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Sample records for hepatoma hepg2 cells

  1. High permissivity of human HepG2 hepatoma cells for influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Ollier, Laurence; Caramella, Anne; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2004-12-01

    Human HepG2 hepatoma cells are highly permissive for influenza virus type A and type B, even without the addition of trypsin, and they exhibit a marked cytopathic effect. This property greatly facilitates the primary isolation of influenza viruses. Virus replication was significantly reduced by the plasmin(ogen)-specific inhibitor tranexamic acid, and this suggests a potential role played by the plasminogen/tissue plasminogen activator complex at the surface of HepG2 cells. This might represent a new approach for study of the interrelations of this complex with influenza viruses.

  2. High Permissivity of Human HepG2 Hepatoma Cells for Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ollier, Laurence; Caramella, Anne; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    Human HepG2 hepatoma cells are highly permissive for influenza virus type A and type B, even without the addition of trypsin, and they exhibit a marked cytopathic effect. This property greatly facilitates the primary isolation of influenza viruses. Virus replication was significantly reduced by the plasmin(ogen)-specific inhibitor tranexamic acid, and this suggests a potential role played by the plasminogen/tissue plasminogen activator complex at the surface of HepG2 cells. This might represent a new approach for study of the interrelations of this complex with influenza viruses. PMID:15583326

  3. Induction of phenolsulfotransferase expression by phenolic acids in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Huang, Shang-Ming; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2005-06-15

    Phenolic acids are antioxidant phenolic compounds, widespread in plant foods, which contribute significant biological and pharmacological properties; some have demonstrated a remarkable ability to alter sulfate conjugation. However, the modulation mechanisms of antioxidant phenolic acids on phenolsulfotransferase activity have not yet been described. In the present study, the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, was used as a model to investigate the effect of antioxidant phenolic acids on enzymatic activity and expression of one of the major phase II sulfate conjugation enzymes, P-form phenolsulfotransferase (PST-P). The results showed that gallic acid, gentisic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid increased PST-P activity, in a dose-dependent manner. A maximum of 4- and 5-fold induction of PST-P activity was observed for both gallic acid and gentisic acid; however, they showed an adverse effect on cell growth at higher concentrations. A 2- or 2.5-fold increase of PST-P activity was found with either p-coumaric or p-hydroxybenzoic acid treatment, whereas no significant effect was found for ferulic acid treatment. PST-P induction, by gallic acid, was further confirmed, using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting techniques to measure mRNA expression and protein translation. A significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.01) between the expressions of PST-P mRNA and the corresponding PST-P activity was observed. Thus, gallic acid increased PST-P protein expression in HepG2 cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The results demonstrated that certain antioxidant phenolic acids could induce PST-P activity in HepG2 cells, by promoting PST-P mRNA and protein expression, suggesting a novel mechanism by which phenolic acids may be implicated in phase II sulfate conjugation.

  4. Intermedilysin is essential for the invasion of hepatoma HepG2 cells by Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Sukeno, Akiko; Nagamune, Hideaki; Whiley, Robert A; Jafar, Syed I; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Ohkura, Kazuto; Maeda, Takuya; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kourai, Hiroki

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius causes endogenous infections leading to abscesses. This species produces intermedilysin (ILY), a human-specific cytolysin. Because of the significant correlation between higher ILY production levels by S. intermedius and deep-seated abscesses, we constructed ily knockout mutant UNS38 B3 and complementation strain UNS38 B3R1 in order to investigate the role of ILY in deep-seated infections. Strain UNS38 reduced the viability of human liver cell line HepG2 at infection but not of rat liver cell line BRL3A. Isogenic mutant strain UNS38 B3 was not cytotoxic in either cell line. Quantification of S. intermedius revealed that in infected HepG2 cells UNS38 but not UNS38 B3 increased intracellularly concomitantly with increasing cell damage. This difference between UNS38 and UNS38 B3 was not observed with UNS38 B3R1. Invasion and proliferation in BRL3A cells was not observed. Masking UNS38 or UNS38 B3R1 with ILY antibody drastically decreased adherence and invasion of HepG2. Moreover, coating strain UNS38 B3 with ILY partially restored adherence to HepG2 but without subsequent bacterial growth. At 1 day post-infection, many intact UNS38 were detected in the damaged phagosomes of HepG2 with bacterial proliferation observed in the cytoplasm of dead HepG2 after an additional 2 day incubation. These results indicate that surface-bound ILY on S. intermedius is an important factor for invasion of human cells by this bacterium and that secretion of ILY within host cells is essential for subsequent host cell death. These data strongly implicate ILY as an important factor in the pathogenesis of abscesses in vivo by this streptococcus.

  5. Comparison of primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cell line Hepg2 with regard to their biotransformation properties.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Stefan; Stahl, Frank; Bader, Augustinus

    2003-08-01

    Cultures of primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cell line HepG2 are frequently used in in vitro models for human biotransformation studies. In this study, we characterized and compared the capacity of these model systems to indicate the presence of different classes of promutagens. Genotoxic sensitivity, enzyme activity, and gene expression were monitored in response to treatment with food promutagens benzo[a]pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). DNA damage could be detected reliably with the comet assay in primary human hepatocytes, which were maintained in sandwich culture. All three promutagens caused DNA damage in primary cells, but in HepG2 no genotoxic effects of DMN and PhIP could be detected. We supposed that the lack of specific enzymes accounts for their inability to process these promutagens. Therefore, we quantified the expression of a broad range of genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The genes code for cytochromes p450 and, in addition, for a series of important phase II enzymes. The expression level of these genes in human hepatocytes was similar to those previously reported for human liver samples. On the other hand, expression levels in HepG2 differed significantly from that in human. Activity and expression, especially of phase I enzymes, were demonstrated to be extremely low in HepG2 cells. Up-regulation of specific genes by test substances was similar in both cell types. In conclusion, human hepatocytes are the preferred model for biotransformation in human liver, whereas HepG2 cells may be useful to study regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  6. Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yunha; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Jin Seok; Chai, Kyu Yun; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cui, Ming-Xun; So, Hong Seob; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Raekil

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression. CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma. PMID:18203281

  7. Selenium methylselenocysteine protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Cuello, Susana; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Martín, M Angeles; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2007-12-01

    Selenium methylselenocysteine (Se-MeSeCys) is a common selenocompound in the diet with a tested chemopreventive effect. This study investigated the potential protective effect of Se-MeSeCys against a chemical oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Speciation of selenium derivatives by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry depicts Se-MeSeCys as the only selenocompound in the cell culture. Cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase) and markers of oxidative status--concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)--were evaluated. Pretreatment of cells with Se-MeSeCys for 20 h completely prevented the enhanced cell damage, MDA concentration and GR and GPx activity and the decreased GSH induced by t-BOOH but did not prevent increased ROS generation. The results show that treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of Se-MeSeCys in the nanomolar to micromolar range confers a significant protection against an oxidative insult.

  8. Antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hyung-Min; Park, Kun-Young

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional Korean baked solar salt processed by packing the solar salt in bamboo joint cases and heating it several times to high temperatures. The antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells were investigated and compared to those of other salt samples. Although solar salt and purified salt exhibited comutagenicity with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, bamboo salt was associated with a lower degree of comutagenicity or antimutagenic activity. Bamboo salt baked nine times (9×) showed a greater increase in antimutagenic activity than salts baked once (1×) or three times (3×). At a concentration of 1%, the growth rate of HepG2 cells treated with 9× bamboo salt determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MIT) assay was reduced by 65%; this rate of inhibition was higher than that achieved with 1× baked bamboo salt (40%). Purified and solar salts had relatively lower inhibitory effects on growth rate (25% and 29%, respectively). Compared to the other salt samples, 9× bamboo salt significantly (p<0.05) induced apoptosis as determined by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and flow cytometry analysis. It also upregulated the expression of Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3; and downregulated Bcl-2 expression. The bamboo salts, especially 9× bamboo salt, also significantly (p<0.05) downregulated the expression of inflammation-related NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2, and upregulated the gene expression of IκB-α compared to the other salt sample.

  9. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including acetaminophen (APAP), have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP—induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM), a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h) exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems. PMID:26714183

  10. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including acetaminophen (APAP), have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM), a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h) exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems.

  11. Differential action of 13-HPODE on PPARalpha downstream genes in rat Fao and human HepG2 hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    König, Bettina; Eder, Klaus

    2006-06-01

    In rats, oxidized fats activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), leading to reduced triglyceride concentrations in liver, plasma and very low density lipoproteins. Oxidation products of linoleic acid constitute an important portion of oxidized dietary fats. This study was conducted to check whether the primary lipid peroxidation product of linoleic acid, 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), might be involved in the PPARalpha-activating effect of oxidized fats. Therefore, we examined the effect of 13-HPODE on the expression of PPARalpha target genes in the rat Fao and the human HepG2 hepatoma cell lines. In Fao cells, 13-HPODE increased the mRNA concentration of the PPARalpha target genes acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), cytochrome P450 4A1 and carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A). Furthermore, the concentration of cellular and secreted triglycerides was reduced in Fao cells treated with 13-HPODE. Because PPARalpha mRNA was not influenced, we conclude that these effects are due to an activation of PPARalpha by 13-HPODE. In contrast, HepG2 cells seemed to be resistant to PPARalpha activation by 13-HPODE because no remarkable induction of the PPARalpha target genes ACO, CPT1A, mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and delta9-desaturase was observed. Consequently, cellular and secreted triglyceride levels were not changed after incubation of HepG2 cells with 13-HPODE. In conclusion, this study shows that 13-HPODE activates PPARalpha in rat Fao but not in human HepG2 hepatoma cells.

  12. Comparative effects of food-derived polyphenols on the viability and apoptosis of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sonia; Alía, Mario; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2005-02-23

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables, which are rich in polyphenols, has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer. Dietary polyphenols have antioxidant and antiproliferative properties that might explain their beneficial effect on cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different pure polyphenols [quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and (-)-epicatechin] and natural fruit extracts (strawberry and plum) on viability or apoptosis of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The treatment of cells for 18 h with quercetin and fruit extracts reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner; however, chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, quercetin and strawberry and plum extracts, rather than chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin, induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Moreover, quercetin and fruit extracts arrested the G1 phase in the cell cycle progression prior to apoptosis. Quercetin and strawberry and plum extracts may induce apoptosis and contribute to a reduced cell viability in HepG2 cells.

  13. A polysaccharide from Andrographis paniculata induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Zou, Yanmei; Xiong, Hua; Xiong, Huihua; Lu, Tao; Zhu, Feng; Luo, Zhiyong; Yuan, Xianglin; Wang, Yihua

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects and action mechanisms of a purified polysaccharide (APWP) from Andrographis paniculata, on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. The results showed that APWP was able to suppress the proliferation of HepG2 cells via inducing apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that dose-dependent increase in proapoptotic Bax protein and no change in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in APWP-treated cells. Furthermore, exposure of tumor cells to APWP resulted in a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Besides, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were activated while caspase-8 was not affected in HepG2 cells followed by APWP treatment. All these results point clearly to the involvement of mitochondria-mediated signaling pathway in APWP-induced apoptosis and strongly suggest that APWP seems to be safe and effective in the prevention and treatment of HCC.

  14. Peganum harmala L. differentially modulates cytochrome P450 gene expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    El Gendy, Mohamed A M; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2009-12-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is a common plant in Middle East and it is still used traditionally to treat several diseases. The effect of P. harmala extract on the expression of different cytochrome P450's (CYP) involved in drug metabolism was examined in human HepG2 cells. Therefore, HepG2 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of plant extract and the CYP gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. Our results showed that P. harmala extract significantly increased the expression of CYP1A2, 2C19, and 3A4 whereas; CYP 2B6, 2D6 and 2E1 was significantly decreased. We concluded that care should be taken when P. harmala is co-administered with other drugs.

  15. Camel milk triggers apoptotic signaling pathways in human hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines through transcriptional mechanism.

    PubMed

    Korashy, Hesham M; Maayah, Zaid H; Abd-Allah, Adel R; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2012-01-01

    Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  16. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and loss of viability

    SciTech Connect

    Marchissio, Maria Julia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Marinelli, Raúl Alberto

    2012-10-15

    Human aquaporin-8 (AQP8) channels facilitate the diffusional transport of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} across membranes. Since AQP8 is expressed in hepatic inner mitochondrial membranes, we studied whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, which may lead to organelle dysfunction and cell death. We confirmed AQP8 expression in HepG2 inner mitochondrial membranes and found that 72 h after cell transfection with siRNAs targeting two different regions of the human AQP8 molecule, mtAQP8 protein specifically decreased by around 60% (p < 0.05). Studies in isolated mtAQP8-knockdown mitochondria showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, assessed by Amplex Red, was reduced by about 45% (p < 0.05), an effect not observed in digitonin-permeabilized mitochondria. mtAQP8-knockdown cells showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS, assessed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (+ 120%, p < 0.05) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (− 80%, p < 0.05), assessed by tetramethylrhodamine-coupled quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTempol prevented ROS accumulation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker, also abolished the mtAQP8 knockdown-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Besides, the loss of viability in mtAQP8 knockdown cells verified by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and trypan blue exclusion test could be prevented by cyclosporin A. Our data on human hepatoma HepG2 cells suggest that mtAQP8 facilitates mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and that its defective expression causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization via the mitochondrial permeability transition mechanism, and cell death. -- Highlights: ► Aquaporin-8 is expressed in mitochondria of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. ► Aquaporin-8 knockdown impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and increases ROS. ► Aquaporin

  17. Rosemary Extracts Upregulate Nrf2, Sestrin2, and MRP2 Protein Level in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiao-Pei; Ma, Yan-Xia; Quan, Dan-Ni; Zhang, Ling; Yan, Miao; Fan, Xin-Rong

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of liver cancer has been rapidly rising across the world. Rosemary is known to possess antioxidant activity and is used as natural antioxidant food preservative. It is proposed to have anticancer activity in treating different tumor models. In this study, we try to explore the impact of rosemary extracts on upregulating the level of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulatory proteins, Sestrin2 and MRP2 in HepG2 cells, and to speculate its potential mechanism. The anticancer activity of rosemary extract, including its polyphenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, was evaluated to understand the potential effect on HepG2 cells. Rosemary extract, carnosic acid, and carnosol induced the expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 associate with enhancement of Nrf2 protein level in HepG2 cells, in which carnosic acid showed most obvious effect. Although the activation pathway of Nrf2/ARE was not exactly assessed, it can be assumed that the enhancement of expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 may result from upregulation of Nrf2.

