Michel; Gairin, Jean Edouard; Gonzales de la Cruz, Mercedes; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2015-05-26

    The high incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Peru and the wide use of medicinal plants in this country led us to study the activity against HCC cells in vitro of somes species used locally against liver and digestive disorders. Ethnopharmacological survey: Medicinal plant species with a strong convergence of use for liver and digestive diseases were collected fresh in the wild or on markets, in two places of Peru: Chiclayo (Lambayeque department, Chiclayo province) and Huaraz (Ancash department, Huaraz province). Altogether 51 species were collected and 61 ethanol extracts were prepared to be tested. Biological assessment: All extracts were first assessed against the HCC cell line Hep3B according a 3-step multi-parametric phenotypic assay. It included 1) the evaluation of phenotypic changes on cells by light microscopy, 2) the measurement of the antiproliferative activity and 3) the analysis of the cytoskeleton and mitosis by immunofluorescence. Best extracts were further assessed against other HCC cell lines HepG2, PLC/PRF/5 and SNU-182 and their toxicity measured in vitro on primary human hepatocytes. Ethnopharmacological survey: Some of the species collected had a high reputation spreading over the surveyed locations for treating liver problems, i.e. Baccharis genistelloides, Bejaria aestuans, Centaurium pulchellum, Desmodium molliculum, Dipsacus fullonum, Equisetum bogotense, Gentianella spp., Krameria lapacea, Otholobium spp., Schkuhria pinnata, Taraxacum officinale. Hep3B evaluation: Fourteen extracts from 13 species (Achyrocline alata, Ambrosia arborescens, Baccharis latifolia, Hypericum laricifolium, Krameria lappacea, Niphidium crassifolium, Ophryosporus chilca, Orthrosanthus chimboracensis, Otholobium pubescens, Passiflora ligularis, Perezia coerulescens, Perezia multiflora and Schkuhria pinnata) showed a significant antiproliferative activity against Hep3B cells (IC50≤ 50µg/mL). This was associated with a lack of toxicity on primary

  11. Emodin inhibits the growth of hepatoma cells: finding the common anti-cancer pathway using Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Mu; Hsu, Yu-An; Tsai, Yuhsin; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Huang, Su-Hua; Wan, Lei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2010-02-19

    Emodin--a major component of Rheum palmatum L.-exerts antiproliferative effects in cancer cells that are regulated by different signaling pathways. Hepatocellular carcinoma has high-incidence rates and is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of emodin on human hepatocarcinoma cell viability and investigate its mechanisms of action in Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells. To define the molecular changes associated with this process, expression profiles were compared in emodin-treated hepatoma cells by cDNA microarray hybridization, quantitative RT-PCRs, and Western blot analysis. G2/M phase arrest was observed in all 3 cell lines. Cell cycle regulatory gene analysis showed increased protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, Chk2, Cdk2, and P27 in hepatoma cells after time courses of emodin treatment, and Western blot analysis showed decreased protein levels of Cdc25c and P21. Microarray expression profile data and quantitative PCR revealed that 15 representative genes were associated with emodin treatment response in hepatoma cell lines. The RNA expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GDF15, SERPINE1, SOS1, RASD1, and MRAS were upregulated and those of NR1H4, PALMD, and TXNIP were downregulated in all three hepatoma cells. Moreover, at 6h after emodin treatment, the levels of GDF15, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYR61 were upregulated. Here, we show that emodin treatment caused G2/M arrest in liver cancer cells and increased the expression levels of various genes both in mRNA and protein level. It is likely that these genes act as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  12. Lin28/let-7/Bcl-xL pathway: the underlying mechanism of drug resistance in Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Nan; Han, Ziwu; Li, Zhaohui; Zhou, Mingjie; Fan, Chunlei

    2014-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, which markedly reduces the effect of chemotherapy. Lin28 has been shown to contribute to tumor relapse after chemotherapy; however, the relationship between Lin28 and chemotherapy drug resistance is unknown. In the present study, we established a drug-resistant Hep3B cell line to investigate the association between Lin28 and drug resistance in HCC, and we identified the underlying mechanisms. We found that the expression of Lin28 was closely associated with resistance to paclitaxel. The drug‑resistant Hep3B cell line, which expresses high levels of Lin28, is more resistant to paclitaxel and other anticancer drugs than the parental cell line. Moreover, further studies showed that dysregulation of Lin28 inhibited let-7 family microRNA levels and upregulated the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL, which is a target of let-7. Our results indicate that the Lin28/let-7/Bcl-xL pathway underlies the drug resistance of Hep3B cells.

  13. Pharmacological evaluation of several major ingredients of Chinese herbal medicines in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, C C; Pan, S L; Teng, C M; Guh, J H

    2003-08-01

    Long-dan-tan (Chinese name) is one of the most common herbal medicines used by Chinese people with chronic liver disease. Accumulated anecdotal evidence suggests that Long-dan-tan may show a beneficial effect in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Long-dan-tan is made from five plants: Gentiana root, Scutellaria root, Gardenia fruit, Alisma rhizome, and Bupleurum root. In this study, we have examined the cytotoxic effects of the five major ingredients isolated from the above plants, i.e. gentiopicroside, baicalein, geniposide, alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d, respectively, on human hepatoma Hep3B cells. Annexin V immunofluorescence detection, DNA fragmentation assays and FACScan analysis of propidium iodide-staining cells showed that gentiopicroside, baicalein, and geniposide had little effect, whereas alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d profoundly induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells. Alisol B acetate, but not saikosaponin-d, induced G2/M arrest of the cell cycle as well as a significant increase in caspase-3 activity. Interestingly, baicalein by itself induced an increase in H(2)O(2) generation and the subsequent NF-kappaB activation; furthermore, it effectively inhibited the transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1))-induced caspase-3 activation and cell apoptosis. We suggest that alisol B acetate and saikosaponin-d induced cell apoptosis through the caspase-3-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively. Instead of inducing apoptosis, baicalein inhibits TGF-beta(1)-induced apoptosis via increase in cellular H(2)O(2) formation and NF-kappaB activation in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

  14. The targeted inhibition of mitochondrial Hsp90 overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Chunlan; Oh, Joon Seok; Yoo, Seung Hee; Lee, Jee Suk; Yoon, Young Geol; Oh, Yoo Jin; Jang, Min Seok; Lee, Sang Yeob; Yang, Jun; Lee, Sang Hwa; Kim, Hye Young; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that a Gamitrinib variant containing triphenylphosphonium (G-TPP) binds to mitochondrial Hsp90 and rapidly inhibits its activity, thus inducing the apoptotic pathway in the cells. Accordingly, G-TPP shows a potential as a promising drug for the treatment of cancer. A cell can die from different types of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, and autophagic cell death. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms and modes of cell death in the G-TPP-treated Hep3B and U937 cell lines. We discovered that G-TPP kills the U937 cells through the apoptotic pathway and the overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly inhibits U937 cell death to G-TPP. We further discovered that G-TPP kills the Hep3B cells by activating necroptosis in combination with the partial activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, G-TPP overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. We also observed that G-TPP induces compensatory autophagy in the Hep3B cell line. We further found that whereas there is a Bcl-2-Beclin 1 interaction in response to G-TPP, silencing the beclin 1 gene failed to block LC3-II accumulation in the Hep3B cells, indicating that G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent protective autophagy in Hep3B cells. Taken together, these data reveal that G-TPP induces cell death through a combination of death pathways, including necroptosis and apoptosis, and overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. These findings are important for the therapeutic exploitation of necroptosis as an alternative cell death program to bypass the resistance to apoptosis. Highlights: ► G-TPP binds to mitochondrial Hsp90. ► G-TPP induces apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cancer cells. ► G-TPP induces combination of death pathways in Hep3B cell. ► G-TPP overcomes the resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. ► G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent

  15. Artesunate induces ROS-dependent apoptosis via a Bax-mediated intrinsic pathway in Huh-7 and Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yilin; Qin, Guiqi; Wu, Liping; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2016-10-01

    Artesunate (ARS), an artemisinin derivative, has been demonstrated to possess antitumor activity in various human tumor cells. This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism by which ARS induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Huh-7 and Hep3B cells). ARS effectively induced externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS), depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and activation of caspase-9 and 3, characteristics of the intrinsic apoptosis. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-Acetyle-Cysteine (NAC) completely blocked ARS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in the two cell lines. ARS increased cellular iron ions level in Huh-7/Hep3B cells, but decreased cellular iron ions level in HepG2 cells. Pifithrin-alpha (PFT), an inhibitor of p53, significantly enhanced ARS-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, and the forced expression of wild-type p53 significantly enhanced ARS-induced cytotoxicity in Hep3B cells. In addition, ARS induced translocation and activation of the proapoptotic Bax, and silencing Bax remarkably inhibited ARS-induced apoptosis and ΔΨm collapse in Huh-7 and Hep3B cells, demonstrating the key role of Bax in ARS-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ARS induces ROS-dependent apoptosis via a Bax-mediated intrinsic pathway in Huh-7 and Hep3B cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Blazeispirol A from Agaricus blazei fermentation product induces cell death in human hepatoma Hep 3B cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Su, Zheng-Yuan; Tung, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2011-05-11

    Currently, liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer. Previously, it was reported that blazeispirol A (BA) is the most active antihepatoma compound in an ethanolic extract of Agaricus blazei fermentation product. The aim of this study was to understand the antihepatoma mechanism of BA in human liver cancer Hep 3B cells. The results showed that BA inhibited the growth of Hep 3B cells and increased the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, BA treatment resulted in DNA fragmentation, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activations, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) degradation, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expressions, up-regulation of Bax expression, and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in Hep 3B cells. Furthermore, z-VAD-fmk, a caspase inhibitor, did not enhance the viability of BA-treated Hep 3B cells, and BA induced the release of HtrA2/Omi and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria into the cytosol. These findings suggested that BA with novel chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potentials causes both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death in Hep 3B cells.

  17. Effects of JS-K, a novel anti-cancer nitric oxide prodrug, on gene expression in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ray; Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Huan; Liu, Zhengyun; Liu, Jie; Saavedra, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    JS-K is a novel anticancer nitric oxide (NO) prodrug effective against a variety of cancer cells, including the inhibition of AM-1 hepatoma cell growth in rats. To further evaluate anticancer effects of JS-K, human hepatoma Hep3B cells were treated with JS-K and the compound control JS-43-126 at various concentrations (0-100μM) for 24h, and cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay. The compound control JS-43-126 was not cytotoxic to Hep3B cells at concentrations up to 100μM, while the LC50 for JS-K was about 10μM. To examine the molecular mechanisms of antitumor effects of JS-K, Hep3B cells were treated with 1-10μM of JS-K for 24h, and then subjected to gene expression analysis via real time RT-PCR and protein immunostain via confocal images. JS-K is a GST-α targeting NO prodrug, and decreased immunostaining for GST-α was associated with JS-K treatment. JS-K activated apoptosis pathways in Hep3B cells, including induction of caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and immunostaining for caspase-3 was intensified. The expressions of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were increased by JS-K at both transcript and protein levels. JS-K treatment also increased the expression of differentiation-related genes CD14 and CD11b, and depressed the expression of c-myc in Hep3B cells. Thus, multiple molecular events appear to be associated with anticancer effects of JS-K in human hepatoma Hep3B cells, including activation of genes related to apoptosis and induction of genes involved in antiangiogenesis and tumor cell migration.

  18. Chemopreventive action of Lygodium flexuosum extract in human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B cells.

    PubMed

    Wills, P J; Asha, V V

    2009-03-18

    Lygodium flexuosum (Lygodiaceae), a medicinal fern used in Indian traditional medicine against liver disorders. The rationale of the study was to examine whether the n-hexane extract from plant Lygodium flexuosum affects apoptosis on human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B cells. Chemopreventive activity of the Lygodium flexuosum extract was determined by MTT assay, annexin-V FITC binding to phosphatidyl serine and cleavage of PARP. Subdiploid condition of cells treated with Lygodium flexuosum was analyzed by flow cytometry. Further, used transiently transfected NF-kappaB reporter in PLC/PRF/5 cells to evaluate the inhibitive effect of Lygodium flexuosum extract. Lygodium flexuosum extract inhibited the cell viability and induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells in a concentration dependent manner as evidenced by apoptotic changes such as flipping of phosphatidyl serine, cleavage of PARP. Cell cycle analysis showed the subG1 apoptotic population in cells treated with higher concentrations of the extract. When activated with exogenous TNF-alpha in transfected hepatoma cells it was observed that NF-kappaB dependent gene expression was inhibited by treatment with Lygodium flexuosum extract in PLC/PRF/5 cells dose-dependently. This investigation suggests that the Lygodium flexuosum extract has antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in both cancer cells and has inhibitive role in TNF-alpha induced NF-kappaB activation in PLC/PRF/5 cells confirms the potential of the extract as a chemopreventive agent.

  19. Quinoline-azetidinone hybrids: Synthesis and in vitro antiproliferation activity against Hep G2 and Hep 3B human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Alegaon, S G; Parchure, P; Araujo, L D; Salve, P S; Alagawadi, K R; Jalalpure, S S; Kumbar, V M

    2017-04-01

    In search of new heterocyclic anticancer agents, a new quinoline-azetidinone hybrid template have been designed, synthesized and screened for their cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines such as Hep G2, and Hep 3B by the MTT assay and results were compared with paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin. Interestingly, some of the compounds were found significantly active against both cell lines. The compound 6f (IC50=0.04±0.01µM) exhibited potent antiproliferation activity against Hep G2 cell line, and 6j compound (IC50=0.66±0.01µM) demonstrated potent antiproliferation activity against Hep 3B cell line and provide to be more potent as cytotoxic agents than standard drugs. Morphological changes suggest the induction of apoptosis and describe the mechanism of action of these hybrid antitumor agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the transcriptional signature of C/EBPbeta isoforms (LAP/LIP) in Hep3B cells: implication of LIP in pro-survival functions.

    PubMed

    Saint-Auret, Gaëlle; Danan, Jean-Louis; Hiron, Martine; Blache, Céline; Sulpice, Eric; Tendil, Simon; Daveau, Maryvonne; Gidrol, Xavier; Salier, Jean-Philippe

    2011-06-01

    C/EBPbeta is an important mediator of several cellular processes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and survival of hepatic cells. However, a complete catalog of the targets of C/EBPbeta or the mechanism by which this transcription factor regulates certain liver-dependent pathways has not been clearly determined. Two major natural isoforms of this transcription factor exist: the liver-enriched activating protein (LAP) and the liver-enriched inhibitory protein (LIP), a functional LAP antagonist. In this study, we used the opposing transcriptional effects driven by LAP and LIP to determine the genuine C/EBPbeta molecular signature in the Hep3B human hepatoma cell line. We subsequently investigated the role of each of the LAP and LIP isoforms in drug-induced Hep3B cell death. We engineered Hep3B cells with regulated LAP or LIP expression using the Tet-off expression system. The genes that showed inverse regulation by LAP and LIP were identified by cDNA array analysis. The cohort of direct-C/EBPbeta-targets was distinguished from indirect-targets by ChIP-on-chip analysis. We characterized 676 genes by this approach. Among these genes, 39 are novel direct targets of C/EBPbeta. Eleven of these new direct targets are involved in cell survival, suggesting critical roles for LAP/LIP isoforms in this cellular process. Therefore, we examined the effects of LAP and LIP over-expression on cell survival. We show that LIP promotes survival in staurosporine- or taxol-induced Hep3B cell death. Our study provides new molecular and cellular insights into the role of C/EBPbeta in cells of hepatic origin. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Proteins combination on PHBV microsphere scaffold to regulate Hep3B cells activity and functionality: a model of liver tissue engineering system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin Hao; Gan, Seng Keat; Wang, Chi-Hwa; Tong, Yen Wah

    2007-12-01

    The synergistic effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein combinations on Hep3B cell proliferation and functions are studied herein. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) microspheres were covalently conjugated with three types of proteins, collagen (type I), laminin, and fibronectin, using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide cross linkers. Successful conjugations of protein molecules were verified by the presence of nitrogen peaks in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The densities of grafted proteins were quantified using Micro-BCA kit. A human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B, was then cultured in vitro on the ECM proteins-modified microspheres for 2 weeks. Cell proliferation was estimated using MTT method, and two hepatic functions, albumin secretion and P-450 activity, were evaluated using ELISA and EROD assays, respectively. The results indicated that combination of the three ECM proteins on microsphere surfaces has a significant effect on the proliferation of Hep3B cells, thus better mimicking the in vivo environment for liver tissue engineering.

  2. Antiproliferative activity of Humulus lupulus extracts on human hepatoma (Hep3B), colon (HT-29) cancer cells and proteases, tyrosinase, β-lactamase enzyme inhibition studies.

    PubMed

    Cömert Önder, Ferah; Ay, Mehmet; Aydoğan Türkoğlu, Sümeyye; Tura Köçkar, Feray; Çelik, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the antiproliferation of Humulus lupulus extracts on human hepatoma carcinoma (Hep3B) and human colon carcinoma (HT-29) cell lines along with enzyme inhibitory effects of the crude extracts. Potential cell cytotoxicity of six different H. lupulus extracts were assayed on various cancer cells using MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h intervals. Methanol-1 extract has inhibited the cell proliferation with doses of 0.6-1 mg/mL in a time dependent (48 and 72 hours) manner in Hep3B cells with 70% inhibition, while inhibitory effect was not seen in colon cancer cells. Acetone extract has increased the cell proliferation at low doses of 0.1 mg/mL for 72 h in Hep3B cells and 0.1-0.2 mg/mL for 48 and 72 h in HT29 cells. The inhibitory effects of the extracts were compared by relative maximum activity values (V(max)) using proteases such as α-chymotrypsin, trypsin and papain, tyrosinase and β-lactamase (penicillinase).

  3. Inactivated Tianjin strain, a novel genotype of Sendai virus, induces apoptosis in HeLa, NCI-H446 and Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Han, Han; Wang, Bin; Shi, Liying

    2016-07-01

    The Sendai virus strain Tianjin is a novel genotype of the Sendai virus. In previous studies, ultraviolet-inactivated Sendai virus strain Tianjin (UV-Tianjin) demonstrated antitumor effects on human breast cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antitumor effects of UV-Tianjin on the human cervical carcinoma HeLa, human small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 and human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B cell lines, and the possible underlying mechanisms of these antitumor effects. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay revealed that UV-Tianjin treatment inhibited the proliferation of HeLa, NCI-H446 and Hep 3B cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Hoechst and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining indicated that UV-Tianjin induced dose-dependent apoptosis in all three cell lines with the most significant effect observed in the HeLa cell line. In the HeLa cell line, UV-Tianjin-induced apoptosis was further confirmed by the disruption of the mitochondria membrane potential and the activation of caspases, as demonstrated by fluorescent cationic dye and colorimetric assays, respectively. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that UV-Tianjin treatment resulted in significant upregulation of cytochrome c, apoptosis protease activating factor-1, Fas, Fas ligand and Fas-associated protein with death domain, and activated caspase-9, -8 and -3 in HeLa cells. Based on these results, it is hypothesized that UV-Tianjin exhibits anticancer activity in HeLa, NCI-H446 and Hep 3B cell lines via the induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that in the HeLa cell line, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways may be involved in UV-Tianjin-induced apoptosis.

  4. A novel cantharidin analog N-Benzylcantharidinamide reduces the expression of MMP-9 and invasive potentials of Hep3B via inhibiting cytosolic translocation of HuR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Chung, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hee-Jung; Lee, Chang Hyun; Eun, Jae Soon; Han, Young Taek; Choi, Jun-Yong; Kim, So-Yeon; Han, Chang-Woo; Jeong, Han-Sol; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • We examined the inhibition of N-Benzylcantharidinamide on MMP-9-mediated invasion. • Unlike cantharidin, N-Benzylcantharidinamide has very low toxicity on Hep3B cells. • The reduced MMP-9 expression was due to HuR-mediated decrease of mRNA stability. • We suggest N-Benzylcantharidinamide as a novel inhibitor of MMP-9-related invasion. - Abstract: Invasion and metastasis are major causes of malignant tumor-associated mortality. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular events underlying inhibitory effect of N-Benzylcantharidinamide, a novel synthetic analog of cantharidin, on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)-mediated invasion in highly metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. In this investigation, among six analogs of cantharidin, only N-Benzylcantharidinamide has the inhibitory action on MMP-9 expression at non-toxic dose. The MMP-9 expression and invasion of Hep3B cells were significantly suppressed by treatment of N-Benzylcantharidinamide in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 promoter and nuclear levels of NF-κB and AP-1 as the main transcriptional factors inducing MMP-9 expression were not affected by it although the level of MMP-9 mRNA was reduced by treatment of N-Benzylcantharidinamide. Interestingly, the stability of MMP-9 mRNA was significantly reduced by N-Benzylcantharidinamide-treatment. In addition, the cytosolic translocation of human antigen R (HuR), which results in the increase of MMP-9 mRNA stability through interaction of HuR with 3′-untranslated region of MMP-9 mRNA, was suppressed by treatment of N-Benzylcantharidinamide, in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, it was demonstrated, for the first time, that N-Benzylcantharidinamide suppresses MMP-9 expression by reducing HuR-mediated MMP-9 mRNA stability for the inhibition of invasive potential in highly metastatic Hep3B cells.

  5. Paclitaxel-sensitization enhanced by curcumin involves down-regulation of nuclear factor-κB and Lin28 in Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingjie; Li, Zhaohui; Han, Ziwu; Tian, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Although paclitaxel is an effective chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of many tumors, hepatoma cells, in particular, are known to be highly resistant to it. Previously, we discovered that Lin28 was closely associated with resistance to paclitaxel in Hep3B cells. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor, which plays an important role in tumor survival, directly activates Lin28 expression through a binding site on the first intron. Curcumin, a non-toxic anti-inflammatory agent, inhibits NF-κB activity in vitro. In this study, we reported that a combination of curcumin and paclitaxel exhibited synergistic anti-proliferative and pro-apoptosis effects on Hep3B cells, and curcumin down-regulated paclitaxel-induced enhanced expression of Lin28 and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, our results revealed that curcumin reduced Lin28 levels via mechanisms directly mediated by inhibition of NF-κB activity. These mechanism-based observations evidence that curcumin enhances the sensitivity of hepatoma cells to paclitaxe, and strongly support the notion that paclitaxel in combination with curcumin may provide a superior therapeutic index for HCC chemotherapy.

  6. Growing tissue-like constructs with Hep3B/HepG2 liver cells on PHBV microspheres of different sizes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin Hao; Wang, Chi-Hwa; Tong, Yen Wah

    2007-07-01

    In this study, an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used to fabricate poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV, 8% PHV), microspheres as scaffold, to guide liver cell growth. Human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, were cultured in vitro on both the microspheres and polymer films. SEM and optical microscope images showed that multilayer cells were formed among the microspheres to bridge them together and developed into cell-construct aggregates after 1 week of culture. MTT results showed that the cell proliferation on the microspheres was more than two times higher than that on the films after 12 days of culture. The cells seeded on microspheres secreted albumin 2-4 times more than that on the positive control after 1 week of culture, which indicated that this hepatic function was greatly improved by the aggregation of cells on microspheres. Although HepG2 failed to express P-450 activity, this hepatic function was preserved when Hep3B cultured on microspheres. All the results indicated that PHBV microspheres are appropriate scaffolds for liver tissue engineering.

  7. Piper betle leaf extracts induced human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cell death via MAPKs regulating the p73 pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Fang; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2014-12-01

    Extracts of Piper betle leaf (PBLs) are rich in bioactive compounds with potential chemopreventive ability. In this study, Hep3B cells which are p53 null were used to investigate the anti-tumor effect of PBLs in the cell and in the xenograft model. The results revealed that PBLs (0.1 to 1 mg mL(-1)) induced a dose- and time-dependent increase of cell toxicity. The underlying mechanisms as evidenced by flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that PBLs triggered ATM, cAbl, and p73 expressions and activated JNK and p38 pathways that subsequently led to cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. PBLs also inhibited tumor growth in Hep3B-bearing mice via inducing the MAPK-p73 pathway. Our results demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor potential of PBLs, supporting their application as a novel chemopreventive agent for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the future via targeting the p73 pathway.

  8. Proteolysis of integrin alpha5 and beta1 subunits involved in retinoic acid-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S L; Cheng, C C; Shi, Y R; Chiang, C W

    2001-06-26

    Our previous report demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induces detachment and death under serum starvation in several human tumor cell lines. In this study, we examined the influence of cell-extracellular matrix interaction on the ability of ATRA to induce apoptosis. Plating of human hepatoma Hep3B cells onto poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-coated plates in the absence of serum resulted in the acceleration of ATRA-induced apoptosis. In contrast, ATRA-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed by plating cells onto Matrigel-coated plates but not suppressed by culturing onto collagen-, laminin-, vitronectin-, or fibronectin-coated plates. Exogenously added soluble collagen, laminin, fibronectin, vitronectin or Matrigel failed to suppress ATRA-induced apoptosis. Results from the adhesion assay indicated that the cell attachment to fibronectin was significantly inhibited by ATRA. Treatment with perturbing antibody against integrin alpha5 or beta1 subunits resulted in promotion of ATRA-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the proteolytic cleavage of alpha5beta1 integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) proteins is linked to the early phase of the ATRA-induced apoptotic process. Furthermore, ATRA-induced detachment, death, and cleavage of alpha5beta1 integrin and FAK were drastically suppressed by plating cells onto Matrigel-coated plates. These findings provide evidence that abrogation of cell adhesion, through proteolysis of alpha5beta1 integrin and FAK, is closely linked to ATRA-induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells.

  9. The specific recognition of a cell binding sequence derived from type I collagen by Hep3B and L929 cells.

    PubMed

    Khew, Shih Tak; Tong, Yen Wah

    2007-10-01

    In this study, the affinity of two different cell types toward a specific cell binding sequence (Gly-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Glu-Arg or GFOGER) derived from type I collagen using peptide template (PT)-assembled collagen peptides of different triple helicity as a model for natural collagen is examined. A series of biophysical studies, including melting curve analysis and circular dichroism spectroscopy, demonstrated the presence of stable triple-helical conformation in the PT-assembled (GPO)3-GFOGER-(GPO)3, (GPO)-GFOGER-(GPO), and (Pro-Hyp-Gly)5 solution. Conversely, non-templated peptides, except (GPO)3-GFOGER-(GPO)3, showed no evidence of assembly into triple-helical structure. Biological assays, including cell adhesion, competitive inhibition, and immunofluorescence staining, revealed a correlation of triple-helical conformation with the cellular recognition of GFOGER in an integrin-specific manner. The triple helix was shown to be important, but not crucial for cell adhesion to native collagen. Hep3B and L929 cells displayed significant differences in the recognition of GFOGER, mainly because of the differences in their expression of specific integrin receptors for collagen. For example, PT-assembled (GPO)3-GFOGER-(GPO)3 was shown to perform comparably to collagen for L929, but not Hep3B, cell adhesion. The result showed that a specific cell binding motif may not fully mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment, suggesting the need to use a combination of two or more cell binding sequences for targeting a wide range of integrin receptors expressed by a specific cell type to better mimic the ECM.

  10. Oligomeric TTR V30M aggregates compromise cell viability, erythropoietin gene expression and promoter activity in the human hepatoma cell line Hep3B.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Luciana; Beirão, João Melo; Beirão, Idalina; Pinho e Costa, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, ATTRV30M (p. TTRV50M) amyloidosis, is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by systemic extracellular amyloid deposition of a mutant transthyretin, TTR V30M. Anemia, with low erythropoietin (EPO) levels and spared kidney function, affects about 25% of symptomatic patients, suggesting a blockage of EPO-producing cells. Early non-fibrillar TTR aggregates are highly cytotoxic, inducing oxidative stress, the expression of apoptosis-related molecules and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, factors capable of inhibiting EPO production. Low EPO levels in these patients are not related to renal amyloid deposition or the presence of circulating TTR V30M. However, the role of early non-fibrillar TTR aggregates remains unexplored. We used the EPO producing Hep3B human hepatoma cell line to study the effect of TTR oligomeric aggregates on EPO expression. Hep3B cells were incubated with soluble and oligomeric TTR V30M, and cell proliferation as well as caspase 3/7 activation was evaluated. Relative quantification of EPO mRNA transcripts was performed by real-time PCR. Significant reductions in cell viability (13 ± 7.3%) and activation of caspases 3/7 were seen after 24 h in the presence of oligomeric TTR V30M. Also, EPO expression was significantly reduced (50 ± 2.8%), in normoxic conditions. A reporter assay was constructed with a PCR fragment of the EPO promoter linked to the luciferase gene to evaluate the role of transcription factors targeting the promoter. A significant reduction of EPO promoter activity (53 ± 6.5%) was observed in transfected cells exposed to TTR oligomers. Our results show that oligomeric TTR V30M reduces EPO expression, at least in part through inhibition of promoter activity.

  11. A Novel Anti-Hepatitis C Virus and Antiproliferative Agent Alters Metabolic Networks in HepG2 and Hep3B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Adrian; Şenkardeş, Sevil; Idle, Jeffrey R.; Küçükgüzel, Ş. Güniz; Beyoğlu, Diren

    2017-01-01

    A series of novel diflunisal hydrazide-hydrazones has been reported together with their anti-hepatitis C virus and antiproliferative activities in a number of human hepatoma cell lines. However, the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of these agents remain unclear. It was chosen to investigate the lead diflunisal hydrazide-hydrazone, 2′,4′-difluoro-4-hydroxy-N′- [(pyridin-2-yl)methylidene]biphenyl-3-carbohydrazide (compound 3b), in two cultured human hepatoma cell lines—HepG2 and Hep3B—using a metabolomic protocol aimed at uncovering any effects of this agent on cellular metabolism. One sub-therapeutic concentration (2.5 μM) and one close to the IC50 for antimitotic effect (10 μM), after 72 h in cell culture, were chosen for both compound 3b and its inactive parent compound diflusinal as a control. A GCMS-based metabolomic investigation was performed on cell lysates after culture for 24 h. The intracellular levels of a total of 42 metabolites were found to be statistically significantly altered in either HepG2 or Hep3B cells, only eight of which were affected in both cell lines. It was concluded that compound 3b affected the following pathways—purine and pyrimidine catabolism, the glutathione cycle, and energy metabolism through glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Although the metabolomic findings occurred after 24 h in culture, significant cytotoxicity of compound 3b to both HepG2 and Hep3B cells at 10 μM were reported not to occur until 72 h in culture. These observations show that metabolomics can provide mechanistic insights into the efficacy of novel drug candidates prior to the appearance of their pharmacological effect. PMID:28574427

  12. Kinetic modeling and mathematical analysis indicate that acute phase gene expression in Hep 3B cells is regulated by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, S L; Samols, D; Rzewnicki, D; Macintyre, S S; Greber, I; Sipe, J; Kushner, I

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of posttranscriptional mechanisms in the acute phase response, we determined the kinetics of transcription (by nuclear run-on assay) and mRNA accumulation of five human acute phase genes in Hep 3B cells incubated with conditioned medium from LPS-stimulated monocytes. Increase in mRNA accumulation was comparable to increase in transcription rate for fibrinogen-alpha and alpha-1 protease inhibitor, suggesting largely transcriptional regulation. In contrast, mRNA accumulation was about 10-20-fold greater than transcriptional increase for serum amyloid A, C3, and factor B, suggesting participation of posttranscriptional mechanisms. Since finding a disparity between the magnitudes of increase in mRNA and transcription does not definitively establish involvement of posttranscriptional mechanisms, we subjected our data to modeling studies and dynamic mathematical analysis to evaluate this possibility more rigorously. In modeling studies, accumulation curves resembling those observed for these three mRNAs could be generated from the nuclear run-on results only if posttranscriptional regulation was assumed. Dynamic mathematical analysis of relative transcription rates and relative mRNA abundance also strongly supported participation of posttranscriptional mechanisms. These observations suggest that posttranscriptional regulation plays a substantial role in induction of some, but not all acute phase proteins. Images PMID:7883974

  13. Methyl methanesulfonate induces apoptosis in p53-deficient H1299 and Hep3B cells through a caspase 2- and mitochondria-associated pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Sun, Li; Zhang, Guang-Lin; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope; Zhu, Xin-Qiang; Yang, Jun

    2012-11-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) has been shown to induce apoptosis in various cell types through p53-dependent pathways. Nevertheless, pharmacological and genetic blockade of p53 functions results in similar or delayed sensitivity to MMS treatment, suggesting the presence of p53-independent apoptotic mechanisms. To understand the p53-independent mechanisms that are engaged during MMS-induced apoptosis, we established MMS-induced apoptotic cell models using p53-deficient H1299 and Hep3B cells. Our results demonstrated that MMS at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μM induced the formation of gammaH2AX foci, and that at higher concentrations, 400 and 800 μM, MMS treatment led to apoptosis in the two cell lines. This apoptotic cell death was concurrent with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear-cytosolic translocation of active caspase 2, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and the cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 3 and PARP. However, MMS-induced DNA damage failed to stabilize the p53 family members TAp73 and DNp73. These results demonstrated a p53- and p73-independent mechanism for MMS-induced apoptosis that involves the nuclear-cytosolic translocation of active caspase 2 as well as the mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  14. Neferine isolated from Nelumbo nucifera enhances anti-cancer activities in Hep3B cells: molecular mechanisms of cell cycle arrest, ER stress induced apoptosis and anti-angiogenic response.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Soo; Kim, Hwa-Mi; Yadunandam, Anandam Kasin; Kim, Nan-Hee; Jung, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Jae-Sue; Kim, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Gun-Do

    2013-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignant diseases and is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Neferine, a major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from the embryos of Nelumbo nucifera, has been reported a few physiological activities. However, the mechanisms of anticancer effects are not well understood and its detailed activities on Hep3B cells have not been determined. Our results suggest that neferine exhibited cytotoxicity against HCC Hep3B cells, but not against HCC Sk-Hep1 and THLE-3, a normal human liver cell line. In addition, consistent with the induction of G1/S phase cell population in flow cytometry, downregulation of c-Myc, cyclin D1, D3, CDK4, E2F-1, as well as dephosphorlyation of cdc2 by western blot analysis, as evidenced by the appearance of cell cycle arrest, were observed in Hep3B cells treated with neferine. Our results demonstrated neferine induced ER stress and apoptosis, acting through multiple signaling cascades by the activation of Bim, Bid, Bax, Bak, Puma, caspases-3, -6, -7, -8 and PARP, and the protein expression levels of Bip, calnexin, PDI, calpain-2 and caspase-12 were also upregulated dramatically by neferine treatment. Overexpression of GFP-LC3B by neferine resulted in a diffuse cytosolic GFP fluorescence and the strong fluorescent spots, representing autophagosomes. The significant reduction of the migration in Hep3B cells and the capillary tube-like formation of HUVECs by neferine were also determined. These observations reveal that the therapeutic potential of neferine in treating HCC Hep3B cells, containing copies of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Synergistic effects of genetically engineered stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase and interferon-β via their tumor tropism to selectively target human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, B-R; Hwang, K-A; Kang, N-H; Kim, S U; Jeung, E-B; Kim, H-C; Choi, K-C

    2012-09-01

    Stem cells have received a great deal of attention for their clinical and therapeutic potential for treating human diseases and disorders. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) to produce suicide enzymes that convert non-toxic prodrugs to toxic metabolites, selectively migrate toward tumor sites and reduce tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated whether these GESTECs are capable of migrating to hepatocarcinoma cells and examined the potential therapeutic efficacy of gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy against liver cancer cells in cellular and animal models. A modified transwell migration assay was performed to determine the migratory capacity of GESTECs to Hep3B hepatocarcinoma cells. GESTECs, that is, HB1.F3.CD or HB1.F3.CD.interferon-β (IFN-β) cells, engineered to express a suicide gene, cytosine deaminase (CD), selectively migrated toward liver cancer cells. Treatment of Hep3B, human liver cancer cells, with the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) in the presence of HB1.F3.CD or HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β cells resulted in the inhibition of Hep3B cell growth. In a xenografted mouse model injected with hepatocarcinoma, we investigated the therapeutic effect of these stem cells. For 9 weeks, the xenografted mice were treated with HB1.F3.CD or HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β in the presence of 5-FC. A growth of tumor mass was inhibited about 40-50% in the mice treated with GESTECs and a prodrug. In addition, we further confirmed the cytotoxic effect on tumor cells by histological analysis and migratory effect of therapeutic stem cells. Taken together, GESTECs expressing a fusion gene encoding CD and IFN-β may exert a synergistic antitumor effect on this type of tumor.

  16. Resveratrol Differentially Regulates NAMPT and SIRT1 in Hepatocarcinoma Cells and Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Susanne; Penke, Melanie; Gorski, Theresa; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Damm, Georg; Gebhardt, Rolf; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is reported to possess chemotherapeutic properties in several cancers. In this study, we wanted to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as well as the impact of resveratrol on NAMPT and SIRT1 protein function and asked whether there are differences in hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2, Hep3B cells) and non-cancerous primary human hepatocytes. We found a lower basal NAMPT mRNA and protein expression in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to primary hepatocytes. In contrast, SIRT1 was significantly higher expressed in hepatocarcinoma cells than in primary hepatocytes. Resveratrol induced cell cycle arrest in the S- and G2/M- phase and apoptosis was mediated by activation of p53 and caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. In contrast to primary hepatocytes, resveratrol treated HepG2 cells showed a reduction of NAMPT enzymatic activity and increased p53 acetylation (K382). Resveratrol induced NAMPT release from HepG2 cells which was associated with increased NAMPT mRNA expression. This effect was absent in primary hepatocytes where resveratrol was shown to function as NAMPT and SIRT1 activator. SIRT1 inhibition by EX527 resembled resveratrol effects on HepG2 cells. Furthermore, a SIRT1 overexpression significantly decreased both p53 hyperacetylation and resveratrol-induced NAMPT release as well as S-phase arrest in HepG2 cells. We could show that NAMPT and SIRT1 are differentially regulated by resveratrol in hepatocarcinoma cells and primary hepatocytes and that resveratrol did not act as a SIRT1 activator in hepatocarcinoma cells. PMID:24603648

  17. Induction of apoptosis on human hepatocarcinoma cell lines by an alkyl resorcinol isolated from Lithraea molleoides

    PubMed Central

    Barbini, Luciana; Lopez, Paula; Ruffa, Julieta; Martino, Virginia; Ferraro, Graciela; Campos, Rodolfo; Cavallaro, Lucia

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the mechanism of cytotoxicity of a new active 5-alkyl resorcinol [1, 3-dihydroxy-5- (tridec-4’, 7’-dienyl) benzene] isolated from Lithraea molleoides leaves on liver tumor cells. METHODS: Human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B) in culture were treated with inhibitory concentrations, 50% of the compound, for 24 h. The induction of apoptosis was detected in treated cells by analysis of DNA fragmentation, DNA content, and acridine orange and propidium iodide staining. RESULTS: After 24 h of 5-alkyl resorcinol treatment, both cell lines showed: (1) the typical morphological alterations of apoptosis; (2) DNA fragmentation, detected by laddering and appearance of a subG0 population by flow cytometry; and (3) condensed and fragmented nuclei by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, this compound exerts its cytotoxic effect in both hepatocellular cell lines through apoptotic cell death. For Hep3B, cells with mutated p53 and Fas, apoptosis would proceed by p53- or Fas-independent pathways. PMID:17009393

  18. FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK and downregulates mTOR signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Susanne; Penke, Melanie; Gorski, Theresa; Gebhardt, Rolf; Weiss, Thomas S.; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2015-03-06

    Background: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the key enzyme of the NAD salvage pathway starting from nicotinamide. Cancer cells have an increased demand for NAD due to their high proliferation and DNA repair rate. Consequently, NAMPT is considered as a putative target for anti-cancer therapies. There is evidence that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) become dysregulated during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the effects of NAMPT inhibition by its specific inhibitor FK866 on the viability of hepatocarcinoma cells and analyzed the effects of FK866 on the nutrient sensor AMPK and mTOR complex1 (mTORC1) signaling. Results: FK866 markedly decreased NAMPT activity and NAD content in hepatocarcinoma cells (Huh7 cells, Hep3B cells) and led to delayed ATP reduction which was associated with increased cell death. These effects could be abrogated by administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the enzyme product of NAMPT. Our results demonstrated a dysregulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to non-cancerous hepatocytes with a higher expression of mTOR and a lower AMPKα activation in hepatocarcinoma cells. We found that NAMPT inhibition by FK866 significantly activated AMPKα and inhibited the activation of mTOR and its downstream targets p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 in hepatocarcinoma cells. Non-cancerous hepatocytes were less sensitive to FK866 and did not show changes in AMPK/mTOR signaling after FK866 treatment. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings reveal an important role of the NAMPT-mediated NAD salvage pathway in the energy homeostasis of hepatocarcinoma cells and suggest NAMPT inhibition as a potential treatment option for HCC. - Highlights: • FK866 increases cell death in p53-deficient hepatocarcinoma cells. • AMPK/mTOR signaling is dysregulated in hepatocarcinoma cells. • FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK

  19. Differential Antitumoral Properties and Renal-Associated Tissue Damage Induced by Tacrolimus and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors in Hepatocarcinoma: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sheila; Wang, Jize; Aliseda, Sara; Rodríguez-Hernández, María A.; González, Raúl; Marín-Gómez, Luís M.; Gómez-Bravo, Miguel A.; Padillo, Francisco J.; Álamo-Martínez, José M.; Muntané, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the recommended treatment for patients at early stages of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) with potential portal hypertension and/or bilirubinemia, but without vascular-associated diseases. The patients are receiving immunosuppressive therapy to reduce graft rejection, but differential side effects have been related to calcineurin and mTOR inhibitor administration regarding tumor recurrence and nephrotoxicity. The in vitro studies showed that Tacrolimus exerted a more potent pro-apoptotic effect than Everolimus (Huh 7>Hep 3B>HepG2), being sirolimus only active in Hep3B cell line. Tacrolimus and Everolimus exerted potent antiproliferative properties in Huh 7 and Hep3B in which cells Sirolimus was inactive. Interestingly, Tacrolimus- and Everolimus-dependent G0/G1 cell accumulation occurred as a consequence of drastic reduction in S, as well as in S and G2+M phases, respectively. The in vivo studies support data on the more effective antitumoral properties of Everolimus, eventual risk of pro-angiogenic tumoral properties and nephrotoxicity of Tacrolimus, and pro-proliferative properties of Sirolimus in tumors developed in nude mice. PMID:27518575

  20. Anticancer effects of O-desmethylangolensin are mediated through cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jae-In; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, in order to investigate the anticancer effects of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells, we first examined the antiproliferative effect of O-DMA. When Hep3B cells were treated with O-DMA at various concentrations (5-200 µM) for 24, 48 or 72 h, cell proliferation decreased significantly in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, O-DMA exposure at the IC50 concentration for 72 h arrested cells at the G2/M phase, which was accompanied by a reduction in CDK1, and an increase in cyclin A and B. Under the same conditions, O-DMA significantly increased the number of sub-G1 phase cells. Additionally, an Annexin V assay revealed that exposure to O-DMA affected the rate of cell apoptosis. O-DMA caused the downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, which led to cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and activation of caspase-3. Taken together, these data suggest that O-DMA exhibits anticancer activity by arresting the cell cycle at G2/M phase and causing mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in Hep3B cells.

  1. Synergistic activation of serum amyloid A (SAA) by IL-6 and IL-1 in combination on human Hep 3B hepatoma cell line. Role of PGE2 and IL-1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Conti, P; Bartle, L; Barbacane, R C; Reale, M; Placido, F C; Sipe, J

    1995-03-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) protein is a major acute phase reactant in human and many other species. Infections and traumatic inflammation are characterized by a rapid increase of SAA; its concentration in the plasma may augment many-fold. Cytokines such as IL-1 and IL-6 are considered mediators of acute phase protein synthesis. The most accredited mechanism of action of IL-1 in inflammatory diseases is the stimulation of PGE2 release, which is highly dependent on the concentration of IL-1. In this study we found that human Hep 3B hepatoma cells treated with the combination of hrIL-6 (10ng/ml) plus hrIL-1 (1ng/ml) produced an augmentation in steady-state levels of SAA mRNA (87%) compared to hrIL-6 (10ng/ml) plus PGE2 (5 microM), which induced an increase of only 33%, compared to IL-6 alone, while cells treated with hrIL-6 plus PGE2 (0.5 microM) had a similar effect as hrIL-6 did alone. Moreover, the addition of exogenous PGE2 (5 microM) to the cell cultures produced no significant increase in concentration of SAA mRNA compared to the control. In addition, according to the data obtained by the blot analysis we also found, by ELISA method, that hrIL-6 acts in synergism with hrIL-1 on SAA protein secretion in human Hep 3B hepatoma cell cultures after 48 h incubation. In fact, the cell cultures treated with hrIL-6 plus hrIL-1 caused a higher release approximately 1.5-4-fold of SAA protein than the cells treated with IL-6 plus PGE2 5 microM or IL-1 + PGE2 5 microM, respectively. The synergistic effect of hrIL-6 plus hrIL-1 beta was inhibited by hrIL-1 receptor antagonist (hrIL-1ra) 50 micrograms/ml, a protein which specifically binds to the IL-1 receptor and is structurally similar to IL-1 beta but with no IL-1-like activity; while indomethacin (5 microM) was ineffective. These results strongly suggest that the synergism between hrIL-6 plus hrIL-1 on the transcription and the protein release of SAA release is not due to a PGE2-dependent process in human Hep 3B hepatoma cells

  2. Raf/ERK/Nrf2 signaling pathway and MMP-7 expression involvement in the trigonelline-mediated inhibition of hepatocarcinoma cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jung Chun; Lee, Kun Tsung; You, Bang Jau; Lee, Chia Lin; Chang, Wen Te; Wu, Yang Chang; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2015-01-01

    Background Trigonelline occurs in many dietary food plants and has been found to have anti-carcinogenic activity. Trigonelline is also found in coffee which is one of the most widely consumed beverages. Many epidemiological studies have reported that coffee consumption has an inverse relationship with the risk of cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. It would be interesting to investigate whether trigonelline is an ideal chemoprevent agent to prevent cancer progression. Methods The protein expression was performed by western blotting. The trigonelline content in snow pea (Pisum sativum) was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The migratory activity of human hepatocarcinoma cells (Hep3B) was assessed by using a wound migration assay. The percentage of each phase in the cell cycle was analyzed on a FACScan flow cytometer. Gene expression was detected by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction techniques. Native gel analysis was performed to analyze the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Results According to the data of HPLC analysis, P. sativum, which is a popular vegetable, has relatively high content of trigonelline. Our findings suggest that trigonelline is an efficient compound for inhibiting Hep3B cell migration. Trigonelline inhibited the migration of hepatoma cells at concentrations of 75–100 µM without affecting proliferation. Raf/ERK/Nrf2 protein levels and further downstream antioxidative enzymes activity, such as SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, significantly decreased after treatment with 100 µM of trigonelline for 24 h. The migration inhibition of trigonelline is also related to its ability to regulate the matrix metalloproteinases 7 (MMP-7) gene expression. Conclusions In this study, protein kinase Cα (PKCα) and Raf/ERK/Nrf2 signaling pathway and MMP-7 gene expression were involved in the trigonelline-mediated migration inhibition of Hep3B cells. We also

  3. Cytotoxic, apoptotic, and sensitization properties of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep on human liver cancer HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh Quan; Iscache, Anne Laure; Pham, Quoc Long; Gairin, Jean Edouard

    2016-04-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. A very poor prognosis and a lack of effective treatments make liver cancer a major public health problem, notably in less developed regions, particularly in eastern Asia. This fully justifies the search of new molecules and therapeutic strategies against HCC. Ent-kaurane diterpenoids are natural compounds displaying a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects including anticancer activity. In this study, we analyzed the pharmacological properties of a family of ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep in human HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines, used as cellular reference models for in vitro evaluation of new molecules active on HCC. A structure-related cytotoxicity was observed against both HCC cell lines, enlighting the role of the 16-en-15-one skeleton of ent-kaurane diterpenoids. Cytotoxicity was closely correlated to apoptosis, evidenced by concentration-dependent subG1 cell accumulation, and increased annexin V expression. In addition, subtoxic concentration of ent-kaurane diterpenoid dramatically enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to doxorubicin. All together, our data bring strong support to the potential interest of ent-kaurane diterpenoids, alone or in combination with a cytotoxic agent, in cancer and more precisely against HCC.

  4. Synthesis of platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes with 9,9-dihexyl-4,5-diazafluorene and their in vivo antitumour activity against Hep3B xenografted mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q-W; Lam, P-L; Wong, R S-M; Cheng, G Y-M; Lam, K-H; Bian, Z-X; Ho, C-L; Feng, Y-H; Gambari, R; Lo, Y-H; Wong, W-Y; Chui, C-H

    2016-11-29

    Two complexes dichloro(9,9-dihexyl-4,5-diazafluorene)platinum(II) (Pt-DHF) and dichloro(9,9-dihexyl-4,5-diazafluorene)palladium(II) (Pd-DHF) were synthesized and their in vivo antitumour activity was investigated using an athymic nude mice model xenografted with human Hep3B carcinoma cells. Pt-DHF- and Pd-DHF-treated groups showed significant tumour growth inhibition (with about 9-fold and 3-fold tumour growth retardation) when compared with the vehicle control group. The liver toxicology effects on the animals of the two compounds were investigated. Pt-DHF and Pd-DHF-treated groups had a lower alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase values than those of the vehicle treated group as the animals from the vehicle control group had very heavy hepatoma burden. We assume that both complexes could be further investigated as effective antitumour agents and it is worthwhile to study their underlying working mechanism.

  5. Mycotoxins’ Activity at Toxic and Sub-Toxic Concentrations: Differential Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Single and Combined Administration of Sterigmatocystin, Ochratoxin A and Citrinin on the Hepatocellular Cancer Cell Line Hep3B

    PubMed Central

    Αnninou, Nikolia; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Papachristou, Fotini; Pitiakoudis, Μichail; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Food safety organizations indicate the likelihood of constant human and animal exposure to mycotoxin mixtures as a possible negative public health impact. Risk assessment demonstrates that certain mycotoxins of Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. are toxic and hold a significant genotoxic efficacy at nanomolar concentrations. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential cytogenetic effects of sterigmatocystin (STER), ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN) alone or in combination, at pM to μΜ concentrations, on the human hepatocellular cancer cell line Hep3B. MTT reduction, mitotic divisions, cell cycle delays and sister chromatid exchange rates (SCE) were determined as endpoints of metabolic activity, cytotoxicity, cytostaticity, and genotoxicity, respectively. All mycotoxin treatments induce SCE rates from 10−12 M, while their cytotoxic and cytostatic potential varies. In PRI and MI assays, but not at MTT, STER alone or in combination with OTA + CTN appeared cytostatic and cytotoxic, even at 10−12 M, while CTN alone and all other combinations displayed substantial cellular survival inhibition in doses ≥ 10−8 M. Co-administration of STER + OTA or STER + CTN in concentrations ≤ 10−1 M, increased the MI and MTT activity, while it did not affect the PRI. Mycotoxin co-treatments revealed in general similar-to-additive or antagonistic genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. Our results for the first time describe that STER alone or in combination with OTA and/or CTN share a cytotoxic and cytogenetic potential even at picoMolar concentrations on human hepatoma cells in vitro. PMID:24514428

  6. [Chemoembolization of hepatocarcinoma: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Fava, Mario; Meneses, Luis; González, Robinson; Loyola, Soledad

    2008-04-01

    Chemoembolization is a therapeutic alternative for those patients with hepatocarcinoma that cannot be excised surgically or that are waiting a liver allograft. We report two patients with hepatocarcinoma who were subjected to chemoembolization. A 65 years old male with a chronic liver disease and right lobe hepatocarcinoma, waiting for a liver transplantation, was subjected to two sessions, of chemoembolization four weeks apart. A magnetic resonance showed a 80% reduction of tumor volume one month later. A 72 years old diabetic male with an alcoholic liver disease with two hepatocarcinoma in the right lobe was subjected to two sessions of chemoembolization, separated by four weeks. A magnetic resonance one month later showed the absence of blood flow in both lesions, suggesting complete necrosis.

  7. A PTEN inhibitor displays preclinical activity against hepatocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Augello, Giuseppa; Puleio, Roberto; Emma, Maria Rita; Cusimano, Antonella; Loria, Guido R.; McCubrey, James A.; Montalto, Giuseppe; Cervello, Melchiorre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene is considered a tumor suppressor gene. However, PTEN mutations rarely occur in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whereas heterozygosity of PTEN, resulting in reduced PTEN expression, has been observed in 32–44% of HCC patients. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the small molecule PTEN inhibitor VO-OHpic in HCC cells. VO-OHpic inhibited cell viability, cell proliferation and colony formation, and induced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity in Hep3B (low PTEN expression) and to a lesser extent in PLC/PRF/5 (high PTEN expression) cells, but not in PTEN-negative SNU475 cells. VO-OHpic synergistically inhibited cell viability when combined with PI3K/mTOR and RAF/MEK/ERK pathway inhibitors, but only in Hep3B cells, and significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice bearing xenografts of Hep3B cells. Therefore, we demonstrated for the first time that VO-OHpic inhibited cell growth and induced senescence in HCC cells with low PTEN expression, and that the combination of VO-OHpic with PI3K/mTOR and RAF/MEK/ERK inhibitors resulted in a more effective tumor cell kill. Our findings, hence, provide proof-of-principle evidence that pharmacological inhibition of PTEN may represent a promising approach for HCC therapy in a subclass of patients with a low PTEN expression. PMID:26794644

  8. Traditional Chinese medicine for prevention and treatment of hepatocarcinoma: From bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bing; Wang, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a positive role in the management of hepatocarcinoma. Hepatocarcinoma patients may present Qi-stagnation, damp-heat, blood stasis, Qi-deficiency, Yin-deficiency and other TCM syndromes (Zheng). Modern treatments such as surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and high intensity focus ultrasound treatment would influence the manifestation of TCM syndromes. Herbs with traditional efficacy of tonifying Qi, blood and Yin, soothing liver-Qi stagnation, clearing heat and detoxifying and dissolving stasis, have been demonstrated to be potent to prevent hepatocarcinogenesis. TCM has been widely used in all aspects of integrative therapy in hepatocarcinoma, including surgical resection, liver transplantation, TACE, local ablative therapies and even as monotherapy for middle-advanced stage hepatocarcinoma. Clinical practices have confirmed that TCM is effective to alleviate clinical symptoms, improve quality of life and immune function, prevent recurrence and metastasis, delay tumor progression, and prolong survival time in hepatocarcinoma patients. The effective mechanism of TCM against hepatocarcinoma is related to inducing apoptosis, autophagy, anoikis and cell senescence, arresting cell cycle, regulating immune function, inhibiting metastasis and angiogenesis, reversing drug resistance and enhancing effects of chemotherapy. Along with the progress of research in this field, TCM will contribute more to the prevention and treatment of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:26019736

  9. Phenotypic Characterization Analysis of Human Hepatocarcinoma by Urine Metabolomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qun; Liu, Han; Wang, Cong; Li, Binbing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocarcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers in the world and represents a significant disease burden. Better biomarkers are needed for early detection of HCC. Metabolomics was applied to urine samples obtained from HCC patients to discover noninvasive and reliable biomarkers for rapid diagnosis of HCC. Metabolic profiling was performed by LC-Q-TOF-MS in conjunction with multivariate data analysis, machine learning approaches, ingenuity pathway analysis and receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to select the metabolites which were used for the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC. Fifteen differential metabolites contributing to the complete separation of HCC patients from matched healthy controls were identified involving several key metabolic pathways. More importantly, five marker metabolites were effective for the diagnosis of human HCC, achieved a sensitivity of 96.5% and specificity of 83% respectively, could significantly increase the diagnostic performance of the metabolic biomarkers. Overall, these results illustrate the power of the metabolomics technology which has the potential as a non-invasive strategies and promising screening tool to evaluate the potential of the metabolites in the early diagnosis of HCC patients at high risk and provides new insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:26805550

  10. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid sensitizes hepatocarcinoma cells to artemisinin derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liping; Pang, Yilin; Qin, Guiqi; Xi, Gaina; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and artesunate (ARS), two artemisinin derivatives, have efficacious anticancer activities against human hepatocarcinoma (HCC) cells. This study aims to study the anticancer action of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS), a Ras inhibitor, in HCC cells (Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines). FTS pretreatment significantly enhanced DHA/ARS-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, Bak/Bax activation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-8 and -9 activations, characteristics of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis. Pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK (caspase-8 inhibitor) potently prevented the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS, and pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) significantly inhibited the loss of ΔΨm induced by DHA/ARS treatment or the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS in HCC cells. Furthermore, silencing Bak/Bax modestly but significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS. Interestingly, pretreatment with an antioxidant N-Acetyle-Cysteine (NAC) significantly prevented the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA and FTS instead of the combination treatment of ARS and FTS, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) played a key role in the anticancer action of the combination treatment of DHA and FTS. Similar to FTS, DHA/ARS also significantly prevented Ras activation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that FTS potently sensitizes Huh-7 and HepG2 cells to artemisinin derivatives via accelerating the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. PMID:28182780

  11. Mobile phone radiation alters proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Elcin; Guler, Goknur; Kismali, Gorkem; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of intermittent exposure (15 min on, 15 min off for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h, at a specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg) to enhanced data rates for global system for mobile communication evolution-modulated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at 900- and 1,800-MHz frequencies on the viability of the Hepatocarcinoma cells (Hep G2). Hep G2 cell proliferation was measured by a colorimetric assay based on the cleavage of the tetrazolium salt WST-1 by mitochondrial dehydrogenases in viable cells. Cell injury was evaluated by analyzing the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose released from lysed cells into the culture medium. Morphological observation of the nuclei was carried out by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining using fluorescence microscopy. In addition, TUNEL assay was performed to confirm apoptotic cell death. It was observed that cell viability, correlated with the LDH and glucose levels, changed according to the frequency and duration of RFR exposure. Four-hour exposure produced more pronounced effects than the other exposure durations. 1,800-MHz RFR had a larger impact on cell viability and Hep G2 injury than the RFR at 900 MHz. Morphological observations also supported the biochemical results indicating that most of the cells showed irregular nuclei pattern determined by using the DAPI staining, as well as TUNEL assay which shows DNA damage especially in the cells after 4 h of exposure to 1,800-MHz RFR. Our results indicate that the applications of 900- and 1,800-MHz (2 W/kg) RFR cause to decrease in the proliferation of the Hep G2 cells after 4 h of exposure. Further studies will be conducted on other frequency bands of RFR and longer duration of exposure.

  12. Iron depletion enhances the effect of sorafenib in hepatocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Urano, Shinichi; Ohara, Toshiaki; Noma, Kazuhiro; Katsube, Ryoichi; Ninomiya, Takayuki; Tomono, Yasuko; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Fumiaki; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Matsukawa, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2016-06-02

    ABSTACT Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to have a poor prognosis. Sorafenib, a molecular targeted drug, is most commonly used for HCC treatment. However, its effect on HCC is limited in clinical use and therefore new strategies regarding sorafenib treatment are required. Iron overload is known to be associated with progression of chronic hepatitis and increased risk of HCC. We previously reported that iron depletion inhibited cancer cell proliferation and conversely induced angiogenesis. Indeed iron depletion therapy including iron chelator needs to be combined with anti-angiogenic drug for its anti-cancer effect. Since sorafenib has an anti-angiogenic effect by its inhibitory targeting VEGFR, we hypothesized that sorafenib could complement the anti-cancer effect of iron depletion. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between the efficacy of sorafenib and serum iron-related markers in clinical HCC patients. In clinical cases, overall survival was prolonged in total iron binding capacity (TIBC) high- and ferritin low-patients. This result suggested that the low iron-pooled patients, who could have a potential of more angiogenic properties in/around HCC tumors, could be adequate for sorafenib treatment. We determined the effect of sorafenib (Nexavar®) and/or deferasirox (EXJADE®) on cancer cell viability, and on cell signaling of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 and HLE cells. Both iron depletion by deferasirox and sorafenib revealed insufficient cytotoxic effect by each monotherapy, however, on the basis of increased angiogenesis by iron depletion, the addition of deferasirox enhanced anti-proliferative effect of sorafenib. Deferasirox was confirmed to increase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion into cellular supernatants by ELISA analysis. In in vivo study sorafenib combined with deferasirox also enhanced sorafenib-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that sorafenib combined with deferasirox could be a novel combination

  13. Evaluation of anti-hepatocarcinoma capacity of puerarin nanosuspensions against human HepG2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Puerarin (Pue), a major active ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine Gegen, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Pue nanosuspension (Pue-NS) composed of Pue and poloxamer 188 was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Pue-NS relative to efficacy of bulk Pue were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Pue-NS were 218.5 nm and -18.8 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Pue-NS effectively inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the corresponding IC50 values of Pue-NS and bulk Pue were 3.39 and 5.73 μg/ml. These results suggest that the delivery of Pue-NS is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  14. N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IVa regulates metastatic potential of mouse hepatocarcinoma cells through glycosylation of CD147.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianhui; Wang, Shujing; Yu, Shengjin; He, Jingna; Zheng, Weilong; Zhang, Jianing

    2012-08-01

    N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT)-IV a is a key enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the GlcNAC β1-4 branch on the core structure of complex N-Glycans, which is the common substrate for other N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, such as GnT-III and GnT-V. Our recent study indicates that the expression of GnT-IVa in Hca-F cells was much higher than that in Hepa1-6 cells, these two mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines have high and no metastatic potential in lymph nodes respectively. To investigate the effects of GnT-IVa on the metastasis of hepatocarcinoma, exogenous GnT-IVa was introduced into Hepa1-6 cells, and on the other hand, the expression of GnT-IVa was down-regulated in Hca-F cells. The engineered overexpression of GnT-IVa in Hepa1-6 cells increased the antennary branches of complex N-glycans and reduced bisecting branches in vitro and in vivo, which leads to the increase in migration and metastatic capability of hepatocarcinoma cells. Conversely, down-regulated expression of GnT-IVa in Hca-F cells showed reduced tetra-antennary branches of N-Glycans, and significantly decreased the migration and metastatic capability. Furthermore, we found that the regulated GnT-IVa converts the heterogeneous N-glycosylated forms of CD147 in Hepa1-6 and Hca-F cells, and significantly changed the antennary oligosaccharide structures on CD147. These results suggest that GnT-IVa could be acting as a key role in migration and metastasis of mouse hepatocarcinoma cells through altering the glycosylation of CD147. These findings should be valuable in delineating the important function of GnT-IVa during the process of hepatocarcinoma growth and metastasis.

  15. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Lidocaine on Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jurj, Ancuta; Tomuleasa, Ciprian; Tat, Tiberiu T; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Vesa, Stefan V; Ionescu, Daniela C

    2017-03-01

    It is now well documented that certain anesthetic techniques may influence long term outcome in cancer patients undergoing surgery. More recently, local anesthetics proved certain antiproliferative effects in cancer cells. In our study, we aimed to investigate if lidocaine has antiproliferative effects in human hepatocarcinoma cells and to identify possible mechanisms of these effects. We investigated the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of lidocaine on the proliferation of cultured HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells and LX2 normal liver fibroblasts. Cells were exposed to nine different concentrations of lidocaine for 72h. MTT assay was used to investigate HepG2 and LX2 proliferation while Western blotting was used for detection of p53 expression level. Our data showed that lidocaine inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner in both HepG2 and LX2. The antiproliferative effects of lidocaine in LX2 were significantly diminished as compared with those in HepG2 (p< 0.001). Similarly, the expression level of p53 was significant decreased in HepG2 lines treated with lidocaine as compared with control and LX2 (p = 0.0241). In clinically relevant concentrations, lidocaine had significant antiproliferative effects on human hepatocarcinoma cells. These effects were time and dose-dependent. One of the possible mechanisms of these effects is by modifying the P53 expression level. The relevance of these findings in clinical practice is limited; clinical impact of these effects on the outcome of patients with hepatocarcinoma undergoing surgery or minimal invasive procedures needs to be demonstrated in future animal models and clinical studies.

  16. Intracellular delivery of cytochrome c by galactosylated albumin to hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzyy-Harn; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Shen, Li-Jiuan

    2014-07-01

    In some cancer cells, translocation of cytochrome c (Cyt c) from mitochondria to the cytoplasma is inhibited. This inhibition prevents cells from undergoing apoptotic cell death and can lead to uncontrolled cell growth. Increasing cytoplasmic concentration of Cyt c can induce apoptosis in cancer cells as a strategy of cancer therapy. Here we proposed a galactosylated albumin based carrier for intracellular delivery of Cyt c to hepatocarcinoma cells. Galactosylated albumin is recognized by highly expressed asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) on hepatocarcinoma cells and is further internalized into cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. Cyt c was chemically conjugated to galactosylated albumin with a reducible disulfide linker in order to release Cyt c from the carrier inside cells. We tested cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Cyt c conjugates in ASGPR positive and negative hepatocarcinoma cells. The results showed galatosylated albumin significantly increased cellular uptake in both cell types resulting in cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner through the induction of apoptosis. The lack of ASGPR specific uptake might be due to other carbohydrate-recognizing receptors expressed on tumor cells. In general, our work has shown that intracellular delivery of Cyt c to tumor cells can be an alternative therapeutic approach and galactosylated albumin can be a protein drug carrier for intracellular delivery.

  17. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of resveratrol nanoethosomes against human HepG2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Resveratrol (Res) has been widely investigated with its strong anti-tumor activity. However, its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this study, we prepared resveratrol nanoethosomes (ResN) via ethanol injection method. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of ResN relative to efficacy of bulk Res were evaluated on proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 cells. ResN were spherical vesicles and its particle diameter, zeta potential were (115.8 +/- 1.3) nm and (-12.8 +/- 1.9) mV, respectively. ResN exhibited significant inhibitory effects against human HepG2 cells by MTT assay, and the IC50 value was 49.2 μg/ml (105.4 μg/ml of Res bulk solution). By flow cytometry assay, there was an increase in G2/M phase cells treated with ResN. The results demonstrated ResN could effectively block the G2/M phase of HepG2 cells, which can also enhance the inhibitory effect of Res against HepG2 cells.

  18. Gene transfer in hepatocarcinoma cell lines: in vitro optimization of a virus-free system.

    PubMed

    Ghoumari, A M; Rixe, O; Yarovoi, S V; Zerrouqi, A; Mouawad, R; Poynard, T; Opolon, P; Khayat, D; Soubrane, C

    1996-06-01

    Many approaches exist for hepatic gene delivery, including viral vectors and non-viral vectors. In this study, we tested a panel of liposomes to transfer pAGO, a plasmid containing one copy of herpes simplex virus (HSVtk) gene, and pYED11, a plasmid containing two copies of the HSVtk gene, into a murine hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hepa 1-6) and a human hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2). The efficiency of gene delivery and expression was characterized by beta-galactosidase staining, flow cytometric analysis and quantitative lacZ activity. Different combinations of liposomes and DNA and the ratio of the concentration of liposome to DNA were tested. The efficient transfer was shown with DOTAP followed by transfectam and lipofectamine. Under these conditions, we tested the cytotoxicity of ganciclovir (GCV) exposure on Hepa 1-6 and Hep-G2 transfected separately with liposome-pAGO and liposome-pYED11 complexes. This study demonstrates the in vitro efficacy of each liposome tested to transduce the HSVtk gene into hepatocarcinoma cell lines. The transfer of two copies of the HSVtk gene rendered cells 1.5 times more sensitive to GCV than cells transduced by pAGO as compared to controls. This was achieved most efficiently by the DOTAP-pYED11 complex. Thus, pYED11 may be considered as an alternative to pAGO as a gene transfer vector.

  19. Multicarotenoids at Physiological Levels Inhibit Metastasis in Human Hepatocarcinoma SK-Hep-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huei-Yan; Yang, Chih-Min; Chen, Jen-Yin; Yueh, Te-Cheng; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that single carotenoid, including lycopene, β-carotene, and α-carotene, exhibits antimetastatic effects; however, little is known whether multicarotenoids have similar effects. Herein, we investigated the antimetastatic effect of multicarotenoids at physiological serum levels in Taiwanese (MCT at 1.4 μM) and American (MCA at 1.8 μM) populations using human hepatocarcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells in comparison with single carotenoid, such as lycopene (0.3 or 0.6 μM, respectively), α-carotene (0.1 μM), β-carotene (0.4 μM), lutein (0.4 or 0.5 μM, respectively), and β-cryptoxanthin (0.2 μM). Results reveal that MCA treatment exhibited an additive inhibition on invasion, migration and adhesion at 24 and 48 h of incubation, whereas MCT treatment possessed additive inhibition at 48 h of incubation. The antimetastatic action of MCT and MCA involved additive reduction on activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and protein expression of Rho and Rac 1 but additive promotion on protein expression of tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and -2. All of these effects were stronger in MCA than in MCT at 24 and 48 h of incubation. These results demonstrate that multi-carotenoids effectively inhibit metastasis of human hepatocarcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells. More in vivo studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. 3D polylactide-based scaffolds for studying human hepatocarcinoma processes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Scaffaro, Roberto; Re, Giada Lo; Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated the combination of leaching techniques and melt blending of polymers and particles for the preparation of highly interconnected three-dimensional polymeric porous scaffolds for in vitro studies of human hepatocarcinoma processes. More specifically, sodium chloride and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used as water-soluble porogens to form porous and solvent-free poly(L,D-lactide) (PLA)-based scaffolds. Several characterization techniques, including porosimetry, image analysis and thermogravimetry, were combined to improve the reliability of measurements and mapping of the size, distribution and microarchitecture of pores. We also investigated the effect of processing, in PLA-based blends, on the simultaneous bulk/surface modifications and pore architectures in the scaffolds, and assessed the effects on human hepatocarcinoma viability and cell adhesion. The influence of PEG molecular weight on the scaffold morphology and cell viability and adhesion were also investigated. Morphological studies indicated that it was possible to obtain scaffolds with well-interconnected pores of assorted sizes. The analysis confirmed that SK-Hep1 cells adhered well to the polymeric support and emitted surface protrusions necessary to grow and differentiate three-dimensional systems. PEGs with higher molecular weight showed the best results in terms of cell adhesion and viability.

  1. [Effects of resveratrol on apoptosis and ROS production in Hepa 1-6 hepatocarcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Du, Qin; Shen, Ke-Ping; Hu, Bing; Deng, Shan

    2012-03-01

    To observe the effects of resveratrol on apoptosis and ROS production in murine hepatocarcinoma Hepa 1-6 cells in vitro. Hepa 1-6 cells were treated with different dose of resveratrol (20 micromol/L, 40 micromol/L, 80 micromol/L). Cell proliferation was detected with MTT assay at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to visualize apoptotic morphology. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis. Activated caspase-3 was detected by western blot. Intracellular ROS production was observed by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) staining. Compared with the control, upon treatment with 20-80 micromol/L resveratrol for 24 h, 48 h or 72 h, the proliferation of Hepa 1-6 cells was significantly inhibited in a time-dose dependent manner. 20-80 micromol/L resveratrol also induced apoptosis and apoptotic morphology change in Hepa 1-6 cells accompanied with caspase-3 activation and ROS generation. Resveratrol could inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis in murine hepatocarcinoma Hepa 1-6 cells, and the mechanism may associated with caspase-3 activation and ROS production.

  2. Induction of apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro by psoralen from Psoralea corylifolia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongyong; Xiong, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Psoralen is a major active component of Psoralea corylifolia. In the present study, we analyzed psoralen-induced changes in human hepatocarcinoma cell viability and apoptosis, and investigated the underlying mechanisms of the proapoptotic effect of the compound on SMMC-7721 cells. We measured human hepatocarcinoma cell viability by MTT assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, and evaluated the activity of caspase 3 and the expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 proteins, involved in regulating cell apoptosis. Psoralen was able to inhibit the growth of SMMC-7721 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and had a strong proapoptotic effect on these cells. We show a dose-dependent increase in caspase-3 activity, and elevated levels of p53 and Bax proteins in psoralen-treated cells, that coincided with dose-dependent decrease in Bcl-2 expression. These results suggest that psoralen induces apoptosis in cancer cells via mechanisms that involve caspase-3, p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 pathway. Our results may provide a molecular basis for the further development of natural compounds as novel anticancer agents for human hepatomas.