  18. Rosemary Extracts Upregulate Nrf2, Sestrin2, and MRP2 Protein Level in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiao-pei; Ma, Yan-xia; Quan, Dan-ni; Zhang, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of liver cancer has been rapidly rising across the world. Rosemary is known to possess antioxidant activity and is used as natural antioxidant food preservative. It is proposed to have anticancer activity in treating different tumor models. In this study, we try to explore the impact of rosemary extracts on upregulating the level of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulatory proteins, Sestrin2 and MRP2 in HepG2 cells, and to speculate its potential mechanism. The anticancer activity of rosemary extract, including its polyphenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, was evaluated to understand the potential effect on HepG2 cells. Rosemary extract, carnosic acid, and carnosol induced the expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 associate with enhancement of Nrf2 protein level in HepG2 cells, in which carnosic acid showed most obvious effect. Although the activation pathway of Nrf2/ARE was not exactly assessed, it can be assumed that the enhancement of expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 may result from upregulation of Nrf2. PMID:28286534

  19. Emodin inhibits the growth of hepatoma cells: finding the common anti-cancer pathway using Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Mu; Hsu, Yu-An; Tsai, Yuhsin; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Huang, Su-Hua; Wan, Lei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2010-02-19

    Emodin--a major component of Rheum palmatum L.-exerts antiproliferative effects in cancer cells that are regulated by different signaling pathways. Hepatocellular carcinoma has high-incidence rates and is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of emodin on human hepatocarcinoma cell viability and investigate its mechanisms of action in Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells. To define the molecular changes associated with this process, expression profiles were compared in emodin-treated hepatoma cells by cDNA microarray hybridization, quantitative RT-PCRs, and Western blot analysis. G2/M phase arrest was observed in all 3 cell lines. Cell cycle regulatory gene analysis showed increased protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, Chk2, Cdk2, and P27 in hepatoma cells after time courses of emodin treatment, and Western blot analysis showed decreased protein levels of Cdc25c and P21. Microarray expression profile data and quantitative PCR revealed that 15 representative genes were associated with emodin treatment response in hepatoma cell lines. The RNA expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GDF15, SERPINE1, SOS1, RASD1, and MRAS were upregulated and those of NR1H4, PALMD, and TXNIP were downregulated in all three hepatoma cells. Moreover, at 6h after emodin treatment, the levels of GDF15, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYR61 were upregulated. Here, we show that emodin treatment caused G2/M arrest in liver cancer cells and increased the expression levels of various genes both in mRNA and protein level. It is likely that these genes act as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  20. Sphingoid bases from sea cucumber induce apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells through p-AKT and DR5.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Zakir; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    Biofunctional marine compounds have recently received substantial attention for their nutraceutical characteristics. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis-inducing effects of sphingoid bases prepared from sea cucumber using human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Apoptotic effects were determined by cell viability assay, DNA fragmentation assay, caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities. The expression levels of apoptosis-inducing death receptor-5 (DR5) and p-AKT were assayed by western blot analysis, and mRNA expression of bax, GADD45 and PPARγ was assayed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Sphingoid bases from sea cucumber markedly reduced the cell viability of HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis was observed in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of the apoptosis inducer protein Bax were increased by the sphingoid bases from sea cucumber. GADD45, which plays an important role in apoptosis-inducing pathways, was markedly upregulated by sphingoid bases from sea cucumber. Upregulation of PPARγ mRNA was also observed during apoptosis induced by the sphingoid bases. The expression levels of DR5 and p-AKT proteins were increased and decreased, respectively, as a result of the effects of sphingoid bases from sea cucumber. The results indicate that sphingoid bases from sea cucumber induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through upregulation of DR5, Bax, GADD45 and PPARγ and downregulation of p-AKT. Our results show for the first time the functional properties of marine sphingoid bases as inducers of apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

  1. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attenuates high glucose-induced insulin signaling blockade in human hepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Li; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2008-08-01

    Insulin resistance is the primary characteristic of type 2 diabetes which as a result of insulin signaling defects. It has been suggested that the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) displays some antidiabetic effects, but the mechanism for EGCG insulin-enhancing effects is incompletely understood. In the present study, the investigations of EGCG on insulin signaling are performed in insulin-responsive human HepG2 cells cotreated with high glucose. We found that the high glucose condition causes significant increasing Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), leading to reduce insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. As the results, the insulin metabolic effects of glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake are inhibited by high glucose. However, the treatment of EGCG improves insulin-stimulated downsignaling by reducing IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we also demonstrated these EGCG effects are essential depends on the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Together, our data suggest a putative link between high glucose and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells, and the EGCG treatment attenuates insulin signaling blockade by reducing IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation through the AMPK activation pathway.

  2. Ionic mechanisms of regulatory volume increase (RVI) in the human hepatoma cell-line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Frank; Lawonn, Peter; Tinel, Hanna

    2002-03-01

    We studied the effects of hypertonic stress on ion transport and cell volume regulation (regulatory volume increase; RVI) in the human tumor cell-line HepG2. Ion conductances were monitored in intracellular current-clamp measurements with rapid ion-substitutions and in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings; intracellular pH buffering capacity and activation of Na(+)/H(+) antiport were determined fluorometrically; the rates of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symport and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were quantified on the basis of time-dependent and furosemide- or ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb(+) uptake, respectively; changes in cell volume were recorded by means of confocal laser-scanning microscopy. It was found that hypertonic conditions led to the activation of a cation conductance that was inhibited by Gd(3+), flufenamate as well as amiloride, but not by benzamil or ethyl-isopropyl-amiloride (EIPA). Most likely, this cation conductance was non-selective for Na(+) over K(+). Hypertonic stress did not change K(+) conductance, whereas possible changes in Cl(-) conductance remain ambiguous. The contribution of Na(+)/H(+)antiport to the RVI process appeared to be minor. Under hypertonic conditions an approximately 3.5-fold stimulation of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-)symport was observed but this transporter did not significantly contribute to the overall RVI process. Hypertonic stress did not increase the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which even under isotonic conditions appeared to be working at its limit. It is concluded that the main mechanism in the RVI of HepG2 cells is the activation of a novel non-selective cation conductance. In contrast, there is little if any contribution of K(+) conductance, Na(+)/H(+) antiport, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) symport, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase to this process.

  3. The synergistic radiosensitizing effect of tirapazamine-conjugated gold nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Pengcheng; Jin, Xiaodong; Zheng, Xiaogang; Ye, Fei; Chen, Weiqiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Reductive drug-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proposed to enhance the damage of X-rays to cells through improving hydroxyl radical production by secondary electrons. In this work, polyethylene glycol-capped AuNPs were conjugated with tirapazamine (TPZ) moiety, and then thioctyl TPZ (TPZs)-modified AuNPs (TPZs-AuNPs) were synthesized. The TPZs-AuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectra, dynamic light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to have a size of 16.6±2.1 nm in diameter and a TPZs/AuNPs ratio of ~700:1. In contrast with PEGylated AuNPs, the as-synthesized TPZs-AuNPs exhibited 20% increment in hydroxyl radical production in water at 2.0 Gy, and 19% increase in sensitizer enhancement ratio at 10% survival fraction for human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation. The production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells exposed to X-rays in vitro demonstrated a synergistic radiosensitizing effect of AuNPs and TPZ moiety. Thus, the reductive drug-conjugated TPZs-AuNPs as a kind of AuNP radiosensitizer with low gold loading provide a new strategy for enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapy. PMID:27555772

  4. Induction apoptosis of luteolin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells involving mitochondria translocation of Bax/Bak and activation of JNK

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.-J.; Wang, C.-J.; Kuo, H.-C.; Chou, F.-P.; Jean, L.-F.; Tseng, T.-H. . E-mail: tht@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-03-01

    Since hepatocellular carcinoma remains a major challenging clinical problem in many parts of the world including Eastern Asia and Southern Africa, it is imperative to develop more effective chemopreventive and chemotherapy agents. Herein, we present an investigation regarding the anticancer potential of luteolin, a natural flavonoid, and the mechanism of its action in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Using DNA fragmentation assay and nuclear staining assay, it showed that luteolin induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Luteolin induced the cytosolic release of cytochrome c and activated CPP32. We found that Bax and Bak translocated to mitochondria apparently, whereas Fas ligand (FasL) was unchanged after a treatment with luteolin for 3 h. In addition, it showed that c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated after the treatment of luteolin for 3-12 h. Further investigation showed that a specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, reduced the activation of CPP 32, the mitochondrial translocation of Bax, as well as the cytosolic release of cytochrome c that induced by luteolin. Finally, the apoptosis induced by luteolin was suppressed by a pretreatment with SP600125 via evaluating annexin V-FITC binding assay. These data suggest that luteolin induced apoptosis via mechanisms involving mitochondria translocation of Bax/Bak and activation of JNK.

  5. Measuring and modeling of binary mixture effects of pharmaceuticals and nickel on cell viability/cytotoxicity in the human hepatoma derived cell line HepG2

    SciTech Connect

    Rudzok, S.; Schlink, U.; Herbarth, O.; Bauer, M.

    2010-05-01

    The interaction of drugs and non-therapeutic xenobiotics constitutes a central role in human health risk assessment. Still, available data are rare. Two different models have been established to predict mixture toxicity from single dose data, namely, the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) model. However, chemicals can also act synergistic or antagonistic or in dose level deviation, or in a dose ratio dependent deviation. In the present study we used the MIXTOX model (EU project ENV4-CT97-0507), which incorporates these algorithms, to assess effects of the binary mixtures in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. These cells possess a liver-like enzyme pattern and a variety of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (phases I and II). We tested binary mixtures of the metal nickel, the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, and the antibiotic agent irgasan and compared the experimental data to the mathematical models. Cell viability was determined by three different methods the MTT-, AlamarBlue (registered) and NRU assay. The compounds were tested separately and in combinations. We could show that the metal nickel is the dominant component in the mixture, affecting an antagonism at low-dose levels and a synergism at high-dose levels in combination with diclofenac or irgasan, when using the NRU and the AlamarBlue assay. The dose-response surface of irgasan and diclofenac indicated a concentration addition. The experimental data could be described by the algorithms with a regression of up to 90%, revealing the HepG2 cell line and the MIXTOX model as valuable tool for risk assessment of binary mixtures for cytotoxic endpoints. However the model failed to predict a specific mode of action, the CYP1A1 enzyme activity.

  6. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) induced micronucleus formation and DNA damage in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Evelyn; Kassie, Fekadu; Gminski, Richard; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2004-01-15

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), identified in diesel exhaust and in airborne particulate matter, is a potent mutagen in Salmonella, induces micronuclei formation in mice and in human cells and DNA adducts in rats. In the present study, we investigated the genotoxic potency of 3-NBA in human HepG2 cells using the micronucleus (MN) assay and the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). 3-NBA caused a genotoxic effect at concentrations > or =12 nM in both assays. In the micronucleus assay, we found 98.7+/-10.3 MN/1000 BNC at a concentration of 100 nM 3-NBA in comparison to 27.3+/-0.6 MN/1000 BNC with the negative control. At the same concentration, the DNA-migration (SCGE) showed an Olive tail moment (OTM) of 2.7+/-0.45 and %DNA in the tail of 8.28+/-0.76; OTM and %DNA in the tail of cells treated with the negative control were 0.73+/-0.08 and 2.81+/-0.30, respectively. The results are discussed under consideration of former studies.

  7. Microarray data and pathway analyses for primary human activated hepatic stellate cells compared to HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Alexandra M; Sawyez, Cynthia G; Borradaile, Nica M

    2017-02-01

    As nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progresses to end-stage diseases, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrotic activated hepatic stellate cells and cancerous epithelial cells can become abundant, changing the cellular composition of this organ. Despite potentially residing within the same diseased tissue, direct comparisons of global gene expression between activated hepatic stellate cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells are lacking. Here we provide data collected using Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays to identify differential gene expression in cultured primary human activated hepatic stellate cells compared to HepG2 human hepatoma cells. The dataset includes many genes involved in intermediary metabolism which were investigated in greater depth in our associated article (A.M. Hetherington, C.G. Sawyez, E. Zilberman, A.M. Stoianov, D.L. Robson, J.M. Hughes-Large, et al., 2016) [1]. Pathway analyses of known protein coding genes down-regulated or up-regulated by greater than 2.0-fold are also provided.

  8. Vitamin B-6 restriction impairs fatty acid synthesis in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mei; Ralat, Maria A.; da Silva, Vanessa; Garrett, Timothy J.; Melnyk, Stephan; James, S. Jill

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 deficiency has been reported to alter n-6 and n-3 fatty acid profiles in plasma and tissue lipids; however, the mechanisms underlying such metabolic changes remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on fatty acid profiles and fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Cells were cultured for 6 wk in media with four different vitamin B-6 concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 2,000 nM added pyridoxal, representing deficient, marginal, adequate, and supraphysiological conditions) that induced a range of steady-state cellular concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate. Total cellular lipid content was greatest in the deficient (10 nM pyridoxal) medium. The percentage of arachidonic acid and the ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid in the total lipid fraction were ∼15% lower in vitamin B-6-restricted cells, which suggests that vitamin B-6 restriction affects n-6 fatty acid interconversions. Metabolic flux studies indicated significantly lower fractional synthesis rate of oleic acid and arachidonic acid at 10, 20, and 50 nM pyridoxal, whereas that of eicosapentaenoic acid was lower in the cells cultured in 10 nM pyridoxal. Additionally, relative mRNA expressions of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases were 40–50% lower in vitamin B-6-restricted cells. Overall, these findings suggest that vitamin B-6 restriction alters unsaturated fatty acid synthesis, particularly n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. These results and observations of changes in human plasma fatty acid profiles caused by vitamin B-6 restriction suggest a mechanism by which vitamin B-6 inadequacy influences the cardiovascular risk. PMID:23211517

  9. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA complex in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Novotnik, Breda; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila; Filipič, Metka; Žegura, Bojana

    2016-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) are common environmental pollutants and can be present in high concentrations in surface waters at the same time. Therefore, chelation of Cr with EDTA can occur and thereby stable Cr(III)-EDTA complex is formed. Since there are no literature data on Cr(III)-EDTA toxicity, the aim of our work was to evaluate and compare Cr(III)-EDTA cytotoxic and genotoxic activity with those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-nitrate in human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. First the effect of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on cell viability was studied in the concentration range from 0.04 μg mL(-1) to 25 μg mL(-1) after 24 h exposure. Further the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on DNA damage and genomic stability was determined with the comet assay and cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay, respectively. Cell viability was decreased only by Cr(VI) at concentrations above 1.0 μg mL(-1). Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1) and Cr(III) at ≥1.0 μg mL(-1) induced DNA damage, while after Cr(III)-EDTA exposure no formation DNA strand breaks was determined. Statistically significant formation of micronuclei was induced only by Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1), while no influence on the frequency of nuclear buds nor nucleoplasmic bridges was observed at any exposure. This study provides the first evidence that Cr(III)-EDTA did not induce DNA damage and had no influence on the genomic stability of HepG2 cells.

  10. Effect of polyphenols on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase activity in human hepatoma HepG2 cell extracts.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Saori; Kojima, Yuko; Sekino, Koichi; Yamato, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    When carbohydrate metabolism is impaired, fatty acid metabolism is activated. Excess acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is generated from fatty acids by β-oxidation and is used for the formation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) and subsequently for acetoacetate. High levels of secreted ketone bodies (acetoacetate and 3β-hydroxybutyrate) lower the pH of blood and urine, resulting in ketoacidosis. HMG-CoA lyase in hepatic cells is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the cleavage of HMG-CoA to acetoacetate, and thus inhibition of this enzyme results in reduced acetoacetate production, in other words, impaired ketoacidosis. Inhibition of HMG-CoA lyase activity possibly prevents ketoacidosis and should be the therapeutic target. Polyphenols are common and abundant dietary constituents with beneficial effects on human health. We examined the inhibitory effects of dietary polyphenols on HMG-CoA lyase activity in cellular extracts of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Of the nine representative dietary polyphenols tested, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and gallic acid (GA) effectively inhibited HMG-CoA lyase activity. Lineweaver-Burk analysis revealed that EGC and EGCG are likely to be mixed-type noncompetitive inhibitors. Pyrogallol with the gallyl structure also inhibited HMG-CoA lyase activity, suggesting that the gallyl moiety of polyphenols is important for the inhibition of HMG-CoA lyase activity.

  11. The inducibility of human cytochrome P450 1A by environmental-relevant xenobiotics in the human hepatoma derived cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Rudzok, Susanne; Schmücking, Eike; Graebsch, Carolin; Herbarth, Olf; Bauer, Mario

    2009-11-01

    Overexpression of the CYP1 family, independent of gender, is focal to the evaluation of the risk of human cancer. We have analysed the ability of 17 anthropogenic environmental xenobiotics widely used in Europe within households and agriculture to induce the human cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) in the human hepatoma derived cell line HepG2. The xenobiotics were potent to concomitantly induce both CYP1A mRNA and CYP1A activity in a dose-response relationship. Exceptions were shown by the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and the imidazole fungicide prochloraz in high concentrations which were capable of both inhibiting the basal or abolishing the initially induced CYP1A activity, respectively. A CYP1A induction has been shown for the first time by the aromatic xenobiotics irgasan, permethrin and azoxystrobin, the nonaromatic tributyltinoxide and for humans by the piperonylbutoxide. The xenobiotics additionally differed by their induced CYP1A isoenzyme pattern. A pronounced CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA induction was given by the phenyl urea herbicide diuron and benzodiazole insecticide piperonylbutoxide, respectively. In conclusion, out of the environmental xenobiotics, we described new members of human CYP1A inducers which extend chemical structures of biotransformation activators.

  12. Genotoxic potential of montmorillonite clay mineral and alteration in the expression of genes involved in toxicity mechanisms in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Maisanaba, Sara; Hercog, Klara; Filipic, Metka; Jos, Ángeles; Zegura, Bojana

    2016-03-05

    Montmorillonite, also known as Cloisite(®)Na(+) (CNa(+)), is a natural clay with a wide range of well-documented and novel applications, such as pharmaceutical products or food packaging. Although considered a low toxic product, the expected increased exposure to CNa(+) arises concern on the potential consequences on human and environmental health especially as its genotoxicity has scarcely been investigated so far. Thus, we investigated, for the first time, the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of CNa(+) (15.65, 31.25 and 62.5 μg/mL) on genomic instability of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) by determining the formation of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) with the Cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay. Further on we studied the influence of CNa(+) on the expression of several genes involved in toxicity mechanisms using the real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that CNa(+) increased the number of MNi, while the numbers of NBUDs and NPBs were not affected. In addition it deregulated genes in all the groups studied, mainly after longer time of exposure. These findings provide the evidence that CNa(+) is potentially genotoxic. Therefore further studies that will elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in toxic activity of CNa(+) are needed for hazard identification and human safety assessment.

  13. Bystander effect in human hepatoma HepG2 cells caused by medium transfers at different times after high-LET carbon ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingfeng; Li, Qiang; Jin, Xiaodong; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying

    2011-01-01

    Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been well documented in a variety of biological systems, whether irradiated cells have the ability to generate bystander signaling persistently is still unclear and the clinical relevance of bystander effects in radiotherapy remains to be elucidated. This study examines tumor cellular bystander response to autologous medium from cell culture irradiated with high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at a therapeutically relevant dose in terms of clonogenic cell survival. In vitro experiments were performed using human hepatoma HepG2 cell line exposed to 100 keV/μm carbon ions at a dose of 2 Gy. Two different periods (2 and 12 h) after irradiation, irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and replenished fresh medium were harvested and then transferred to unirradiated bystander cells. Cellular bystander responses were measured with the different medium transfer protocols. Significant higher survival fractions of unirradiated cells receiving the media from the irradiated cultures at the different times post-irradiation than those of the control were observed. Even replenishing fresh medium for unirradiated cells which had been exposed to the ICCM for 12 h could not prevent the bystander cells from the increased survival fraction. These results suggest that the irradiated cells could release unidentified signal factor(s), which induced the increase in survival fraction for the unirradiated bystander cells, into the media sustainedly and the carbon ions triggered a cascade of signaling events in the irradiated cells rather than secreting the soluble signal factor(s) just at a short period after irradiation. Based on the observations in this study, the importance of bystander effect in clinical radiotherapy was discussed and incorporating the bystander effect into the current radiobiological models, which are applicable to heavy ion radiotherapy, is needed urgently.

  14. Proteomic profiling revealed the functional networks associated with mitotic catastrophe of HepG2 hepatoma cells induced by 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Bo; Huang Bo; Guan Hua; Zhang Shimeng; Xu Qinzhi; He Xingpeng; Liu Xiaodan; Wang Yu; Shang Zengfu; Zhou Pingkun

    2011-05-01

    Mitotic catastrophe, a form of cell death resulting from abnormal mitosis, is a cytotoxic death pathway as well as an appealing mechanistic strategy for the development of anti-cancer drugs. In this study, 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde was demonstrated to induce DNA double-strand break, multipolar spindles, sustain mitotic arrest and generate multinucleated cells, all of which indicate mitotic catastrophe, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. We used proteomic profiling to identify the differentially expressed proteins underlying mitotic catastrophe. A total of 137 differentially expressed proteins (76 upregulated and 61 downregulated proteins) were identified. Some of the changed proteins have previously been associated with mitotic catastrophe, such as DNA-PKcs, FoxM1, RCC1, cyclin E, PLK1-pT210, 14-3-3{sigma} and HSP70. Multiple isoforms of 14-3-3, heat-shock proteins and tubulin were upregulated. Analysis of functional significance revealed that the 14-3-3-mediated signaling network was the most significantly enriched for the differentially expressed proteins. The modulated proteins were found to be involved in macromolecule complex assembly, cell death, cell cycle, chromatin remodeling and DNA repair, tubulin and cytoskeletal organization. These findings revealed the overall molecular events and functional signaling networks associated with spindle disruption and mitotic catastrophe. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: > 6-bromoisovanillin induced spindle disruption and sustained mitotic arrest, consequently resulted in mitotic catastrophe. > Proteomic profiling identified 137 differentially expressed proteins associated mitotic catastrophe. > The 14-3-3-mediated signaling network was the most significantly enriched for the altered proteins. > The macromolecule complex assembly, cell cycle, chromatin remodeling and DNA repair, tubulin organization were also shown involved in mitotic catastrophe.

  15. Involvement of p38 MAPK and Nrf2 in phenolic acid-induced P-form phenol sulfotransferase expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2006-05-01

    Phenolic acids have significant biological and pharmacological properties and some have demonstrated remarkable ability to alter sulfate conjugation. However, the modulation mechanisms of phenolic acids on phenol sulfotransferase expression have not been described. In the present study, we investigated the effects of phenolic acids on the expression of the Phase II P-form of phenol sulfotransferase (PST-P) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. RT-PCR and western blot data revealed that gallic acid induced increase in PST-P expression at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. This induction was also marked by an increase in PST-P activity. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide inhibited gallic acid-responsive PST-P mRNA expression, indicating that gallic acid is a requirement for transcription and de novo protein synthesis. Transient transfection of HepG2 cells with a reporter plasmid of the upstream region of the human PST gene caused a significant increase in reporter gene activity after gallic acid exposure. Moreover, gallic acid increased the nuclear levels of Nrf2, a transcription factor governing antioxidant response element (ARE). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed increased binding of nuclear proteins to ARE consensus sequence after treatment with gallic acid. While investigating the signaling pathways responsible for PST-P induction, we observed that gallic acid activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, abolished gallic acid-induced PST-P protein expression. Similarly, gallic acid also caused an accumulation of Nrf2. Moreover, the protective effects of gallic acid on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced toxicity was partially blocked by p38 MAPK and PST-P inhibitors, further demonstrating that gallic acid attenuates oxidative stress through a pathway that involves p38 MAPK and PST-P. These results indicate that gallic acid is a potent inducer of PST-P and that PST-P induction is responsible

  16. Effects of phenyl saligenin phosphate on cell viability and transglutaminase activity in N2a neuroblastoma and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Harris, W; Muñoz, D; Bonner, P L R; Hargreaves, A J

    2009-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine whether sub-lethal concentrations of the organophosphate compound phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP) could disrupt the activity of the Ca(2+)-activated enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TGase 2) from cultured cell lines of neuronal (N2a) and hepatic (HepG2) origin. The results indicated that PSP added directly to cytosol extracts from healthy cells was able to inhibit TGase 2 activity by 40-60% of control levels at sub-lethal concentrations (0.1 microM) that were approximately 100-fold lower than their IC(50) values in cytotoxicity assays. Following 24h exposure of N2a cells to 0.3 and 3 microM PSP in situ, a similar reduction in activity was observed in subsequent assays of TGase 2 activity. However, significantly increased activity was observed following in situ exposure of HepG2 cells to PSP (ca. 4-fold at 3 microM). Western blotting analysis indicated slightly reduced levels of TGase 2 in N2a cells compared to the control, whereas an increase was observed in the level of TGase 2 in HepG2 cells. We suggest that TGase 2 represents a potential target of organophosphate toxicity and that its response may vary in different cellular environments, possibly affected by its expression pattern.

  17. The effect of oleuropein from olive leaf (Olea europaea) extract on Ca²⁺ homeostasis, cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and ROS signaling in HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liu, Yuan-Yuarn; Sun, Wei-Chih; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren; Liang, Wei-Zhe

    2016-05-01

    Oleuropein, a phenolic compound found in the olive leaf (Olea europaea), has been shown to have biological activities in different models. However, the effects of oleuropein on Ca(2+) homeostasis, cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and ROS signaling in liver cells have not been analyzed. Oleuropein induced [Ca(2+)]i rises only in HepG2 cells but not in AML12, HA22T or HA59T cells due to the different status of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase expression. In HepG2 cells, this Ca(2+) signaling response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+), and was inhibited by the store-operated Ca(2+) channel blockers 2-APB and SKF96365. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the ER Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin abolished oleuropein-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Oleuropein induced cell cycle arrest which was associated with the regulation of p53, p21, CDK1 and cyclin B1 levels. Furthermore, oleuropein elevated intracellular ROS levels but reduced GSH levels. Treatment with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM or the antioxidant NAC partially reversed oleuropein-induced cytotoxicity. Together, in HepG2 cells, oleuropein induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by releasing Ca(2+) from the ER and causing Ca(2+) influx through store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Moreover, oleuropein induced Ca(2+)-associated cytotoxicity that involved ROS signaling and cell cycle arrest. This compound may offer a potential therapy for treatment of human hepatoma.

  18. Apelin-13 induces autophagy in hepatoma HepG2 cells through ERK1/2 signaling pathway-dependent upregulation of Beclin1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiulin; Liu, Xuan; Cao, Chao; Lei, Junyue; Han, Dong; Chen, Guodong; Yu, Jia; Chen, Linxi; Lv, Deguan; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Apelin-13 on autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism of the effect. The HepG2 cells were treated with Apelin-13 at a final concentration of 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 µmol/l for 24 h. Cells were also treated with 10 µmol/l PD98059 for 24 h. The expression of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and Beclin1 proteins were detected by western blot analysis. Beclin1 mRNA expression was also detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Autophagy was observed using fluorescence microscopy subsequent to monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining. Following treatment with the various concentrations of Apelin-13, the expression of the ERK1/2 protein remained at a similar level, whereas the expression of pERK1/2 increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, the increase was significant (P<0.05). Similarly, Beclin1 expression was upregulated at the protein and mRNA levels by Apelin-13 treatment in a dose-dependent manner and was significantly increased compared with the control group. However, following treatment with the Apelin-13 inhibitor PD98059, the expression of pERK1/2, Beclin1 protein and Beclin1 mRNA were significantly decreased (P<0.05). In addition, Apelin-13 induced the autophagy of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as revealed by MDC staining. PD98059 inhibited autophagy of HepG2 cells induced by Apelin-13. Therefore, Apelin-13 may promote autophagy in HepG2 cells by inducing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and upregulating the expression of Beclin1.

  19. Induction of apoptosis by pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull extract and its molecular mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Fathalizadeh, J; Bagheri, V; Khorramdelazad, H; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Jafarzadeh, A; Mirzaei, M R; Shamsizadeh, A; Hajizadeh, M R

    2015-11-30

    Several important Pistacia species such as P. vera have been traditionally used for treating a wide range of diseases (for instance, liver-related disorders). There is a relative lack of research into pharmacological aspects of pistachio hull. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating whether pistachio rosy hull (PRH) extract exerts apoptotic impacts on HepG2 liver cancer cell line. In order to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis in response to treatment with the extract, MTT assay and Annexin-V-fluorescein/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were performed, respectively. Moreover, molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by the extract was determined using human apoptosis PCR array. Our findings showed that PRH extract treatment reduced cell viability (IC50 ~ 0.3 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, quantitative PCR array results demonstrated the regulation of a considerable number of apoptosis-related genes belonging to the TNF, BCL2, IAP, TRAF, and caspase families. We observed altered expression of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes associated with the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of PRH possesses apoptotic activity through cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects on HepG2 cells.

  20. Response of the antioxidant defense system to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Alía, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the response of the antioxidant defense system to two oxidative stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, in HepG2 cells in culture. The parameters evaluated included enzyme activity and gene expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and activity of glutathione reductase. Besides, markers of the cell damage and oxidative stress evoked by the stressors such as cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, malondialdehyde levels, and reduced glutathione concentration were evaluated. Both stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, enhanced cell damage and reactive oxygen species generation at doses above 50 microM. The concentration of reduced glutathione decreased, and levels of malondialdehyde and activity of the antioxidant enzymes consistently increased only when HepG2 cells were treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide but not when hydrogen peroxide was used. A slight increase in the gene expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase with 500 microM tert-butyl hydroperoxide and of catalase with 200 microM hydrogen peroxide was observed. The response of the components of the antioxidant defense system evaluated in this study indicates that tert-butyl hydroperoxide evokes a consistent cellular stress in HepG2.

  1. Pharmacological induction of leukotriene B4-12-hydroxydehydrogenase suppresses the oncogenic transformation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lai; Liu, Jie; Le, X Chris; Han, Yifan; Tong, Yao; Lau, Allan S Y; Rong, Jianhui

    2011-09-01

    Leukotriene B4-12-hydroxydehydrogenase (LTB4DH) is characterized as a chemopreventive and tumor suppressor gene. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmaco-logical induction of LTB4DH and potential anticancer activity. Using HepG2 cells as a cellular detector, we successfully isolated the active compounds from the herbs Radix Astragali and Radix Paeoniae Rubra through a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure. Using various analytical techniques including electronic spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gallic acid (GA) was identified as the active compound from Radix Paeoniae Rubra whereas the active compound from Radix Astragali, designated as RA-C, was also purified to the extent that it is now suitable for further identifi-cation. We found that the active compounds from these two different herbs synergistically induced LTB4DH expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A key finding was that commercial GA in combination with purified RA-C attenuated the focus formation and anchorage-independent growth, two indexes of in vitro oncogenic transformation, of HepG2 cells via the induction of LTB4DH expression. Moreover, the combination of GA and purified RA-C significantly induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. Our results demon-strated for the first time that GA and purified RA-C suppress the in vitro oncogenic transformation of HepG2 cells via the induction of LTB4DH expression. Importantly, pharmaco-logical induction of LTB4DH represents a potential alternative strategy for the therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Quercetin induces apoptosis via caspase activation, regulation of Bcl-2, and inhibition of PI-3-kinase/Akt and ERK pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2006-11-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been associated with the reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, but the precise underlying mechanism of protection remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the activation of the apoptotic pathway in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Treatment of cells for 18 h with quercetin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner; however, a shorter treatment (4 h) had no effect on cell viability. Incubation of HepG2 cells with quercetin for 18 h induced apoptosis by the activation of caspase-3 and -9, but not caspase-8. Moreover, this flavonoid decreased the Bcl-xL:Bcl-xS ratio and increased translocation of Bax to the mitochondrial membrane. A sustained inhibition of the major survival signals, Akt and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), also occurred in quercetin-treated cells. These data suggest that quercetin may induce apoptosis by direct activation of caspase cascade (mitochondrial pathway) and by inhibiting survival signaling in HepG2.