  3. 3D polylactide-based scaffolds for studying human hepatocarcinoma processes in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffaro, Roberto; Lo Re, Giada; Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated the combination of leaching techniques and melt blending of polymers and particles for the preparation of highly interconnected three-dimensional polymeric porous scaffolds for in vitro studies of human hepatocarcinoma processes. More specifically, sodium chloride and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used as water-soluble porogens to form porous and solvent-free poly(L,D-lactide) (PLA)-based scaffolds. Several characterization techniques, including porosimetry, image analysis and thermogravimetry, were combined to improve the reliability of measurements and mapping of the size, distribution and microarchitecture of pores. We also investigated the effect of processing, in PLA-based blends, on the simultaneous bulk/surface modifications and pore architectures in the scaffolds, and assessed the effects on human hepatocarcinoma viability and cell adhesion. The influence of PEG molecular weight on the scaffold morphology and cell viability and adhesion were also investigated. Morphological studies indicated that it was possible to obtain scaffolds with well-interconnected pores of assorted sizes. The analysis confirmed that SK-Hep1 cells adhered well to the polymeric support and emitted surface protrusions necessary to grow and differentiate three-dimensional systems. PEGs with higher molecular weight showed the best results in terms of cell adhesion and viability.

  4. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2014-12-30

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations < 75 µg/mL) or even protected cells from basal death (P. putumayoense) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In every case, cytotoxicity was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results provide evidence for the anticancer activities of the studied plants on specific cell lines and suggest that cell killing could be mediated by ROS, thus involving mechanisms independent of the plants free radical scavenging activities. Results also support the use of these extracts of the Vismia and Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma.

  5. Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, induces formation of stress granules in hepatocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Adjibade, Pauline; St-Sauveur, Valérie Grenier; Huberdeau, Miguel Quevillon; Fournier, Marie-Josée; Savard, Andreanne; Coudert, Laetitia; Khandjian, Edouard W.; Mazroui, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic RNA multimeric bodies that form under stress conditions known to inhibit translation initiation. In most reported stress cases, the formation of SGs was associated with the cell recovery from stress and survival. In cells derived from cancer, SGs formation was shown to promote resistance to either proteasome inhibitors or 5-Fluorouracil used as chemotherapeutic agents. Despite these studies, the induction of SGs by chemotherapeutic drugs contributing to cancer cells resistance is still understudied. Here we identified sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat hepatocarcinoma, as a potent chemotherapeutic inducer of SGs. The formation of SGs in sorafenib-treated hepatocarcionoma cells correlates with inhibition of translation initiation; both events requiring the phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α. Further characterisation of the mechanism of sorafenib-induced SGs revealed PERK as the main eIF2α kinase responsible for SGs formation. Depletion experiments support the implication of PERK-eIF2α-SGs pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells resistance to sorafenib. This study also suggests the existence of an unexpected complex regulatory balance between SGs and phospho-eIF2α where SGs dampen the activation of the phospho-eIF2α-downstream ATF4 cell death pathway. PMID:26556863

  6. Divergent expression and roles for caveolin-1 in mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines with varying invasive ability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Huimin; Jia Li; Wang Shujing; Wang Hongmei; Chu Haiying; Hu Yichuan; Cao Jun; Zhang Jianing . E-mail: jnzhang@dlmedu.edu.cn

    2006-06-23

    Caveolin-1 is the major component protein of caveolae and associated with a lot of cellular events such as endocytosis, cholesterol homeostasis, signal transduction, and tumorigenesis. The majority of results suggest that caveolin-1 might not only act as a tumor suppressor gene but also a promoting metastasis gene. In this study, the divergent expression and roles of caveolin-1 were investigated in mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines Hca-F, Hca-P, and Hepa1-6, which have high, low, and no metastatic potential in the lymph nodes, as compared with normal mouse liver cell line IAR-20. The results showed that expression of caveolin-1 mRNA and protein along with the amount of caveolae number in Hca-F cells was higher than that in Hca-P cells, but was not detectable in Hepa1-6 cells. When caveolin-1 expression in Hca-F cells was down-regulated by RNAi approach, Hca-F cells proliferation rate in vitro declined and the expression of lymphangiogenic factor VEGFA in Hca-F decreased as well. Furthermore, in vivo implantation assay indicated that reduction of caveolin-1 expression in Hca-F prevented the lymphatic metastasis tumor burden of Hca-F cells in 615 mice. These results suggest that caveolin-1 facilities the lymphatic metastasis ability of mouse hepatocarcinoma cells via regulation tumor cell growth and VEGFA expression.

  7. Hepatocarcinoma-Intestine-Pancreas/Pancreatic Associated Protein (HIP/PAP) Is Expressed and Secreted by Proliferating Ductules as well as by Hepatocarcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Christa, Laurence; Simon, Marie-Thérèse; Brezault-Bonnet, Catherine; Bonte, Eric; Carnot, Françoise; Zylberberg, Hervé; Franco, Dominique; Capron, Frédérique; Roskams, Tania; Bréchot, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatic associated protein (HIP/PAP) gene was identified because of its increased expression in 25% of human hepatocellular carcinoma. HIP/PAP protein, a C-type lectin, binds laminin, acts as an adhesion molecule for hepatocytes, and has also been described as an acute phase secretory protein during acute pancreatitis in humans and rats. We investigated HIP/PAP protein expression in patients with various liver diseases associated with ductular reaction. At the same time, we analyzed patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, and tested HIP/PAP protein levels in sera to establish the pattern of secretion. Our data show that HIP/PAP expression was not restricted to hepatocellular carcinoma, but was also detected in cholangiocarcinoma cells as well as in reactive non-malignant bile ductules. In contrast, HIP/PAP protein expression was undetectable in normal mature hepatocytes, but some ductular cells localized at the interface of portal tracts with parenchyma were HIP/PAP immunoreactive in normal liver. Finally, we present evidence that HIP/PAP serum levels were increased in 21/28 (75%) patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, and in 25/51 (49%) patients with nonmalignant cirrhosis. Altogether, these results suggest that HIP/PAP protein may be implicated in hepatocytic and cholangiolar differentiation and proliferation. PMID:10550309

  8. Spheroid Formation of Hepatocarcinoma Cells in Microwells: Experiments and Monte Carlo Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Tabaei, Seyed R.; Park, Jae Hyeok; Na, Kyuhwan; Chung, Seok; Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of spherical aggregates during the growth of cell population has long been observed under various conditions. We observed the formation of such aggregates during proliferation of Huh-7.5 cells, a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, in a microfabricated low-adhesion microwell system (SpheroFilm; formed of mass-producible silicone elastomer) on the length scales up to 500 μm. The cell proliferation was also tracked with immunofluorescence staining of F-actin and cell proliferation marker Ki-67. Meanwhile, our complementary 3D Monte Carlo simulations, taking cell diffusion and division, cell-cell and cell-scaffold adhesion, and gravity into account, illustrate the role of these factors in the formation of spheroids. Taken together, our experimental and simulation results provide an integrative view of the process of spheroid formation for Huh-7.5 cells. PMID:27571565

  9. Spheroid Formation of Hepatocarcinoma Cells in Microwells: Experiments and Monte Carlo Simulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Kim, Myung Hee; Tabaei, Seyed R; Park, Jae Hyeok; Na, Kyuhwan; Chung, Seok; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    The formation of spherical aggregates during the growth of cell population has long been observed under various conditions. We observed the formation of such aggregates during proliferation of Huh-7.5 cells, a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, in a microfabricated low-adhesion microwell system (SpheroFilm; formed of mass-producible silicone elastomer) on the length scales up to 500 μm. The cell proliferation was also tracked with immunofluorescence staining of F-actin and cell proliferation marker Ki-67. Meanwhile, our complementary 3D Monte Carlo simulations, taking cell diffusion and division, cell-cell and cell-scaffold adhesion, and gravity into account, illustrate the role of these factors in the formation of spheroids. Taken together, our experimental and simulation results provide an integrative view of the process of spheroid formation for Huh-7.5 cells.

  10. Molecular mechanisms underlying antiproliferative and differentiating responses of hepatocarcinoma cells to subthermal electric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bule, María Luisa; Trillo, María Ángeles; Úbeda, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Capacitive Resistive Electric Transfer (CRET) therapy applies currents of 0.4-0.6 MHz to treatment of inflammatory and musculoskeletal injuries. Previous studies have shown that intermittent exposure to CRET currents at subthermal doses exert cytotoxic or antiproliferative effects in human neuroblastoma or hepatocarcinoma cells, respectively. It has been proposed that such effects would be mediated by cell cycle arrest and by changes in the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. The present work focuses on the study of the molecular mechanisms involved in CRET-induced cytostasis and investigates the possibility that the cellular response to the treatment extends to other phenomena, including induction of apoptosis and/or of changes in the differentiation stage of hepatocarcinoma cells. The obtained results show that the reported antiproliferative action of intermittent stimulation (5 m On/4 h Off) with 0.57 MHz, sine wave signal at a current density of 50 µA/mm(2), could be mediated by significant increase of the apoptotic rate as well as significant changes in the expression of proteins p53 and Bcl-2. The results also revealed a significantly decreased expression of alpha-fetoprotein in the treated samples, which, together with an increased concentration of albumin released into the medium by the stimulated cells, can be interpreted as evidence of a transient cytodifferentiating response elicited by the current. The fact that this type of electrical stimulation is capable of promoting both, differentiation and cell cycle arrest in human cancer cells, is of potential interest for a possible extension of the applications of CRET therapy towards the field of oncology.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Antiproliferative and Differentiating Responses of Hepatocarcinoma Cells to Subthermal Electric Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bule, María Luisa; Trillo, María Ángeles; Úbeda, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Capacitive Resistive Electric Transfer (CRET) therapy applies currents of 0.4–0.6 MHz to treatment of inflammatory and musculoskeletal injuries. Previous studies have shown that intermittent exposure to CRET currents at subthermal doses exert cytotoxic or antiproliferative effects in human neuroblastoma or hepatocarcinoma cells, respectively. It has been proposed that such effects would be mediated by cell cycle arrest and by changes in the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. The present work focuses on the study of the molecular mechanisms involved in CRET-induced cytostasis and investigates the possibility that the cellular response to the treatment extends to other phenomena, including induction of apoptosis and/or of changes in the differentiation stage of hepatocarcinoma cells. The obtained results show that the reported antiproliferative action of intermittent stimulation (5 m On/4 h Off) with 0.57 MHz, sine wave signal at a current density of 50 µA/mm2, could be mediated by significant increase of the apoptotic rate as well as significant changes in the expression of proteins p53 and Bcl-2. The results also revealed a significantly decreased expression of alpha-fetoprotein in the treated samples, which, together with an increased concentration of albumin released into the medium by the stimulated cells, can be interpreted as evidence of a transient cytodifferentiating response elicited by the current. The fact that this type of electrical stimulation is capable of promoting both, differentiation and cell cycle arrest in human cancer cells, is of potential interest for a possible extension of the applications of CRET therapy towards the field of oncology. PMID:24416255

  12. Effects of MicroRNAs on Fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) Expression in Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Cinzia; Soffientini, Ugo; Piacente, Francesco; Tonetti, Michela G.

    2013-01-01

    Fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) catalyzes the transfer of α1,6-linked fucose to the first N-acetylglucosamine in N-linked glycans (core fucosylation). Increased core fucosylation has been reported during hepatocarcinogenesis, in both cell-associated and secreted proteins. Accordingly, increased core fucosylation of α-fetoprotein and α1-antitrypsin is currently used as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator. The present study provides new evidences that FUT8 can be regulated also through miRNA-mediated mechanisms. Using microRNA/target prediction programs, we identified miR-122 and miR-34a seed regions in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of FUT8. Then we used human and rodents hepatocarcinoma cell lines to evaluate the impact of transfection of miR-122 and miR-34a mimics on FUT8 mRNA and protein levels. This study demonstrated that forced expression of these miRNAs is able to induce a decrease of FUT8 levels and also to affect core fucosylation of secreted proteins. The ability of miR-122 and miR-34a to specifically interact with and regulate the 3′UTR of FUT8 was demonstrated via a luciferase reporter assay. Since miR-122 and miR-34a downregulation is a common feature in spontaneous human hepatocarcinoma, our finding that these miRNAs are able to target FUT8 3′UTR suggests that, together with transcriptional and other post-transcriptional systems, a miRNA-mediated mechanism could also be involved in the increased core fucosylation observed in liver tumors. Moreover, these findings also point out that miRNAs may be widely involved in the regulation of glycosylation machinery. PMID:24130780

  13. Adult Ceramide Synthase 2 (CERS2)-deficient Mice Exhibit Myelin Sheath Defects, Cerebellar Degeneration, and Hepatocarcinomas*

    PubMed Central

    Imgrund, Silke; Hartmann, Dieter; Farwanah, Hany; Eckhardt, Matthias; Sandhoff, Roger; Degen, Joachim; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Sandhoff, Konrad; Willecke, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    (Dihydro)ceramide synthase 2 (cers2, formerly called lass2) is the most abundantly expressed member of the ceramide synthase gene family, which includes six isoforms in mice. CERS2 activity has been reported to be specific toward very long fatty acid residues (C22–C24). In order to study the biological role of CERS2, we have inactivated its coding region in transgenic mice using gene-trapped embryonic stem cells that express lacZ reporter DNA under control of the cers2 promoter. The resulting mice lack ceramide synthase activity toward C24:1 in the brain as well as the liver and show only very low activity toward C18:0–C22:0 in liver and reduced activity toward C22:0 residues in the brain. In addition, these mice exhibit strongly reduced levels of ceramide species with very long fatty acid residues (≥C22) in the liver, kidney, and brain. From early adulthood on, myelin stainability is progressively lost, biochemically accompanied by about 50% loss of compacted myelin and 80% loss of myelin basic protein. Starting around 9 months, both the medullary tree and the internal granular layer of the cerebellum show significant signs of degeneration associated with the formation of microcysts. Predominantly in the peripheral nervous system, we observed vesiculation and multifocal detachment of the inner myelin lamellae in about 20% of the axons. Beyond 7 months, the CERS2-deficient mice developed hepatocarcinomas with local destruction of tissue architecture and discrete gaps in renal parenchyma. Our results indicate that CERS2 activity supports different biological functions: maintenance of myelin, stabilization of the cerebellar as well as renal histological architecture, and protection against hepatocarcinomas. PMID:19801672

  14. Adult ceramide synthase 2 (CERS2)-deficient mice exhibit myelin sheath defects, cerebellar degeneration, and hepatocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Imgrund, Silke; Hartmann, Dieter; Farwanah, Hany; Eckhardt, Matthias; Sandhoff, Roger; Degen, Joachim; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Sandhoff, Konrad; Willecke, Klaus

    2009-11-27

    (Dihydro)ceramide synthase 2 (cers2, formerly called lass2) is the most abundantly expressed member of the ceramide synthase gene family, which includes six isoforms in mice. CERS2 activity has been reported to be specific toward very long fatty acid residues (C22-C24). In order to study the biological role of CERS2, we have inactivated its coding region in transgenic mice using gene-trapped embryonic stem cells that express lacZ reporter DNA under control of the cers2 promoter. The resulting mice lack ceramide synthase activity toward C24:1 in the brain as well as the liver and show only very low activity toward C18:0-C22:0 in liver and reduced activity toward C22:0 residues in the brain. In addition, these mice exhibit strongly reduced levels of ceramide species with very long fatty acid residues (>or=C22) in the liver, kidney, and brain. From early adulthood on, myelin stainability is progressively lost, biochemically accompanied by about 50% loss of compacted myelin and 80% loss of myelin basic protein. Starting around 9 months, both the medullary tree and the internal granular layer of the cerebellum show significant signs of degeneration associated with the formation of microcysts. Predominantly in the peripheral nervous system, we observed vesiculation and multifocal detachment of the inner myelin lamellae in about 20% of the axons. Beyond 7 months, the CERS2-deficient mice developed hepatocarcinomas with local destruction of tissue architecture and discrete gaps in renal parenchyma. Our results indicate that CERS2 activity supports different biological functions: maintenance of myelin, stabilization of the cerebellar as well as renal histological architecture, and protection against hepatocarcinomas.

  15. Dendrosomal curcumin nanoformulation modulate apoptosis-related genes and protein expression in hepatocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Maryam; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Yones; Zarghami, Faraz; Khodi, Samaneh; Mohaghegh, Mina; Sadeghzadeh, Hadi; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-07-25

    The side-effects observed in conventional therapies have made them unpromising in curing Hepatocellular carcinoma; therefore, developing novel treatments can be an overwhelming significance. One of such novel agents is curcumin which can induce apoptosis in various cancerous cells, however, its poor solubility is restricted its application. To overcome this issue, this paper employed dendrosomal curcumin (DNC) was employed to in prevent hepatocarcinoma in both RNA and protein levels. Hepatocarcinoma cells, p53 wild-type HepG2 and p53 mutant Huh7, were treated with DNC and investigated for toxicity study using MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were analyzed using Flow-cytometry and Annexin-V-FLUOS/PI staining. Real-time PCR and Western blot were employed to analyze p53, BAX, Bcl-2, p21 and Noxa in DNC-treated cells. DNC inhibited the growth in the form of time-dependent manner, while the carrier alone was not toxic to the cell. Flow-cytometry data showed the constant concentration of 20μM DNC during the time significantly increases cell population in SubG1 phase. Annexin-V-PI test showed curcumin-induced apoptosis was enhanced in Huh7 as well as HepG2, compared to untreated cells. Followed by treatment, mRNA expression of p21, BAX, and Noxa increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 decreased, and unlike HepG2, Huh7 showed down-regulation of p53. In summary, DNC-treated hepatocellular carcinoma cells undergo apoptosis by changing the expression of genes involved in the apoptosis and proliferation processes. These findings suggest that DNC, as a plant-originated therapeutic agent, could be applied in cancer treatment.

  16. Effects of microRNAs on fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) expression in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Cinzia; Soffientini, Ugo; Piacente, Francesco; Tonetti, Michela G

    2013-01-01

    Fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) catalyzes the transfer of α1,6-linked fucose to the first N-acetylglucosamine in N-linked glycans (core fucosylation). Increased core fucosylation has been reported during hepatocarcinogenesis, in both cell-associated and secreted proteins. Accordingly, increased core fucosylation of α-fetoprotein and α1-antitrypsin is currently used as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator. The present study provides new evidences that FUT8 can be regulated also through miRNA-mediated mechanisms. Using microRNA/target prediction programs, we identified miR-122 and miR-34a seed regions in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of FUT8. Then we used human and rodents hepatocarcinoma cell lines to evaluate the impact of transfection of miR-122 and miR-34a mimics on FUT8 mRNA and protein levels. This study demonstrated that forced expression of these miRNAs is able to induce a decrease of FUT8 levels and also to affect core fucosylation of secreted proteins. The ability of miR-122 and miR-34a to specifically interact with and regulate the 3'UTR of FUT8 was demonstrated via a luciferase reporter assay. Since miR-122 and miR-34a downregulation is a common feature in spontaneous human hepatocarcinoma, our finding that these miRNAs are able to target FUT8 3'UTR suggests that, together with transcriptional and other post-transcriptional systems, a miRNA-mediated mechanism could also be involved in the increased core fucosylation observed in liver tumors. Moreover, these findings also point out that miRNAs may be widely involved in the regulation of glycosylation machinery.

  17. Sialylated β1, 6 branched N-glycans modulate the adhesion, invasion and metastasis of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Yujie; Wang, Liping; Chen, Xixi; Su, Zhen; Zhang, Han; Yuan, Qingmin; Wang, Shujing

    2016-12-01

    The mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines Hca-F and Hca-P have been derived from hepatocarcinoma in mice and metastasize only to the lymph node. Hca-F cells displayed greater lymphatic metastasis ability than Hca-P cells. When the two cell lines were compared for cell surface sialylated β1,6 branched N-glycans by flow cytometry using L-PHA and SNA, Hca-F cells were found to express significantly higher levels. To explore the effect of increased sialylated β1,6 branched N-glycans on hepatocarcinoma progression, we inhibit their expression in Hca-F cells by using swainsonine treatment and RNA interference. We found that swainsonine treatment or GnT-V-shRNA transfection significantly inhibited the formation of β1,6 branched N-glycans, and partially inhibited the expression of α2,6 sialic acids. Knockdown of sialylated β1,6 branched N-glycans significantly attenuated the invasive and metastatic capability both in vitro and in vivo. Blockade of α2,6 sialic acid expression on Hca-F cell surface by the treatment with neuraminidase caused reduction in cellular adherence to lymph node. In addition, knockdown of sialylated β1,6 branched N-glycans could decrease the expression of Notch1, NICD1, NICD2 and HES1 in Hca-F cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that increased sialylated β1,6 branched N-glycans may contribute to hepatocarcinoma progression by altering the adhesive, invasive and metastatic ability to lymph node via Notch signaling pathway.

  18. Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants against human cholangiocarcinoma, laryngeal and hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cholangiocarcinoma is a serious public health in Thailand with increasing incidence and mortality rates. The present study aimed to investigate cytotoxic activities of crude ethanol extracts of a total of 28 plants and 5 recipes used in Thai folklore medicine against human cholangiocarcinoma (CL-6), human laryngeal (Hep-2), and human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell lines in vitro. Methods Cytotoxic activity of the plant extracts against the cancerous cell lines compared with normal cell line (renal epithelial cell: HRE) were assessed using MTT assay. 5-fluorouracil was used as a positive control. The IC50 (concentration that inhibits cell growth by 50%) and the selectivity index (SI) were calculated. Results The extracts from seven plant species (Atractylodes lancea, Kaempferia galangal, Zingiber officinal, Piper chaba, Mesua ferrea, Ligusticum sinense, Mimusops elengi) and one folklore recipe (Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai) exhibited promising activity against the cholangiocarcinoma CL-6 cell line with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Among these, the extracts from the five plants and one recipe (Atractylodes lancea, Kaempferia galangal, Zingiber officinal, Piper chaba, Mesua ferrea, and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai recipe) showed potent cytotoxic activity with mean IC50 values of 24.09, 37.36, 34.26, 40.74, 48.23 and 44.12 μg/ml, respectively. All possessed high activity against Hep-2 cell with mean IC50 ranging from 18.93 to 32.40 μg/ml. In contrast, activity against the hepatoma cell HepG2 varied markedly; mean IC50 ranged from 9.67 to 115.47 μg/ml. The only promising extract was from Zingiber officinal (IC50 = 9.67 μg/ml). The sensitivity of all the four cells to 5-FU also varied according to cell types, particularly with CL-6 cell (IC50 = 757 micromolar). The extract from Atractylodes lancea appears to be both the most potent and most selective against cholangiocarcinoma (IC50 = 24.09 μg/ml, SI = 8.6). Conclusions The ethanolic extracts from

  19. Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants against human cholangiocarcinoma, laryngeal and hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mahavorasirikul, Wiratchanee; Viyanant, Vithoon; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Itharat, Arunporn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2010-09-28

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a serious public health in Thailand with increasing incidence and mortality rates. The present study aimed to investigate cytotoxic activities of crude ethanol extracts of a total of 28 plants and 5 recipes used in Thai folklore medicine against human cholangiocarcinoma (CL-6), human laryngeal (Hep-2), and human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell lines in vitro. Cytotoxic activity of the plant extracts against the cancerous cell lines compared with normal cell line (renal epithelial cell: HRE) were assessed using MTT assay. 5-fluorouracil was used as a positive control. The IC50 (concentration that inhibits cell growth by 50%) and the selectivity index (SI) were calculated. The extracts from seven plant species (Atractylodes lancea, Kaempferia galangal, Zingiber officinal, Piper chaba, Mesua ferrea, Ligusticum sinense, Mimusops elengi) and one folklore recipe (Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai) exhibited promising activity against the cholangiocarcinoma CL-6 cell line with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Among these, the extracts from the five plants and one recipe (Atractylodes lancea, Kaempferia galangal, Zingiber officinal, Piper chaba, Mesua ferrea, and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai recipe) showed potent cytotoxic activity with mean IC50 values of 24.09, 37.36, 34.26, 40.74, 48.23 and 44.12 μg/ml, respectively. All possessed high activity against Hep-2 cell with mean IC50 ranging from 18.93 to 32.40 μg/ml. In contrast, activity against the hepatoma cell HepG2 varied markedly; mean IC50 ranged from 9.67 to 115.47 μg/ml. The only promising extract was from Zingiber officinal (IC50=9.67 μg/ml). The sensitivity of all the four cells to 5-FU also varied according to cell types, particularly with CL-6 cell (IC50=757 micromolar). The extract from Atractylodes lancea appears to be both the most potent and most selective against cholangiocarcinoma (IC50=24.09 μg/ml, SI = 8.6). The ethanolic extracts from five plants and one folklore recipe showed

  20. Piperonal ciprofloxacin hydrazone induces growth arrest and apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhen-yu; Li, Yong-qiang; Kang, Yu-hua; Hu, Guo-qiang; Huang-Fu, Chao-shen; Deng, Jin-bo; Liu, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the cytotoxic effects of piperonal ciprofloxacin hydrazone (QNT4), a novel antibacterial fluoroquinolone derivative, against human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. Methods: Human hepatocarcinoma cells (SMMC-7721), human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) and human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-8) were tested. The effects of QNT4 on cell proliferation were examined using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was determined using Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining, TUNEL assay and agarose gel electrophoresis. The topoisomerase II activity was measured using agarose gel electrophoresis with the DNA plasmid pBR322 as the substrate. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was measured using a high content screening imaging system. Protein expression of caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3, p53, Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c was detected with Western blot analysis. Results: Treatment with QNT4 (0.625–10 μmol/L) potently inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells in time- and dose-dependent manners (the IC50 value at 24 h in SMMC-7721 cells, MCF-7 cells and HCT-8 cells was 2.956±0.024, 3.710±0.027, and 3.694±0.030 μmol/L, respectively). Treatment of SMMC-7721 cells with QNT4 (0.2146, 2.964, and 4.600 μmol/L) for 24 h dose-dependently increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, elicited characteristic DNA “ladder” bands, and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. QNT4 dose-dependently increased topoisomerase II-mediated DNA breaks while inhibiting DNA relegation, thus keeping the DNA in fragments. Treatment of SMMC-7721 cells with QNT4 significantly increased cytochrome c in the cytosol, and decreased cytochrome c in the mitochondrial compartment. QNT4 (3–7.39 μmol/L) significantly increased the protein expression of p53, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3, and the cleaved activated forms of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in SMMC-7721 cells. In contrast, the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased, while caspase-8 had no significant change. Conclusion

  1. Piperonal ciprofloxacin hydrazone induces growth arrest and apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhen-yu; Li, Yong-qiang; Kang, Yu-hua; Hu, Guo-qiang; Huang-fu, Chao-shen; Deng, Jin-Bo; Liu, Bin

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effects of piperonal ciprofloxacin hydrazone (QNT4), a novel antibacterial fluoroquinolone derivative, against human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. Human hepatocarcinoma cells (SMMC-7721), human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) and human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-8) were tested. The effects of QNT4 on cell proliferation were examined using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was determined using Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining, TUNEL assay and agarose gel electrophoresis. The topoisomerase II activity was measured using agarose gel electrophoresis with the DNA plasmid pBR322 as the substrate. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was measured using a high content screening imaging system. Protein expression of caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3, p53, Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c was detected with Western blot analysis. Treatment with QNT4 (0.625-10 μmol/L) potently inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells in time- and dose-dependent manners (the IC(50) value at 24 h in SMMC-7721 cells, MCF-7 cells and HCT-8 cells was 2.956±0.024, 3.710±0.027, and 3.694±0.030 μmol/L, respectively). Treatment of SMMC-7721 cells with QNT4 (0.2146, 2.964, and 4.600 μmol/L) for 24 h dose-dependently increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, elicited characteristic DNA "ladder" bands, and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. QNT4 dose-dependently increased topoisomerase II-mediated DNA breaks while inhibiting DNA relegation, thus keeping the DNA in fragments. Treatment of SMMC-7721 cells with QNT4 significantly increased cytochrome c in the cytosol, and decreased cytochrome c in the mitochondrial compartment. QNT4 (3-7.39 μmol/L) significantly increased the protein expression of p53, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3, and the cleaved activated forms of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in SMMC-7721 cells. In contrast, the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased, while caspase-8 had no significant change. QNT4 induced the apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells

  2. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of berberine nanosuspension against human HepG2 and Huh7 cells as well as H22 tumor bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-ping; Wu, Jun-biao; Zhou, Qun; Wang, Yi-fei; Chen, Tongsheng

    2014-09-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber nanosuspension (Ber-NS) composed of Ber and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. Both in vitro and in vivo anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Ber-NS relative to effcacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NS were 73.1 +/- 3.7 nm and 6.99 +/- 0.17 mV, respectively. Ber-NS exhibited significant inhibitory effects against human HepG2 and Huh7 cells, and the corresponding IC50 values were 8.1 and 4.7 μg/ml (18.3 and 6.5 μg/ml of Ber solution). In vivo studies also showed higher antitumor efficacy, and inhibition rates was 63.7% (41.4 % of Ber solution) at 100 mg/kg intragastric administration in the H22 solid tumor bearing mice. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber as a nanosuspension is a promising approach for treating hepatocarcinoma.

  3. Nanoalumina induces apoptosis by impairing antioxidant enzyme systems in human hepatocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Alkahtani, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Alumina nanoparticles (Al2O3NPs) are gradually used in various areas, including nanomedicine, biosensors, and electronics. The current study aimed to explore the DNA damage and cytotoxicity due to Al2O3NPs on human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). The MTT and neutral red uptake assays showed that Al2O3NPs induce significant cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, Al2O3NPs induced significant intracellular reactive oxygen species production and elevated lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase levels in the HepG2 cells. Al2O3NPs also induced significant decrease in reduced glutathione levels and increase caspase-3 activity in HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis showed that Al2O3NPs cause genotoxicity in dose- and time-dependent manner. However, they induce reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress, leading to oxidative DNA damage, a probable mechanism of genotoxicity. This study warrants more careful assessment of Al2O3NPs before their industrial application. PMID:26045665

  4. [Construction of eukaryotic expression vector encoding ACRBP and its expression in hepatocarcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Yun, Xiang; Lin, Yong-da; Xiao, Shao-wen; Yan, Guang-hua; He, Shao-jian; He, Shu-jia; Chen, Fang; Xie, Xiao-xun

    2011-10-01

    To construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1/ACRBP and stably express ACRBP in human hepatocarcinoma cells, providing functional clues for ACRBP. A recombinant plasmid pMAL-C2/ACRBP was used as a template to amplify ACRBP cDNA. The PCR product was ligated into an eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1 to construct a recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1/ACRBP. Then the pEGFP-N1/ACRBP was transfected by Fugene HD into ACRBP-negative HepG2 cells. The stably transfected clones were selected by G418. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of ACRBP in HepG2 cells. The eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1/ACRBP was constructed and confirmed by sequencing. The stably transfected HepG2 cells expressed ACRBP. The eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1/ACRBP has been successfully constructed and transfected into HepG2 cells, resulting in stable expression of ACRBP.

  5. Evaluation of BCG administered by scarification for immunotherapy of metastatic hepatocarcinoma in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Hanna, M G; Peters, L C; Gutterman, J U; Hersh, E M

    1976-05-01

    In inbred guinea pigs, administration of Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG by scarification at a site distant from an excised skin tumor, but in the regional lymph node drainage, was evaluated for its immunotherapeutic effect on the development of lymph node metastases. Scarification was performed after surgical excision of intradermally transplanted syngeneic (line-10) hepatocarcinoma at a time when microscopic foci of tumor cells were present in regional lymph nodes. Various strains of BCG were evaluated for their immunotherapeutic potential: fresh-frozen Phipps, Pasteur, and Tice; and lyophilized Pasteur, Tice, and Connaught. Scarification commenced 3 days after surgical removal of the tumor and continued once a week for 5 weeks. Only lymph nodes from fresh-frozen Phipps- and Pasteur-scarified animals were significantly smaller than those in the control groups. Differences in lymph node weight correlated histologically with less detectable metastases. This cytostatic effect was short lived; eventually, the metastatic tumor growth was not significantly different from that of control animals. No significant differences were observed in mean survival time: All animals died as a result of metastases 3 months after tumor inoculation. These results demonstrated that limited scarification with BCG of certain strains temporarily inhibits the growth and proliferation of metastases in regional lymph nodes after removal of the primary tumor.

  6. Multifunctional nanocomposite based on graphene oxide for in vitro hepatocarcinoma diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ai-Jun; Li, Dong-Liang; Cai, Xiao-Jun; Dong, Chun-Yan; Dong, Hai-Qing; Wen, Hui-Yun; Dai, Gong-Hua; Wang, Pei-Jun; Li, Yong-Yong

    2012-09-01

    Because of its unique chemical and physical properties, graphene oxide (GO) has attracted a large number of researchers to explore its biomedical applications in the past few years. Here, we synthesized a novel multifunctional nanocomposite based on GO and systemically investigated its applications for in vitro hepatocarcinoma diagnosis and treatment. This multifunctional nanocomposite named GO-PEG-FA/Gd/DOX was obtained as the following procedures: gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-poly(diallyl dimethylammonium) chloride (Gd-DTPA-PDDA) as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probe was applied to modify GO by simple physical sorption with a loading efficiency of Gd(3+) up to 0.314 mg mg(-1). In order to improve its tumor targeting imaging and treatment efficiency, the obtained intermediate product was further modified with folic acid (FA). Finally, the nanocomposite was allowed to load anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride via π-π stacking and hydrophobic interaction with the loading capacity reaching 1.38 mg mg(-1). MRI test revealed that GO-PEG-FA/Gd/DOX exhibit superior tumor targeting imaging efficiency over free Gd(3+). The in vitro release of DOX from the nanocomposite under tumor relevant condition (pH 5.5) was fast at the initial 10 h and then become relatively slow afterward. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrated that the multifunctional nanocomposite exhibited obviously cytotoxic effect upon cancer cells. Above results are promising for the next in vivo experiment and make it possible to be a potential candidate for malignancy early detection and specific treatment.

  7. Fucoidan Suppresses Hypoxia-Induced Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphatic Metastasis in Mouse Hepatocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hongming; Yang, Yazong; Wei, Hengyun; Liu, Zundong; Liu, Zhichao; Ma, Yanhong; Gao, Zixiang; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2015-06-03

    Metastasis, the greatest clinical challenge associated with cancer, is closely connected to multiple biological processes, including invasion and adhesion. The hypoxic environment in tumors is an important factor that causes tumor metastasis by activating HIF-1α. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a sulfated polysaccharide and, as a novel marine biological material, has been used to treat various disorders in China, Korea, Japan and other countries. In the present study, we demonstrated that fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls significantly inhibits the hypoxia-induced expression, nuclear translocation and activity of HIF-1α, the synthesis and secretion of VEGF-C and HGF, cell invasion and lymphatic metastasis in a mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line. Fucoidan also suppressed lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, accompanied by a reduction in the HIF-1α nuclear translocation and activity, fucoidan significantly reduced the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-ERK, NF-κB, MMP-2 and MMP-9, but increased TIMP-1 levels. These results indicate strongly that the anti-metastasis and anti-lymphangiogenesis activities of fucoidan are mediated by suppressing HIF-1α/VEGF-C, which attenuates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways.

  8. The Blood Flow Shutdown Induced by Combretastatin A4 Impairs Gemcitabine Delivery in a Mouse Hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fruytier, Anne-Catherine; Le Duff, Cecile S.; Po, Chrystelle; Magat, Julie; Bouzin, Caroline; Neveu, Marie-Aline; Feron, Olivier; Jordan, Benedicte F.; Gallez, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In recent clinical studies, vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) are mainly used in combination with chemotherapy. However, an often overlooked concern in treatment combination is the VDA-induced impairment of chemotherapy distribution in the tumor. The work presented here investigated the impact of blood flow shutdown induced by Combretastatin A4 (CA4) on gemcitabine uptake into mouse hepatocarcinoma. At 2 h after CA4 treatment, using DCE-MRI, a significant decrease in the perfusion-relevant parameters Ktrans and Vp were observed in treated group compared with the control group. The blood flow shutdown was indeed confirmed by a histology study. In a third experiment, the total gemcitabine uptake was found to be significantly lower in treated tumors, as assessed in a separate experiment using ex vivo fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The amount of active metabolite gemcitabine triphosphate was also lower in treated tumors. In conclusion, the blood flow shutdown induced by VDAs can impact negatively on the delivery of small cytotoxic agents in tumors. The present study outlines the importance of monitoring the tumor vascular function when designing drug combinations. PMID:28066252

  9. Modification of Glycosylation Mediates the Invasive Properties of Murine Hepatocarcinoma Cell Lines to Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lihong; Liu, Chunqing; Ma, Hongye; Jia, Li

    2013-01-01

    Among the various posttranslational modification reactions, glycosylation is the most common, and nearly 50% of all known proteins are thought to be glycosylated. In fact, changes in glycosylation readily occur in carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis. This report investigated the modification of glycosylation mediated the invasive properties of Hca-F and Hca-P murine hepatocarcinoma cell lines, which have high, low metastatic potential in the lymph nodes, respectively. Analysis revealed that the N-glycan composition profiling, expression of glycogenes and lectin binding profiling were different in Hca-F cells, as compared to those in Hca-P cells. Further analysis of the N-glycan regulation by tunicamycin (TM) application or PNGase F treatment in Hca-F cells showed partial inhibition of N-glycan glycosylation and decreased invasion both in vitro and in vivo. We targeted glycogene ST6GAL1, which was expressed differently in Hca-F and Hca-P cells, and regulated the expression of ST6GAL1. The altered levels of ST6GAL1 were also responsible for changed invasive properties of Hca-F and Hca-P cells both in vitro and in vivo. These findings indicate a role for glycosylation modification as a mediator of tumor lymphatic metastasis, with its altered expression causing an invasive ability differentially. PMID:23840320

  10. Protective Effects of Garlic Oil on Hepatocarcinoma Induced by N-Nitrosodiethylamine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Yu, Li-Hua; Zhu, Zhen-Ping; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of garlic oil (GO) against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocarcinoma in rats, Wistar rats were gavaged with GO (20 or 40 mg/kg) for 1 week, and then were gavaged with GO and NDEA (10 mg/kg) for the next 20 weeks. The changes of morphology, histology, the biochemical indices of serum, and DNA oxidative damage of liver were examined to assess the protective effects. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant defense system, and apoptosis-related proteins were measured to investigate potential mechanisms. At the end of the study (21 weeks), GO administration significantly inhibited the increase of the nodule incidence and average nodule number per nodule-bearing liver induced by NDEA, improved hepatocellular architecture, and dramatically inhibited NDEA-induced elevation of serum biochemical indices (alanine aminotransferase , aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) and hepatic 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that GO counteracted NDEA-induced oxidative stress in rats illustrated by the restoration of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) levels, and the reduction of the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, andβ-arrestin-2 were significantly decreased whereas those of Bax and caspase-3 were significantly increased. These data suggest that GO exhibited significant protection against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, which might be related with the enhancement of the antioxidant activity and the induction of apoptosis. PMID:22393308

  11. Extracellular HSP70/HSP70-PCs Promote Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hangyu; Li, Yan; Liu, Dan; Sun, Hongzhi; Su, Dongming; Yang, Fuquan; Liu, Jingang

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracellular heat shock protein 70 and peptide complexes (eHSP70/HSP70-PCs) regulate a variety of biological behaviors in tumor cells. Whether eHSP70/HSP70-PCs are involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells remains unclear. Aims To determine the effects of eHSP70/HSP70-PCs on EMT of hepatocarcinoma cells. Methods The expressions of E-cadherin, HSP70, α-smooth muscle actin protein (α-SMA) and p-p38 were detected immunohistochemically in liver cancer samples. Immunofluorescence, western blotting and real-time RT-PCR methods were used to analyze the effects of eHSP70/HSP70-PCs on the expressions of E-cadherin, α-SMA and p38/MAPK in vivo. Results HSP70, E-cadherin, α-SMA and p-p38 were elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. The expression of HSP70 was positively correlated with malignant differentiated liver carcinoma. The expressions of HSP70, α-SMA and p-p38 correlated with recurrence-free survival after resection. eHSP70/HSP70-PCs significantly promoted the expressions of α-SMA and p-p38 and reduced the expressions of E-cadherin in vivo. The effect was inhibited by SB203580. Conclusion The expressions of HSP70, E-cadherin, α-SMA and p-p38 may represent indicators of malignant potential and could discriminate the malignant degree of liver cancer. eHSP70/HSP70-PCs play an important role in the EMT of hepatocellular carcinoma via the p38/MAPK pathway. PMID:24386414

  12. Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy with AFP driving Apoptin gene shows potent antitumor effect in hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene therapy and viral therapy are used for cancer therapy for many years, but the results are less than satisfactory. Our aim was to construct a new recombinant adenovirus which is more efficient to kill hepatocarcinoma cells but more safe to normal cells. Methods By using the Cancer Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy strategy, Apoptin, a promising cancer therapeutic gene was inserted into the double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus AD55 in which E1A gene was driven by alpha fetoprotein promoter along with a 55 kDa deletion in E1B gene to form AD55-Apoptin. The anti-tumor effects and safety were examined by western blotting, virus yield assay, real time polymerase chain reaction, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Hoechst33342 staining, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, xenograft tumor model, Immunohistochemical assay, liver function analysis and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling assay. Results The recombinant virus AD55-Apoptin has more significant antitumor effect for hepatocelluar carcinoma cell lines (in vitro) than that of AD55 and even ONYX-015 but no or little impair on normal cell lines. Furthermore, it also shows an obvious in vivo antitumor effect on the Huh-7 liver carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with bigger beginning tumor volume till about 425 mm3 but has no any damage on the function of liver. The induction of apoptosis is involved in AD55-Apoptin induced antitumor effects. Conclusion The AD55-Apoptin can be a potential anti-hepatoma agent with remarkable antitumor efficacy as well as higher safety in cancer targeting gene-viro-therapy system. PMID:22321574

  13. Paradoxical role of autophagy in the dysplastic and tumor-forming stages of hepatocarcinoma development in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, K; Guo, X-L; Zhao, Q-d; Jing, Y-y; Kou, X-r; Xie, X-q; Zhou, Y; Cai, N; Gao, L; Zhao, X; Zhang, S-s; Song, J-r; Li, D; Deng, W-j; Li, R; Wu, M-c; Wei, L-x

    2013-02-21

    Many reports have shown that autophagy has a role as both a promoter and inhibitor in tumor development. However, the mechanism of this paradox is unknown. Tumor development is a multistep process. Therefore, we investigated whether the role of autophagy in hepatocarcinoma formation depended on the stage of tumor development. Based on our results, autophagy inhibition by chloroquine had a tumor-promotive effect in the rat model with N-diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in its dysplastic stage (Ds) and a tumor-suppressive effect in its tumor-forming stage (Ts). In the Ds, autophagy inhibition enhanced cell proliferation, DNA damage and inflammatory cytokines expression in liver. These changes were dependent on the upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was resulted from autophagy inhibition, and ultimately accelerated the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. However, in the Ts, autophagy inhibition restrained tumor formation by decreasing tumor cell survival and proliferation. In this stage, autophagy inhibition led to excessive ROS accumulation in the tumor, which promoted cell apoptosis, and prominently suppressed tumor cell metabolism. Taken together, our data suggested that autophagy suppressed hepatocarcinogenesis in the Ds by protecting normal cell stability and promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in the Ts by supporting tumor cells growth. Autophagy always had a role as a protector throughout the process of hepatocarcinoma development.

  14. Paradoxical role of autophagy in the dysplastic and tumor-forming stages of hepatocarcinoma development in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, K; Guo, X-l; Zhao, Q-d; jing, Y-y; Kou, X-r; Xie, X-q; Zhou, Y; Cai, N; Gao, L; Zhao, X; Zhang, S-s; Song, J-r; Li, D; Deng, W-j; Li, R; Wu, M-c; Wei, L-x

    2013-01-01

    Many reports have shown that autophagy has a role as both a promoter and inhibitor in tumor development. However, the mechanism of this paradox is unknown. Tumor development is a multistep process. Therefore, we investigated whether the role of autophagy in hepatocarcinoma formation depended on the stage of tumor development. Based on our results, autophagy inhibition by chloroquine had a tumor-promotive effect in the rat model with N-diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in its dysplastic stage (Ds) and a tumor-suppressive effect in its tumor-forming stage (Ts). In the Ds, autophagy inhibition enhanced cell proliferation, DNA damage and inflammatory cytokines expression in liver. These changes were dependent on the upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was resulted from autophagy inhibition, and ultimately accelerated the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. However, in the Ts, autophagy inhibition restrained tumor formation by decreasing tumor cell survival and proliferation. In this stage, autophagy inhibition led to excessive ROS accumulation in the tumor, which promoted cell apoptosis, and prominently suppressed tumor cell metabolism. Taken together, our data suggested that autophagy suppressed hepatocarcinogenesis in the Ds by protecting normal cell stability and promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in the Ts by supporting tumor cells growth. Autophagy always had a role as a protector throughout the process of hepatocarcinoma development. PMID:23429287

  15. Tetraspanin TM4SF5 mediates loss of contact inhibition through epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin-Ae; Lee, Sung-Yul; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Oh, Min-A; Kang, Eun-Sil; Kim, Yong-Bae; Seo, Woo Duck; Choi, Suyong; Nam, Ju-Ock; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Kitajima, Shigetaka; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Semi; Hwang, Yoon-Jin; Kim, In-San; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Jung Weon

    2008-01-01

    The growth of normal cells is arrested when they come in contact with each other, a process known as contact inhibition. Contact inhibition is lost during tumorigenesis, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth. Here, we investigated the role of the tetraspanin transmembrane 4 superfamily member 5 (TM4SF5) in contact inhibition and tumorigenesis. We found that TM4SF5 was overexpressed in human hepatocarcinoma tissue. TM4SF5 expression in clinical samples and in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines correlated with enhanced p27Kip1 expression and cytosolic stabilization as well as morphological elongation mediated by RhoA inactivation. These TM4SF5-mediated effects resulted in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via loss of E-cadherin expression. The consequence of this was aberrant cell growth, as assessed by S-phase transition in confluent conditions, anchorage-independent growth, and tumor formation in nude mice. The TM4SF5-mediated effects were abolished by suppressing the expression of either TM4SF5 or cytosolic p27Kip1, as well as by reconstituting the expression of E-cadherin. Our observations have revealed a role for TM4SF5 in causing uncontrolled growth of human hepatocarcinoma cells through EMT. PMID:18357344

  16. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of berberine-nanostructured lipid carriers against human HepG2, Huh7, and EC9706 cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Fan, Hua; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma and esophageal carcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Ber-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects of Ber-NLC relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NLC were 189.3 +/- 3.7 nm and -19.3 +/- 1.4 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Ber-NLC effectively inhibited the proliferation of human HepG2 and Huh7 and EC9706 cells, and the corresponding IC50 value was 9.1 μg/ml, 4.4 μg/ml, and 6.3 μg/ml (18.3μg/ml, 6.5μg/ml, and 12.4μg/ml μg/ml of bulk Ber solution), respectively. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber-NLC is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  17. Innate immunity and hepatocarcinoma: Can toll-like receptors open the door to oncogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Jorge André Gomes; Borges-Canha, Marta; Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocarcinoma (HCC) is a highly prevalent cancer worldwide and its inflammatory background was established long ago. Recent studies have shown that innate immunity is closely related to the HCC carcinogenesis. An effective innate immunity response relies on the toll-like receptors (TLR) found in several different liver cells which, through different ligands and many signaling pathways can elicit, not only a pro-inflammatory but also an oncogenic or anti-oncogenic response. Our aim was to study the role of TLRs in the liver oncogenesis and as a consequence their value as potential therapeutic targets. We performed a systematic review of PubMed searching for original articles studying the relationship between HCC and TLRs until March 2015. TLR2 appears to be a fundamental stress-sensor as its absence reveals an augmented tendency to accumulate DNA-damages and to cell survival. However, pathways are still not fully understood as TLR2 up-regulation was also associated to enhanced tumorigenesis. TLR3 has a well-known protective role influencing crucial processes like angiogenesis, cell growth or proliferation. TLR4 works as an interesting epithelial-mesenchymal transition’s inducer and a promoter of cell survival probably inducing HCC carcinogenesis even though an anti-cancer role has already been observed. TLR9’s influence on carcinogenesis is also controversial and despite a potential anti-cancer capacity, a pro-tumorigenic role is more likely. Genetic polymorphisms in some TLRs have been found and its influence on the risk of HCC has been reported. As therapeutic targets, TLRs are already in use and have a great potential. In conclusion, TLRs have been shown to be an interesting influence on the HCC’s microenvironment, with TLR3 clearly determining an anti-tumour influence. TLR4 and TLR9 are considered to have a positive relationship with tumour development even though, in each of them anti-tumorigenic signals have been described. TLR2 presents a more

  18. Could metabolic syndrome lead to hepatocarcinoma via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    PubMed

    Scalera, Antonella; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2014-07-28

    It was estimated that from 2002 to 2008 the risk of developing cancer increased a quarter-fold in men and two-fold in women due to excessive BMI. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus are strictly related and are key pathogenetic factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most frequent liver disease worldwide. The most important consequence of the "metabolic epidemics" is the probable rise in the incidence of hepatocarcinoma (HCC), and NAFLD is the major causative factor. Adipose tissue is not merely a storage organ where lipids are preserved as an energy source. It is an active organ with important endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions in addition to immune functions. Adipocytes produce a wide range of hormones, cytokines, and growth factors that can act locally in the adipose tissue microenvironment and systemically. In this article, the main roles of insulin growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-2 are discussed. The role of IGF-2 is not only confined to HCC, but it may also act in early hepato-carcinogenesis, as pre-neoplastic lesions express IGF-2 mRNA. IGF-1 and IGF-2 interact with specific receptors (IGF-1R and IGF-2R). IGF-1R is over-expressed in in vitro and in animal models of HCC and it was demonstrated that IGF ligands exerted their effects on HCC cells through IGF-1R and that it was involved in the degeneration of pre-neoplastic lesions via an increase in their mitotic activity. Both IGF-2R and TGF β, a growth inhibitor, levels are reduced in human HCC compared with adjacent normal liver tissues. Another key mechanism involves peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ. In in vitro studies, PPARγ inhibited various carcinomas including HCC, most probably by regulating apoptosis via the p21, p53 and p27 pathways. Finally, as a clinical consequence, to improve survival, efforts to achieve a "healthier diet" should be promoted by physicians and politicians.

  19. [Cinnamaldehyde ofloxacin-3-ylhydrazone induces apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells].

    PubMed

    Ren, Zheng; Kang, Yu-hua; Shi, Zhen-yu; Huang-Fu, Chao-shen; Hu, Guo-qiang; Liu, Bin

    2010-09-01

    This study is to observe the effect of N-(3-phenylallylidene)-6-fluoro-1, 8-(2, 1-propoxy)-7-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-quinolin-4(1H)-one-3-carbonyl hyarazine (FQ16) on apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro. With different concentrations of FQ16 at different times used to treat SMMC-7721 cells in vitro, the proliferation of the cells and the inhibition effect of FQ16 on the cell proliferation were examined by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33258/PI fluorescence staining, TUNEL and agarose gel electrophoresis method. The effect of FQ16 on topoisomerase II activity was measured by agarose gel electrophoresis using Plasmid pBR322 DNA as the substrate. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, delta psi m) was measured by high content screening image system. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression changes of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bax mRNA. The caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3, p53, Bcl-2 and Bax protein expressions were detected by Western blotting analysis. The results showed that the cell proliferation was inhibited by FQ16 at 0.625 - 10 micromol L(-1) in a time-dose dependent manner. Treatment of SMMC-7721 cells with different concentrations of FQ16 for 24 h increased the percentage of the apoptosis cells obviously (P<0.05), the typical ladder DNA in apoptotic cells and a concomitant dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Compared with control group, FQ16 influenced obviously DNA topoisomerase II activity, stimulated DNA cleavage and inhibited DNA reunion mediated by topoisomerase II. In addition, FQ16 (3 - 7.39 micromol L(-1)) increased mRNA expression of Bax and protein expression of p53, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3, separately, and induced cytosolic accumulation of activities caspase-9 and caspase-3, whereas the mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 decreased with no change of caspase-8. Therefore it can be concluded that the effects of inhibited topoisomerase II and

  20. Global Assessment of Antrodia cinnamomea-Induced MicroRNA Alterations in Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yu-Tzu; Huang, Yu-Feng; Ma, Nianhan; Yu, Alice L.; Wu, Chung-Yi; Hu, Miao-Lin; Chiu, Kuo Ping

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a potent anticancer potential of medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea, especially against hepatocarcinoma. These studies, however, were performed with prolonged treatments, and the early anticancer events remain missing. To probe the early anticancer mechanisms of A. cinnamomea, we treated SK-Hep-1 liver cancer cell with A. cinnamomea fruiting body extract for 2 and 4 hours, sequenced RNA samples with next-generation sequencing approach, and profiled the genome-wide miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes. Results unmistakably associated the early anticancer effect of A. cinnamomea fruiting body extract with a global downregulation of miRNAs which occurred solely in the A. cinnamomea fruiting body extract-treated SK-Hep-1 cells. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of A. cinnamomea fruiting body extract upon cancer miRNAs imposed no discrimination against any particular miRNA species, with oncomirs miR-21, miR-191 and major oncogenic clusters miR-17-92 and miR-106b-25 among the most severely downregulated. Western blotting further indicated a decrease in Drosha and Dicer proteins which play a key role in miRNA biogenesis, together with an increase of XRN2 known to participate in miRNA degradation pathway. Transcriptome profiling followed by GO and pathway analyses indicated that A. cinnamomea induced apoptosis, which was tightly associated with a downregulation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways. Phosphorylation assay further suggested that JNK and c-Jun were closely involved in the apoptotic process. Taken together, our data indicated that the anticancer effect of A. cinnamomea can take place within a few hours by targeting multiple proteins and the miRNA system. A. cinnamomea indiscriminately induced a global downregulation of miRNAs by simultaneously inhibiting the key enzymes involved in miRNA maturation and activating XRN2 protein involved in miRNA degradation. Collapsing of the miRNA system together with downregulation of cell growth and survival

  1. Effects of TLR4 gene silencing on the proliferation and apotosis of hepatocarcinoma HEPG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yating; Li, Tao; Xu, Yuanhong; Xu, Enjun; Zhou, Min; Wang, Baolong; Shen, Jilong

    2016-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key factors in the innate immune system and initiate an inflammatory response to foreign pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. TLR4-mediated signaling has been implicated in tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis in numerous cancers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological effect of TLR4 on the proliferation and apoptosis of human liver cancer cells and the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular responses following TLR4 gene knockdown. Three TLR4 small interfering (si)RNA constructs, consisting of TLR4-siRNA-1, TLR4-siRNA-2 and TLR4-siRNA-3, were transiently transfected into HepG2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. TLR4 knockdown was confirmed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The effect of the TLR4 siRNA on tumor cell proliferation was monitored by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and cell apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry. The expression of TLR4-associated proteins, consisting of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), Toll-interleukin-1R-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, NF-κB inhibitor α (IκBα), phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was detected by western blot analysis. TLR4-siRNA-1 had the strongest knockdown effect and inhibited TLR4 messenger RNA and protein expression. TLR4 knockdown with TLR4-siRNA-1 reduced cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. MyD88, TRIF, IRF3, IκBα, JNK and ERK were markedly suppressed in the cells transfected with TLR4 siRNA. However, nuclear expression of NF-κB and p-IκBα increased in HepG2 cells with TLR4 gene knockdown. The present study revealed that TLR4-mediated signaling plays a key role in the proliferation and apoptosis of cultured hepatocarcinoma cells. Therefore, RNA interference-directed targeting of TLR4 may raise

  2. Development of size-customized hepatocarcinoma spheroids as a potential drug testing platform using a sacrificial gelatin microsphere system.

    PubMed

    Leong, Wenyan; Kremer, Antje; Wang, Dong-An

    2016-06-01

    Sacrificial gelatin microspheres can be developed as a cell delivery vehicle for non-anchorage dependent cells - its incorporation into a macroscopic scaffold system not only allows the cells to be cultured in suspension within cavities left behind by the sacrificial material, it also allows scaffold-free tissue development to be confined within the cavities. In this study, dense and highly viable hepatocarcinoma spheroids were developed by means of encapsulation in sacrificial gelatin microspheres produced via a simple water-in-oil emulsion technique. By initial selection of microsphere size and distribution, spheroid size can be controlled for various applications such as uniform tumor spheroids as a reproducible three-dimensional drug screening and testing platform that better mimics the in vivo nature of tumors (instead of conventional monolayer culture), as this study has suggested as a proof-of-concept with chemotherapy drug Doxorubicin.

  3. Single-walled carbon nanotubes induce cytotoxicity and DNA damage via reactive oxygen species in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Verma, Ankit; Almajhdi, Fahad N; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are gradually used in various areas including drug delivery, nanomedicine, biosensors, and electronics. The current study aimed to explore the DNA damage and cytotoxicity due to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). Cellular proliferative assay showed the SWCNTs to exhibit a significant cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, SWCNTs induced significant intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and elevated lipid peroxidation, catalase, and superoxide dismutase in the HepG2 cells. SWCNTs also induced significant decrease in GSH and increase caspase-3 activity in HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation analysis using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis showed that the SWCNTs cause genotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Therefore, the study points towards the capability of the SWCNTs to induce oxidative stress resulting cytotoxicity and genomic instability. This study warrants more careful assessment of SWCNTs before their industrial applications.

  4. Garlic Oil Suppressed Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatocarcinoma in Rats by Inhibiting PI3K-AKT-NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the underlying mechanisms for the protective effects of garlic oil (GO) against nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocarcinoma, 60 male Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups (n=15): control group, NDEA group, and two GO plus NDEA groups. The rats in GO plus NDEA groups were pretreated with GO (20 or 40 mg/kg) for 7 days. Then, all rats except those in control group were gavaged with NDEA for 20 weeks, and the rats in GO plus NDEA groups were continuously administered with GO. The results showed that GO co-treatment significantly suppressed the NDEA-induced increases of alpha fetal protein (AFP) level in serum, nuclear atypia in H&E staining, sirius red-positive areas and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. The molecular mechanisms exploration revealed that the protein levels of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-p85, PI3K-p110, total AKT, p-AKT (Ser473) and p-AKT (Thr308) in the liver of NDEA group rats were higher than those in control group rats. In addition, NDEA treatment induced IκB degradation and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and up-regulated the protein levels of downstream pro-inflammatory mediators. GO co-treatment significantly reversed all the above adverse effects induced by NDEA. These results suggested that the protective effects of GO against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinoma might be associated with the suppression of PI3K- AKT-NF-κB pathway.

  5. Garlic Oil Suppressed Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatocarcinoma in Rats by Inhibiting PI3K-AKT-NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the underlying mechanisms for the protective effects of garlic oil (GO) against nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocarcinoma, 60 male Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups (n=15): control group, NDEA group, and two GO plus NDEA groups. The rats in GO plus NDEA groups were pretreated with GO (20 or 40 mg/kg) for 7 days. Then, all rats except those in control group were gavaged with NDEA for 20 weeks, and the rats in GO plus NDEA groups were continuously administered with GO. The results showed that GO co-treatment significantly suppressed the NDEA-induced increases of alpha fetal protein (AFP) level in serum, nuclear atypia in H&E staining, sirius red-positive areas and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. The molecular mechanisms exploration revealed that the protein levels of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-p85, PI3K-p110, total AKT, p-AKT (Ser473) and p-AKT (Thr308) in the liver of NDEA group rats were higher than those in control group rats. In addition, NDEA treatment induced IκB degradation and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and up-regulated the protein levels of downstream pro-inflammatory mediators. GO co-treatment significantly reversed all the above adverse effects induced by NDEA. These results suggested that the protective effects of GO against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinoma might be associated with the suppression of PI3K- AKT-NF-κB pathway. PMID:25999787

  6. Synergistic activity of vorinostat combined with gefitinib but not with sorafenib in mutant KRAS human non-small cell lung cancers and hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeannot, Victor; Busser, Benoit; Vanwonterghem, Laetitia; Michallet, Sophie; Ferroudj, Sana; Cokol, Murat; Coll, Jean-Luc; Ozturk, Mehmet; Hurbin, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    Development of drug resistance limits the efficacy of targeted therapies. Alternative approaches using different combinations of therapeutic agents to inhibit several pathways could be a more effective strategy for treating cancer. The effects of the approved epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (gefitinib) or a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor (sorafenib) in combination with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (vorinostat) on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and signaling pathway activation in human lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma cells with wild-type EGFR and mutant KRAS were investigated. The effects of the synergistic drug combinations were also studied in human lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma cells in vivo. The combination of gefitinib and vorinostat synergistically reduced cell growth and strongly induced apoptosis through inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/protein kinase B (IGF-1R/AKT)-dependent signaling pathway. Moreover, the gefitinib and vorinostat combination strongly inhibited tumor growth in mice with lung adenocarcinoma or hepatocarcinoma tumor xenografts. In contrast, the combination of sorafenib and vorinostat did not inhibit cell proliferation compared to a single treatment and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest without apoptosis. The sorafenib and vorinostat combination sustained the IGF-1R-, AKT-, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways. These results showed that there was synergistic cytotoxicity when vorinostat was combined with gefitinib for both lung adenocarcinoma and hepatocarcinoma with mutant KRAS in vitro and in vivo but that the combination of vorinostat with sorafenib did not show any benefit. These findings highlight the important role of the IGF-1R/AKT pathway in the resistance to targeted therapies and support the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in combination with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, especially for treating

  7. Effects of melatonin on HIF-1α and VEGF expression and on the invasive properties of hepatocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    COLOMBO, JUCIMARA; MACIEL, JOÃO MARCOS WOLF; FERREIRA, LÍVIA CARVALHO; DA SILVA, RENATO FERREIRA; ZUCCARI, DEBORA APARECIDA PIRES

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the sixth most commonly occurring cancer globally, and the main histological type is hepatocellular carcinoma. This type of neoplasia has a poor prognosis due to a high rate of recurrence and intrahepatic metastasis, which are closely are closely associated with the angiogenic process. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is under the control of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), stimulates the proliferation of endothelial cells and increases cell permeability, promoting the growth, spread and metastasis of tumors. Melatonin, the main hormone secreted by the pineal gland, may have a significant role in tumor suppression and has demonstrated antiangiogenic and antimetastatic effects. The aim of the present study was to analyze the cell viability, migration and invasion, as well as the expression of proangiogenic proteins VEGF and HIF-1α, in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells, following treatment with melatonin. Cells were cultured and cell viability was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression of proangiogenic proteins VEGF and HIF-1α, under conditions of normoxia and hypoxia, was verified using immunocytochemistry and quantified by densitometry. The analysis of the processes of cell migration and invasion was performed in a Boyden chamber. The MTT assay revealed a reduction in cell viability (P=0.018) following treatment with 1 mM melatonin for 24 h. The expression of proangiogenic proteins VEGF and HIF-1α was reduced in cells treated with 1 mM melatonin for 24 h in normoxic (P<0.001) and hypoxic (P<0.001) conditions, compared with the control group and with induced hypoxia alone. The rate of cell migration and invasion was additionally reduced in cells treated with 1 mM melatonin for 48 h when compared with the control group (P=0.496). The results of the present study suggest that melatonin may have an antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and antimetastatic role in

  8. Antimetastatic effects of α-carotene and possible mechanisms of action in human hepatocarcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huei-Yan; Yueh, Te-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Chuan; Huang, Chien-Hao; Yang, Chih-Min; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2013-10-30

    In vitro evidence suggests that α-carotene (AC) is an antimetastatic agent against cancer cells, but the mechanistic action is unclear. This study investigated the antimetastatic effect and possible mechanism of AC in comparison with β-carotene (BC) using human hepatocarcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells. Results reveal that treatment with AC (0.5-2.5 μM) for 48 h significantly inhibited invasion, migration, and adhesion of SK-Hep-1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects of AC were stronger than those of BC at the same concentration (2.5 μM). Mechanistically, AC significantly decreased activities of urokinase plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, but increased protein expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and -2, and nm23-H1, an antimetastatic protein. AC also attenuated focal adhesion kinase-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase family resulting in decreased protein expression of Rho and Rac 1. Overall, these data suggest that AC has potential as an antimetastatic agent.

  9. Suppression of established hepatocarcinoma in adjuvant only immunotherapy: alum triggers anti-tumor CD8+ T cell response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Xuanyi; Wen, Yumei; Fu, Jing; Wang, Hongyang; Ma, Zhangmei; Shi, Yan; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy is a new weapon in our battle against malignancies in human. Recent trials in human and research work in model animals have shown various degrees of success, suggesting its great potential for clinical use. While protocols vary, a common scheme in this category of treatment involves activation of dendritic cells, with the purpose of increasing antigen presentation and cellular immunity. Therefore, proper use of immune adjuvant is a central subject of study. We report here an unexpected finding that injection of alum, the most widely used human adjuvant, into mice carrying H22 hepatocarcinoma resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth with extended animal survival. This effect was associated with an increased specific CD8+ T cell activation and an inflammatory environment, yet with minimal overt side effects. Our finding suggests that use of adjuvant alone in certain established tumors can invoke protective host immune activation against the same target, which may be of value in our development of new cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26647964

  10. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated silver nanoparticles: activation of neutrophils and nanotoxicology effects in human hepatocarcinoma and mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2015-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) have been described as important for their excellent biocompatibility, biomedical applications. Nevertheless, AgNps can interact with the immune system which is essential to analyze human exposure to assess their potential risk to health and environment. In general, the primary site for accumulation of nanoparticles has been demonstrated to be the liver. Furthermore, the direct activation of neutrophils or oxidative burst by a given nanoparticle is poorly documented. In this paper, we investigated the cell uptake, apoptosis, necrosis, DNA damage in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2), primary normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the direct activation of primary isolated neutrophils through the oxidative burst on exposure to AgNps coated with Polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA). All cell types were incubated in the presence of 1.0 and 50.0 μM of AgNps-PVA for 24h. A significant cyto- and genotoxic-response and the activation of human neutrophils were induced by AgNps-PVA (p<0.05). Our results revealed that AgNps can interact with the normal isolated neutrophils, PBMC and HepG2 cells in vitro, which opens the way for further studies on the toxicological effects of AgNps in the human immune system response and cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impairment of oxidative phosphorylation increases the toxicity of SYD-1 on hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Brandt, Anna Paula; Gozzi, Gustavo Jabor; Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Dos Santos Canuto, André Vinícius; Echevarria, Aurea; Di Pietro, Attilio; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

    2016-08-25

    Toxicity of the SYD-1 mesoionic compound (3-[4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate) was evaluated on human liver cancer cells (HepG2) grown in either high glucose (HG) or galactose (GAL) medium, and also on suspended cells kept in HG medium. SYD-1 was able to decrease the viability of cultured HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as assessed by MTT, LDH release and dye with crystal violet assays, but no effect was observed on suspended cells after 1-40 min of treatment. Respiration analysis was performed after 2 min (suspended cells) or 24 h (cultured cells) of treatment: no change was observed in suspended cells, whereas SYD-1 inhibited as well basal, leak and uncoupled states of the respiration in cultured cells with HG medium. These inhibitions were consistent with the decrease in pyruvate level and increase in lactate level. Even more extended results were obtained with HepG2 cells grown in GAL medium where, additionally, the ATP amount was reduced. Furthermore, SYD-1 appears not to be transported by the main ABC multidrug transporters. These results show that SYD-1 is able to change the metabolism of HepG2 cells, and suggest that its cytotoxicity is related to impairment of mitochondrial metabolism. Therefore, we may propose that SYD-1 is a potential candidate for hepatocarcinoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nifuroxazide prompts antitumor immune response of TCL-loaded DC in mice with orthotopically-implanted hepatocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tiesuo; Jia, Huijie; Cheng, Qian; Xiao, Yali; Li, Minming; Ren, Wenjing; Li, Chen; Feng, Yuchen; Feng, Zhiwei; Wang, Hui; Zheng, Junnian

    2017-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis and high mortality. At present, vaccination with tumor cell lysate (TCL) loaded dendritic cells (DC) has been shown to be an effective therapy against HCC. However, the ability of promoting the specific T cell immune response is rather weak, influencing the antitumor response. Thus, it is necessary to find a strategy to improve the antitumor effect of TCL-loaded DC. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) significantly inhibits antitumor immune response and DC maturity. Nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent, has been proved to directly inhibit STAT3 activation. Thus, we investigated whether nifuroxazide could improve the antitumor immune response in mice vaccinated with TCL-loaded DC. The study provides the theoretical and experimental basis for developing an effective adjuvant for DC vaccine to treat HCC. Our results showed that the administration of nifuroxazide and DC-loaded TCL could significantly improve the survival rate, inhibit the tumor growth, and prompt the antitumor immune responses in mice with orthotopically implanted hepatocarcinomas, thus, possibly providing a new combination strategy to treat HCC.

  13. Production of infectious ferret hepatitis E virus in a human hepatocarcinoma cell line PLC/PRF/5.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Yang, Tingting; Kataoka, Michiyo; Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ami, Yasushi; Yuriko, Suzaki; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-02-02

    A strain of ferret hepatitis E virus (HEV), sF4370, isolated from an imported ferret was used to inoculate a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5. The virus genome and capsid protein were detected in the cell culture supernatant. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that the capsid protein was located in the cytoplasm. The virus particles were purified from the culture supernatant by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The capsid protein with molecular mass of ∼72 kDa was detected in fractions with density of 1.150-1.162 g/cm(3), and particles of ferret HEV was associated with cell membrane. The virus recovered from the supernatant was serially passaged with PLC/PRF/5 cells and had the ability to infect ferrets by oral inoculation, indicating that the ferret HEV grown in PLC/PRF/5 was infectious. The establishment of ferret HEV cell culture system might be useful to understand the life cycle, mechanism of infection and replication of ferret HEV.

  14. Inhibition of hepatocarcinoma and tumor metastasis to liver by gene therapy with recombinant CBD-HepII polypeptide of fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Huang, Bo; Yuan, Ye; Gong, Wei; Xiao, Han; Li, Dong; Yu, Zhi-Rui; Wu, Feng-Hua; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2007-07-01

    Unlike the intact fibronectin (FN) molecule, some proteolytic or recombinant fragments of FN possess inhibitory activities on tumor, providing potential strategies in tumor therapeutics. Using the hydrodynamics-based gene delivery technique, we demonstrated that the treatment by in vivo expression of a recombinant CBD-HepII polypeptide of FN, designated as CH50, strongly inhibited the tumor growth, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Such inhibitory effects of CH50 on tumor were partly ascribed to its influence on the activities of MMP-9 and alphavbeta3 integrin. The in vivo expressed CH50 decreased both the production and the activity of MMP-9 in tumor tissues. CH50 also down-regulated alphavbeta3 expression in tumor cells and endothelial cells in vitro. The decreased activity of alphavbeta3 integrin was proved by its reduced binding ability to fibrinogen and the down-regulation of cdc2 expression. The gene therapy with CH50 not only prolonged the survival of mice bearing hepatocarcinoma in the liver, but also suppressed the growth and invasive ability of tumor in spleen and its metastasis to liver. Taken together, these findings suggest a prospective utility of CH50 in the gene therapy of liver cancer.

  15. Oxidative stress contributes to cobalt oxide nanoparticles-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in human hepatocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Y, Al Omar Suliman; Ahamed, Maqusood; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2013-01-01

    Background Cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs) are increasingly recognized for their utility in biological applications, magnetic resonance imaging, and drug delivery. However, little is known about the toxicity of Co3O4NPs in human cells. Methods We investigated the possible mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by Co3O4NPs in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, apoptosis, and DNA damage were assessed in HepG2 cells after Co3O4NPs and Co2+ exposure. Results Co3O4NPs elicited a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in glutathione with a concomitant increase in lipid hydroperoxide, ROS generation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity after 24- and 48-hour exposure. Co3O4NPs had a mild cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells; however, it induced ROS and oxidative stress, leading to DNA damage, a probable mechanism of genotoxicity. The comet assay showed a statistically significant (P < 0.01) dose- and time-related increase in DNA damage for Co3O4NPs, whereas Co2+ induced less change than Co3O4NPs but significantly more than control. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that Co3O4NPs induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells through ROS and oxidative stress. PMID:23326189

  16. Suppression of established hepatocarcinoma in adjuvant only immunotherapy: alum triggers anti-tumor CD8+ T cell response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Xuanyi; Wen, Yumei; Fu, Jing; Wang, Hongyang; Ma, Zhangmei; Shi, Yan; Wang, Bin

    2015-12-09

    Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy is a new weapon in our battle against malignancies in human. Recent trials in human and research work in model animals have shown various degrees of success, suggesting its great potential for clinical use. While protocols vary, a common scheme in this category of treatment involves activation of dendritic cells, with the purpose of increasing antigen presentation and cellular immunity. Therefore, proper use of immune adjuvant is a central subject of study. We report here an unexpected finding that injection of alum, the most widely used human adjuvant, into mice carrying H22 hepatocarcinoma resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth with extended animal survival. This effect was associated with an increased specific CD8(+) T cell activation and an inflammatory environment, yet with minimal overt side effects. Our finding suggests that use of adjuvant alone in certain established tumors can invoke protective host immune activation against the same target, which may be of value in our development of new cancer immunotherapies.

  17. Dual Inhibition of Cdc7 and Cdk9 by PHA-767491 Suppresses Hepatocarcinoma Synergistically with 5-Fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Le; Shang, Shi-Qiang; Shen, Hong-Qiang; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is essential in chemoresistance of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and other antimetabolite family of drugs. In this study, we demonstrated that PHA-767491, a dual inhibitor of two cell cycle checkpoint kinases, cell division cycle kinase 7 (Cdc7) and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9), has synergistic antitumor effect with 5-FU to suppress human HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with the sole use of each agent, PHA-767491 in combination with 5-FU exhibited much stronger cytotoxicity and induced significant apoptosis manifested by remarkably increased caspase 3 activation and poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase fragmentation in HCC cells. PHA-767491 directly counteracted the 5-FU-induced phosphorylation of Chk1, a substrate of Cdc7; and decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein myeloid leukemia cell 1, a downstream target of Cdk9. In tumor tissues sectioned from nude mice HCC xenografts, administration of PHA-767491 also decreased Chk1 phosphorylation and increased in situ cell apoptosis. Our study suggests that PHA- 767491 could enhance the efficacy of 5-FU by inhibiting Chk1 phosphorylation and down-regulating Mcl1 expression through inhibition of Cdc7 and Cdk9, thus combinational administration of PHA-767491 with 5-FU could be potentially beneficial to patients with advanced and resistant HCC.

  18. [The inhibition effect and its molecular mechanism of human cervical cancer oncogene siRNA on hepatocarcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Liu, An-Ding

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the effect and the possible mechanism of HCCR siRNA on cell proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells. pRIV2-siHCCR plasmids, which express small interfering RNA of HCCR were constructed and transfected into HepG2 cells. The mRNA and protein expressions of HCCR were detected by real time PCR and Western blot. The proteins p15, p16, p27, p53, and PTEN were detected by Western blot. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed by MTT and FACS. The plasmid pRIV2-siHCCR was constructed successfully. Real time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the HCCR siRNA effectively inhibited HCCR expression in HepG2 cells after pRIV2-siHCCR transfection. MTT method confirmed that HepG2 cell proliferation was suspended, while the cell apoptosis was increased much more than that in the control group. After the transfection with the plasmid of pRIV2-siHCCR into HepG2 cells, the expression of p53 protein was decreased, and P15 increased; and levels of PTEN, p16, and p27 were evidently not changed. After being transfected with HCCR siRNA expression plasmid, the cell proliferation of HepG2 was arrested, while the apoptosis of HepG2 cells increased. Our results demonstrate the potential role of p53 and p15 in HCCR signaling.

  19. Anti-tumor effect of Cordyceps militaris in HCV-infected human hepatocarcinoma 7.5 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seulki; Lee, Hwan Hee; Kim, Jisung; Jung, Joohee; Moon, Aree; Jeong, Choon-Sik; Kang, Hyojeung; Cho, Hyosun

    2015-07-01

    Cordyceps extract has been reported to have various pharmacological activities including an anti-cancer effect. We investigated the inhibitory effect of Cordyceps militaris on hepatitis C virus-infected human hepatocarcinoma 7.5 cells (J6/JFH1-huh 7.5 cells). The huh7.5 cells with or without HCV infection were treated with various concentrations of ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris (CME) for 48 h and the cytotoxicity was measured by CCK-8 assay. Both J6/JFH1-huh7.5 cells and huh7.5 cells were highly susceptible to CME. To examine the molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effect on huh7.5 cells, the effect of CME on cell apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry and the expressions of p53, Bim, Bax, PARP, (cleaved) caspase-9, and (cleaved) caspase- 3 in huh 7.5 cells were detected by western blot assays. CME significantly increased early apoptosis and up-regulated the expression of Bim, Bax, cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase 9 and cleaved caspase-3. We also found the decrease of HCV Core or NS3 protein by CME in HCV-infected huh 7.5 cells.

  20. Effects of R type and S type ginsenoside Rg3 on DNA methylation in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Teng, Siying; Wang, Yi; Li, Pingya; Liu, Jinhua; Wei, Anhui; Wang, Haotian; Meng, Xiangkun; Pan, Di; Zhang, Xinmin

    2017-04-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a bioactive constituent isolated from Panax ginseng, exhibits antitumorigenic, antioxidative, antiangiogenic, neuroprotective and other biological activities are associated with the regulation of multiple genes. DNA methylation patterns, particularly those in the promoter region, affect gene expression, and DNA methylation is catalyzed by DNA methylases. However, whether ginsenoside Rg3 affects DNA methylation is unknown. High performance liquid chromatography assay, MspI/HpaII polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR were performed to assess DNA methylation. It was demonstrated that 20(S)‑ginsenoside Rg3 treatment resulted in increased inhibition of cell growth, compared with treatment with 20(R)‑ginsenoside Rg3 in the human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cell line. It was additionally revealed that treatment with 20(S)‑ginsenoside Rg3 reduced global genomic DNA methylation, altered cystosine methylation of the promoter regions of P53, B cell lymphoma 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor, and downregulated the expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3a and DNMT3b more than treatment with 20(R)‑ginsenoside Rg3 in HepG2 cells. These results revealed that the modulation of DNA methylation may be important in the pharmaceutical activities of ginsenoside Rg3.

  1. JS-K, a novel non-ionic diazeniumdiolate derivative, inhibits Hep 3B hepatoma cell growth and induces c-Jun phosphorylation via multiple MAP kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhenggang; Kar, Siddhartha; Wang, Ziqiu; Wang, Meifang; Saavedra, Joseph E; Carr, Brian I

    2003-12-01

    JS-K, a non-ionic diazeniumdiolate derivative, is capable of arylating nucleophiles and spontaneously generating nitric oxide (NO) at physiological pH. This recently synthesized low molecular weight compound is shown here to be an inhibitor of cell growth with concomitant activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members ERK, JNK, and p38 and their downstream effectors c-Jun and AP-1. Inhibitors of these MAPK pathways abrogated the growth inhibitory actions of JS-K. In addition to the well-described actions of JNK as a kinase for c-Jun, we show that c-Jun is also an ERK target. Furthermore, JS-K generated NO in culture and NO inhibitors antagonized both MAPK induction and the growth inhibitory effects of JS-K. These results suggest two possible mechanisms for the mediation of JS-K growth inhibitory actions, namely NO-induction of MAPK pathway constituents as well as possible arylation reactions. The data support the idea that prolonged MAPK activation by JS-K action is important in mediating its growth-inhibitory actions. JS-K thus represents a promising platform for novel growth inhibitory analog synthesis.

  2. Manassantin A and B from Saururus chinensis inhibit interleukin-6-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation in Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jong Sun; Lee, Seung Woong; Kim, Myo Sun; Yun, Bo Ra; Park, Mi Hye; Lee, Seok-Geun; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been postulated to be an effective therapy in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. The current study was performed to examine potential effects of manassantin A and B isolated from Saururus chinensis on the IL-6-induced response to human hepatoma cells. We found that manassantin A and B inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activity stimulated by IL-6. We also found that both compounds decreased IL-6-induced Stat3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Both compounds blocked suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3)-mRNA expression induced by IL-6. In addition, we found that Stat3 inhibitory effects of these compounds could be related to protein tyrosine phosphatase. These findings suggest that manassantin A and B could be useful remedies for treatment of inflammatory diseases by inhibiting IL-6 action.

  3. Glutathione deficiency induced by cystine and/or methionine deprivation does not affect thyroid hormone deiodination in cultured rat hepatocytes and monkey hepatocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.; Robbins, J.

    1981-09-01

    To elucidate the recently advanced hypothesis that glutathione (L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl glycine (GSH)) regulates deiodinating enzyme activities, accounting for the decreased conversion of T4 to T3 in the liver of fetal and starved animals, we investigated thyroid hormone metabolism in GSH-depleted neoplastic and normal hepatocytes. In monkey hepatocarcinoma cells, intracellular total GSH decreased below 10% of the control value (approximately 25 micrograms/mg protein) when cells were grown for 44 h in medium deficient in cystine and methionine or in cystine alone. The latter finding indicated that transsulfuration from methionine to cysteine was defective in these neoplastic cells. In primary cultured adult rat hepatocytes, on the other hand, the transsulfuration pathway was intact, and total GSH decreased below 10% of control (approximately 20 micrograms/mg protein) only in cells grown in cystine- and methionine-deficient medium. In both cell types, the oxidized GSH fraction remained constant (2-5% of total). Incubation with 125I-labeled T4 and T3, followed by chromatography, was used to evaluate 5-deiodination in hepatocarcinoma cells and both 5- and 5'-deiodination in normal hepatocytes. Deiodination was not decreased by GSH deficiency in either case, but was actually increased in hepatocarcinoma cells. This resulted from an increase in the Vmax of 5-deiodinase related to growth arrest. Diamide at 2 mM reversibly inhibited both 5'- and 5'-deiodination in rat hepatocytes, accompanied by decreased total GSH as well as increased GSH disulfide (27% of total). The data suggest that GSH is so abundant in the liver that hepatocytes can tolerate a greater than 90% decrease in intracellular concentration without any change in thyroid hormone deiodination and indicate that altered thyroid hormone metabolism in the fetus and in starvation cannot be accounted for by a decreased hepatic GSH concentration.

  4. V Consensus Meeting of the Spanish Society for Liver Transplant on high-risk recipients, immunosupression scenarios and management of hepatocarcinoma on the transplant waiting list.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Fernando; Pons, José Antonio; Briceño, Javier

    2015-12-01

    With the aim to promote the elaboration of consensus documents on state of the art topics in liver transplantation with multidisciplinary management, the Spanish Society for Liver Transplantation (SETH) organized the V Consensus Meeting with the participation of experts from all the Spanish liver transplant programs. In this edition, the following topics were revised, and we present the summary: 1. High-risk receptors; 2. Immunosuppression scenarios; and 3. Management of the patient with hepatocarcinoma in the waiting list. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [V Consensus Meeting of the Spanish Society for Liver Transplant on high-risk recipients, immunosupression scenarios and management of hepatocarcinoma on the transplant waiting list].

    PubMed

    Pardo, Fernando; Pons, José Antonio; Briceño, Javier

    2015-12-01

    With the aim to promote the elaboration of consensus documents on state of the art topics in liver transplantation with multidisciplinary management, the Spanish Society for Liver Transplantation (SETH) organized the V Consensus Meeting with the participation of experts from all the Spanish liver transplant programs. In this edition, the following topics were revised, and we present the summary: 1. High-risk receptors; 2. Immunosuppression scenarios; and 3. Management of the patient with hepatocarcinoma in the waiting list. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-Metastasis Effect of Fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida Sporophylls in Mouse Hepatocarcinoma Hca-F Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peisheng; Liu, Zhichao; Liu, Xianli; Teng, Hongming; Zhang, Cuili; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is one of the major causes of cancer-related death. It is a complex biological process involving multiple genes, steps, and phases. It is also closely connected to many biological activities of cancer cells, such as growth, invasion, adhesion, hematogenous metastasis, and lymphatic metastasis. Fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls (Ups-fucoidan) is a sulfated polysaccharide with more biological activities than other fucoidans. However, there is no information on the effects of Ups-fucoidan on tumor invasion and metastasis. We used the mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line, which has high invasive and lymphatic metastasis potential in vitro and in vivo, to examine the effect of Ups-fucoidan on cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Ups-fucoidan exerted a concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on tumor metastasis in vivo and inhibited Hca-F cell growth, migration, invasion, and adhesion capabilities in vitro. Ups-fucoidan inhibited growth and metastasis by downregulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C/VEGF receptor 3, hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, phosphorylated (p) phosphoinositide 3-kinase, p-Akt, p-extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), and suppressed adhesion and invasion by downregulating L-Selectin, and upregulating protein levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The results suggest that Ups-fucoidan suppresses Hca-F cell growth, adhesion, invasion, and metastasis capabilities and that these functions are mediated through the mechanism involving inactivation of the NF-κB pathway mediated by PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways. PMID:25162296

  7. Down-regulation of glutaminase C in human hepatocarcinoma cell by diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Kayoko . E-mail: kkayoko@pharm.teikyo-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Toshihide; Ochi, Takafumi

    2007-05-01

    In a poisonous incident in Kamisu, Japan, it is understood that diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was a critical contaminant of ground water. Most patients showed dysfunction of the central nervous system. To understand the overall mechanism of DPAA toxicity and to gain some insight into the application of a remedy specific for intoxication, the molecular target must be clarified. As an approach, a high throughput analysis of cell proteins in cultured human hepatocarcinoma HpG2 exposed to DPAA was performed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Four proteins, which were up- and down-regulated by exposure of cultured HepG2 cells to DPAA, were identified. They were chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) beta subunit, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), ribosomal protein P0 and glutaminase C (GAC). Of these, GAC was the only protein that was down-regulated by DPAA exposure, and cellular expression levels were reduced by DPAA in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Decrease in cellular GAC levels was accompanied by decreased activity of the enzyme, phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG). Decreased expression of GAC by DPAA was also observed in human cervical carcinoma HeLa and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. By contrast, no significant changes in GAC protein expression were observed when cells were incubated with arsenite [iAs (III)] and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid [DMA (III)]. In the central nervous system, GAC plays a role in the production of the neurotransmitter glutamic acid. Selective inhibition of GAC expression by DPAA may be a cause of dysfunction of glutamatergic neuronal transmission and the resultant neurological impairments.

  8. Anti-metastasis effect of fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls in mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peisheng; Liu, Zhichao; Liu, Xianli; Teng, Hongming; Zhang, Cuili; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is one of the major causes of cancer-related death. It is a complex biological process involving multiple genes, steps, and phases. It is also closely connected to many biological activities of cancer cells, such as growth, invasion, adhesion, hematogenous metastasis, and lymphatic metastasis. Fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls (Ups-fucoidan) is a sulfated polysaccharide with more biological activities than other fucoidans. However, there is no information on the effects of Ups-fucoidan on tumor invasion and metastasis. We used the mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line, which has high invasive and lymphatic metastasis potential in vitro and in vivo, to examine the effect of Ups-fucoidan on cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Ups-fucoidan exerted a concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on tumor metastasis in vivo and inhibited Hca-F cell growth, migration, invasion, and adhesion capabilities in vitro. Ups-fucoidan inhibited growth and metastasis by downregulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C/VEGF receptor 3, hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, phosphorylated (p) phosphoinositide 3-kinase, p-Akt, p-extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), and suppressed adhesion and invasion by downregulating L-Selectin, and upregulating protein levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The results suggest that Ups-fucoidan suppresses Hca-F cell growth, adhesion, invasion, and metastasis capabilities and that these functions are mediated through the mechanism involving inactivation of the NF-κB pathway mediated by PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways.

  9. In vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging with chlorotoxin-conjugated superparamagnetic nanoprobes for targeting hepatocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Xiao, En-Hua; Kang, Zhen; Zeng, Wen-Bin; Tan, Hui-Long; Li, Hua-Bing; Bian, Du-Jun; Shang, Quan-Liang

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of chlorotoxin (CTX)-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoprobes. CTX-conjugated nanoprobes were composed of SPIO coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and conjugated with CTX. The nanoprobes were termed SPIO-PEG-CTX. MRI of the SPIO and SPIO-PEG-CTX solutions at a different concentration was performed with a 3.0-T MRI scanner (Philips Achieva 3.0T X Series; Phillips Healthcare, The Netherlands). Rabbit VX2 hepatocarcinoma was established by a traditional laparotomy method (injection of the tumor particles into the liver using a 15G syringe needle) following approval by the institutional animal care and use committee. Contrast-enhanced MRI of VX2 rabbits (n=8) was performed using the same MRI scanner with SPIO‑PEG-CTX solutions as the contrast agent. Data were analyzed with calibration curve and a paired t-test. The SPIO-PEG-CTX nanoparticles were successfully prepared. With increasing concentrations of the solutions, the MRI signal intensity was increased at T1WI, but decreased at T2WI, which were the same as that for SPIO. Rabbit VX2 carcinoma appeared as a low MRI signal at T1WI, and high at T2WI. After injection of the contrast agent, the MRI signal of carcinoma was decreased relative to that before injection at T2WI (1,161±331.5 vs. 1,346±300.5; P=0.004<0.05), while the signal of the adjacent normal hepatic tissues was unchanged (480.6±165.1 vs. 563.4±67.8; P=0.202>0.05). The SPIO-PEG-CTX nanoparticles showed MRI negative enhancement at T2WI and a targeting effect in liver cancer, which provides the theoretical basis for further study of the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Construction of a targeting adenoviral vector carrying AFP promoter for expressing EGFP gene in AFP producing hepatocarcinoma cell

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu-Jun; Gong, Jian-Ping; Liu, Chang-An; Li, Xu-Hong; Mei, Ying; Mi, Can; Huo, Yan-Ying

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct a recombinant adenoviral vector carrying AFP promoter and EGFP gene for specific expression of EGFP gene in AFP producing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. METHODS: Based on the Adeno-XTM expression system, the human immediate early cytomegalovirus promoter (PCMV IE) was removed from the plasmid, pshuttle, and replaced by a 0.3 kb α-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter that was synthesized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was inserted into the multi-clone site (MCS), and then the recombinant adenovirus vector carrying the 0.3 kb AFP promoter and EGFP gene was constructed. Cells of a normal liver cell line (LO2), a hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2) and a cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) were transfected with the adenovirus. Northern blot and fluorescence microscopy were used to detect the expression of the EGFP gene at mRNA or protein level in three different cell lines. RESULTS: The 0.3 kb AFP promoter was synthesized through PCR from the human genome. The AFP promoter and EGFP gene were directly inserted into the plasmid pshuttle as confirmed by restriction digestion and DNA sequencing. Northern blot showed that EGFP gene was markedly transcribed in HepG2 cells, but only slightly in LO2 and HeLa cells. In addition, strong green fluorescence was observed in HepG2 cells under a fluorescence microscopy, but fluorescence was very weak LO2 and HeLa cells. CONCLUSION: Under control of the 0.3 kb human AFP promoter, the recombinant adenovirus vector carrying EGFP gene can be specially expressed in AFP-producing HepG2 cells. Therefore, this adenovirus system can be used as a novel, potent and specific tool for gene-targeting therapy for the AFP positive primary hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:14716819

  11. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of six herbal plants against the human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 μg/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 μg/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 μg/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells. PMID:22041055

  12. High-throughput Immunoblotting Identifies Biotin-dependent Signaling Proteins in HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Melendez, Rocio; Griffin, Jacob B.; Sarath, Gautam; Zempleni, Janos

    2005-01-01

    Biotin affects the abundance of mRNA coding for approximately 10% of genes expressed in human-derived hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. Here, we determined whether effects of biotin on gene expression are associated with changes in the abundance of distinct proteins in cell signaling and structure. HepG2 cells were cultured in media containing the following concentrations of biotin: 0.025 nmol/L (denoted “deficient”), 0.25 nmol/L (“physiological” = control), and 10 nmol/L (“pharmacological”) for 10 d before harvesting. The abundance of 1,009 proteins from whole cell extracts was quantified by using high-throughput immunoblots. The abundance of 44 proteins changed by at least 25% in biotin-deficient and biotin-supplemented cells compared with physiological controls. One-third of these proteins participate in cell signaling. Specifically, proteins associated with receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling were identified as targets of biotin; the abundance of these proteins was greater in biotin-deficient cells compared with controls. This was associated with increased DNA-binding activities of transcription factors Fos and Jun, and increased expression of a reporter gene driven by AP1-binding elements in biotin-deficient cells compared with physiological controls. The abundance of selected signaling proteins was not paralleled by the abundance of mRNA, suggesting that biotin affects expression of these genes at a posttranscriptional step. Additional clusters of biotin-responsive proteins were identified that play roles in cytoskeleton homeostasis, nuclear structure and transport, and neuroscience. This study is consistent with the existence of clusters of biotin-responsive proteins in distinct biological processes, including signaling by Fos/Jun; the latter might mediate pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of biotin deficiency. PMID:15987846

  13. High expression of hexokinase domain containing 1 is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive phenotype in hepatocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zijian; Huang, Shanzhou; Wang, Huanyu; Wu, Jian; Chen, Dong; Peng, Baogang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-06-10

    Rapid progress and metastasis remain the major treatment failure modes of hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms of hepatoma cell proliferation and migration are poorly understood. Metabolic abnormalities play critical roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose. However, the functions and mechanisms of HKDC1 in cancer remain unknown. In this study, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting assays were used to detect the HKDC1 expression levels in HCC tissues and cell lines. The Oncomine™ Cancer Microarray Database was applied to analysis the correlations between HKDC1 expression and HCC clinical characteristics. MTT and Transwell migration assays were performed to determine the functions of HKDC1 in HCC cells. The effect of HKDC1 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was assessed using Western blotting assay. In this study, we found that HKDC1 expression levels were elevated in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent tissues. HCC patients with high expression levels of HKDC1 had poor overall survival (OS). Furthermore, higher HKDC1 levels also predicted a worse OS of patients within solitary, elevated pre-operated serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level and higher tumor diameter. Moreover, silencing HKDC1 suppressed HCC cells proliferation and migration in vitro. Downregulated HKDC1 expression repressed β-Catenin and c-Myc expression, which indicates that silencing HKDC1 may reduce proliferation and migration via inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCC. In summary, HKDC1 provides further insight into HCC tumor progression and may provide a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC treatment. -- Highlights: •HKDC1 is upregulated in HCC. •Patients with high HKDC1 expressions perform worse OS. •Silencing HKDC1 suppresses proliferation and migration. •Silencing HKDC1 represses Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  14. Gelsolin negatively regulates the activity of tumor suppressor p53 through their physical interaction in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    An, Joo-Hee; Kim, Jung-Woong; Jang, Sang-Min; Kim, Chul-Hong; Kang, Eun-Jin; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} The actin binding protein Gelsolin (GSN) interacts with transcription factor p53. {yields} GSN interacts with transactivation- and DNA binding domains of p53. {yields} GSN represses transactivity of p53 via inhibition of nuclear translocation of p53. {yields} GSN inhibits the p53-mediated apoptosis in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: As a transcription factor, p53 modulates several cellular responses including cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and differentiation. In this study, we have shown that an actin regulatory protein, gelsolin (GSN), can physically interact with p53. The nuclear localization of p53 is inhibited by GSN overexpression in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that GSN negatively regulates p53-dependent transcriptional activity of a reporter construct, driven by the p21-promoter. Furthermore, p53-mediated apoptosis was repressed in GSN-transfected HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that GSN binds to p53 and this interaction leads to the inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis by anchoring of p53 in the cytoplasm in HepG2 cells.

  15. The Evaluation and Comparison of Transcriptionally Targeted Noxa and Puma Killer Genes to Initiate Apoptosis Under Cancer-Specific Promoter CXCR1 in Hepatocarcinoma Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Khoshtinat Nikkhoi, Shahryar; Heydarzadeh, Hedieh; Ranjbar, Saeed; Salimi, Fatemeh; Aghaeifard, Masoud; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Reshadmanesh, Azadeh

    2016-10-01

    Cancerous cells proliferate as fast as possible without a proper surveillance system. This rapid cell division leads to enormous mutation rates, which help a tumor establish. This study evaluated the potential of inducing apoptosis using Noxa and Puma in a hepatocarcinoma cell line. The current study generated two recombinant lentiviruses, pLEX-GCN and pLEX-GCP, bearing Noxa and Puma, respectively. Transduction of both genes to hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) was verified using fluorescent microscopic analysis, western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To evaluate the potential of Noxa and Puma to initiate apoptosis, a caspase-9 real-time, MTT assay, and a 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) reagent were performed to stain apoptotic cells. The data verified successful transduction to HepG2 and HEK293T. Higher relative expression of Noxa and Puma rather than the untransduced cell line showed these genes are expressed more in HepG2 in comparison to HEK293T. The results of the real-time PCR, MTT assay, and DAPI reagent illustrated that higher cells initiated apoptosis following Puma transduction rather than Noxa. In this approach, the suicide gene was transferred to transformed cells and ignited apoptosis to exterminate them. Puma is a more potent killer gene and has higher capabilities to start intrinsic apoptosis pathway.

  16. Guinea pig line 10 hepatocarcinoma model: characterization of monoclonal antibody and in vivo effect of unconjugated antibody and antibody conjugated to diphtheria toxin A chain.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, M I; Foon, K A; Oeltmann, T N; Key, M E; Hwang, K M; Clarke, G C; Christensen, W L; Hoyer, L C; Hanna, M G; Oldham, R K

    1983-09-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against the guinea pig line 10 (L10) hepatocarcinoma, and an IgG1-producing hybridoma (D3) was selected for further study. D3 is a true monoclonal antibody as demonstrated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Radioimmunoassays on live cells revealed no cross-reactivity with normal tissues or with the line 1 hepatocarcinoma which was used as a control. Membrane immunofluorescence assays demonstrated similar specificity. Immunoperoxidase staining of cryostat sections of tumor and normal tissues of both adult animals and fetuses showed that the D3 monoclonal antibody reacted primarily with the L10 tumor, but some cross-reactivity with smooth muscle, placenta, fetal skeletal muscle, and fetal liver was also demonstrated. Radioimmunoprecipitation of detergent extracts of iodinated L10 cells showed that the antigen is present on the cell surface as a dimer of Mr 290,000 (unit size, Mr 148,000). Therapy studies with unconjugated D3 antibody demonstrated a minor dose-dependent effect on tumor growth. D3 antibody conjugated to the A chain of diphtheria toxin (10(-7) M) was cytotoxic to 100% of L10 cells in vitro. Animals treated with a single 1-mg i.v. injection of this immunoconjugate on Day 7 following the intradermal injection of 10(5) tumor cells demonstrated a highly significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to control animals and those treated with unconjugated antibody.

  17. Homologous regulation of the α2C-adrenoceptor subtype in human hepatocarcinoma, HepG2

    PubMed Central

    Cayla, Cécile; Schaak, Stéphane; Roquelaine, Cyril; Gales, Céline; Quinchon, Françoise; Paris, Hervé

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies of the regulation of the α2C-adrenoceptor in OK and in transfected cells have led to discrepant conclusions. In the present work, we examined the homologous regulation of the human α2C-adrenoceptor in the hepatocarcinoma cell-line, HepG2; a model which expresses this subtype spontaneously.Short-period treatment of the cells with UK14304 provoked neither a diminution of the potency of the α2-agonist to inhibit forskolin-induced cyclic AMP-accumulation nor a change in the degree of receptor coupling to G-proteins.Long-period exposure to UK14304 resulted in a large reduction of [3H]MK912 binding sites (55% decrease). The action of UK14304 was dose-dependent (EC50=190±45 nM), rapid (t1/2 =4.2 h) and reversible. Receptor down-regulation was also observed with clonidine or (−)adrenaline (38 and 36% decrease, respectively) and was blocked by the addition of α2-antagonists.Conversely to that observed with α2-agonists, treatment of the cells with RX821002 or yohimbine alone, but not with phentolamine, promoted a significant increase of the receptor expression.The observed alterations of receptor density are not the reflection of changes at the α2C4 mRNA level. Estimation of the receptor protein turnover and measurement of its half-life demonstrated that down-regulation by α2-agonists and up-regulation by α2-antagonists, with inverse-agonist efficacy, are respectively the consequence of increased and decreased rate of receptor degradation.In conclusion, our data show that α2C-adrenoceptor does not undergo desensitization but is down-regulated in HepG2. The lack of desensitization agrees with previous results obtained in cells transfected with the α2C4 gene, but not with observations made in OK cells. Inversely, down-regulation fits with results obtained in OK but not in transfected cells. The reasons for these discrepancies are discussed. Our results also demonstrated that certain α2-antagonists behave as inverse agonist on the HepG2 model

  18. [1-9-NαC]-crourorb A1 isolated from Croton urucurana latex induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    de Matos Cândido-Bacani, Priscila; Ezan, Frédéric; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Patrícia; Matos, Maria de Fátima Cepa; Rodrigues Garcez, Fernanda; Silva Garcez, Walmir; Baffet, Georges

    2017-05-05

    [1-9-NαC]-crourorb A1 is a cyclic peptide isolated from Croton urucurana Baillon latex, found in midwestern Brazil, that has been shown to exert cytotoxic effects against a panel of cancer cell lines. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the crourorb A1-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells remain unknown. In this study, the effects of crourorb A1 on the viability, apoptosis, cell cycle and migration of Huh-7 (human hepatocarcinoma) cells were investigated. We evaluated the viability of Huh-7 cells treated with crourorb A1 in 2D and 3D collagen cultures and found that cells in 3D culture exhibited increased resistance to crourorb A1 compared to cells in 2D culture (IC50: 62μg/ml versus 35.75μg/ml). Crourorb A1 treatment decreases the viability of Huh-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and is associated with the induction of apoptosis, in the absence of necrotic cells, through the activation of caspase-3/7 and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak, Bid, Bax, Puma, Bim, and Bad. The effects of crourorb A1 are also associated with G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and increases in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1) and cyclin B1 expression. A significant reduction in Huh-7 cell migration induced by crourorb A1 was also observed in the presence of mitomycin C. Finally, we showed that the JNK/MAP pathway, but not ERK signaling, is involved in crourorb A1-induced hepatocarcinoma cell mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Target-selective photo-degradation of AFP-L3 and selective photo-cytotoxicity against HuH-7 hepatocarcinoma cells using an anthraquinone-PhoSL hybrid.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Mai; Ueno, Haruna; Kobayashi, Yuka; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Daisuke; Toshima, Kazunobu

    2016-02-04

    A purposefully-designed anthraquinone-Pholiota squarrosa lectin (PhoSL) hybrid effectively degraded α-fetoprotein-L3 (AFP-L3) associated with liver cancer. Degradation was achieved under light irradiation in the absence of any additives and under neutral pH conditions. Moreover, the hybrid effectively exhibited selective photo-cytotoxicity against HuH-7 hepatocarcinoma cells upon photo-irradiation.

  20. Antibodies against Clonorchis sinensis LDH could cross-react with LDHB localizing on the plasma membrane of human hepatocarcinoma cell SMMC-7721 and induce apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Tianzhang; Gan, Wenjia; Chen, Jintao; Huang, Lilin; Yin, Hongling; He, Tailong; Huang, Huaiqiu; Hu, Xuchu

    2016-04-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a terminal enzyme in anaerobic glycolytic pathway. It widely exists in various organisms and is in charge of converting the glycolysis product pyruvic acid to lactic acid. Most parasites, including Clonorchis sinensis, predominantly depend on glycolysis to provide energy. Bioinformatic analysis predicts that the LDHs from many species have more than one transmembrane region, suggesting that it may be a membrane protein. C. sinensis LDH (CsLDH) has been confirmed as a transmembrane protein mainly located in the tegument. The antibodies against CsLDH can inhibit the worm's energy metabolism, kill the worm, and may have the same effects on human cancer cells. In this study, we cloned and characterized human LDHA (HsLDHA), HsLDHB, and CsLDH. Semi-quantitative real-time RCP showed that HsLDHB only existed in hepatocarcinoma cell SMMC-7721. Confocal microscopy and Western blot experiments revealed that HsLDHB was localized in the plasma membrane of SMMC-7721 cells, and the antibodies against CsLDH could cross-react with it. This cross-reaction could inhibit the enzymatic activity of HsLDHB. The cancer cells co-cultured with anti-CsLDH sera showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation rate and increases in caspase 9 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Therefore, anti-CsLDH antibodies can induce the apoptosis of cancer cells SMMC-7721 and may serve as a new tool to inhibit tumor.

  1. Overexpression of sulfatase-1 in murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line downregulates mesothelin and leads to reduction in lymphatic metastasis, both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Salma; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Hago, Ahmed; Huang, Yuhong; Wei, Yuanyi; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Qingqing; Xiao, Yu; Wang, Jingwen; Adam, Munkaila; Guo, Yu; Wang, Li; Zhou, Shuting; Xin, Boyi; Xuan, Wei; Tang, Jianwu

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels function as transport channels for tumor cells to metastasize from the primary site into the lymph nodes. In this experiment we evaluated the effect of Sulfatase-1 (Sulf-1) on metastasis by upregulating it in murine hepatocarcinoma cell line Hca-F with high lymph node metastatic rate of >75%. The study in vitro showed that upregulation of Sulf-1 in Hca-F cells significantly reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion (p<0.05). Also, the forced expression of Sulf-1 downregulated Mesothelin (Msln) at both the protein and mRNA levels. The experiment in vivo further showed that up-regulation of Sulf-1 with the attendant downregulation of mesothelin delayed tumor growth and decreased lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Sulf-1 is an important tumor suppressor gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and its overexpression downregulates Msln and results in a decrease in HCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and lymphatic metastasis. This functional relationship between Sulf-1 and Msln could be exploited for the development of a novel liver cancer therapy. PMID:27626699

  2. HD-03/ES: A Herbal Medicine Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Secretion in Transfected Human Hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 Cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sundaram, R; Gopumadhavan, S; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad S

    2013-01-01

    HD-03/ES is a herbal formulation used for the treatment of hepatitis B. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the antihepatitis B (HBV) activity of this drug has not been studied using in vitro models. The effect of HD-03/ES on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion and its gene expression was studied in transfected human hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 cells. The anti-HBV activity was tested based on the inhibition of HBsAg secretion into the culture media, as detected by HBsAg-specific antibody-mediated enzyme assay (ELISA) at concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000  μ g/mL. The effect of HD-03/ES on HBsAg gene expression was analyzed using semiquantitative multiplex RT-PCR by employing specific primers. The results showed that HD-03/ES suppressed HBsAg production with an IC50 of 380  μ g/mL in PLC/PRF/5 cells for a period of 24 h. HD-03/ES downregulated HBsAg gene expression in PLC/PRF/5 cells. In conclusion, HD-03/ES exhibits strong anti-HBV properties by inhibiting the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen in PLC/PRF/5 cells, and this action is targeted at the transcription level. Thus, HD-03/ES could be beneficial in the treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections.

  3. β-Elemene Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Regulating the Expression and Activity of Topoisomerases I and IIα in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Min; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Ya-jie; Zhai, Ping-ping; Su, Xi; Li, Xiang; Li, Yan; Hou, Li; Cui, Xiao-nan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of β-Elemene (β-ELE) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and topoisomerase I (TOPO I) and topoisomerase IIα (TOPO IIα) expression and activity of human hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 cells. Methods. After treatment with β-ELE, morphological alterations of HepG-2 cells were observed under an inverted microscope. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTT assay, cell cycles were analyzed using flow cytometry, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/PI staining. The expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα was analyzed by Western blot techniques, and their activity was measured using the TOPO I-mediated, supercoiled pBR322 DNA relaxation and TOPO IIα-mediated Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) decatenation assays, respectively. Supercoiled pBR322 and kDNA were also used to determine the direct effect of β-ELE on DNA breaks. Results. β-ELE significantly inhibited HepG-2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. β-ELE also induced tumor cell arrest at S phase, induced cell apoptosis, and downregulated the protein expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα in a dose-dependent manner. β-ELE also inhibited TOPO I- and TOPO IIα-mediated DNA relaxation but did not directly induce DNA breakage at any concentration. Conclusion. β-ELE could inhibit the proliferation of HepG-2 cells and interfere with the expression and activity of TOPO I and TOPO IIα. PMID:26221582

  4. PLGA-Loaded Gold-Nanoparticles Precipitated with Quercetin Downregulate HDAC-Akt Activities Controlling Proliferation and Activate p53-ROS Crosstalk to Induce Apoptosis in Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bishayee, Kausik; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2015-06-01

    Controlled release of medications remains the most convenient way to deliver drugs. In this study, we precipitated gold nanoparticles with quercetin. We loaded gold-quercetin into poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (NQ) and tested the biological activity of NQ on HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells to acquire the sustained release property. We determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy that NQ effectively caused conformational changes in DNA and modulated different proteins related to epigenetic modifications and cell cycle control. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, and caspase 3 activity were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the expression profiles of different anti- and pro-apoptotic as well as epigenetic signals were studied by immunoblotting. A cytotoxicity assay indicated that NQ preferentially killed cancer cells, compared to normal cells. NQ interacted with HepG2 cell DNA and reduced histone deacetylases to control cell proliferation and arrest the cell cycle at the sub-G stage. Activities of cell cycle-related proteins, such as p21(WAF), cdk1, and pAkt, were modulated. NQ induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells by activating p53-ROS crosstalk and induces epigenetic modifications leading to inhibited proliferation and cell cycle arrest.

  5. Valproic acid (VPA) promotes the epithelial mesenchymal transition of hepatocarcinoma cells via transcriptional and post-transcriptional up regulation of Snail.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Feng, Hua; Hu, Jinhua; Tian, Xiangguo; Zhang, Chunqing

    2016-12-01

    Due to the low cost and favorable safety profile, valproic acid (VPA) has been considered as a potential candidate drug for therapy of various cancers. Our present study revealed that VPA, at the concentration (1mM) which has no effect on cell proliferation, can significantly increase the in vitro migration and invasion of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) HepG2 and Huh7 cells via induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). VPA treatment can significantly increase the mRNA and protein expression of Snail, the key transcription factor of EMT. While knockdown of Snail can abolish VPA induced EMT of HCC cells. It suggested that Snail is essential for VPA induced EMT of HCC cells. VPA treatment also increased the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. BAY 11-7082, the inhibitor of NF-κB, can significantly abolish VPA induced up regulation of Snail mRNA. Furthermore, VPA can increase the protein expression of Snail since 1h treatment via up regulation of half-lives of Snail protein. The increased protein stabilization of Snail can be attributed to VPA induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β. Collectively, our present study revealed that VPA can promote the EMT of HCC cells via up regulation of Snail through activation of NF-κB and Akt/GSK-3β signals.

  6. In vitro exposure to 0.57-MHz electric currents exerts cytostatic effects in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bule, María Luisa; Trillo, María Angeles; Cid, María Antonia; Leal, Jocelyne; Ubeda, Alejandro

    2007-03-01

    Capacitive-resistive electric transfer (CRET) therapy is a non-invasive technique currently applied to the treatment of skin, muscle and tendon injuries that uses 0.45-0.6 MHz electric currents to transdermically and focally increase the internal temperature of targeted tissues. Because CRET electrothermal treatment has been reported to be more effective than other thermal therapies, it has been proposed that the electric stimulus could induce responses in exposed tissues that are cooperative or synergic with the thermal effects of the treatment. Previous studies by our group, investigating the nature of the alleged electric response, have shown that short, repeated stimuli with 0.57-MHz currents at subthermal levels could provoke partial, cytotoxic effects on human neuroblastoma cells in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response from another human cell type, the human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 line, during and after the exposure to 0.57-MHz CRET currents at subthermal densities. The electric stimuli provoked a decrease in the proliferation rate of the cultures, possibly due to an electrically-induced blocking of the cell cycle in a fraction of the cellular population.

  7. Application of HC-AFW1 Hepatocarcinoma Cells for Mechanistic Studies: Regulation of Cytochrome P450 2B6 Expression by Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Early Growth Response 1.

    PubMed

    Petzuch, Barbara; Groll, Nicola; Schwarz, Michael; Braeuning, Albert

    2015-11-01

    Various exogenous compounds, for example, the drugs bupropione and propofol, but also various cytostatics, are metabolized in the liver by the enzyme cytochrome P450 (P450) CYP2B6. Transcription from the CYP2B6 gene is regulated mainly via the transcription factors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). Most hepatic cell lines express no or only low levels of CYP2B6 because of loss of these two regulators. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is frequently used in liver cell cultivation and is thought to affect the expression of various P450 isoforms by inducing or preserving cellular differentiation. We studied the effects of up to 1.5% of DMSO as cell culture medium supplement on P450 expression in hepatocarcinoma cells from line HC-AFW1. DMSO did not induce differentiation of the HC-AFW1 cell line, as demonstrated by unaltered levels of selected mRNA markers important for hepatocyte differentiation, and also by the lack of a DMSO effect on a broader spectrum of P450s. By contrast, CYP2B6 mRNA was strongly induced by DMSO. This process was independent of CAR or PXR activation. Interestingly, elevated transcription of CYP2B6 was accompanied by a simultaneous induction of early growth response 1 (EGR1), a transcription factor known to influence the expression of CYP2B6. Expression of wild-type EGR1 or of a truncated, dominant-negative EGR1 mutant was able to mimic or attenuate the DMSO effect, respectively. These findings demonstrate that EGR1 is involved in the regulation of CYP2B6 by DMSO in HC-AFW1 cells.

  8. 2'-chloro-4'-aminoflavone derivatives selectively targeting hepatocarcinoma cells: convenient synthetic process, G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis triggers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Tan, Chunyan; Gao, Dan; Zhang, Cunlong; Liu, Feng; Chen, Zhe; Gao, Chunmei; Liu, Hongxia; Li, Shangfu; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-07-01

    A series of 2'-chloro-4'-nitroflavone and 2'-chloro-4'-aminoflavone derivatives were synthesized by a convenient synthetic process. The in vitro anti-proliferation ability of these compounds was evaluated against hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2), breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7), and human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells (K562). Most of synthetic compounds possessed notable anti-proliferation activity against HepG2 cells and little activity against MCF-7 cells and K562 cells. In particular, compounds 4c and 4e exhibited high anti-proliferation activity against HepG2 cells with IC(50) at about 2.0 µM. Further toxicity screening toward normal human hepatocytes indicated that some compounds had low toxicity against normal liver cells, among which 4e displayed very weak effects on QSG7701 and HL7702 cells, with IC(50) values >100 and 50 µM, respectively. Compound 4c, with the best anti-proliferation activity in amino-substituted flavones (IC(50) = 2.0 µM), was selected for further evaluation of its effects on apoptosis and the cell cycle. HepG2 cells were exposed to this compound at 10 µM, which induced nuclear disassembly and DNA fragmentation. Flow cytometry analysis suggested that the population of apoptotic cells greatly increased in the 4c-treated HepG2 cells, and the cell cycle was arrested at the G(2)/M phase. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effects of defined mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on multiple cellular responses in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, using high content analysis screening.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Frizzell, Caroline; Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential. Most studies focus on single compound effects, however as humans are exposed to several POPs simultaneously, investigating exposure effects of real life POP mixtures on human health is necessary. A defined mixture of POPs was used, where the compound concentration reflected its contribution to the levels seen in Scandinavian human serum (total mix). Several sub mixtures representing different classes of POPs were also constructed. The perfluorinated (PFC) mixture contained six perfluorinated compounds, brominated (Br) mixture contained seven brominated compounds, chlorinated (Cl) mixture contained polychlorinated biphenyls and also p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, three chlordanes, three hexachlorocyclohexanes and dieldrin. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells were used for 2h and 48h exposures to the seven mixtures and analysis on a CellInsight™ NXT High Content Screening platform. Multiple cytotoxic endpoints were investigated: cell number, nuclear intensity and area, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both the Br and Cl mixtures induced ROS production but did not lead to apoptosis. The PFC mixture induced ROS production and likely induced cell apoptosis accompanied by the dissipation of MMP. Synergistic effects were evident for ROS induction when cells were exposed to the PFC+Br mixture in comparison to the effects of the individual mixtures. No significant effects were detected in the Br+Cl, PFC+Cl or total mixtures, which contain the same concentrations of chlorinated compounds as the Cl mixture plus additional compounds; highlighting the need for further exploration of POP mixtures in risk assessment.

  10. Can macroalgae provide promising anti-tumoral compounds? A closer look at Cystoseira tamariscifolia as a source for antioxidant and anti-hepatocarcinoma compounds

    PubMed Central

    Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Custódio, Luísa; Acosta, Gerardo; Lago, João H.G.; Morais, Thiago R.; Bruno de Sousa, Carolina; Gangadhar, Katkam N.; Rodrigues, Maria João; Pereira, Hugo; Lima, Raquel T.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Barreira, Luísa; Rauter, Amélia P.; Albericio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms are a prolific source of drug leads in a variety of therapeutic areas. In the last few years, biomedical, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries have shown growing interest in novel compounds from marine organisms, including macroalgae. Cystoseira is a genus of Phaeophyceae (Fucales) macroalgae known to contain bioactive compounds. Organic extracts (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts) from three Cystoseira species (C. humilis, C. tamariscifolia and C. usneoides) were evaluated for their total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and antiproliferative activity against a human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells). C. tamariscifolia had the highest TPC and RSA. The hexane extract of C. tamariscifolia (CTH) had the highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 2.31 µg/mL), and was further tested in four human tumor (cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa; gastric adenocarcinoma AGS; colorectal adenocarcinoma HCT-15; neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y), and two non-tumor (murine bone marrow stroma S17 and human umbilical vein endothelial HUVEC) cell lines in order to determine its selectivity. CTH strongly reduced viability of all tumor cell lines, especially of HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity was particularly selective for the latter cells with a selectivity index = 12.6 as compared to non-tumor cells. Incubation with CTH led to a 2-fold decrease of HepG2 cell proliferation as shown by the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. CTH-treated HepG2 cells presented also pro-apoptotic features, such as increased Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) binding and dose-dependent morphological alterations in DAPI-stained cells. Moreover, it had a noticeable disaggregating effect on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. Demethoxy cystoketal chromane, a derivative of the meroditerpenoid cystoketal, was identified as the active compound in CTH

  11. Cannabinoid receptor activation correlates with the proapoptotic action of the β2-adrenergic agonist (R,R')-4-methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rajib K; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Scheers, Jade; Wersto, Robert P; Toll, Lawrence; Jimenez, Lucita; Bernier, Michel; Wainer, Irving W

    2012-10-01

    Inhibition of cell proliferation by fenoterol and fenoterol derivatives in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells is consistent with β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)-AR) stimulation. However, the events that result in fenoterol-mediated control of cell proliferation in other cell types are not clear. Here, we compare the effect of the β(2)-AR agonists (R,R')-fenoterol (Fen) and (R,R')-4-methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol (MNF) on signaling and cell proliferation in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells by using Western blotting and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assays. Despite the expression of β(2)-AR, no cAMP accumulation was observed when cells were stimulated with isoproterenol or Fen, although the treatment elicited both mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activation. Unexpectedly, isoproterenol and Fen promoted HepG2 cell growth, but MNF reduced proliferation together with increased apoptosis. The mitogenic responses of Fen were attenuated by 3-(isopropylamino)-1-[(7-methyl-4-indanyl)oxy]butan-2-ol (ICI 118,551), a β(2)-AR antagonist, whereas those of MNF were unaffected. Because of the coexpression of β(2)-AR and cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) and their impact on HepG2 cell proliferation, these Gα(i)/Gα(o)-linked receptors may be implicated in MNF signaling. Cell treatment with (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-napthalenylmethanone (WIN 55,212-2), a synthetic agonist of CB(1)R and CB(2)R, led to growth inhibition, whereas inverse agonists of these receptors blocked MNF mitogenic responses without affecting Fen signaling. MNF responses were sensitive to pertussis toxin. The β(2)-AR-deficient U87MG cells were refractory to Fen, but responsive to the antiproliferative actions of MNF and WIN 55,212-2. The data indicate that the presence of the naphthyl moiety in MNF results in functional coupling to the CBR pathway, providing one of the first examples of a dually acting β(2)-AR-CBR ligand.

  12. Can macroalgae provide promising anti-tumoral compounds? A closer look at Cystoseira tamariscifolia as a source for antioxidant and anti-hepatocarcinoma compounds.

    PubMed

    Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Custódio, Luísa; Acosta, Gerardo; Lago, João H G; Morais, Thiago R; Bruno de Sousa, Carolina; Gangadhar, Katkam N; Rodrigues, Maria João; Pereira, Hugo; Lima, Raquel T; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Barreira, Luísa; Rauter, Amélia P; Albericio, Fernando; Varela, João

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms are a prolific source of drug leads in a variety of therapeutic areas. In the last few years, biomedical, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries have shown growing interest in novel compounds from marine organisms, including macroalgae. Cystoseira is a genus of Phaeophyceae (Fucales) macroalgae known to contain bioactive compounds. Organic extracts (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts) from three Cystoseira species (C. humilis, C. tamariscifolia and C. usneoides) were evaluated for their total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and antiproliferative activity against a human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells). C. tamariscifolia had the highest TPC and RSA. The hexane extract of C. tamariscifolia (CTH) had the highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 2.31 µg/mL), and was further tested in four human tumor (cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa; gastric adenocarcinoma AGS; colorectal adenocarcinoma HCT-15; neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y), and two non-tumor (murine bone marrow stroma S17 and human umbilical vein endothelial HUVEC) cell lines in order to determine its selectivity. CTH strongly reduced viability of all tumor cell lines, especially of HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity was particularly selective for the latter cells with a selectivity index = 12.6 as compared to non-tumor cells. Incubation with CTH led to a 2-fold decrease of HepG2 cell proliferation as shown by the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. CTH-treated HepG2 cells presented also pro-apoptotic features, such as increased Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) binding and dose-dependent morphological alterations in DAPI-stained cells. Moreover, it had a noticeable disaggregating effect on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. Demethoxy cystoketal chromane, a derivative of the meroditerpenoid cystoketal, was identified as the active compound in CTH

  13. A cellular stress response (CSR) that interacts with NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) is a new regulator of hypoxic response.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Ami; Koyama, Chika; Xu, Jing; Imaoka, Susumu

    2014-02-28

    NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) was previously found to contribute to the hypoxic response of cells, but the mechanism was not clarified. In this study, we identified a cellular stress response (CSR) as a new factor interacting with NPR by a yeast two-hybrid system. Overexpression of CSR enhanced the induction of erythropoietin and hypoxia response element (HRE) activity under hypoxia in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (Hep3B), while knockdown of CSR suppressed them. This new finding regarding the interaction of NPR with CSR provides insight into the function of NPR in hypoxic response.

  14. In vitro transfection of the hepatitis B virus PreS2 gene into the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 induces upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hua; Luan Fang; Ju Ying; Shen Hongyu; Gao Lifen; Wang Xiaoyan; Liu Suxia; Zhang Lining; Sun Wensheng; Ma Chunhong . E-mail: machunhong@sdu.edu.cn

    2007-04-06

    The preS2 domain is the minimal functional unit of transcription activators that is encoded by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface (S) gene. It is present in more than one-third of the HBV-integrates in HBV induced hepatocarcinoma (HCC). To further understand the functional role of PreS2 in hepatocytes, a PreS2 expression plasmid, pcS2, was constructed and stably transfected into HepG2 cells. We conducted growth curve and colony-forming assays to study the impact of PreS2 expression on cell proliferation. Cells transfected with PreS2 proliferated more rapidly and formed colonies in soft agar. PreS2 expressing cells also induced upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and telomerase activation by RT-PCR and the modified TRAP assay. Blocking expression of hTERT with antisense oligonuleotide reversed the growth rate in cells stably transfected with PreS2. Our data suggest that PreS2 may increase the malignant transformation of human HCC cell line HepG2 by upregulating hTERT and inducing telomerase activation.

  15. SR4 Uncouples Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation, Modulates AMP-dependent Kinase (AMPK)-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling, and Inhibits Proliferation of HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Figarola, James L.; Singhal, Jyotsana; Tompkins, Joshua D.; Rogers, George W.; Warden, Charles; Horne, David; Riggs, Arthur D.; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation produces most of the energy in aerobic cells by coupling respiration to the production of ATP. Mitochondrial uncouplers, which reduce the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane, create a futile cycle of nutrient oxidation without generating ATP. Regulation of mitochondrial dysfunction and associated cellular bioenergetics has been recently identified as a promising target for anticancer therapy. Here, we show that SR4 is a novel mitochondrial uncoupler that causes dose-dependent increase in mitochondrial respiration and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. These effects were reversed by the recoupling agent 6-ketocholestanol but not cyclosporin A and were nonexistent in mitochondrial DNA-depleted HepG2 cells. In isolated mouse liver mitochondria, SR4 similarly increased oxygen consumption independent of adenine nucleotide translocase and uncoupling proteins, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and promoted swelling of valinomycin-treated mitochondria in potassium acetate medium. Mitochondrial uncoupling in HepG2 cells by SR4 results in the reduction of cellular ATP production, increased ROS production, activation of the energy-sensing enzyme AMPK, and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Global analysis of SR4-associated differential gene expression confirms these observations, including significant induction of apoptotic genes and down-regulation of cell cycle, mitochondrial, and oxidative phosphorylation pathway transcripts at 24 h post-treatment. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the previously reported indirect activation of AMPK and in vitro anticancer properties of SR4 as well as its beneficial effects in both animal xenograft and obese mice models could be a direct consequence of its mitochondrial uncoupling activity. PMID:26534958

  16. Transcriptional regulation of the albumin gene depends on the removal of histone methylation marks by the FAD-dependent monoamine oxidase lysine-specific demethylase 1 in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dandan; Zempleni, Janos

    2014-07-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase (LSD) 1 is an FAD-dependent demethylase that catalyzes the removal of methyl groups from lysine-4 in histone H3, thereby mediating gene repression. Here we tested the hypothesis that riboflavin deficiency causes a loss of LSD1 activity in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells, leading to an accumulation of lysine-4-dimethylated histone H3 (H3K4me2) marks in the albumin promoter and aberrant upregulation of albumin expression. Cells were cultured in riboflavin-defined media providing riboflavin at concentrations representing moderately deficient (3.1 nmol/L), sufficient (12.6 nmol/L), and supplemented (301 nmol/L) cells in humans for 7 d. The efficacy of treatment was confirmed by assessing glutathione reductase activity and concentrations of reduced glutathione as markers of riboflavin status. LSD activity was 21% greater in riboflavin-supplemented cells compared with riboflavin-deficient and -sufficient cells. The loss of LSD activity was associated with a gain in the abundance of H3K4me2 marks in the albumin promoter; the abundance of H3K4me2 marks was ∼170% higher in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with sufficient and supplemented cells. The abundance of the repression mark, K9-trimethylated histone H3, was 38% lower in the albumin promoter of riboflavin-deficient cells compared with the other treatment groups. The expression of albumin mRNA was aberrantly increased by 200% in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with sufficient and supplemented cells. In conclusion, riboflavin deficiency impairs gene regulation by epigenetic mechanisms, mediated by a loss of LSD1 activity. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Transcriptional Regulation of the Albumin Gene Depends on the Removal of Histone Methylation Marks by the FAD-Dependent Monoamine Oxidase Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 in HepG2 Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dandan; Zempleni, Janos

    2014-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase (LSD) 1 is an FAD-dependent demethylase that catalyzes the removal of methyl groups from lysine-4 in histone H3, thereby mediating gene repression. Here we tested the hypothesis that riboflavin deficiency causes a loss of LSD1 activity in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells, leading to an accumulation of lysine-4-dimethylated histone H3 (H3K4me2) marks in the albumin promoter and aberrant upregulation of albumin expression. Cells were cultured in riboflavin-defined media providing riboflavin at concentrations representing moderately deficient (3.1 nmol/L), sufficient (12.6 nmol/L), and supplemented (301 nmol/L) cells in humans for 7 d. The efficacy of treatment was confirmed by assessing glutathione reductase activity and concentrations of reduced glutathione as markers of riboflavin status. LSD activity was 21% greater in riboflavin-supplemented cells compared with riboflavin-deficient and -sufficient cells. The loss of LSD activity was associated with a gain in the abundance of H3K4me2 marks in the albumin promoter; the abundance of H3K4me2 marks was ∼170% higher in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with sufficient and supplemented cells. The abundance of the repression mark, K9-trimethylated histone H3, was 38% lower in the albumin promoter of riboflavin-deficient cells compared with the other treatment groups. The expression of albumin mRNA was aberrantly increased by 200% in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with sufficient and supplemented cells. In conclusion, riboflavin deficiency impairs gene regulation by epigenetic mechanisms, mediated by a loss of LSD1 activity. PMID:24744315

  18. [Cutaneous and bone metastases revealing hepatocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Jegou, Juliette; Perruzi, Philippe; Arav, Eric; Pluot, Michel; Jaussaud, Roland; Remy, Gérard

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old patient who was admitted to our hospital for a frontal tumor. He had a left forehead nodule that had appeared several weeks before, measuring 6 cm in diameter. On palpation, it was painless and there was a pulse, and the skin above was non ulcerated. Radiography and computed tomographic scan of the skull suggested a subcutaneous metastasis. Computed tomographic scans of the lung and the abdomen showed a heterogeneous liver with irregular outlines and secondary adrenal infiltrations. A biopsy of the frontal tumor confirmed a metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. Translation and adaptation of the Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los recursos humanos en salud.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria de Lourdes de; Peres, Aida Maris; Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima

    2017-06-05

    to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the document named Marco Regional de Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los Recursos Humanos en Salud de la Región de las Américas (Regional Framework of Core Competencies in Public Health for Health Human Resources in the Region of Americas) from Spanish to Brazilian Portuguese. a methodological study comprising the following phases: authorization for translation; initial translation; synthesis of translations and consensus; back-translation and formation of an expert committee. in the translation of domain names, there was no difference in 66.7% (N = 4); in the translation of domain description and competencies there were divergences in 100% of them (N = 6, N = 56). A consensus of more than 80% was obtained in the translation and improvement in the expert committee by the change of words and expressions for approximation of meanings to the Brazilian context. the translated and adapted document has the potential of application in research, and use in the practice of collective/public health care in Brazil. realizar a tradução e adaptação cultural do Marco Regional de Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los Recursos Humanos en Salud de la Región de las Américas, do espanhol para a língua portuguesa do Brasil. pesquisa metodológica, que seguiu as fases: autorização para tradução; tradução inicial; síntese das traduções e consenso; retrotradução e composição de um comitê de especialistas. na tradução dos nomes dos domínios, não houve diferença em 66,7 % (N=4); na tradução da descrição dos domínios e das competências ocorreram divergências em 100 % destes (N=6, N=56), obteve-se consenso acima de 80% ainda na tradução, e aprimoramento no comitê de especialistas pela alteração de palavras e expressões para aproximar os significados ao contexto brasileiro. o documento traduzido e adaptado possui potencial de aplicação em pesquisas e utilização na pr

  20. Production of a bioactive sweetener steviolbioside via specific hydrolyzing ester linkage of stevioside with a β-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-ming; Ding, Li; Sui, Xiao-chen; Xia, Yong-mei; Wan, Hui-da; Lu, Tong

    2016-04-01

    A β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis was found to specifically catalyze hydrolysis of the glycosyl ester linkage of stevioside to yield steviolbioside, a rare sweetener that also exists in Stevia rebaudiana leaves. In a packed bed reactor, a reaction coupling separation was realized and a production yield of steviolbioside reached 90% in 6 h. The hydrolysis product steviolbioside presented higher cytoxicity on human normal cells (hepatocytes cell L02 and intestinal epithelial cell T84) than stevioside did. Comparing to the typical chemotherapy agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), steviolbioside presents much lower cytotoxicity on all assayed human normal cells; it presented notable inhibition on human hepatocarcinoma cell Hep3B, human breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 and human pancreatic cancer cell BxPC-3. The remarkable inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells makes steviolbioside a potential remedy for human breast cancer, when steviolbioside is served as a natural sweetener.

  1. [Relation between changes of dendritic cell function and down-regulation of beta-centractin in hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Weng, Yong-qiang; Qiu, Shuang-jian; Tang, Zhao-you; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Kai-feng; Song, Li-jie; Ye, Sheng-long; Liu, Yin-kun; Fan, Jia

    2007-08-07

    To investigate the relation between the changes of dendritic cell (DC) function and down-regulation of beta-centractin in hepatocellular carcinoma. DC derived from peripheral blood were cultured and then pulsed by lysates from hepatocarcinoma cells (HCC) with high, low, or none metastatic potential of the lines HCCLM6, MHCC97L, and Hep3B, and from normal human liver cell of the line Chang liver. DC not pulsed were used as control group. Three days later scanning electron microscopy and inverted microscopy were used to observe the morphology of the DC. Flow cytometry was used to observe the phenotype. The protein expression of beta-centractin was detected by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Scanning electron microscopy and inverted microscopy showed no change in the morphology of the DC pulsed by different antigens. The expression levels of HLA-DR, CD80, CD83, and CD86 of the 4 pulsed groups were all significantly higher than that of the un-pulsed group (all P < 0.05). The expression of CD86 of the DC + LM6 group was significantly lower than those of the DC + Chang, DC + Hep3B, and DC + 97L groups (all P < 0.05). The mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) levels of the 4 pulsed groups were all significantly higher than that of the control group (all P < 0.05). The MLR level of the DC + LM6 group was significantly lower than those of the DC + Chang, DC + Hep3B, and DC + 97L groups (all P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that beta-centractin was not expressed in the control DC and was expressed in the 3 pulsed DC groups, and the beta-centractin expression levels of the DC + Chang, DC + Hep3B, and DC + 97L groups were all higher than that of the DC + LM6 group. The results of immunocytochemistry were similar to that of Western blotting. The down-regulation of beta-centractin in the DC pulsed with high metastatic potential HVV cell lysates is associated DC dysfunction and may be one of the mechanisms of HCC immune escape.

  2. Translation and adaptation of the Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los recursos humanos en salud 1

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Maria de Lourdes; Peres, Aida Maris; Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the document named Marco Regional de Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los Recursos Humanos en Salud de la Región de las Américas (Regional Framework of Core Competencies in Public Health for Health Human Resources in the Region of Americas) from Spanish to Brazilian Portuguese. Method: a methodological study comprising the following phases: authorization for translation; initial translation; synthesis of translations and consensus; back-translation and formation of an expert committee. Result: in the translation of domain names, there was no difference in 66.7% (N = 4); in the translation of domain description and competencies there were divergences in 100% of them (N = 6, N = 56). A consensus of more than 80% was obtained in the translation and improvement in the expert committee by the change of words and expressions for approximation of meanings to the Brazilian context. Conclusion: the translated and adapted document has the potential of application in research, and use in the practice of collective/public health care in Brazil. PMID:28591302

  3. [Hemoperitoneum supporting difficult diagnosis of diffuse hepatocarcinoma in liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Vignoli, A; Cioni, G; Sardini, C; Tincani, E; Cristani, A; Ventura, E

    1994-04-01

    The cases of two patients with liver cirrhosis HCV-related, admitted in our Department in consequence of the development of ascites, anemia and clinical deterioration, are reported. Both patients had all major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma and anamnestic and physical findings suggesting this diagnosis; nevertheless, the alpha-1-fetoprotein serum levels and the ultrasonographic findings were not diagnostic for primary hepatic neoplasm. Explorative paracentesis was diagnostic, demonstrating the presence of hemoperitoneum (the hematocrit ratio in the ascitic fluid was 12 and 10, respectively). Magnetic resonance revealed extensive diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma on both cases. Hemoperitoneum, in patients with liver cirrhosis, in face of non diagnostic levels of alpha-1-fetoprotein and ultrasonographic findings, can be indicative of the spontaneous rupture of a diffuse type of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Telomere and telomerase in chronic liver disease and hepatocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Carulli, Lucia; Anzivino, Claudia

    2014-05-28

    The pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis is not completely elucidated. Although in the majority of patients, the risk factors may be identified in B and C viral hepatitis, alcohol intake, drugs or fatty liver disease, there is a small percentage of patients with no apparent risk factors. In addition, the evolution of chronic liver disease is highly heterogeneous from one patient to another. Among patient with identical risk factors, some rapidly progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) whereas others have a benign course. Therefore, a genetic predisposition may contribute to the development of cirrhosis and HCC. Evidence supporting the role of genetic factors as a risk for cirrhosis has been accumulating during the past years. In addition to the results from epidemiological studies, polymorphisms studies and data on twins, the concept of telomere shortening as a genetic risk factor for chronic liver disease and HCC has been proposed. Here we review the literature on telomerase mutations, telomere shortening and liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Liver carcinogenesis: Rodent models of hepatocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Minicis, Samuele De; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Francis, Heather; Baroni, Gianluca Svegliati; Benedetti, Antonio; Brenner, David; Alvaro, Domenico; Alpini, Gianfranco; Marzioni, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma are primary liver cancers, both represent a growing challenge for clinicians due to their increasing morbidity and mortality. In the last few years a number of in vivo models of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma have been developed. The study of these models is providing a significant contribution in unveiling the pathophysiology of primary liver malignancies. They are also fundamental tools to evaluate newly designed molecules to be tested as new potential therapeutic agents in a pre-clinical set. Technical aspects of each model are critical steps, and they should always be considered in order to appropriately interpret the findings of a study or its planning. The purpose of this review is to describe the technical and experimental features of the most significant rodent models, highlighting similarities or differences between the corresponding human diseases. The first part is dedicated to the discussion of models of hepatocellular carcinoma, developed using toxic agents, or through dietary or genetic manipulations. In the second we will address models of cholangiocarcinoma developed in rats or mice by toxin administration, genetic manipulation and/or bile duct incannulation or surgery. Xenograft or syngenic models are also proposed. PMID:23177172

  6. Effect of Ecuador's cash transfer program (Bono de Desarrollo Humano) on child development in infants and toddlers: a randomized effectiveness trial.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Lia C H; Hidrobo, Melissa

    2011-05-01

    We examined the effects of Ecuador's Bono de Desarrollo Humano (BDH)--an unconditional cash transfer program that was rolled-out using a randomized design--on health and development outcomes in very young children. Communities that were randomly assigned to the treatment group began receiving the BDH in 2004 and those randomly assigned to the comparison group began receiving benefits two years later. Families enrolled in the BDH received a monthly cash stipend ($15USD) representing an approximate 6-10% increase in household income. Participants analyzed in this study are children aged 12-35 months from treatment (n = 797) and comparison (n = 399) communities in rural and urban Ecuador. Main outcomes measured were language skills (the Fundación MacArthur Inventorio del Desarollo de Habilidades Comunicativas-Breve), height-for-age z-score, and hemoglobin concentration. Results indicate that in rural areas, being randomized to receive the BDH in very early childhood led to significantly better performance on the number of words a child was saying, and on the probability that the child was combining two or more words. There were no significant effects on language development for children in urban areas and there were no effects on height-for-age z-score or hemoglobin concentration in rural or urban areas. A limited number of potential pathways with respect to cognitive/language stimulation, health behaviors, and parenting quality were also explored. Findings indicate that compared to children in comparison areas, rural children in treatment areas were more likely to have received vitamin A or iron supplementation and have been bought a toy in the past six months. This study provides evidence for significant benefits of an unconditional cash transfer program for language development in very young children in rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation of a new β-carboline alkaloid from aerial parts of Triclisia sacleuxii and its antibacterial and cytotoxicity effects.

    PubMed

    Samita, Fidelis; Ochieng, Charles Otieno; Owuor, Philip Okinda; Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Midiwo, Jacob Ogweno

    2017-03-01

    A new β-carboline alkaloid named sacleuximine A (1) together with known compounds palmatine (2), isotetrandrine (3), trans-N-feruloyltyramine (4), trans-N-caffeoyltyramine (5), yangambin (6), syringaresinol (7), sesamin (8), (+) epi-quercitol (9), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), β-sitosterol (11), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (12) and myricetin 3-O-β-glucose (1→6) α-rhamnoside (13) have been isolated from methanol extract of Triclisia sacleuxii aerial parts. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human hepatocarcinoma (Hep3B) and human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells lines and also for antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The cytotoxicity (IC50) values ranged between 0.15 and 36.7 μM while the minimum inhibitory concentrations were found to be in the range of 3.9 and 125 μM, respectively. This is the first report of antibacterial compounds and the isolation of lignans together with a β-carboline alkaloid from T. sacleuxii.

  8. SYUNZ-16, a newly synthesized alkannin derivative, induces tumor cells apoptosis and suppresses tumor growth through inhibition of PKB/AKT kinase activity and blockade of AKT/FOXO signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Deng, Rong; Tang, Jun; Xie, Bing-Fen; Feng, Gong-Kan; Huang, Yu-Han; Liu, Zong-Chao; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

    2010-07-01

    Alkannin is the major bioactive compound of Arnebia euchroma roots, which is used in many therapeutic remedies in Chinese traditional medicine. SYUNZ-16 is a new derivative of alkannin. In this study, anticancer effects of SYUNZ-16 on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line GLC-82 and human hepatocarcinoma cell line Hep3B were tested in vitro. The results showed SYUNZ-16 could obviously inhibit the proliferation of these cancer cell lines via induction of apoptosis, with the evidence of increasing AnnexinV-positive cells and cleaved caspase-3 and PARP fragments. More importantly, we found that SYUNZ-16 could inhibit AKT activity in cell-free system. Treatment of cancer cells with SYUNZ-16 decreased the phosphorylation of AKT. Additionally, SYUNZ-16 partially attenuated the phosphorylation levels of FKHR and FKHRL1 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent fashion, and led to an increase in the nuclear accumulation of exogenous FKHR, and upregulated the mRNA expression of Bim and TRADD in cancer cells. Further study showed that constitutively activated AKT1 transfection could reduce apoptosis induction mediated by SYUNZ-16. The in vivo experiments showed that SYUNZ-16 had inhibitory effects on S-180 sarcoma implanted to mice. And in GLC-82 xenograft models, SYUNZ-16 at 20 mg/kg/qod remarkably inhibited the tumor growth with the T/C value of 45.3%. Taken together, SYUNZ-16 might be a potent inhibitor of AKT signaling pathway in tumor cells. These data provide evidence for the development of SYUNZ-16 as a potential antitumor drug candidate for further research and development.

  9. [Digital angiography and lipiodol computerized tomography in the anatomopathological framework of hepatocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Pozzi-Mucelli, R; Pozzi-Mucelli, R; Pagnan, L; Dalla Palma, L

    1994-12-01

    The introduction of therapies other than conventional surgery of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) requires an accurate pathologic classification, which is important because it is well known that HCC may have multicentric growth. The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan has proposed a classification dividing HCCs into three macroscopic forms from the pathologic point of view: nodular, massive and infiltrating HCCs. The nodular type is subdivided into four types: single nodular type, single nodular type with surrounding proliferation, multinodular fused type and multinodular type. Forty-six HCC patients were examined with Lipiodol Computed Tomography (LCT) to investigate the agreement between pathologic and imaging findings. LCT proved to be in close agreement with pathologic findings. Sixteen cases were classified as type I (single nodular type), 8 as type II (single nodular type with limited foci), 1 as type III (multinodular fused type), 18 as type IV (multiple nodular type with diffuse foci) and 3 cases as type V (massive form). No cases of infiltrative forms were observed in our series. Based on LCT findings, the capabilities of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were studied in the pathologic classification of HCCs. DSA exhibited some limitations in the pathologic classification of HCCs in 5 of 16 patients with type I lesions. In these cases DSA suggested false-positive diagnoses because of regenerative nodules in cirrhotic liver in 3 cases and of daughter nodules (not confirmed at LCT) in 2 cases. In 7 of 8 patients with type II HCCs, DSA failed to show the daughter nodules surrounding the main nodule. In the 18 patients with multiple distant nodules (type IV), DSA was less sensitive in defining nodule number and site. In the massive form, the information obtained with LCT and DSA was comparable. In conclusion, LCT should be considered a basic examination in the study of HCC extent. Based on LCT findings, the most appropriate treatment can be selected, be it surgery, alcohol injection, or intraarterial chemoembolization.

  10. [Diagnostic imaging and interventional therapy in hepatocarcinoma. Multicenter study of 290 cases].

    PubMed

    Dalla Palma, L; Pozzi Mucelli, R; Sponza, M; Bartolozzi, C; Lencioni, R; Florio, F; De Santis, M; Gandini, G; Matricardi, L; Rossi, C; Simonetti, G; Pocek, M

    1997-01-01

    We report the results of a multicenter study on the diagnosis and interventional therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The first aim--diagnosis--was to evaluate the sensitivity of 4 imaging techniques, namely ultrasonography (US), Computed Tomography (CT), digital arteriography (DSA) and Lipiodol CT (LCT), in HCC detection. The accuracy of these techniques was also investigated in tumor staging, which is important for treatment planning. Two hundred ninety patients underwent this imaging protocol. The patients were classified by tumor spread into three groups, namely group 1 (single HCCs < 5 cm), group 2 (multifocal HCCs with max. 3 nodules or tumor volume < 80 cc), group 3 (multifocal HCCs with more than 3 nodules and/or tumor volume > 80 cc). US and CT diagnosed more cases as group 1 and fewer cases as group 3 than DSA and LCT; the latter two techniques gave a similar classification. With LCT as the gold standard, US and CT understaged 27.9% and 26.5% of cases, respectively. Even though LCT is known to have 53% sensitivity, it is currently the most sensitive preoperative investigation and therefore the best tool for treatment planning. In surgical patients, however, intraoperative US, with its nearly 100% sensitivity, is suggested. The second aim--treatment--consisted in assessing the therapeutic efficacy of intraarterial chemoembolization (CEAT) versus percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in non advanced HCC and of CEAT versus no treatment (NT) in advanced HCC. Treatment efficacy was evaluated with the following randomized protocols: PEI versus CEAT in group 1, PEI versus CEAT in group 2 and CEAT versus NT in group 3. The data were analyzed relative to 215 patients for 6 to 30 months. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival rates, which were, at 24 and 30 months, 72% and 72% for PEI and 72% and 52% for CEAT in group 1, 52% and 28% for PEI and 70% and 50% for CEAT in group 2 and finally 30% and 20% for NT and 45% and 30% for CEAT in group 3. In group 1, PEI appeared markedly superior to CEAT. In group 2, the difference between PEI and CEAT was not statistically significant; the results in this group indicate that CEAT should be considered when three nodules are present because of PEI invasiveness in these cases. In group 3, CEAT results were definitely better in the first two years, but there was no difference with NT patients at the end of the third year. Therefore, CEAT is indicated in advanced HCC because it improves the survival rate in the first 24 months. After this period, the survival time is not modified by treatment.