  3. Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase-3 is a molecular target for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in HepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Aiqin; Li, Hai; Zhou, Yue; Wu, Minhao; Liu, Jingwen

    2010-05-28

    ACSL3 is a member of the long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) family that plays key roles in fatty acid metabolism in various tissues in an isozyme-specific manner. Our previous studies showed that ACSL3 was transcriptionally up-regulated by the cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) in HepG2 cells, accompanied by reduced cellular triglyceride content and enhanced beta-oxidation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the OSM-induced activation of ACSL3 gene transcription in HepG2 cells. We showed that OSM treatment resulted in a coordinated elevation of mRNA levels of ACSL3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta). The effect of OSM on ACSL3 mRNA expression was inhibited by cellular depletion of PPARdelta. By utilizing a PPARdelta agonist, L165041, we demonstrated that activation of PPARdelta led to increases in ACSL3 promoter activity, mRNA level, and protein level in HepG2 cells. Analysis of the ACSL3 promoter sequence identified two imperfect PPAR-responsive elements (PPRE) located in the ACSL3 promoter region -944 to -915, relative to the transcription start site. The up-regulation of ACSL3 promoter activity by PPARdelta was abolished by deletion of this PPRE-containing region or mutation to disrupt the binding sites. Direct interactions of PPARdelta with ACSL3-PPRE sequences were demonstrated by gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Finally, we provided in vivo evidence showing that activation of PPARdelta by L165041 in hamsters increased ACSL3 mRNA and protein levels in the liver. These new findings define ACSL3 as a novel molecular target of PPARdelta in HepG2 cells and provide a regulatory mechanism for ACSL3 transcription in liver tissue.

  4. Phenolic-containing organic extracts of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves inhibit HepG2 hepatoma cells through G2/M phase arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of topoisomerase IIα activity.

    PubMed

    Naowaratwattana, Wanlaya; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-10-01

    The entire plant of Morus alba L. (Family Moraceae), or mulberry, possesses medical benefits, including anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of mulberry leaf extracts on the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line, which is related to hepatocellular carcinoma. Mulberry leaf extracts were prepared using four solvents, each with different polarities: 100% methanol (MeOH), 50% aqueous MeOH, 1-butanol (BuOH), and hot water (W). The phenolic profile, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, and effect on human hepatoma HepG2 cells of the leaf extracts were analyzed by examining cytotoxicity, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, expression of topoisomerase IIα, and proteins involved in cell cycle progression. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, and BuOH extracts contained rutin, isoquercetin, and various derivatives of kaempferol and quercetin glycosides as their major constituents; the W extract contained primarily chlorogenic acid and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. Total phenolic content based on rutin equivalents was 17.1%, 9.6%, 8.3%, and 6.5% of dry 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, BuOH, and W extracts, respectively. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities were 70.0%, 45.8%, 41.0%, and 33.6%, and 50% inhibitory concentration values were 33.1, 79.4, 35.6, and 204.2 μg/mL for HepG2 cell proliferation inhibition for 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, BuOH, and W extracts, respectively. MeOH extracts caused cell cycle G2/M arrest and induced the caspase cascade and apoptosis, but the W extract had very little effect on cell cycle progression. MeOH extracts reduced the level of topoisomerase IIα but increased the level of p27(Kip1), with no significant effect on p21(Cip1/waf1). Therefore, we concluded that phenolic-containing organic extracts of mulberry leaves inhibit the growth of HepG2 hepatoma cells through coordinated actions of inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase (with

  5. Uridine uptake inhibition as a cytotoxicity test for a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells): comparison with the neutral red assay.

    PubMed

    Valentin, I; Philippe, M; Lhuguenot, J; Chagnon, M

    2001-02-14

    This study describes a sensitive microassay for measuring cytotoxicity based on the degree of inhibition of RNA synthesis in HepG2 cells. RNA synthesis is measured by the kinetic uptake of radiolabeled uridine. A large number of compounds were tested in a wide range of concentrations. The concentration required to induce 50% inhibition of HepG2 uridine uptake rates (IC(50)) was determined for each compound and used to rank its potency. These IC(50)s were compared with IC(50)s measured with the neutral red assay. 2-acetylaminofluorene, benzo[a]pyrene and methylnitrosourea were not cytotoxic in the neutral red assay. Uridine uptake was always inhibited at lower concentrations than those required in the neutral red assay, suggesting that the uridine uptake assay is a more sensitive indicator of toxic action than the neutral red inclusion. Uridine uptake assay provides a rapid and quantitative method for assessing toxicity in a human cell line. Application of this method to bottled spring waters are described. Due to its high sensitivity and reproducibility, this method provides a suitable tool for screening a great number of samples and will be a helpful test for evaluating food safety and controlling the recycling process of wrapping materials.

  6. Esculetin-induced protection of human hepatoma HepG2 cells against hydrogen peroxide is associated with the Nrf2-dependent induction of the NAD(P)H: Quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Subramaniam, Sudhakar R.; Ellis, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-15

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy coumarin), is a potent antioxidant that is present in several plant species. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of protection of esculetin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability, cell integrity, intracellular glutathione levels, generation of reactive oxygen species and expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers to measure cellular oxidative stress and response to ROS. The protective effect of esculetin was compared to a well-characterized chemoprotective compound quercetin. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with sub-lethal (10-25 {mu}M) esculetin for 8 h prevented cell death and maintained cell integrity following exposure to 0.9 mM hydrogen peroxide. An increase in the generation of ROS following hydrogen peroxide treatment was significantly attenuated by 8 h pre-treatment with esculetin. In addition, esculetin ameliorated the decrease in intracellular glutathione caused by hydrogen peroxide exposure. Moreover, treatment with 25 {mu}M esculetin for 8 h increased the expression of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) at both protein and mRNA levels significantly, by 12-fold and 15-fold, respectively. Esculetin treatment also increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 by 8-fold indicating that increased NQO1 expression is Nrf2-mediated. These results indicate that esculetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells from hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury and that this protection is provided through the induction of protective enzymes as part of an adaptive response mediated by Nrf2 nuclear accumulation.

  7. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2 cell membrane chromatographic analysis system for charactering anti-hepatoma components from rat serum after oral administration of Radix scutellariae: A strategy for rapid screening active compounds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dan; Chen, Xiaofei; Cao, Yan; Wu, Xunxun; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Chuan; Chai, Yifeng; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2016-01-25

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a bioaffinity chromatography technique for characterizing interactions between drugs and membrane receptors and has been widely used to screen active components from complex samples such as herbal medicines (HMs). However, it has never been applied in vivo due to its relatively high limit of detection (LOD) and the matrix interferences. In this study, a novel on-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2/CMC/enrich columns/high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry system was developed to rapidly screen potential anti-hepatoma components from drug-containing serum of rats after oral administration of Radix scutellariae. A matrix interference deduction method with a home-written program in MATLAB was developed, which could successfully eliminate the interference of endogenous substances in serum. Baicalein, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, neobaicalein and rivularin from Radix scutellariae extraction were significantly retained in the HepG2/CMC column. Three potential active components, wogonin, oroxylin A and neobaicalein were firstly screened from the drug-containing serum as well. The cell counting kit-8 assay demonstrated that wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin showed high inhibitory activities in a dose-dependent manner on HepG2 cells at the concentration of 12.5-200 μM (p<0.05) and the IC50 values were 69.83, 16.66 and 51.6 μM, respectively. Wogonin and oroxylin A, which were screened both from Radix scutellariae extraction and the drug-containing serum, could be selected as lead compounds to obtain good anti-hepatoma effects. The proposed comprehensive 2D CMC system and matrix interference elimination strategy have significant advantages for in vivo screening of active components from complex biological samples and could be applied to other biochromatography models.

  8. Interleukin-18 Down-Regulates Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 Expression through Farnesoid X Receptor Associated with Nuclear Factor Kappa B and Yin Yang 1 in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-cong; Lian, Wei; Zhang, Liang-jun; Feng, Xin-chan; Gao, Yu; Li, Shao-xue; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Long; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Lei; Wang, Rong-quan; Chai, Jin; Chen, Wen-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) plays an important role in bile acid metabolism by transporting toxic organic anion conjugates, including conjugated bilirubin, glutathione, sulfate, and multifarious drugs. MRP2 expression is reduced in cholestatic patients and rodents. However, the molecular mechanism of MRP2 down-regulation remains elusive. In this report, we treated human hepatoma HepG2 cells with interleukin-18 (IL-18) and measured the expression of MRP2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) by quantitative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. We found that expression of MRP2 was repressed by IL-18 at both the mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the activated NF-κB pathway increased YY1 and reduced FXR. These changes were all attenuated in HepG2 cells with knockdown of the NF-κB subunit, p65. The reduced expression of FXR and MRP2 in HepG2 cells that had been caused by IL-18 treatment was also attenuated by YY1 knockdown. We further observed significantly elevated IL-18, NF-κB, and YY1 expression and decreased FXR and MRP2 expression in bile duct-ligated Sprague Dawley rat livers. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays also showed that FXR bound to the promoter region in MRP2 was less abundant in liver extracts from bile duct-ligated rats than sham-operated rats. Our findings indicate that IL-18 down-regulates MRP2 expression through the nuclear receptor FXR in HepG2 cells, and may be mediated by NF-κB and YY1.

  9. Induction of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2 by tanshinones in human HepG2 hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Rong; Sun Jianguo; Ma Liping; Wu Xiaolan; Pan Guoyu; Hao Haiping; Zhou Fang; Jiye, A; Liu Changhui; Ai Hua; Shang Lili; Gao Haiyan; Peng Ying; Wan Ping; Wu Hui; Wang Guangji

    2011-04-01

    Diterpenoid tanshinones including tanshinone IIA (TIIA), cryptotanshinone (CTS), tanshinone I (TI) and dihydrotanshinone I (DHTI) are the major bioactive components from Danshen. The major aim of our present study was to investigate the induction potential of these four main components of tanshinones (TIIA, CTS, TI, and DHTI) on the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that all of these four tanshinones caused a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase in the amount of CYP1A1/2 expression in HepG2 cells. These induction effects were further characterized through transcriptional regulation: the induction of CYP1A1/2 mRNA level by tanshinones was completely blocked by the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D; the expression of CYP1A1/2 heterogeneous nuclear RNA was induced by tanshinone treatment; and CYP1A1 mRNA stability was not influenced by these tanshinones. Interestingly, tanshinones plus B[a]P produced additive/synergistic effect on CYP1A1/2 induction. In addition, the tanshinone-induced CYP1A1/2 expression was abolished by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist resveratrol, suggesting an AhR dependent transcription mechanism. In the reporter gene assay, while TI and DHTI significantly induced AhR-dependent luciferase activity, TIIA and CTS failed to induce this activity. Collectively, the tanshinones could induce CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression through transcriptional activation mechanism and exert differential effects on activating AhR in HepG2 cells. Our findings suggest that rational administration of tanshinones should be considered with respect to their effect on AhR and CYP1A1/2 expression.

  10. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes.

  11. Insulin-Mediated Downregulation of Apolipoprotein A-I Gene in Human Hepatoma Cell Line HepG2: The Role of Interaction Between FOXO1 and LXRβ Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Shavva, Vladimir S; Bogomolova, Alexandra M; Nikitin, Artemy A; Dizhe, Ella B; Tanyanskiy, Dmitry A; Efremov, Alexander M; Oleinikova, Galina N; Perevozchikov, Andrej P; Orlov, Sergey V

    2017-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a key component of high density lipoproteins which possess anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Insulin is a crucial mediator of the glucose and lipid metabolism that has been implicated in atherosclerotic and inflammatory processes. Important mediators of insulin signaling such as Liver X Receptors (LXRs) and Forkhead Box A2 (FOXA2) are known to regulate apoA-I expression in liver. Forkhead Box O1 (FOXO1) is a well-known target of insulin signaling and a key mediator of oxidative stress response. Low doses of insulin were shown to activate apoA-I expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. However, the detailed mechanisms for these processes are still unknown. We studied the possible involvement of FOXO1, FOXA2, LXRα, and LXRβ transcription factors in the insulin-mediated regulation of apoA-I expression. Treatment of HepG2 cells with high doses of insulin (48 h, 100 nM) suppresses apoA-I gene expression. siRNAs against FOXO1, FOXA2, LXRβ, or LXRα abrogated this effect. FOXO1 forms a complex with LXRβ and insulin treatment impairs FOXO1/LXRβ complex binding to hepatic enhancer and triggers its nuclear export. Insulin as well as LXR ligand TO901317 enhance the interaction between FOXA2, LXRα, and hepatic enhancer. These data suggest that high doses of insulin downregulate apoA-I gene expression in HepG2 cells through redistribution of FOXO1/LXRβ complex, FOXA2, and LXRα on hepatic enhancer of apoA-I gene. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 382-396, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2) and rat hepatoma cells are defective in important enzyme activities in the oxidation of the C27 steroid side chain in bile acid formation.

    PubMed

    Farrants, A K; Nilsson, A; Pedersen, J I

    1993-12-01

    We have examined the ability of HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells and 7800 C1 Morris rat hepatoma cells to convert 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (THCA) and 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (DHCA) to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, respectively. Cell extracts from both these cell lines could neither form cholic acid from THCA nor from the activated form, THCA-CoA. This suggests that both cell lines are defective in two enzyme activities involved in the pathway, the microsomal THCA-CoA ligase and the peroxisomal THCA-CoA oxidase. Furthermore, we show that the subsequent enzymes are active in the conversion to bile acids, because the product of the THCA-CoA oxidase, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoyl-coenzyme A (delta 24-THCA-CoA) or delta 24-THCA in the presence of THCA-CoA ligase, are converted to cholic acid by both cell lines. HepG2 cells were able to slowly form chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid from 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha-diol and 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol, respectively, in 24- and 96-h incubations. The rate of cholic acid formation was lower than the rate for chenodeoxycholic acid and there was a clear accumulation of THCA. 7800 C1 Morris cells had no ability to form cholic acid or chenodeoxycholic acid after 96 h incubation. We conclude that these two cell lines have defects in two enzyme activities involved in the peroxisomal oxidation in bile acid formation, the microsomal THCA-CoA ligase and the peroxisomal THCA-CoA oxidase.

  13. Pu-erh tea supplementation suppresses fatty acid synthase expression in the rat liver through downregulating Akt and JNK signalings as demonstrated in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chun-Te; Weng, Meng-Shih; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn; Kuo, Kuan-Li; Tsai, Yao-Jen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a key enzyme of lipogenesis. Overexpression of FAS is dominant in cancer cells and proliferative tissues. The expression of FAS in the livers of rats fed pu-erh tea leaves was significantly suppressed. The gains in body weight, levels of triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol were also suppressed in the tea-treated rats. FAS expression in hepatoma HepG2 cells was suppressed by the extracts of pu-erh tea at both the protein and mRNA levels. FAS expression in HepG2 cells was strongly inhibited by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and JNK inhibitor II and slightly inhibited by p38 inhibitor SB203580 and MEK inhibitor PD98059, separately. Based on these findings, we suggest that the suppression of FAS in the livers of rats fed pu-erh tea leaves may occur through downregulation of the PI3K/AKt and JNK signaling pathways. The major components of tea that have been demonstrated to be responsible for the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects are catechins, caffeine, and theanine. The compositions of catechins, caffeine, and theanine varied dramatically in pu-erh, black, oolong, and green teas. The active principles and molecular mechanisms that exerted these biological effects in pu-erh tea deserve future exploration.