  11. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis preferentially via a Bim-mediated intrinsic pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guiqi; Zhao, ChuBiao; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Hongyu; Quan, Yingyao; Chai, Liuying; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-08-01

    This report is designed to dissect the detail molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a derivative of artemisinin, induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. DHA induced a loss of the mitochondrial transmemberane potential (ΔΨm), release of cytochrome c, activation of caspases, and externalization of phosphatidylserine indicative of apoptosis induction. Compared with the modest inhibitory effects of silencing Bax, silencing Bak largely prevented DHA-induced ΔΨm collapse and apoptosis though DHA induced a commensurable activation of Bax and Bak, demonstrating a key role of the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. DHA did not induce Bid cleavage and translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria and had little effects on the expressions of Puma and Noxa, but did increase Bim and Bak expressions and decrease Mcl-1 expression. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of DHA was remarkably reduced by silencing Bim, and modestly but significantly reduced by silencing Puma or Noxa. Silencing Bim or Noxa preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bak activation, while silencing Puma preferentially reduced DHA-induced Bax activation, demonstrating that Bim and to a lesser extent Noxa act as upstream mediators to trigger the Bak-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. In addition, silencing Mcl-1 enhanced DHA-induced Bak activation and apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a crucial role of Bim in preferentially regulating the Bak/Mcl-1 rheostat to mediate DHA-induced apoptosis in HCC cells.

  12. Characteristic Analysis from Excessive to Deficient Syndromes in Hepatocarcinoma Underlying miRNA Array Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi-Long; Lu, Yi-Yu; Zhang, Gui-Biao; Song, Ya-Nan; Zhou, Qian-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xin-sheng; Su, Shi-Bing

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment is regarded as a safe and effective method for many diseases. In this study, the characteristics among excessive, excessive-deficient, and deficient syndromes of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were studied using miRNA array data. We first calculated the differentially expressed miRNAs based on random module t-test and classified three TCM syndromes of HCC using SVM method. Then, the weighted miRNA-target networks were constructed for different TCM syndromes using predicted miRNA targets. Subsequently, the prioritized target genes of upexpression network of TCM syndromes were analyzed using DAVID online analysis. The results showed that there are distinctly different hierarchical cluster and network structure of TCM syndromes in HCC, but the excessive-deficient combination syndrome is extrinsically close to deficient syndrome. GO and pathway analysis revealed that the molecular mechanisms of excessive-deficient and deficient syndromes of HCC are more complex than excessive syndrome. Furthermore, although excessive-deficient and deficient syndromes have similar complex mechanisms, excessive-deficient syndrome is more involved than deficient syndrome in development of cancer process. This study suggested that miRNAs might be important mediators involved in the changing process from excessive to deficient syndromes and could be potential molecular markers for the diagnosis of TCM syndromes in HCC. PMID:24382976

  13. Rutin inhibits oleic acid induced lipid accumulation via reducing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Cheng; Wang, Hsueh-Chun; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Jou, Ming-Jia; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2011-03-01

    Excessive lipid accumulation within liver has been proposed to cause obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. Rutin, a common dietary flavonoid that is consumed in fruits, vegetables, and plant-derived beverages, has various biological functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. However, a hypolipidemic effect of rutin on fatty liver disease has not been reported. In this study, we examined the effect of rutin on reducing lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. Hepatocytes were treated with oleic acid (OA) containing with or without rutin to observe the lipid accumulation by Nile red stain. The result showed rutin suppressed OA-induced lipid accumulation and increased adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in hepatocytes. The expression of critical molecule involved in lipid synthesis, sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1), was attenuated in rutin-treated cells. Moreover, long-term incubation of rutin inhibited the transcriptions of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-coenzyme carboxylase (ACC). Besides, we also found out the antioxidative effect of rutin by increasing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and antioxidative enzymes. Taken together, our findings suggest rutin could attenuate lipid accumulation by decreasing lipogenesis and oxidative stress in hepatocyte.

  14. Ultrasonic assessment of hepatic blood flow as a marker of mouse hepatocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Philippe; Villemain, Aude; Vincent, François; Debbabi, Haythem; Silvestre, Jean Sébastien; Contreres, Jean Olivier; Levy, Bernard I; Tobelem, Gérard; Dupuy, Evelyne

    2007-04-01

    Two-dimensional color-coded pulsed Doppler ultrasonography (US) with a 12-MHz linear transducer was used to follow tumor growth and neoangiogenesis development in 12 transgenic mice developing a whole liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by the expression of SV40-T antigen. In this model, male mice developed HCC at various temporal and histologic stages (hyperplastic, four-eight wk; nodular, 12 wk; diffuse carcinoma, 16-20 wk), whereas female mice remained tumor free. Seven age-matched tumor-free mice were used as controls. Liver volume was calculated from B-mode images of the abdomen. Blood flow waveforms were recorded from the hepatic tumor-feeding artery upstream from the tumor vessels, allowing quantitative blood flow velocity measurements. Measurements were performed every four weeks from four to 20 weeks. As early as the hyperplastic stage (eight weeks), liver volume was increased by 2.7-fold, hepatic artery peak-systolic blood flow velocities (BFV) by 1.5-fold, end-diastolic BFV by 1.6-fold and mean BFV by 2.0-fold compared with control values (p < 0.001). Differences increased until 20 weeks and peak-systolic reached 90 +/- 6, end-diastolic 54 +/- 5 and mean BFV 48 +/- 5 cm s(-1). Successive measurements of BFV were reproducible and intraobserver repeatability coefficient values were <3 cm s(-1). In contrast, mesenteric artery BFV, which did not supply tumor region, did not show any significant difference with respect to control values. Thus, an increase in BFV constitutes a functional evaluation of tumor vascularity. In preclinical studies in small animals, measurements of liver volume and blood flow velocities in hepatic tumor-feeding artery provide a useful, reproducible, noninvasive, easy-to-repeat tool to monitor tumor growth and neoangiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma in mice.

  15. Copper oxide nanoparticles induced mitochondria mediated apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Ahmad, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2013-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are heavily utilized in semiconductor devices, gas sensor, batteries, solar energy converter, microelectronics and heat transfer fluids. It has been reported that liver is one of the target organs for nanoparticles after they gain entry into the body through any of the possible routes. Recent studies have shown cytotoxic response of CuO NPs in liver cells. However, the underlying mechanism of apoptosis in liver cells due to CuO NPs exposure is largely lacking. We explored the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by CuO NPs in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Prepared CuO NPs were spherical in shape with a smooth surface and had an average diameter of 22 nm. CuO NPs (concentration range 2-50 µg/ml) were found to induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells in dose-dependent manner, which was likely to be mediated through reactive oxygen species generation and oxidative stress. Tumor suppressor gene p53 and apoptotic gene caspase-3 were up-regulated due to CuO NPs exposure. Decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential with a concomitant increase in the gene expression of bax/bcl2 ratio suggested that mitochondria mediated pathway involved in CuO NPs induced apoptosis. This study has provided valuable insights into the possible mechanism of apoptosis caused by CuO NPs at in vitro level. Underlying mechanism(s) of apoptosis due to CuO NPs exposure should be further invested at in vivo level.

  16. Obstructive Jaundice Due to Hepatocarcinoma With Intraductal Growth. Report of a Successful Resection

    PubMed Central

    Teruel, Ana; Mezquita, Susana; Martínez, J.; Colina, F.

    1990-01-01

    We present a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma causing obstructive jaundice due to intraductal growth, diagnosed intraoperatively by cholangiography and histological examination, and radically treated by left lobectomy, extrahepatic biliary tract resection and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. Survival after operation was 13 months. Other similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed. PMID:2178000

  17. Clustering Nuclear Receptors in Liver Regeneration Identifies Candidate Modulators of Hepatocyte Proliferation and Hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Giusi; D'Orazio, Andria; Cariello, Marica; Massafra, Vittoria; Salvatore, Lorena; Martelli, Nicola; Murzilli, Stefania; Sasso, Giuseppe Lo; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Moschetta, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver regeneration (LR) is a valuable model for studying mechanisms modulating hepatocyte proliferation. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are key players in the control of cellular functions, being ideal modulators of hepatic proliferation and carcinogenesis. Methods & Results We used a previously validated RT-qPCR platform to profile modifications in the expression of all 49 members of the NR superfamily in mouse liver during LR. Twenty-nine NR transcripts were significantly modified in their expression during LR, including fatty acid (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PPARs) and oxysterol (liver X receptors, Lxrs) sensors, circadian masters RevErbα and RevErbβ, glucocorticoid receptor (Gr) and constitutive androxane receptor (Car). In order to detect the NRs that better characterize proliferative status vs. proliferating liver, we used the novel Random Forest (RF) analysis to selected a trio of down-regulated NRs (thyroid receptor alpha, Trα; farsenoid X receptor beta, Fxrβ; Pparδ) as best discriminators of the proliferating status. To validate our approach, we further studied PPARδ role in modulating hepatic proliferation. We first confirmed the suppression of PPARδ both in LR and human hepatocellular carcinoma at protein level, and then demonstrated that PPARδ agonist GW501516 reduces the proliferative potential of hepatoma cells. Conclusions Our data suggest that NR transcriptome is modulated in proliferating liver and is a source of biomarkers and bona fide pharmacological targets for the management of liver disease affecting hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:25116592

  18. From minimal to maximal surgery in the treatment of hepatocarcinoma: A review

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Marcos Vinicius; Starkey, Graham; Fink, Michael A; Bhandari, Ramesh; Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Jones, Robert; Christophi, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma represents one of the most challenging frontiers in liver surgery. Surgeons have to face a broad spectrum of aspects, from the underlying liver disease to the new surgical techniques. Safe liver resection can be performed in patients with portal hypertension and well-compensated liver function with a 5-year survival rate of 50%, offering good long-terms results in selected patients. With the advances in laparoscopic surgery, major liver resections can be performed with minimal harm, avoiding the wound and leak complications related to the laparotomies. Studies have shown that oncological margins are the same as in open surgery. In patients submitted to liver resection (either laparoscopic or open) who experience recurrence, re-resection or salvage liver transplantation has been showing to be an alternative approach in well selected cases. The decision making approach to the cirrhotic patient is becoming more complex and should involve hepatologists, liver surgeons, radiologists and oncologists. Better understanding of the different risk factors for recurrence and survival should be aimed in these multidisciplinary discussions. We here in discuss the hot topics related to surgical risk factors regarding the surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: anatomical resection, margin status, macrovascular tumor invasion, the place of laparoscopy, salvage liver transplantation and liver transplantation. PMID:25625000

  19. Gene therapy of hepatocarcinoma: a long way from the concept to the therapeutical impact.

    PubMed

    Gérolami, René; Uch, Rathviro; Bréchot, Christian; Mannoni, Patrice; Bagnis, Claude

    2003-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most prevalent histological form of primary liver cancer is one of the most frequent cancer worldwide. This pathology still requires the development of new therapeutical approaches. Gene therapy strategies focusing on the genetic manipulation of accessory cells involved in the immune reaction against cancer cells, or on the direct transduction of tumor cells with transgenes able to "suicide" cancer cells have been largely developed for more than ten years.

  20. Toxicological interactions of silver nanoparticles and non-essential metals in human hepatocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Renata Rank; Bezerra, Arandi Ginane; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; Skytte, Lilian; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Kjeldsen, Frank; Filipak Neto, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Toxicological interaction represents a challenge to toxicology, particularly for novel contaminants. There are no data whether silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), present in a wide variety of products, can interact and modulate the toxicity of ubiquitous contaminants, such as nonessential metals. In the current study, we investigated the toxicological interactions of AgNP (size=1-2nm; zeta potential=-23mV), cadmium and mercury in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The results indicated that the co-exposures led to toxicological interactions, with AgNP+Cd being more toxic than AgNP+Hg. Early (2-4h) increases of ROS (DCF assay) and mitochondrial O2(-) levels (Mitosox® assay) were observed in the cells co-exposed to AgNP+Cd/Hg, in comparison to control and individual contaminants, but the effect was partially reverted in AgNP+Hg at the end of 24h-exposure. In addition, decreases of mitochondrial metabolism (MTT), cell viability (neutral red uptake assay), cell proliferation (crystal violet assay) and ABC-transporters activity (rhodamine accumulation assay) were also more pronounced in the co-exposure groups. Foremost, co-exposure to AgNP and metals potentiated cell death (mainly by necrosis) and Hg(2+) (but not Cd(2+)) intracellular levels (ICP-MS). Therefore, toxicological interactions seem to increase the toxicity of AgNP, cadmium and mercury.

  1. Effect of Tea Polyphenol on Oxidative Injury in S180 Cells Induced Hepatocarcinoma Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Bo-Kang; Liu, Su; Li, Shu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qi-Bo; Li, Sheng-Ping; Lin, Xiao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant nature of tea polyphenol on S180 cells induced liver cancer in mice. In the present study, hepatocellular carcinoma was induced by tumor transplantation of liver in situ. The antitumor activity of tea polyphenol has been determined in vivo in hepatocellular carcinoma mice after treatment of drug (50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight) by gavage for 20 days. Results showed that a significant increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransfere (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) level, decrease in serum white blood cells (WBC), serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), A/G, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), liver reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were observed. In addition, the levels of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were decreased when subjected to S180 cells induction. These altered enzyme levels were ameliorated significantly by administration of tea polyphenol at the concentration of 50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight in drug-treated animals. These results indicate that the protective effect of tea polyphenol was associated with inhibition of MDA induced by S180 cells and to maintain the antioxidant enzyme levels. PMID:22754316

  2. A New Player in the Development of TRAIL Based Therapies for Hepatocarcinoma Treatment: ATM Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stagni, Venturina; Santini, Simonetta; Barilà, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. HCCs are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous tumors characterized by very poor prognosis, mainly due to the lack, at present, of effective therapeutic options, as these tumors are rarely suitable for radiotherapy and often resistant to chemotherapy protocols. In the last years, agonists targeting the Tumor Necrosis Factor Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) death receptor, has been investigated as a valuable promise for cancer therapy, based on their selectivity for malignant cells and low toxicity for healthy cells. However, many cancer models display resistance to death receptor induced apoptosis, pointing to the requirement for the development of combined therapeutic approaches aimed to selectively sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL. Recently, we identified ATM kinase as a novel modulator of the ability of chemotherapeutic agents to enhance TRAIL sensitivity. Here, we review the biological determinants of HCC responsiveness to TRAIL and provide an exhaustive and updated analysis of the molecular mechanisms exploited for combined therapy in this context. The role of ATM kinase as potential novel predictive biomarker for combined therapeutic approaches based on TRAIL and chemotherapeutic drugs will be closely discussed. PMID:24213315

  3. Identification of arsenite-and arsenic diglutathione-binding proteins in human hepatocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mizumura, Ayano; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Yayoi; Hirano, Seishiro

    2010-01-15

    It is generally accepted that trivalent arsenicals are more toxic than the corresponding pentavalent arsenicals, since trivalent arsenicals bind the thiol groups of biomolecules, leading to a deterioration in cellular functions. In the present study, we prepared three different arsenic-bound sepharoses and investigated the binding of hepatic cytosolic proteins to pentavalent, trivalent, and glutathione-conjugated trivalent arsenicals. SDS-PAGE showed no proteins bound to pentavalent arsenic specifically. In contrast, we found a number of proteins that have specific and high affinity for trivalent arsenic. Two of those proteins were identified: protein disulfide isomerase-related protein 5 (PDSIRP5) and peroxiredoxin 1/enhancer protein (PRX1/EP). These proteins have vicinal cysteines, as previously reported. In contrast, one of the prominent proteins that did not bind to trivalent arsenic was identified as calreticulin precursor. Although there are 3 cysteines in calreticulin precursor, two of the cysteines are spaced more than 25 amino acids apart. Five synthetic peptides containing 2 vicinal cysteines were prepared to study whether they would inhibit the binding of PDSIRP5, PRX1/EP, and other arsenic-binding proteins to trivalent arsenicals. Only two of the five peptides effectively inhibited binding, suggesting that other amino acids besides the 2 vicinal cysteines may modulate the affinity of cysteine-rich proteins for trivalent arsenicals. We further investigated hepatic cytosolic proteins that bound specifically to glutathione-conjugated trivalent arsenic, which is the most abundant form of arsenical in bile fluid. Four proteins that bound specifically to glutathione-conjugated trivalent arsenic were identified; interestingly, these proteins were different from the trivalent arsenic-binding proteins. These results suggest that although glutathione-conjugation is an important process in the metabolism, excretion, and detoxification of arsenicals, glutathione-conjugated arsenicals can still react with some proteins in hepatic cells.

  4. MicroRNA-1 promotes apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells by targeting apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API-5).

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Liu, Yu; Li, Hua; Peng, Jing-Jing; Tan, Yan; Zou, Qiang; Song, Xiao-Feng; Du, Min; Yang, Zheng-Hui; Tan, Yong; Zhou, Jin-Jun; Xu, Tao; Fu, Zeng-Qiang; Feng, Jian-Qiong; Cheng, Peng; chen, Tao; Wei, Dong; Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Huan-Yi; Qi, Zhong-Chun; Tang, Li-Jun; Wang, Tao; Guo, Xin; Hu, Yong-He; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-02

    Although microRNA-1 (miR-1) is a known liver cancer suppressor, the role of miR-1 in apoptosis of hepatoma cells has remained largely unknown. Our study shows that ectopic miR-1 overexpression induced apoptosis of liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5) was found to be a potential regulator of miR-1 induced apoptosis, using a bioinformatics approach. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between miR-1 and API-5 expression was observed in human liver cancer tissues and adjacent normal liver tissues. Negative regulation of API-5 expression by miR-1 was demonstrated to promote apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Our study provides a novel regulatory mechanism of miR-1 in the apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined cytotoxic effects of pesticide mixtures present in the Chinese diet on human hepatocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mengmeng; Chen, Chen; Yang, Guiling; Li, Yun; Chen, Zhijun; Qian, Yongzhong

    2016-09-01

    Consumers might be simultaneously exposed to several pesticide residues contained in their food. Based on the results of previous studies, 20 pesticides were selected due to their high exposure levels to which the Chinese population is likely exposed through the diet. The purpose of this study was to measure the cytotoxicity of these pesticides in HepG2 cells in vitro, as an alternative approach to assess the toxicity of chemicals. Then, the pesticides and some of the mixtures with comparatively high cell-proliferating inhibitory activities were selected to test the cellular ROS level and apoptosis-related protein Caspase-3/7 content in HepG2 cells. The combined effects of these pesticide mixtures with the prediction was based on a combination index (CI)-isobologram equation and the pesticide combinations exhibited various types of interactions (synergism, antagonism, and additivity). Two individuals, one binary combinations, and three uniform design (UD) mixtures of the pesticides were found to have significant cytotoxic effects, along with significant time- and dose-dependent induction of caspase-3/7 activity in vitro, indicating that cytotoxicity caused by these pesticides might be attributed to the pro-oxidative and apoptosis induced potential.

  6. Gum arabic-curcumin conjugate micelles with enhanced loading for curcumin delivery to hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; James, Nirmala Rachel; Kumar, P R Anil; Raj, Deepa K; Kumary, T V

    2015-12-10

    Curcumin is conjugated to gum arabic, a highly water soluble polysaccharide to enhance the solubility and stability of curcumin. Conjugation of curcumin to gum arabic is confirmed by (1)H NMR, fluorescence and UV spectroscopy studies. The conjugate self assembles to spherical nano-micelles (270 ± 5 nm) spontaneously, when dispersed in aqueous medium. Spherical morphology of the self assembled conjugate is evidenced by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The self assembly of the amphiphilic conjugate into micelle in aqueous medium significantly enhances the solubility (900 fold of that of free curcumin) and stability of curcumin in physiological pH. The anticancer activity of the conjugate micelles is found to be higher in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells than in human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The conjugate exhibits enhanced accumulation and toxicity in HepG2 cells due to the targeting efficiency of the galactose groups present in gum arabic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Promotive effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 on angiogenesis in hepatocarcinoma via multiple signal pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Wei-han; Zeng, Peng; Chen, Xi; Lu, Yan-jun; Li, An; Wu, Jian-bin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) on the angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma have not yet been observed and its molecular mechanisms is not clear. We first constructed the recombinant lentivirus vectors expressing small hairpin RNA against BMP-2 gene (LV-SH-BMP2) and the recombinant lentivirus vectors over-expressing BMP-2 (overexpression-LV-BMP2), and then the two recombinant lentivirus vectors were respectively transfected into Hep G2 cells. The Hep G2 cells transfected with LV-SH-BMP2 or overexpression-LV-BMP2 were respectively co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to observe the effects of BMP-2 on HUVECs. The effect of BMP-2 on tumor microvessel density (MVD) was examined. The abilities of proliferation, migration and angiogenesis were significantly inhibited in the HUVECs co-cultured with BMP-2 knockdown Hep G2 (all P < 0.05), but significantly enhanced in the HUVECs co-cultured with BMP-2 overexpression Hep G2 (all P < 0.05). MVD was significantly increased in overexpression-LV-BMP2-transfected Hep G2 tumor, but decreased in LV-SH-BMP2-transfected Hep G2 tumors. The protein expressions of VEGF, p-P38, p-ERK, p-AKT, p-m-TOR were significantly increased after BMP-2 over-expression, or significantly decreased after BMP-2 knockdown (all P < 0.05). These results reveal that BMP-2 can enhance HUVEC proliferation, migration and angiogenesis through P38, ERK and Akt/m-TOR pathway. PMID:27886213

  8. Transarterial radioembolization vs chemoembolization for hepatocarcinoma patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Serviddio, Gaetano; Muscatiello, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y90RE) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. METHODS: Bibliographic research was conducted on main scientific databases. When there was no statistically significant heterogeneity, pooled effects were calculated using a fixed-effects model by means of Mantel-Haenszel test, otherwise, a random-effects model was used with DerSimonian and Laird test. Summary estimates were expressed in terms of odds ratios (ORs) and 95%CI. The probability of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and with Begg and Mazumdar’s test. Sensitivity analysis was finally conducted using the method of excluding extreme data. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were analyzed, of which 2 randomized controlled trials. Survival rate (SR) assessed at 1 year showed an absolute similarity between the two treatment groups (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.78-1.31, P = 0.93). As long as time elapsed since the treatment, ORs for survival rate tended to significantly increase, thus meaning better long-term outcomes in patients who underwent Y90RE (2-year SR: OR = 1.43, 1.08-1.89, P = 0.01; 3-year SR: OR = 1.48, 1.03-2.13, P = 0.04). Meta-analysis of plotted hazard ratios (HRs) determined a non-significant overall estimate in favor of Y90RE (HR = 0.91, 0.80-1.04, P = 0.16). Y90RE showed a statistically significant benefit as compared to TACE in terms of higher progression-free survival rate assessed at 1 year (OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.10-2.55; P = 0.02). Pooled analyses do not revealed a statistically significant increase in OR for tumor objective responses after Y90RE with respect to TACE (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 0.69-2.16, P = 0.50). A non-significant trend in favor of Y90RE was observed according to adverse event rate (OR = 0.70, 0.38-1.30, P = 0.26). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis reveals that Y90RE and TACE show similar effects in terms of survival, response rate and safety profile, although tumor progression is delayed after radioembolization. PMID:27366304

  9. The scent fingerprint of hepatocarcinoma: in-vitro metastasis prediction with volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    PubMed

    Amal, Haitham; Ding, Lu; Liu, Bin-bin; Tisch, Ulrike; Xu, Zhen-qin; Shi, Da-you; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Jie; Sun, Rui-xia; Liu, Hu; Ye, Sheng-Long; Tang, Zhao-you; Haick, Hossam

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and aggressive form of cancer. Due to a high rate of postoperative recurrence, the prognosis for HCC is poor. Subclinical metastasis is the major cause of tumor recurrence and patient mortality. Currently, there is no reliable prognostic method of invasion. To investigate the feasibility of fingerprints of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the in-vitro prediction of metastasis. Headspace gases were collected from 36 cell cultures (HCC with high and low metastatic potential and normal cells) and analyzed using nanomaterial-based sensors. Predictive models were built by employing discriminant factor analysis pattern recognition, and the classification success was determined using leave-one-out cross-validation. The chemical composition of each headspace sample was studied using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Excellent discrimination was achieved using the nanomaterial-based sensors between (i) all HCC and normal controls; (ii) low metastatic HCC and normal controls; (iii) high metastatic HCC and normal controls; and (iv) high and low HCC. Several HCC-related VOCs that could be associated with biochemical cellular processes were identified through GC-MS analysis. The presented results constitute a proof-of-concept for the in-vitro prediction of the metastatic potential of HCC from VOC fingerprints using nanotechnology. Further studies on a larger number of more diverse cell cultures are needed to evaluate the robustness of the VOC patterns. These findings could benefit the development of a fast and potentially inexpensive laboratory test for subclinical HCC metastasis.

  10. The histone demethylase JMJD1A regulates adrenomedullin-mediated cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma under hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seong-Joon; Kim, Joong-Gook; Son, Tae Gen; Yi, Joo Mi; Kim, Nam Deuk; Yang, Kwangmo; Heo, Kyu

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Hypoxia stimulates HepG2 and Hep3B cell proliferation. •The JMJD1A and ADM expressions are enhanced by hypoxia in HCCs. •Increased JMJD1A expression reduces a H3K9 di-methylation in the ADM promoter region. •Knock-down of JMJD1A abrogates the hypoxia-induced HepG2 and Hep3B cell growth. -- Abstract: We studied the roles of JMJD1A and its target gene ADM in the growth of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and breast cancer cells under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia stimulated HepG2 and Hep3B cell proliferation but had no effect on MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation. Interestingly, the JMJD1A and ADM expressions were enhanced by hypoxia only in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Our ChIP results showed that hypoxia-induced HepG2 and Hep3B cell proliferation is mediated by JMJD1A upregulation and subsequent decrease in methylation in the ADM promoter region. Furthermore, JMJD1A gene silencing abrogated the hypoxia-induced ADM expression and inhibited HepG2 and Hep3B cell growth. These data suggest that JMJD1A might function as a proliferation regulator in some cancer cell types.

  11. Quasispecies of Hepatitis C Virus Participate in Cell-Specific Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Takasuke; Yamamoto, Satomi; Ono, Chikako; Nakamura, Shota; Motooka, Daisuke; Mori, Hiroyuki; Kurihara, Takeshi; Sato, Asuka; Tamura, Tomokazu; Motomura, Takashi; Okamoto, Toru; Imamura, Michio; Ikegami, Toru; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Soejima, Yuji; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Chayama, Kazuaki; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2017-03-22

    It is well documented that a variety of viral quasispecies are found in the patients with chronic infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the significance of quasispecies in the specific infectivity to individual cell types remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the role of quasispecies of the genotype 2a clone, JFH1 (HCVcc), in specific infectivity to the hepatic cell lines, Huh7.5.1 and Hep3B. HCV RNA was electroporated into Huh7.5.1 cells and Hep3B/miR-122 cells expressing miR-122 at a high level. Then, we adapted the viruses to Huh7 and Hep3B/miR-122 cells by serial passages and termed the resulting viruses HCVcc/Huh7 and HCVcc/Hep3B, respectively. Interestingly, a higher viral load was obtained in the homologous combination of HCVcc/Huh7 in Huh7.5.1 cells or HCVcc/Hep3B in Hep3B/miR-122 cells compared with the heterologous combination. By using a reverse genetics system and deep sequence analysis, we identified several adaptive mutations involved in the high affinity for each cell line, suggesting that quasispecies of HCV participate in cell-specific infectivity.

  12. Quasispecies of Hepatitis C Virus Participate in Cell-Specific Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Fukuhara, Takasuke; Yamamoto, Satomi; Ono, Chikako; Nakamura, Shota; Motooka, Daisuke; Mori, Hiroyuki; Kurihara, Takeshi; Sato, Asuka; Tamura, Tomokazu; Motomura, Takashi; Okamoto, Toru; Imamura, Michio; Ikegami, Toru; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Soejima, Yuji; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Chayama, Kazuaki; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented that a variety of viral quasispecies are found in the patients with chronic infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the significance of quasispecies in the specific infectivity to individual cell types remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the role of quasispecies of the genotype 2a clone, JFH1 (HCVcc), in specific infectivity to the hepatic cell lines, Huh7.5.1 and Hep3B. HCV RNA was electroporated into Huh7.5.1 cells and Hep3B/miR-122 cells expressing miR-122 at a high level. Then, we adapted the viruses to Huh7 and Hep3B/miR-122 cells by serial passages and termed the resulting viruses HCVcc/Huh7 and HCVcc/Hep3B, respectively. Interestingly, a higher viral load was obtained in the homologous combination of HCVcc/Huh7 in Huh7.5.1 cells or HCVcc/Hep3B in Hep3B/miR-122 cells compared with the heterologous combination. By using a reverse genetics system and deep sequence analysis, we identified several adaptive mutations involved in the high affinity for each cell line, suggesting that quasispecies of HCV participate in cell-specific infectivity. PMID:28327559

  13. MiR-15a suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell migration and invasion by directly targeting cMyb

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Sun, Ting; Wu, Gang; Shang-Guan, Hui; Jiang, Zhao-Jin; Zhang, Ji-Ren; Zheng, Yan-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the function of miR-15a in HCC, and identify cMyb as a target of miR-15a. Methods: RNA expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The effects of miR-15a or cMyb on HCC cells were evaluated by transwell migration assay and western blot analysis. CMyb, the predicted target, has been frequently verified by luciferase assay. Results: MiR-15a was markedly downregulated in sphere culture HCC cells by qRT-PCR. CMyb was predicted to be a potential target of miR-15a using bioinformatics analysis. This prediction has been frequently verified by luciferase assay and western blot. A positive correlation between cMyb and the migration ability of HCC cells was demonstrated by transwell assays. MiR-15a mimic suppressed cMyb expression to weaken HCC cell migration ability. On the other hand, miR-15a inhibitor upregulated cMyb and induced HCC cell migration. Conclusion: MiR-15a could suppress HCC progression through the repression of cMyb, making miR-15a a potential therapeutic target. PMID:28337280

  14. [Comparative evaluation of ultrasonography, computerized tomography, angiography and lipiodol CT in defining extent of hepatocarcinoma. A multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Dalla Palma, L; Pozzi Mucelli, R; Sponza, M; Bartolozzi, C; De Santis, M; Gandini, G; Mannella, P; Matricardi, L; Rossi, C; Simonetti, G

    1995-03-01

    The authors report the results of a multicentric trial on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, whose lesions were confirmed with biopsy or by high (> 400 ng/ml) alpha-fetoprotein levels. The series consisted of 149 patients examined in 8 different centers and submitted to ultrasonography (US), Computed Tomography (CT) before and after contrast agent administration, angiography and Lipiodol CT. According to lesion size and number, the patients were divided with each imaging modality into three groups: a) group 1: unifocal HCC < 5 cm diameter; b) group 2: multifocal HCC with 2-3 nodules and/or tumor mass < 80 ml; c) multifocal HCC with more than 3 nodules (with total tumor mass not exceeding 40% of liver volume) or with total tumor mass > 80 ml. In 77 patients all the examinations were available for comparison. US and CT diagnosed more patients as belonging to group 1 than angiography and Lipiodol CT, while more patients were classified as groups 2 and 3 with angiography and Lipiodol CT, meaning that US and CT may understage some HCC cases (about 15%) because they show a lower number of nodules. This observation was confirmed by the direct comparison between US and Lipiodol CT (in 114 patients), CT and Lipiodol CT (in 103 patients) and angiography and Lipiodol CT (in 116 patients). US and Lipiodol CT were in disagreement in 18 cases, CT and Lipiodol CT in 16 cases and angiography and Lipiodol CT in 13 cases. In most of these cases, Lipiodol CT showed more lesions than the other techniques. The size of the undetected lesions was small, ranging few mm to 2 cm in nearly all cases. To conclude, the results of this multicentric trial show that Lipiodol CT is a fundamental tool to evaluate HCC extent. In contrast, conventional CT appeared not to add any significant piece of information and can therefore be excluded from the diagnostic protocol of HCC.

  15. A nonrandomized cohort and a randomized study of local control of large hepatocarcinoma by targeting intratumoral lactic acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming; Wu, Hao; Jin, Kai; Li, Bin; Wu, Jianjun; Zhang, Guangqiang; Yang, Gong; Hu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Study design: Previous works suggested that neutralizing intratumoral lactic acidosis combined with glucose deprivation may deliver an effective approach to control tumor. We did a pilot clinical investigation, including a nonrandomized (57 patients with large HCC) and a randomized controlled (20 patients with large HCC) studies. Methods: The patients were treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with or without bicarbonate local infusion into tumor. Results: In the nonrandomized controlled study, geometric mean of viable tumor residues (VTR) in TACE with bicarbonate was 6.4-fold lower than that in TACE without bicarbonate (7.1% [95% CI: 4.6%–10.9%] vs 45.6% [28.9%–72.0%]; p<0.0001). This difference was recapitulated by a subsequent randomized controlled study. TACE combined with bicarbonate yielded a 100% objective response rate (ORR), whereas the ORR treated with TACE alone was 44.4% (nonrandomized) and 63.6% (randomized). The survival data suggested that bicarbonate may bring survival benefit. Conclusion: Bicarbonate markedly enhances the anticancer activity of TACE. Clinical trail registration: ChiCTR-IOR-14005319. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15691.001 PMID:27481188

  16. RB/PLK1-dependent induced pathway by SLAMF3 expression inhibits mitosis and control hepatocarcinoma cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bouhlal, Hicham; Singh, Amrathlal Rabbind; Ossart, Christèle; Reignier, Aline; Hocini, Hakim; Fouquet, Gregory; Baghami, Mohammed Al; Eugenio, Mélanie Simoes; Nguyen-Khac, Eric; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Marcq, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Polo-like kinase PLK1 is a cell cycle protein that plays multiple roles in promoting cell cycle progression. Among the many roles, the most prominent role of PLK1 is to regulate the mitotic spindle formation checkpoint at the M-phase. Recently we reported the expression of SLAMF3 in Hepatocytes and show that it is down regulated in tumor cells of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We also show that the forced high expression level of SLAMF3 in HCC cells controls proliferation by inhibiting the MAPK ERK/JNK and the mTOR pathways. In the present study, we provide evidence that the inhibitory effect of SLAMF3 on HCC proliferation occurs through Retinoblastoma (RB) factor and PLK1-dependent pathway. In addition to the inhibition of MAPK ERK/JNK and the mTOR pathways, expression of SLAMF3 in HCC retains RB factor in its hypophosphorylated active form, which in turn inactivates E2F transcription factor, thereby repressing the expression and activation of PLK1. A clear inverse correlation was also observed between SLAMF3 and PLK expression in patients with HCC. In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that the tumor suppressor potential of SLAMF3 occurs through activation of RB that represses PLK1. We propose that the induction of a high expression level of SLAMF3 in cancerous cells could control cellular mitosis and block tumor progression. PMID:26799423

  17. Effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma on human hepatocarcinoma cell and its 5-fluorouracil resistant cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Lu, R.; Xian, Y.; Gan, L.; Lu, X.; Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma showed selective killing efficiency on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which makes plasma a potential option for cancer therapy. However, the plasma effects on chemotherapeutic drugs-resistant cells are rarely to be found. In this paper, the effects of plasma on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel7402 cells and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant Bel7402/5FU cells were intensively investigated. The results showed that plasma induced superior toxicity to Bel7402 cells compared with Bel7402/5FU cells. Incubation with plasma-treated medium for 20 s induced more than 85% death rate in Bel7402 cells, while the same death ratio was achieved when Bel7402/5FU cells were treated for as long as 300 s. The hydrogen peroxide in the medium played a leading role in the cytotoxicity effects. Further studies implicated that when the treatment time was shorter than 60 s, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis occurred through the intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in Bel7402 cells. Molecular analysis showed an increase in the transcription factor activity for AP-1, NF-кB, and p53 in Bel7402 cells. No obvious damage could be detected in plasma-treated Bel7402/5FU cells due to the strong intracellular reactive oxygen stress scavenger system.

  18. Hepassocin regulates cell proliferation of the human hepatic cells L02 and hepatocarcinoma cells through different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meng-Meng; Xu, Wang-Xiang; Li, Chang-Yan; Cao, Chuan-Zeng; Wang, Zhi-Dong; Yao, Jia-Wei; Yu, Miao; Zhan, Yi-Qun; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Tang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Hui; Li, Wei; Ge, Chang-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Ming

    2011-10-01

    Hepassocin (HPS) is a specific mitogenic active factor for hepatocytes, and inhibits growth by overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the mechanism of HPS regulation on growth of liver-derived cells still remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that HPS was expressed and secreted into the extracellular medium in cultured L02 human hepatic cells; conditional medium of L02 cells promoted proliferation of L02 cells and this activity could be blocked by anti-HPS antibody. Moreover, we identified the presence of receptor for HPS on L02 cells and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Overproduction of truncated HPS, which signal peptide was deleted, significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells and induced cell cycle arrest. These findings suggest that HPS promotes hepatic cell line L02 cells proliferation via an autocrine mechanism and inhibits HCC cells proliferation by an intracrine pathway.

  19. Generation of reactive oxygen species by a novel berberine–bile acid analog mediates apoptosis in hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qingyong; Zhang, Li; Zu, Yuangang; Liu, Tianyu; Zhang, Baoyou; He, Wuna

    2013-04-19

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anticancer effects of B4, a novel berberine–bile acid analog, were tested. • B4 inhibited cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. • It also stimulated mitochondrial ROS production and membrane depolarization. • Effects of B4 were inhibited by a non-specific ROS scavenger. • Regulation of ROS generation may be a strategy for treating hepatic carcinoma. - Abstract: 2,3-Methenedioxy-9-O-(3′α,7′α-dihydroxy-5′β-cholan-24′-propy-lester) berberine (B4) is a novel berberine–bile acid analog synthesized in our laboratory. Previously, we showed that B4 exerted greater cytotoxicity than berberine in several human cancer cell lines. Therefore, we further evaluated the mechanism governing its anticancer actions in hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. B4 inhibited the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells, and stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization; anti-oxidant capacity was reduced. B4 also induced the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and an increase in poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage products, reflective of caspase-3 activation. Moreover, B4 induced the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and a rise in DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment with the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibited B4-mediated effects, including cytotoxicity, ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, cytochrome c release, PARP cleavage, and AIF translocation. Our data suggest that B4 induces ROS-triggered caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis pathways in SMMC-7721 cells and that ROS production may be a specific potential strategy for treating hepatic carcinoma.

  20. Inhibition of HSF1 suppresses the growth of hepatocarcinoma cell lines in vitro and AKT-driven hepatocarcinogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pilo, Maria G.; Szydlowska, Marta; Brozzetti, Stefania; Latte, Gavinella; Pes, Giovanni M.; Pascale, Rosa M.; Seddaiu, Maria A.; Vidili, Gianpaolo; Ribback, Silvia; Dombrowski, Frank; Evert, Matthias; Chen, Xin; Calvisi, Diego F.

    2017-01-01

    Upregulation of the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) has been described as a frequent event in many cancer types, but its oncogenic role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poorly delineated. In the present study, we assessed the function(s) of HSF1 in hepatocarcinogenesis via in vitro and in vivo approaches. In particular, we determined the importance of HSF1 on v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT)-induced liver cancer development in mice. We found that knockdown of HSF1 activity via specific siRNA triggered growth restraint by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing massive cell apoptosis in human HCC cell lines. At the molecular level, HSF1 inhibition was accompanied by downregulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade and related metabolic pathways. Most importantly, overexpression of a dominant negative form of HSF1 (HSF1dn) in the mouse liver via hydrodynamic gene delivery led to the inhibition of mouse hepatocarcinogenesis driven by overexpression of AKT. In human liver cancer specimens, we detected that HSF1 is progressively induced from human non-tumorous surrounding livers to HCC, reaching the highest expression in the tumors characterized by the poorest outcome (as defined by the length of patients’ survival). In conclusion, HSF1 is an independent prognostic factor in liver cancer and might represent an innovative therapeutic target in HCC subsets characterized by activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway. PMID:28903330

  1. Effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma on human hepatocarcinoma cell and its 5-fluorouracil resistant cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.; Gan, L.; Yang, X. E-mail: yangxl@mail.hust.edu.cn; Lu, R.; Xian, Y.; Lu, X. E-mail: yangxl@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma showed selective killing efficiency on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which makes plasma a potential option for cancer therapy. However, the plasma effects on chemotherapeutic drugs-resistant cells are rarely to be found. In this paper, the effects of plasma on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel7402 cells and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant Bel7402/5FU cells were intensively investigated. The results showed that plasma induced superior toxicity to Bel7402 cells compared with Bel7402/5FU cells. Incubation with plasma-treated medium for 20 s induced more than 85% death rate in Bel7402 cells, while the same death ratio was achieved when Bel7402/5FU cells were treated for as long as 300 s. The hydrogen peroxide in the medium played a leading role in the cytotoxicity effects. Further studies implicated that when the treatment time was shorter than 60 s, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis occurred through the intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in Bel7402 cells. Molecular analysis showed an increase in the transcription factor activity for AP-1, NF-kB, and p53 in Bel7402 cells. No obvious damage could be detected in plasma-treated Bel7402/5FU cells due to the strong intracellular reactive oxygen stress scavenger system.

  2. Galectin-1 Controls the Proliferation and Migration of Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells and Their Interaction With Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Malena; Bacigalupo, María L; Carabias, Pablo; Elola, María T; Wolfenstein-Todel, Carlota; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Espelt, María V; Troncoso, María F

    2016-07-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal1), a β-galactoside-binding protein elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its expression correlates with HCC growth, invasiveness, and metastasis. During the early stages of HCC, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 ) acts as a tumor suppressor; however in advanced stages, HCC cells lose their cytostatic response to TGF-β1 and undergo EMT. Here, we investigated the role of Gal1 on liver endothelial cell biology, and the interplay between Gal1 and TGF-β1 in HCC progression. By Western blot and immunofluorescence, we analyzed Gal1 expression, secretion and localization in HepG2 and HuH-7 human HCC cells, and in SK-HEP-1 human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs). We used loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments to down- or up-regulate Gal1 expression, respectively, in HepG2 cells. We cultured SK-HEP-1 cells with conditioned media from HCC cells secreting different levels of Gal1, and demonstrated that Gal1 derived from tumor hepatocytes induced its own expression in SECs. Colorimetric and scratch-wound assays revealed that secretion of Gal1 by HCC cells induced SEC proliferation and migration. Moreover, by fluorescence microscopy we demonstrated that Gal1 promoted glycan-dependent heterotypic adhesion of HepG2 cells to SK-HEP-1 SECs. Furthermore, TGF-β1 induced Gal1 expression and secretion by HCC cells, and promoted HepG2 cell adhesion to SK-HEP-1 SECs through a Gal1-dependent mechanism. Finally, Gal1 modulated HepG2 cell proliferation and sensitivity to TGF-β1 -induced growth inhibition. Our results suggest that Gal1 and TGF-β1 might function coordinately within the HCC microenvironment to regulate tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis.

  3. Ras-association domain family 10 acts as a novel tumor suppressor through modulating MMP2 in hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W; Wang, J; Wang, L; Qian, C; Qian, Y; Xuan, H; Zhuo, W; Li, X; Yu, J; Si, J

    2016-01-01

    Ras-Association Domain Family 10 (RASSF10) is the last identified member of the RASSF family. The functional characteristics of this new gene in human cancers remain largely unclear. Here, we examined RASSF10 for the biological functions and related molecular mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that RASSF10 is expressed in normal human liver tissue, but is silenced or down-regulated in 62.5% (5/8) of HCC cell lines. The mean expression level of RASSF10 was significantly lower in primary HCCs compared with their adjacent normal tissues (P<0.005, n=52). The promoter methylation contributes to the inactivation of RASSF10 as demonstrated by bisulfite genomic sequencing and demethylation treatment analyses. Transgenic expression of RASSF10 in silenced HCC cell lines suppressed cell viability, colony formation and inhibited tumor growth in nude mice (QGY7703, P<0.01; HepG2, P<0.05). Furthermore, RASSF10 was shown to induce the cell accumulation in G1 phase with the increase of p27, as well as the decrease of cyclinD1 and CDK2/CDK4. Over-expression of RASSF10 also inhibited HCC cells migration (P<0.01) or invasion (P<0.05). Adhesion genes array revealed that Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) was a downstream effector of RASSF10. RASSF10 acting as a tumor suppressor to inhibit HCC invasion partially mediated by Focal Adhesion Kinase or p38 MAPK to decrease the accumulation of MMP2. Our study suggests that RASSF10 acts as a tumor suppressor for HCC. PMID:27348267

  4. Silencing of solute carrier family 13 member 5 disrupts energy homeostasis and inhibits proliferation of human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihui; Li, Daochuan; Choi, Eun Yong; Lapidus, Rena; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Shapiro, Paul; Wang, Hongbing

    2017-08-18

    The solute carrier family 13 member 5 (SLC13A5), a sodium-coupled citrate transporter, plays a key role in importing citrate from the circulation into liver cells. Recent evidence has revealed that SLC13A5 deletion protects mice from high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and that mutation of the SLC13A5 orthologues in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans promotes longevity. However, despite the emerging importance of SLC13A5 in energy homeostasis, whether perturbation of SLC13A5 affects the metabolism and malignancy of hepatocellular carcinoma is unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether SLC13A5 regulates hepatic energy homeostasis and proliferation of hepatoma cells. RNAi-mediated silencing of SLC13A5 expression in two human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7, profoundly suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation, and induced cell cycle arrest accompanied by increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and decreased expression of cyclin B1. Furthermore, such suppressive effects were also observed on the growth of HepG2 cell-derived xenografts expressing SLC13A5-shRNA in nude mice. Metabolically, knockdown of SLC13A5 in HepG2 and Huh7 cells was associated with a decrease in intracellular levels of citrate, the ratio of ATP/ADP, phospholipid content, and ATP citrate lyase expression. Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that SLC13A5 depletion promotes activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase, which was accompanied by deactivation of oncogenic mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling. Together, our findings expand the role of SLC13A5 from facilitating hepatic energy homeostasis to influencing hepatoma cell proliferation and suggest a potential role of SLC13A5 in the progression of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. The role of alkaline phosphatase in intracellular lipid accumulation in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2.

    PubMed

    Chirambo, George M; van Niekerk, Chantal; Crowther, Nigel J

    2017-04-01

    Inhibition of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) decreases intracellular lipid accumulation in human preadipocytes and the murine preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1. Therefore, the current study was performed to determine if TNALP is required for intracellular lipid deposition in the human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2. Intracellular lipid accumulation, TNALP activity and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ gene expression were measured in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells in the presence and absence of the TNALP inhibitors levamisole and histidine. Sub-cellular TNALP activity was localized using cytochemical analysis. Both PPARγ gene expression and TNALP activity increased during intracellular lipid accumulation in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Inhibition of TNALP blocked intracellular lipid accumulation but did not alter expression of the PPARγ gene. In HepG2 cells, TNALP co-localized with adipophilin on the lipid droplet membrane. These data suggest a role for TNALP in lipid droplet formation, possibly downstream from PPARγ, within HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypoxia inhibits induction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity in topminnow hepatocarcinoma cells in an ARNT-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Carrie R.; Billiard, Sonya M.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxic events often occur in waters contaminated with toxic chemicals, including agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). HIF-1α, the mediator of cellular responses to hypoxia, shares a dimerization partner (ARNT) with AhR and reciprocal crosstalk may occur. Studies addressing AhR/hypoxia crosstalk in mammalian cells have produced contradictory results regarding whether reciprocal crosstalk actually occurs between these pathways and the role ARNT plays in this interaction. We assessed hypoxia-AhR crosstalk in fish cells (PLHC-1) treated with hypoxia (1% O2) or normoxia (21% O2) and AhR agonists (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF)) with and without overexpression of ARNT. Hypoxia limited induction of a transiently transfected AhR reporter by all three of the AhR agonists; overexpression of ARNT eliminated this effect. PCB-126 had no effect on induction of a transiently transfected hypoxia reporter. BkF caused a minor increase in basal and induced hypoxia reporter activity. BaP decreased basal and induced hypoxia reporter activity; overexpression of ARNT did not alter this effect indicating that this interference with hypoxia pathway activity occurs through an alternate mechanism. Reduced hypoxia pathway activity with BaP treatment may be the result of a metabolite. This study supports the hypothesis that HIF-1α is able to sequester ARNT from AhR and limit the activity of the AhR pathway, but suggests that the converse is not true. PMID:19539049

  7. Long non-coding RNA TUC338 is functionally involved in sorafenib-sensitized hepatocarcinoma cells by targeting RASAL1.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weidong; Chen, Lei; Cai, Xun; Zhang, Yunxiao; Zhang, Jianxin; Ma, Dangdang; Cai, Xiong; Fu, Tao; Yu, Zhengping; Yu, Fuxiang; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Development of novel targeted therapy holds promise for conquering chemotherapy resistance, one of major hurdles in current liver cancer treatment. We found that long non-coding RNA TUC338 is involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and sorafenib resistance. HCC cell lines were transfected with siTUC338, then cell proliferation and invasion ability were investigated by MTT and Transwell assay. Sorafenib resistance HepG2 cells were generated to test the role of TUC338 in sorafenib sensitivity. Intratumoral delivering of siTUC338 was used to analyze the sorafenib treatment response in HepG2/Sor xenografts in vivo. Higher levels of TUC338 were found both in HCC tissues and cell lines, knockdown of TUC338 was accompanied with increased expression of RASAL1 in HCC cell line with increased proliferation and invasion ability, knockdown of TUC338 could activate the RASAL1 pathway and inhibit tumor growth genes by directly targeting RASAL1 3'-UTR. Furthermore, knockdown of TUC338 in HepG2 sorafenib sensitized its reaction to the treatment of sorafenib, which was accompanied by increased expression RASAL1; intratumoral delivering of siTUC338 could also restore sorafenib treatment response in HepG2/Sor xenografts in vivo. These findings provide direct evidence that the TUC338/RASAL1 axis might play an essential role in sorafenib-resistance of liver cancer cells, suggesting the signaling cohort could serve as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of chemotherapy resistant liver cancer.

  8. Selective Cytotoxicity of 1,3,4-Thiadiazolium Mesoionic Derivatives on Hepatocarcinoma Cells (HepG2)

    PubMed Central

    Valdameri, Glaucio; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Acco, Alexandra; Alves de Souza, Carlos Eduardo; Echevarria, Aurea; Moretto dos Reis, Camilla; Di Pietro, Attilio; Suter Correia Cadena, Sílvia Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of mesoionic 4-phenyl-5-(2-Y, 4-X or 4-X-cinnamoyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazolium-2-phenylamine chloride derivatives (MI-J: X=OH, Y=H; MI-D: X=NO2, Y=H; MI-4F: X=F, Y=H; MI-2,4diF: X=Y=F) on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), and non-tumor cells (rat hepatocytes) for comparison. MI-J, M-4F and MI-2,4diF reduced HepG2 viability by ~ 50% at 25 μM after 24-h treatment, whereas MI-D required a 50 μM concentration, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. The cytotoxicity was confirmed with lactate dehydrogenase assay, of which activity was increased by 55, 24 and 16% for MI-J, MI-4F and MI-2,4diF respectively (at 25 μM after 24 h). To identify the death pathway related to cytotoxicity, the HepG2 cells treated by mesoionic compounds were labeled with both annexin V and PI, and analyzed by flow cytometry. All compounds increased the number of doubly-stained cells at 25 μM after 24 h: by 76% for MI-J, 25% for MI-4F and MI-2,4diF, and 11% for MI-D. It was also verified that increased DNA fragmentation occurred upon MI-J, MI-4F and MI-2,4diF treatments (by 12%, 9% and 8%, respectively, at 25 μM after 24 h). These compounds were only weakly, or not at all, transported by the main multidrug transporters, P-glycoprotein, ABCG2 and MRP1, and were able to slightly inhibit their drug-transport activity. It may be concluded that 1,3,4-thiadiazolium compounds, especially the hydroxy derivative MI-J, constitute promising candidates for future investigations on in-vivo treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26083249

  9. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in transcriptional activation of ceruloplasmin by iron deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Mazumder, B.; Fox, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    A role of the copper protein ceruloplasmin (Cp) in iron metabolism is suggested by its ferroxidase activity and by the tissue iron overload in hereditary Cp deficiency patients. In addition, plasma Cp increases markedly in several conditions of anemia, e.g. iron deficiency, hemorrhage, renal failure, sickle cell disease, pregnancy, and inflammation. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) involved. We have reported that iron chelators increase Cp mRNA expression and protein synthesis in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we have shown that the increase in Cp mRNA is due to increased rate of transcription. We here report the results of new studies designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying transcriptional activation of Cp by iron deficiency. The 5'-flanking region of the Cp gene was cloned from a human genomic library. A 4774-base pair segment of the Cp promoter/enhancer driving a luciferase reporter was transfected into HepG2 or Hep3B cells. Iron deficiency or hypoxia increased luciferase activity by 5-10-fold compared with untreated cells. Examination of the sequence showed three pairs of consensus hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs). Deletion and mutation analysis showed that a single HRE was necessary and sufficient for gene activation. The involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was shown by gel-shift and supershift experiments that showed HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta binding to a radiolabeled oligonucleotide containing the Cp promoter HRE. Furthermore, iron deficiency (and hypoxia) did not activate Cp gene expression in Hepa c4 hepatoma cells deficient in HIF-1beta, as shown functionally by the inactivity of a transfected Cp promoter-luciferase construct and by the failure of HIF-1 to bind the Cp HRE in nuclear extracts from these cells. These results are consistent with in vivo findings that iron deficiency increases plasma Cp and provides a molecular mechanism that may help to understand these

  10. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in transcriptional activation of ceruloplasmin by iron deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Mazumder, B.; Fox, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    A role of the copper protein ceruloplasmin (Cp) in iron metabolism is suggested by its ferroxidase activity and by the tissue iron overload in hereditary Cp deficiency patients. In addition, plasma Cp increases markedly in several conditions of anemia, e.g. iron deficiency, hemorrhage, renal failure, sickle cell disease, pregnancy, and inflammation. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) involved. We have reported that iron chelators increase Cp mRNA expression and protein synthesis in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we have shown that the increase in Cp mRNA is due to increased rate of transcription. We here report the results of new studies designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying transcriptional activation of Cp by iron deficiency. The 5'-flanking region of the Cp gene was cloned from a human genomic library. A 4774-base pair segment of the Cp promoter/enhancer driving a luciferase reporter was transfected into HepG2 or Hep3B cells. Iron deficiency or hypoxia increased luciferase activity by 5-10-fold compared with untreated cells. Examination of the sequence showed three pairs of consensus hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs). Deletion and mutation analysis showed that a single HRE was necessary and sufficient for gene activation. The involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was shown by gel-shift and supershift experiments that showed HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta binding to a radiolabeled oligonucleotide containing the Cp promoter HRE. Furthermore, iron deficiency (and hypoxia) did not activate Cp gene expression in Hepa c4 hepatoma cells deficient in HIF-1beta, as shown functionally by the inactivity of a transfected Cp promoter-luciferase construct and by the failure of HIF-1 to bind the Cp HRE in nuclear extracts from these cells. These results are consistent with in vivo findings that iron deficiency increases plasma Cp and provides a molecular mechanism that may help to understand these

  11. Lenguaje y communicacion humanos (Human Language and Communication)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    This essay affirms that people are not, like insects, genetically compelled to live and work collectively. Above all, language separates us from the rest of the animal world, allowing us to depart from reflex activity to consider the ambiguous and unknown and formulate new ideas. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  12. Lenguaje y communicacion humanos (Human Language and Communication)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    This essay affirms that people are not, like insects, genetically compelled to live and work collectively. Above all, language separates us from the rest of the animal world, allowing us to depart from reflex activity to consider the ambiguous and unknown and formulate new ideas. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  13. De los Derechos Humanos: Reimagining Civics in Bilingual & Bicultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Dominant approaches to teaching social studies often marginalize bilingual and bicultural students. This is particularly troubling because the explicit goal of the social studies is to cultivate civic participation. Educational inequalities are thus tied to political inequalities. In light of this, this article shares a narrative case study of the…

  14. De los Derechos Humanos: Reimagining Civics in Bilingual & Bicultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Dominant approaches to teaching social studies often marginalize bilingual and bicultural students. This is particularly troubling because the explicit goal of the social studies is to cultivate civic participation. Educational inequalities are thus tied to political inequalities. In light of this, this article shares a narrative case study of the…

  15. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity could be responsible for resistance or sensitivity to IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis in several human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vadrot, Nathalie; Legrand, Agnès; Nello, Elisabeth; Bringuier, Annie-France; Guillot, Raymonde; Feldmann, Gérard

    2006-12-01

    Response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced apoptosis of human hepatoma cell lines (HHCLs) is variable. We analyzed this different behavior in Hep3B, Chang-liver, HepG2, and HuH7 cells. We studied (1) IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis, (2) protein expression of Stat1, (3) binding of nuclear proteins to IFN-gamma activated sequence (GAS), (4) mRNA and expression of proteins acting in apoptosis, and (5) HuH7 sensitivity after inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) siRNA transfection. IFN-gamma induced apoptosis in Hep3B and Chang-liver cells only. In all HHCLs, Stat1 protein increased. Binding of proteins and transactivation activity of GAS increased much more in HuH7. In all HHCLs, caspase activity and apoptotic proteins were not implicated in resistance or sensitivity. iNOS mRNA and protein expression increased in HuH7, disappeared in Hep3B, and remained unchanged in Chang-liver and HepG2. We compared the role of iNOS in Hep3B and HuH7. The iNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, sensitized HuH7 to IFN-gamma, Hep3B/HuH7 coculture partially inhibited Hep3B apoptosis, and HuH7 transfection with iNOS siRNA induced a 50% inhibition of iNOS protein and cell apoptosis. GAS activity and overexpression of iNOS in HuH7, but not in the other HHCLs, suggest that this enzyme could play an important role in the resistance of HuH7 to IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis, perhaps by the antiapoptotic action of NO.

  16. Modulatory actions of o-coumaric acid on carcinogen-activating cytochrome P450 isozymes and the potential for drug interactions in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sen, Alaattin; Terzioglu, Gulsum; Atmaca, Pelin; Celik, Gurbet; Ozgun, Ozden; Arslan, Sevki

    2015-01-01

    Although humans are exposed to o-coumaric acid (OCA) in their diet, there is no available literature related to drug interaction and the carcinogen-activating potential of OCA in the HepG2 cell line. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of OCA on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 enzymes, which are primarily involved in carcinogen and drug metabolism. The cytotoxicity of OCA in HepG2 cells was investigated by measuring the cleavage of WST-1. The protein and mRNA levels of CYPs were determined by western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. The EC10, EC25, and EC50 values of OCA were calculated to be 1.84, 3.91 and 7.39 mM, respectively. A sublethal dose of 5 mM was used throughout this study. The CYP1A2 protein and mRNA levels were increased by 52 and 40% (p < 0.05), as were the CYP2E1 levels by 225 and 424%, respectively (p < 0.05). However, OCA treatment caused 52 and 60% decreases in the levels of CYP3A4 protein and mRNA (p < 0.05), respectively. In contrast to CYP3A4, the CYP2C9 protein and mRNA levels increased by 110 and 130%, respectively. Co-administration of OCA with some drugs may lead to undesirable food-drug interactions due to modulatory effects on CYP isozymes involved in drug metabolism. Moreover, exposure to OCA may cause an increase in carcinogenicity and toxicity due to the induction of the CYP isozymes involved in chemical carcinogenesis. Therefore, serious precautions should be taken when using OCA as a supplement.

  17. Imatinib induces up-regulation of NM23, a metastasis suppressor gene, in human Hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz-Pakseresht, Behta; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Baghbani-arani, Fahimeh

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigated the anti-tumor activity of Imatinib mesylate through modulation of NM23 gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line. Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be the third leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Down regulation of NM23, a metastasis suppressor gene, has been associated with several types of malignant cancer. Recently, effects of Imatinib mesylate, a first member of tyrosine kinases inhibitors, were indicated in research and treatment of different malignant tumors. Methods: Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay after HepG2 cells exposure to Imatinib mesylate at various concentrations of 0, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25,50μM for 24 hours. Also, quantitative real time PCR technique was applied for the detection of NM23 gene expression in HepG2 cell line. Results: There was a dose dependent increase in the cytotoxicity effect of imatinib. The real time PCR results demonstrated that inhibitory effect of Imatinib mesylate on viability via up regulation of NM23 gene expression compared to GAPDH gene (internal control gene) in cancer cells. Conclusion: According to our findings, imatinib can modulate metastasis by enhancing Nm23 gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line.

  18. Autophagy impacts on oxaliplatin-induced hepatocarcinoma apoptosis via the IL-17/IL-17R-JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinghua; Guo, Jiapei; Cao, Qing; Wang, Yi; Chen, Junmao; Wang, Zhigang; Yuan, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-17/IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) complex has been shown to be important for the regulation of inflammation; however, its role in the regulation of tumor processes has recently emerged as a research focus. The present study demonstrated that oxaliplatin was able to increase the levels of IL-17/IL-17R in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and cells lines, and that it had important roles in reducing the susceptibility of the cells to oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of autophagy-related proteins was induced by IL-17/IL-17R and autophagy was shown to induce resistance to oxaliplatin in HCC. In addition, the janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway was shown to be an important pathway in the induction of autophagy in response to oxaliplatin. Autopjhagy was inhibited by 3-methyladenine and JAK2/STAT3 signaling was blocked by AG490, which induced apoptosis in SMMC7721 cells treated with oxaliplatin. The results of the present study may help to elucidate the mechanism underlying the role of IL-17/IL-17R-induced autophagy in the chemoresistance of HCC, as well as help to establish and develop measures to overcome chemoresistance in HCC. PMID:28356957

  19. MiR-101 targets DUSP1 to regulate the TGF-β secretion in sorafenib inhibits macrophage-induced growth of hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xufu; Tang, Chengyong; Lu, Xiuxian; Liu, Rui; Zhou, Mi; He, Diao; Zheng, Daofeng; Sun, Chao; Wu, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated macrophages accelerate tumor progression via growth factor release. Therefore, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs)-initiated signaling cascades are potential therapeutic targets. To better understand anticancer effects of systemic HCC therapy, we studied sorafenib's effect on macrophage function, focusing on macrophage-related growth factor secretion. We found that dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) is a direct target of miR-101. Transfection of miR-101 reduced DUSP1 induction in M2 macrophages and prolonged ERK1/2, p38 and JNK activation, whereas inhibition of miR-101 enhanced DUSP1 expression and decreased ERK1/2, p38 and JNK activation. miR-101 expression was decreased by sorafenib, and inhibition of PI3K/AKT blocked induction of miR-101 by LPS in M2 cells. M2 cells with greater TGF-β and CD206 mRNA expression compared to M1 cells had increased hepatoma growth, metastases and EMT. Sorafenib inhibited miR-101 expression and enhanced DUSP1 expression and lowered TGF-β and CD206 release in M2 cells, slowing macrophage-driven HCC. Our studies demonstrate miR-101 regulates macrophage innate immune responses to LPS via targeting DUSP1. Sorafenib alters macrophage polarization, reduces TGF-β driven cancer growth, metastases and EMT in vitro, and partially inhibits macrophage activation in vivo. Thus, macrophage modulation might explain the anticancer effects of sorafenib. PMID:26158762

  20. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Up-Regulates AKR1C1 Expression Through Nuclear Factor-Y in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Ding, Shijia; Chen, Ke; Qin, Dongdong; Qu, Jialin; Wang, Sen; Sheng, Yanrui; Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Limin; Tang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has long been recognized as an important transcriptional transactivator of several genes. Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (AKR1C1), a member of the family of AKR1CS, is significantly increased in HBx-expressed cells. This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism of HBx in regulating AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells and the role of AKR1C1 for HBV-induced HCC. RT-PCR was performed to detect AKR1C1 expression on mRNA level in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cell. The promoter activity of AKR1C1 was assayed by transient transfection and Dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The AKR1C1 promoter sequence was screened using the TFSEARCH database and the ALIBABA 2.0 software. The potential transcription factors binding sites were identified using 5' functional deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. In this study, we found that HBx promoted AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells. Knockdown of HBx inhibited AKR1C1 activation. The role of HBx expression in regulating the promoter activity of human AKR1C1 gene was analyzed. The 5'functional deletion analysis identified that the region between -128 and -88 was the minimal promoter region of HBx to activate AKR1C1 gene expression. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggested that nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) plays an important role in this HBx-induced AKR1C1 activation. In HepG2.2.1.5 cell, HBx can promote AKR1C1 promoter activity and thus activates the basal transcription of AKR1C1 gene. This process is mediated by the transcription factor NF-Y. This study explored the mechanism for the regulation of HBV on AKR1C1 expression and has provided a new understanding of HBV-induced HCC.

  1. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Up-Regulates AKR1C1 Expression Through Nuclear Factor-Y in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Ding, Shijia; Chen, Ke; Qin, Dongdong; Qu, Jialin; Wang, Sen; Sheng, Yanrui; Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Limin; Tang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has long been recognized as an important transcriptional transactivator of several genes. Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (AKR1C1), a member of the family of AKR1CS, is significantly increased in HBx-expressed cells. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism of HBx in regulating AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells and the role of AKR1C1 for HBV-induced HCC. Materials and Methods RT-PCR was performed to detect AKR1C1 expression on mRNA level in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cell. The promoter activity of AKR1C1 was assayed by transient transfection and Dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The AKR1C1 promoter sequence was screened using the TFSEARCH database and the ALIBABA 2.0 software. The potential transcription factors binding sites were identified using 5’ functional deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. Results In this study, we found that HBx promoted AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells. Knockdown of HBx inhibited AKR1C1 activation. The role of HBx expression in regulating the promoter activity of human AKR1C1 gene was analyzed. The 5’functional deletion analysis identified that the region between -128 and -88 was the minimal promoter region of HBx to activate AKR1C1 gene expression. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggested that nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) plays an important role in this HBx-induced AKR1C1 activation. Conclusions In HepG2.2.1.5 cell, HBx can promote AKR1C1 promoter activity and thus activates the basal transcription of AKR1C1 gene. This process is mediated by the transcription factor NF-Y. This study explored the mechanism for the regulation of HBV on AKR1C1 expression and has provided a new understanding of HBV-induced HCC. PMID:24003325

  2. A comparative assessment of antiproliferative properties of resveratrol and ethanol leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill and Perr against HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Olugbami, Jeremiah Olorunjuwon; Damoiseaux, Robert; France, Bryan; Onibiyo, Esther Modupe; Gbadegesin, Michael Adedapo; Sharma, Shivani; Gimzewski, James Kazimierz; Odunola, Oyeronke Adunni

    2017-08-02

    Epidemiological and experimental evidences have shown cancer as a leading cause of death worldwide. Although the folklore use of plants as a reliable source of health-restoring principles is well-documented, the search for more of such plants that are active against diseases, such as cancer, continues. We report here a laboratory-based evidence of the relevance of an ethanol leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (A2L) in comparison with resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, in cancer therapy. The quantitative assessment of flavonoid and phenolic contents involved quercetin and gallic acid as standards, respectively were determined using spectrophotometry. Cytotoxicity was determined fluorometrically using propidium-iodide-staining method. Antioxidant status, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, caspase activities and mitochondrial integrity were assessed using fluorometry/luminometry. The antioxidant assay demonstrated that A2L possesses a strong antioxidant capacity as compared with the reference compounds, ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. This is further buttressed by the significantly high level of phenolics obtained in the quantitative assessment of the extract. A 72-h post-treatment examination indicated that both A2L and resveratrol modulate the proliferation of HepG2 liver carcinoma cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Determination of the total nuclei area, propidium-iodide negative and positive nuclei areas all further buttress the modulation of cell proliferation by A2L and resveratrol with the indication that the observed cell death is due to apoptosis and necrosis at lower and higher concentrations of treatments respectively. At lower concentrations (0.39-3.13 μg/mL), resveratrol possesses higher tendencies to activate caspases 3 and 7. Bioenergetically, both resveratrol and A2L do not adversely affect the cells at lower concentrations (0.39-6.25 μg/mL for resveratrol and 12.5-100.0 μg/mL for A2L) except at higher concentrations (12.5-25.0 μg/mL for resveratrol and 200-800 μg/mL for A2L) which are more pronounced in A2L-treated cells. Furthermore, the antioxidant status of HepG2 cells is not perturbed by resveratrol as compared with A2L. Assessment of 24-h post-treatment mitochondrial function shows that resveratrol is not mitotoxic as compared with A2L which exhibits mitotoxicity at its highest concentration. Taken together, findings from this study showed that A2L possesses strong antiproliferative activity and its prospect in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma deserves further investigation.

  3. Effect of Smilax china L.-containing serum on the expression of POLD1 mRNA in human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bo; Zhang, Zihan; Zhang, Yuqin; Li, Jiaquan; Liang, Gang; Ling, Jianghong

    2013-10-01

    Bock greenbrier rhizome, also known as Smilax china L. rhizome, induces heat clearing and detoxification and dispels wind dampness. Additionally, this Chinese medicine has been shown to function as an anticancer compound in various types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism by which Smilax china L.-containing serum suppresses SMMC-7721 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth as well as to determine its effect on the expression of DNA polymerase δ catalytic subunit gene 1 (POLD1). SMMC-7721 human HCC cells were cultured with serum containing various amounts of Smilax china L. for 24 h. The cells were also cultured in blank serum or serum containing a drug used in Western medicine (cyclophosphamide; CTX) as a positive control. HCC cell growth and proliferation were determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the expression of POLD1 mRNA was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The number of cells following culture with Smilax china L.-containing serum was observed to be decreased. There was significant growth inhibition in the Smilax china L.-treated cells (shown in the high concentration serum group, volume fraction 30%), which was significantly different from the inhibition observed in the control group (P<0.05). Among the various cell cycle phases following culture, the percentage of cells in the S phase was significantly increased, and the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase was decreased; these percentages were significantly different from the percentages of the control cells (P<0.05). The results obtained following quantitative PCR showed a significant reduction in POLD1 expression. Smilax china L.-containing serum directly suppressed cell growth and induced the apoptosis of human HCC cells. However, the number of cells in the S phase was reduced. This mechanism is suggested to be associated with the suppression of POLD1 expression.