  14. The effect of WSEWS pentapeptide and WSEWS-specific monoclonal antibodies on constitutive and IL-6 induced acute-phase protein production by a human hepatoma cell line, HEPG-2.

    PubMed

    Biró, J; Bösze, S; Hudecz, F; Nagy, Z; Rajnavölgyi, E; Schmidt, B; Rákász, E; Falus, A

    1995-05-01

    Interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily characterised by the obligatory presence of WSXWS (Trp-Ser-X-Trp-Ser) sequence motif near the transmembrane domain. To more clearly understand the role of this motif, we treated the HepG2 hepatoma cell line with synthetic WSEWS peptide (E is glutamic acid) and checked the spontaneous and IL-6-induced production of acute-phase protein fibrinogen and C1-inhibitor (C1-INH). The peptide revealed a definitely stimulatory effect both on the constitutive synthesis of C1-INH and on the IL-6-induced fibrinogen synthesis of HepG2 cells. Monoclonal antibody specific for WSEWS pentapeptide was stimulatory for the spontaneous secretion of both fibrinogen and C1-INH. However, the IL-6-induced elevations of these acute-phase proteins were oppositely regulated, since the anti-WSEWS monoclonal antibody was inhibitory on the production of fibrinogen induced by IL-6 but strongly augmented the IL-6 induced production of C1-INH. Our study indicates that the WSEWS motif is critical in the effect of IL-6 on the acute-phase protein production influencing either the ligand binding by the WSEWS-containing receptor molecule or the signal transduction.

  15. Comparison of DNA damage in human-derived hepatoma line (HepG2) exposed to the fifteen drinking water disinfection byproducts using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Xu, Liang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Xie, Hong; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2012-01-24

    Disinfection of drinking water reduces pathogenic infection, but generates disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. In this study, the effect of fifteen DBPs on DNA damage in human-derived hepatoma line (HepG2) was investigated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. These fifteen DBPs are: four trihalomethanes (THMs), six haloacetic acides (HAAs), three haloacetonitriles (HANs), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), and chloral hydrate (CH). Based on the minimal effective concentration (MEC) at which DBPs induced significant increase in olive tail moment (OTM), the rank order of DNA-damaging potency is: bromodichloromethane (BDCM)>dibromochloromethane (DBCM)>tribromomethane (TBM)>trichloromethane (TCM) of the four THMs; iodoacetic acid (IA)>bromoacetic acid (BA)>dibromoacetic acid (DBA)>dichloracetic acid (DCA)>trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of the five HAAs; dibromoacetonitrile (DBN)approximately dichloroacetonitrile (DCN)>trichloroacetonitrile (TCN) of the three HANs. The DNA damaging potency of MX and CH is similar to TCA and DCA, respectively. IA is the most genotoxic DBP in the fifteen DBPs, followed by BA. Chloroacetic acid (CA) is not genotoxic in this assay. Our findings indicated that HepG2/SCGE is a sensitive tool to evaluate the genotoxicity of DBPs and iodinated DBPs are more genotoxic than brominated DBPs, but chlorinated DBPs are less genotoxic than brominated DBPs.

  16. Effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins exposure on the viability and metabolism of human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ningbo; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Baoqin; Wu, Ping; Wang, Feidi; Yu, Zhengkun; Chen, Jiping

    2015-03-03

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have attracted considerable attention for their characteristic of persistent organic pollutants. However, very limited information is available for their toxic effects at environmentally relevant doses, limiting the evaluation of their health risks. In this study, cell viability assay and targeted metabolomic approach was used to evaluate the environmental dose (<100 μg/L) effect of SCCPs on HepG2 cells. Cell viability was found to be decreased with increases in exposure dose of SCCPs. Exposure for 48 h to C10-CPs resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability compared with 24 h, even at 1 μg/L. SCCPs exposure altered the intracellular redox status and caused significant metabolic disruptions. As a kind of peroxisome proliferator, SCCPs specifically stimulated the β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids. Meanwhile, SCCPs exposure disturbed glycolysis and amino acid metabolism, and led to the up-regulation of glutamate metabolism and urea cycle. The toxic effects of SCCPs might mainly involve the perturbation of energy production, protein biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and ammonia recycling.

  17. Metabolism of a Representative Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC–UV–fluorescence detection and LC–MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH. PMID:24646012

  18. Metabolism of a representative oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Zhang, Li; Mesaros, Clementina; Zhang, Suhong; Blaha, Michael A; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2014-05-19

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH.

  19. Vildagliptin and its metabolite M20.7 induce the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Mitsutoshi; Karaki, Fumika; Fujii, Hideaki; Atsuda, Koichiro; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2016-10-19

    Vildagliptin is a potent, orally active inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that vildagliptin can cause hepatic dysfunction in patients. However, the molecular-mechanism of vildagliptin-induced liver dysfunction has not been elucidated. In this study, we employed an expression microarray to determine hepatic genes that were highly regulated by vildagliptin in mice. We found that pro-inflammatory S100 calcium-binding protein (S100) a8 and S100a9 were induced more than 5-fold by vildagliptin in the mouse liver. We further examined the effects of vildagliptin and its major metabolite M20.7 on the mRNA expression levels of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin, M20.7, and sitagliptin - another DPP-4 inhibitor - induced S100A9 mRNA. In HL-60 cells, in contrast, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs were significantly induced by vildagliptin and M20.7, but not by sitagliptin. The release of S100A8/A9 complex in the cell culturing medium was observed in the HL-60 cells treated with vildagliptin and M20.7. Therefore, the parental vildagliptin- and M20.7-induced release of S100A8/A9 complex from immune cells, such as neutrophils, might be a contributing factor of vildagliptin-associated liver dysfunction in humans.

  20. Vildagliptin and its metabolite M20.7 induce the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Mitsutoshi; Karaki, Fumika; Fujii, Hideaki; Atsuda, Koichiro; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Vildagliptin is a potent, orally active inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that vildagliptin can cause hepatic dysfunction in patients. However, the molecular-mechanism of vildagliptin-induced liver dysfunction has not been elucidated. In this study, we employed an expression microarray to determine hepatic genes that were highly regulated by vildagliptin in mice. We found that pro-inflammatory S100 calcium-binding protein (S100) a8 and S100a9 were induced more than 5-fold by vildagliptin in the mouse liver. We further examined the effects of vildagliptin and its major metabolite M20.7 on the mRNA expression levels of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin, M20.7, and sitagliptin – another DPP-4 inhibitor – induced S100A9 mRNA. In HL-60 cells, in contrast, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs were significantly induced by vildagliptin and M20.7, but not by sitagliptin. The release of S100A8/A9 complex in the cell culturing medium was observed in the HL-60 cells treated with vildagliptin and M20.7. Therefore, the parental vildagliptin- and M20.7-induced release of S100A8/A9 complex from immune cells, such as neutrophils, might be a contributing factor of vildagliptin-associated liver dysfunction in humans. PMID:27759084

  1. Beta-glucan extracted from the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei prevents the genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; Bellini, Marilanda Ferreira; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio

    2009-01-01

    The mushroom Agaricus blazei is studied for its nutraceutical potential and as a medicinal supplement. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemoprotective effect of beta-glucan extracted from the mushroom A. blazei against DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), using the comet assay (genotoxicity) and micronucleus assay with cytokinesis block (mutagenicity) in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). To elucidate the possible beta-glucan mechanism of action, desmutagenesis or bioantimutagenesis types, three treatment protocols were tested: simultaneous, pre-treatment, and presimultaneous. The results showed that beta-glucan does not exert genotoxic or mutagenic effect, but that it does protect against DNA damage caused by B[a]P in every protocol tested. The data suggest that beta-glucan acts through binding to B[a]P or the capture of free radicals produced during its activation. On the other hand, the pre-treatment results also suggest the possibility that beta-glucan modulates cell metabolism.

  2. Potentiation of LPS-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells by Aspirin via ROS and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Protection by N-Acetyl Cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Shafarin, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and inflammation-associated toxic responses have been observed to be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vitro and in vivo respectively. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, has been reported to be beneficial in inflammation-associated diseases like cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Their precise molecular mechanisms, however, are not clearly understood. Our previous studies on aspirin treated HepG2 cells strongly suggest cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we have further demonstrated that HepG2 cells treated with LPS alone or in combination with aspirin induces subcellular toxic responses which are accompanied by increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and apoptosis. The LPS/Aspirin induced toxicity was attenuated by pre-treatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Alterations in oxidative stress and glutathione-dependent redox-homeostasis were more pronounced in mitochondria compared to extra- mitochondrial cellular compartments. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with NAC exhibited a selective protection in redox homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that the altered redox metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in HepG2 cells play a critical role in LPS/aspirin-induced cytotoxicity. These results may help in better understanding the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic properties of NSAIDs in cancer cells exposed to bacterial endotoxins. PMID:27441638

  3. SC-III3, a novel scopoletin derivative, induces autophagy of human hepatoma HepG2 cells through AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway by acting on mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Dou, Yannong; Chen, Li; Li, Linhu; Wei, Zhifeng; Yu, Juntao; Wu, Xin; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yufeng

    2015-07-01

    (E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl) acrylamide (SC-III3), a newly synthesized derivative of scopoletin, was previously shown to reduce the viability of HepG2 cells and tumor growth of HepG2 xenograft mouse model. It induces the death of HepG2 cells by a way irrelevant to apoptosis and necrosis. To shed light on the cytotoxic mechanisms of SC-III3, the present study addresses whether and how it can induce autophagic cell death. When HepG2 cells were incubated with various concentrations of SC-III3, autophagic vacuoles could be observed by transmission electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine staining. Increased expressions of LC3-II to LC3-I and Beclin-1, required for autophagosome formation, were accompanied. These characteristics integrally indicated that SC-III3 could initiate autophagy in HepG2 cells. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, could reverse SC-III3-caused ROS accumulation, but it did not affect SC-III3-induced autophagy, suggesting that ROS was not involved in SC-III3-mediated autophagy in HepG2 cells. SC-III3 significantly depressed mitochondrial function, as evidenced by disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and loss of the mitochondrial cristae structure, as well as decrease of Cox-I, Cox-III, Cox-IV, and ATP levels. The autophagy and activation of AMPK-TSC2-mTOR-p70s6k pathways induced by SC-III3 in HepG2 cells could be efficiently blocked by pre-treatments of compound C (an inhibitor of AMPK). Moreover, addition of extracellular ATP to the cell culture media could reverse SC-III3-caused activation of AMPK-TSC2-mTOR-p70s6k pathway, autophagy and cell viability decrease in HepG2 cells. Collectively, SC-III3 leads to autophagy through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, depleting ATP, and activating AMPK-mTOR pathway, which thus reflects the cytotoxic effect of SC-III3 in HepG2 cells.

  4. Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Benitez-Trinidad, A B; Herrera-Moreno, J F; Vázquez-Estrada, G; Verdín-Betancourt, F A; Sordo, M; Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Bernal-Hernández, Y Y; Medina-Díaz, I M; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Salazar, A M; Rojas-García, A E

    2015-06-01

    Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 μM) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect.

  5. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui; Cheah, Yew-Hoong; Meenakshii, Nallappan; Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  6. AP-1 Inhibition by SR 11302 Protects Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells from Bile Acid-Induced Cytotoxicity by Restoring the NOS-3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    González-Rubio, Sandra; Linares, Clara I.; Aguilar-Melero, Patricia; Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Manuel; Montero-Álvarez, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of bile acid accumulation occurring during cholestatic liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress increase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-3) expression decrease in liver cells. We have previously reported that glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) down-regulates gene expression by increasing SP1 binding to the NOS-3 promoter in an oxidative stress dependent manner. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of transcription factor (TF) AP-1 on the NOS-3 deregulation during GCDCA-induced cholestasis. The cytotoxic response to GCDCA was characterized by 1) the increased expression and activation of TFs cJun and c-Fos; 2) a higher binding capability of these at position -666 of the NOS-3 promoter; 3) a decrease of the transcriptional activity of the promoter and the expression and activity of NOS-3; and 4) the expression increase of cyclin D1. Specific inhibition of AP-1 by the retinoid SR 11302 counteracted the cytotoxic effects induced by GCDCA while promoting NOS-3 expression recovery and cyclin D1 reduction. NOS activity inhibition by L-NAME inhibited the protective effect of SR 11302. Inducible NOS isoform was no detected in this experimental model of cholestasis. Our data provide direct evidence for the involvement of AP-1 in the NOS-3 expression regulation during cholestasis and define a critical role for NOS-3 in regulating the expression of cyclin D1 during the cell damage induced by bile acids. AP-1 appears as a potential therapeutic target in cholestatic liver diseases given its role as a transcriptional repressor of NOS-3. PMID:27490694

  7. Phosphoramidate protides of five flavones and their antiproliferative activity against HepG2 and L-O2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-qing; Yang, Fei; Wang, Liu; Cao, Zhi; Han, Tian-jiao; Duan, Zhe-ang; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Jie

    2016-04-13

    A series of flavone-7-phosphoramidate derivatives were synthesized and tested for their antiproliferative activity in vitro against human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and human normal hepatic cell line L-O2. Compound 8d, 16d and 17d, incorporating the amino acid alanine, exhibited high inhibitory activity on HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 9.0 μmol/L, 5.5 μmol/L and 6.6 μmol/L. The introduction of acyl groups played a pivotal role in the selective inhibition toward human hepatoma HepG2 cells, except for compound 8a, 9a and 16b. Compound 8d, 16d and 17d could significantly induce G2/M arrest in HepG2 cells. Specially, Compound 16d could lead early apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

  8. [Study on transient absorption spectrum of tungsten nanoparticle with HepG2 tumor cell].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lin; Shu, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Dong; Wang, Cong

    2014-07-01

    Significance of this study lies in tungsten nano materials can be used as a preliminary innovative medicines applied basic research. This paper investigated the inhibition of tungsten nanoparticles which effected on human hepatoma HepG2 cells by MTT. The authors use transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) technology absorption and emission spectra characterization of charge transfer between nanoparticles and tumor cell. The authors discussed the role of the tungsten nanoparticles in the tumor early detection of the disease and its anti-tumor properties. In the HepG2 experiments system, 100-150 microg x mL(-1) is the best drug concentration of anti-tumor activity which recact violently within 6 hours and basically completed in 24 hours. The results showed that transient absorption spectroscopy can be used as tumor detection methods and characterization of charge transfer between nano-biosensors and tumor cells. Tungsten nanoparticles have potential applications as anticancer drugs.