  4. Chemotherapy resistance and metastasis-promoting effects of thyroid hormone in hepatocarcinoma cells are mediated by suppression of FoxO1 and Bim pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Chen, Shen-Liang; Cheng, Yi-Hung; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Tsai, Ming-Ming; Lin, Yang-Hsiang; Huang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and systemic chemotherapy is the major treatment strategy for late-stage HCC patients. Poor prognosis following chemotherapy is the general outcome owing to recurrent resistance. Recent studies have suggested that in addition to cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, chemotherapy can induce an alternative cascade that supports tumor growth and metastasis. In the present investigation, we showed that thyroid hormone (TH), a potent hormone-mediating cellular differentiation and metabolism, acts as an antiapoptosis factor upon challenge of thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-expressing HCC cells with cancer therapy drugs, including cisplatin, doxorubicin and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TH/TR signaling promoted chemotherapy resistance through negatively regulating the pro-apoptotic protein, Bim, resulting in doxorubicin-induced metastasis of chemotherapy-resistant HCC cells. Ectopic expression of Bim in hepatoma cells challenged with chemotherapeutic drugs abolished TH/TR-triggered apoptosis resistance and metastasis. Furthermore, Bim expression was directly transactivated by Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1), which was negatively regulated by TH/TR. TH/TR suppressed FoxO1 activity through both transcriptional downregulation and nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 triggered by Akt-mediated phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of the constitutively active FoxO1 mutant, FoxO1-AAA, but not FoxO1-wt, diminished the suppressive effect of TH/TR on Bim. Our findings collectively suggest that expression of Bim is mediated by FoxO1 and indirectly downregulated by TH/TR, leading to chemotherapy resistance and doxorubicin-promoted metastasis of hepatoma cells. PMID:27490929

  5. [Inhibitory effect of lentivirus-mediated hTERTp-TK combined with hTERTp-tumstatin on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yu-Xi; Niu, Xin; Deng, Zhi-Hua

    2015-11-01

    To observe targeted expression of recombinant lentivirus-mediated (Lv)-hTERTp-TK and Lv-hTERTp-tumstatin in HepG2 cells, and explore the inhibitory effect of their combination on HepG2 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Lv-hTERTp-TK and Lv-hTERTptumstatin were used to infect HepG2 and L02 cells at different MOIs. Transfection efficiency was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Expression of TK and tumstatin mRNA was detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR. Proliferation and apoptosis were detected by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. The HepG2 cells were examined by real time-PCR and western blotting to determine expression level of bcl-2 and VEGF mRNA and protein.A murine hepatocellular carcinoma model was established by injecting 1 * 10(7) HepG2 cells into 30 BALB/c nude mice. The modeled mice were randomly divided into a control group, mock group, Lv-hTERTp-tumstatin group, Lv-hTERTp-TK group, and combination group for four weeks of injections at regular intervals of PBS, Lv-hTERTp-null, Lv-hTERTp-tumstatin, Lv-hTERTp-TK, and Lv-hTERTp-tumstatin plus Lv-hTERTp-TK, respectively.Changes in tumor volume and weight, and cell morphology of tumor and major organs, were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.Microvascular density of tumor tissue and cell apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemical and TUNEL staining, respectively. The Lv-infected HepG2 cells, and not the Lv-infected L02 cells, expressed TK and tumstatin. Lv-hTERTp-TK and Lv-hTERTp-tumstatin, alone or in combination, inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis of the HepG2 cells, but the combination was more effective than either alone (P less than 0.05). None of the treatments affected proliferation or apoptosis of the L02 cells (P more than 0.05). The combination also led to a greater reduction of bcl-2 and VEGF than either alone (all, P less than 0.05). Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by the combination (P less than 0.05). In vivo, the combination treatment induced the greatest amount of apoptosis of the HepG2 cells. Cell morphology of major organs such as liver, spleen and kidney were similar to the control group. The combination also produced the most significant effect on tumor microvascular density (P less than 0.05) and the highest apoptosis index (P less than 0.05). The HTERT promoter can induce targeted expression of TK and tumstatin in HepG2 cells. Lv-hTERTp-TK combined with Lv-hTERTp-tumstatin can significantly inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of human HepG2 cells in vitro and in vivo, which may be related to down-regulation ofbcl-2 and VEGF.

  6. [Short and long-term results of liver resection for hepatocarcinoma in Peru: a Peruvian single center experience on 232 cases].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Eloy; Sanchez, Juvenal; Celis, Juan; Payet, Eduardo; Berrospi, Francisco; Chavez, Ivan; Young, Frank

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the short and long term outcome of liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma a retrospective analysis was performed on 232 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma resected between January 1990 and December 2006 at the Department of Abdomen of the Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplasicas of Lima Peru. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier method, Prognostic factors were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis The median age was 36 years. 44.2% were associated with hepatitis B, only 16.3% had cirrhosis. The median size of the tumors was 15 cm. The median value of AFP was 5,467 ng/ml. The majority of patients underwent a major hepatectomy (74.2 % had four or more segments resected)Overall morbidity and mortality were 13.7% and 5.3% respectively. After a median follow-up of 40 months, tumour recurrence appeared in 53.3% of the patients. The 1, 3, and 5 year overall survival rates were 66.5%, 38.7% and 26.7%respectively. The 1, 3, and 5 year disease-free survival rates were 53.7%, 27.6%, and 19.9%. On multivariate analysis, presence of multiple nodules (p<0.000), cirrhosis (p=0.001), and macroscopic vascular invasion (p=0.001) were found to be independent prognostic factors related to a worse long-term survival. Surgical resection is the optimal therapy for large HCC and can be safely performed with a reasonable long-term survival.

  7. L-methionine availability regulates expression of the methionine adenosyltransferase 2A gene in human hepatocarcinoma cells: role of S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Chantar, Maria L; Latasa, M Ujue; Varela-Rey, Marta; Lu, Shelly C; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Mato, José M; Avila, Matías A

    2003-05-30

    In mammals, methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT), the enzyme responsible for S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) synthesis, is encoded by two genes, MAT1A and MAT2A. In liver, MAT1A expression is associated with high AdoMet levels and a differentiated phenotype, whereas MAT2A expression is associated with lower AdoMet levels and a dedifferentiated phenotype. In the current study, we examined regulation of MAT2A gene expression by l-methionine availability using HepG2 cells. In l-methionine-deficient cells, MAT2A gene expression is rapidly induced, and methionine adenosyltransferase activity is increased. Restoration of l-methionine rapidly down-regulates MAT2A mRNA levels; for this effect, l-methionine needs to be converted into AdoMet. This novel action of AdoMet is not mediated through a methyl transfer reaction. MAT2A gene expression was also regulated by 5'-methylthioadenosine, but this was dependent on 5'-methylthioadenosine conversion to methionine through the salvage pathway. The transcription rate of the MAT2A gene remained unchanged during l-methionine starvation; however, its mRNA half-life was significantly increased (from 100 min to more than 3 h). The effect of l-methionine withdrawal on MAT2A mRNA stabilization requires both gene transcription and protein synthesis. We conclude that MAT2A gene expression is modulated as an adaptive response of the cell to l-methionine availability through its conversion to AdoMet.

  8. Macropinocytosis of polyplexes and recycling of plasmid via the clathrin-dependent pathway impair the transfection efficiency of human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Christine; Mennesson, Eric; Fuchs, Renate; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Midoux, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal

    2004-08-01

    Knowledge of the entry mechanism and intracellular routing of polyplexes is of major importance for designing efficient gene delivery systems. We therefore investigated the internalization and trafficking of polyplexes in HepG2 cells. pDNA encoding the luciferase was complexed with histidylated polylysine (His-pLK), a polymer that requires acidic pH for pDNA endosomal release. Fluoresceinylated polyplexes (F-His-pLK or F-pDNA) were internalized by clathrin-dependent and -independent pathways. The latter most likely occurred by macropinocytosis since it was stimulated by phorbol myristate and blocked by dimethylamiloride. Intracellular routing of the plasmid was analyzed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. These data revealed that: (i) one part of the plasmid was present in vesicles that were not labeled with any known organelle-specific marker, (ii) the other part was in transferrin receptor-positive vesicles, and (iii) the plasmid was not transferred to late endosomes/lysosomes. Using luciferase activity as a readout for gene expression, we found that it was strongly reduced when macropinocytosis was stimulated, whereas macropinocytosis inhibitors had no effect. However, blocking clathrin-dependent internalization by chlorpromazine completely prevented gene expression. These findings demonstrate that: (i) macropinocytosis of polyplexes and (ii) plasmid recycling impair the transfection efficiency and (iii) clathrin-dependent endocytosis is the most productive route for transfection of HepG2 cells.

  9. E1A-engineered human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells as carriers and amplifiers for adenovirus suppress hepatocarcinoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenzhen; Ye, Zhou; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qing; Fan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yanjun; Luo, Hongbo R.; Yuan, Xiangfei; Li, Zongfang; Xiong, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive approach for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Nevertheless, efficient transgene delivery remains a challenge. In this study, we explored a new targeted system based on human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs), which were engineered to deliver adenovirus to tumor sites, and to replicate and assemble into new adenovirus against HCC. Our results showed that HUMSCs infected by Ad-hTERTp-IL24 followed by LentiR.E1A infection could specifically migrate to HepG2 tumor cells and support adenoviral replication in vitro and in vivo 36 h after LentiR.E1A infection. Ad-hTERTp-IL24 specifically inhibited HepG2 cells growth, and this inhibitory effect was enhanced by low doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), because the expression levels of coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) and integrin ανβ3 on tumor cells were significantly increased, causing higher viral uptake. Compared with the no treatment groups, Ad-hTERTp-IL24 and LentiR.E1A co-loaded HUMSCs exhibited significant anti-tumor activity in vivo, particularly in combination with low doses of 5-Fu. In summary, this study provides a promising targeted gene therapeutic strategy dependent on the tumor tropism of HUMSCs, to improve the outcome of virotherapy for tumor patients especially those with metastatic diseases. PMID:27322080

  10. The Chinese medicine Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang inhibited proliferation of hepatoma cell lines by inducing apoptosis via G0/G1 arrest.

    PubMed

    Kao, S T; Yeh, C C; Hsieh, C C; Yang, M D; Lee, M R; Liu, H S; Lin, J G

    2001-08-17

    Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (BZYQT), a Chinese herbal medicine, inhibited the proliferation of human hepatoma cell lines (Hep3B, HepG2 and HA22T) dose-dependently. The IC50s of BZYQT on the proliferation of Hep3B, HepG2 and HA22T were 432.5+/-31.8 microg/ml, 455.4+/-24.2 microg/ml, and 2284.3+/-77.2 microg/ml respectively on day 3. However, BZYQT did not significantly inhibit the proliferation of normal human hepatocytes (Chang liver, CCL-13) at the concentration under 5,000 microg/ml. Major compounds of BZYQT, including astragaloside IV, ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1, saikosaponin a and c, and glycyrrhizin, have been identified. To investigate the key inhibitors of BZYQT. Hep3B cells were treated with BZYQT, individual major compounds of BZYQT, and mixture of major compounds in the same ratio as present in BZYQT. Significant inhibition of proliferation was detected in BZYQT and its major compounds mixture in a comparable level. Not any individual major compound examined could suppress the proliferation of Hep3B cells. This data indicated that there could be synergistic or additive effects of the ingredients in BZYQT. BrdU incorporation, cell cycle analysis and DNA fragmentation assay revealed that BZYQT suppressed the proliferation of hepatoma cells via G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibition of DNA synthesis followed by apoptosis.

  11. Antiproliferative Activities of Hot Water Extracts from Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms, Ganoderma tsugae and Agrocybe cylindracea (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Tsai, Shu-Yao; Lai, Eric Yih-Cherng; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-01-01

    Using anticancer agents to progress chemotherapy to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells is an effective means. Two medicinal mushrooms, Ganoderma tsugae and Agrocybe cylindracea, exhibited various physiological effects, and the antiproliferation effect on HL-60, Hep 3B, and C6 cells was studied. The viability of different cancer cells was decreased significantly by hot water extracts from different forms of G. tsugae and A. cylindracea. The hot water extracts from the fruit body, mycelium, and filtrate of A. cylindracea were less effective in inhibiting the antiproliferation of C6, Hep 3B, and HL-60 cells than were those from G. tsugae, as evidenced by their IC50 values. The IC50 values of G. tsugae on C6, Hep 3B, and HL-60 cells were 1.13, 2.73, and 2.60 mg/mL, respectively, whereas those of baby G. tsugae were 1.87, 2.63, and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the filtrates of G. tsugae on C6 and Hep 3B cells were 2.81 and 2.80 mg/mL, respectively. The morphological transformation of 3 cancer cells was observed clearly, and the possible mechanism would be necrosis, apoptosis, or differentiation. Owing to the noticeable effect on antiproliferation of hot water extracts, especially those from G. tsugae, the extract could be of great potential to be used as an alternative cancer therapy.

  12. Hepatic stellate cell promoted hepatoma cell invasion via the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway regulated by p53.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Ting; Jing, Ying-Ying; Yu, Guo-feng; Chen, Hong; Han, Zhi-peng; Yu, Dan-Dan; Fan, Qing-Min; Ye, Fei; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Meng-Chao; Wei, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The biological behaviors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are complex mainly due to heterogeneity of progressive genetic and epigenetic mutations as well as tumor environment. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling pathway is regarded to be a prototypical example for stromal-epithelial interactions during developmental morphogenesis, wound healing, organ regeneration and cancer progression. And p53 plays as an important regulator of Met-dependent cell motility and invasion. Present study showed that 2 HCC cell lines, Hep3B and HepG2, displayed different invasive capacity when treated with HGF which was secreted by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). We found that HGF promoted Hep3B cells invasion and migration as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurrence because Hep3B was p53 deficient, which leaded to the c-Met over-expression. Then we found that HGF/c-Met promoted Hep3B cells invasion and migration by upregulating Snail expression. In conclusion, HGF/c-Met signaling is enhanced by loss of p53 expression, resulting in increased ability of invasion and migration by upregulating the expression of Snail.

  13. Establishment of Hepatocellular Cancer Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Reprogramming Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han Joon; Jeong, Jaemin; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Lee, Seung Bum; Choi, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Cancer is known to be a disease by many factors. However, specific results of reprogramming by pluripotency-related transcription factors remain to be scarcely reported. Here, we verified potential effects of pluripotent-related genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cancer cells. Methods To better understand reprogramming of cancer cells in different genetic backgrounds, we used four liver cancer cell lines representing different states of p53 (HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7 and PLC). Retroviral-mediated introduction of reprogramming related genes (KLF4, Oct4, Sox2, and Myc) was used to induce the expression of proteins related to a pluripotent status in liver cancer cells. Results Hep3B cells (null p53) exhibited a higher efficiency of reprogramming in comparison to the other liver cancer cell lines. The reprogrammed Hep3B cells acquired similar characteristics to pluripotent stem cells. However, loss of stemness in Hep3B-iPCs was detected during continual passage. Conclusions We demonstrated that reprogramming was achieved in tumor cells through retroviral induction of genes associated with reprogramming. Interestingly, the reprogrammed pluripotent cancer cells (iPCs) were very different from original cancer cells in terms of colony shape and expressed markers. The induction of pluripotency of liver cancer cells correlated with the status of p53, suggesting that different expression level of p53 in cancer cells may affect their reprogramming. PMID:27728962

  14. Potential Antitumor Activity and Apoptosis Induction of Glossostemon bruguieri Root Extract against Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alwhibi, Mona S.; El-Gaaly, Gehan A.

    2017-01-01

    Glossostemon bruguieri (moghat) is used as a nutritive and demulcent drink. This study was performed to investigate the antiproliferative effects of moghat root extract (MRE) and its apoptotic mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, HepG2 and Hep3B. MTT assay, morphological changes, apoptosis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, caspase and apoptotic activation, flow cytometry, and immunoblot analysis were employed. The IC50 of MRE for HepG2 (910 ± 6 μg/ml) and for Hep3B (1510 ± 5 μg/ml) induced significant growth-inhibitory effects against HCC cells, with no cytotoxic effect on normal hepatocytes. MRE treatment induced apoptotic effects to HepG2 cells in a caspase-dependent manner and via upregulating p53/p21 and PCNA. The upregulation of p21 was controlled by p53 expression in HepG2 but not in Hep3B despite upregulation of Bax protein in both cell lines. Interestingly, p21 may be a remarkable switch to G1 arrest in HepG2 cells, but not in Hep3B cells. In addition, Fas- and mitochondria-mediated pathways were found to be involved in MRE-induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells. The GC-MS analysis of MRE revealed two major constituents of pharmaceutical importance: the flavonoid apigenin (17.04%) and the terpenoid squalene (11.32%). The data presented in this paper introduces G. bruguieri as a promising nontoxic herb with therapeutic potential for HCC. To the authors' knowledge, the present study provides the first report on the anticancer activity of MRE on HCC cells. PMID:28421122

  15. Inhibitory effect of Daesungki-Tang on the invasiveness potential of hepatocellular carcinoma through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, June-Ki; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2004-10-01

    Daesungki-Tang (DST), a drug preparation consisting of four herbs, that is, Rhei radix et rhizoma (RR; the roots of Rheum coreanum Nakai, Daehwang in Korean), Aurantiii frutus immaturus (AFI; immature fruits of Poncirus trifolita Rafin., Jisil in Korean), Magnoliae cortex (MC; the stem bark of Magnolia officinalis Rehd. Et Wils., Hubak in Korean), and Mirabilite (MS; Matrii sulfas, Mangcho in Korean), is a traditional Korean herbal medicine that is widely used in the treatment of cancer metastasis, gastrointestinal complaints, vascular disorders, and atherosclerosis-related disorders. In this study, water extracts of DST and each of the four ingredient herbs were prepared. The extracts were tested for cytotoxic activity on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, Hep3B cells using the XTT assay method. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the invasion of Hep3B cells was also tested using matrigel precoated transwell chambers. DST effectively inhibited the invasion of Hep3B cells, compared with the control groups in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, a gelatin zymography assay showed that DST decreased the gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2; IC50 = 87 microg/ml) and -9 (MMP-9; IC50 = 75 microg/ml) that are secreted from Hep3B cells, respectively. Among the four herbal ingredients of DST, only MC has been shown to significantly inhibit the invasion of Hep3B cells and MMP-2 and -9 activities. From these results, it can be concluded that DST has some potential for use as an antitumor agent.

  16. Impact of prolonged fraction dose-delivery time modeling intensity-modulated radiation therapy on hepatocellular carcinoma cell killing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-Kang; Chen, Long-Hua; Yan, Xiao; Wang, Hong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the impact of prolonged fraction dose-delivery time modeling intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on cell killing of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines. METHODS: The radiobiological characteristics of human HCC HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines were studied with standard clonogenic assays, using standard linear-quadratic model and incomplete repair model to fit the dose-survival curves. The identical methods were also employed to investigate the biological effectiveness of irradiation protocols modeling clinical conventional fractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT, fraction delivery time 3 min) and IMRT with different prolonged fraction delivery time (15, 30, and 45 min). The differences of cell surviving fraction irradiated with different fraction delivery time were tested with paired t-test. Factors determining the impact of prolonged fraction delivery time on cell killing were analyzed. RESULTS: The α/β and repair half-time (T1/2) of HepG2 and Hep3b were 3.1 and 7.4 Gy, and 22 and 19 min respectively. The surviving fraction of HepG2 irradiated modeling IMRT with different fraction delivery time was significantly higher than irradiated modeling EBRT and the cell survival increased more pronouncedly with the fraction delivery time prolonged from 15 to 45 min, while no significant differences of cell survival in Hep3b were found between different fraction delivery time protocols. CONCLUSION: The prolonged fraction delivery time modeling IMRT significantly decreased the cell killing in HepG2 but not in Hep3b. The capability of sub-lethal damage repair was the predominant factor determining the cell killing decrease. These effects, if confirmed by clinical studies, should be considered in designing IMRT treatments for HCC. PMID:15770720

  17. Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciência e Comportamento Humano.

    PubMed

    Todorov, João Claudio

    2003-11-01

    Science and Human Behavior was translated to Portuguese as part of the effort to begin a psychology course at the University of Brasília 40 years ago; one of the many results of the first visit of Fred S. Keller to Brazil. The book has been used continuously in undergraduate courses in Brazil since 1967.

  18. Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciência e Comportamento Humano.

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, João Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Science and Human Behavior was translated to Portuguese as part of the effort to begin a psychology course at the University of Brasília 40 years ago; one of the many results of the first visit of Fred S. Keller to Brazil. The book has been used continuously in undergraduate courses in Brazil since 1967. PMID:14964714

  19. Effects of orexin A on glucose metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro via PI3K/Akt/mTOR-dependent and -independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yuyan; Guo, Lei

    2016-01-15

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate food intake, energy homeostasis, reward system and sleep/wakefulness states. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of orexin A on glucose metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep3B, and determine the possible mechanisms. Hep3B cells were incubated with different concentrations of orexin A (10(-9)-10(-7) M) in vitro in the presence or absence of the orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) inhibitor (SB334867), Akt inhibitor (PF-04691502) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (temsirolimus). Subsequently, OX1R protein expression, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression, glucose uptake, the mRNA expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase B (PDHB), lactate generation and mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) enzyme activity were measured. The activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signaling was also determined. OX1R was expressed in hepatoma tissues and Hep3B cells. Stimulation of the Hep3B cells with orexin A resulted in a dose-dependent increase of GLUT1 expression and glucose uptake, which was associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Further, orexin A increased PDHB expression and PDH enzyme activity, decreased LDHA, PDK1 mRNA levels and lactate generation independent of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our results demonstrated that orexin A directed the cellular metabolism towards mitochondrial glucose oxidation rather than glycolysis. These findings provide functional evidence of the metabolic actions of orexin A in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  20. Adenovirus-mediated tBid overexpression results in therapeutic effects on p53-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ji; Chen, George G; Chun, Suk-Ying; Yun, Jing-Ping; Chak, Ernest C W; Ho, Rocky L K; Lai, Paul B S

    2006-10-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with a very high mortality. Because the success of the conventional therapies is limited, gene therapy may represent an alternative for HCC management. Our earlier study has shown that Bid plays a role in the development of HCC. The aim of our study is to evaluate the possibility of using truncated Bid (tBid) as a novel therapy for HCC treatment. Two HCC cell lines, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5, were used in the experiment. Hep3B was a p53-resistant while PLC/PRF/5 a p53-sensitive. A recombinant adenovirus-Ad/AFPtBid, which contained a tBid gene driven by an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter, was constructed. Both Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5 cells infected with Ad/AFPtBid showed a significant decrease in cell viability. The decrease in cell viability by Ad/AFPtBid resulted from apoptosis of HCC cells, evident by enhanced activity of caspases and increased release of cytochrome c. In vivo experiment was performed by the intratumor injection of Ad/AFPtBid in nude mice inoculated with Hep3B. Ad/AFPtBid injection significantly inhibited tumor growth, and tumor tissues showed a marked increase in TUNEL-positive cells. Our experiment also demonstrated that Ad/AFPtBid only targeted AFP-producing cells but not those non-AFP producing cells. In conclusion, these results indicate that the introduction of Ad/AFPtBid can not only significantly but specifically kill HCC cells that produce AFP. The cell death induced by Ad/AFPtBid in HCC cells is via an apoptotic pathway that can be independent of p53 status.

  1. Differential effects of tetrahydropyridinol derivatives on β-catenin signaling and invasion in human hepatocellular and breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yadunandam, Anandam Kasin; Yoon, Jin-Soo; Jeong, Yeon Tae; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Kim, Gun-Do

    2015-08-01

    In continuation of previous efforts to investigate the biological potency of tetrahydropyridinol derivatives, the present study synthesized three target compounds: N-(bromoacetyl)-3-carboxyethyl-2,6-diphenyl-4-O-(pentafluorobenzoyl)-Δ3-tetra-hydropyridine (5a), N-(chloroacetyl)-3-carboxyethyl-2,6-diphenyl-4-O-(pentafluorobenzoyl)-Δ3-tetrahydropyridine (5b) and N-(2-bromopropanoyl)-3-carboxyethyl-2,6-diphenyl-4-O-(pentafluorobenzoyl)-Δ3-tetrahydropyridine (5c), and examined their anticancer potency. Experiments were performed using the Sk-Hep1 and Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Among the three compounds, 5a and 5b were comparably and significantly cytotoxic to the Sk-Hep1, Hep3B and MDA-MB-231 cells. The highest level of cytotoxicity was detected in theSk-Hep1 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentrations for compounds 5a and 5b at 12 and 6 µM, respectively. These two compounds induced cell cycle arrest in the Sk-Hep1 and MDA-MB-231 cells through the downregulation of β-catenin and upregulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and E-cadherin. By contrast, 5a and 5b induced G1 arrest in the Hep3B cells by modulating the p21 and p27 cell cycle regulatory molecules and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. In addition, 5a and 5b significantly inhibited the invasion of Sk-Hep1 and MDA-MB-231 cells. These results suggested that the 5a and 5b compounds induce cell cycle arrest by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling in highly invasive Sk-Hep1 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and by inducing p53 independent cell cycle arrest in Hep3B cells.

  2. Inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Y; Kar, S; Wiest, L; Pegg, A E; Carr, B I

    1997-01-01

    We screened genes responsive to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta 1) protein in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep3B) using a PCR-mediated differential display technique, in order to investigate the mechanisms involved in TGF-beta-induced growth suppression. We found a gene that was down-regulated by TGF-beta 1 to be completely identical in an approx. 620 bp segment to the gene for the enzyme spermidine synthase, which mediates the conversion of putrescine into spermidine. Both spermidine synthase mRNA expression and its enzyme activity were decreased after TGF-beta 1 treatment of Hep3B cells. The inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by TGF-beta 1 protein was also observed in other hepatoma cell lines. The expression of genes for other biosynthetic enzymes in polyamine metabolism (ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase) was also inhibited to the same extent as for spermidine synthase, while the gene expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, a catabolic enzyme, was relatively resistant to TGF-beta 1. Spermine levels in Hep3B cells were decreased by TGF-beta 1 treatment, although the levels of spermidine and putrescine were unchanged, probably due to compensation by remaining spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity. Exogenously added spermidine or spermine, but not putrescine, partially antagonized the growth-inhibitor effects of TGF-beta 1 on Hep3B cells. Our data suggest that down-regulation of gene expression of the enzymes involved in polyamine metabolism, including spermidine synthase, may be associated with the mechanism of TGF-beta-induced growth suppression. PMID:9020892

  3. Isolation and Characterization of the Promoter and Partial Enhancer Region of the Porcine Inter-α-Trypsin Inhibitor Heavy Chain 4 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Harraghy, Niamh; Mitchell, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    A porcine genomic library was screened for clones containing the promoter of the major acute-phase protein in pigs, inter-α-trypsin heavy chain 4 (ITIH4). Following isolation of the promoter, a functional analysis was performed with Hep3B cells. The promoter was induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6) but not by IL-1β. However, IL-1β was shown to inhibit the IL-6-induced activation of the porcine ITIH4 promoter. PMID:16275952

  4. 11R-P53 and GM-CSF Expressing Oncolytic Adenovirus Target Cancer Stem Cells with Enhanced Synergistic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Sai-qun; Ye, Zhen-long; Liu, Pin-yi; Huang, Yao; Li, Lin-fang; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Hai-li; Jin, Hua-jun; Qian, Qi-jun

    2017-01-01

    Targeting cancer stem cells with oncolytic virus (OV) holds great potential for thorough elimination of cancer cells. Based on our previous studies, we here established 11R-P53 and mGM-CSF carrying oncolytic adenovirus (OAV) SG655-mGMP and investigated its therapeutic effect on hepatocellular carcinoma stem cells Hep3B-C and teratoma stem cells ECCG5. Firstly, the augmenting effect of 11R in our construct was tested and confirmed by examining the expression of EGFP with Fluorescence and FCM assays after transfecting Hep3B-C and ECCG5 cells with OVA SG7605-EGFP and SG7605-11R-EGFP. Secondly, the expressions of 11R-P53 and GM-CSF in Hep3B-C and ECCG5 cells after transfection with OAV SG655-mGMP were detected by Western blot and Elisa assays, respectively. Thirdly, the enhanced growth inhibitory and augmented apoptosis inducing effects of OAV SG655-mGMP on Hep3B-C and ECCG5 cells were tested with FCM assays by comparing with the control, wild type 5 adenovirus, 11R-P53 carrying OVA in vitro. Lastly, the in vivo therapeutic effect of OAV SG655-mGMP toward ECCG5 cell-formed xenografts was studied by measuring tumor volumes post different treatments with PBS, OAV SG655-11R-P53, OAV SG655-mGM-CSF and OAV SG655-mGMP. Treatment with OAV SG655-mGMP induced significant xenograft growth inhibition, inflammation factor AIF1 expression and immune cells infiltration. Therefore, our OAV SG655-mGMP provides a novel platform to arm OVs to target cancer stem cells. PMID:28243324

  5. Melatonin-induced increase in sensitivity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to sorafenib is associated with reactive oxygen species production and mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Domínguez, Néstor; Ordóñez, Raquel; Fernández, Anna; Méndez-Blanco, Carolina; Baulies, Anna; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C; Mauriz, José L; González-Gallego, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Effects of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are frequently transient due to tumor-acquired resistance, a phenotype that could be targeted by other molecules to reduce this adaptive response. Because melatonin is known to exert antitumor effects in HCC cells, this study investigated whether and how melatonin reduces resistance to sorafenib. Susceptibility to sorafenib (10 nmol/L to 50 μmol/L) in the presence of melatonin (1 and 2 mmol/L) was assessed in HCC cell lines HepG2, HuH7, and Hep3B. Cell viability was reduced by sorafenib from 1 μmol/L in HepG2 or HuH7 cells, and 2.5 μmol/L in Hep3B cells. Co-administration of melatonin and sorafenib exhibited a synergistic cytotoxic effect on HepG2 and HuH7 cells, while Hep3B cells displayed susceptibility to doses of sorafenib that had no effect when administrated alone. Co-administration of 2.5 μmol/L sorafenib and 1 mmol/L melatonin induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells, increasing PARP hydrolysis and BAX expression. We also observed an early colocalization of mitochondria with lysosomes, correlating with the expression of mitophagy markers PINK1 and Parkin and a reduction of mitofusin-2 and mtDNA compared with sorafenib administration alone. Moreover, increased reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were elicited by drug combination, suggesting their contribution to mitophagy induction. Interestingly, Parkin silencing by siRNA to impair mitophagy significantly reduced cell killing, PARP cleavage, and BAX expression. These results demonstrate that the pro-oxidant capacity of melatonin and its impact on mitochondria stability and turnover via mitophagy increase sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of sorafenib. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Involvement of fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 in hepatocellular carcinoma growth: Roles of cyclic AMP and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yu-Chih; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Chu, Jan-Show; Wang, Chung-Kwe; Hung, Ling-Fang; Wang, Ying-Jan; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Lin, Shyr-Yi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 (FACL4) is an arachidonate-preferring enzyme which has been shown to be up-regulated in human colon cancer tissues and implicated in the colon tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of FACL4 in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumorigenesis and the specific signal pathways involved in this process. METHODS: We investigated the expression and regulation of FACL4 in HCC, adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues, and cell lines. RESULTS: In HCC patients, we demonstrated that FACL4 gene expression was markedly elevated in the cancerous tissues than in the adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues. In addition, several human hepatoma cell lines, including Hep3B and HepG2, expressed high levels of FACL4. Stable overex-pression of FACL4 knockdown plasmids (small interfering RNA, siRNA) to Hep3B cells significantly decreased FACL4 expression and subsequently limited the cell proliferation. Treatment of Hep3B cells with 8-bromo-cAMP and SB203508 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly suppressed the FACL4 expression. CONCLUSION: FACL4 is involved in the HCC tumorigenesis and both cAMP and p38 MAPK pathways are associated with the regulation of FACL4 in HCC. PMID:15849811

  7. Phenylpropanoids from Juglans mandshurica exhibit cytotoxicities on liver cancer cell lines through apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuo-Yang; Yao, Guo-Dong; Guo, Rui; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Three new phenylpropanoids (1-3) together with six known congeners (4-9) were isolated from the bark of Juglans mandshurica Maxim using anti-hepatoma activity as a guide. Their structures were determined by comprehensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic data analyses. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their growth inhibitory activities against two kinds of liver cancer cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B). Among them, compound 4 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines with IC50 values of 58.58 and 69.87μM. Compound 5 exhibited 50% cell death rate in HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines at 63.70 and 46.45μM, respectively. Further observation of morphological changes and Western blot demonstrated that compounds 4 and 5 exhibited their cytotoxic activities through the induction of apoptosis. A structure-activity relationship study suggested that an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde might be the most important functional group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Chian; Wu, Wen-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2010-12-01

    A preparative column chromatographic method for isolation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a traditional Chinese herb, was developed to evaluate their antiproliferative effects on the hepatoma cell Hep3B. An open column containing 70 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:2.5, wt/wt) was used to elute carotenoid with 2% ethanol in ethyl acetate and chlorophyll with 50% ethanol in acetone. After high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the carotenoid fraction was composed of all-trans- and cis-isomers of lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene as well as epoxy-containing carotenoids, while the chlorophyll fraction consisted of chlorophylls a and b and their derivatives. Both carotenoid and chlorophyll fractions as well as lutein and chlorophyll a standards at 50-100 μg/mL were effective against Hep3B cells with a dose-dependent response with the following order: carotenoid fraction > chlorophyll fraction > lutein > chlorophyll a. For all treatments, the cell cycle was arrested in the G₀/G₁ phase, with Hep3B cells undergoing necrosis or apoptosis.

  9. Critical roles of cellular glutathione homeostasis and jnk activation in andrographolide-mediated apoptotic cell death in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lili; Shen, Kaikai; Jiang, Ping; Morahan, Grant; Wang, Zhengtao

    2011-08-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO), isolated from the traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is reported to have the potential therapeutic effects for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in our previous reports. Here, we investigated the mechanism of ANDRO-mediated apoptotic cell death, focusing on the involvement of cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) homeostasis and c-Jun NH(2) -Terminal kinase (JNK). Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of cellular GSH biosynthesis, significantly augmented ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity in hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. BSO depleted cellular GSH, and augmented ANDRO-induced apoptosis, inhibition of colony formation and JNK activation in Hep3B cells. All these effects could be reversed by GSH monoethyl ester (GSH.EE), whose deacetylation replenishes cellular GSH. BSO also augmented ANDRO-induced activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4 (MKK4) and c-Jun, which are all up-stream or down-stream signals of JNK. Further results showed that JNK inhibitor SP600125 and 420116 both reversed ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity, and SP600125 also decreased ANDRO-increased intracellular GSH and GCL activity. Finally, we showed that in nude mice bearing xenografted Hep3B tumors, BSO improved the inhibition of tumor growth by ANDRO. Taken together, our results suggest that there is a crosstalk between JNK activation and cellular GSH homeostasis, and ANDRO targets this to induce cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells.

  10. NC-6300, an epirubicin-incorporating micelle, extends the antitumor effect and reduces the cardiotoxicity of epirubicin.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Amane; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Kuroda, Jun-ichiro; Takigahira, Misato; Harada, Mitsunori; Saito, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuyuki; Kato, Yasuki; Kinoshita, Taira; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2013-07-01

    Epirubicin is widely used to treat various human tumors. However, it is difficult to achieve a sufficient antitumor effect because of dosage limitation to prevent cardiotoxicity. We hypothesized that epirubicin-incorporating micelle would reduce cardiotoxicity and improve the antitumor effect. NC-6300 comprises epirubicin covalently bound to PEG polyaspartate block copolymer through an acid-labile hydrazone bond. The conjugate forms a micellar structure of 40-80 nm in diameter in an aqueous milieu. NC-6300 (10, 15 mg/kg) and epirubicin (10 mg/kg) were given i.v. three times to mice bearing s.c. or liver xenograft of human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. Cardiotoxicity was evaluated by echocardiography in C57BL/6 mice that were given NC-6300 (10 mg/kg) or epirubicin (10 mg/kg) in nine doses over 12 weeks. NC-6300 showed a significantly potent antitumor effect against Hep3B s.c. tumors compared with epirubicin. Moreover, NC-6300 also produced a significantly longer survival rate than epirubicin against the liver orthotopic tumor of Hep3B. With respect to cardiotoxicity, epirubicin-treated mice showed significant deteriorations in fractional shortening and ejection fraction. In contrast, cardiac functions of NC-6300 treated mice were no less well maintained than in control mice. This study warrants a clinical evaluation of NC-6300 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or other cancers. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Enhancement of carboplatin- and quercetin-induced cell death by roscovitine is Akt dependent and p53 independent in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aanchal; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy worldwide and has an annual occurrence of one million new cases. Novel therapeutic strategies of increased efficacy in the treatment of HCC-bearing patients would certainly be helpful. Hence, the authors explored the effect of combination treatment of roscovitine with chemotherapeutic drugs or quercetin (Qctn) in hepatoma cells, HepG2 and Hep3B. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, cell growth assay, and nuclear morphological changes by DAPI staining. The altered expression of signaling proteins and apoptotic molecules was established by Western blotting. Roscovitine pretreatment considerably enhanced the drugs and Qctn-induced cell death in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. The exploratory studies revealed that augmented cell killing in HepG2 and Hep3B was mediated via Akt pathway and was independent of p53. pAkt was found to be significantly downregulated in combination treatment of roscovitine with carboplatin or Qctn. Corresponding to reduced expression of pAkt, the downstream molecules Bcl-2 and proactive forms of caspase 9 and caspase 3 were also downregulated indicating apoptosis. The present study reports for the first time, in hepatoma cells, the potentiation of carboplatin- and Qctn-induced cell death by the cell cycle inhibitor roscovitine. Roscovitine can thus be considered as a potential therapeutic target in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs or Qctn for treatment of HCC.

  12. ASP5878, a Novel Inhibitor of FGFR1, 2, 3, and 4, Inhibits the Growth of FGF19-Expressing Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Futami, Takashi; Okada, Hidetsugu; Kihara, Rumi; Kawase, Tatsuya; Nakayama, Ayako; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Kameda, Minoru; Shindoh, Nobuaki; Terasaka, Tadashi; Hirano, Masaaki; Kuromitsu, Sadao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. Fibroblast growth factor 19, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, is a ligand for fibroblast growth factor receptor 4. Moreover, it plays a crucial role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. ASP5878 is a novel inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors 1, 2, 3, and 4 that is under development. It inhibits fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 kinase activity with an IC50 of 3.5 nmol/L. ASP5878 potently suppressed the growth of the fibroblast growth factor 19-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines Hep3B2.1-7, HuH-7, and JHH-7. In the Hep3B2.1-7 cell line, ASP5878 inhibited the phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 and its downstream signaling molecules as well as induced apoptosis. Oral administration of ASP5878 at 3 mg/kg induced sustained tumor regression in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model using Hep3B2.1-7. In HuH-7, an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, ASP5878 induced complete tumor regression and dramatically extended the survival of the mice. These results suggest that ASP5878 is a potentially effective therapeutic agent for hepatocellular carcinoma patients with tumors expressing fibroblast growth factor 19. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 68-75. ©2016 AACR.

  13. ABCG1 is involved in vitamin E efflux.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Maryline; BottG, Remain; Frisdal, Eric; Nowick, Marion; Plengpanich, Wanee; Desmarchelier, Charles; Roi, Stéphanie; Quinn, Carmel M; Gelissen, Ingrid; Jessup, Wendy; Van Eck, Miranda; Guérin, Maryse; Le Goff, Wilfried; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin E membrane transport has been shown to involve the cholesterol transporters SR-BI, ABCA1 and NPC1L1. Our aim was to investigate the possible participation of another cholesterol transporter in cellular vitamin E efflux: ABCG1. In Abcgl-deficient mice, vitamin E concentration was reduced in plasma lipoproteins whereas most tissues displayed a higher vitamin E content compared to wild-type mice. α- and γ-tocopherol efflux was increased in CHO cells overexpressing human ABCG1 compared to control cells. Conversely, α- and γ- tocopherol efflux was decreased in ABCG1-knockdown human cells (Hep3B hepatocytes and THP-1 macro- phages). Interestingly, α- and γ-tocopherol significantly downregulated ABCG1 and ABCA1 expression levels in Hep3B and THP-1, an effect confirmed in vivo in rats given vitamin E for 5 days. This was likely due to reduced LXR activation by oxysterols, as Hep3B cells and rat liver treated with vitamin E displayed a significantly reduced content in oxysterols compared to their respective controls. Overall, the present study reveals for the first time that ABCG1 is involved in cellular vitamin E efflux.

  14. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Trigger Hypoxia-Induced Transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandel, N. S.; Maltepe, E.; Goldwasser, E.; Mathieu, C. E.; Simon, M. C.; Schumacker, P. T.

    1998-09-01

    Transcriptional activation of erythropoietin, glycolytic enzymes, and vascular endothelial growth factor occurs during hypoxia or in response to cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in Hep3B cells. However, neither the mechanism of cellular O2 sensing nor that of cobalt is fully understood. We tested whether mitochondria act as O2 sensors during hypoxia and whether hypoxia and cobalt activate transcription by increasing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results show (i) wild-type Hep3B cells increase ROS generation during hypoxia (1.5% O2) or CoCl2 incubation, (ii) Hep3B cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 cells) fail to respire, fail to activate mRNA for erythropoietin, glycolytic enzymes, or vascular endothelial growth factor during hypoxia, and fail to increase ROS generation during hypoxia; (iii) ρ 0 cells increase ROS generation in response to CoCl2 and retain the ability to induce expression of these genes; and (iv) the antioxidants pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and ebselen abolish transcriptional activation of these genes during hypoxia or CoCl2 in wild-type cells, and abolish the response to CoCl2 in ρ 0 cells. Thus, hypoxia activates transcription via a mitochondria-dependent signaling process involving increased ROS, whereas CoCl2 activates transcription by stimulating ROS generation via a mitochondria-independent mechanism.

  15. Motile hepatocellular carcinoma cells preferentially secret sugar metabolism regulatory proteins via exosomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lu, Shaohua; Zhou, Ye; Meng, Kun; Chen, Zhipeng; Cui, Yizhi; Shi, Yunfeng; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Exosomes are deliverers of critically functional proteins, capable of transforming target cells in numerous cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesize that the motility of HCC cells can be featured by comparative proteome of exosomes. Hence, we performed the super-SILAC-based MS analysis on the exosomes secreted by three human HCC cell lines, including the non-motile Hep3B cell, and the motile 97H and LM3 cells. More than 1400 exosomal proteins were confidently quantified in each MS analysis with highly biological reproducibility. We justified that 469 and 443 exosomal proteins represented differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the 97H/Hep3B and LM3/Hep3B comparisons, respectively. These DEPs focused on sugar metabolism-centric canonical pathways per ingenuity pathway analysis, which was consistent with the gene ontology analysis on biological process enrichment. These pathways included glycolysis I, gluconeogenesis I and pentose phosphate pathways; and the DEPs enriched in these pathways could form a tightly connected network. By analyzing the relative abundance of proteins and translating mRNAs, we found significantly positive correlation between exosomes and cells. The involved exosomal proteins were again focusing on sugar metabolism. In conclusion, motile HCC cells tend to preferentially export more sugar metabolism-associated proteins via exosomes that differentiate them from non-motile HCC cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Fermented wheat germ extract induced cell death and enhanced cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Wang, Wen-Ching; Wang, Chien-Kai; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Yang, Mei-Due; Chang, Yu-Jia; Jian, Jiun-Yu; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Due to the difficulties of early diagnosis, curative treatments are not available for most patients. Palliative treatments such as chemotherapy are often associated with low response rate, strong adverse effects and limited clinical benefits for patients. The alternative approaches such as fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) with anti-tumor efficacy may provide improvements in the clinical outcome of current therapy for HCC. This study aimed to clarify antitumor efficacy of FWGE and the combination drug effect of FWGE with chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) in human HCC cells, HepG2, Hep3B, and HepJ5. The present study indicated that FWGE exhibited potential to suppress HepG2, Hep3B, and HepJ5 cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of FWGE were 0.494, 0.371 and 1.524 mg/mL, respectively. FWGE also induced Poly (Adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) associated cell death in Hep3B cells. Moreover, the FWGE treatment further enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in all tested HCC cells, and cytotoxicity of 5-Fu in a synergistic manner in HepJ5 cells. Collectively, the results identified the anti-tumor efficacy of FWGE in HCC cells and suggested that FWGE can be used as a supplement to effectively improve the tumor suppression efficiency of cisplatin and 5-Fu in HCC cells.

  17. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of Smilax glabra Roxb. extract on hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sa, Fei; Gao, Jian-Li; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Zheng, Ying; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2008-01-10

    Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGR) is the root of a traditional Chinese herb, referred to as tu fu ling in Chinese medicine. It is an inexpensive traditional Chinese medicine commonly used for the treatment of liver diseases, and a few studies have indicated that SGR has anti-hepatocarcinogenic and anti-cancer growth activities. In the current study, raw SGR plant was extracted with Accelerate Solvent Extractor, and the molecular mechanism by which S. glabra Roxb. extract (SGRE) has an anti-proliferative effect on the human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, was determined. We showed that SGRE inhibited HepG2 and Hep3B cell growth by causing cell-cycle arrest at either S phase or S/G2 transition and induced apoptosis, as evidenced by a DNA fragmentation assay. SGRE-induced apoptosis by alternation of mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The SGRE-mediated mitochondria-caspase dependent apoptotic pathway also involved activation of p38, JNK, and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Isometric compounds of astilbin (flavonoids) and smilagenin (saponin) have been identified as the main chemical constituents in SGRE by HPLC-MS/MS. These results have identified, for the first time, the biological activity of SGRE in HepG2 and Hep3B cells and should lead to further development of SGR for liver disease therapy.

  18. Downregulation of miR-33a-5p in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Possible Mechanism for Chemotherapy Resistance.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Tai, Yan; Zhao, Hui; Fu, Binsheng; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Wei; Li, Hua; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Qi; Feng, Yuliang; Chen, Guihua

    2017-03-14

    BACKGROUND Multi-drug resistance is one of the major problems limiting the efficacy of cisplatin (CDDP) in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression in drug-resistant cell lines plays an important role in liver cancer chemotherapy resistance. MATERIAL AND METHODS We established stable Hep3B and 97L HCC cell strains resistant to CDDP, both in vitro and in vivo. A combination of microRNA microarray and RT-qPCR experiments were used to screen differentially expressed miRNAs in HCC cell strains. A CCK-8 assay was carried out to detect and calculate the survival rates and relative inhibitory rates. Oligonucleotide transfection was used to confirm the regulatory function of the miRNA in HCC drug resistance. RESULTS The IC50 of Hep3B/CDDP(v), 97L/CDDP(v), Hep3B/CDDP(s), and 97L/CDDP(s) were significantly higher than that of their parental cells. Moreover, the doubling time of drug-resistant cells increased compared with their parent cells. MiRCURYTM LNA Array (v 16.0) high-throughput tests of resistant cell models and their parent cells showed that there were 5 downregulated microRNAs in the 4 drug-resistant cell lines, and we chose hsa-miR-33a-5p as our target for further study. Oligonucleotide transfection showed that miR-33a-5p overexpression increased the cisplatin sensitivity of Hep3B/CDDP(v) and 97L/CDDP(v) drug-resistant cells and reduced their resistance. Additionally, inhibition of miR-33a-5p expression reduced cisplatin sensitivity in Hep3B and 97L and increased their drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that the most downregulated microRNA, miR-33a-5p, can mediate the cisplatin resistance of HCC cells, providing a new and feasible direction for research into combatting liver cancer chemotherapy resistance.

  19. Regulation of UGT2B Expression and Activity by miR-216b-5p in Liver Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dluzen, Douglas F.; Sutliff, Aimee K.; Chen, Gang; Watson, Christy J. W.; Ishmael, Faoud T.

    2016-01-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B enzymes are important in the detoxification of a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including many hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Identifying novel mechanisms governing their expression is important in understanding patient-specific response to drugs and cancer risk factors. In silico prediction algorithm programs were used to screen for microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential regulators of UGT2B enzymes, with miR-216b-5p identified as a potential candidate. Luciferase data suggested the presence of a functional miR-216b-5p binding motif within the 3′ untranslated regions of UGTs 2B7, 2B4, and 2B10. Overexpression of miR-216b-5p mimics significantly repressed UGT2B7 (P < 0.001) and UGT2B10 (P = 0.0018) mRNA levels in HuH-7 cells and UGT2B4 (P < 0.001) and UGT2B10 (P = 0.018) mRNA in Hep3B cells. UGT2B7 protein levels were repressed in both HuH-7 and Hep3B cells in the presence of increasing miR-216b-5p concentrations, corresponding with significant (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively) decreases in glucuronidation activity against the UGT2B7-specific substrate epirubicin. Inhibition of endogenous miR-216b-5p levels significantly increased UGT2B7 mRNA levels in HuH-7 (P = 0.021) and Hep3B (P = 0.0068) cells, and increased epirubicin glucuronidation by 85% (P = 0.057) and 50% (P = 0.012) for HuH-7 and Hep3B cells, respectively. UGT2B4 activity against codeine and UGT2B10 activity against nicotine were significantly decreased in both HuH-7 and Hep3B cells (P < 0.001 and P = 0.0048, and P = 0.017 and P = 0.043, respectively) after overexpression of miR-216b-5p mimic. This is the first evidence that miRNAs regulate UGT 2B7, 2B4, and 2B10 expression, and that miR-216b-5p regulation of UGT2B proteins may be important in regulating the metabolism of UGT2B substrates. PMID:27474751

  20. Downregulation of miR-33a-5p in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Possible Mechanism for Chemotherapy Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wei; Tai, Yan; Zhao, Hui; Fu, Binsheng; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Wei; Li, Hua; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Qi; Feng, Yuliang; Chen, Guihua

    2017-01-01

    Background Multi-drug resistance is one of the major problems limiting the efficacy of cisplatin (CDDP) in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression in drug-resistant cell lines plays an important role in liver cancer chemotherapy resistance. Material/Methods We established stable Hep3B and 97L HCC cell strains resistant to CDDP, both in vitro and in vivo. A combination of microRNA microarray and RT-qPCR experiments were used to screen differentially expressed miRNAs in HCC cell strains. A CCK-8 assay was carried out to detect and calculate the survival rates and relative inhibitory rates. Oligonucleotide transfection was used to confirm the regulatory function of the miRNA in HCC drug resistance. Results The IC50 of Hep3B/CDDP(v), 97L/CDDP(v), Hep3B/CDDP(s), and 97L/CDDP(s) were significantly higher than that of their parental cells. Moreover, the doubling time of drug-resistant cells increased compared with their parent cells. MiRCURYTM LNA Array (v 16.0) high-throughput tests of resistant cell models and their parent cells showed that there were 5 downregulated microRNAs in the 4 drug-resistant cell lines, and we chose hsa-miR-33a-5p as our target for further study. Oligonucleotide transfection showed that miR-33a-5p overexpression increased the cisplatin sensitivity of Hep3B/CDDP(v) and 97L/CDDP(v) drug-resistant cells and reduced their resistance. Additionally, inhibition of miR-33a-5p expression reduced cisplatin sensitivity in Hep3B and 97L and increased their drug resistance. Conclusions This study confirmed that the most downregulated microRNA, miR-33a-5p, can mediate the cisplatin resistance of HCC cells, providing a new and feasible direction for research into combatting liver cancer chemotherapy resistance. PMID:28291769

  1. Fluorogenic 2D Peptidosheet Unravels CD47 as a Potential Biomarker for Profiling Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma Tissues.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Han; Dou, Wei-Tao; Pan, Yu-Fei; Dong, Li-Wei; Tan, Ye-Xiong; He, Xiao-Peng; Tian, He; Wang, Hong-Yang

    2017-02-01

    A 2D peptidosheet unravels CD47 as a potential biomarker to image hepatocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma cells and tissues. Supramolecular assembly between water-soluble 2D MoS2 and a peptide probe produces the 2D peptidosheet suited for the profiling of hepatocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma tissues over healthy tissues on clinical specimens.

  2. The Impact of a Cash Transfer Program on Cognitive Achievement: The "Bono de Desarrollo Humano" of Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Juan; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout Latin America, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs play an important role in social policy. These programs aim to influence the accumulation of human capital, as well as reduce poverty. In terms of educational outcomes, a number of impact evaluation studies have shown that such programs have led to an increase in school enrollment,…

  3. The Impact of a Cash Transfer Program on Cognitive Achievement: The "Bono de Desarrollo Humano" of Ecuador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Juan; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout Latin America, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs play an important role in social policy. These programs aim to influence the accumulation of human capital, as well as reduce poverty. In terms of educational outcomes, a number of impact evaluation studies have shown that such programs have led to an increase in school enrollment,…

  4. Dithiothreitol abrogates the effect of arsenic trioxide on normal rat liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Manash K. Kumar, Rajinder; Mukhopadhyay, Anup K.

    2008-01-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a known environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. Significant correlation has been reported between consumption of arsenic-contaminated water and occurrence of liver cancer; moreover, ATO-treated leukemia patients also suffers from liver toxicity. Hence, modulation of ATO action may help to prevent populations suffering from arsenic toxicity as well as help reduce the drug-related side effects. Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a well-known dithiol agent reported to modulate the action of ATO. Controversial reports exist regarding the effect of DTT on ATO-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. To the best of our knowledge, no report illustrates the modulatory effect of DTT on ATO-induced liver toxicity, the prime target for arsenic. Mitochondria serve as the doorway to apoptosis and have been implicated in ATO-induced cell death. Hence, we attempted to study the modulatory effect of DTT on ATO-induced dysfunction of mammalian liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Hep3B). We, for the first time, report that ATO produces complex I-mediated electron transfer inhibition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, respiration inhibition, and ATO-induced ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) opening. DTT at low concentration (100 {mu}M and less) prevents the effect of ATO-induced complex I-malfunctions. DTT protects mitochondria from ATO-mediated opening of MPT and membrane potential depolarization. DTT also prevented ATO-induced Hep3B cell death. Thus, at low concentrations DTT abrogates the effect of ATO on rat liver mitochondria and Hep3B cell line. Therefore, the present result suggests, that use of low concentration of dithiols as food supplement may prevent arsenic toxicity in affected population.

  5. Fermented Wheat Germ Extract Induced Cell Death and Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Wang, Wen-Ching; Wang, Chien-Kai; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Yang, Mei-Due; Chang, Yu-Jia; Jian, Jiun-Yu; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Due to the difficulties of early diagnosis, curative treatments are not available for most patients. Palliative treatments such as chemotherapy are often associated with low response rate, strong adverse effects and limited clinical benefits for patients. The alternative approaches such as fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) with anti-tumor efficacy may provide improvements in the clinical outcome of current therapy for HCC. This study aimed to clarify antitumor efficacy of FWGE and the combination drug effect of FWGE with chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) in human HCC cells, HepG2, Hep3B, and HepJ5. The present study indicated that FWGE exhibited potential to suppress HepG2, Hep3B, and HepJ5 cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of FWGE were 0.494, 0.371 and 1.524 mg/mL, respectively. FWGE also induced Poly (Adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) associated cell death in Hep3B cells. Moreover, the FWGE treatment further enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in all tested HCC cells, and cytotoxicity of 5-Fu in a synergistic manner in HepJ5 cells. Collectively, the results identified the anti-tumor efficacy of FWGE in HCC cells and suggested that FWGE can be used as a supplement to effectively improve the tumor suppression efficiency of cisplatin and 5-Fu in HCC cells. PMID:24454483

  6. Role of p63 and p73 isoforms on the cell death in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma submitted to orthotopic liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    González, Raúl; De la Rosa, Ángel J.; Rufini, Alessandro; Rodríguez-Hernández, María A.; Navarro-Villarán, Elena; Marchal, Trinidad; Pereira, Sheila; De la Mata, Manuel; Müller-Schilling, Martina; Pascasio-Acevedo, Juan M.; Ferrer-Ríos, María T.; Gómez-Bravo, Miguel A.; Padillo, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) submitted to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) have a variable 5-year survival rate limited mostly by tumor recurrence. The etiology, age, sex, alcohol, Child-Pugh, and the immunesuppressor have been associated with tumour recurrence. The expression of ΔNp73 is related to the reduced survival of patients with HCC. The study evaluated the expression of p63 and p73 isoforms and cell death receptors, and their relation to tumour recurrence and survival. The results were in vitro validated in HCC cell lines. Methods HCC sections from patients submitted to OLT were used. The in vitro study was done in differentiated hepatitis B virus (HBV)-expressing Hep3B and control HepG2 cells. The expression of cell death receptors and cFLIPS/L, caspase-8 and -3 activities, and cell proliferation were determined in control and p63 and p73 overexpressing HCC cells. Results The reduced tumor expression of cell death receptors and TAp63 and TAp73, and increased ΔNp63 and ΔNp73 expression were associated with tumor recurrence and reduced survival. The in vitro study demonstrated that HBV-expressing Hep3B vs HepG2 cells showed reduced expression of p63 and p73, cell death receptors and caspase activation, and increased cFLIPL/cFLIPS ratio. The overexpression of TAp63 and TAp73 exerted a more potent pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in Hep3B than HepG2-transfected cells which was related to cFLIPL upregulation. Conclusions The reduction of TAp63 and TAp73 isoforms, rather than alteration of ΔN isoform expression, exerted a significant functional repercussion on cell death and proliferation in HBV-expressing HepB cells. PMID:28350813

  7. Reexpression of ARHI inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis and impairs the mTOR/VEGF pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaohai; Li, Jinfeng; Zhuo, Jianxin; Cai, Liuxin

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Reconstitution of ARHI suppresses the growth of HCC xenografts. {yields} ARHI reexpression impairs tumor angiogenesis in vivo. {yields} Inhibition of the mTOR/VEGF signaling by forced expression of ARHI. {yields} Manipulating ARHI may be of therapeutic benefit in treatment of ARHI-negative HCCs. -- Abstract: The Ras-related tumor suppressor gene aplasia Ras homolog member I (ARHI) is frequently downregulated in many types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we sought to explore the therapeutic implications of ARHI reconstitution in the treatment of HCC. We generated stable cell lines overexpressing ARHI in Hep3B and SK-Hep1 cells, both of which lack endogenous ARHI. The effects of ARHI reexpression on tumor growth and angiogenesis were assessed. Given the key role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in HCC progression, we also tested whether ARHI overexpression affected the mTOR pathway. Forced expression of ARHI resulted in a significant inhibition of the proliferation of both Hep3B and SK-Hep1 cells compared to control cells (P < 0.01). Cell cycle analysis revealed a G0-G1 arrest induced by ARHI reexpression. Moreover, ARHI reexpression significantly retarded Hep3B xenograft growth in vivo, and caused a marked reduction in tumor angiogenesis assessed by CD31-stained microvessel count. Western blot analysis of the xenografts showed that ARHI overexpression substantially reduced the phosphorylation of two mTOR substrates, S6K1 and 4E-BP1, indicative of an inactivation of the mTOR pathway. Accompanying with the mTOR inactivation, the angiogenic factors, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor, were significantly downregulated. These data highlighted an important role for ARHI in controlling HCC growth and angiogenesis, therefore offering a possible therapeutic strategy against this malignancy.

  8. Up-regulation of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: a possible novel mechanism of antiatherogenic activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor Atorvastatin and hepatic LRP1 expression.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon; Kang, Saet Byol; Park, Jong Suk; Lee, Byung Wan; Kang, Eun Seok; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2011-07-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) binds to apolipoprotein E and serves as a receptor for remnant lipoproteins in the liver, thus playing an important role in clearing these atherogenic particles. In this study, we investigated the effect of atorvastatin, a hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, on hepatic LRP1 expression. We used HepG2 and Hep3B cells for in vitro study, and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty and Sprague-Dawley rats for in vivo study. We used relatively high pharmacologic dose of atorvastatin in this study (in vitro, 0.5 μmol/L in culture media, for 48 hours; in vivo, 20 mg/[kg d], for 6 weeks). Atorvastatin increased LRP1 and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression in HepG2 and Hep3B cells and induced hepatic LRP1 and LDL receptor expression in chow diet-fed Sprague-Dawley rats and high-fat diet-fed Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats. Atorvastatin decreased intracellular sterol level and increased the amount of the nuclear form of sterol response element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells as well as in two animal models. Treatment of HepG2 cells with LDL increased intracellular sterol level and reduced LRP1, LDL receptor, and SREBP-2. When SREBP-2 in HepG2 cells was knocked down by small interfering RNA, the induction of LRP1 expression by atorvastatin did not take place. In conclusion, up-regulation of hepatic LRP1 might be a novel mechanism by which statin treatment decreases remnant lipoproteins. In addition, SREBP-2 acts as a mediator of atorvastatin-induced up-regulation of hepatic LRP1. Future studies using standard doses of atorvastatin in humans are needed to elucidate clinical relevance of these findings.

  9. Regulation of apoptotic and growth inhibitory activities of C/EBP{alpha} in different cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Guoli; Shi Xiurong; Salisbury, Elizabeth; Timchenko, Nikolai A.

    2008-04-15

    C/EBP{alpha} is expressed in many tissues and inhibits cell growth. In this paper, we have examined mechanisms which regulate activities of C/EBP{alpha} in cell lines derived from different tissues. We found that C/EBP{alpha} possesses strong pro-apoptotic activity in NIH3T3 cells, while this activity is not detected in 3T3-L1, Hep3B2 and HEK293 cells. Micro-array data show that C/EBP{alpha} activates many genes of apoptosis signaling in NIH3T3 cells. One of these genes, ARL6IP5, is a direct target of C/EBP{alpha} and is a key mediator of the apoptosis. Using C/EBP{alpha} mutants which do not cause cell death; we have found that C/EBP{alpha} does not arrest proliferation of NIH3T3 cells. The lack of growth arrest in NIH3T3 cells correlates with the inhibition of p16INK4 and with low levels of cyclin D3. The limited growth inhibitory activity of C/EBP{alpha} is also observed in Hep3B2 cells which express low levels of cyclin D3. Elevation of cyclin D3 restores growth inhibitory activity of C/EBP{alpha} in NIH3T3 and in Hep3B2 cells. These data show that apoptotic and growth inhibitory activities of C/EBP{alpha} are differentially regulated in different cells and that cooperation of cyclin D3 and C/EBP{alpha} is required for the inhibition of proliferation.

  10. Antcin K, an active triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of basswood cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea, induces mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chiao-I.; Chu, Yung-Lin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Su, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in Taiwan as per the 2011 statistics and ranks fourth in cancer-related mortality in the world. Recent researches have shown that Antrodia cinnamomea, a Taiwan-specific medicinal mushroom, has biological activities, including hepatoprotection, anti-inflammation, antihepatitis B virus activity, and anticancer activity. In the present study, the antiproliferative activity and molecular mechanisms of antcin K, the most abundant ergostane triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of basswood cultivated A. cinnamomea, were investigated using human hepatoma Hep 3B cells. The results showed that antcin K effectively reduced Hep 3B cells viability within 48 hours. Antcin K induced phosphatidylserine exposure, chromatin condensation, and DNA damage, but did not significantly increase autophagosome content or cause cell expansion and cell lysis. Thus, the principal mode of Hep 3B cells death induced by antcin K was apoptosis, rather than autophagy or necrosis. In-depth investigation of the molecular mechanisms revealed that antcin K first promoted reactive oxygen species generation and adenosine triphosphate depletion, leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress and resulting in mitochondrial membrane permeability changes. After losing the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-independent and caspase-dependent apoptosis-related proteins were released, including HtrA2, apoptotic-induced factor, endonuclease G, and cytochrome c. Cytochrome c activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cut downstream protein PARP, ultimately leading to cell apoptosis. These results suggested that antcin K induced mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. Coupled with these findings, antcin K has a potential to be a complementary agent in liver cancer therapy. PMID:26870680

  11. miR-181a induces sorafenib resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through downregulation of RASSF1 expression.

    PubMed

    Azumi, Junya; Tsubota, Toshiaki; Sakabe, Tomohiko; Shiota, Goshi

    2016-09-01

    Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, is the only standard clinical drug for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, development of sorafenib resistance in HCC often prevents its long-term efficacy. Therefore, novel targets and strategies are urgently needed to improve the antitumor effect of sorafenib. In the present study, we examined the novel mechanisms of sorafenib resistance of HCC cells by investigating the difference in sorafenib sensitivity between two HCC cell lines. Sorafenib induced more apoptosis of HepG2 cells compared to Hep3B cells. Sorafenib exposure to HepG2 cells but not Hep3B cells increased the expression of proapoptotic factor PUMA, and activated PARP and caspase-3. Notably, microRNA-181a (miR-181a) expression levels were lower in HepG2 cells than in Hep3B cells. Exogenous miR-181a expression in HepG2 cells reduced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of miR-181a in Hpe3B cells increased apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrated that miR-181a directly targets RASSF1, a MAPK signaling factor, and knockdown of RASSF1 increased sorafenib resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-181a provokes sorafenib resistance through suppression of RASSF1. Our data provide important insight into the novel therapeutic strategy against sorafenib resistance of HCC cells by targeting of miR-181a pathway. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. A novel matrine derivate inhibits differentiated human hepatoma cells and hepatic cancer stem-like cells by suppressing PI3K/AKT signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Qi, Yang; Bai, Zhi-hui; Ni, Chen-xu; Ren, Qi-hui; Xu, Wei-heng; Xu, Jing; Hu, Hong-gang; Qiu, Lei; Li, Jian-zhong; He, Zhi-gao; Zhang, Jun-ping

    2017-01-01

    Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from a Chinese herb Sophora flavescens Ait, which has shown chemopreventive potential against various cancers. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer efficacy of a novel derivative of matrine, (6aS, 10S, 11aR, 11bR, 11cS)-10- methylamino-dodecahydro- 3a,7a-diazabenzo (de) (MASM), against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and their corresponding sphere cells in vitro and in vivo. Human HCC cell lines (Hep3B and Huh7) were treated with MASM. Cell proliferation was assessed using CCK8 and colony assays; cell apoptosis and cell cycle distributions were examined with flow cytometry. The expression of cell markers and signaling molecules was detected using Western blot and qRT-PCR analyses. A sphere culture technique was used to enrich cancer stem cells (CSC) in Hep3B and Huh7 cells. The in vivo antitumor efficacy of MASM was evaluated in Huh7 cell xenograft model in BALB/c nude mice, which were administered MASM (10 mg·kg−1·d−1, ig) for 3 weeks. After the treatment was completed, tumor were excised and weighed. A portion of tumor tissue was enzymatically dissociated to obtain a single cell suspension for the spheroid formation assays. MASM (2, 10, 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells, and induced apoptosis, which correlated with a reduction in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in PARP cleavage. MASM also induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, which was accompanied by increased p27 and decreased Cyclin D1 expression. Interestingly, MASM (2, 10, and 20 μmol/L) drastically reduced the EpCAM+/CD133+ cell numbers, suppressed the sphere formation, inhibited the expression of stem cell marker genes and promoted the expression of mature hepatocyte markers in the Hep3B and Huh7 spheroids. Additionally, MASM dose-dependently suppressed the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathways in Hep3B and Huh7 cells. In Huh7 xenograft bearing nude mice, MASM administration significantly

  13. [Corrigendum] Loss of Runt‑related transcription factor 3 induces resistance to 5‑fluorouracil and cisplatin in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Junro; Shiraha, Hidenori; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Sawahara, Hiroaki; Uchida, Daisuke; Nagahara, Teruya; Iwamuro, Masaya; Morimoto, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Yasuto; Kuwaki, Kenji; Onishi, Hideki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takaki, Akinobu; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Takahito; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Following the publication of this article, we realize that there were some errors in the manuscript. Details of the experiments describing the gene silencing of RUNX3 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) were erroneously included in this paper, and all references to siRNA should have been deleted from the manuscript prior to publication. In the subsection entitled 'Cell lines and cell culture' on page 2577, the left‑hand column, the text should have indicated that the human HCC cell lines Hep3B and Huh7 were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC; Manassas, VA, USA), whereas HLF cells were obtained from the Japanese Cancer Resources Bank (Tokyo, Japan). Lastly, an error was made in describing the calculation of the IC50 values, which did not correlate with the data shown in Fig. 2. Therefore, the subsection entitled 'Ectopic RUNX3 protein expression suppresses cell growth...' should have been entitled 'Ectopic RUNX3 protein expression increases 5‑FU and CDDP sensitivity', and the text herein should have read as follows: We analyzed the effects of RUNX3 on chemosensitivity in the RUNX3‑ or CAT (mock)‑transfected Hep3B and Huh7 cells. RUNX3 expression enhanced 5‑FU sensitivity in both cell lines; the cell viability with 5‑FU (100 nM) decreased from 66.3±4.6 to 34.3±5.0%, and from 71.0±4.7% to 27.0±5.5% in the Hep3B and Huh7 cells, respectively (Fig. 2A). RUNX3 expression also enhanced CDDP sensitivity in both cell lines; the cell viability with CDDP (100 nM) decreased from 58.7±2.6% to 25.7±4.9%, and from 67.7±4.1% to 25.7±7.5% in the Hep3B and Huh7 cells, respectively (Fig. 2B). We sincerely apologize for these errors and oversights, which have not affected any of the overall conclusions reported in the study, and regret any inconvenience they may have caused. [the original article was published in the Oncology Reports 35: 2576-2582, 2016; DOI: 10.3892/or.2016.4681].

  14. Eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids from Salvia plebeia inhibit IL-6-induced STAT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-Jae; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Hwang, Joo Tae; Kim, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Soyoung; Jung, Kyungsook; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual

    2016-10-01

    Seven eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid lactones and the known plebeiolide C were isolated from an ethanol-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Salvia plebeia R. Br. Their structures were determined via NMR and MS, and their absolute configurations were elucidated using ECD, and X-ray crystallographic analysis, as well as the modified Mosher ester method. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on IL6-induced STAT3 promoter activation in stably transfected Hep3B cells. Of these isolates, eudebeiolide D exhibited an inhibitory effect with the IC50 value of 1.1 μM.

  15. Propiconazole increases reactive oxygen species levels in mouse hepatic cells in culture and in mouse liver by a cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated process

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole induces hepatocarcinomas and hepatoadenomas in mice and is a rat liver tumor promoter. Transcriptional, proteomic, metabolomic and biochemical studies of hepatic tissues from mice treated with propiconazole under the conditions of the chronic bioassay indicate that ...

  16. Propiconazole increases reactive oxygen species levels in mouse hepatic cells in culture and in mouse liver by a cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated process

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole induces hepatocarcinomas and hepatoadenomas in mice and is a rat liver tumor promoter. Transcriptional, proteomic, metabolomic and biochemical studies of hepatic tissues from mice treated with propiconazole under the conditions of the chronic bioassay indicate that ...

  17. Creation of a six-fingered artificial transcription factor that represses the hepatitis B virus HBx gene integrated into a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinghui; Zhao, Zhanzhong; Guo, Junwei; Huang, Peitang; Zhu, Xudong; Zhou, Xiaowei; Yang, Zhixin; Zhao, Lixia; Xu, Long; Xu, Junjie; Fu, Ling; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Dong, Yunzhu; Huang, Gang; Wang, Qianfei; Li, Bo; Song, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiuxu; Liu, Shuling; Yi, Shaoqiong; Yu, Ting; Yu, Changming; Hou, Lihua; Li, Jianmin; Chen, Wei

    2013-04-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an independent risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HBV HBx gene is frequently identified as an integrant in the chromosomal DNA of patients with HCC. HBx encodes the X protein (HBx), a putative viral oncoprotein that affects transcriptional regulation of several cellular genes. Therefore, HBx may be an ideal target to impede the progression of HBV infection-related HCC. In this study, integrated HBx was transcriptionally downregulated using an artificial transcription factor (ATF). Two three-fingered Cys2-His2 zinc finger (ZF) motifs that specifically recognized two 9-bp DNA sequences regulating HBx expression were identified from a phage-display library. The ZF domains were linked into a six-fingered protein that specified an 18-bp DNA target in the Enhancer I region upstream of HBx. This DNA-binding domain was fused with a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) transcriptional repression domain to produce an ATF designed to downregulate HBx integrated into the Hep3B HCC cell line. The ATF significantly repressed HBx in a luciferase reporter assay. Stably expressing the ATF in Hep3B cells resulted in significant growth arrest, whereas stably expressing the ATF in an HCC cell line lacking integrated HBx (HepG2) had virtually no effect. The targeted downregulation of integrated HBx is a promising novel approach to inhibiting the progression of HBV infection-related HCC.

  18. Dexamethasone impairs hypoxia-inducible factor-1 function

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A.E.; Huck, G.; Stiehl, D.P.; Jelkmann, W.; Hellwig-Buergel, T.

    2008-07-25

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription-factor composed of {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits. HIF-1 is not only necessary for the cellular adaptation to hypoxia, but it is also involved in inflammatory processes and wound healing. Glucocorticoids (GC) are therapeutically used to suppress inflammatory responses. Herein, we investigated whether GC modulate HIF-1 function using GC receptor (GR) possessing (HepG2) and GR deficient (Hep3B) human hepatoma cell cultures as model systems. Dexamethasone (DEX) treatment increased HIF-1{alpha} levels in the cytosol of HepG2 cells, while nuclear HIF-1{alpha} levels and HIF-1 DNA-binding was reduced. In addition, DEX dose-dependently lowered the hypoxia-induced luciferase activity in a reporter gene system. DEX suppressed the hypoxic stimulation of the expression of the HIF-1 target gene VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in HepG2 cultures. DEX did not reduce hypoxically induced luciferase activity in HRB5 cells, a Hep3B derivative lacking GR. Transient expression of the GR in HRB5 cells restored the susceptibility to DEX. Our study discloses the inhibitory action of GC on HIF-1 dependent gene expression, which may be important with respect to the impaired wound healing in DEX-treated patients.

  19. MT1-MMP Responsive Doxorubicin Conjugated Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid)/Poly(styrene-alt-maleic Anhydride) Core/Shell Microparticles for Intrahepatic Arterial Chemotherapy of Hepatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Davaa, Enkhzaya; Lee, Junghan; Jenjob, Ratchapol; Yang, Su-Geun

    2017-01-11

    In this study, we demonstrated that the MT1-MMP-responsive peptide (sequence: GPLPLRSWGLK) and doxorubicin-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid/poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) core/shell microparticles (PLGA/pSMA MPs) can be applied for intrahepatic arterial injection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PLGA/pSMA MPs were prepared with a capillary-focused microfluidic device. The particle size, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was around 22 ± 3 μm. MT1-MMP-responsive peptide and doxorubicin (DOX) were chemically conjugated with pSMA segments on the shell of MPs to form a PLGA/pSMA-peptide-DOX complex, resulting in high encapsulation efficiency (91.1%) and loading content (2.9%). DOX was released from PLGA/pSMA-peptide-DOX MPs in a pH-dependent manner (∼25% at pH 5.4 and ∼8% at pH 7.4) and accumulated significantly in an MT1-MMP-overexpressing Hep3B cell line. An in vivo intrahepatic injection study showed localization of MPs on the hepatic vessels and hepatic lobes up to 24 h after the injection without any shunting to the lung. Moreover, MPs efficiently inhibited tumor growth of Hep3B hepatic tumor xenografted mouse models. We expect that PLGA/pSMA-peptide-DOX MPs can be utilized as an effective intrahepatic drug delivery system for the treatment of HCC.

  20. Regulation of Gene33 expression by insulin requires MEK-ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Adam B; Xu, Jie; Franklin, J Lee; Messina, Joseph L

    2004-09-17

    Gene33 and its human homologue, mitogen inducible gene-6/receptor-associated late transducer (mig-6, RALT), is a 53-kDa soluble protein that was identified as a hepatic gene regulated by glucocorticoids and insulin. Its mRNA is expressed in numerous tissues in addition to the liver. Mitogen inducibility of Gene33 mRNA has been described in several experimental systems. Recent reports have suggested a role for Gene33 in inhibition of proliferation induced by factors that bind to members of the ErbB family of receptors. In the present work, we examine the regulation of Gene33 protein by insulin in hepatoma cells of rat (H4IIE) and human (HepG2/Hep3B) origin. Inhibition of MEK1 significantly inhibited extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation and insulin-regulated Gene33 transcription and protein levels in H4IIE cells. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) activity alone did not significantly alter transcription of Gene33. In Hep3B and HepG2 cells, insulin did not significantly induce either ERK1/2 activation or Gene33 expression. This work suggests that the MEK-ERK, but not the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), pathway plays a direct role in insulin regulation of Gene33 transcription and protein expression.

  1. Chemical profiling of anti-hepatocellular carcinoma constituents from Caragana tangutica Maxim. by off-line semi-preparative HPLC-NMR.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinzhou; Huang, Mi; Cai, Jinyan; Lv, Dan; Lv, Jingnan; Zheng, Sijian; Ma, Xinhua; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    An EtOAc fraction from the roots of Caragana tangutica Maxim. (CTEA) displayed promising anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) activity during screening of a traditional Chinese ethnic herb library against HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines. HPLC-based activity profiling of CTEA by combination of MS-guided large-scale semi-preparative HPLC and NMR methods led to the identification of a new pterocarpan glycoside, (-)-maackiain 3-O-6'-O-methyl malonyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), together with three known pterocarpan glycosides, (-)-maackiain 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-6'-O-acrylyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (3), and (-)-maackiain 3-O-6'-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (4). Compound 1 was isolated during a drug discovery programme aimed at identifying new anti-HCC leads from a natural product library. Anti-HCC study showed that all four compounds exhibited cytotoxic activity with IC50 values range of 29.1-53.5 μg/mL against HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines.

  2. Allicin induces anti-human liver cancer cells through the p53 gene modulating apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chung, Jing-Gung; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Lo, Yi-Chen; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-10-16

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent type of liver cancer globally and ranks first among the cancer-related mortalities in Taiwan. This study aims to understand the modes of cell death mechanism induced by allicin, a major phytochemical of crushed garlic, in human hepatoma cells. Our earlier study indicated that allicin induced autophagic cell death in human HCC Hep G2 (p53(wild type)) cells, whereas in the present study, allicin induced apoptotic cell death through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in human HCC Hep 3B (p53(mutation)) cells. To gain insight into the cell death mechanism in p53 knocked down Hep G2, we silenced the p53 gene using siRNA-mediated silencing. Allicin treatment induced apoptotic cell death in p53 knocked down Hep G2 cells similar to that of Hep 3B cells. These results suggest that allicin induced cell death in human hepatoma cells through either autophagy or apoptosis and might be a potential novel complementary gene therapeutic agent for the treatment of apoptosis-resistant cancer cells.

  3. Novel miR-122 delivery system based on MS2 virus like particle surface displaying cell-penetrating peptide TAT for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guojing; Jia, Tingting; Xu, Xixia; Chang, Le; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Yu; Li, Yulong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have shown inadequate. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) mediated RNA interference brings new prospects. A safe, efficient miRNA delivery system is an indispensable assurance. Previously, we developed an MS2 bacteriophage virus-like particle (VLP)-based microRNA delivery system crosslinked with the HIV TAT peptide, which served as an effective inhibitor in the treatments of systemic lupus erythematosus and osteoporosis. However, defects, such as low crosslinking efficiency, high cost, and potential toxicity of the crosslinking agent, needed to be confronted. Therefore, TAT peptide was designed to display on the surface of MS2 VLPs, instead of being chemically crosslinked, using the platform of phage surface display. The results reflected that MS2 VLPs displaying TAT could effectively penetrate the cytomembrane and deliver miR-122. Additionally, its inhibitory effects on HCC were significant in Hep3B, HepG2, and Huh7 cells and Hep3B related animal models. Thus, we have established a novel miR-122 delivery system based on MS2 VLPs surface displaying TAT peptide, which could effectively perform the function of penetrating cytomembrane and the inhibition of HCC. PMID:27449085

  4. Cell-specific expression of artificial microRNAs targeting essential genes exhibit potent antitumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chenyu; Liu, Hao; Chen, Ping; Ye, Jingjia; Teng, Lisong; Jia, Zhenyu; Cao, Jiang

    2015-03-20

    To achieve specific and potent antitumor effect of hepatocyte carcinoma cells, replication defective adenoviral vectors, namely rAd/AFP-amiRG, rAd/AFP-amiRE and rAd/AFP-amiRP, were constructed which were armed with artificial microRNAs (amiRs) targeting essential functional genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E and DNA polymerase α respectively under the control of a recombinant promoter comprised of human α-fetoprotein enhancer and basal promoter. The AFP enhancer/promoter showed specific high transcription activity in AFP-positive HCC cells Hep3B, HepG2 and SMMC7721, while low in AFP-negative cell Bcap37. All artificial microRNAs exhibited efficient knockdown of target genes. Decreased ATP production and protein synthesis was observed in rAd/AFP-amiRG and rAd/AFP-amiRE treated HCC cells. All three recombinant adenoviruses showed efficient blockage of cell cycle progression and significant suppression of HCC cells in vitro. In nude mice model bearing Hep3B xenograft, administration of rAd/AFP-amiRG showed potent antitumor effect. The strategy of tumor-specific knockdown of genes essential for cell survival and proliferation may suggest a novel promising approach for HCC gene therapy.

  5. The antiproliferative activity of aloe-emodin is through p53-dependent and p21-dependent apoptotic pathway in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Po-Lin; Lin, Ta-Chen; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-09-06

    The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin in two human liver cancer cell lines, Hep G2 and Hep 3B. We observed that aloe-emodin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both examined cell lines, but with different the antiproliferative mechanisms. In Hep G2 cells, aloe-emodin induced p53 expression and was accompanied by induction of p21 expression that was associated with a cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In addition, aloe-emodin had a marked increase in Fas/APO1 receptor and Bax expression. In contrast, with p53-deficient Hep 3B cells, the inhibition of cell proliferation of aloe-emodin was mediated through a p21-dependent manner that did not cause cell cycle arrest or increase the level of Fas/APO1 receptor, but rather promoted aloe-emodin induced apoptosis by enhancing expression of Bax. These findings suggest that aloe-emodin may be useful in liver cancer prevention.

  6. Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yunha; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Jin Seok; Chai, Kyu Yun; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cui, Ming-Xun; So, Hong Seob; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Raekil

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression. CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma. PMID:18203281

  7. Treatment with an SLC12A1 antagonist inhibits tumorigenesis in a subset of hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ce; Dong, Jiayong; Zhang, Lei; Zou, You; Chen, Rui; Sun, Keyan; Fu, Hong; Fu, Zhiren; Guo, Wenyuan; Ding, Guoshan

    2016-01-01

    A central aim in cancer research is to identify genes with altered expression patterns in tumor specimens and their potential role in tumorigenesis. Most types of tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are heterogeneous in terms of genotype and phenotype. Thus, traditional analytical methods like the t-test fail to identify all oncogenes from expression profiles. In this study, we performed a meta-Cancer Outlier Profile Analysis (meta-COPA) across six microarray datasets for HCC from the GEO database. We found that gene SLC12A1 was overexpressed in the Hep3B cell line, compared with five other HCC cell lines and L02 cells. We also found that the upregulation of SLC12A1 was mediated by histone methylation within its promoter region, and that SLC12A1 is a positive regulator of the WNK1/ERK5 pathway. Consistent with in vitro results, treatment with the SLC12A1 antagonist Bumetanide delayed tumor formation and reduced Hep3B cell tumor size in mouse xenografts. In summary, our research reveals a novel subset of HCCs that are sensitive to SLC12A1 antagonist treatment, thereby offering a new strategy for precision HCC treatment. PMID:27447551

  8. Active compounds from Saussurea lappa Clarks that suppress hepatitis B virus surface antigen gene expression in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, H C; Chou, C K; Lee, S D; Wang, J C; Yeh, S F

    1995-05-01

    We have examined the antiviral activity of the crude extract prepared from the root of Saussurea lappa Clarks, a Chinese medicinal herb which is widely used for many illnesses including cancer. Two active components, costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone, were identified which show strong suppressive effect on the expression of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in human hepatoma Hep3B cells, but have little effect on the viability of the cells. Both costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone suppress the HBsAg production by Hep3B cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50s of 1.0 and 2.0 microM, respectively. Northern blotting analysis shows that the suppression of HBsAg gene expression by both costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone were mainly at the mRNA level. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone on HBsAg and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), a marker for hepatitis B viral genome replication in human liver cells, was also observed in another human hepatoma cell line HepA2 which was derived from HepG2 cells by transfecting a tandemly repeat hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA. Similarly, the mRNA of HBsAg in HepA2 cells was also suppressed by these two compounds. Our findings suggest that costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone may have potential to develop as specific anti-HBV drugs in the future.

  9. Contribution of hydrolase and phosphatase domains in soluble epoxide hydrolase to vascular endothelial growth factor expression and cell growth.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Ami; Sakamoto, Koichi; Suzuki, Sachiko; Imaoka, Susumu

    2009-12-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an important pharmacological target because it metabolizes potent bioactive substrates, epoxyeicosatrienoinc acids (EETs) and other lipid epoxide. EETs have a variety of biological functions including angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. However, the regulation and physiological function of sEH is not well understood. In this study, we found that hypoxia significantly suppressed the expression of sEH in mouse liver and a human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B. Hypoxia promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells or carcinoma cells. Knockdown of sEH in Hep3B cells induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and cell growth, both of which were suppressed by overexpression of sEH. sEH has phosphatase activity as well as epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity. We prepared mutant clones which lacking EH or phosphatase activity using the amino acid change Asp335Ser or Asp9Ala, respectively. The effects of WT sEH on cell growth were lost by mutation of either the EH domain or phosphatase domain. However, mutation of the phosphatase domain but not EH domain did not influence the expression of VEGF. These results suggest that sEH plays an important role in the physiology of cells including proliferation and that the epoxide hydrolase and phosphatase domains of sEH have different biological functions.

  10. Design and synthesis of 2-(3-benzo[b]thienyl)-6,7-methylenedioxyquinolin-4-one analogues as potent antitumor agents that inhibit tubulin assembly.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hsun; Hsu, Mei-Hua; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Huang, Li-Jiau; Qian, Keduo; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Hamel, Ernest; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2009-08-13

    As part of our continuing investigation of azo-flavonoid derivatives as potential anticancer drug candidates, a series of 2-aryl-6,7-methylenedioxyquinolin-4-one analogues was designed and synthesized. The design combined structural features of 2-(2-fluorophenyl)-6,7-methylenedioxyquinolin-4-one (CHM-1), a previously discovered compound with potent in vivo antitumor activity, and 2-arylquinolin-4-ones, identified by CoMFA models. The newly synthesized analogues were evaluated for cytotoxicity against seven human cancer cell lines, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations were established. Analogues 1, 37, and 39 showed potent cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. Compound 1 demonstrated selective cytotoxicity against Hep 3B (hepatoma) cells. Compound 37 was cytotoxic against HL-60 (leukemia), HCT-116 (colon cancer), Hep 3B (hepatoma), and SK-MEL-5 (melanoma) cells. Compound 39 exhibited broad cytotoxicity against all seven cancer cell lines, with IC50 values between 0.07 and 0.19 microM. Results from mechanism of action studies revealed that these new quinolone derivatives function as antitubulin agents.

  11. A HAMP promoter bioassay system for identifying chemical compounds that modulate hepcidin expression.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Tatsuki; Sakamoto, Soichiro; Kanda, Junya; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2015-05-01

    Hepcidin is the central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis; dysregulation of hepcidin expression causes various iron metabolic disorders, including hereditary hemochromatosis and anemia of inflammation. To identify molecules that modulate hepcidin expression, we developed a bioassay system for hepcidin gene (HAMP) promoter activity by stable transfection of Hep3B hepatoma cells with an expression plasmid in which EGFP was linked to a 2.5-kb human HAMP promoter. Interleukin 6, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6), and oncostatin M, well-characterized stimulators of the HAMP promoter, strongly enhanced the green fluorescence intensity of these cells. Dorsomorphin, heparin, and cobalt chloride, known inhibitors of hepcidin expression, significantly suppressed green fluorescence intensity, and these inhibitory effects were more prominent when the cells were stimulated with BMP-6. Employing this system, we screened 1,280 biologically active small molecules and found several candidate inhibitors of hepcidin expression. Apomorphine, benzamil, etoposide, CGS-15943, kenpaullone, and rutaecarpine (all at 10 μmol/L) significantly inhibited hepcidin mRNA expression by Hep3B cells without affecting cell viability. CGS-15943 was the strongest suppressor of BMP-6-induced hepcidin-25 secretion in these cells. We conclude that our newly developed hepcidin promoter bioassay system is useful for identifying and evaluating compounds that modulate hepcidin expression.

  12. HIF-1-mediated activation of transferrin receptor gene transcription by iron chelation.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, L; Tacchini, L; Cairo, G

    1999-11-01

    Treatment with iron chelators mimics hypoxic induction of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1) which activates transcription by binding to hypoxia responsive elements (HRE). We investigated whether HIF-1 is involved in transcriptional activation of the transferrin receptor (TfR), a membrane protein which mediates cellular iron uptake, in response to iron deprivation. The transcription rate of the TfR gene in isolated nuclei was up-regulated by treatment of Hep3B human hepatoma cells with the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). The role of HIF-1 in the activation of TfR was indicated by the following observations: (i) DFO-dependent activation of a luciferase reporter gene in transfected Hep3B cells was mediated by a fragment of the human TfR promoter containing a putative HRE sequence; (ii) mutation of this sequence prevented stimulation of luciferase activity; (iii) binding to this sequence of HIF-1alpha, identified by competition experiments and supershift assays, was induced by DFO. Furthermore, in mouse hepatoma cells unable to assemble functional HIF-1, inducibility of TfR transcription by DFO was lost and TfR mRNA up-regulation was reduced. These results, which show the role of HIF-1 in the control of TfR gene expression in conditions of iron depletion, give insights into the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation which concur with the well-characterized post-transcriptional control of TfR expression to expand the extent of response to iron deficiency.

  13. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis by a marine prostanoid in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Po-Cheng; Chien, Chung-Liang; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Chen, Wen-Pin; Teng, Che-Ming; Shen, Ya-Ching; Guh, Jih-Hwa

    2005-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a very common malignancy and is highly chemoresistant to currently available chemotherapeutic agents. We isolated a marine prostanoid, bromovulone III, from soft coral Clavularia viridis and found that it displayed effective anti-tumor activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma. The anti-tumor mechanism has been delineated in this study. Anti-tumor efficacy and apoptotic cell death were examined by sulforhodamine B and Hoechst 33342 assays. Rhodamine 123 was used to measure the change of mitochondrial membrane potential. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting detect the involvement of several apoptosis-related proteins. Electron microscopic examination detects the morphological change of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Bromovulone III primarily induced mitochondria-related activation of caspase-9 and -3 in several tumor types, such as prostate cancer PC-3 and acute promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. However, it primarily induced the activation of m-calpain, caspase-12, and transcription factor CHOP/GADD153 in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells, suggesting the involvement of ER stress. Furthermore, a secondary mitochondrial swelling and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential were subsequently triggered after ER stress, suggesting the crosstalk between ER and mitochondria. It is suggested that bromovulone III induces apoptosis in Hep3B cells through a mechanism that induces ER stress and leads to activation of CHOP/GADD153 and caspase-12.

  14. Gold Nanoparticles and Radiofrequency in Experimental Models for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Mustafa; Corr, Stuart J.; Zhu, Cihui; Cisneros, Brandon T.; Kaluarachchi, Warna D; Phounsavath, Sophia; Wilson, Lon J.; Curley, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal and chemo-refractory cancers, clearly, alternative treatment strategies are needed. We utilized 10nm gold nanoparticles as a scaffold to synthesize nanoconjugates bearing a targeting antibody (cetuximab, C225) and gemcitabine. Loading efficiency of gemcitabine on the gold nanoconjugates was 30%. Targeted gold nanoconjugates in combination with RF were selectively cytotoxic to EGFR expressing Hep3B and SNU449 cells when compared to isotype particles with/without RF (p<0.05). In animal experiments, targeted gold nanoconjugates halted the growth of subcutaneous Hep3B xenografts in combination with RF exposure (p<0.05). These xenografts also demonstrated increased apoptosis, necrosis and decreased proliferation compared to controls. Normal tissues were unharmed. We have demonstrated that non-invasive RF-induced hyperthermia when combined with targeted delivery of gemcitabine is more effective and safe at dosages ~275-fold lower than the current clinically-delivered systemic dose of gemcitabine. PMID:24650884

  15. Isolation by Size of Epithelial Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vona, Giovanna; Sabile, Abdelmajid; Louha, Malek; Sitruk, Veronique; Romana, Serge; Schütze, Karin; Capron, Frédérique; Franco, Dominique; Pazzagli, Mario; Vekemans, Michel; Lacour, Bernard; Bréchot, Christian; Paterlini-Bréchot, Patrizia

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a new assay, ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells), which allows the counting and the immunomorphological and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells in patients with carcinoma, using peripheral blood sample volumes as small as 1 ml. Using this assay, epithelial tumor cells can be isolated individually by filtration because of their larger size when compared to peripheral blood leukocytes. ISET parameters were defined using peripheral blood spiked with tumor cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, MCF-7, HeLa, and LNCaP). ISET can detect a single, micropipetted tumor cell, added to 1 ml of blood. We also demonstrate that fluorescence in situ hybridization can be used to perform chromosomal analyses on tumor cells collected using ISET. Polymerase chain reaction-based genetic analyses can be applied to ISET-isolated cells, and, as an example, we demonstrate homozygous p53 deletion in single Hep3B cells after filtration and laser microdissection. Finally, we provide evidence for the in vivo feasibility of ISET in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing tumor resection. ISET, but not reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, allowed analysis of cell morphology, counting of tumor cells, and demonstration of tumor microemboli spread into peripheral blood during surgery. Overall, ISET constitutes a novel approach that should open new perpectives in molecular medicine. PMID:10623654

  16. Pectinesterase Inhibitor from Jelly Fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) Achene Inhibits Surface Antigen Expression by Human Hepatitis B Virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chuen; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chen, Yu-Yawn

    2013-01-01

    Pectinesterase inhibitor (PEI) isolated from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) is an edible component of a popular drink consumed in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent in Asia, and current treatments for HBV infection need improvement. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PEI on the surface antigen expression by HBV (HBsAg). Human hepatoma cell lines Hep3B and Huh7 served as in vitro models for assessing the cytotoxicity and HBsAg expression. A culture of primary hepatocytes cultured from mice served as the normal counterpart. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. HBsAg expression was evaluated by measuring HBsAg secretion into the culture medium using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that PEI did not affect the viability of the human hepatoma cell lines or primary mouse hepatocytes. PEI inhibited the expression of HBsAg in hepatoma cell lines harboring endogenous (Hep3B) and integrated (Huh7) HBV genomes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, thus implicating a universal activity against HBV gene expression. In conclusion, it suggests that PEI from jelly fig inhibits the expression of human HBsAg in host cells without toxic effects on normal primary hepatocytes.

  17. Cold-water extracts of Grifola frondosa and its purified active fraction inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Ching-Yao; Lin, Hui-Ju; Lin, Wu-Chou; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Mushrooms are used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Grifola frondosa (GF) is an edible mushroom indigenous to many Asian countries with a large fruiting body characterized by overlapping caps. In particular, GF is known for its anti-tumor activity, which has been targeted by scientific and clinical research. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the cold-water extract of GF (GFW) and its active fraction (GFW-GF) on autophagy and apoptosis, and the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that GFW and GFW-GF inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and stimulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, thereby inducing autophagy. We also demonstrated that GFW and GFW-GF inhibited proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in Hep3B hepatoma cells. GFW and GFW-GF markedly arrested cells in S phase and promoted cleavage of caspase-3 and -9. In addition, GFW and GFW-GF decreased the expression levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. We also found that GFW significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice implanted with Hep3B cells. Our work demonstrates that GF and its active fraction inhibit hepatoma growth by inducing autophagy and apoptosis. PMID:27013543

  18. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi knockdown of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibits the growth and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma via down-regulating midkine expression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiu Yan; Tang, Hui Jun; Wang, Min; Cao, Guo Li; Yi, Ting Zhuang; Wu, Sheng Lan; Xu, Wei Jie; Tang, Shao Hui

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) overexpression contributes to the development of a variety of cancers. The present study explored the role of IGF-1R in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the possibility of IGF-1R silencing by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) as a therapeutic target for HCC. We showed that IGF-1R mRNA was up-regulated in Huh7 and Hep3B cells and human HCC tissues, and that IGF-1R knockdown by RNAi led to decreased proliferation, apoptosis induction, and decreased migration and invasion of Huh7 and Hep3B cells. Further, the in vivo study indicated that IGF-1R knockdown markedly diminished the tumorigenesis and metastasis of Huh7 xenograft. Moreover, the intratumoral administration of lentivirus-IGF-1R siRNA led to significant tumor growth inhibition in an established Huh7 xenograft model. Mechanistic investigations showed that midkine was found to be the most significantly down-regulated protein in Huh7 cells with IGF-1R knockdown, and ectopic overexpression of midkine significantly rescued inhibition of Huh7 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion caused by IGF-1R suppression. Collectively, these data suggest that IGF-1R inhibition by RNAi can significantly suppress HCC growth and invasion at least partially through down-regulating midkine expression, and IGF-1R is a potential target for HCC gene therapy. PMID:27813495

  19. Anticancer effects of deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jianfeng; Xiang, Yanjie; Lin, Shengming; Xin, Dongwei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Weng, Lingling; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Minguang

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies in the world whose chemoprevention became increasingly important in HCC treatment. Although the anticancer effects of asparagus constituents have been investigated in several cancers, its effects on hepatocellular carcinoma have not been fully studied. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of the deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide on the hepatocellular carcinoma cells using the in vitro and in vivo experimental model. Our data showed that deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide might act as an effective inhibitor on cell growth in vitro and in vivo and exert potent selective cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. Further study showed that it could potently induce cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in the more sensitive Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines. Moreover, deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide potentiated the effects of mitomycin both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide might exert its activity through an apoptosis-associated pathway by modulating the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3. In conclusion, deproteinized asparagus polysaccharide exhibited significant anticancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma cells and could sensitize the tumoricidal effects of mitomycin, indicating that it is a potential therapeutic agent (or chemosensitizer) for liver cancer therapy.

  20. Additive effect of apicidin and doxorubicin in sulfatase 1 expressing hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Ping; Sandhu, Dalbir S; Moser, Catherine D; Cazanave, Sophie C; Oseini, Abdul M; Shire, Abdirashid M; Shridhar, Viji; Sanderson, Schuyler O; Roberts, Lewis R

    2009-06-01

    There are limited chemotherapy options for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The heparin-degrading endosulfatase SULF1 functions as a liver tumor suppressor. We investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor apicidin in combination with doxorubicin in SULF1-expressing HCC cells in vitro and in SULF1-expressing xenografts in nude mice. We evaluated the effects of apicidin alone or combined with doxorubicin on apoptosis, caspase activity, and phosphorylation of Erk and Akt in SULF1-transfected Huh7 and Hep3B cells in vitro and in vivo. Apicidin induced HCC cell apoptosis and caspase activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apicidin-induced caspase activation was significantly inhibited by the caspase inhibitor Z-Vad-fmk. Apicidin also decreased phosphorylation of both Erk and Akt. Expression of constitutively-active Mek1 and Akt significantly decreased apicidin-induced apoptosis. The combination of doxorubicin with apicidin significantly increased the anti-tumor effect in the SULF1-expressing Huh7 and Hep3B cells as compared to either apicidin or doxorubicin alone, both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of a histone deacetylase inhibitor with doxorubicin may be a novel and promising therapeutic modality for HCCs, particularly for SULF1-expressing HCCs.

  1. Harmine suppresses homologous recombination repair and inhibits proliferation of hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Wenjun; Chen, Lu; Gao, Neng; Men, Yulong; Xu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    To avoid cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, rapidly proliferating cancer cells have to promote DNA double strand break (DSB) repair to fix replication stress induced DSBs. Therefore, developing drugs blocking homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) – 2 major DSB repair pathways – holds great potential for cancer therapy. Over the last few decades, much attention has been paid to explore drugs targeting DSB repair pathways for cancer therapy. Here, using 2 well-established reporters for analyzing HR and NHEJ efficiency, we found that both HR and NHEJ are elevated in hepatoma cell lines Hep3B and HuH7 compared with normal liver cell lines Chang liver and QSG-7701. Our further study found that Harmine, a natural compound, negatively regulates HR but not NHEJ by interfering Rad51 recruitment, resulting in severe cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, NHEJ inhibitor Nu7441 markedly sensitizes Hep3B cells to the anti-proliferative effects of Harmine. Taken together, our study suggested that Harmine holds great promise as an oncologic drug and combination of Harmine with a NHEJ inhibitor might be an effective strategy for anti-cancer treatment. PMID:26382920

  2. Black soybean promotes the formation of active components with antihepatoma activity in the fermentation product of Agaricus blazei.

    PubMed

    Su, Zheng-Yuan; Hwang, Lucy Sun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Shu, Chin-Hang; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2008-10-22

    The antihepatoma activity and related active components in the fermentation products of Agaricus blazei (AB) cultured in the medium containing soybean (S) or black soybean (BS) were investigated. AB(BS)-pE and AB(S)-pE were the ethanolic extracts from the fermentation products of AB(BS) and AB(S), respectively. According to the IC 50 values, AB(BS)-pE (161.1 and 24.0 microg/mL for Hep 3B and Hep G2 cells, respectively) exhibited stronger cytotoxicities against hepatoma cells than AB(S)-pE (>200 and 99.9 microg/mL for Hep 3B and Hep G2 cells, respectively). AB(BS)-pE was separated by silica gel column chromatography and eluted with n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol gradient solvent system into 21 fractions. Fraction 3 [AB(BS)-pE-F3], eluted with n-hexane/ethyl acetate (97:3 and 19:1, v/v), was the most active fraction having inhibitory activity on the proliferation of Hep 3B and Hep G2 cells (IC 50 of 3.6 and 1.9 microg/mL, respectively). Three major compounds, compounds 1- 3, were further isolated from the AB(BS)-pE-F3 fraction by reversed-phase semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Compounds 2 and 3 gave better antihepatoma activity than that of compound 1. The IC 50 values of compounds 2 and 3 were 2.8 and 4.5 microg/mL for Hep 3B cells and 1.4 and 2.0 microg/mL for Hep G2 cells, respectively. The structures of compounds 2 and 3 were identified by UV, IR, electron impact mass spectrometry, and (1)H and (13)C NMR to be blazeispirols A and C, respectively. Blazeispirols A and C existed in the mycelia but not in the broth and were more in AB(BS)-pE (49.9 +/- 8.9 and 14.2 +/- 2.4 mg/g, respectively) than AB(S)-pE (15.9 +/- 1.7 and 3.9 +/- 0.6 mg/g, respectively). Additionally, the result shows that the production of blazeispirols A and C was increased after cultivation in the medium containing black soybean on day 6 and reached the maximum on day 12, and the contents of blazeispirols A and C were negatively correlated with Hep 3B and Hep G2 cell

  3. A Guide to Promoting Resilience in Children: Strengthening the Human Spirit = Guia de Promocion de la Resiliencia en los Ninos para Fortalecer el Espiritu Humano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    Resilience is an important trait because it is the human capacity to face, overcome, be strengthened by, and even transformed by the adversities of life. This guide provides ways to promote resilience in children and help them learn to improve many aspects of their own resilience. The guide is centered on three features, or sources, of resilience:…

  4. Estructura y Funcionamiento del Cuerpo Humano. Prontuario. Guia del Maestro. Documento de Trabajo (Structure and Function of the Human Body. Handbook and Teacher's Guide. Working Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This handbook and teacher's guide are for a 37-week course on the human body, intended for secondary or postsecondary students in allied health occupations. The syllabus lists general objectives and the number of hours and weeks devoted to each unit. A course outline is provided for five units: anatomy and physiology terminology; general…

  5. A Guide to Promoting Resilience in Children: Strengthening the Human Spirit = Guia de Promocion de la Resiliencia en los Ninos para Fortalecer el Espiritu Humano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    Resilience is an important trait because it is the human capacity to face, overcome, be strengthened by, and even transformed by the adversities of life. This guide provides ways to promote resilience in children and help them learn to improve many aspects of their own resilience. The guide is centered on three features, or sources, of resilience:…

  6. Estructura y Funcionamiento del Cuerpo Humano. Prontuario. Guia del Maestro. Documento de Trabajo (Structure and Function of the Human Body. Handbook and Teacher's Guide. Working Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This handbook and teacher's guide are for a 37-week course on the human body, intended for secondary or postsecondary students in allied health occupations. The syllabus lists general objectives and the number of hours and weeks devoted to each unit. A course outline is provided for five units: anatomy and physiology terminology; general…

  7. CHOQUES AGREGADOS E INVERSIÓN EN CAPITAL HUMANO: EL LOGRO EDUCATIVO SUPERIOR DURANTE LA DÉCADA PERDIDA EN MÉXICO

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Pablo A.

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo documenta una respuesta agregada negativa del logro educativo superior (más de 12 años de escolaridad) en México a la recesión de 1982–83 y el estancamiento que le siguió. La respuesta no fue homogénea entre géneros, regiones y entornos familiares. Los hombres experimentaron una caída en el logro mientras que las mujeres experimentaron un crecimiento más lento. En promedio, los estados con un mayor logro antes del choque experimentaron mayores caídas. La respuesta entre distintos entornos familiares no presenta un patrón claro. Sin embargo, el efecto negativo en el logro se observa incluso entre hermanos. La evidencia sugiere una historia por el lado de la demanda: la caída en el ingreso de los hogares parece ser el determinante de la caída/desaceleración del logro educativo superior. La conclusión es que la recesión y la falta de crecimiento que le siguió tuvieron un efecto negativo importante y duradero en la formación de capacidades en México. PMID:25328251

  8. Serum Dickkopf-1 as a Biomarker for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Up; Kim, Hyon-Suk; Lee, Jae Myun; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Hyemi; Choi, Sung Hoon; Baek, Shinhwa; Kim, Beom Kyung; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is a Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway inhibitor. We investigated whether DKK-1 is related to progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and HCC patients. Materials and Methods In vitro reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), wound healing assays, invasion assays, and ELISAs of patient serum samples were employed. The diagnostic accuracy of the serum DKK-1 ELISA was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under ROC (AUC) analyses. Results RT-PCR showed high DKK-1 expression in Hep3B and low in 293 cells. Similarly, the secreted DKK-1 concentration in the culture media was high in Hep3B and low in 293 cells. Wound healing and invasion assays using 293, Huh7, and Hep3B cells showed that DKK-1 overexpression promoted cell migration and invasion, whereas DKK-1 knock-down inhibited them. When serum DKK-1 levels were assessed in 370 participants (217 with HCC and 153 without), it was significantly higher in HCC patients than in control groups (median 1.48 ng/mL vs. 0.90 ng/mL, p<0.001). The optimum DKK-1 cutoff level was 1.01 ng/mL (AUC=0.829; sensitivity 90.7%; specificity 62.0%). Although DKK-1 had a higher AUC than alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) (AUC=0.829 vs. 0.794 and 0.815, respectively), they were statistically similar (all p>0.05). When three biomarkers were combined (DKK-1 plus AFP plus DCP), they showed significantly higher AUC (AUC=0.952) than single marker, DKK-1 plus AFP, or DKK-1 plus DCP (all p<0.001). Conclusion DKK-1 might be a key regulator in HCC progression and a potential therapeutic target in HCC. Serum DKK-1 could complement the diagnostic accuracy of AFP and DCP. PMID:26256972

  9. Cell-specific delivery of diverse cargos by bacteriophage MS2 virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Carlee E; Carnes, Eric C; Phillips, Genevieve K; Durfee, Paul N; Buley, Mekensey D; Lino, Christopher A; Padilla, David P; Phillips, Brandy; Carter, Mark B; Willman, Cheryl L; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Caldeira, Jerri do Carmo; Chackerian, Bryce; Wharton, Walker; Peabody, David S

    2011-07-26

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) of bacteriophage MS2 possess numerous features that make them well-suited for use in targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents. MS2 VLPs can be rapidly produced in large quantities using in vivo or in vitro synthesis techniques. Their capsids can be modified in precise locations via genetic insertion or chemical conjugation, facilitating the multivalent display of targeting ligands. MS2 VLPs also self-assemble in the presence of nucleic acids to specifically encapsidate siRNA and RNA-modified cargos. Here we report the use of MS2 VLPs to selectively deliver nanoparticles, chemotherapeutic drugs, siRNA cocktails, and protein toxins to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MS2 VLPs modified with a peptide (SP94) that binds HCC exhibit a 10(4)-fold higher avidity for HCC than for hepatocytes, endothelial cells, monocytes, or lymphocytes and can deliver high concentrations of encapsidated cargo to the cytosol of HCC cells. SP94-targeted VLPs loaded with doxorubicin, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil selectively kill the HCC cell line, Hep3B, at drug concentrations <1 nM, while SP94-targeted VLPs that encapsidate a siRNA cocktail, which silences expression of cyclin family members, induce growth arrest and apoptosis of Hep3B at siRNA concentrations <150 pM. Impressively, MS2 VLPs, when loaded with ricin toxin A-chain (RTA) and modified to codisplay the SP94 targeting peptide and a histidine-rich fusogenic peptide (H5WYG) that promotes endosomal escape, kill virtually the entire population of Hep3B cells at an RTA concentration of 100 fM without affecting the viability of control cells. Our results demonstrate that MS2 VLPs, because of their tolerance of multivalent peptide display and their ability to specifically encapsidate a variety of chemically disparate cargos, induce selective cytotoxicity of cancer in vitro and represent a significant improvement in the characteristics of VLP-based delivery systems.

  10. Alpha particle-induced bystander effect is mediated by ROS via a p53-dependent SCO2 pathway in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jitao; He, Mingyuan; Shen, Bo; Yuan, Dexiao; Shao, Chunlin

    2013-12-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for the efficiency of radiotherapy but the underlying role of cellular metabolism is widely unknown. The roles of synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2), a key effector for respiratory chain, and related signaling factors in α-particle-induced bystander damage were currently investigated in a liver cell co-culture system. Human hepatoma cells of HepG2 with wild-type p53 (wtp53) and Hep3B (p53 null) were irradiated with 0.4 Gy of α-particles and co-cultured with non-irradiated normal liver cells HL-7702 for 6 h, then the incidence of micronucleus (MN) in the bystander HL-7702 cells was analyzed. The expressions of total P53, phospho-P53 (p-P53), SCO2, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the irradiated hepatoma cells were detected. In some experiments, the hepatoma cells were respectively treated with p53 siRNA, SCO2 siRNA, or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) before irradiation. Bystander damage in HL-7702 cells was induced by α-irradiated HepG2 cells but not by α-irradiated Hep3B cells, and this bystander effect was diminished when the irradiated HepG2 cells were pretreated with p53 siRNA, SCO2 siRNA, or DMSO. Meanwhile, the expressions of p-P53 protein and SCO2 mRNA, the activity of SCO2 protein, and intracellular ROS were all increased in the irradiated HepG2 cells but not Hep3B cells and these expressions were eliminated by p53 siRNA treatment. Moreover, the radiation-enhanced expressions of SCO2 and ROS were inhibited by SCO2 siRNA. α-particle-induced bystander effect was regulated by p53 and its downstream SCO2 in the irradiated hepatoma cells, and ROS generation could be an early event for triggering this bystander response.

  11. Inhibitory efficacy of the quantified prunellae spica extract on H22 tumor bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2013-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistence of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. In this report, we assessed the antitumor activity of a prunellae spica aqueous extract (PSE) in vitro and in vivo. PSE was quantified by HPLC and UV. MTT assay showed that PSE did not effectively inhibit the growth of H22 cells. The in vivo anti-tumor activity was assessed by using the mice bearing H22 tumor. In vivo studies showed the higher antitumor efficacy of PSE without significant side effect assessed by the reduced tumor weight, and the extended survival time of the mice bearing H22 solid and ascites tumor. Collectively, PSE is a promising Chinese medicinal herb for treating hepatocarcinoma.

  12. CISD1 inhibits ferroptosis by protection against mitochondrial lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hua; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Xiuying; Kang, Rui; Tang, Daolin

    2016-09-16

    Ferroptosis is a form of non-apoptotic cell death originally identified in cancer cells. However, the key regulator of ferroptosis in mitochondria remains unknown. Here, we show that CDGSH iron sulfur domain 1 (CISD1, also termed mitoNEET), an iron-containing outer mitochondrial membrane protein, negatively regulates ferroptotic cancer cell death. The classical ferroptosis inducer erastin promotes CISD1 expression in an iron-dependent manner in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (e.g., HepG2 and Hep3B). Genetic inhibition of CISD1 increased iron-mediated intramitochondrial lipid peroxidation, which contributes to erastin-induced ferroptosis. In contrast, stabilization of the iron sulfur cluster of CISD1 by pioglitazone inhibits mitochondrial iron uptake, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent ferroptosis. These findings indicate a novel role of CISD1 in protecting against mitochondrial injury in ferroptosis.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and anti-proliferative activity of Cd(II) complexes with NNN type pyrazole-based ligand and pseudohalide ligands as coligand.

    PubMed

    Hopa, Cigdem; Yildirim, Hatice; Kara, Hulya; Kurtaran, Raif; Alkan, Mahir

    2014-01-01

    Cd(II) complexes of tridentate nitrogen donor ligand, 2,6-bis(3,4,5-trimethylpyrazolyl)pyridine (btmpp), Cd(btmpp)X2 (X:Cl, ONO or N(CN)2) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental and spectral (FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV-Vis) analyses, differential thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The molecular structure of reported complex 1, revealed distorted square-pyramidal geometry around Cadmium. Complexes 1-3 and corresponding ligand were tested for cytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines HEP3B (hepatocellular carcinoma), PC3 (prostate adenocarcinoma), MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and Saos2 (osteosarcoma). The results show that, complexes are more cytotoxic than the free ligand and complex 2 is the most cytotoxic complex for PC3.

  14. Cytotoxic quassinoids from Ailanthus altissima.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Wen-Jing; Su, Chang; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Xu, Li-Peng; He, Rong-Rong; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2013-02-01

    Two new quassinoids, altissinol A (1) and B (7), together with 12 known quassinoids, were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the barks of Ailanthus altissima. The structures of the new compounds (1 and 7) were determined on the basis of the spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. The cytotoxic potential of all isolates were evaluated in vitro against three human hepatoma cell lines. Quassinoids 1-7 displayed potent cytotoxic activities against human hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines. Interestingly, compounds 2, 3, and 5 exhibited cytotoxic activity against multidrug resistance HepG2/ADM cell line with IC(50) value 4.3-fold more sensitive to Doxorubicin (DOX). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enzyme-activated intracellular drug delivery with tubule clay nanoformulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzamukova, Maria R.; Naumenko, Ekaterina A.; Lvov, Yuri M.; Fakhrullin, Rawil F.

    2015-05-01

    Fabrication of stimuli-triggered drug delivery vehicle s is an important milestone in treating cancer. Here we demonstrate the selective anticancer drug delivery into human cells with biocompatible 50-nm diameter halloysite nanotube carriers. Physically-adsorbed dextrin end stoppers secure the intercellular release of brilliant green. Drug-loaded nanotubes penetrate through the cellular membranes and their uptake efficiency depends on the cells growth rate. Intercellular glycosyl hydrolases-mediated decomposition of the dextrin tube-end stoppers triggers the release of the lumen-loaded brilliant green, which allowed for preferable elimination of human lung carcinoma cells (A549) as compared with hepatoma cells (Hep3b). The enzyme-activated intracellular delivery of brilliant green using dextrin-coated halloysite nanotubes is a promising platform for anticancer treatment.

  16. Design and synthesis of 2-(3-alkylaminophenyl)-6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)quinolin-4-ones as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Ming; Cheng, Yung-Yi; Chen, Ming-Hua; Huang, Chi-Hung; Huang, Li-Jiau; Hsu, Mei-Hua; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2013-02-01

    2-(3-Alkylaminophenyl)-6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)quinolin-4-ones 1-3 were synthesized and screened for anti-proliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines, as well as the normal cell line Detroit 551. All of the synthesized target compounds 1-3 demonstrated potent cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines, but weak inhibitory activity toward the normal cell line. 2-(3-Methyl aminophenyl)-6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)quinolin-4-one (1), one of the potent compounds in vitro, was also tested in an in vivo Hep3B xenograft nude mice model, and its significant anticancer activity was reconfirmed. Therefore, compound 1 merits further investigation as an antitumor clinical trial candidate and potential anticancer agent.

  17. Identification and characterization of novel host defense peptides from the skin secretion of the fungoid frog, Hydrophylax bahuvistara (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Vineeth Kumar, Thundi Parambil Vasanth Kumar; Asha, Radhamony; Shyla, Gopal; George, Sanil

    2017-01-10

    Two novel peptides (brevinin1 HYba1 and brevinin1 HYba2) were identified from the skin secretion of the frog Hydrophylax bahuvistara, endemic to Western Ghats, India, and their amino acid sequences were confirmed using cDNA cloning and LC/MS/MS. Antibacterial, hemolytic, and cytotoxic activities of brevinin1 peptides and their synthetic analogs (amidated C-terminus) were investigated and compared. All the peptides except the acidic forms showed antibacterial activity against all tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They exhibited low hemolysis on human erythrocytes and showed potent cytotoxic activity against Hep 3B cancer cell line. Upon amidation, the peptides showed increased activity against the tested microbes without altering their hemolytic and cytotoxic properties. The study also emphasizes the need for screening endemic amphibian fauna of Western Ghats, as a potential source of host defense peptides with possible therapeutic applications in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Influenza A (H(1)N(1)) Antiviral and Cytotoxic Agents from Ferula assa-foetida.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Cheng, Li-Hung; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Abd El-Razek, Mohamed H; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2009-09-01

    Two new sesquiterpene coumarins, designated 5'-acetoxy-8'-hydroxyumbelliprenin (1) and 10'R-acetoxy-11'-hydroxyumbelliprenin (2), and a new diterpene, 15-hydroxy-6-en-dehydroabietic acid (3), along with 27 known compounds, were isolated from a CHCl(3)-soluble extract of Ferula assa-foetida through bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of the new metabolites 1-3 were identified by spectroscopic data interpretation and by the Mosher ester method. Compounds 4 and 6-13 showed greater potency against influenza A virus (H(1)N(1)) (IC(50) 0.26-0.86 microg/mL) than amantadine (IC(50) 0.92 microg/mL), and 11 exhibited the best potency (IC(50) 0.51, 2.6, and 3.4 microg/mL) of these compounds against the HepG2, Hep3B, and MCF-7 cancer cell lines, respectively.

  19. Merocyanine 540 and Photofrin II as photosensitizers for in vitro killing of duck hepatitis B virus and human hepatoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Shien, Yong-Shau; Kao, Ming-Chien

    1994-03-01

    The feasibility of using merocyanine 540 (MC 540) and Photofrin II (PII) as effective photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agents for killing hepatoma cells and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in vitro was investigated. Cultured duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV and hepatoma cells, Hep 3B and HCC 36, were used as models. MC 540 and PII effectively inhibits the DHBV growth by 90 - 99% in a dose- and light-dependent manner. Photodynamic killing of MC 540 in the two hepatoma cell lines results in 94 - 99% growth inhibition. However, both photosensitizers exhibit dark cytotoxicity (37 - 56%). The present results suggest that MC 540 and PII could be promising and effective photodynamic agents for killing HBV and hepatoma cells.

  20. Perylenetetracarboxylic anhydride as a precursor of fluorescent carbon nanoonion rings.

    PubMed

    Baldoví, Herme G; Herance, José Raul; Manuel Víctor, Víctor; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2015-08-07

    Thermal annealing at 400 °C of perylenetetracarboxylic anhydride in low molecular mass PEG gives rise to the formation of well defined nanoobjects of 2.5 nm height and size distribution from 10 to 65 nm (average 40 nm) after purification of the raw mixture with silicagel chromatography. TEM reveals that the flat nanoobjects are constituted of concentric graphenic rings (0.34 nm interlayer distance). The morphology of the nanoparticles resembles onion rings of nanometric dimensions (nanoonion rings C-NOR). C-NOR particles have an excitation dependent emission with λem from 430 to 570 nm and a maximum emission quantum yield of 0.49. C-NOR particles can be internalized into Hep3B human hepatoma cells as determined by confocal fluorescence microscopy and are remarkably biocompatible affecting slightly cell viability according to the MTT test.

  1. A new cyclolignan glycoside from the tubers of Pinellia ternata.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Le; Li, Dan-Qi; Liu, Qing-Bo; Li, Ling-Zhi; Yan, Xin-Jia; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    A new 2,7'-type cyclolignan glycoside, cyclolignanyingoside A (1), together with six known compounds (2-7) were isolated from the tubers of Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis, including 1D, 2D NMR analyses, HR-ESI-MS, and CD spectrometry. The cytotoxic, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibiting activities of all the isolates were determined. However, all the isolates exhibited no activity on the selected cell lines (Hep-3B, Bcap-37, and MCF-7). In addition, compounds 1-3 and 7 exhibited strong 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical scavenging activity, and compounds 2 and 4 showed a moderate mushroom tyrsinase inhibitory activity.

  2. Osmium(IV) complexes with 1H- and 2H-indazoles: tautomer identity versus spectroscopic properties and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Büchel, Gabriel E; Stepanenko, Iryna N; Hejl, Michaela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Arion, Vladimir B

    2012-08-01

    A one-pot synthesis of osmium(IV) complexes with two different tautomers of indazole, 1H-indazole and 2H-indazole, namely (H(2)ind)[Os(IV)Cl(5)(2H-ind)] (1) and (H(2)ind)[Os(IV)Cl(5)(1H-ind)] (2) is reported. Both compounds have been comprehensively characterized by NMR spectroscopy, ESI (electrospray ionization) mass spectrometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and tested for antiproliferative activity in vitro in three human cancer cell lines, CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), A549 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SW480 (colon carcinoma), as well as in vivo in a Hep3B SCID mouse xeno-transplantation model. 2H-Indazole tautomer stabilization in 1 has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction.

  3. Butein induces G(2)/M phase arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma cancer cells through ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong-Oh; Kim, Mun-Ock; Choi, Yung Hyun; Hyun, Jin Won; Chang, Weon Young; Kim, Gi-Young

    2010-02-28

    We investigated the molecular effects of 3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (butein) treatment in two human hepatoma cancer cell lines-HepG2 and Hep3B. Butein treatment inhibited cancer cell growth by inducing G(2)/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Butein-induced G(2)/M phase arrest was associated with increased ATM, Chk1, and Chk2 phosphorylations and reduced cdc25C levels. Additionally, butein treatment enhanced inactivated phospho-Cdc2 levels, reduced Cdc2 kinase activity, and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was accompanied by JNK activation. The extent of butein-induced G(2)/M phase arrest significantly decreased following pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine or glutathione and following JNK phosphorylation reduction by SP600125. Both N-acetyl-l-cysteine and glutathione also decreased butein-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results imply a critical role of ROS and JNK in the anticancer effects of butein.

  4. Perylenetetracarboxylic anhydride as a precursor of fluorescent carbon nanoonion rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldoví, Herme G.; Herance, José Raul; Manuel Víctor, Víctor; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2015-07-01

    Thermal annealing at 400 °C of perylenetetracarboxylic anhydride in low molecular mass PEG gives rise to the formation of well defined nanoobjects of 2.5 nm height and size distribution from 10 to 65 nm (average 40 nm) after purification of the raw mixture with silicagel chromatography. TEM reveals that the flat nanoobjects are constituted of concentric graphenic rings (0.34 nm interlayer distance). The morphology of the nanoparticles resembles onion rings of nanometric dimensions (nanoonion rings C-NOR). C-NOR particles have an excitation dependent emission with λem from 430 to 570 nm and a maximum emission quantum yield of 0.49. C-NOR particles can be internalized into Hep3B human hepatoma cells as determined by confocal fluorescence microscopy and are remarkably biocompatible affecting slightly cell viability according to the MTT test.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and anti-proliferative activity of Cd(II) complexes with NNN type pyrazole-based ligand and pseudohalide ligands as coligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopa, Cigdem; Yildirim, Hatice; Kara, Hulya; Kurtaran, Raif; Alkan, Mahir

    2014-03-01

    Cd(II) complexes of tridentate nitrogen donor ligand, 2,6-bis(3,4,5-trimethylpyrazolyl)pyridine (btmpp), Cd(btmpp)X2 (X:Cl, ONO or N(CN)2) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental and spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis) analyses, differential thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The molecular structure of reported complex 1, revealed distorted square-pyramidal geometry around Cadmium. Complexes 1-3 and corresponding ligand were tested for cytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines HEP3B (hepatocellular carcinoma), PC3 (prostate adenocarcinoma), MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and Saos2 (osteosarcoma). The results show that, complexes are more cytotoxic than the free ligand and complex 2 is the most cytotoxic complex for PC3.

  6. Effects of the synthetic coprisin analog peptide, CopA3 in pathogenic microorganisms and mammalian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Woo; Kim, Soon-Ja; Kwon, Yong-Nam; Yun, Eun-Young; Ahn, Mi-Young; Kang, Dong-Chul; Hwang, Jae-Sam

    2012-01-01

    A synthetic coprisin analog peptide, 9-mer dimer CopA3 (CopA3) was designed based on a defensin-like peptide, Coprisin, isolated from the bacteria-immunized dung beetle Copris tripartitus. Here, CopA3 was investigated for its antimicrobial activity and cancer cell growth inhibition. CopA3 showed antimicrobial activities against various pathogenic bacteria and yeast fungus with MIC values in 2~32 μM ranges, and inhibited the cell viabilities of pancreatic and hepatocellular cancer cells, except MIAPaca2, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells, in a dose-dependent manner. The average IC(50) values of CopA3 against pancreatic and hepatocellular cancer cells were 61.7 μM and 67.8 μM, respectively. The results indicate that CopA3 has potential in the treatments of pancreatic and hepatocellular cancers as well as microorganism infection disease.

  7. Cancer stem-like sphere cells induced from de-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cell lines possess the resistance to anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Noriaki; Tsunedomi, Ryouichi; Yoshimura, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Yusaku; Hazama, Shoichi; Oka, Masaaki

    2014-09-27

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to play important roles in therapy-resistance. In this study, we induced cancer stem-like cells from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines using a unique medium, and examined their potential for resistance to anti-cancer drugs. The human HCC cell lines SK-HEP-1 (SK), HLE, Hep 3B, and HuH-7 were used to induce cancer stem-like cells with our sphere induction medium supplemented with neural survival factor-1. NANOG and LIN28A were examined as stemness markers. Several surface markers for CSC such as CD24, CD44, CD44 variant, and CD90 were analyzed by flow-cytometry. To assess the resistance to anti-cancer drugs, the MTS assay, cell cycle analysis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity assay were performed. Poorly differentiated HCC derived SK and undifferentiated HCC derived HLE cell lines efficiently formed spheres of cells (SK-sphere and HLE-sphere), but well-differentiated HCC-derived HuH-7 and Hep 3B cells did not. SK-spheres showed increased NANOG, LIN28A, and ALDH1A1 mRNA levels compared to parental cells. We observed more CD44 variant-positive cells in SK-spheres than in parental cells. The cell viability of SK-spheres was significantly higher than that of SK cells in the presence of several anti-cancer drugs except sorafenib (1.7- to 7.3-fold, each P < 0.05). The cell cycle of SK-spheres was arrested at the G0/G1 phase compared to SK cells. SK-spheres showed higher ABCG2 and HIF1A mRNA expression and lower ROS production compared to parental cells. Our novel method successfully induced cancer stem-like cells, which possessed chemoresistance that was related to the cell cycle, drug efflux, and ROS.

  8. Identification of c-Yes expression in the nuclei of hepatocellular carcinoma cells: involvement in the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Takako; Masaki, Tsutomu; Morishita, Asahiro; Jian, Gong; Uchida, Naohito; Himoto, Takashi; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Iwama, Hisakazu; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Seishiro; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    It is thought that the subcellular distribution of Src-family tyrosine kinases, including c-Yes binding to the cellular membrane, is membranous and/or cytoplasmic. c-Yes protein tyrosine kinase is known to be related to malignant transformation. However, the expression patterns of c-Yes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In the present study, we report that c-Yes is expressed not only in the membrane and cytoplasm, but also in the nuclei of cancer cells in some human HCC tissues and in a human HCC cell line. We examined the expression and localization of c-Yes in human HCC cell lines (HLE, HLF, PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B) by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses; we also examined the expression of c-Yes by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting in the tissues of various liver diseases, including 39 samples from HCC patients. We used an antibody array to detect proteins that bind to nuclear c-Yes in PLC/PRF/5 cell line. c-Yes was found to be expressed in the membranes and cytoplasm of HLE, HLF and Hep 3B HCC cells; it was also detected in the nuclei in addition to the membranes and cytoplasm of PLC/PRF/5 HCC cells. HCC with nuclear c-Yes was detected in 5 of 39 cases (13.0%), and nuclear c-Yes expression was not detected in normal, chronic hepatitis or cirrhotic livers. All HCCs with nuclear c-Yes expression were well-differentiated, small tumors at the early stages. In the PLC/PRF/5 cell line, the nuclear localization of c-Yes with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 was confirmed by a protein antibody array. In conclusion, nuclear c-Yes expression was found in cancer cells at the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, suggesting that nucleus-located c-Yes may be a useful marker to detect early-stage HCC.

  9. Differential suppression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-dependent function by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor PAS-A-derived inhibitory molecule.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jinghang; Huang, Xin; Park, Miki S; Pham, Hang M; Chan, William K

    2014-03-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) heterodimerizes with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) for transcriptional regulation. We generated three N-terminal deletion constructs of the human AhR of 12-24 kDa in size--namely D1, D2, and D3--to suppress the Arnt function. We observed that all three deletions interact with the human Arnt with similar affinities. D2, which contains part of the AhR PAS-A domain and interacts with the PAS-A domain of Arnt, inhibits the formation of the AhR gel shift complex. D2 suppresses the 3-methylcholanthrene-induced, dioxin response element (DRE)-driven luciferase activity in Hep3B cells and exogenous Arnt reverses this D2 suppression. D2 suppresses the induction of CYP1A1 at both the message and protein levels in Hep3B cells; however, the CYP1B1 induction is not affected. D2 suppresses the recruitment of Arnt to the cyp1a1 promoter but not to the cyp1b1 promoter, partly because the AhR/Arnt heterodimer binds better to the cyp1b1 DRE than to the cyp1a1 DRE. Interestingly, D2 has no effect on the cobalt chloride-induced, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent expression of vegf, aldolase c, and ldh-a messages. Our data reveal that the flanking sequences of the DRE contribute to the binding affinity of the AhR/Arnt heterodimer to its endogenous enhancers and the function of AhR and HIF-1 can be differentially suppressed by the D2 inhibitory molecule. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SIRT1 sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus X protein to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Koh, Sang Seok; Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Cho, Il-Rae; Jhun, Byung Hak; Horio, Yoshiyuki; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up-regulation of SIRT1 protein and activity sensitizes Hep3B-HBX cells to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for oxidation-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 attenuate JNK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of SIRT1 activity restores resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis through JNK activation. -- Abstract: We previously showed that SIRT1 deacetylase inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBX), by destabilization of {beta}-catenin. Here, we report another role for SIRT1 in HBX-mediated resistance to oxidative stress. Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 sensitize Hep3B cells stably expressing HBX to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for sensitization of oxidation-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SIRT1 and treatment with resveratrol (a SIRT1 activator) attenuated JNK phosphorylation, which is a prerequisite for resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 activity with nicotinamide inhibited the effect of resveratrol on JNK phosphorylation, leading to restoration of resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that up-regulation of SIRT1 under oxidative stress may be a therapeutic strategy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma cells related to HBV through inhibition of JNK activation.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro anticancer activity of 18-membered octaazamacrocyclic complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Sn(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, Abdul; Zafar, Hina; Sherwani, Asif; Mohammad, Owais; Khan, Tahir Ali

    2014-10-01

    An effective series of 18 membered octaazamacrocyclic complexes of the type [MLX2], where X = Cl or NO3 have been synthesized by template condensation reaction of oxalyl dihydrazide with dibenzoylmethane and metal salt in 2:2:1 molar ratio. The formation of macrocyclic framework, stereochemistry and their overall geometry have been characterized by various physico-chemical studies viz., elemental analysis, electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), I.R, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TGA/DTA studies. These studies suggest formation of octahedral macrocyclic complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II) and Sn(II). The molar conductance values suggest nonelectrolytic nature for all the complexes. Thermogravimatric analysis shows that all the complexes are stable up to 600 °C. All these complexes have been tested against different human cancer cell lines i.e. human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and normal cells (PBMC). The newly synthesized 18-membered octaazamacrocyclic complexes during in vitro anticancer evaluation, displayed moderate to good cytotoxicity on liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines, respectively. The most effective anticancer cadmium complex (C34H28N10CdO10) was found to be active with IC50 values, 2.44 ± 1.500, 3.55 ± 1.600 and 4.82 ± 1.400 in micro-molar on liver, cervical and breast cancer cell lines, respectively.

  12. Cell death in a co-culture of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a medium lacking glucose and arginine.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Human primary hepatocytes are able to survive in a medium without glucose and arginine that is instead supplemented with galactose and ornithine (hepatocyte selection medium; HSM). This is because the cells produce glucose and arginine by the action of galactokinase (GALK) and ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), respectively. It was expected that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells do not survive in HSM. In the current study, HCC cell lines (namely HLE, HLF, PLC/PRL/5, Hep3B and HepG2) and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in HSM, and the expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC were analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HLE, HLF and PLC/PRL/5 cells died on day 11, while Hep3B, HepG2 and HUVECs died on day 7. HLF cells were further analyzed as these cells had lower expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC compared with adult liver cells, and survived until day 11. In these cells, the expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC did not change on days 3 and 7 as compared to day 0. In addition, a co-culture of HLF cells with HUVECs was established and the medium was changed to HSM. It was observed that HLF cells and HUVECs in co-culture were damaged in HSM. In summary, HCC cells and HUVECs died in a medium without glucose and arginine that was supplemented with galactose and ornithine. HCC cells and HUVECs were damaged in HSM, suggesting a potential application for treatment with the medium.

  13. Anaerobic respiration sustains mitochondrial membrane potential in a prolyl hydroxylase pathway-activated cancer cell line in a hypoxic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiji; Sato, Michihiko

    2014-02-15

    To elucidate how tumor cells produce energy in oxygen-depleted microenvironments, we studied the possibility of mitochondrial electron transport without oxygen. We produced well-controlled oxygen gradients (ΔO2) in monolayer-cultured cells. We then visualized oxygen levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΦm) in individual cells by using the red shift of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence and a cationic fluorescent dye, respectively. In this two-dimensional tissue model, ΔΦm was abolished in cells >500 μm from the oxygen source [the anoxic front (AF)], indicating limitations in diffusional oxygen delivery. This result perfectly matched GFP-determined ΔO2. In cells pretreated with dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG), a prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD) inhibitor, the AF was expanded to 1,500-2,000 μm from the source. In these cells, tissue ΔO2 was substantially decreased, indicating that PHD pathway activation suppressed mitochondrial respiration. The expansion of the AF and the reduction of ΔO2 were much more prominent in a cancer cell line (Hep3B) than in the equivalent fibroblast-like cell line (COS-7). Hence, the results indicate that PHD pathway-activated cells can sustain ΔΦm, despite significantly decreased electron flux to complex IV. Complex II inhibition abolished the effect of DMOG in expanding the AF, although tissue ΔO2 remained shallow. Separate experiments demonstrated that complex II plays a substantial role in sustaining ΔΦm in DMOG-pretreated Hep3B cells with complex III inhibition. From these results, we conclude that PHD pathway activation can sustain ΔΦm in an otherwise anoxic microenvironment by decreasing tissue ΔO2 while activating oxygen-independent electron transport in mitochondria.

  14. Andrographolide inhibits hepatoma cells growth and affects the expression of cell cycle related proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai-Kai; Liu, Tian-Yu; Xu, Chong; Ji, Li-Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2009-09-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the toxic effects of andrographolide (Andro) on hepatoma cells and elucidate its preliminary mechanisms. After cells were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-50 micromol x L(-1)) for 24 h, cell viability was evaluated with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, after hepatoma cells (Hep3B and HepG2) were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-30 micromol x L(-1)) for 14 d, the number of colony formation was accounted under microscope. Cell cycle related proteins such as Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin B and Cyclin D1 were detected with Western blotting assay and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. MTT results showed that Andro induced growth inhibition of hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no significant effects on human normal liver L-02 cells. Andro dramatically decreased the colony formation of hepatoma cells in the concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, Andro induced a decrease of Hep3B cells at the G0-G1 phase and a concomitant accumulation of cells at G2-M phase. At the molecular level, Western blotting results showed that Andro decreased the expression of Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B proteins in a time-dependent manner, which are all cell cycle related proteins. Taken together, the results demonstrated that Andro specifically inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and cellular cell cycle related proteins were possibly involved in this process.

  15. SIN3A, Generally Regarded as a Transcriptional Repressor, Is Required for Induction of Gene Transcription by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Solaimani, Parrisa; Wang, Feng; Hankinson, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    CYP1A1 bioactivates several procarcinogens and detoxifies several xenobiotic compounds. Transcription of CYP1A1 is highly induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. We recently described an RNAi high throughput screening performed in the Hepa-1 mouse hepatoma cell line, which revealed that SIN3A is necessary for the induction of CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) enzymatic activity by TCDD. In the current studies, we sought to provide insight into the role of SIN3A in this process, particularly because studies on SIN3A have usually focused on its repressive activity on transcription. We report that ectopic expression of human SIN3A in Hepa-1 cells enhanced EROD induction by TCDD and efficiently rescued TCDD induction of EROD activity in cells treated with an siRNA to mouse SIN3A, thus validating a role for SIN3A in CYP1A1 induction. We demonstrate that SIN3A is required for TCDD induction of the CYP1A1 protein in Hepa-1 cells but not for expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor protein. In addition, siRNAs for SIN3A decreased TCDD-mediated induction of CYP1A1 mRNA and EROD activity in human hepatoma cell line Hep3B. We establish that TCDD treatment of Hepa-1 cells rapidly increases the degree of SIN3A binding to both the proximal promoter and enhancer of the Cyp1a1 gene and demonstrate that increased binding to the promoter also occurs in human Hep3B, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells. These studies establish that SIN3A physically interacts with the CYP1A1 gene and extends the transcriptional role of SIN3A to a gene that is very rapidly and dramatically induced. PMID:25305016

  16. Stanniocalcin-1 Reduces Tumor Size in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Bonnie H. Y.; Shek, Felix H.; Lee, Nikki P.; Wong, Chris K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence has revealed high expression levels of stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) in different types of human cancers. Numerous experimental studies using cancer cell lines demonstrated the involvement of STC1 in inflammatory and apoptotic processes; however the role of STC1 in carcinogenesis remains elusive. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) an exemplified model of inflammation-related cancer, represents a paradigm of studying the association between STC1 and tumor development. Therefore, we conducted a statistical analysis on the expression levels of STC1 using clinicopathological data from 216 HCC patients. We found that STC1 was upregulated in the tumor tissues and its expression levels was positively correlated with the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Intriguingly tumors with greater expression levels of STC1 (tumor/normal ≥ 2) were significantly smaller than the lower level (tumor/normal<2) samples (p = 0.008). A pharmacological approach was implemented to reveal the functional correlation between STC1 and the ILs in the HCC cell-lines. IL-6 and IL-8 treatment of Hep3B cells induced STC1 expression. Lentiviral-based STC1 overexpression in Hep3B and MHCC-97L cells however showed inhibitory action on the pro-migratory effects of IL-6 and IL-8 and reduced size of tumor spheroids. The inhibitory effect of STC1 on tumor growth was confirmed in vivo using the stable STC1-overexpressing 97L cells on a mouse xenograft model. Genetic analysis of the xenografts derived from the STC1-overexpressing 97L cells, showed upregulation of the pro-apoptotic genes interleukin-12 and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3. Collectively, the anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic functions of STC1 were suggested to relate its inhibitory effect on the growth of HCC cells. This study supports the notion that STC1 may be a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory tumors in HCC patients. PMID:26469082

  17. Cell death in a co-culture of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a medium lacking glucose and arginine

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Human primary hepatocytes are able to survive in a medium without glucose and arginine that is instead supplemented with galactose and ornithine (hepatocyte selection medium; HSM). This is because the cells produce glucose and arginine by the action of galactokinase (GALK) and ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), respectively. It was expected that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells do not survive in HSM. In the current study, HCC cell lines (namely HLE, HLF, PLC/PRL/5, Hep3B and HepG2) and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in HSM, and the expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC were analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HLE, HLF and PLC/PRL/5 cells died on day 11, while Hep3B, HepG2 and HUVECs died on day 7. HLF cells were further analyzed as these cells had lower expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC compared with adult liver cells, and survived until day 11. In these cells, the expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC did not change on days 3 and 7 as compared to day 0. In addition, a co-culture of HLF cells with HUVECs was established and the medium was changed to HSM. It was observed that HLF cells and HUVECs in co-culture were damaged in HSM. In summary, HCC cells and HUVECs died in a medium without glucose and arginine that was supplemented with galactose and ornithine. HCC cells and HUVECs were damaged in HSM, suggesting a potential application for treatment with the medium. PMID:28123551

  18. Op18/stathmin is involved in the resistance of taxol among different epithelial carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xuechi; Liao, Ying; Xie, Juan; Liu, Shuangling; Su, Lijun; Zou, Haijiao

    2014-11-01

    Taxol is an effective chemotherapeutic agent against epithelial-derived carcinomas, and resistance of carcinoma cells to taxol has developed with the wide prescription of the drug. In this study, five different epithelial carcinoma cell lines were randomly employed to screen the resistant cell line to taxol, and to explore the probable mechanism of taxol-resistant development. Cells were grouped into the controls and the taxol treated. The treatment effects of five different epithelial carcinoma cell lines, including CNE1, Hep3B-2, MGC, MCF-7, and NCI-H1299, after being treated by taxol were analyzed through inspecting the ratios of cellular apoptosis, inhibition of cellular proliferation, the capability of cell colony formation and wound recovery, and the interference of cell motility and invasion, while western blot analysis and siRNA targeting Op18/stathmin were applied to explore the probable mechanism on the taxol resistance difference in these cells. Nonsmall cell lung cancer NCI-H1299 cells presented obvious taxol resistance, and the inhibition of cell motility and invasion was also the weakest in taxol-treated NCI-H1299 cells among these five cell lines. Microtubule dynamics analysis demonstrated that taxol treatment destroyed normal microtubule arrays and caused obvious microtubule collapse in CNE1, Hep3B-2, MGC, and MCF-7 rather than NCI-H1299, while the latter expressed high levels of microtubule-destabilizing protein Op18/stathmin. Inhibition of Op18/stathmin expression increased the sensitivity to taxol and promoted cellular apoptosis in NCI-H1299 cells. NCI-H1299 cells are evidently resistant to taxol-induced cellular apoptosis, inhibition of cellular proliferation and wound recovery, as well as cell migration and invasion interference, which are closely associated with the changes of microtubule dynamics. High expression of Op18/stathmin is perhaps a crucial determinant of taxol-resistant development in NCI-H1299 cells.

  19. Antihepatoma and Liver Protective Potentials of Ganoderma Lucidum (靈芝 Ling Zhi) Fermented in a Medium Containing Black Soybean (黑豆 Hēi Dòu) and Astragalus Membranaceus (生黃耆 Shēng Huáng Qí)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zheng-Yuan; Sun Hwang, Lucy; Chiang, Been-Huang; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-01-01

    The antihepatoma activity and liver protective function of the fermentation products (5 L fermenator) of Ganoderma lucidum (GL; 靈芝 Ling Zhi) cultivated in a medium containing black soybean (BS; 黑豆 Hēi Dòu) and Astragalus membranaceus (AM; 生黃耆 Shēng Huáng Qí) at different fermentation temperatures were investigated in this study. Hep 3B cells pretreated with lovastatin were used to study the antihepatoma activity, and possible active components were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced primary rat hepatocyte injury was further used to evaluate the liver protective activity of the fermentation products. While all the GL broth filtrates do not inhibit the growth of Hep 3B cells, the ethanolic extract from GL-2 mycelia (GL-2-mE), cultivated in the medium containing BS (50 g/L) and AM (20 g/L) at 24°C for 11 days showed the best antihepatoma activity (IC50 26.6 μg/mL) than the other ethanolic extracts from GL mycelia, GL fruiting body, BS, and AM did. The antihepatoma activities were correlated with some unknown active components in these samples. Furthermore, GL-2-mE (100 μg/mL) without harmful effect on the growth of normal primary rat hepatocytes significantly maintained cell viability, reduced lactate dehydrogenase leakage, lowered lipid peroxidation, and increased glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the CCl4-induced damaged primary rat hepatocytes. PMID:24716165

  20. A base substitution in the promoter associated with the human haptoglobin 2-1 modified phenotype decreases transcriptional activity and responsiveness to interleukin-6 in human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.J.; Maeda, N. )

    1993-05-01

    An A-to-C base substitution at nucleotide position -61 in the promoter region of the human haptoglobin gene (Hp) has been shown to be strongly associated with the haptoglobin 2-1 modified (Hp2-1mod) phenotype. In order to investigate whether this base substitution is the cause of reduced expression of the Hp[sup 2] allele relative to the Hp[sup 1] allele in individuals with the Hp2-1mod phenotype, the authors used the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) expression system to evaluate promoter function. In HepG2 cells, which normally express their endogenous haptoglobin genes, CAT plasmid constructs with the -61C base change in the promoter had about 10-fold-lower transcriptional activity after transfection than did the Hp control construct. The -61C substitution also rendered the construct unresponsive to treatment by interleukin-6 after transfection into Hep3B2 cells, which normally do not express haptoglobin but do so in response to stimulation by acute-phase reactants. In addition, two base substitutions, T to A and A to G, at positions -104 and -55G, respectively, in the promoter region of the Hp[sup 1] allele, are also associated with the Hp2-1mod phenotype. CAT constructs with both substitutions (-104A-55G) and with one substitution (-55G) showed activity similar to that in the Hp control when transfected into both HepG2 and Hep3B2 cells, although interleukin-6 induction was less than with the Hp control construct. These results further support the hypothesis that the Hp2-1mod phenotype results, in part, from the -61C mutation in the promoter region of the Hp[sup 2] gene.