  9. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. VI. Characteristics of adrenoceptors and adenylate cyclase response in rat ascites hepatoma cells and human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Kohei, K; Nomura, M; Miyamoto, K

    1992-06-01

    Alpha 1, alpha 2- and beta-Adrenoceptor densities and catecholamine responsiveness in established hepatoma cells, rat ascites hepatoma AH13, AH66, AH66F, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974 cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma HLF and HepG2 cells, were compared with those in normal rat hepatocytes and Chang liver cells. Alpha 1-Adrenoceptor densities measured by [3H]prazosin bindings were not detected in all hepatoma cell lines. Alpha 2-Adrenoceptor densities measured by [3H]clonidine bindings were also barely detected in hepatoma cell lines except for AH130 cells and HepG2 cells. Regarding beta-adrenoceptor, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974 cells had much more [125I]iodocyanopindolol binding sites than normal rat hepatocytes, although we could not detect the binding in HepG2 cells. Adenylate cyclase of normal rat hepatocyte and Chang liver cells were stimulated by beta 2-adrenergic agonist salbutamol, while the cyclase in hepatoma cells had no beta 2-adrenergic response but a beta 1-type response. These findings indicate that the characteristics of adrenergic response in hepatoma cell lines is very different from that in normal hepatocytes, suggesting a participation in the hepatocarcinogenesis and/or the autonomous proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  10. Potential Metabolic Activation of a Representative C2-Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon 6-Ethylchrysene Associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. C2-Chrysenes are representative PAHs present in crude oil and could contaminate the food chain. We describe the metabolism of a C2-chrysene regioisomer, 6-ethylchrysene (6-EC), in human HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. 6-EC-tetraol isomers were identified as signature metabolites of the diol-epoxide pathway. O-Monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine(NAC)-6-EC-ortho-quinone were discovered as signature metabolites of the ortho-quinone pathway. Potential dual metabolic activation of 6-EC involving the formation of bis-electrophiles, i.e., a mono-diol-epoxide and a mono-ortho-quinone within the same structure, bis-diol-epoxides, and bis-ortho-quinones was observed as well. The identification of 6-EC-tetraol, O-monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and NAC-6-EC-ortho-quinone supports potential metabolic activation of 6-EC by P450 and AKR enzymes followed by metabolic detoxification of the ortho-quinone through interception of its redox cycling capability by catechol-O-methyltransferase and sulfotransferase enzymes. The tetraols and catechol conjugates could be used as biomarkers of human exposure to 6-EC resulting from oil spills. PMID:27054409

  11. Protective effects of xanthohumol against the genotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) in HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Plazar, Janja; Zegura, Bojana; Lah, Tamara T; Filipic, Metka

    2007-08-15

    Xanthohumol is the major prenylated flavonoid present in the hop plant Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabinaceae) and a common ingredient of beer. Recently, xanthohumol has gained considerable interest due to its potential cancer chemo-preventive effect. The aim of this study was to reveal the possible anti-genotoxic activity of xanthohumol in metabolically competent human hepatoma HepG2 cells, by use of the comet assay. Xanthohumol by itself was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic to the cells at concentrations below 10microM. However, a significant protective effect against the pro-carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was observed at concentrations as low as 0.01microM. In cells treated with xanthohumol in combination with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) - an inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - no protective effect was observed and xanthohumol also showed no significant scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. On the other hand, HepG2 cells pre-treated with xanthohumol showed significantly reduced levels of t-BOOH-induced DNA strand breaks, indicating that its protective effect is mediated by induction of cellular defence mechanisms against oxidative stress. As xanthohumol is known to be an effective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes and an inducer of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR), our findings can be explained by an inhibition of metabolic activation of pro-carcinogens and/or by induction of carcinogen-detoxifying and anti-oxidative enzymes by xanthohumol. These results provide evidence that xanthohumol displays anti-genotoxic activity in metabolically competent human cells.

  12. Cacao polyphenols influence the regulation of apolipoprotein in HepG2 and Caco2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Akiko; Natsume, Midori; Osakabe, Naomi; Kawahata, Keiko; Koga, Jinichiro

    2011-02-23

    Cocoa powder is rich in polyphenols, such as catechins and procyanidins, and has been shown to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and atherogenesis in a variety of models. Human studies have also shown daily intake of cocoa increases plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and decreases LDL levels. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects of cocoa on cholesterol metabolism have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of cacao polyphenols on the production of apolipoproteins A1 and B in human hepatoma HepG2 and intestinal Caco2 cell lines. The cultured HepG2 cells or Caco2 cells were incubated for 24 h in the presence of cacao polyphenols such as (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C1, and cinnamtannin A2. The concentration of apolipoproteins in the cell culture media was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunoassay, and the mRNA expression was quantified by RT-PCR. Cacao polyphenols increased apolipoprotein A1 protein levels and mRNA expression, even though apolipoprotein B protein and the mRNA expression were slightly decreased in both HepG2 cells and Caco2 cells. In addition, cacao polyphenols increased sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and activated LDL receptors in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that cacao polyphenols may increase the production of mature form SREBPs and LDL receptor activity, thereby increasing ApoA1 and decreasing ApoB levels. These results elucidate a novel mechanism by which HDL cholesterol levels become elevated with daily cocoa intake.

  13. Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Alia, Mario . E-mail: luisgoya@if.csic.es

    2006-04-15

    Flavonols such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell viability and redox status of cultured HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Concentrations of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, generation of reactive oxygen species and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of HepG2 with 10 {mu}M quercetin completely prevented lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. Pretreatment for 2 or 20 h with all doses of quercetin (0.1-10 {mu}M) prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde evoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with 10 {mu}M and for 20 h with 5 {mu}M quercetin. Finally, some of the quercetin treatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was also affected by the treatment with the polyphenol. The results of the biomarkers analyzed clearly show that treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with the natural dietary antioxidant quercetin strongly protects the cells against an oxidative insult.

  14. Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Alía, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2006-04-15

    Flavonols such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell viability and redox status of cultured HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Concentrations of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, generation of reactive oxygen species and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of HepG2 with 10 microM quercetin completely prevented lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. Pretreatment for 2 or 20 h with all doses of quercetin (0.1-10 microM) prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde evoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with 10 microM and for 20 h with 5 microM quercetin. Finally, some of the quercetin treatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was also affected by the treatment with the polyphenol. The results of the biomarkers analyzed clearly show that treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with the natural dietary antioxidant quercetin strongly protects the cells against an oxidative insult.

  15. Amitriptyline induces mitophagy that precedes apoptosis in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Paz, Marina; Cordero, Mario D; Pavón, Ana Delgado; Vega, Beatriz Castejón; Cotán, David; De la Mata, Mario; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Alcocer-Gomez, Elizabet; de Lavera, Isabel; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Carrascosa, José; Zaderenko, Ana Paula; Muntané, Jordi; de Miguel, Manuel; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Systemic treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been largely unsuccessful. This study investigated the antitumoral activity of Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, in hepatoma cells. Amitriptyline-induced toxicity involved early mitophagy activation that subsequently switched to apoptosis. Amitriptyline induced mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Amitriptyline specifically inhibited mitochondrial complex III activity that is associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed structurally abnormal mitochondria that were engulfed by double-membrane structures resembling autophagosomes. Consistent with mitophagy activation, fluorescence microscopy analysis showed mitochondrial Parkin recruitment and colocalization of mitochondria with autophagosome protein markers. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy exacerbated the deleterious effects of Amitriptyline on hepatoma cells and led to increased apoptosis. These results suggest that mitophagy acts as an initial adaptive mechanism of cell survival. However persistent mitochondrial damage induced extensive and lethal mitophagy, autophagy stress and autophagolysome permeabilization leading eventually to cell death by apoptosis. Amitriptyline also induced cell death in hepatoma cells lines with mutated p53 and non-sense p53 mutation. Our results support the hypothesis that Amitriptyline-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be a useful therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment, especially in tumors showing p53 mutations and/or resistant to genotoxic treatments.

  16. Amitriptyline induces mitophagy that precedes apoptosis in human HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Paz, Marina; Cordero, Mario D.; Pavón, Ana Delgado; Vega, Beatriz Castejón; Cotán, David; De la Mata, Mario; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Alcocer-Gomez, Elizabet; de Lavera, Isabel; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Carrascosa, José; Zaderenko, Ana Paula; Muntané, Jordi; de Miguel, Manuel; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Systemic treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been largely unsuccessful. This study investigated the antitumoral activity of Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, in hepatoma cells. Amitriptyline-induced toxicity involved early mitophagy activation that subsequently switched to apoptosis. Amitriptyline induced mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Amitriptyline specifically inhibited mitochondrial complex III activity that is associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed structurally abnormal mitochondria that were engulfed by double-membrane structures resembling autophagosomes. Consistent with mitophagy activation, fluorescence microscopy analysis showed mitochondrial Parkin recruitment and colocalization of mitochondria with autophagosome protein markers. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy exacerbated the deleterious effects of Amitriptyline on hepatoma cells and led to increased apoptosis. These results suggest that mitophagy acts as an initial adaptive mechanism of cell survival. However persistent mitochondrial damage induced extensive and lethal mitophagy, autophagy stress and autophagolysome permeabilization leading eventually to cell death by apoptosis. Amitriptyline also induced cell death in hepatoma cells lines with mutated p53 and non-sense p53 mutation. Our results support the hypothesis that Amitriptyline-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be a useful therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment, especially in tumors showing p53 mutations and/or resistant to genotoxic treatments. PMID:27738496

  17. Effects of AFP gene silencing on Survivin mRNA expression inhibition in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z L; Fang, N; Han, X N; Huang, G; Fu, X J; Xie, G S; Wang, N R; Xiong, J P

    2015-04-10

    We investigated the effects of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene silencing on Survivin expression in HepG2 cells. Small interfering RNA technology was used to downregulate AFP expression in HepG2 cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure AFP concentration in the supernatant before and after transfection. An MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation activity before and after transfection. We performed flow cytometric analysis to detect the cell apoptosis rate, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to detect Survivin mRNA levels before and after transfection. Forty-eight hours after transfection, AFP concentration in the supernatant of the experimental group significantly decreased, hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth was inhibited by 43.1%, and the apoptosis rate increased by 24.3%. Survivin mRNA expression was reduced by 78.0% in HepG2 cells. These indicators in the control group and in the blank group did not change significantly. Silencing of AFP expression in HepG2 cells can effectively inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells and promote apoptosis, which may be useful for reducing intracellular Survivin mRNA levels.

  18. Cellular Trafficking of Thymosin Beta-4 in HEPG2 Cells Following Serum Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pierpaolo; Nemolato, Sonia; Cabras, Tiziana; Fanari, Mattia Umberto; Sanna, Alice; Di Felice, Eliana; Messana, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo; Faa, Gavino

    2013-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is an ubiquitous multi-functional regenerative peptide, related to many critical biological processes, with a dynamic and flexible conformation which may influence its functions and its subcellular distribution. For these reasons, the intracellular localization and trafficking of Tβ4 is still not completely defined and is still under investigation in in vivo as well as in vitro studies. In the current study we used HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line; cells growing in normal conditions with fetal bovine serum expressed high levels of Tβ4, restricted to the cytoplasm until 72 h. At 84 h, a diffuse Tβ4 cytoplasmic immunostaining shifted to a focal perinuclear and nuclear reactivity. In the absence of serum, nuclear reactivity was localized in small granules, evenly dispersed throughout the entire nuclear envelop, and was observed as earlier as at 48 h. Cytoplasmic immunostaining for Tβ4 in HepG2 cells under starvation appeared significantly lower at 48 h and decreased progressively at 72 and at 84 h. At these time points, the decrease in cytoplasmic staining was associated with a progressive increase in nuclear reactivity, suggesting a possible translocation of the peptide from the cytoplasm to the nuclear membrane. The normal immunocytochemical pattern was restored when culture cells submitted to starvation for 84 h received a new complete medium for 48 h. Mass spectrometry analysis, performed on the nuclear and cytosolic fractions of HepG2 growing with and without serum, showed that Tβ4 was detectable only in the cytosolic and not in the intranuclear fraction. These data suggest that Tβ4 is able to translocate from different cytoplasmic domains to the nuclear membrane and back, based on different stress conditions within the cell. The punctuate pattern of nuclear Tβ4 immunostaining associated with Tβ4 absence in the nucleoplasm suggest that this peptide might be localized in the nuclear pores, where it could regulate the pore

  19. Synthesis of Functionalized Fluorescent Silver Nanoparticles and their toxicological effect in aquatic environments (Goldfish) and HEPG2 cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Hugo; Oliveira, Elisabete; Garcia-Pardo, Javier; Diniz, Mário; Lorenzo, Julia; Rodriguez-González, Benito; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles, AgNPs, are widely used in our daily life, mostly due to their antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. However, their potential toxicity remains unclear. In order to unravel this issue, emissive AgNPs were first synthetized using an inexpensive photochemical method, and then their permeation was assessed in vivo in goldfish and in vitro in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). In addition, the oxidative stress caused by AgNPs was assessed in enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and in lipid peroxidation (LPO). This study demonstrates that the smallest sized AgNPs@3 promote the largest changes in gold fish livers, whereas AgNPs@1 were found to be toxic in HEPG2 cells depending on both the size and functionalized/stabilizer ligand.

  20. Oroxylin A induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was involved in its antitumor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yang; Yang Yong; You Qidong . E-mail: qdyou@cpu.edu.cn; Liu Wei; Gu Hongyan; Zhao Li; Zhang Kun; Wang Wei; Wang Xiaotang; Guo Qinglong . E-mail: qinglongguo@hotmail.com

    2006-12-15

    We previously reported that wogonin, a flavonoid compound, was a potent apoptosis inducer of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells and murine sarcoma S180 cells. In the present study, the effect of oroxylin A, one wogonin structurally related flavonoid isolated from Scutellariae radix, on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was examined and molecular mechanisms were also investigated. Oroxylin A inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner measured by MTT-assay. Treatment with an apoptosis-inducing concentration of oroxylin A caused typical morphological changes and apoptotic blebbing in HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation assay was used to examine later apoptosis induced by oroxylin A. FACScan analysis revealed a dramatic increase in the number of apoptotic and G{sub 2}/M phase arrest cells after oroxylin A treatment. The pro-apoptotic activity of oroxylin A was attributed to its ability to modulate the concerted expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and pro-caspase-3 proteins. The expression of Bcl-2 protein and pro-caspase-3 protein was dramatically decreased after treatment with oroxylin A. These results demonstrated that oroxylin A could effectively induce programmed cell death and suggested that it could be a promising antitumor drug.

  1. Selectivity of biopolymer membranes using HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lü, Dongyuan; Gao, Yuxin; Luo, Chunhua; Lü, Shouqian; Wang, Qian; Xu, Xianghong; Sun, Shujin; Wang, Chengzhi; Long, Mian

    2015-03-01

    Bioartificial liver (BAL) system has emerged as an alternative treatment to bridge acute liver failure to either liver transplantation or liver regeneration. One of the main reasons that the efficacy of the current BAL systems was not convincing in clinical trials is attributed to the lack of friendly interface between the membrane and the hepatocytes in liver bioreactor, the core unit of BAL system. Here, we systematically compared the biological responses of hepatosarcoma HepG2 cells seeded on eight, commercially available biocompatible membranes made of acetyl cellulose-nitrocellulose mixed cellulose (CA-NC), acetyl cellulose (CA), nylon (JN), polypropylene (PP), nitrocellulose (NC), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polycarbonate (PC) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Physicochemical analysis and mechanical tests indicated that CA, JN and PP membranes yield high adhesivity and reasonable compressive and/or tensile features with friendly surface topography for cell seeding. Cells prefer to adhere on CA, JN, PP or PTFE membranes with high proliferation rate in spheriod-like shape. Actin, albumin and cytokeratin 18 expressions are favorable for cells on CA or PP membrane, whereas protein filtration is consistent among all the eight membranes. These results further the understandings of cell growth, morphology and spreading, as well as protein filtration on distinct membranes in designing a liver bioreactor.