  1. Caspase mediated synergistic effect of Boswellia serrata extract in combination with doxorubicin against human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Singh, Mhaveer; Khan, Masood Shah; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the growth-inhibiting and apoptosis mediating effects of B. serrata extract as monotherapy and combination therapy with DOX against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Boswellic acid rich fraction of B. serrata extract was prepared. MTT assay on HepG2 and Hep3B cells was carried out using B. serrata alone and in combination with DOX. Further, caspase-3 activity, TNF-α level, and IL-6 level were estimated. Isobolographic analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of combination therapy. Additionally, protective effect of B. serrata extract on DOX induced hepatic toxicity was also evaluated in Wistar rats. B. serrata extract inhibited growth of HepG2 (IC50 value of 21.21 ± 0.92 μg/mL) as well as HepG2 (IC50 value of 18.65 ± 0.71 μg/mL). DOX inhibited growth in HepG2 and Hep3B cells with an IC50 of 1.06 ± 0.04 μg/mL and 1.92 ± 0.09 μg/mL. Isobolographic analysis showed combination index (CI) of DOX and B. serrata extract of 0.53 ± 0.03 to 0.79 ± 0.02 suggesting synergistic behavior against the two cell lines. B. serrata extract also caused dose dependent increase in caspase-3 activity, TNF-α level, and IL-6 level which was higher (P < 0.001) with DOX (1 μM) and B. serrata extract (20 μg/mL) combination. B. serrata extract also protected Wistar rats against DOX induced hepatic toxicity.

  2. Inhibition of apoptosis by oncogenic hepatitis B virus X protein: Implications for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chuck C K

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a cellular oncogene that is upregulated in a majority of HCC cases. We highlight here recent findings demonstrating a link between HBx, HURP and anti-apoptosis effects observed in cisplatin-treated HCC cells. We observed that Hep3B cells overexpressing HBx display increased HURP mRNA and protein levels, and show resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of HURP in HBx-expressing cells reverses this effect, and sensitizes cells to cisplatin. The anti-apoptotic effect of HBx requires activation of the p38/MAPK pathway as well as expression of SATB1, survivin and HURP. Furthermore, silencing of HURP using short-hairpin RNA promotes accumulation of p53 and reduces cell proliferation in SK-Hep-1 cells (p53+/–), whereas these effects are not observed in p53-mutant Mahlavu cells. Similarly, HURP silencing does not affect the proliferation of H1299 lung carcinoma cells or Hep3B HCC cells which lack p53. Silencing of HURP sensitizes SK-Hep-1 cells to cisplatin. While HURP overexpression promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome, HURP silencing reverses these effects. Inoculation of SK-Hep-1 cancer cells in which HURP has been silenced produces smaller tumors than control in nude mice. Besides, gankyrin, a positive regulator of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, is upregulated following HURP expression, and silencing of gankyrin reduces HURP-mediated downregulation of p53. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between HURP and gankyrin protein levels in HCC patients (r2 = 0.778; n = 9). These findings suggest a role for the viral protein HBx and the host protein HURP in preventing p53-mediated apoptosis during cancer progression and establishment of chemoresistance. PMID:27660672

  3. Caspase Mediated Synergistic Effect of Boswellia serrata Extract in Combination with Doxorubicin against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Singh, Mhaveer; Khan, Masood Shah; Najmi, Abul Kalam

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the growth-inhibiting and apoptosis mediating effects of B. serrata extract as monotherapy and combination therapy with DOX against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Boswellic acid rich fraction of B. serrata extract was prepared. MTT assay on HepG2 and Hep3B cells was carried out using B. serrata alone and in combination with DOX. Further, caspase-3 activity, TNF-α level, and IL-6 level were estimated. Isobolographic analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of combination therapy. Additionally, protective effect of B. serrata extract on DOX induced hepatic toxicity was also evaluated in Wistar rats. B. serrata extract inhibited growth of HepG2 (IC50 value of 21.21 ± 0.92 μg/mL) as well as HepG2 (IC50 value of 18.65 ± 0.71 μg/mL). DOX inhibited growth in HepG2 and Hep3B cells with an IC50 of 1.06 ± 0.04 μg/mL and 1.92 ± 0.09 μg/mL. Isobolographic analysis showed combination index (CI) of DOX and B. serrata extract of 0.53 ± 0.03 to 0.79 ± 0.02 suggesting synergistic behavior against the two cell lines. B. serrata extract also caused dose dependent increase in caspase-3 activity, TNF-α level, and IL-6 level which was higher (P < 0.001) with DOX (1 μM) and B. serrata extract (20 μg/mL) combination. B. serrata extract also protected Wistar rats against DOX induced hepatic toxicity. PMID:25177685

  4. Interconnections between autophagy and the coagulation cascade in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, K-D; Wang, C-C; Tsai, M-C; Wu, C-H; Yang, H-J; Chen, L-Y; Nakano, T; Goto, S; Huang, K-T; Hu, T-H; Chen, C-L; Lin, C-C

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy has an important role in tumor biology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies demonstrated that tissue factor (TF) combined with coagulation factor VII (FVII) has a pathological role by activating a G-protein-coupled receptor called protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) for tumor growth. The present study aimed to investigate the interactions of autophagy and the coagulation cascade in HCC. Seventy HCC patients who underwent curative liver resection were recruited. Immunohistochemical staining and western blotting were performed to determine TF, FVII, PAR2 and light chain 3 (LC3A/B) expressions in tumors and their contiguous normal regions. We found that the levels of autophagic marker LC3A/B-II and coagulation proteins (TF, FVII and PAR2) were inversely correlated in human HCC tissues. Treatments with TF, FVII or PAR2 agonist downregulated LC3A/B-II with an increased level of mTOR in Hep3B cells; in contrast, knockdown of TF, FVII or PAR2 increased LC3A/B. Furthermore, mTOR silencing restored the impaired expression of LC3A/B-II in TF-, FVII- or PAR2-treated Hep3B cells and activated autophagy. Last, as an in vivo correlate, we administered TF, FVII or PAR2 agonist in a NOD/severe combined immunodeficiency xenograft model and showed decreased LC3A/B protein levels in HepG2 tumors with treatments. Overall, our present study demonstrated that TF, FVII and PAR2 regulated autophagy mainly via mTOR signaling. The interaction of coagulation and autophagic pathways may provide potential targets for further therapeutic application in HCC. PMID:24853422

  5. SIN3A, generally regarded as a transcriptional repressor, is required for induction of gene transcription by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Solaimani, Parrisa; Wang, Feng; Hankinson, Oliver

    2014-11-28

    CYP1A1 bioactivates several procarcinogens and detoxifies several xenobiotic compounds. Transcription of CYP1A1 is highly induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. We recently described an RNAi high throughput screening performed in the Hepa-1 mouse hepatoma cell line, which revealed that SIN3A is necessary for the induction of CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) enzymatic activity by TCDD. In the current studies, we sought to provide insight into the role of SIN3A in this process, particularly because studies on SIN3A have usually focused on its repressive activity on transcription. We report that ectopic expression of human SIN3A in Hepa-1 cells enhanced EROD induction by TCDD and efficiently rescued TCDD induction of EROD activity in cells treated with an siRNA to mouse SIN3A, thus validating a role for SIN3A in CYP1A1 induction. We demonstrate that SIN3A is required for TCDD induction of the CYP1A1 protein in Hepa-1 cells but not for expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor protein. In addition, siRNAs for SIN3A decreased TCDD-mediated induction of CYP1A1 mRNA and EROD activity in human hepatoma cell line Hep3B. We establish that TCDD treatment of Hepa-1 cells rapidly increases the degree of SIN3A binding to both the proximal promoter and enhancer of the Cyp1a1 gene and demonstrate that increased binding to the promoter also occurs in human Hep3B, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells. These studies establish that SIN3A physically interacts with the CYP1A1 gene and extends the transcriptional role of SIN3A to a gene that is very rapidly and dramatically induced.

  6. The pan-deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat suppresses the expression of oncogenic miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Henrici, Alexander; Montalbano, Roberta; Neureiter, Daniel; Krause, Michael; Stiewe, Thorsten; Slater, Emily Prentice; Quint, Karl; Ocker, Matthias; Di Fazio, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    Deacetylase inhibitors (DACi) are a new class of drugs with a broad spectrum of mechanisms that favor their application in cancer therapy. Currently, the exact mechanisms and cellular effects of DACi have not been fully elucidated. In addition to their effects on histone acetylation, DACi can interfere with gene expression via miRNA pathways. Treatment with panobinostat (LBH589), a novel potent DACi, led to the highly aberrant modulation of several miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines as shown by miRNA array analysis. Among them, hsa-miR-19a, hsa-miR-19b1 and the corresponding precursors were down-regulated by panobinostat in TP53(-/-) Hep3B and TP53(+/+) HepG2 cell lines; hsa-miR30a-5p mature form only was suppressed in both HCC cell lines, as confirmed by further RT-qPCR analysis. In HCC cell lines, panobinostat caused the upregulation of the predicted miRNA targets APAF1 and Beclin1 protein levels. Transfection with oligonucleotides mimicking these miRNAs led to an increase in the viability rate of both cell lines as analyzed by impedance-based real-time cell analysis. In addition, transfecting miRNA mimicking oligonucleotides resulted in the decrease of APAF1, Beclin1 and PAK6 at the protein level, proving the regulating influence of the investigated miRNAs on gene final products. The overexpression of the above mentioned oncomiRs in Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines leads to cell proliferation and downregulation of cell death associated proteins. In our model, panobinostat exerts its anti-cancer effect by suppressing these miRNAs and restoring the expression of their corresponding tumor suppressor targets. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of Ottoman Viper (Montivipera xanthina (Gray, 1849)) Venom on Various Cancer Cells and on Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Yalcın, Husniye Tansel; Ozen, Mehmet Ozgün; Gocmen, Bayram; Nalbantsoy, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of Montivipera xanthina venom against LNCaP, MCF-7, HT-29, Saos-2, Hep3B, Vero cells and antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial and fungal species: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, E. coli O157H7, Enterococcus faecalis 29212, Enterococcus faecium DSM 13590, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, S. typhimirium CCM 5445, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6957 and Candida albicans ATCC 10239 were studied for evaluating the potential medical benefit of this snake venom. Cytotoxicity of venom was determined using MTT assay. Snake venom cytotoxicity was expressed as the venom dose that killed 50 % of the cells (IC50). The antimicrobial activity of venom was studied by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc diffusion assay. MIC was determined using broth dilution method. The estimated IC50 values of venom varied from 3.8 to 12.7 or from 1.9 to 7.2 μg/ml after treatment with crude venom for 24 or 48 h for LNCaP, MCF-7, HT-29 and Saos-2 cells. There was no observable cytotoxic effect on Hep3B and Vero cells. Venom exhibited the most potent activity against C. albicans (MIC, 7.8 μg/ml and minimal fungicidal concentration, 62.5 μg/ml) and S. aureus (MIC, 31.25 μg/ml). This study is the first report showing the potential of M. xanthina venom as an alternative therapeutic approach due to its cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects.

  8. Mitochondrial (dys)function – a factor underlying the variability of efavirenz-induced hepatotoxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Polo, M; Alegre, F; Funes, H A; Blas-Garcia, A; Victor, V M; Esplugues, J V; Apostolova, N

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz is associated with hepatic toxicity and metabolic disturbances. Although the mechanisms involved are not clear, recent evidence has pinpointed a specific mitochondrial action of efavirenz accompanied by the induction of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response in human hepatic cells. The aim of this study was to further investigate the involvement of this organelle by evaluating efavirenz's effects in cells lacking functional mitochondria (rho°) and comparing them with those of the typical mitotoxic agent rotenone, a standard complex I inhibitor, and the ER stress inducer thapsigargin. Experimental Approach Hep3B rho+ and rho° cells were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of efavirenz, then mitochondrial function and cytotoxicity were studied using standard cell biology techniques. Key Results Efavirenz-treated rho° cells exhibited a substantial reduction in parameters indicative of mitochondrial interference, such as increased superoxide production, mitochondrial mass/morphology alterations and enhanced expression of LONP, a highly conserved mitochondrial protease. In line with these results, the cytotoxic effect (cell number, chromatin condensation, cell cycle alterations and induction of apoptosis) of efavirenz was less pronounced in Hep3B respiration-depleted cells than in wild-type cells. The effect of efavirenz was both similar and different from those of two distinct mitochondrial stressors, thapsigargin and rotenone. Conclusions and Implications Cells lacking normal mitochondria (rho°) are less vulnerable to efavirenz. Our results provide further evidence that the hepatic damage induced by efavirenz involves acute interference with mitochondria and extend our knowledge of the response of mitochondria/ER to a stress stimulus. PMID:25411110

  9. Down-regulation of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split protein 4 in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes cell proliferation and epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiao-cai; Xiao, Cui-cui; Li, Hua; Tai, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Yang

    2016-08-19

    Background: Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split protein 4 (TLE4) has been reported to be involved in some subsets of acute myeloid leukemia and colorectal cancer. In the present study, we aimed to explore the role of TLE4 in tumorigenesis and cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The expression pattern of TLE4 in HCC was determined by Western-blot and qRT-PCR, gain-of-function and loss-of-function was used to explore the biological role of TLE4 in HCC cells. A xenograft model was established to confirm its effects on proliferation. Results: The protein expression levels of TLE4 were significantly down-regulated in HCC tissues compared to matched adjacent normal liver tissues. In vitro, down-regulation of TLE4 in Huh7 or SMMC-7721 promoted cell proliferation and ectopical expression of TLE4 in Hep3B or Bel-7404 suppressed cell proliferation. In addition, the cell colony formation ability was enhanced after down-regulation of TLE4 expression in Huh-7 but suppressed after over-expression in Hep3B. Furthermore, down-regulation of TLE4 increased the cell invasion ability, as well as increased the expression level of Vimentin and decreased that of E-cadherin, indicating a phenotype of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC cells. On the contrary, ectopical expression of TLE4 in HCC cells decreased the cell invasion ability and inhibited EMT. In vivo, compared to control group, xenograft tumor volumes were significantly decreased in TLE4 overexpression group. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that TLE4 might play important regulatory roles in cellular proliferation and EMT process in HCC. - Highlights: • TLE4 is significantly down-regulated in HCC samples. • Down regulated of TLE4 in HCC cells promotes cell proliferation. • Down regulated of TLE4 in HCC cells promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  10. miR-613 inhibits the growth and invasiveness of human hepatocellular carcinoma via targeting DCLK1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenyao Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Lichao; Zhang, Shaojun; Tang, Miao

    2016-05-13

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play key regulatory roles in various biological processes. In this study, we aimed to determine the expression and biological roles of miR-613 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Compared with non-cancerous liver tissues, miR-613 was significantly downregulated in HCC tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-613 significantly suppressed the proliferation and invasion of Hep3B and SMMC-7721 HCC cells. Bioinformatic and luciferase reporter analysis identified doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) as a direct target of miR-613. Overexpression of miR-613 inhibited the expression of DCLK1 in HCC cells. There was a significant inverse correlation between miR-613 and DCLK1 protein expression in HCC samples. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of DCLK1 phenocopied the suppressive effects of miR-613 in HCC cells. Rescue experiments demonstrated that co-transfection of DCLK1 lacking the 3′-untranslated region partially prevented miR-613-induced suppression of HCC cell proliferation and invasion. In vivo studies confirmed that miR-613 overexpression retarded the growth of Hep3B xenograft tumors in nude mice, coupled with a reduction in the percentage of Ki67-positive tumor cells and DCLK1 protein expression. In conclusion, we provide first evidence for the suppressive activity of miR-613 in HCC, which is causally linked to targeting of DCLK1. Restoration of miR-613 may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC. - Highlights: • miR-613 inhibits the aggressive phenotypes of HCC cells. • DCLK1 is a direct target of miR-613 in HCC. • miR-613 impairs HCC tumorigenesis in vivo.

  11. AP-2α inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth and migration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhuan; Chen, Cheng; Liang, Zhongheng; Qiu, Junlu; Li, Xinxin; Hu, Xiang; Xiang, Shuanglin; Ding, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Transcription factor AP-2α is involved in many types of human cancers, but its role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that expression of AP-2α was low in 40% of human hepatocellular cancers compared with adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, AP-2α expression was low or absent in hepatocellular cancer cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, SMMC-7721 and MHHC 97-H). Human liver cancer cell lines SMMC-7721 and Hep3B stably overexpressing AP-2α were established by lentiviral infection and puromycin screening, and the ectopic expression of AP-2α was able to inhibit hepatocellular cancer cell growth and proliferation by cell viability, MTT assay and liquid colony formation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, AP-2α overexpression decreased liver cancer cell migration and invasion as assessed by wound healing and Transwell assays, increasing the sensitivity of liver cancer cells to cisplatin analyzed by MTT assays. Also AP-2α overexpression suppressed the sphere formation and renewed the ability of cancer stem cells. Finally, we found that AP-2α is epigenetically modified and modulates the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), β-catenin, p53, EMT, and CD133 expression in liver cancer cell lines. These results suggested that AP-2α expression is low in human hepatocellular cancers by regulating multiple signaling to affect hepatocellular cancer cell growth and migration. Therefore, AP-2α might represent a novel potential target in human hepatocellular cancer therapy.

  12. HCA519/TPX2: a potential T-cell tumor-associated antigen for human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aref, Ahmed M; Hoa, Neil T; Ge, Lisheng; Agrawal, Anshu; Dacosta-Iyer, Maria; Lambrecht, Nils; Ouyang, Yi; Cornforth, Andrew N; Jadus, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy for human hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is slowly making progress towards treating these fatal cancers. The identification of new antigens can improve this approach. We describe a possible new antigen, hepatocellular carcinoma‐associated antigen‐519/targeting protein for Xklp‐2 (HCA519/TPX2), for HCC that might be beneficial for T‐cell specific HCC immunotherapy. Methods HCC was studied for the expression for 15 tumor‐associated antigens considered useful for immunotherapy within three HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, and PLC/PRF/5), lymphocytes, non‐cancerous livers, and clinical HCC. The expression of tumor antigenic precursor proteins (TAPPs) messenger RNA was first screened by reverse transcriptase quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction. Results Four antigens (alpha fetoprotein, aspartyl/asparaginyl β­hydroxylase, glypican­3 and HCA519/TPX2) proved to be the best expressed TAPPs within the HCC specimens by molecular analyses. HCA519/TPX2 was detected by intracellular cell flow cytometry within HCC cell lines by using a specific antibody towards this TAPP. This antibody also detected the protein within primary HCCs. We synthesized two HCA519/TPX2 peptides (HCA519464–472 and HCA519351–359) which can bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)‐A*0201. Dendritic cells pulsed with these peptides stimulated cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs). These killer T‐cells lysed HLA‐A*0201+ T2 cells exogenously loaded with the correct specific peptide. The CTLs killed HepG2 (HLA‐A2+ and HCA519+), but not the Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines, which are HCA519+ but HLA‐A2‐negative. In silico analysis reveals that HCA519/TPX2 has the inherent ability to bind to a very wide variety of HLA antigens. Conclusion HCA519/TPX2 is a viable immunotarget that should be further investigated within HCC patients. PMID:24966688

  13. Mechanism of PAP I gene induction during hepatocarcinogenesis: clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Dusetti, N. J.; Montalto, G.; Ortiz, E. M.; Masciotra, L.; Dagorn, J. C.; Iovanna, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Pancreatitis-associated protein I (PAP I) is a secretory protein first described as an acute phase reactant during acute pancreatitis. Recently, induction of the PAP I gene was also described in liver during hepatocarcinogenesis. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of this induction, we used constructs carrying progressive deletions of the PAP I promoter fused to the CAT gene. We showed that the silencer conferring tissue specificity on the PAP I gene was inactive in hepatoma cells. Then, in an vitro transcription system, we compared the transcription capacity of nuclear extracts from normal liver and HepG2 cells on constructs containing the silencer. The results confirmed that a trans-acting factor interacting with the PAP I silencer was present in liver cells and absent from hepatoma cells. On the other hand, immunohistochemistry showed that PAP I was expressed in a limited number of transformed hepatocytes. It was concluded that expression of PAP I in hepatocarcinoma occurred through inactivation of its silencer element and was not concomitant in all malignant cells. On that basis, we assayed PAP I in serum from patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis or hepatocarcinoma. PAP I levels were normal in chronic active or persistent hepatitis, significantly higher in cirrhosis and strongly elevated in hepatocarcinoma. Because those clinical entities often develop in that sequence, serum PAP I appeared as a potential marker of hepatocarcinoma development. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8956791

  14. New terpenes from the Egyptian soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi.

    PubMed

    Elkhateeb, Ahmed; El-Beih, Ahmed A; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Alhammady, Montaser A; Ohta, Shinji; Paré, Paul W; Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F

    2014-04-02

    Chemical investigations of the Egyptian soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi have led to the isolation of compounds 1-3 as well as the previously reported marine cembranoid diterpene sarcophine (4). Structures were elucidated by comprehensive NMR and HRMS experimentation. Isolated compounds were in vitro assayed for cytotoxic activity against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines.

  15. Inhibitory effect of recombinant adenovirus carrying immunocaspase-3 on hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaohua; Fan, Rui; Zou, Xue; Gao, Lin; Jin, Haifeng; Du, Rui; Xia, Lin; Fan, Daiming . E-mail: fandaim@yahoo.com.cn

    2007-06-29

    Previously, Srinivasula devised a contiguous molecule (C-cp-3 or immunocaspase-3) containing the small and large subunits similar to that in the active form of caspas-3 and found C-cp-3 had similar cleavage activity to the active form of caspase-3. To search for a new clinical application of C-cp-3 to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, recombinant adenoviruses carrying the C-cp-3 and a-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter (Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3) were constructed through a bacterial homologous recombinant system. The efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and the inhibitory effect of Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 on the proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells were determined by X-gal stain and MTT assay, respectively. The tumorigenicity of hepatocarcinoma cells transfected by Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 and the antitumor effect of Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 on transplanted tumor in nude mice were detected in vivo. The results suggested that Ad-rAFP-C-cp-3 can inhibit specifically proliferation of AFP-producing human hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo and adenovirus-mediated C-cp-3 transfer could be used as a new method to treat human hepatocarcinoma.

  16. In vitro antitumor efficacy of berberine: solid lipid nanoparticles against human HepG2, Huh7 and EC9706 cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Huai-ling; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma and esophageal carcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Ber-SLN) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects of Ber-SLN relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-SLN were 154.3 ± 4.1 nm and -11.7 ± 1.8 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Ber-SLN effectively inhibited the proliferation of human HepG2 and Huh7 and EC9706 cells, and the corresponding IC50 value was 10.6 μg/ml, 5.1 μg/ml, and 7.3 μg/ml (18.3μg/ml, 6.5μg/ml, and 12.4μg/ml μg/ml of bulk Ber solution), respectively. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber-SLN is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  17. In vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of berberine-nanostructured lipid carriers against H22 tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-ping; Wu, Jun-biao; Chen, Tong-sheng; Zhou, Qun; Wang, Yi-fei

    2015-03-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Ber-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. Both in vitro and in vivo anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Ber-NLC relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NLC were 189.3 nm and -19.3 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Ber-NLC effectively inhibited the proliferation of H22 cells, and the corresponding IC50 values were 6.3 μg/ml (22.1 μg/ml of bulk Ber). In vivo studies also showed higher antitumor efficacy, and inhibition rates was 68.3 % (41.4 % of bulk Ber) at 100 mg/kg intragastric administration in the H22 solid tumor bearing mice. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber-NLC is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  18. Differential genomic effects of six different TiO2 nanomaterials on human liver HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanoparticles are reported to cause liver toxicity in vivo. To better assess the mechanism of the in vivo liver toxicity, we used the human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) as a model system. Human HepG2 cells were exposed to 6 TiO2 nanomaterials (with dry primary partic...

  19. Peritoneal Dissemination of Hepatoid Carcinoma of the Ovary Treated with Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraoperative Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cascales Campos, Pedro Antonio; Gil Martinez, Jose; Torroba, Amparo; Machado, Francisco; Parrila Paricio, Pascual

    2013-01-01

    Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary (HCO) was first reported in 1987 in 5 cases of malignant ovarian tumors which were similar to hepatocarcinoma in the histological analysis. We report the first case in the literature of a patient diagnosed with HCO treated using HIPEC after extensive cytoreductive surgery, and we discuss the value of this therapeutical option in patients with HCO. PMID:23840218

  20. The Role of Stat3 Activation During Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    transition and its implications for fibrosis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2003. 112(12): p. 1776- 84. 25. Bloomston, M., E.E. Zervos , and A.S...Mendes, Heidi Martini-Stoica1 George Stoica. Caveolin-1 upregulates glycosylation of CD147 on murine Hepatocarcinoma cell, Matrix Metalloproteinase-11

  1. Lower concentrations of blueberry polyphenolic-rich extract differentially alter HepG2 cell proliferation and expression of genes related to cell-cycle, oxidation and epigenetic machinery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In vitro cancer models have been used to study the effect of relatively high concentrations (>200 ug/ml) of phenolic plant extracts upon cell proliferation. In this study we report that the treatment of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells with lower concentrations of blueberry phenolic extract (6.5-10...

  2. Predictive Relationship between Humane Values of Adolescents Cyberbullying and Cyberbullying Sensibility (Relaciones predictivas entre los valores humanos de los adolescentes, el acoso cibernético y la sensibilidad al acoso cibernético)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilmac, Bülent; Yurt, Eyüp; Aydin, Mustafa; Kasarci, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cyberbullying has been more common than the traditional bullying in recent years. As with the traditional bullying, humane values likely to explain the reason why adolescents tend to bully via cyber-means. Cyber-bullying behaviors also reasoned by adolescents' sensibility towards it. This study investigates the predictive…

  3. Programa Estrategico do desenvolvimento 1968-70: Area Estrategica IX. Infra-estructura Social. Educacao e Recursos Humanos, 1 e 2 (Strategic Development Program 1968-1970: Strategic Area IX. Education and Human Resources, Volumes 1 & 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazil.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a two volume work dealing with education and human resources as part of the Brazilian Government's Strategic Development Program 1968-70. It offers an integral view of education as an instrument of social transformation and an exposition of the quantitative and…

  4. Programa Estrategico do desenvolvimento 1968-70: Area Estrategica IX. Infra-estructura Social. Educacao e Recursos Humanos, 1 e 2 (Strategic Development Program 1968-1970: Strategic Area IX. Education and Human Resources, Volumes 1 & 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazil.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a two volume work dealing with education and human resources as part of the Brazilian Government's Strategic Development Program 1968-70. It offers an integral view of education as an instrument of social transformation and an exposition of the quantitative and…

  5. Predictive Relationship between Humane Values of Adolescents Cyberbullying and Cyberbullying Sensibility (Relaciones predictivas entre los valores humanos de los adolescentes, el acoso cibernético y la sensibilidad al acoso cibernético)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilmac, Bülent; Yurt, Eyüp; Aydin, Mustafa; Kasarci, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cyberbullying has been more common than the traditional bullying in recent years. As with the traditional bullying, humane values likely to explain the reason why adolescents tend to bully via cyber-means. Cyber-bullying behaviors also reasoned by adolescents' sensibility towards it. This study investigates the predictive…

  6. A cell-penetrating peptide suppresses the hypoxia inducible factor-1 function by binding to the helix-loop-helix domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Thompson, John D; Chan, William K

    2013-04-25

    The heterodimeric hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) complex is composed of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). Activation of the HIF-1 function is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. We previously showed that transfection of a plasmid containing an ARNT-interacting peptide (Ainp1) cDNA suppresses the HIF-1 signaling in Hep3B cells. Here we generated TAT fusion of the Ainp1 peptide (6His-TAT-Ainp1) to determine whether and how the Ainp1 peptide suppresses the HIF-1 function. The bacterially expressed 6His-TAT-Ainp1 was purified under denatured condition and then refolded by limited dialysis. The refolded 6His-TAT-Ainp1 interacts with the helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain of ARNT in a similar fashion as the native 6His-Ainp1. 6His-TAT-Ainp1 colocalizes with ARNT in the nucleus of HeLa and Hep3B cells after protein transduction. The transduced protein reaches the maximum intracellular levels within 2 h while remains detectable up to 96 h in HeLa cells. At 2 μM concentration, 6His-TAT-Ainp1 is not cytotoxic in HeLa cells but suppresses the cobalt chloride-activated, hypoxia responsive enhancer-driven luciferase expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it decreases the cobalt chloride-dependent induction of the HIF-1 target genes at both the message (vascular endothelial growth factor and aldolase C) and protein (carbonic anhydrase IX and glucose transporter 1) levels. The protein levels of HIF-1α and ARNT are not altered in the presence of 6His-TAT-Ainp1. In summary, we provided evidence to support that the Ainp1 peptide directly suppresses the HIF-1 function by interacting with the ARNT HLH domain, and in turn interfering with the heterodimerization of HIF-1α and ARNT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative analysis of TGF-β/Smad signaling dependent cytostasis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dzieran, Johanna; Fabian, Jasmin; Feng, Teng; Coulouarn, Cédric; Ilkavets, Iryna; Kyselova, Anastasia; Breuhahn, Kai; Dooley, Steven; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major public health problem due to increased incidence, late diagnosis and limited treatment options. TGF-β is known to provide cytostatic signals during early stages of liver damage and regeneration, but exerts tumor promoting effects in onset and progression of liver cancer. To understand the mechanistic background of such a switch, we systematically correlated loss of cytostatic TGF-β effects with strength and dynamics of its downstream signaling in 10 HCC cell lines. We demonstrate that TGF-β inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in cell lines with low endogenous levels of TGF-β and Smad7 and strong transcriptional Smad3 activity (PLC/PRF/5, HepG2, Hep3B, HuH7), previously characterized to express early TGF-β signatures correlated with better outcome in HCC patients. TGF-β dependent cytostasis is blunted in another group of cell lines (HLE, HLF, FLC-4) expressing high amounts of TGF-β and Smad7 and showing significantly reduced Smad3 signaling. Of those, HLE and HLF exhibit late TGF-β signatures, which is associated with bad prognosis in HCC patients. RNAi with Smad3 blunted cytostatic effects in PLC/PRF/5, Hep3B and HuH7. HCC-M and HCC-T represent a third group of cell lines lacking cytostatic TGF-β signaling despite strong and prolonged Smad3 phosphorylation and low Smad7 and TGF-β expression. Inhibitory linker phosphorylation, as in HCC-T, may disrupt C-terminally phosphorylated Smad3 function. In summary, we assort 10 HCC cell lines in at least two clusters with respect to TGF-β sensitivity. Cell lines responsive to the TGF-β cytostatic program, which recapitulate early stage of liver carcinogenesis exhibit transcriptional Smad3 activity. Those with disturbed TGF-β/Smad3 signaling are insensitive to TGF-β dependent cytostasis and might represent late stage of the disease. Regulation of this switch remains complex and cell line specific. These features may be relevant to discriminate stage dependent

  8. Methyl antcinate A from Antrodia camphorata induces apoptosis in human liver cancer cells through oxidant-mediated cofilin- and Bax-triggered mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Wu, Chun-Chi; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2010-07-19

    We investigated the effects of antcin A, antcin C, and methyl antcinate A (MAA) isolated from Antrodia camphorata on the proliferation of human liver cancer cell lines Huh7, HepG2, and Hep3B and the normal cell rat hepatocytes. The three compounds selectively inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells rather than normal cells, with IC(50) values ranging from 30.2 to 286.4 microM. The compound MAA was a more potent cytotoxic agent than antcins A and C with IC(50) values of 52.2, 78.0, and 30.2 microM against HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells, respectively. To elucidate the molecular mechanism, treatment of Huh7 cells with 100 microM MAA induced an apoptotic cell death, which was characterized by the appearance of sub-G1 population, DNA fragmentation, TUNEL positive cells, and caspase activation. MAA triggered the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as indicated by an increase in the protein expression of Bax, Bak, and PUMA, as well as a decrease in Bcl-(XL) and Bcl-2 and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and promotion of mitochondrial cytochrome c release, as well as activation of caspases-2, -3, and -9. We also found that pretreatment with inhibitors of caspases-2, -3, and -9 noticeably blocked MAA-triggered apoptosis. Furthermore, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase activation were observed in MAA-stimulated Huh7 cells. Mechanistic studies showed that MAA induces mitochondrial translocation of cofilin. When Huh7 cells were treated with cyclosporine A and bongkrekic acid, an inhibitor of the mitochondria permeability transition pore, the levels of cell death induced by MAA were significantly attenuated. Additionally, pretreatment of Huh7 cells with antioxidants ascorbic acid and N-acetyl cysteine markedly attenuated the MAA-induced apoptosis by upregulation of Bax, Bak, and PUMA, mitochondrial translocation of cofilin, activation of caspase-3, and cell death. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence of the

  9. Dig1 protects against cell death provoked by glyphosate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Worldwide used pesticides containing different adjuvants like Roundup formulations, which are glyphosate-based herbicides, can provoke some in vivo toxicity and in human cells. These pesticides are commonly found in the environment, surface waters and as food residues of Roundup tolerant genetically modified plants. In order to know their effects on cells from liver, a major detoxification organ, we have studied their mechanism of action and possible protection by precise medicinal plant extracts called Dig1. Methods The cytotoxicity pathways of four formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides were studied using human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, known models to study xenobiotic effects. We monitored mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and caspases 3/7 for cell mortality and protection by Dig1, as well as cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 3A4 and 2C9 and glutathione-S-transferase to approach the mechanism of actions. Results All the four Roundup formulations provoke liver cell death, with adjuvants having stronger effects than glyphosate alone. Hep3B are 3-5 times more sensitive over 48 h. Caspases 3/7 are greatly activated in HepG2 by Roundup at non-cytotoxic levels, and some apoptosis induction by Roundup is possible together with necrosis. CYP3A4 is specifically enhanced by Roundup at doses 400 times less than used in agriculture (2%). CYP1A2 is increased to a lesser extent together with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) down-regulation. Dig 1, non cytotoxic and not inducing caspases by itself, is able to prevent Roundup-induced cell death in a time-dependant manner with an important efficiency of up to 89%, within 48 h. In addition, we evidenced that it prevents Caspases 3/7 activation and CYP3A4 enhancement, and not GST reduction, but in turn it slightly inhibited CYP2C9 when added before Roundup. Conclusion Roundup is able to provoke intracellular disruption in hepatic cell lines at different levels, but a mixture of medicinal plant

  10. Let-7a enhances the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to cetuximab by regulating STAT3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fei; Liu, Yanhui; Zhang, Hongwei; Wen, Yu; Yan, Lei; Tang, Qiang; Xiao, Erhui; Zhang, Dongyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Let-7 miRNAs are reported to play an inhibitory role in carcinogenesis, tumor progression, recurrence, and pluripotency of cancer. However, few studies have reported the relationship between let-7 and drug sensitivity, especially for let-7a (a subtype of let-7). This study aimed to investigate the function of let-7a in regulating the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines to cetuximab. Methods The cytotoxicity of cetuximab on HCC cell lines (Huh7, Hep3B, HepG2, SNU449, and SNU387) was evaluated using a cell viability assay (the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay) and a cell proliferation assay (the Click-iT EdU Imaging Kit) in the presence of a control, a let-7a mimic, and a let-7a inhibitor. Small interfering RNA to knockdown the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were employed. Protein and mRNA expression levels were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Results It was found that let-7a enhances the sensitivity of HCC cells with an epithelial phenotype (Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2) to cetuximab, but has no effect on cells with the mesenchymal phenotype (SNU449 and SNU387). It was determined that STAT3 was a target mRNA of let-7a using TargetScan. Expression of STAT3 and let-7a mRNA were negatively correlated in HCC cell lines. Moreover, let-7a altered the protein and mRNA expression of STAT3. Furthermore, STAT3 knockdown enhanced the function of cetuximab on HCC cell lines with epithelial phenotypes, but not on HCC cell lines with mesenchymal phenotypes. Finally, a rescue experiment confirmed that let-7a affected the sensitivity of HCC cell lines to cetuximab by interacting with STAT3. Conclusions There is a functional link between let-7a and STAT3 in enhancing the sensitivity of HCC cells with an epithelial phenotype to cetuximab. Our results provide novel insight into new methodologies for combating HCC drug resistance. PMID:27932893

  11. Comparative Analysis of TGF-β/Smad Signaling Dependent Cytostasis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dzieran, Johanna; Fabian, Jasmin; Feng, Teng; Coulouarn, Cédric; Ilkavets, Iryna; Kyselova, Anastasia; Breuhahn, Kai; Dooley, Steven; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major public health problem due to increased incidence, late diagnosis and limited treatment options. TGF-β is known to provide cytostatic signals during early stages of liver damage and regeneration, but exerts tumor promoting effects in onset and progression of liver cancer. To understand the mechanistic background of such a switch, we systematically correlated loss of cytostatic TGF-β effects with strength and dynamics of its downstream signaling in 10 HCC cell lines. We demonstrate that TGF-β inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in cell lines with low endogenous levels of TGF-β and Smad7 and strong transcriptional Smad3 activity (PLC/PRF/5, HepG2, Hep3B, HuH7), previously characterized to express early TGF-β signatures correlated with better outcome in HCC patients. TGF-β dependent cytostasis is blunted in another group of cell lines (HLE, HLF, FLC-4) expressing high amounts of TGF-β and Smad7 and showing significantly reduced Smad3 signaling. Of those, HLE and HLF exhibit late TGF-β signatures, which is associated with bad prognosis in HCC patients. RNAi with Smad3 blunted cytostatic effects in PLC/PRF/5, Hep3B and HuH7. HCC-M and HCC-T represent a third group of cell lines lacking cytostatic TGF-β signaling despite strong and prolonged Smad3 phosphorylation and low Smad7 and TGF-β expression. Inhibitory linker phosphorylation, as in HCC-T, may disrupt C-terminally phosphorylated Smad3 function. In summary, we assort 10 HCC cell lines in at least two clusters with respect to TGF-β sensitivity. Cell lines responsive to the TGF-β cytostatic program, which recapitulate early stage of liver carcinogenesis exhibit transcriptional Smad3 activity. Those with disturbed TGF-β/Smad3 signaling are insensitive to TGF-β dependent cytostasis and might represent late stage of the disease. Regulation of this switch remains complex and cell line specific. These features may be relevant to discriminate stage dependent

  12. Hepatic stellate cells induce hepatocellular carcinoma cell resistance to sorafenib through the laminin-332/α3 integrin axis recovery of focal adhesion kinase ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Azzariti, Amalia; Mancarella, Serena; Porcelli, Letizia; Quatrale, Anna Elisa; Caligiuri, Alessandra; Lupo, Luigi; Dituri, Francesco; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2016-12-01

    In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving sorafenib, drug resistance is common. HCC develops in a microenvironment enriched with extracellular matrix proteins including laminin (Ln)-332, produced by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Ln-332 is the ligand of α3β1 and α6β4 integrins, differently expressed on the HCC cell surface, that deliver intracellular pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ln-332 on sorafenib's effectiveness. HCC cells were challenged with sorafenib in the presence of Ln-332 and of HSC conditioned medium (CM). Sorafenib impaired HCC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. HSC-CM or Ln-332 inhibited sorafenib's effectiveness in HCC cells expressing both α3β1 and α6β4. Inhibiting α3 but not α6 integrin subunit using blocking antibodies or small interfering RNA abrogated the protection induced by Ln-332 and HSC-CM. Hep3B cells expressing α6β4 but lacking the α3 integrin were insensitive to Ln-332 and HSC-CM protective effects. Hep3B α3-positive, but not wild-type and scramble transfected, cells acquired protection by sorafenib when plated on Ln-332-CM or HSCs. Sorafenib dephosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, whereas Ln-332 and HSC-CM partially restored the pathways. Silencing FAK, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, abrogated the protection induced by Ln-332 and HSC-CM, suggesting a specific role for FAK. Sorafenib down-regulated total FAK, inducing its proteasomal degradation, while Ln-332 and HSC-CM promoted the escape of FAK from ubiquitination, probably inducing a preferential membrane localization. This study unveils a novel mechanism of sorafenib resistance depending on the α3β1/Ln-332 axis and requiring FAK ubiquitination, providing new insights into personalizing therapy for patients with HCC. (Hepatology 2016;64:2103-2117). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Hepatic stellate cells promote upregulation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Teruya; Shiraha, Hidenori; Sawahara, Hiroaki; Uchida, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Yasuto; Iwamuro, Masaya; Kataoka, Junro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Kuwaki, Takeshi; Onishi, Hideki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takaki, Akinobu; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-09-01

    Microenvironment plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness of cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is known as a tumor stemness marker of HCC. To investigate the relationship between microenvironment and stemness, we performed an in vitro co-culture assay. Four HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5) were co-cultured with the TWNT-1 immortalized hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which create a microenvironment with HCC. Cell proliferation ability was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while migration ability was assessed by a wound healing assay. Expression of EpCAM was analyzed by immunoblotting and FCM. HCC cell lines were co-cultured with TWNT-1 treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for TGF-β and HB-EGF; we then analyzed proliferation, migration ability and protein expression using the methods described above. Proliferation ability was unchanged in HCC cell lines co-cultured with TWNT-1. Migration ability was increased in HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5) directly (216.2±67.0, 61.0±22.0, 124.0±66.2 and 51.5±40.3%) and indirectly (102.5±22.0, 84.6±30.9, 86.1±25.7 and 73.9±29.7%) co-cultured with TWNT-1 compared with the HCC uni-culture. Immunoblot analysis revealed increased EpCAM expression in the HCC cell lines co-cultured with TWNT-1. Flow cytometry revealed that the population of E-cadherin-/N-cadherin+ and EpCAM-positive cells increased and accordingly, EMT and stemness in the HCC cell line were activated. These results were similar in the directly and indirectly co-cultured samples, indicating that humoral factors were at play. Conversely, HCC cell lines co-cultured with siRNA‑treated TWNT-1 showed decreased migration ability, a decreased population of EpCAM-positive and E-cadherin-/N-cadherin+ cells. Taken together, humoral factors secreted from TWNT-1

  14. The spherulites™: a promising carrier for oligonucleotide delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mignet, Nathalie; Brun, Armelle; Degert, Corinne; Delord, Brigitte; Roux, Didier; Hélène, Claude; Laversanne, René; François, Jean-Christophe

    2000-01-01

    Concentric multilamellar microvesicles, named spherulites™, were evaluated as an oligonucleotide carrier. Up to 80% oligonucleotide was encapsulated in these vesicles. The study was carried out on two different spherulite™ formulations. The spherulite™ size and stability characteristics are presented. Delivery of encapsulated oligonucleotide was performed on a rat hepatocarcinoma and on a lymphoblastoid T cell line, both expressing the luciferase gene. We showed that spherulites™ were able to transfect both adherent and suspension cell lines and deliver the oligonucleotide to the nucleus. Moreover, 48–62% luciferase inhibition was obtained in the rat hepatocarcinoma cell line when the antisense oligonucleotide targeted to the luciferase coding region was encapsulated at 500 nM concentration in spherulites™ of different compositions. PMID:10931929

  15. [Impact of antiviral therapy on the natural history of hepatitis C virus].

    PubMed

    Fernández Rodriguez, Conrado M; Gutierrez Garcia, Maria Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection affects around 150 million persons, and 350,000 persons worldwide die of this disease each year. Although the data on its natural history are incomplete, after the acute infection, most patients develop chronic forms of hepatitis C with variable stages of fibrosis. In these patients, continual inflammatory activity can cause significant fibrosis, cirrhosis, decompensation of the liver disease, or hepatocarcinoma. In the next few years, it is expected that hepatitis C virus infection and its complications will significantly increase, as will the incidence of hepatocarcinoma in Spain. This review presents the data on the natural history of hepatitis C virus infection and discusses the potential impact of antiviral therapy on the distinct stages of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  16. Subcutaneous injection of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes in tumor-bearing mice boosts the host immune activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jie; Yang, Man; Jia, Fumin; Kong, Hua; Zhang, Weiqi; Wang, Chaoying; Xing, Jianmin; Xie, Sishen; Xu, Haiyan

    2010-04-01

    The immunological responses induced by oxidized water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a hepatocarcinoma tumor-bearing mice model via a local administration of subcutaneous injection were investigated. Experimental results show that the subcutaneously injected carbon nanotubes induced significant activation of the complement system, promoted inflammatory cytokines' production and stimulated macrophages' phagocytosis and activation. All of these responses increased the general activity of the host immune system and inhibited the progression of tumor growth.

  17. Immunotherapy with subcutaneous low-dose interleukin-2 and the pineal indole melatonin as a new effective therapy in advanced cancers of the digestive tract.

    PubMed Central

    Lissoni, P.; Barni, S.; Tancini, G.; Ardizzoia, A.; Rovelli, F.; Cazzaniga, M.; Brivio, F.; Piperno, A.; Aldeghi, R.; Fossati, D.

    1993-01-01

    The advanced tumours of the digestive tract are generally less responsive to conventional chemotherapies. Moreover, preliminary results with IL-2 immunotherapy also seem to show a low efficacy. On the basis of our previous studies suggesting s synergistic action between IL-2 and some neurohormones, such as the pineal indole MLT, a clinical trial was performed to investigate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of an immunotherapy with IL-2 plus MLT in patients with advanced neoplasms of the digestive tract. The study included 35 patients (colorectal cancer: 14; gastric cancer: 8; hepatocarcinoma: 6; pancreas adenocarcinoma: 7). Distant organ metastases were present in 31/35 patients. MLT was given orally at a daily dose of 50 mg at 8.00 p.m., starting 7 days before IL-2, which was given subcutaneously at a dose of 3 million IU/day at 8.00 p.m. for 6 days/week for 4 weeks, corresponding to one cycle of immunotherapy. In nonprogressed patients, a second cycle was given after a 21-day rest period. A complete response was achieved in two patients (gastric cancer: 1; hepatocarcinoma: 1). Six other patients obtained a partial response: (gastric cancer: 2; hepatocarcinoma: 2; colon cancer: 1; pancreas cancer: 1). Therefore, the overall response rate was 8/35 (23%). Stable disease was obtained in 11/35 (31%) patients, whereas the remaining 16 patients (46%) progressed. The response rate was significantly higher in untreated patients than in those previously treated with chemotherapy. Toxicity was low in all patients, who received the treatment as a home therapy. This study shows that the immunotherapy with low-dose IL-2 plus the pineal hormone MLT is a new well tolerated and effective therapy of advanced tumours of the digestive tract, mainly in gastric cancer and hepatocarcinoma. PMID:8512825

  18. Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy Combined with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Effectively Suppresses Established Hepatocellular Carcinomas in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Nam-Chul; Lee, Jun-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Ji; Hwang, Sung-Uk; Song, Jie-Young; Seo, Han Geuk; Choi, Jinjung; Jung, Sang Youn; Han, Sung Gu; Lim, Dae-Seog

    2016-08-01

    The response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to immunotherapy is often disappointing and new strategies are clearly needed. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells combined with a dendritic cell vaccination enhanced cytotoxicity against hepatocarcinoma tumor cells in an in vivo animal model. CIKs and DCs were prepared from C3H/HeJ mice by conventional methods, the dendritic cell (DC) pulsed with a MH134 cell lysate, DC or CIK alone were used as controls. Cell phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry, cytokine secretion levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and cytotoxicity was assessed by means of an in vitro lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. A mouse hepatocarcinoma cell MH134-bearing mice model was established to test the in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of the system. CIK cells combined with DC therapy resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth compared with the control group, whereas the decrease in tumor growth in mice that had been treated with CIK or DC alone did not reach the level of statistical significance. The combination therapy led to a further increase in the population of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) in vivo, compared to the CIK or DC alone therapy. In addition, the combination therapy significantly enhanced cytotoxic activity against MH134 cells. Taken together, these results show that a DC + CIK vaccination is more effective than DC or CIK alone therapy for the treatment of hepatocarcinoma cancer.

  19. Systematic revelation of the protective effect and mechanism of Cordycep sinensis on diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocellular carcinoma with proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Wen; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Li, Wen-Tai; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Pan, Tai-Long

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has been reported to treat liver diseases. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of C. sinensis on hepatocarcinoma in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model with functional proteome tools. In the DEN-exposed group, levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were increased while C. sinensis application remarkably inhibited the activities of these enzymes. Histopathological analysis also indicated that C. sinensis could substantially restore hypertrophic hepatocytes caused by DEN, suggesting that C. sinensis is effective in preventing DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. We therefore comprehensively delineated the global protein alterations using a proteome platform. The most meaningful changes were found among proteins involved in oxidative stress and detoxification. Meanwhile, C. sinensis application could attenuate the carbonylation level of several enzymes as well as chaperone proteins. Network analysis implied that C. sinensis could obviously alleviate hepatocarcinoma via modulating redox imbalance, protein ubiquitination and tumor growth–associated transcription factors. Our findings provide new insight into the potential effects of C. sinensis in preventing carcinogenesis and might help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against chemical-induced hepatocarcinoma. PMID:27531890

  20. Selective protection of normal hepatocytes by indocyanine green in photodynamic therapy for the hepatoma of rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Li, Junheng; Guo, Zhong-He

    1993-03-01

    Using hepatocarcinoma transplanted rats, the present study made consecutive observation for the color change and indocyanine green (ICG) absorption peak of the normal liver and tumor tissues after intravenous injection of ICG. The normal liver tissue of the rat was found to turn violet-green soon after ICG injection and the optic density (OD) of ICG-characteristic spectral peak of the tissue homogenate reached its maximum value at 35 minutes post-injection, while neither color change nor OD value increase was noticed in the tissue of transplanted hepatocarcinoma, suggesting that there is a specific absorption of ICG by the normal liver tissue. Chemiluminescentoassay revealed inhibited luminal chemiluminescence by ICG, indicating the depression of singlet oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidation during HPD photosensitization by ICG. In PDT of the hepatocarcinoma, the irradiated area was examined under microscope and auto-microimage analysis system after ICG administration. For tumor-free tissue, the photosensitization induced necrotic area was found smaller in those with than those without ICG administration, whereas the tumor killing effect was almost the same of the two. It is suggested that ICG may offer selective protection for healthy hepatocytes without diminishing the destruction of tumor cells. The protection of healthy hepatocytes by ICG is thought to be in accordance with the amount of ICG in the cell and the distribution of light energy.

  1. Hepatoma cell-specific ganciclovir-mediated toxicity of a lentivirally transduced HSV-TkEGFP fusion protein gene placed under the control of rat alpha-fetoprotein gene regulatory sequences.

    PubMed

    Uch, Rathviro; Gérolami, René; Faivre, Jamila; Hardwigsen, Jean; Mathieu, Sylvie; Mannoni, Patrice; Bagnis, Claude

    2003-09-01

    Suicide gene therapy combining herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene transfer and ganciclovir administration can be envisioned as a powerful therapeutical approach in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma; however, safety issues regarding transgene expression in parenchyma cells have to be addressed. In this study, we constructed LATKW, a lentiviral vector expressing the HSV-TkEGFP gene placed under the control of the promoter elements that control the expression of the rat alpha-fetoprotein, and assayed its specific expression in vitro in hepatocarcinoma and nonhepatocarcinoma human cell lines, and in epidermal growth factor stimulated human primary hepatocytes. Using LATKW, a strong expression of the transgene was found in transduced hepatocarcinoma cells compared to a very low expression in nonhepatocarcinoma human cell lines, as assessed by Northern blot, RT-PCR, FACS analysis and ganciclovir-mediated toxicity assay, and no expression was found in lentivirally transduced normal human hepatocytes. Altogether, these results demonstrate the possibility to use a lentivirally transduced expression unit containing the rat alpha-fetoprotein promoter to restrict the HSV-TK-mediated induced GCV sensitivity to human hepatocarcinoma cells.

  2. The miR-24-3p/p130Cas: a novel axis regulating the migration and invasion of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hoin; Rho, Jun Gi; Kim, Chongtae; Tak, Hyosun; Lee, Heejin; Ji, Eunbyul; Ahn, Sojin; Shin, A-Ri; Cho, Hyun-Il; Huh, Yun Hyun; Song, Woo Keun; Kim, Wook; Lee, Eun Kyung

    2017-03-24

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by suppressing translation or facilitating mRNA decay. Differential expression of miRNAs is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer. Here, we investigated the role of-miR-24-3p as a downregulated miRNA in metastatic cancer. miR-24-3p was decreased in metastatic cancer and lower expression of miR-24-3p was related to poor survival of cancer patients. Consistently, ectopic expression of miR-24-3p suppressed the cell migration, invasion, and proliferation of MCF7, Hep3B, B16F10, SK-Hep1, and PC-3 cells by directly targeting p130Cas. Stable expression of p130Cas restored miR-24-3p-mediated inhibition of cell migration and invasion. These results suggest that miR-24-3p functions as a tumor suppressor and the miR-24-3p/p130Cas axis is a novel factor of cancer progression by regulating cell migration and invasion.

  3. WP1130 increases doxorubicin sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through usp9x-dependent p53 degradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Wei; Liang, Chao; Chen, Bryan Wei; Zhi, Xiao; Zhang, Shufeng; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Bai, Xueli; Liang, Tingbo

    2015-06-01

    Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is a major obstacle in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that deubiquitinases (DUB) are key regulators in the mechanisms of cell proliferation, apoptosis and chemoresistance. The present study aimed to investigate whether WP1130, which inhibits activity of deubiquitinases, exerts synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin in HCC and the underlying mechanisms. In the study, we found that Huh7, HepG2, and SNU387 HCC cells with p53 expression displayed enhanced response to the combination therapy compared with p53-deficient HCC cells (Hep3B) in the manner of inhibiting cell proliferation. Downregulation of p53 abolished the synergistic cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and WP1130 on HCC cells. Mechanistically, we found that combined treatment with WP1130 suppressed doxorubicin-mediated upregulation of p53 via promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome dependent degradation, whereas knockdown of DUB usp9x abolished this effect. Taken together, these results demonstrate that combined treatment with WP1130 sensitized HCC cells to doxorubicin via usp9x-depedent p53 degradation.

  4. Tumour necrosis factor-α suppresses the hypoxic response by NF-κB-dependent induction of inhibitory PAS domain protein in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Goryo, Kenji; Torii, Satoru; Yasumoto, Ken-Ichi; Sogawa, Kazuhiro

    2011-09-01

    Inflammation is often accompanied by hypoxia. However, crosstalk between signalling pathways activated by inflammation and signalling events that control adaptive response to hypoxia is not fully understood. Here we show that exposure to tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activates expression of the inhibitory PAS domain protein (IPAS) to suppress the hypoxic response caused by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2 in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells but not in human hepatoma Hep3B cells. This induction of IPAS was dependent on the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and attenuated hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). HIF-dependent reporter activity in hypoxia was also decreased following TNF-α treatment. Knockdown of IPAS mRNA by small interfering RNA (siRNA) restored the TNF-α-suppressed hypoxic response. These results indicate that TNF-α is a cell-type specific suppressor of HIFs and suggest a novel crosstalk between stimulation by inflammatory mediators and HIF-dependent hypoxic response.

  5. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of hematite nanoparticles in bacteria and human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Kumar; Sen, Shampa; G, Suja; Senthil, S Lakshmana; Kumar, T Vinoth

    2017-09-01

    Metal nanoparticles have a great impact and even change the composition of soil microbial communities. This poses the risk of their accumulation in the ecosystem, which may call on health hazard. Statistical techniques such as Plackett-Burman design, Response Surface Methodology were used for optimizing medium constituents for Bacillus cereus SVK1 and other critical variables responsible for the production of biomolecules and biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles. The effect of hematite nanoparticles on the growth of soil bacteria were tested by agar-well diffusion method and dynamic growth curve techniques. Bacterial growth inhibition was not observed with hematite nanoparticle concentration of up to 25mg/mL. In addition, hematite nanoparticles enhanced the growth of the soil bacteria. The results show that hematite nanoparticles were non-toxic to soil bacteria indicating their scope for wide range of applications. The effective cytotoxic concentration (CTC50) of hematite nanoparticles against MCF-7, A549, Hep3B and Vero cell lines was found to be 207.58, 224.69, 193.26 and 2530μg/mL respectively. Hematite nanoparticles didn't cause lysis of red blood cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. HPLC-based activity profiling of anti-hepatocellular carcinoma constituents from the Tibetan medicine, Caragana tibetica.

    PubMed

    Song, Ping; Wang, Qiang; Lv, Jing-Nan; Xu, Chan; Lin, Qin-Xiong; Ma, Xin-Hua; Huang, Mi; Yang, Xin-Zhou

    2015-06-01

    During the screening of a traditional Chinese folk herb library against HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines, the EtOAc extract from the Tibetan medicine, Caragana tibetica (CT-EtOAc) exhibited potential anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (anti-HCC) activity. HPLC-based activity profiling was performed for targeted identification of anti-HCC activity from CT-EtOAc by MS-directed purification method. CT-EtOAc was separated by time-based fractionation for further anti-HCC bioassay by a semipreparative HPLC column (150 mm × 10 mm i.d., 5 μm) with a single injection of 5 mg. Bioassay-guided and ESIMS-directed large scale purification was performed with a single injection of 400 mg of CT-EtOAc by peak-based fractionation. A 1.4-mm heavy wall micro NMR tube with z-gradient was used to measure one and two dimensional NMR spectra for the minor or trace amounts of components of the extract. Two active compounds could be elucidated as naringenin chalcone (CT-1) and 3-hydroxy-8, 9-dimethoxypterocarpan (CT-2) relevant to anti-HCC effects for the EtOAc extract of C. tibetica rapidly and unambiguously by this protocol.

  7. Galangin inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Su, Lijuan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Wu, Jun; Lin, Biyun; Zhang, Haitao; Lan, Liubo; Luo, Hui

    2013-12-01

    Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may activate apoptotic pathways in cancer cells. It is suggested that ER stress has the potential of enhancing tumor death in cancer therapy. Galangin, a flavonol derived from Alpinia officinarum Hance, has been shown to suppress the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC). The aim of this study was to determine whether galangin was able to induce ER stress in HepG2, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5 cells. The proliferation of HCC was tested by MTT method. Intracellular Ca(2+) levels were measured with Fluo3-AM.The proteins levels of GRP94, GRP78 and CHOP were detected by Western blot. To further understand the anti-HCC mechanism of galangin, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were detected. The results showed that galangin treatment induced ER stress was evidenced by increased protein levels of GRP94, GRP78 and CHOP, as well as increased free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. ER stress inhibitor 4-PBA and CHOP siRNA blocked significantly galangin-induced ER in all three cell lines. Further experiments showed that MAPKs involved in ER stress induced by galangin. In summary, galangin is identified as a stimulator of ER stress to suppress the proliferation of HCC, and may be used as a potential anti-cancer agent.

  8. In silico identification of oncogenic potential of fyn-related kinase in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Shing; Hung, Wei-Shiang; Chan, Hsiang-Han; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq; Sun, H Sunny

    2013-02-15

    Cancer development is a complex and heterogeneous process. It is estimated that 5-10% of human genes probably contribute to oncogenesis, whereas current experimentally validated cancer genes only cover 1% of the human genome. Thus hundreds of cancer genes may still remain to be identified. To search for new genes that play roles in carcinogenesis and facilitate cancer research, we developed a systematic workflow to use information saved in a previously established tumor-associated gene (TAG) database. By exploiting the information of conserved protein domains from the TAG, we identified 183 potential new TAGs. As a proof-of-concept, one predicted oncogene, fyn-related kinase (FRK), which shows an aberrant digital expression pattern in liver cancer cells, was selected for further investigation. Using 68 paired hepatocellular carcinoma samples, we found that FRK was up-regulated in 52% of cases (P < 0.001). Tumorigenic assays performed in Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines revealed a significant correlation between the level of FRK expression and invasiveness, suggesting that FRK is a positive regulator of invasiveness in liver cancer cells. These findings implied that FRK is a multitalented signal transduction molecule that produces diverse biological responses in different cell types in various microenvironments. In addition, our data demonstrated the accuracy of computational prediction and suggested that other predicted TAGs can be potential targets for future cancer research. The TAG database is available online at the Bioinformatics Center website: http://www.binfo.ncku.edu.tw/TAG/.

  9. Synergistic trans-activation of the human C-reactive protein promoter by transcription factor HNF-1 binding at two distinct sites.

    PubMed Central

    Toniatti, C; Demartis, A; Monaci, P; Nicosia, A; Ciliberto, G

    1990-01-01

    The promoter region of the human C-reactive protein (CRP) gene comprises two distinct regions (APREs, for Acute Phase Responsive Elements) each one containing information necessary and sufficient for liver specific and IL-6 inducible expression in human hepatoma Hep3B cells. In this paper we show that both APREs contain a low affinity binding site for the liver specific transcription factor HNF-1/LF-B1. The two sites are separated by approximately 80 bp. Mutations in either of the two sites abolish inducible expression. The same effect is specifically obtained in cotransfection competition experiments when the human albumin HNF-1 site is used as competitor. However, HNF-1 is not the intranuclear mediator of IL-6 because synthetic promoters formed by multimerized copies of different HNF-1 binding sites are not transcriptionally activated by this cytokine. An expression vector encoding full length HNF-1 is capable of trans-activating transcription from the wild-type CRP promoter but not from mutants which have lost the ability to bind HNF-1. Moreover, the level of trans-activation observed with the natural promoter containing both HNF-1 binding sites is far greater than the level of mutated variants containing only one of the two sites. This result strongly suggests that two HNF-1 molecules bound simultaneously to sites distant from each other can act synergistically to activate gene expression. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:2265613

  10. Antiangiogenic activity of 2-formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lam, K-H; Lee, K K-H; Kok, S H-L; Wong, R S-M; Lau, F-Y; Cheng, G Y-M; Wong, W-Y; Tong, S-W; Chan, K-W; Chan, R Y-K; Tang, J C-O; Cheng, C-H; Hau, D K-P; Bian, Z-X; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

    2016-05-01

    Tumour growth is closely related to the development of new blood vessels to supply oxygen and nutrients to cancer cells. Without the neovascular formation, tumour volumes cannot increase and undergo metastasis. Antiangiogenesis is one of the most promising approaches for antitumour therapy. The exploration of new antiangiogenic agents would be helpful in antitumour therapy. Quinoline is an aromatic nitrogen compound characterized by a double-ring structure which exhibits a benzene ring fused to pyridine at two adjacent carbon atoms. The high stability of quinoline makes it preferable in a variety of therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications, including antitumour treatment. This work is to examine the potential antiangiogenic activity of the synthetic compound 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride. We found that 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could inhibit the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Using the diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model, 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride showed strong antiangiogenic activity. Furthermore, 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could inhibit the growth of large Hep3B xenografted tumour from the nude mice. We assume that 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could be a potential antiangiogenic and antitumour agent and it is worthwhile to further study its underlying working mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Similarities and Differences in the Expression of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes between Human Hepatic Cell Lines and Primary Human HepatocytesS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lei; Dial, Stacey; Shi, Leming; Branham, William; Liu, Jie; Fang, Jia-Long; Green, Bridgett; Deng, Helen; Kaput, Jim

    2011-01-01

    In addition to primary human hepatocytes, hepatoma cell lines, and transfected nonhepatoma, hepatic cell lines have been used for pharmacological and toxicological studies. However, a systematic evaluation and a general report of the gene expression spectra of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) in these in vitro systems are not currently available. To fill this information gap and to provide references for future studies, we systematically characterized the basal gene expression profiles of 251 drug-metabolizing enzymes in untreated primary human hepatocytes from six donors, four commonly used hepatoma cell lines (HepG2, Huh7, SK-Hep-1, and Hep3B), and one transfected human liver epithelial cell line. A large variation in DMET expression spectra was observed between hepatic cell lines and primary hepatocytes, with the complete absence or much lower abundance of certain DMETs in hepatic cell lines. Furthermore, the basal DMET expression spectra of five hepatic cell lines are summarized, providing references for researchers to choose carefully appropriate in vitro models for their studies of drug metabolism and toxicity, especially for studies with drugs in which toxicities are mediated through the formation of reactive metabolites. PMID:21149542

  12. BRG1 and BRM chromatin-remodeling complexes regulate the hypoxia response by acting as coactivators for a subset of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor target genes.

    PubMed

    Sena, Johnny A; Wang, Liyi; Hu, Cheng-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Chromatin remodeling is an active process, which represses or enables the access of transcription machinery to genes in response to external stimuli, including hypoxia. However, in hypoxia, the specific requirement, as well as the molecular mechanism by which the chromatin-remodeling complexes regulate gene expression, remains unclear. In this study, we report that the Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) ATPase-containing SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes promote the expression of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1α (HIF1α) and HIF2α genes and also promote hypoxic induction of a subset of HIF1 and HIF2 target genes. We show that BRG1 or BRM knockdown in Hep3B and RCC4T cells reduces hypoxic induction of HIF target genes, while reexpression of BRG1 or BRM in BRG1/BRM-deficient SW13 cells increases HIF target gene activation. Mechanistically, HIF1 and HIF2 increase the hypoxic induction of HIF target genes by recruiting BRG1 complexes to HIF target gene promoters, which promotes nucleosome remodeling of HIF target gene promoters in a BRG1 ATPase-dependent manner. Importantly, we found that the function of BRG1 complexes in hypoxic SW13 and RCC4T cells is dictated by the HIF-mediated hypoxia response and could be opposite from their function in normoxic SW13 and RCC4T cells.

  13. A role of functional T-type Ca2+ channel in hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajuan; Liu, Shuang; Lu, Fengmin; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Hairu; Wu, Songwei; Zhuang, Hui

    2009-11-01

    The role of T-type Ca2+ channels in hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation was investigated in vitro. Eleven hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and one immortalized liver cell line (LO2) were examined for the status of T-type Ca2+ channels with RT-PCR and voltage-clamp recordings. Except HBxF344, other cell lines tested had one, two or all three of alpha1-subunits (alpha1G, alpha1H and alpha1I) mRNA expression. Obvious T-type current was recorded in SNU449 cells, while others exhibited a minimal or no T-type current. SNU449, PLC/PRF5, Hep3B and LO2 cell lines were subjected to growth assay in the presence of Mibefradil, a T-type Ca2+ channel blocker, only the proliferation of SNU449 cell which had functional T-type Ca2+ channel was reduced by Mibefradil treatment. Furthermore, the persistent increase of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in SNU449 cells was found when treated with Mibefradil. A microarray assay also demonstrated some down-regulated genes were mainly associated with cell cycle and cell proliferation in Mibefradil treated SNU449 cells. In conclusion, this study showed that the functional T-type Ca2+ channels probably participate in modulating the proliferation of some hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The cell proliferation reduction of SNU449 with Mibefradil treatment is possibly associated with the persistent increase of phosphorylated ERK1/2.

  14. Selective suppression of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor function can be mediated through binding interference at the C-terminal half of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lina; Thompson, John D; Cheung, Michael; Ngo, Katherine; Sung, Sarah; Leong, Scott; Chan, William K

    2016-05-01

    The human aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a cytosolic signaling molecule which affects immune response and aberrant cell growth. Canonical signaling of the receptor requires the recruitment of coactivators to the promoter region to remodel local chromatin structure. We predicted that interference of this recruitment would block the aryl hydrocarbon receptor function. To prove that, we employed phage display to identify nine peptides of twelve-amino-acid in length which target the C-terminal half of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor, including the region where coactivators bind. Eight 12mer peptides, in the form of GFP fusion, suppressed the ligand-dependent transcription of six AHR target genes (cyp1a1, cyp1a2, cyp1b1, ugt1a1, nqo1, and ahrr) in different patterns in Hep3B cells, whereas the AHR antagonist CH-223191 suppressed all these target genes similarly. Three of the 12mer peptides (namely 11-3, 1-7, and 7-3) suppressed the 3MC-induced, CYP1A1-dependent EROD activity and the ROS production caused by benzo[a]pyrene. These 12mer peptides suppressed the AHR function synergistically with CH-223191. In conclusion, we provide evidence that targeting the C-terminal half of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a viable, new approach to selectively block the receptor function.

  15. Temperature sensitivity of human wild-type and mutant p53 proteins expressed in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Ponchel, F.; Milner, J.

    1998-01-01

    p53 is activated in response to DNA damage and functions in the maintenance of genetic integrity. Loss of p53 function because of mutation of the p53 gene is associated with over half all human cancers. Certain human p53 mutants are conformationally flexible in vitro and are temperature sensitive, with partial or complete recovery of wild-type (wt) properties at 32 degrees C. We have now tested the functional capacities of selected p53 mutants in vivo, by transfection into established human cell lines. Unexpectedly, we found that wt p53 can be temperature sensitive for transactivation of a co-transfected target gene in vivo. Flexible mutants retained varying degrees of functional capacity in transfected cells, and the recipient cell line appeared to be a significant determinant of both wt and mutant p53 function; importantly, two p53 null cell lines commonly used to study p53 function (Saos-2 and Hep3B) differed markedly in this latter respect. We also show that the p53 mutant V272M, which exhibits sequence-specific DNA binding in vitro, is nonetheless defective for transactivation and is unable to induce apoptosis in vivo. The valine 272 residue may thus be crucial for properties (other than sequence-specific DNA binding) that are important for p53 function(s) in vivo. Images Figure 4 PMID:9635828

  16. Functional Ultrasound Imaging for Assessment of Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds Used for Liver Organoid Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Ryan C.; Hanson, Ariel D.; Feingold, Steven; Cashion, Avery T.; Corcimaru, Ana; Wu, Bryant T.; Mullins, Christopher R.; Aylward, Stephen R.; Reid, Lola M.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    A method of 3D functional ultrasound imaging has been developed to enable non-destructive assessment of extracellular matrix scaffolds that have been prepared by decellularization protocols and are intended for recellularization to create organoids. A major challenge in organ decellularization is retaining patent micro-vascular structures crucial for nutrient access and functionality of organoids. The imaging method described here provides statistical distributions of flow rates throughout the tissue volumes, 3D vessel network architecture visualization, characterization of microvessel volumes and sizes, and delineation of matrix from vascular circuits. The imaging protocol was tested on matrix scaffolds that are tissue-specific, but not species-specific, matrix extracts, prepared by a process that preserved >98% of the collagens, collagen-associated matrix components, and matrix-bound growth factors and cytokines. Image-derived data are discussed with respect to assessment of scaffolds followed by proof-of-concept studies in organoid establishment using Hep3B, human hepatoblast-like cells. Histology showed that the cells attached to scaffolds with patent vasculature within minutes, achieved engraftment at near 100%, expressed liver-specific functions within 24h, and yielded evidence of proliferation and increasing differentiation of cells throughout the two weeks of culture studies. This imaging method should prove valuable in analyses of such matrix scaffolds. PMID:24011714

  17. Study of the UV Light Conversion of Feruloyl Amides from Portulaca oleracea and Their Inhibitory Effect on IL-6-Induced STAT3 Activation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo Tae; Kim, Yesol; Jang, Hyun-Jae; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lim, Chi-Hwan; Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual

    2016-06-30

    Two new feruloyl amides, N-cis-hibiscusamide (5) and (7'S)-N-cis-feruloylnormetanephrine (9), and eight known feruloyl amides were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. and the geometric conversion of the ten isolated feruloyl amides by UV light was verified. The structures of the feruloyl amides were determined based on spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. The NMR data revealed that the structures of the isolated compounds showed cis/trans-isomerization under normal laboratory light conditions. Therefore, cis and trans-isomers of feruloyl amides were evaluated for their convertibility and stability by UV light of a wavelength of 254 nm. After 96 h of UV light exposure, 23.2%-35.0% of the cis and trans-isomers were converted to trans-isomers. Long-term stability tests did not show any significant changes. Among all compounds and conversion mixtures collected, compound 6 exhibited the strongest inhibition of IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in Hep3B cells, with an IC50 value of 0.2 μM. This study is the first verification of the conversion rates and an equilibrium ratio of feruloyl amides. These results indicate that this natural material might provide useful information for the treatment of various diseases involving IL-6 and STAT3.

  18. Lon protease: a novel mitochondrial matrix protein in the interconnection between drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress.