  2. PLTP secreted by HepG2 cells resembles the high-activity PLTP form in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Siggins, Sarah; Jauhiainen, Matti; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Tenhunen, Jukka; Ehnholm, Christian

    2003-09-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an important regulator of plasma HDL levels and HDL particle distribution. PLTP is present in plasma in two forms, one with high and the other with low phospholipid transfer activity. We have used the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, as a model to study PLTP secreted from hepatic cells. PLTP activity was secreted by the cells into serum-free culture medium as a function of time. However, modification of a previously established ELISA assay to include a denaturing sample pretreatment with the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate was required for the detection of the secreted PLTP protein. The HepG2 PLTP could be enriched by Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and eluted in size-exclusion chromatography at a position corresponding to the size of 160 kDa. PLTP coeluted with apolipoprotein E (apoE) but not with apoB-100 or apoA-I. A portion of PLTP was retained by an anti-apoE immunoaffinity column together with apoE, suggesting an interaction between these two proteins. Furthermore, antibodies against apoE but not those against apoB-100 or apoA-I were capable of inhibiting PLTP activity. These results show that the HepG2-derived PLTP resembles in several aspects the high-activity form of PLTP found in human plasma.

  3. Macelignan protects HepG2 cells against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jong Hee; Han, Kyu Lee; Choo, Jeong Han; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the protective effect of macelignan, isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cytotoxicity in a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. The tetrazolium dye colorimetric test (MTT test) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used to monitor cell viability and necrosis, respectively. Lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) formation] was estimated by the fluorometric method. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was measured using a fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), and DNA damage was detected using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The results showed that macelignan significantly reduced the cell growth inhibition and necrosis caused by t-BHP. Furthermore, macelignan ameliorated lipid peroxidation as demonstrated by a reduction in MDA formation in a dose-dependent manner. It was also found that macelignan reduced intracellular ROS formation and DNA damaging effect caused by t-BHP. These results strongly suggest that macelignan has significant protective ability against oxidative damage caused by reactive intermediates.

  4. C-Phycocyanin inhibits cell proliferation and may induce apoptosis in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Basha, Osama M; Hafez, Raghda A; El-Ayouty, Yassin M; Mahrous, Karima F; Bareedy, Mohammed H; Salama, Ahmed M

    2008-01-01

    C-Phycocyanin (C-Pc) is one of the major biliprotein pigments of unicellular cyanbacterium of Spirulina platenesis, it has nutritional, medicinal, and hepatoprotectant application. The growth and multiplication of human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2) under the effect of different concentrations of C-PC (0.8, 1.75, 3.5 and 7.0 microg/ml) against untreated cells as control for 24h were investigated. The results showed that the proliferating cells in presence of C-PC reached 70, 51, 44, and 39%, respectively. The results revealed that the greatest reduction in proliferation of cells was recorded at 7.0 microg/ml and LC50 at 1.75 microg/ml of C-PC. In parallel, to the previous results HCl-denatured MG-P revealed that in mass of cells there is a pattern of apoptosis because the expanded cytoplasmic area (bluish-green) reduced and appeared faintly red as C-PC concentration increased. Moreover, the cells lost all the nuclear entities then, become fragmented and having no nuclear remnants. The C-PC may be a new potential anti-cancer drug for therapy of human hepatoma cells.

  5. Polyphyllin I (PPI) increased the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenhao; Hou, Guoxin; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this study the antitumor effects of polyphyllin I (PPI) were investigated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Our data showed that PPI treatment exerted dose-dependent cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells as previously reported. Furthermore, PPI could sensitize HepG2 cells to cisplastin treatment in concentration-dependent manner. The molecular mechanisms of PPI actions involved nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its downstream gene products. PPI treatment dose-dependently could decrease the constitutive phosphorylation of NF-κB subunit p65 protein and its downstream target genes expression, such as Bcl-2, c-Myc and VEGF. PPI could also inhibit cisplatin-evoked increase of p65 protein phosphorylation and its downstream genes expression, which could be further decreased by combination with NF-κB specific inhibitor, PDTC. The cytotoxicity and chemosensitization effects of PPI on HepG2 cells were greatly potentiated by concomitant treatment with PDTC. Taken together, our data confirmed the cytotoxicity of PPI on hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and provided new findings about PPI sensitizing HepG2 cells to chemotherapy. Moreover, our data also indicated the involvement of NF-κB signaling pathway in PPIactions for the first time. PMID:26884988

  6. VCC-1 over-expression inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhitao; Lu, Xiao; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Wei; Mu, Xia; Qu, Rongmei; Li, Ming

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCC-1 is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levels of VCC-1 are increased significantly in HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of VCC-1 could promotes cellular proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of VCC-1 inhibit the cisplatin-provoked apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCC-1 plays an important role in control the tumor growth and apoptosis. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-correlated chemokine 1 (VCC-1), a recently described chemokine, is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which aberrant VCC-1 expression determines poor outcomes of cancers are unknown. In this study, we found that VCC-1 was highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. It was also associated with proliferation of HepG2 cells, and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conversely, down-regulation of VCC-1 in HepG2 cells increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In summary, these results suggest that VCC-1 is involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and also provides some evidence for VCC-1 as a potential cellular target for chemotherapy.

  7. Effects of 3-methylcholanthrene and aspirin co-administration on ALDH3A1 in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulou, M; Pappas, P; Marselos, M

    2001-01-30

    The effects of two different protocols of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and aspirin co-administration were studied in a well-established human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). During this work, we have performed toxicity tests for cell viability/cell proliferation as well as studies on the expression of ALDH3A1 after exposure of HepG2 cells to 3MC or/and aspirin. For the evaluation of toxic concentrations of 3MC and aspirin, the WST-1 test was used. WST-1 is a reliable cytotoxicity test which is based on the cleavage of the tetrazolium salt WST-1 to formazan by mitochondrial enzymes of living cells. A broad range of drug concentrations for either 3MC (0.25-50.0 microM) or aspirin (0.05-10.0 mM) were used for cell exposure, in several periods of time. The expression of ALDH3A1 in HepG2 cells showed typical time- and dose-response curves of induction after application of 3MC (1-5 days, 1.5-5.0 microM, respectively). When cells were firstly exposed to 3MC (2.5 and 5.0 microM) and then to aspirin (0.25 mM), the induced ALDH3A1 activity was further enhanced in a statistically significant way (P<0.05). On the contrary, when aspirin application was preceded 3MC exposuring a statistically significant decrease in ALDH3A1 inducibility was observed, as compared with the application of 3MC alone.

  8. Differential effect of manool--a diterpene from Salvia officinalis, on genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate in V79 and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Nicolella, Heloiza Diniz; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Munari, Carla Carolina; Costa, Gizela Faleiros Dias; Moreira, Monique Rodrigues; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2014-10-01

    Salvia officinalis (sage) is a perennial woody subshrub native to the Mediterranean region that is commonly used as a condiment and as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agent due to its biological activities. Manool is the most abundant micro-metabolite found in Salvia officinalis essential oils and extracts. We therefore decided to evaluate the cytotoxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of manool in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) and human hepatoma cells (HepG2). Cytotoxicity was assessed by the colony-forming assay in V79 cells and toxic effects were observed at concentrations of up to 8.0 μg/mL. The micronucleus test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of manool in V79 and HepG2 cells at concentrations of 0.5-6.0 μg/mL and 0.5-8.0 μg/mL, respectively. For evaluation of antigenotoxicity, the concentrations of manool were combined with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, 44 μg/mL). The results showed a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in cultures of both cell lines treated with the highest concentration tested, demonstrating a genotoxic effect. On the other hand, manool exhibited a protective effect against chromosome damage induced by MMS in HepG2 cells, but not in V79 cells. These data suggest that some manool metabolite may be responsible for the antigenotoxic effect observed in HepG2 cells.

  9. Free radical generation from an aniline derivative in HepG2 cells: a possible captodative effect.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Yuya; Summers, Fiona A; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Mason, Ronald P

    2015-01-01

    Xenobiotic metabolism can induce the generation of protein radicals, which are believed to play an important role in the toxicity of chemicals and drugs. It is therefore important to identify chemical structures capable of inducing macromolecular free radical formation in living cells. In this study, we evaluated the ability of four structurally related environmental chemicals, aniline, nitrosobenzene, N,N-dimethylaniline, and N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (DMNA), to induce free radicals and cellular damage in the hepatoma cell line HepG2. Cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase assays, and morphological changes were observed using phase contrast microscopy. Protein free radicals were detected by immuno-spin trapping using in-cell western experiments and confocal microscopy to determine the subcellular locale of free radical generation. DMNA induced free radical generation, lactate dehydrogenase release, and morphological changes in HepG2 cells, whereas aniline, nitrosobenzene, N,N-dimethylaniline did not. Confocal microscopy showed that DMNA induced free radical generation mainly in the cytosol. Preincubation of HepG2 cells with N-acetylcysteine and 2,2'-dipyridyl significantly prevented free radical generation on subsequent incubation with DMNA, whereas preincubation with apocynin and dimethyl sulfoxide had no effect. These results suggest that DMNA is metabolized to reactive free radicals capable of generating protein radicals which may play a critical role in DMNA toxicity. We propose that the captodative effect, the combined action of the electron-releasing dimethylamine substituent, and the electron-withdrawing nitroso substituent, leads to a thermodynamically stabilized radical, facilitating enhanced protein radical formation by DMNA.

  10. Altered cellular metabolism of HepG2 cells caused by microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Feng, Yiyi; Jiang, Siyu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-21

    This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure on the metabolism and drug resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. For this purpose, we first conducted an experiment to make sure that MC-LR could penetrate the HepG2 cell membrane effectively. The transcriptional levels of phase I (such as CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP26B1) and phase II (such as EPHX1, SULTs, and GSTM) enzymes and export pump genes (such as MRP1 and MDR1) were altered by MC-LR-exposure for 24 h, indicating that MC-LR treatment may destabilize the metabolism of HepG2 cells. Further research showed that the CYP inducers omeprazole, ethanol, and rifampicin inhibited cell viability, in particular, ethanol, a CYP2E1 inducer, induced ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis in HepG2 cells treated with MC-LR. The CYP2E1 inhibitor chlormethiazole inhibited ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, caspase-3 activity, and cytotoxicity caused by MC-LR. Meanwhile, the results also showed that co-incubation with the ROS scavenger l-ascorbic acid and MC-LR decreased ROS levels and effectively prevented apoptosis. These findings provide an interesting mechanistic explanation of cellular metabolism associated with MC-LR, i.e., MC-LR-exposure exerted toxicity on HepG2 cells and induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells via promoting CYP2E1 expression and inducing excessive ROS in HepG2 cells.

  11. Induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells by polysaccharide MEP-II from the fermentation broth of Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meili; Chen, Yan; Wang, Cui; Cui, Huali; Duan, Peilu; Zhai, Tianlong; Yang, Yuling; Li, Shaofei

    2013-01-01

    A novel polysaccharide, MEP-II, isolated from the fermentation broth of Morchella esculenta inhibited the proliferation of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) through an apoptotic pathway. After HepG2 cells were treated with 150-600 μg MEP-II/ml, typical apoptotic characteristics including externalization of phosphatidylserine residues on the cell surface, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation and cytoplasm shrinkage were observed. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) also occurred in HepG2 cells after incubation of 150-600 μg MEP-II/ml. The antioxidant, 1 mM N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibited MEP-II-induced apoptosis, suggesting that ROS are the key mediators for MEP-II-induced apoptosis. MEP-II is therefore a potential anti-tumor agent that induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells through ROS generation.

  12. Cytotoxic effects of etephon and maleic hydrazide in Vero, Hep2, HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yurdakok, Begum; Baydan, Emine; Okur, Hamza; Gurcan, Ismayil Safa

    2014-10-01

    The toxicity of etephon and maleic hydrazide, used as plant growth regulators in agriculture, were reported as low in mammals in previous studies. However, in vitro cytotoxicity studies in mammalian cells are currently missing to understand their toxicity at molecular level. In the current study, the cytotoxicity of these compounds, were studied in Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelium), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), Hep2 (human epidermoid cancer) cells by MTT ((3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromure) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays. Maleic hydrazide had lower IC50 values for all cell lines compared to ethephon. Least cytotoxic effect treated by ethephon were observed in Vero, followed by HepG2 and Hep2. Similarly maleic hydrazide also showed least cytotoxicity on Vero cells, followed by Hep2 and HepG2 cells (p < 0.05). IC50 values in general were found to be highest in Vero cells, followed by HepG2 and Hep2 cells (p < 0.05). LDH and MTT assays showed correllation and had close relation except HepG2-maleic hydrazide application with the correlation coefficient for all >0.868 (p < 0.05). This study is expected to be a basis to understand the cytotoxic effects of ethephon and maleic hydrazide in mammal cells to be supplemented by further studies.

  13. Pro-apoptotic effects of tectorigenin on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chun-Ping; Ding, Hui; Shi, Da-Hua; Wang, Yu-Rong; Li, Er-Guang; Wu, Jun-Hua

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of tectorigenin on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. METHODS: Tectorigenin, one of the main components of rhizome of Iris tectorum, was prepared by simple methods, such as extraction, filtration, concentration, precipitation and recrystallization. HepG2 cells were incubated with tectorigenin at different concentrations, and their viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was detected by morphological observation of nuclear change, agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA ladder, and flow cytometry with Hoechst 33342, Annexin V-EGFP and propidium iodide staining. Generation of reactive oxygen species was quantified using DCFH-DA. Intracellular Ca2+ was monitored by Fura 2-AM. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored using Rhodamine 123. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol was detected by Western blotting. Activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were investigated by Caspase Activity Assay Kit. RESULTS: The viability of HepG2 cells treated by tectorigenin decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The concentration that reduced the number of viable HepG2 cells by 50% (IC50) after 12, 24 and 48 h of incubation was 35.72 mg/L, 21.19 mg/L and 11.06 mg/L, respectively. However, treatment with tectorigenin at 20 mg/L resulted in a very slight cytotoxicity to L02 cells after incubation for 12, 24 or 48 h. Tectorigenin at a concentration of 20 mg/L greatly inhibited the viability of HepG2 cells and induced the condensation of chromatin and fragmentation of nuclei. Tectorigenin induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Compared with the viability rate, induction of apoptosis was the main mechanism of the anti-proliferation effect of tectorigenin in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, tectorigenin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells was associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species, increased intracellular [Ca2+]i

  14. Targeting and molecular imaging of HepG2 cells using surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathinaraj, Pierson; Lee, Kyubae; Choi, Yuri; Park, Soo-Young; Kwon, Oh Hyeong; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2015-07-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid (M)-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GM) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering. M was used to improve the monodispersity and non-specific intracellular uptake of nanoparticles. Lactobionic acid (L) was subsequently conjugated to the GM to target preferentially HepG2 cells (liver cancer cells) that express asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) on their membrane surfaces and facilitate the transit of nanoparticles across the cell membrane. The mean size of lactobionic acid-conjugated gold nanoparticle (GL) was approximately 10 ± 0.2 nm. Finally, the Atto 680 dye (A6) was coupled to the nanoparticles to visualize their internalization into HepG2 cells. The interaction of surface-modified gold nanoparticles with HepG2 cells was studied after culturing cells in media containing the GM or L-conjugated GM (GL).