    PubMed

    Polo, Miriam; Alegre, Fernando; Moragrega, Angela B; Gibellini, Lara; Marti-Rodrigo, Alberto; Blas-Garcia, Ana; Esplugues, Juan V; Apostolova, Nadezda

    2017-09-23

    Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) are specific ER-domains that enable direct interaction with mitochondria and mediate metabolic flow and Ca(2+) transfer. A growing list of proteins have been identified as MAMs components, but how they are recruited and function during complex cell stress situations is still not understood while the participation of mitochondrial matrix proteins is largely undervalued. This work compares mitochondrial/ER contact during combined ER stress/mitochondrial dysfunction using a model of human hepatoma cells (Hep3B cell line) treated for 24h with classic pharmacological inducers of ER stress (thapsigargin), mitochondrial dysfunction (CCCP or rotenone) or both (the antiretroviral drug Efavirenz used at clinically relevant concentrations). Markers of mitochondrial dynamics (Drp1, OPA1, Mfn2) were expressed differentially with these stimuli, pointing to a specificity of combined ER/mitochondrial stress. Lon, a matrix protease involved in protein and mtDNA quality control, was upregulated at mRNA and protein levels under all conditions. However, only with efavirenz, the mitochondrial content of Lon was diminished while its extramitochondrial presence was increased, as did its localization to MAMs, where it enhanced mitochondria/ER interaction as shown by co-immunoprecipitation experiments of MAM protein partners and confocal microscopy imaging. A specific dual drug-induced mitochondria-ER effect enhances MAMs content and extramitochondrial Lon expression. This is the first report of this phenomenon and suggests a novel MAM-linked function of Lon protease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Cysteine aggravates palmitate-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiaobing; Wang, Zhigang; Yao, Tong; Song, Zhenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Aims Lipotoxicity, defined as cell death induced by excessive fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acids, is critically involved in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent studies report that plasma cysteine concentrations is elevated in the subjects with either alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) or NASH than normal subjects. The present study was conducted to determine if elevation of cysteine could be a deleterious factor in palmitate-induced hepatocyte cell death. Main methods HepG2 and Hep3B cells were treated with palmitate with/without the inclusion of cysteine in the media for 24 hours. The effects of cysteine inclusion on palmitate induced cell death were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and MTT assay. Oxidative stress was evaluated by intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and DCFH-DA assay. Western blotting was performed to detect the changes of endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress markers: C/EBP homologous transcription factor (CHOP), GRP-78, and phosphorylated c-jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). Key findings Elevated intracellular cysteine aggravates hepatocytes to palmitate-induced cell death. Enhancement of ER stress, specifically increased activation of JNK pathway, contributed to this cell death process. Significance Increase of plasma cysteine levels, as observed in both ASH and NASH patients, may play a pathological role in the development of the liver diseases. Manipulation of dietary amino acids supplementation could be a therapeutic choice. PMID:22008477

  20. Evaluation of Antitrypanosomal Dihydroquinolines for Hepatotoxicity, Mutagenicity, and Methemoglobin Formation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Werbovetz, Karl A.; Riccio, Edward S.; Furimsky, Anna; Richard, Julian V.; He, Shanshan; Iyer, Lalitha; Mirsalis, Jon

    2014-01-01

    N 1-benzylated dihydroquinolin-6-ols and their corresponding esters display exceptional activity against African trypanosomes in vitro, and administration of members of this class of compounds to trypanosome-infected mice results in cures in a first stage African trypanosomiasis model. Since a quinone imine intermediate has been implicated in the antiparasitic mechanism of action of these compounds, evaluation of the hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and methemoglobin-promoting effects of these agents was performed. 1-Benzyl-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinolin-6-ol hydrochloride (OSU-36.HCl) and 1-benzyl-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinolin-6-yl acetate (OSU-40) showed outstanding in vitro selectivity for T. brucei compared to the HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7 and PLC5 hepatocyte cell lines. OSU-36.HCl and 1-(2-methoxybenzyl)-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinolin-6-yl acetate (OSU-75) were not mutagenic when screened in the Ames assay, with or without metabolic activation. The latter two compounds promoted time- and dose-dependent formation of methemoglobin when incubated in whole human blood, but such levels were below those typically required to produce symptoms of methemoglobinemia in humans. While compounds capable of quinone imine formation require careful evaluation, these in vitro studies indicate that antitrypanosomal dihydroquinolines merit further study as drug candidates against the neglected tropical disease human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:24819520

  1. Novel PEI/Poly-γ-Gutamic Acid Nanoparticles for High Efficient siRNA and Plasmid DNA Co-Delivery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Hung-Kun; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Cheng, Ya-Ming; Hsu, Kuang-Hsing

    2017-01-04

    The efficient delivery of sufficient amounts of nucleic acids into target cells is critical for successful gene therapy and gene knockdown. The DNA/siRNA co-delivery system has been considered a promising approach for cancer therapy to simultaneously express and inhibit tumor suppressor genes and overexpressed oncogenes, respectively, triggering synergistic anti-cancer effects. Polyethylenimine (PEI) has been identified as an efficient non-viral vector for transgene expression. In this study, we created a very high efficient DNA/siRNA co-delivery system by incorporating a negatively-charged poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) into PEI/nucleic acid complexes. Spherical nanoparticles with about 200 nm diameter were formed by mixing PEI/plasmid DNA/siRNA/γ-PGA (dual delivery nanoparticles; DDNPs) with specific ratio (N/P/C ratio) and the particles present positive surface charge under all manufacturing conditions. The gel retardation assay shows both nucleic acids were effectively condensed by PEI, even at low N/P ratios. The PEI-based DDNPs reveal excellent DNA/siRNA transfection efficiency in the human hepatoma cell line (Hep 3B) by simultaneously providing high transgene expression efficiency and high siRNA silencing effect. The results indicated that DDNP can be an effective tool for gene therapy against hepatoma.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Components from the Root of Solanum erianthum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chang; Lee, Hong-Zin; Chen, Hsin-Chun; Wen, Chi-Luan; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wang, Guei-Jane

    2013-01-01

    Two new norsesquiterpenoids, solanerianones A and B (1–2), together with nine known compounds, including four sesquiterpenoids, (−)-solavetivone (3), (+)-anhydro-β-rotunol (4), solafuranone (5), lycifuranone A (6); one alkaloid, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (7); one fatty acid, palmitic acid (8); one phenylalkanoid, acetovanillone (9), and two steroids, β-sitosterol (10) and stigmasterol (11) were isolated from the n-hexane-soluble part of the roots of Solanum erianthum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physical and spectroscopic data analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity of these isolates was monitored by nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. The cytotoxicity towards human lung squamous carcinoma (CH27), human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep 3B), human oral squamous carcinoma (HSC-3) and human melanoma (M21) cell lines was also screened by using an MTT assay. Of the compounds tested, 3 exhibited the strongest NO inhibition with the average maximum inhibition (Emax) at 100 μM and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 98.23% ± 0.08% and 65.54 ± 0.18 μM, respectively. None of compounds (1–9) was found to possess cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 30 μM. PMID:23771024

  3. Antihepatoma activity of Physalis angulata and P. peruviana extracts and their effects on apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Ng, Lean-Teik; Chen, Ching-Hsein; Lin, Doung-Liang; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2004-03-05

    Physalis angulata and P. peruviana are herbs widely used in folk medicine. In this study, the aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from the whole plant of these species were evaluated for their antihepatoma activity. Using XTT assay, three human hepatoma cells, namely Hep G2, Hep 3B and PLC/PRF/5 were tested. The results showed that ethanol extract of P. peruviana (EEPP) possessed the lowest IC50 value against the Hep G2 cells. Interestingly, all extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on normal mouse liver cells. Treatment with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, a protonophore, caused a reduction of membrane potential (Deltapsim) by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. At high concentrations, EEPP was shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction as demonstrated by the following observations: (i) EEPP induced the collapse of Deltapsim and the depletion of glutathione content in a dose dependent manner; (ii) pretreatment with the antioxidant (1.0 microg/ml vitamin E) protected cells from EEPP-induced release of ROS; and (iii) at concentrations 10 to 50 microg/ml, EEPP displayed a dose-dependent accumulation of the Sub-G1 peak (hypoploid) and caused G0/G1-phase arrest. Apoptosis was elicited when the cells were treated with 50 microg/ml EEPP as characterized by the appearance of phosphatidylserine on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. The results conclude that EEPP possesses potent antihepatoma activity and its effect on apoptosis is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Downregulation of citrin, a mitochondrial AGC, is associated with apoptosis of hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Shigeki; Kinjo, Takao; Makishi, Shoko; Tomita, Mariko; Arasaki, Akira; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Watanabe, Hisami; Kobayashi, Keiko; Sunakawa, Hajime; Iwamasa, Teruo; Mori, Naoki

    2007-12-28

    Citrin is a mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier primarily expressed in liver. Adult-onset type II citrullinemia is caused by mutations in the SLC25A13 gene that encodes for citrin, and patients with this condition do not express citrin. We found apoptotic hepatocytes in one such patient. This finding prompted us to investigate the role of citrin in hepatocyte survival. Knockdown of citrin by a vector-based short-hairpin RNA technique reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis of a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep3B cells. Caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 were activated, and PARP was cleaved. Citrin knockdown also increased the expression of Bax and Bak, and reduced expression of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. These alterations resulted in the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Our results indicated that citrin downregulation induces apoptosis of hepatocytes through the mitochondrial death pathway, highlighting the importance of citrin in survival of hepatocytes and maintenance of liver function.

  5. Flavin containing monooxygenase 3 exerts broad effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Diana M.; Wang, Zeneng; Lee, Richard; Meng, Yonghong; Che, Nam; Charugundla, Sarada; Qi, Hannah; Wu, Judy; Pan, Calvin; Brown, J. Mark; Vallim, Thomas; Bennett, Brian J.; Graham, Mark; Hazen, Stanley L.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    We performed silencing and overexpression studies of flavin containing monooxygenase (FMO) 3 in hyperlipidemic mouse models to examine its effects on trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels and atherosclerosis. Knockdown of hepatic FMO3 in LDL receptor knockout mice using an antisense oligonucleotide resulted in decreased circulating TMAO levels and atherosclerosis. Surprisingly, we also observed significant decreases in hepatic lipids and in levels of plasma lipids, ketone bodies, glucose, and insulin. FMO3 overexpression in transgenic mice, on the other hand, increased hepatic and plasma lipids. Global gene expression analyses suggested that these effects of FMO3 on lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis may be mediated through the PPARα and Kruppel-like factor 15 pathways. In vivo and in vitro results were consistent with the concept that the effects were mediated directly by FMO3 rather than trimethylamine/TMAO; in particular, overexpression of FMO3 in the human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B, resulted in significantly increased glucose secretion and lipogenesis. Our results indicate a major role for FMO3 in modulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in vivo, and they suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of FMO3 to reduce TMAO levels would be confounded by metabolic interactions. PMID:25378658

  6. The Ethanolic Extract of Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Antrodia camphorata) Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Enhances Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and Doxorubicin on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Tai, Chen-Jei; Su, Ching-Hua; Chang, Fang-Mo; Choong, Chen-Yen; Wang, Chien-Kai; Tai, Cheng-Jeng

    2015-01-01

    Taiwanofungus camphoratus (synonym Antrodia camphorata) is a widely used medicinal fungus in the folk medicine of Taiwan with several pharmacological features such as anti-inflammatory, liver protection, antihypertensive, and antioxidative activities. The ethanolic extract of T. camphoratus (TCEE) which contains abundant bioactive compounds including triterpenoids and polysaccharides also has antitumor effects in various human cancer cell lines. The aims of this study are to clarify the antitumor effects of TCEE on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and also evaluate the combination drug effects with conventional chemotherapy agents, cisplatin and doxorubicin. In the present study, the TCEE treatment induced cell cycle arrest and suppressed cell growth on both Hep3B and HepJ5 cells. Expression of cell cycle inhibitors, P21 and P27, and activation of apoptosis executer enzyme, caspase-3, were also induced by TCEE. In combination with the chemotherapy agents, TCEE treatment further enhanced the tumor suppression efficiency of cisplatin and doxorubicin. These results together suggested that TCEE is a potential ingredient for developing an integrated chemotherapy for human liver cancer.

  7. Angiogenin Secretion From Hepatoma Cells Activates Hepatic Stellate Cells To Amplify A Self-Sustained Cycle Promoting Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Cristina; Stefanovic, Milica; Tutusaus, Anna; Martinez-Nieto, Guillermo A.; Martinez, Laura; García-Ruiz, Carmen; de Mingo, Alvaro; Caballeria, Juan; Fernandez-Checa, José C.; Marí, Montserrat; Morales, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently develops in a pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic environment with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) remodeling the extracellular matrix composition. Molecules secreted by liver tumors contributing to HSC activation and peritumoral stromal transformation remain to be fully identified. Here we show that conditioned medium from HCC cell lines, Hep3B and HepG2, induced primary mouse HSCs transdifferentiation, characterized by profibrotic properties and collagen modification, with similar results seen in the human HSC cell line LX2. Moreover, tumor growth was enhanced by coinjection of HepG2/LX2 cells in a xenograft murine model, supporting a HCC-HSC crosstalk in liver tumor progression. Protein microarray secretome analyses revealed angiogenin as the most robust and selective protein released by HCC compared to LX2 secreted molecules. In fact, recombinant angiogenin induced in vitro HSC activation requiring its nuclear translocation and rRNA transcriptional stimulation. Moreover, angiogenin antagonism by blocking antibodies or angiogenin inhibitor neomycin decreased in vitro HSC activation by conditioned media or recombinant angiogenin. Finally, neomycin administration reduced tumor growth of HepG2-LX2 cells coinjected in mice. In conclusion, angiogenin secretion by HCCs favors tumor development by inducing HSC activation and ECM remodeling. These findings indicate that targeting angiogenin signaling may be of potential relevance in HCC management. PMID:25604905

  8. Carboxylated nanodiamonds are neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic on liver, kidney, intestine and lung human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Paget, V; Sergent, J A; Grall, R; Altmeyer-Morel, S; Girard, H A; Petit, T; Gesset, C; Mermoux, M; Bergonzo, P; Arnault, J C; Chevillard, S

    2014-08-01

    Although nanodiamonds (NDs) appear as one of the most promising nanocarbon materials available so far for biomedical applications, their risk for human health remains unknown. Our work was aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two sets of commercial carboxylated NDs with diameters below 20 and 100 nm, on six human cell lines chosen as representative of potential target organs: HepG2 and Hep3B (liver), Caki-1 and Hek-293 (kidney), HT29 (intestine) and A549 (lung). Cytotoxicity of NDs was assessed by measuring cell impedance (xCELLigence® system) and cell survival/death by flow cytometry while genotoxicity was assessed by γ-H2Ax foci detection, which is considered the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks. To validate and check the sensitivity of the techniques, aminated polystyrene nanobeads were used as positive control in all assays. Cell incorporation of NDs was also studied by flow cytometry and luminescent N-V center photoluminescence (confirmed by Raman microscopy), to ensure that nanoparticles entered the cells. Overall, we show that NDs effectively entered the cells but NDs do not induce any significant cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on the six cell lines up to an exposure dose of 250 µg/mL. Taken together these results strongly support the huge potential of NDs for human nanomedicine but also their potential as negative control in nanotoxicology studies.

  9. Effects of TGF-beta signalling inhibition with galunisertib (LY2157299) in hepatocellular carcinoma models and in ex vivo whole tumor tissue samples from patients

    PubMed Central

    Serova, Maria; Tijeras-Raballand, Annemilaï; Santos, Célia Dos; Albuquerque, Miguel; Paradis, Valerie; Neuzillet, Cindy; Benhadji, Karim A.; Raymond, Eric; Faivre, Sandrine; de Gramont, Armand

    2015-01-01

    Galunisertib (LY2157299) is a selective ATP-mimetic inhibitor of TGF-β receptor (TβR)-I activation currently under clinical investigation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Our study explored the effects of galunisertib in vitro in HCC cell lines and ex vivo on patient samples. Galunisertib was evaluated in HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7, JHH6 and SK-HEP1 cells as well as in SK-HEP1-derived cells tolerant to sorafenib (SK-Sora) and sunitinib (SK-Suni). Exogenous stimulation of all HCC cell lines with TGF-β yielded downstream activation of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 that was potently inhibited with galunisertib treatment at micromolar concentrations. Despite limited antiproliferative effects, galunisertib yielded potent anti-invasive properties. Tumor slices from 13 patients with HCC surgically resected were exposed ex vivo to 1 μM and 10 μM galunisertib, 5 μM sorafenib or a combination of both drugs for 48 hours. Galunisertib but not sorafenib decreased p-Smad2/3 downstream TGF-β signaling. Immunohistochemistry analysis of galunisertib and sorafenib-exposed samples showed a significant decrease of the proliferative marker Ki67 and increase of the apoptotic marker caspase-3. In combination, galunisertib potentiated the effect of sorafenib efficiently by inhibiting proliferation and increasing apoptosis. Our data suggest that galunisertib may be active in patients with HCC and could potentiate the effects of sorafenib. PMID:26057634

  10. SIRT6 Depletion Suppresses Tumor Growth by Promoting Cellular Senescence Induced by DNA Damage in HCC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Namgyu; Ryu, Hye Guk; Kwon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Kim, Sae Rom; Wang, Hee Jung; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Choi, Kwan Yong

    2016-01-01

    The role of Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in liver cancer remains controversial. Thus, we identified the specific role of SIRT6 in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SIRT6 expression was significantly higher in HCC cell lines and HCC tissues from 138 patients than in an immortalized hepatocyte cell line, THLE-2 and non-tumor tissues, respectively. SIRT6 knockdown by shRNA suppressed the growth of HCC cells and inhibited HCC tumor growth in vivo. In addition, SIRT6 silencing significantly prevented the growth of HCC cell lines by inducing cellular senescence in the p16/Rb- and p53/p21-pathway independent manners. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of genes involved in nucleosome assembly was apparently altered in SIRT6-depleted Hep3B cells. SIRT6 knockdown promoted G2/M phase arrest and downregulation of genes encoding histone variants associated with nucleosome assembly, which could be attributed to DNA damage. Taken together, our findings suggest that SIRT6 acts as a tumor promoter by preventing DNA damage and cellular senescence, indicating that SIRT6 represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.

  11. The miR-24-3p/p130Cas: a novel axis regulating the migration and invasion of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hoin; Rho, Jun Gi; Kim, Chongtae; Tak, Hyosun; Lee, Heejin; Ji, Eunbyul; Ahn, Sojin; Shin, A-Ri; Cho, Hyun-Il; Huh, Yun Hyun; Song, Woo Keun; Kim, Wook; Lee, Eun Kyung

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by suppressing translation or facilitating mRNA decay. Differential expression of miRNAs is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer. Here, we investigated the role of-miR-24-3p as a downregulated miRNA in metastatic cancer. miR-24-3p was decreased in metastatic cancer and lower expression of miR-24-3p was related to poor survival of cancer patients. Consistently, ectopic expression of miR-24-3p suppressed the cell migration, invasion, and proliferation of MCF7, Hep3B, B16F10, SK-Hep1, and PC-3 cells by directly targeting p130Cas. Stable expression of p130Cas restored miR-24-3p-mediated inhibition of cell migration and invasion. These results suggest that miR-24-3p functions as a tumor suppressor and the miR-24-3p/p130Cas axis is a novel factor of cancer progression by regulating cell migration and invasion. PMID:28337997

  12. [Synthesis and anti-proliferative activity of fluoroquinolone (rhodanine unsaturated ketone) amide derivatives].

    PubMed

    Gao, Liu-zhou; Xie, Yu-suo; Yan, Qiang; Wu, Shu-min; Ni, Li-li; Zhao, Hui; Huang, Wen-long; Hu, Guo-qiang

    2015-08-01

    To discover novel antitumor rhodanine unsaturated ketones, a series of fluoroquinolone (rhodanine α, β-unsaturated ketone) amine derivatives (5a-5r) were designed and synthesized with fluoroquinolone amide scaffold as a carrier. The structures of eighteen title compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR and MS. The in vitro anti-proliferative activity against Hep-3B, Capan-1 and HL60 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that the title compounds not only had more significant anti-proliferative activity against three tested cancer cell lines than that of the parent ciprofloxacin 1, but also exhibited the highest activity against Capan-1 cells. The SAR revealed that some compounds carrying aromatic heterocyclic rings or phenyl attached to an electron-withdrawing carboxyl or sulfonamide substituent were comparable to or better than comparison doxorubicin against Capan-1 cells. As such, it suggests that fluoroquinolone (rhodanine α, β-unsaturated ketone) amines are promising leads for the development of novel antitumor fluoroquinolones or rhodanine analogues.

  13. [Synthesis and anti-proliferative activity of fluoroquinolone C-3 fused heterocyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones derived from ciprofloxacin].

    PubMed

    Li, Taol; Gao Liu, Zhou; Xie, Yu-suo; Feng, Yan-fei; Yan, Qiang; Wu, Shu-min; Ni, Li-li; Zhao, Hui; Huang, Wen-long; Hu, Guo-qiang

    2015-05-01

    To discover novel antitumor fluoroquinolone lead compounds from a rational modification for antibacterial fluoroquinolones, a fused heterocyclic ketone corresponding to thiazolo[2,3- b][1,2,4]triazolone used as a bioisosteric replacement of the C-3 carboxylic acid group of ciprofloxacin 1, and further modification by a Claisen condensation reaction with substituted benzaldehydes formed novel fluoroquinolone C-3 fuse heterocyclic α, β-unsaturated ketones as the title compounds (6a-6r), separately. The structures of eighteen title compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR and MS, and the in vitro anti-proliferative activity against human hepatoma Hep-3B cells, pancreatic Capan-1 cells and leukemia HL60 cells was evaluated by a MTT assay. The preliminary results showed that the title compounds not only had more significant anti-proliferative activity against three tested cancer cell lines than that of the parent ciprofloxacin 1, but also exhibited the highest activity against Capan-1 cells. In particular, compounds carrying an electron-withdrawing carboxyl (6k, 6m) or sulfonamide substituent (6q, 6r) attached to benzene ring were comparable to or better than constractive drug doxorubicin against Capan-1 cells. As such, it suggests that it is favorable for a fused heterocyclic α, β-unsaturated ketone scaffold instead of the C-3 carboxylic acid group to improve the antitumor activity of fluoroquinolones.

  14. Silencing clusterin gene transcription on effects of multidrug resistance reversing of human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjie; Sai, Wenli; Yao, Min; Gu, Hongbin; Yao, Yao; Qian, Qi; Yao, Dengfu

    2015-05-01

    Abnormal clusterin (CLU) expression is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, the CLU expression was analyzed in human hepatoma cells and chemoresistant counterpart HepG2/ADM cells. Compared with L02 cells, the overexpression of cellular CLU was identified in HepG2, HepG2/ADM, SMMC7721, Hep3B ,and PLC cells and relatively lower expression in Bel-7404, SNU-739, and MHCC97H cells. Specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to silence CLU gene transcription were designed, and the most effective sequences were screened. After the HepG2/ADM cells transfected with shRNA-1, the inhibition of CLU expression was 73.68 % at messenger RNA (mRNA) level by real-time quantitative RT-PCR with obvious enhancement in cell chemosensitivity, increasing apoptosis induced by doxorubicin using fluorescence kit, and Rh-123 retention qualified with flow cytometry. Knockdown CLU also significantly decreased the drug efflux pump activity through the depression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (q = 11.739, P < 0.001). Moreover, silencing CLU led to downregulation of β-catenin (q = 13.544, P = 0.001), suggesting that downregulation of CLU might be a key point to reverse multidrug resistance of HepG2/ADM cells.

  15. Nanoparticles of a polyaspartamide-based brush copolymer for modified release of sorafenib: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cervello, Melchiorre; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Volpe, Antonella Bavuso; Porsio, Barbara; Balasus, Daniele; Emma, Maria Rita; Azzolina, Antonina; Puleio, Roberto; Loria, Guido Ruggero; Puleo, Stefano; Giammona, Gaetano

    2017-09-14

    In this paper, we describe the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with sorafenib for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A synthetic brush copolymer, named PHEA-BIB-ButMA (PBB), was synthesized by Atom Trasnfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) starting from the α-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-d,l-aspartamide (PHEA) and poly butyl methacrylate (ButMA). Empty and sorafenib loaded PBB NPs were, then, produced by using a dialysis method and showed spherical morphology, colloidal size, negative ζ potential and the ability to allow a sustained sorafenib release in physiological environment. Sorafenib loaded PBB NPs were tested in vitro on HCC cells in order to evaluate their cytocompatibility and anticancer efficacy if compared to free drug. Furthermore, the enhanced anticancer effect of sorafenib loaded PBB NPs was demonstrated in vivo by using a xenograft model, by first allowing Hep3B cells to grow subcutaneously into nude mice and then administering sorafenib as free drug or incorporated into NPs via intraperitoneal injection. Finally, in vivo biodistribution studies were performed, showing the ability of the produced drug delivery system to accumulate in a significant manner in the solid tumor by passive targeting, thanks to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enrichment of Nur77 mediated by RARβ leads to apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by fenretinide and HDACi

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Zhan, Qi; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic retinoid fenretinide is one of the most promising clinically tested retinoids. Previously, we have shown that fenretinide induces apoptosis of Huh7 cells, but HepG2 cells are relatively resistant to fenretinide-induced apoptosis. The current study examines the interactive role of fenretinide and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in inducing apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and the underlying mechanism. Trichostatin A (TSA) and scriptaid can either enhance fenretinide-induced apoptosis in the fenretinide sensitive HCC cells (Huh7 and Hep3B) or sensitize the fenretinide resistant cells (HepG2) to become sensitive to the apoptotic effect of fenretinide in a cancer-cell specific manner. The sensitivity of cells to fenretinide-induced apoptosis was neither associated with ROS production nor anti-oxidant gene expression. However, the level of RARβ and Nur77 was important for inducing apoptosis. Upon fenretinide and HDACi treatment, the expression of RARβ and Nur77 were induced and co-localized in the cytosol. The induction of Nur77 protein level, but not the mRNA level, was RARβ-dependent. In addition, RARβ interacted with Nur77. Nur77 was essential for fenretinide- and HDACi-induced apoptosis of Huh7 cells. Induction of the expression, the interaction, and the nuclear export of RARβ and Nur77 mediate fenretinide and HDACi induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that targeting Nur77 and RARβ simultaneously provides an effective way to induce HCC cell death. PMID:21319187

  17. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts from Hepatocellular Carcinoma Promote Malignant Cell Proliferation by HGF Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Bin-Sheng; Hua, XueFeng; Wang, Guo-Ying; Li, Tuan-Jie; Li, Xing; Wu, Xiang-Yuan; Tai, Yan; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are reported to support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation, and invasion in most solid tumors. However, the roles of CAFs in the liver cancer microenvironment have not been thoroughly studied. In our previous study, we successfully isolated CAFs from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (H-CAFs) and proved that H-CAFs suppressed the activation of NK cells and thereby created favorable conditions for HCC progression. In our present study, we found that the proliferation of MHCC97L and Hep3B cells was significantly promoted by treatment with conditioned medium from H-CAFs. Pathological analysis also revealed that H-CAFs increased the proportion of Ki-67 (+) malignant cells and prevented them from undergoing necrosis. Moreover, the concentration of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) cytokine in the conditioned medium of H-CAFs was higher than conditioned medium from normal skin fibroblasts (NSFs). Anti-HGF significantly reduced the proliferation-promoting capability of H-CAFs. In addition, we found that the abundance of H-CAFs correlated positively with tumor size. These results indicate that H-CAFs are an important factor for promoting the growth of HCC in vitro and in vivo, and that HGF plays a key role in HCC proliferation induced by H-CAFs. PMID:23667593

  18. Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) suppresses metastastic potential of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuhong; Li, Jianfeng; Jiang, Ying; Xu, Yijun; Qin, Chengyong

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal malignancy with high rate of metastasis and poor prognosis. There are no effective managements to block metastasis of HCC. Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is found to be a tumor transformation suppressor. Among investigations on effects of PDCD4, little is about the metastatic potentials of HCC cells. This study was to investigate the role of PDCD4 on metastatic potential of human HCC cells. Methods We examined the expression of PDCD4 in three HCC cell lines with different metastatic potentials, MHCC-97H (high metastatic potential), MHCC-97L (low metastatic potential) and Hep3B (no metastatic potential). A plasmid encoding PDCD4 gene was constructed and then transfected into HCC cells with the lowest PDCD4 expression level. Effects of PDCD4 on cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, gene expression of metastasis tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) and in vitro migration and invasion capacity were assessed after transfection. Results Our results showed that the expression level of PDCD4 was inversely correlated to the metastatic potential of HCC cells. After transfection with the PDCD4 gene, HCC cell proliferation rate was significantly decreased, cell apoptosis rate was significantly increased, the expression of MTA1 gene, HCC cell migration and Matrigel invasion were also remarkably inhibited. Conclusion PDCD4 expression is inversely correlated to the metastatic potential of HCC cells. PDCD4 can effectively suppress the metastatic potential of HCC cells. PMID:19480673

  19. ERK1/2 activation plays important roles in the opposite effects of Trichostatin A in non-cancer and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Wang, Dongmei; Hu, Ying; Lei, Weiwei

    2011-05-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are candidates of anti-cancer drugs as they can effectively kill cancer cells while have little or no toxicity to non-cancer cells, but the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. We previously reported that HDAC inhibitors could protect normal mouse hepatocytes from apoptosis induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) with the requirement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). In this study, we investigate the roles of trichostatin A (TSA), a typical HDAC inhibitor, on three non-cancer cell lines AML-12, MDCK and 3T3-L1, and four cancer cell lines Hep-3B, HeLa, A549 and MCF-7. TSA is a fermentation product of Streptomyces originally used as an antifungal agent. Our results showed that TSA blocked not only the TGF-β1-induced apoptosis but also serum starvation-induced apoptosis in all the non-cancer cells, whereas it could induce strong apoptosis in all the cancer cells. Further investigation revealed that TSA can induce the activation of ERK1/2 in the three non-cancer cells but not in the cancer cells. In summary, these findings indicated that TSA protect non-cancer cells from apoptosis via activating ERK1/2, providing a useful insight into the better application of HDAC inhibitors in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation in 3-bromopyruvate induced cell death in hepatoma cells : ROS-mediated cell death by 3-BrPA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Su; Ahn, Keun Jae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Hye Mi; Lee, Jong Doo; Lee, Jae Myun; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Jeon Han

    2008-12-01

    Hexokinase type II (HK II) is the key enzyme for maintaining increased glycolysis in cancer cells where it is overexpressed. 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), an inhibitor of HK II, induces cell death in cancer cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of 3-BrPA-induced cell death, we used the hepatoma cell lines SNU449 (low expression of HKII) and Hep3B (high expression of HKII). 3-BrPA induced ATP depletion-dependent necrosis and apoptosis in both cell lines. 3-BrPA increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to mitochondrial dysregulation. NAC (N-acetyl-L: -cysteine), an antioxidant, blocked 3-BrPA-induced ROS production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death. 3-BrPA-mediated oxidative stress not only activated poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) but also translocated AIF from the mitochondria to the nucleus. Taken together, 3-BrPA induced ATP depletion-dependent necrosis and apoptosis and mitochondrial dysregulation due to ROS production are involved in 3-BrPA-induced cell death in hepatoma cells.

  1. CD4-independent, productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of hepatoma cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y Z; Friedman-Kien, A E; Huang, Y X; Li, X L; Mirabile, M; Moudgil, T; Zucker-Franklin, D; Ho, D D

    1990-01-01

    Five hepatoma cell lines, including CZHC/8571, PLC/PRF/5, Hep3B, HepG2, and HUH7, were inoculated with three diverse isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Productive infection was noted in all hepatoma cell lines, and expression of viral p24 antigen lasted for over 3 months, but its level decreased in proportion to the number of viable cells. HIV-1 antigens were also found in the cells by immunohistochemical staining and radioimmunoprecipitation assay, as were viral RNA by in situ hybridization and HIV-1-like particles by electron microscopy. Virus yield assays were also positive on supernatant fluids collected from hepatoma cultures inoculated with HIV-1. Despite their susceptibility to infection, all five hepatoma cell lines were negative for CD4 by immunofluorescence and for CD4 mRNA by slot-blot hybridization. In addition, HIV-1 infection of hepatoma cell lines was not blocked by anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody or soluble CD4. Together, these findings clearly demonstrate that all five hepatoma cell lines were susceptible to productive infection by HIV-1 in vitro via a CD4-independent mechanism. Images PMID:2159530

  2. A Taiwanese Propolis Derivative Induces Apoptosis through Inducing Endoplasmic Reticular Stress and Activating Transcription Factor-3 in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Fat-Moon; Lien, Gi-Shih; Huang, Wei-Jan; Chen, Chia-Nan; Lu, Shao-Yu; Yan, Ming-De

    2013-01-01

    Activating transcription factor-(ATF-) 3, a stress-inducible transcription factor, is rapidly upregulated under various stress conditions and plays an important role in inducing cancer cell apoptosis. NBM-TP-007-GS-002 (GS-002) is a Taiwanese propolin G (PPG) derivative. In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of GS-002 in human hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells in vitro. First, we found that GS-002 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manners. Several main apoptotic indicators were found in GS-002-treated cells, such as the cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). GS-002 also induced endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress as evidenced by increases in ER stress-responsive proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), phosphorylated protein endoplasmic-reticular-resident kinase (PERK), and ATF-3. The induction of ATF-3 expression was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in GS-002-treated cells. Furthermore, we found that GS-002 induced more cell apoptosis in ATF-3-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that the induction of apoptosis by the propolis derivative, GS-002, is partially mediated through ER stress and ATF-3-dependent pathways, and GS-002 has the potential for development as an antitumor drug. PMID:24222778

  3. Design, synthesis, and preclinical evaluation of new 5,6- (or 6,7-) disubstituted-2-(fluorophenyl)quinolin-4-one derivatives as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Chou, Li-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Tung; Hsu, Mei-Hua; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Way, Tzong-Der; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lin, Hui-Yi; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu

    2010-11-25

    Our previous exploration of 2-phenylquinolin-4-ones (2-PQs) has led to an anticancer drug candidate 2-(2-fluorophenyl)-6,7-methylenedioxyquinolin-4-one monosodium phosphate (CHM-1-P-Na). In order to develop additional new drug candidates, novel 2-PQs were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for cytotoxic activity. Most analogues, including 1b, 2a,b, 3a,b, 4a,b, and 5a,b, exhibited significant inhibitory activity (IC(50) of 0.03-8.2 μM) against all tested tumor cell lines. As one of the most potent analogue, 2-(3-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxy-6-methoxyquinolin-4-one (3b) selectively inhibited 14 out of 60 cancer cell lines in a National Cancer Institute (NCI) evaluation. Preliminary mechanism of action study suggested that 3b had a significant effect on the tyrosine autophosphorylation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Safety pharmacology profiling of 3b showed no significant effect on normal biological functions of most enzymes tested. Furthermore, sodium 2-(3-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinolin-5-yl phosphate (15), the monophosphate of 3b, exceeded the activity of doxorubicin and was comparable to CHM-1-P-Na in a Hep3B xenograft nude mice model. In summary, 15 is a promising clinical candidate and is currently under preclinical study.

  4. Tiam1, overexpressed in most malignancies, is a novel tumor biomarker.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Ding, Yi; Liu, Feiye; Ruan, Jian; Guan, Jian; Huang, Jing; Ye, Xianghua; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Gong; Zhang, Xiangmei; Liang, Zhao; Luo, Rongcheng; Chen, Longhua

    2012-01-01

    T lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GNEF) family member, and is considered to be involved in many important cellular processes and oncogenesis. In this study, we investigated Tiam1 expression differences between normal tissue and malignant tissue using tissue microarray (TMA), and further studied the Tiam1 mRNA and protein level in 9 hepatoma lines. Forty-nine tumor tissue and 47 normal tissue samples were detected via TMA by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibody. Tiam1 expression in 9 human hepatoma cell lines, namely Huh-7, HepG2, Hep3B, SMMC-7721, QGy-7701, QGy-7703, BEL-7402, BEL-7404 and BEL-7405, and 1 normal primary human hepatocyte, HL-7702, was compared by means of fluorescence quantitative PCR, immunocytochemistry assay and Western blotting. We found that Tiam1 was significantly expressed in various malignancies. Tiam1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in the 9 human hepatoma cell lines compared to the normal primary human hepatocyte. Our results suggest that Tiam1 overexpression in malignant neoplasms could be a novel effective supplementary biomarker for tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Synthesis and antiproliferative activities of N-(naphthalen-2-yl)acetamide and N-(substituted phenyl)acetamide bearing quinolin-2(1H)-one and 3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Li; Chen, Jih-Jung; Lin, Yu-Chin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Juang, Shin-Hun; Wang, Tai-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Certain N-(naphthalen-2-yl)acetamide and N-(substituted phenyl)acetamide bearing quinolin-2(1H)-one and 3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines including nasopharyngeal (NPC-TW01), lung carcinoma (H661), hepatoma (Hep3B), renal carcinoma (A498), and gastric cancer (MKN45). Among them, N-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-(2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yloxy)acetamide (18) was the most active against NPC-TW01 with an IC(50) value of 0.6 μM. Studies on NPC-TW01 cell cycle distribution revealed that compound 18 inhibited proliferation of NPC-TW01 by the alteration of cell division, accumulation of cells in S phase in a time- and concentration-dependent manners. In addition, compound 18 demonstrated very specific cytotoxicity against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC-TW01) cell lines with no detectable cytotoxicity against peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at a concentration of up to 50 μM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. SIRT6 Depletion Suppresses Tumor Growth by Promoting Cellular Senescence Induced by DNA Damage in HCC

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namgyu; Ryu, Hye Guk; Kwon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Kim, Sae Rom; Wang, Hee Jung; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Choi, Kwan Yong

    2016-01-01

    The role of Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in liver cancer remains controversial. Thus, we identified the specific role of SIRT6 in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SIRT6 expression was significantly higher in HCC cell lines and HCC tissues from 138 patients than in an immortalized hepatocyte cell line, THLE-2 and non-tumor tissues, respectively. SIRT6 knockdown by shRNA suppressed the growth of HCC cells and inhibited HCC tumor growth in vivo. In addition, SIRT6 silencing significantly prevented the growth of HCC cell lines by inducing cellular senescence in the p16/Rb- and p53/p21-pathway independent manners. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of genes involved in nucleosome assembly was apparently altered in SIRT6-depleted Hep3B cells. SIRT6 knockdown promoted G2/M phase arrest and downregulation of genes encoding histone variants associated with nucleosome assembly, which could be attributed to DNA damage. Taken together, our findings suggest that SIRT6 acts as a tumor promoter by preventing DNA damage and cellular senescence, indicating that SIRT6 represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC. PMID:27824900

  7. Synthesis, structural characterization and cell death-inducing effect of novel palladium(II) and platinum(II) saccharinate complexes with 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine and 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyridine on cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ari, Ferda; Aztopal, Nazlihan; Icsel, Ceyda; Yilmaz, Veysel T; Guney, Emel; Buyukgungor, Orhan; Ulukaya, Engin

    2013-11-01

    Four palladium(II) and platinum(II) saccharinate (sac) complexes with 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine (2-hmpy) and 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyridine (2-hepy), namely trans-[Pd(2-hmpy)2(sac)2]·H2O (1), trans-[Pt(2-hmpy)2(sac)2]·3H2O (2), trans-[Pd(2-hepy)2(sac)2] (3) and trans-[Pt(2-hepy)2(sac)2] (4), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis, IR and NMR. Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that the metal(II) ions in each complex are coordinated by two sac and two 2-hmpy or 2-hepy ligands with a trans arrangement. Anticancer effects of 1-4 were tested against four different cancer cell lines (A549 and PC3 for lung cancer, C6 for glioblastoma, and Hep3B for liver cancer). Cytotoxicity was first screened by the MTT assay and the results were further confirmed by the ATP assay. The mode of cell death was determined by both histological and biochemical methods. Among the metal complexes, complex 2 resulted in relatively stronger anti-growth effect in a dose-dependent manner (3.13-200μM), compared to the others, by inducing apoptosis.

  8. Inhibition of the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in athymic mice by a quinazoline inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, CB3717.

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, N. J.; Harris, A. L.; James, O. F.; Bassendine, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    Two human primary liver cancer cell-lines, PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B, grown both in vitro and as xenografts in nude mice were used to evaluate the chemotherapeutic potential of a new quinazoline antifolate CB3717. Xenograft growth rate was followed both by serial serum alphafoetoprotein (AFP) measurement and direct volume estimation. A dose regime of 200 mg CB3717 kg-1 body wt day-1 for 5 days caused a significant reduction in growth rate, as measured by relative serum AFP, of both xenografts; PLC/PRF/5 derived xenograft growth was also inhibited by 125 mg CB 3717 kg-1 day-1 for 5 days. Cell culture experiments showed that the ID50 for the cell lines fell within the range of serum CB3717 concentration achieved by a dose of 300 mg m-2 given to patients. Treatment with CB3717 stimulated the incorporation of exogenous thymidine into DNA by the tumour cells, presumably because of inhibition of the de novo pathway and reduction of endogenous thymidine triphosphate pools. These results suggest that CB3717 may be a useful new therapeutic agent in human primary liver cell carcinoma and that blocking the salvage pathway may further increase efficacy. PMID:3008799

  9. Antimetastatic effect of fluvastatin on breast and hepatocellular carcinoma cells in relation to SGK1 and NDRG1 genes.

    PubMed

    Salis, Osman; Okuyucu, Ali; Bedir, Abdulkerim; Gör, Ufuk; Kulcu, Canan; Yenen, Eser; Kılıç, Nermin

    2016-03-01

    Metastasis occurs due to migration of the cells from primary tumor toward other tissues by gaining invasive properties. Since metastatic invasion shows a strong resistance against conventional cancer treatments, the studies on this issue have been focused. Within this context, inhibition of migration and determination of the relationships at the gene level will contribute to treatment of metastatic cancer cases. We have aimed to demonstrate the impact of TGF-β1 and fluvastatin on human breast cancer (MCF-7) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B) cell cultures via Real-Time Cell Analyzer (RTCA) and to test the expression levels of some genes (NDRG1, SGK1, TWIST1, AMPKA2) and to compare their gene expression levels according to RTCA results. Both of cell series were applied TGF-β1 and combinations of TGF-β1/fluvastatin. Primer and probes were synthesized using Universal Probe Library (UPL, Roche) software, and expression levels of genes were tested via qPCR using the device LightCycler 480 II (Roche). Consequently, fluvastatin dose-dependently inhibited migration induced by TGF-β1 in both groups. This inhibition was accompanied by low level of SGK1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and high levels of NDRG1 and AMPKA2 mRNA. Thus, we conclude that fluvastatin plays an important role in reducing resistance to chemotherapeutics and preventing metastasis.

  10. Fo shou san, an ancient herbal decoction prepared from angelicae sinensis radix and chuanxiong rhizoma, induces erythropoietin expression: a signaling mediated by the reduced degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor in cultured liver cells.

    PubMed

    Bi, Cathy W C; Xu, Li; Zhang, Wendy L; Zhan, Janis Y X; Fu, Qiang; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Chen, Vicky P; Lau, David T W; Choi, Roy C Y; Wang, Tie J; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2012-01-01

    Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction composed of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong) in a ratio of 3:2. FSS is mainly prescribed for patients having a deficiency of blood supply, and it indeed has been shown to stimulate the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in cultured cells. In order to reveal the mechanism of this FSS-induced EPO gene expression, the upstream regulatory cascade, via hypoxia-induced signaling, was revealed here in cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep3B. The induction of EPO gene expression, triggered by FSS, was revealed in cultured hepatocytes by: (i) the increase of EPO mRNA; and (ii) the activation of the hypoxia response element (HRE), an upstream regulator of the EPO gene. The FSS-induced EPO gene expression was triggered by an increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1 α) protein; however, the mRNA expression of HIF-1 α was not altered by the treatment of FSS. The increased HIF-1 α was a result of reduced protein degradation after the FSS treatment. The current results therefore provide one of the molecular mechanisms of this ancient herbal decoction for its hematopoietic function.

  11. Nitrogen Regulates AMPK to Control TORC1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Elizabeth; Forte, Gabriella M.A.; Petersen, Janni

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cell growth and cell-cycle progression are tightly coordinated to enable cells to adjust their size (timing of division) to the demands of proliferation in varying nutritional environments. In fission yeast, nitrogen stress results in sustained proliferation at a reduced size. Results Here, we show that cells can sense nitrogen stress to reduce target of rapamycin complex-1 (TORC1) activity. Nitrogen-stress-induced TORC1 inhibition differs from amino-acid-dependent control of TORC1 and requires the Ssp2 (AMPKα) kinase, the Tsc1/2 complex, and Rhb1 GTPase. Importantly, the β and γ regulatory subunits of AMPK are not required to control cell division in response to nitrogen stress, providing evidence for a nitrogen-sensing mechanism that is independent of changes in intracellular ATP/AMP levels. The CaMKK homolog Ssp1 is constitutively required for phosphorylation of the AMPKαSsp2 T loop. However, we find that a second homolog CaMKKPpk34 is specifically required to stimulate AMPKαSsp2 activation in response to nitrogen stress. Finally, ammonia also controls mTORC1 activity in human cells; mTORC1 is activated upon the addition of ammonium to glutamine-starved Hep3B cancer cells. Conclusions The alternative nitrogen source ammonia can simulate TORC1 activity to support growth and division under challenging nutrient settings, a situation often seen in cancer. PMID:25639242

  12. Overexpression of Insulin Receptor Substrate-2 in Human and Murine Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Boissan, Mathieu; Beurel, Eléonore; Wendum, Dominique; Rey, Colette; Lécluse, Yann; Housset, Chantal; Lacombe, Marie-Lise; Desbois-Mouthon, Christèle

    2005-01-01

    Deregulations in insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathways may contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma. Although intracellular insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) is the main effector of insulin signaling in the liver, its role in hepatocarcinogenesis is unknown. Here, we show that IRS-2 was overexpressed in two murine models of hepatocarcinogenesis: administration of diethylnitrosamine and hepatic overexpression of SV40 large T antigen. In both models, IRS-2 overexpression was detected in preneoplastic lesions and at higher levels in tumoral nodules. IRS-2 overexpression associated with IGF-2 and IRS-1 overexpression and with GSK-3β inhibition. Increased expression of IRS-2 was also detected in human hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and hepatoma cell lines. In murine and human hepatoma cells, IRS-2 protein induction associated with increased IRS-2 mRNA levels. The functionality of IRS-2 was demonstrated in Hep3B cells, in which IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and its association with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase were induced by IGF-2. Moreover, down-regulation of IRS-2 expression increased apoptosis in these cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that IRS-2 is overexpressed in human and murine hepatocellular carcinoma. The emergence of IRS-2 overexpression at preneoplastic stages during experimental hepatocarcinogenesis and its protective effect against apoptosis suggest that IRS-2 contributes to liver tumor progression. PMID:16127164

  13. A rapid and efficient polyethylenimine-based transfection method to prepare lentiviral or retroviral vectors: useful for making iPS cells and transduction of primary cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaozhe; Shi, Haijun; Chu, Xinran; Zhou, Xiaoling; Sun, Pingnan

    2016-09-01

    To improve the efficiency, reproducibility and consistency of the PEI-based transfection method that is often used in preparation of recombinant lentiviral or retroviral vectors. The contributions to transfection efficiency of multi-factors including concentration of PEI or DNA, dilution buffer for PEI/DNA, manner to prepare PEI/DNA complexes, influence of serum, incubation time for PEI/DNA complexes, and transfection time were studied. Gentle mixing during the preparation of PEI/DNA transfection complexes is critical for a high transfection efficiency. PEI could be stored at room temperature or 4 °C, and most importantly, multigelation should be avoided. The transfection efficiency of the PEI-based new method in different types of cells, such as 293T, Cos-7, HeLa, HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7 and L02, was also higher than that of the previous method. After optimization, the titer of our lentiviral system or retroviral system produced by PEI-based new method was about 10- or 3-times greater than that produced by PEI-based previous method, respectively. We provide a rapid and efficient PEI-based method for preparation of recombinant lentiviral or retroviral vectors which is useful for making iPS cells as well as transduction of primary cell cultures.

  14. Interaction of cyclophilin A with a novel binding protein, SR-25, and characterization of their expression pattern in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Li, Ning; Lian, Peiwen; Wang, Jiahui; Li, Peng; Gong, Zhaohua; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophilin (Cyp) A has been reported to be overexpressed in the majority of cancer cells, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the biological functions of CypA in HCC are far from being understood. To determine the biological functions of CypA in HCC, the present study screened human fetal liver complementary DNA for proteins interacting with CypA using the yeast two-hybrid system. A nuclear protein, serine/arginine-rich (SR)-25, was isolated as a novel CypA-binding protein that is distinct from those previously described in the literature. Binding assays and co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the physical association between CypA and SR-25. The present study demonstrated that CypA may interact with SR-25 through its peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain. In addition, CypA may induce the expression of SR-25 in Hep3B cells. The messenger RNA levels of CypA and SR-25 in HCC indicated that there was a significant correlation between the expression of CypA and the expression of SR-25 in HCC. It can be speculated that the interaction between CypA and SR-25 proteins may be involved in potential carcinogenic functions of CypA in HCC. Further studies will focus on elucidating in detail the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between CypA and SR-25. PMID:28105234

  15. The Ethanolic Extract of Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Antrodia camphorata) Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Enhances Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and Doxorubicin on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Tai, Chen-Jei; Su, Ching-Hua; Chang, Fang-Mo; Choong, Chen-Yen; Wang, Chien-Kai; Tai, Cheng-Jeng

    2015-01-01

    Taiwanofungus camphoratus (synonym Antrodia camphorata) is a widely used medicinal fungus in the folk medicine of Taiwan with several pharmacological features such as anti-inflammatory, liver protection, antihypertensive, and antioxidative activities. The ethanolic extract of T. camphoratus (TCEE) which contains abundant bioactive compounds including triterpenoids and polysaccharides also has antitumor effects in various human cancer cell lines. The aims of this study are to clarify the antitumor effects of TCEE on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and also evaluate the combination drug effects with conventional chemotherapy agents, cisplatin and doxorubicin. In the present study, the TCEE treatment induced cell cycle arrest and suppressed cell growth on both Hep3B and HepJ5 cells. Expression of cell cycle inhibitors, P21 and P27, and activation of apoptosis executer enzyme, caspase-3, were also induced by TCEE. In combination with the chemotherapy agents, TCEE treatment further enhanced the tumor suppression efficiency of cisplatin and doxorubicin. These results together suggested that TCEE is a potential ingredient for developing an integrated chemotherapy for human liver cancer. PMID:26557666

  16. STAT3 participates in transcriptional activation of the C-reactive protein gene by interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Sun, M; Samols, D; Kushner, I

    1996-04-19

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the major cytokine inducing transcription of human C-reactive protein (CRP) during the acute phase response. STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) family members, recently shown to be important mediators of the effects of many cytokines including IL-6, generally induce their effects by binding to palindromic sequences with TT(N)5AA motifs. We report an IL-6 responsive element in the proximal region of the human CRP 5'-flanking region that bears a TT(N)4AA motif, which we have termed CRP acute phase response element (CRP-APRE). In Hep3B cells, IL-6 but not interferon-gamma was capable of activating CAT constructs driven by the CRP promoter containing CRP-APRE. Overexpressed STAT3 was able to transactivate CRP-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs through the CRP-APRE and was able to enhance endogenous CRP mRNA accumulation in response to IL-6. STAT3 (or an antigenically related molecule) bound to the CRP-APRE in response to IL-6. Overexpression of STAT3 in the presence of IL-6 was capable of inducing expression of a construct consisting of the CRP-APRE and a minimal thymidine kinase promoter lacking a C/EBP site. Taken together, these findings indicate that STAT3 participates in the transcriptional activation of CRP in response to IL-6.

  17. Immunotoxin targeting glypican-3 regresses liver cancer via dual inhibition of Wnt signalling and protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Tang, Zhewei; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Feng, Mingqian; Qian, Min; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Ho, Mitchell

    2015-03-11

    Glypican-3 is a cell surface glycoprotein that associates with Wnt in liver cancer. We develop two antibodies targeting glypican-3, HN3 and YP7. The first antibody recognizes a functional epitope and inhibits Wnt signalling, whereas the second antibody recognizes a C-terminal epitope but does not inhibit Wnt signalling. Both are fused to a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38) to create immunotoxins. Interestingly, the immunotoxin based on HN3 (HN3-PE38) has superior antitumor activity as compared with YP7 (YP7-PE38) both in vitro and in vivo. Intravenous administration of HN3-PE38 alone, or in combination with chemotherapy, induces regression of Hep3B and HepG2 liver tumour xenografts in mice. This study establishes glypican-3 as a promising candidate for immunotoxin-based liver cancer therapy. Our results demonstrate immunotoxin-induced tumour regression via dual mechanisms: inactivation of cancer signalling via the antibody and inhibition of protein synthesis via the toxin.

  18. Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Caesalpinia coriaria Induce S and G2/M Phase Cell Cycle Arrest Differentially and Trigger Cell Death by Interfering with Microtubule Dynamics in Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carranza, Jessica Nayelli; Alvarez, Laura; Marquina-Bahena, Silvia; Salas-Vidal, Enrique; Cuevas, Verónica; Jiménez, Elizabeth W; Veloz G, Rafael A; Carraz, Maelle; González-Maya, Leticia

    2017-04-22

    Caesalpinia coriaria (C. coriaria), also named cascalote, has been known traditionally in México for having cicatrizing and inflammatory properties. Phytochemical reports on Caesalpinia species have identified a high content of phenolic compounds and shown antineoplastic effects against cancer cells. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the active compounds of a water:acetone:ethanol (WAE) extract of C. coriaria pods and characterize their cytotoxic effect and cell death induction in different cancer cell lines. The compounds isolated and identified by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis were stigmasterol, ethyl gallate and gallic acid. Cytotoxic assays on cancer cells showed different ranges of activities. A differential effect on cell cycle progression was observed by flow cytometry. In particular, ethyl gallate and tannic acid induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and showed interesting effect on microtubule stabilization in Hep3B cells observed by immunofluorescence. The induction of apoptosis was characterized by morphological characteristic changes, and was supported by increases in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression and activation of caspase 3/7. This work constitutes the first phytochemical and cytotoxic study of C. coriaria and showed the action of its phenolic constituents on cell cycle, cell death and microtubules organization.

  19. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by biphasic regulation of oxidative stress in different human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuexia; Liu, Dejun; Cai, Chenlei; Chen, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Liangliang; Sun, Yongwei; Dai, Huili; Kong, Xianming; Liu, Peifeng

    2016-01-01

    The application of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) has made great progress in the diagnosis of disease and in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy, but the relative mechanisms of potential toxicity induced by Fe3O4 have not kept pace with its development in the application, which has hampered its further clinical application. In this article, we used two kinds of human hepatoma cell lines, SK-Hep-1 and Hep3B, to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the involved mechanisms of small Fe3O4 NPs with different diameters (6 nm, 9 nm, and 14 nm). Results showed that the size of NPs effectively influences the cytotoxicity of hepatoma cells: 6 nm Fe3O4 NPs exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and 9 nm Fe3O4 NPs affected cytotoxicity via cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and by inducing necrosis mediated through the mitochondria-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Meanwhile, 14 nm Fe3O4 NPs induced cytotoxicity by impairing the integrity of plasma membrane and promoting massive lactate dehydrogenase leakage. These results explain the detailed mechanism of different diameters of small Fe3O4 NPs-induced cytotoxicity. We anticipate that this study will provide different insights into the cytotoxicity mechanism of Fe3O4 NPs, so as to make them safer to use in clinical application.

  20. Suppression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibition of Overexpressed Ornithine Aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Zigmond, Ehud; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Lee, Hyunbeom; Lichtenstein, Yoav; Shalev, Zvi; Smith, Yoav; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ziv, Ehud; Kalman, Rony; Le, Hoang V; Lu, Hejun; Silverman, Richard B; Ilan, Yaron

    2015-08-13

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. DNA microarray analysis identified the ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) gene as a prominent gene overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from Psammomys obesus. In vitro studies demonstrated inactivation of OAT by gabaculine (1), a neurotoxic natural product, which suppressed in vitro proliferation of two HCC cell lines. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) secretion, a biomarker for HCC, was suppressed by gabaculine in both cell lines, but not significantly. Because of the active site similarity between GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) and OAT, a library of 24 GABA-AT inhibitors was screened to identify a more selective inhibitor of OAT. (1S,3S)-3-Amino-4-(hexafluoropropan-2-ylidene)cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid (2) was found to be an inactivator of OAT that only weakly inhibits GABA-AT, l-aspartate aminotransferase, and l-alanine aminotransferase. In vitro administration of 2 significantly suppressed AFP secretion in both Hep3B and HepG2 HCC cells; in vivo, 2 significantly suppressed AFP serum levels and tumor growth in HCC-harboring mice, even at 0.1 mg/kg. Overexpression of the OAT gene in HCC and the ability to block the growth of HCC by OAT inhibitors support the role of OAT as a potential therapeutic target to inhibit HCC growth. This is the first demonstration of suppression of HCC by an OAT inactivator.

  1. The c10orf10 gene product is a new link between oxidative stress and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Marcus W; Folz, Rodney J; Yu, Jerry; Zelko, Igor N

    2014-06-01

    The human c10orf10 gene product, also known as decidual protein induced by progesterone (DEPP), is known to be differentially regulated in mouse tissues in response to hypoxia and oxidative stress, however its biological function remains unknown. We found that mice lacking extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) show attenuated expression of DEPP in response to acute hypoxia. DEPP mRNA levels, as well as the activity of a reporter gene expressed under the control of the DEPP 5'-flanking region, were significantly upregulated in Hep3B and Vero cells overexpressing EC-SOD. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescent microscopy indicated that overexpressed DEPP is co-localized with both protein aggregates and aggresomes. Further biochemical characterization indicates that DEPP protein is unstable and undergoes rapid degradation. Inhibition of proteasome activities significantly increases DEPP protein levels in soluble and insoluble cytosolic fractions. Attenuation of autophagosomal activity by 3-methyladenine increases DEPP protein levels while activation of autophagy by rapamycin reduced DEPP protein levels. In addition, ectopic overexpression of DEPP leads to autophagy activation, while silencing of DEPP attenuates autophagy. Collectively, these results indicate that DEPP is a major hypoxia-inducible gene involved in the activation of autophagy and whose expression is regulated by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanoassemblies Based on Supramolecular Complexes of Nonionic Amphiphilic Cyclodextrin and Sorafenib as Effective Weapons to Kill Human HCC Cells.

    PubMed

    Bondì, Maria Luisa; Scala, Angela; Sortino, Giuseppe; Amore, Erika; Botto, Chiara; Azzolina, Antonina; Balasus, Daniele; Cervello, Melchiorre; Mazzaglia, Antonino

    2015-12-14

    Sorafenib (Sor), an effective chemiotherapeutic drug utilized against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), robustly interacts with nonionic amphiphilic cyclodextrin (aCD, SC6OH), forming, in aqueous solution, supramolecular complexes that behave as building blocks of highly water-dispersible colloidal nanoassemblies. SC6OH/Sor complex has been characterized by complementary spectroscopic techniques, such as UV-vis, steady-state fluorescence and anisotropy, resonance light scattering and (1)H NMR. The spectroscopic evidences and experiments carried out in the presence of an adamantane derivative, which competes with drug for CD cavity, agree with the entrapment of Sor in aCD, pointing out the role of the aCD cavity in the interaction between drug and amphiphile. Nanoassemblies based on SC6OH/Sor display size of ∼200 nm, negative zeta-potential (ζ = -11 mV), and both maximum loading capacity (LC ∼ 17%) and entrapment efficiency (EE ∼ 100%). Kinetic release profiles show a slower release of Sor from nanoassemblies with respect to the free drug. SC6OH/Sor nanoassemblies have very low hemolytic activity and high efficiency in vitro in decreasing cell growth and viability of HCC cell lines, such as HepG2, Hep3B, and PLC/PRF/5, opening promising chances to their in vivo applications.

  3. HDAC1 and HDAC2 independently predict mortality in hepatocellular carcinoma by a competing risk regression model in a Southeast Asian population

    PubMed Central

    LER, SER YENG; LEUNG, CAROL HO WING; KHIN, LAY WAI; LU, GUO-DONG; SALTO-TELLEZ, MANUEL; HARTMAN, MIKAEL; IAU, PHILIP TSAU CHOONG; YAP, CELESTIAL T.; HOOI, SHING CHUAN

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes involved in transcriptional repression. We aimed to examine the significance of HDAC1 and HDAC2 gene expression in the prediction of recurrence and survival in 156 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among a South East Asian population who underwent curative surgical resection in Singapore. We found that HDAC1 and HDAC2 were upregulated in the majority of HCC tissues. The presence of HDAC1 in tumor tissues was correlated with poor tumor differentiation. Notably, HDAC1 expression in adjacent non-tumor hepatic tissues was correlated with the presence of satellite nodules and multiple lesions, suggesting that HDAC1 upregulation within the field of HCC may contribute to tumor spread. Using competing risk regression analysis, we found that increased cancer-specific mortality was significantly associated with HDAC2 expression. Mortality was also increased with high HDAC1 expression. In the liver cancer cell lines, HEP3B, HEPG2, PLC5, and a colorectal cancer cell line, HCT116, the combined knockdown of HDAC1 and HDAC2 increased cell death and reduced cell proliferation as well as colony formation. In contrast, knockdown of either HDAC1 or HDAC2 alone had minimal effects on cell death and proliferation. Taken together, our study suggests that both HDAC1 and HDAC2 exert pro-survival effects in HCC cells, and the combination of isoform-specific HDAC inhibitors against both HDACs may be effective in targeting HCC to reduce mortality. PMID:26352599

  4. All-trans retinoic acid induces p53-depenent apoptosis in human hepatocytes by activating p14 expression via promoter hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Heo, Shin-Hee; Kwak, Juri; Jang, Kyung Lib

    2015-06-28

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the most biologically active metabolite of vitamin A, has been extensively studied for the prevention and treatment of cancer; however, the underlying mechanism of its anti-cancer potential is still unclear. Here we found that ATRA induces apoptosis in p53-positive HepG2 cells, but not in p53-negative Hep3B cells. For this effect, ATRA activated p14 expression via promoter hypomethylation, resulting in ubiquitin-dependent degradation of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) and subsequent stabilization of p53. The potential of ATRA to stabilize p53 was almost completely abolished by knock-down of p14 in HepG2 cells and was not observed in p14-negative A549 cells. Upregulation of p14 also abolished the self-regulatory potential of p53 to repress p14 expression via DNA methylation and transcriptionally activate MDM2 expression. The accumulated p53 then activated several apoptosis-related molecules, including Bax, PUMA, caspase-9, Bid, caspase-8, caspase-3, and PARP. Ectopic expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 almost completely abolished the potential of ATRA to activate the p14-MDM2-p53 pathway and induce p53-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, we conclude that ATRA induces p14 promoter hypomethylation to trigger apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A mammalian acetate switch regulates stress erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Nagati, Jason S.; Xie, Jian; Li, Jiwen; Walters, Holly; Moon, Young-Ah; Gerard, Robert D.; Huang, Chou-Long; Comerford, Sarah A.; Hammer, Robert E.; Horton, Jay D.; Chen, Rui; Garcia, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine erythropoietin (Epo), which is synthesized in the kidney or liver of adult mammals, controls erythrocyte production and is regulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2 (HIF-2). We previously reported that the lysine acetyltransferase Cbp is required for HIF-2α acetylation and efficient HIF-2 dependent Epo induction during hypoxia. We now show these processes require acetate-dependent acetyl CoA synthetase 2 (Acss2). In Hep3B hepatoma cells and in Epo-generating organs of hypoxic or acutely anemic mice, acetate levels increase and Acss2 is required for HIF-2α acetylation, Cbp/HIF-2α complex formation and recruitment to the Epo enhancer, and efficient Epo induction. In acutely anemic mice, acetate supplementation augments stress erythropoiesis in an Acss2-dependent manner. In acquired and genetic chronic anemia mouse models, acetate supplementation also increases Epo expression and resting hematocrits. Thus, a mammalian stress-responsive acetate switch controls HIF-2 signaling and Epo induction during pathophysiological states marked by tissue hypoxia. PMID:25108527

  6. Hernandezine, a novel AMPK activator induces autophagic cell death in drug-resistant cancers

    PubMed Central

    Law, Betty Yuen Kwan; Mok, Simon Wing Fai; Chan, Wai Kit; Xu, Su Wei; Wu, An Guo; Yao, Xiao Jun; Wang, Jing Rong; Liu, Liang; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance hinder most cancer chemotherapies and leads to disease recurrence and poor survival of patients. Resistance of cancer cells towards apoptosis is the major cause of these symptomatic behaviours. Here, we showed that isoquinoline alkaloids, including liensinine, isoliensinine, dauricine, cepharanthine and hernandezine, putatively induce cytotoxicity against a repertoire of cancer cell lines (HeLa, A549, MCF-7, PC3, HepG2, Hep3B and H1299). Proven by the use of apoptosis-resistant cellular models and autophagic assays, such isoquinoline alkaloid-induced cytotoxic effect involves energy- and autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7)-dependent autophagy that resulted from direct activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). Hernandezine possess the highest efficacy in provoking such cell death when compared with other examined compounds. We confirmed that isoquinoline alkaloid is structurally varied from the existing direct AMPK activators. In conclusion, isoquinoline alkaloid is a new class of compound that induce autophagic cell death in drug-resistant fibroblasts or cancers by exhibiting its direct activation on AMPK. PMID:26811496

  7. Hypoxia increases sirtuin 1 expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Dioum, Elhadji M; Hogg, Richard T; Gerard, Robert D; Garcia, Joseph A

    2011-04-22

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are stress-responsive transcriptional regulators of cellular and physiological processes involved in oxygen metabolism. Although much is understood about the molecular machinery that confers HIF responsiveness to oxygen, far less is known about HIF isoform-specific mechanisms of regulation, despite the fact that HIF-1 and HIF-2 exhibit distinct biological roles. We recently determined that the stress-responsive genetic regulator sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) selectively augments HIF-2 signaling during hypoxia. However, the mechanism by which Sirt1 maintains activity during hypoxia is unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that Sirt1 gene expression increases in a HIF-dependent manner during hypoxia in Hep3B and in HT1080 cells. Impairment of HIF signaling affects Sirt1 deacetylase activity as decreased HIF-1 signaling results in the appearance of acetylated HIF-2α, which is detected without pharmacological inhibition of Sirt1. We also find that Sirt1 augments HIF-2 mediated, but not HIF-1 mediated, transcriptional activation of the isolated Sirt1 promoter. These data in summary reveal a bidirectional link of HIF and Sirt1 signaling during hypoxia.

  8. Iron transport in cancer cell culture suspensions measured by cell magnetophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaoxia; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Cell motion in a magnetic field reveals the presence of intracellular paramagnetic elements, such as iron or manganese. Under controlled field and liquid media composition, such motion previously allowed us to compare the paramagnetic contribution to cell magnetic susceptibility in erythrocytes differing in the spin state of heme associated with hemoglobin. The method is now tested on cells with less obvious paramagnetic properties: cell cultures derived from human cancers in order to determine if the magnetophoretic mobility (MM) measurement is sufficiently sensitive to the dysregulation of the intracellular iron metabolism as suggested by reports on loss of iron homeostasis in cancer. The cell lines included hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep 3B 2.1-7 and Hep G2), promyelocytic (HL-60) and chronic myelogenous (K-562) leukemias, histiocytic lymphoma (U-937), tongue (CAL 27) and pharyngeal (Detroit 562) carcinomas, and epitheloid carcinoma (HeLa), whose MM was measured in complete media with standard and elevated soluble iron (ferric nitrate and ferric ammonium citrate), against oxy- and met-hemoglobin erythrocytes used as controls. Different cell lines responded differently to the magnetic field and the soluble iron concentrations in culture media establishing the possibility of single cell elemental analysis by magnetophoresis and magnetic cell separation based upon differences in intracellular iron concentration. PMID:22500468

  9. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by biphasic regulation of oxidative stress in different human hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuexia; Liu, Dejun; Cai, Chenlei; Chen, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Liangliang; Sun, Yongwei; Dai, Huili; Kong, Xianming; Liu, Peifeng

    2016-01-01

    The application of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) has made great progress in the diagnosis of disease and in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy, but the relative mechanisms of potential toxicity induced by Fe3O4 have not kept pace with its development in the application, which has hampered its further clinical application. In this article, we used two kinds of human hepatoma cell lines, SK-Hep-1 and Hep3B, to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the involved mechanisms of small Fe3O4 NPs with different diameters (6 nm, 9 nm, and 14 nm). Results showed that the size of NPs effectively influences the cytotoxicity of hepatoma cells: 6 nm Fe3O4 NPs exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and 9 nm Fe3O4 NPs affected cytotoxicity via cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and by inducing necrosis mediated through the mitochondria-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Meanwhile, 14 nm Fe3O4 NPs induced cytotoxicity by impairing the integrity of plasma membrane and promoting massive lactate dehydrogenase leakage. These results explain the detailed mechanism of different diameters of small Fe3O4 NPs-induced cytotoxicity. We anticipate that this study will provide different insights into the cytotoxicity mechanism of Fe3O4 NPs, so as to make them safer to use in clinical application. PMID:27536098

  10. Anti-tumor activity of KNTC2 siRNA in orthotopic tumor model mice of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Makita, Yukimasa; Murata, Shumpei; Katou, Yoshiki; Kikuchi, Kuniko; Uejima, Hiroshi; Teratani, Mika; Hoashi, Yasutaka; Kenjo, Eriya; Matsumoto, Satoru; Nogami, Masahiro; Otake, Kentaro; Kawamata, Yuji

    2017-08-23

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still one of the major causes of cancer-related death. Kinetochore-associated protein 2 (KNTC2) is specifically upregulated in tumor tissues of HCC patients and recognized as a potential candidate target for the treatment of HCC. However, the relationship between KNTC2 and in vivo tumor growth of HCC is not yet fully understood. Here we encapsulated KNTC2 siRNAs into a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) and investigated their knockdown activity, target engagement marker, anti-tumor activity and hepatotoxicity in an orthotopic HCC model mice of Hep3B-luc cells. Single i.v. administration of KNTC2 siRNA-LNP specifically suppressed the expression levels of both human KNTC2 mRNA and mouse Kntc2 mRNA in tumor tissues. Phosphorylation levels of histone H3 (HH3) at serine 10 in tumor tissues were increased by KNTC2 siRNA-LNP. Repeated administration of KNTC2 siRNA-LNP (twice a week) specifically inhibited the growth of tumor tissues without increasing the plasma AST and ALT levels. Their growth inhibitory activities were consistent with knockdown activities. These data strongly indicated that KNTC2 is a promising target for the treatment of HCC and that phosphorylated HH3 at serine 10 is one of the target engagement markers for KNTC2. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of homo and hetero-binuclear 13-membered pentaaza bis (macrocyclic) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Hina; Kareem, Abdul; Sherwani, Asif; Mohammad, Owais; Khan, Tahir Ali

    2015-01-01

    A new series of homo and hetero binuclear 13-membered pentaaza bis (macrocyclic) complexes, [MM‧LX4], [M = Cu(II), M‧ = Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Sn(II); L = ligand and X = Cl or NO3] have been synthesized by the template reaction of dichloro/dinitrato diphenyl sulphone 1,3,6,9,12-tetra hydro pentaazacyclo pantane copper (II) complexes with formaldehyde, triethylenetetraamine, and respective metal salts in 1:2:1:1 molar ratio. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, ESI-mass, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The results of elemental analyses, ESI-mass and conductivity measurements confirmed the stoichiometry of the complexes while the characteristic absorption bands and resonance peaks in IR and NMR spectra confirmed the formation of macrocyclic frameworks of the complexes. These studies showed octahedral geometry around the metal ion. The thermal stability of copper complexes was also studied by TGA and DTA analyses. Some complexes of this series were also studied for their in vitro anticancer activity against cancer cells lines: Hep3B, MCF7, and HeLa. The recorded IC50 values for the tested complexes show moderate to good cytotoxicity against these cancer cell lines.

  12. Sgo1 is a potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lyu-Han; Yen, Chia-Jui; Li, Tian-Neng; Elowe, Sabine; Wang, Wen-Ching; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching

    2015-02-10

    Shugoshin-like protein 1 (Sgo1) is an essential protein in mitosis; it protects sister chromatid cohesion and thereby ensures the fidelity of chromosome separation. We found that the expression of Sgo1 mRNA was relatively low in normal tissues, but was upregulated in 82% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and correlated with elevated alpha-fetoprotein and early disease onset of HCC. The depletion of Sgo1 reduced cell viability of hepatoma cell lines including HuH7, HepG2, Hep3B, and HepaRG. Using time-lapse microscopy, we showed that hepatoma cells were delayed and ultimately die in mitosis in the absence of Sgo1. In contrast, cell viability and mitotic progression of immortalized cells were not significantly affected. Notably, mitotic cell death induced upon Sgo1 depletion was suppressed upon inhibitions of cyclin-dependent kinase-1 and Aurora kinase-B, or the depletion of mitotic arrest deficient-2. Thus, mitotic cell death induced upon Sgo1 depletion in hepatoma cells is mediated by persistent activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Together, these results highlight th