  15. Liver stage antigen 3 Plasmodium falciparum peptides specifically interacting with HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    García, Javier E; Curtidor, Hernando; López, Ramses; Rodríguez, Luis; Vera, Ricardo; Valbuena, John; Rosas, Jaiver; Ocampo, Marisol; Puentes, Alvaro; Forero, Martha; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2004-09-01

    Binding assays were carried out with 20 amino acid long peptides covering the complete 200-kDa Liver stage antigen (LSA) 3 protein sequence to identify its HepG2 cell binding regions. Seventeen HepG2 cell high-activity binding peptides (HABPs) were identified in the LSA-3 protein. Seven HABPs were found in the nonrepeat (NRA) region A; five of these formed a 100 amino acid long HepG2 cell binding region located between residues 21Ile and 120Thr. Six HABPs were found in the R2 region and another four in the NRB2 region. LSA-3 protein HABPS bound saturably to HepG2 cells having nanomolar affinity constants and bound specifically to 31, 44, and 70 kDa HepG2 cell membrane proteins. Some of them were located in antigenic and immunogenic LSA-3 protein regions. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays using goat sera immunized with LSA-3 protein peptides recognized P. falciparum (FCB-2 strain) erythrocyte stage proteins (58, 68, 72, 81, 86, 160, and 175 kDa). This reactivity was due mainly to the VEESVAEN motif present in some erythrocyte stage proteins. However, our results suggest that antibodies against LSA-3 regions had a crossed reaction with another 86-kDa protein, and that this crossed reaction was due to a motif present in the NRA region.

  16. The Antiapoptosis Effect of Glycyrrhizate on HepG2 Cells Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Su, Miao; Yu, Tengfei; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrated that glycyrrhizate (GAS) could protect HEPG2 cells against damage and apoptosis induced by H2O2 (1600 μM, 4 h). Cell viability assay revealed that GAS was noncytotoxity at concentration 125 µg/mL, and GAS (5 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, and 125 μg/mL) protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. H2O2 induced the HepG2 cells apoptosis, obvious morphologic changes were observed after Hochest 33258 staining, and more apoptotic cells were counted in flow cytometry assay compared to that of the natural group. Pretreatment GAS (5 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, and 125 μg/mL) prior to H2O2 reverses the morphologic changes and reduced the apoptotic cells in HepG2 cells. GAS reduced the release of MDA, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, and diminished the release of ALT and AST during oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. After Elisa kit detecting, GAS inhibited the caspase activity induced by H2O2, GAS decreased the level of caspase-3 and caspase-9 from mitochondria in dose-dependent manner. Western blot results showed that pretreatment GAS upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax. These results reveal that GAS has the cytoprotection in HepG2 cells during ROS exposure by inhibiting the caspase activity in the mitochondria and influencing apoptogenic factors of the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. PMID:27891207

  17. Nanoceria Attenuated High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Damage in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Abdi, Hakimeh; Asadollah-Pour, Azin; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hyperglycemia, a common metabolic disorder in diabetes, can lead to oxidative damage. The use of antioxidants can benefit the control and prevention of diabetes side effects. This study aims to evaluate the effect of nanoceria particles, as an antioxidant, on glucose induced cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) content in a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell line. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided HepG2 cells into these groups: i. Cells treated with 5 mM D-glucose (control), ii. Cells treated with 45 mM D- mannitol+5 mM D-glucose (osmotic control), iii. Cells treated with 50 mM D-glucose (high glucose), and iv. Cells treated with 50 mM D-glucose+nanoceria. Cell viability, ROS formation, LPO and GSH were measured and analyzed statistically. Results High glucose (50 mM) treatment caused significant cell death and increased oxidative stress markers in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, nanoceria at a concentration of 50 mM significantly decreased the high glucose-induced cytotoxicity, ROS formation and LPO. This concentration of nanoceria increased the GSH content in HepG2 cells (P<0.05). Conclusion The antioxidant feature of nanoceria particles makes it an attractive candidate for attenuation of hyperglycemia oxidative damage in different organs. PMID:27054124

  18. HepG2 cells mount an effective antiviral interferon-lambda based innate immune response to hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Israelow, Benjamin; Narbus, Christopher M.; Sourisseau, Marion; Evans, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposure leads to persistent life-long infections characterized by chronic inflammation often developing into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism by which HCV remains in the liver while inducing an inflammatory and antiviral response remains unclear. While the innate immune response to HCV in patients seem to be quite active, HCV has been shown in cell culture to employ a diverse array of innate immune antagonists, suggesting that current model systems to study interactions between HCV and the innate immune system are not representative of what is happening in vivo. We recently showed that hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells support the entire HCV life cycle if the liver-specific microRNA miR-122 is expressed along with the entry factor CD81 (HepG2-HFL cells). We found that there was a striking difference in these cells’ ability to sustain HCV infection and spread when compared to Huh-7 and Huh-7.5 cells. Additionally, HepG2-HFL cells produced a more robust antiviral response when challenged with other RNA viruses and viral mimetics than Huh-7 and Huh-7.5 cells. HCV infection elicited a potent IFN-λ (lambda), ISG, and cytokine response in HepG2-HFL cells, but not in Huh-7 cells, suggesting that HepG2-HFL cells more faithfully recapitulate the innate immune response to HCV infection in vivo. Using this new model, we found that blocking the RIG-I like receptor pathway or the IFN-λ signaling pathway, promoted HCV infection and spread in HepG2-HFL cells. Conclusion HepG2-HFL cells represent a promising new system to study the interaction between HCV and the innate immune system, solidifying the importance of IFN-λ in hepatic response to HCV infection and revealing non-redundant roles of RIG-I and MDA5 in HCV recognition and repression of infection. PMID:24833036

  19. Curcumin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuate acrylamide-induced proliferation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiaoyun; Li, Yuan; Meng, Xulian; Wang, Pengqi; Jiang, Pan; Feng, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Acrylamide, a proven rodent carcinogen, is present in carbohydrate-rich food heated at high temperatures. It can be metabolized into glycidamide mainly by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). The fact that acrylamide is a potential carcinogen to human-beings draws public attention recently. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of acrylamide at low doses on proliferation of HepG2 cells, and to test whether the two well-studied chemopreventive agents, curcumin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), would have antagonistic effects against acrylamide. The results showed that lower concentration of acrylamide (⩽100μM) significantly increased the proliferation of HepG2 cells, but not of the other cancer cells (MDA-231, HeLa, A549, and PC-3). Only in HepG2 cells, low concentration of acrylamide was able to induce CYP2E1 expression significantly. Knockdown of CYP2E1 restrained acrylamide to increase viability of HepG2 cells. In addition, acrylamide raised expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin D1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which contributed to cell proliferation. Both curcumin and EGCG effectively reduced acrylamide-induced proliferation, as well as protein expression of CYP2E1, EGFR, cyclin D1 and NF-κB. All these results suggest that low concentration of acrylamide may contribute to progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Curcumin or EGCG could prevent acrylamide triggering this effect.

  20. Silver Nanoparticles Induce HePG-2 Cells Apoptosis Through ROS-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bing; Li, Yinghua; Lin, Zhengfang; Zhao, Mingqi; Xu, Tiantian; Wang, Changbing; Deng, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been shown to provide a novel approach to overcome tumors, especially those of hepatocarcinoma. However, the anticancer mechanism of silver nanoparticles is unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of ROS-mediated signaling pathway on human hepatocellular carcinoma HePG-2 cells. A simple chemical method for preparing AgNPs with superior anticancer activity has been showed in this study. AgNPs were detected by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The size distribution and zeta potential of silver nanoparticles were detected by Zetasizer Nano. The average size of AgNPs (2 nm) observably increased the cellular uptake by endocytosis. AgNPs markedly inhibited the proliferation of HePG-2 cells through induction of apoptosis with caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. AgNPs with dose-dependent manner significantly increased the apoptotic cell population (sub-G1). Furthermore, AgNP-induced apoptosis was found dependent on the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affecting of MAPKs and AKT signaling and DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation to advance HePG-2 cells apoptosis. Therefore, our results show that the mechanism of ROS-mediated signaling pathways may provide useful information in AgNP-induced HePG-2 cell apoptosis.

  1. Mangiferin: A xanthone attenuates mercury chloride induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kaivalya, Mudholkar; Nageshwar Rao, B N; Satish Rao, B S

    2011-01-01

    Mangiferin (MGN), a dietary C-glucosylxanthone present in Mangifera indica, is known to possess a spectrum of beneficial pharmacological properties. This study demonstrates antigenotoxic potential of MGN against mercuric chloride (HgCl2)-induced genotoxicity in HepG2 cell line. Treatment of HepG2 cells with various concentrations of HgCl2 for 3 h caused a dose-dependent increase in micronuclei frequency and elevation in DNA strand breaks (olive tail moment and tail DNA). Pretreatment with MGN significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited HgCl2 -induced (20 µM for 30 h) DNA damage. An optimal antigenotoxic effect of MGN, both in micronuclei and comet assay, was observed at a concentration of 50 µM. Furthermore, HepG2 cells treated with various concentrations of HgCl2 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, indicating an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, MGN by itself failed to generate ROS at a concentration of 50 µM, whereas it could significantly decrease HgCl2 -induced ROS. Our study clearly demonstrates that MGN pretreatment reduced the HgCl2-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells, thus demonstrating the genoprotective potential of MGN, which is mediated mainly by the inhibition of oxidative stress.

  2. Hyperglycemia and anthocyanin inhibit quercetin metabolism in HepG2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high glucose (Glu) milieu promotes generation of reactive oxygen species, which may not only cause cellular damage, but also modulate phase II enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of flavonoids. Thus, we examined the effect of a high Glu milieu on quercetin (Q) metabolism in HepG2 cells...

  3. Inhibition of energy-producing pathways of HepG2 cells by 3-bromopyruvate.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Silva, Ana Paula; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Kyaw, Nattascha; dos Santos, Reinaldo Sousa; da-Silva, Wagner Seixas; Almeida, Fabio C L; Da Poian, Andrea T; Galina, Antonio

    2009-02-01

    3-BrPA (3-bromopyruvate) is an alkylating agent with anti-tumoral activity on hepatocellular carcinoma. This compound inhibits cellular ATP production owing to its action on glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation; however, the specific metabolic steps and mechanisms of 3-BrPA action in human hepatocellular carcinomas, particularly its effects on mitochondrial energetics, are poorly understood. In the present study it was found that incubation of HepG2 cells with a low concentration of 3-BrPA for a short period (150 microM for 30 min) significantly affected both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiratory functions. The activity of mitochondrial hexokinase was not inhibited by 150 microM 3-BrPA, but this concentration caused more than 70% inhibition of GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase activities. Additionally, 3-BrPA treatment significantly impaired lactate production by HepG2 cells, even when glucose was withdrawn from the incubation medium. Oxygen consumption of HepG2 cells supported by either pyruvate/malate or succinate was inhibited when cells were pre-incubated with 3-BrPA in glucose-free medium. On the other hand, when cells were pre-incubated in glucose-supplemented medium, oxygen consumption was affected only when succinate was used as the oxidizable substrate. An increase in oligomycin-independent respiration was observed in HepG2 cells treated with 3-BrPA only when incubated in glucose-supplemented medium, indicating that 3-BrPA induces mitochondrial proton leakage as well as blocking the electron transport system. The activity of succinate dehydrogenase was inhibited by 70% by 3-BrPA treatment. These results suggest that the combined action of 3-BrPA on succinate dehydrogenase and on glycolysis, inhibiting steps downstream of the phosphorylation of glucose, play an important role in HepG2 cell death.

  4. Increase of Intracellular Cyclic AMP by PDE4 Inhibitors Affects HepG2 Cell Cycle Progression and Survival.

    PubMed

    Massimi, Mara; Cardarelli, Silvia; Galli, Francesca; Giardi, Maria Federica; Ragusa, Federica; Panera, Nadia; Cinque, Benedetta; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Biagioni, Stefano; Giorgi, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Type 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE4) are major members of a superfamily of enzymes (PDE) involved in modulation of intracellular signaling mediated by cAMP. Broadly expressed in most human tissues and present in large amounts in the liver, PDEs have in the last decade been key therapeutic targets for several inflammatory diseases. Recently, a significant body of work has underscored their involvement in different kinds of cancer, but with no attention paid to liver cancer. The present study investigated the effects of two PDE4 inhibitors, rolipram and DC-TA-46, on the growth of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Treatment with these inhibitors caused a marked increase of intracellular cAMP level and a dose- and time-dependent effect on cell growth. The concentrations of inhibitors that halved cell proliferation to about 50% were used for cell cycle experiments. Rolipram (10 μM) and DC-TA-46 (0.5 μM) produced a decrease of cyclin expression, in particular of cyclin A, as well as an increase in p21, p27 and p53, as evaluated by Western blot analysis. Changes in the intracellular localization of cyclin D1 were also observed after treatments. In addition, both inhibitors caused apoptosis, as demonstrated by an Annexin-V cytofluorimetric assay and analysis of caspase-3/7 activity. Results demonstrated that treatment with PDE4 inhibitors affected HepG2 cell cycle and survival, suggesting that they might be useful as potential adjuvant, chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents in hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1401-1411, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Globular adiponectin inhibits ethanol-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through heme oxygenase-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Saroj; Kim, Mi Jin; Subedi, Amit; Lee, Eung-Seok; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kang, WonKu; Kwak, Mi-Kyung; Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2012-10-01

    Hepatocellular apoptosis is an essential pathological feature of alcoholic liver disease. Adiponectin, an adipokine predominantly secreted from adipose tissue, has been shown to play beneficial roles in alcoholic liver disease against various inflammatory and pro-apoptotic molecules. However, the effects of adiponectin on ethanol-induced apoptosis in liver cells are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of globular adiponectin (gAcrp) in the prevention of ethanol-induced apoptosis and further tried to decipher the potential mechanisms involved. In the present study, we demonstrated that gAcrp significantly inhibits both ethanol-induced increase in Fas ligand expression and activation of caspase-3 in human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 cells), suggesting that gAcrp plays a protective role against ethanol-induced apoptosis in liver cells. This protective effect of gAcrp was mediated through adiponectin receptor R1 (adipoR1). Further, globular adiponectin treatment caused induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through, at least in part, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, (Nrf2) signaling. Treatment with SnPP, a pharmacological inhibitor of HO-1, and knockdown of HO-1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) restored caspase-3 activity suppressed by gAcrp, indicating a critical role of HO-1 in mediating the protective role of gAcrp in ethanol-induced apoptosis in liver cells. In addition, carbon monoxide, a byproduct obtained from the catabolism of free heme was found to contribute to the anti-apoptotic effect of adiponectin. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that globular adiponectin prevents ethanol-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via HO-1 induction and revealed a novel biological response of globular adiponectin in the protection of liver injury from alcohol consumption.

  6. Esterification of Ginsenoside Rh2 Enhanced Its Cellular Uptake and Antitumor Activity in Human HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Zhang, Bing; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Zheng, Shi-Lian; Tan, Chao-Li; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-13

    Our previous research had indicated that the octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O) might have a higher bioavailability than Rh2 in the Caco-2 cell line. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular uptake and antitumor effects of Rh2-O in human HepG2 cells as well as its underlying mechanism compared with Rh2. Results showed that Rh2-O exhibited a higher cellular uptake (63.24%) than Rh2 (36.76%) when incubated with HepG2 cells for 24 h. Rh2-O possessed a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect against the proliferation of HepG2 cells. The IC50 value of Rh2-O for inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation was 20.15 μM, which was roughly half the value of Rh2. Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway. In addition, the accumulation of ROS was detected in Rh2-O-treated HepG2 cells, which participated in the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conclusively, the findings above all suggested that Rh2-O as well as Rh2 inducing HepG2 cells apoptosis might involve similar mechanisms; however, Rh2-O had better antitumor activities than Rh2, probably due to its higher cellular uptake.

  7. Trinitrotoluene Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in HePG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Li; Wang, Yue; Wang, Jun; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiaojun; Wu, Yonghui

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe trinitrotoluene (TNT)-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis in HePG2 cells. Material/Methods HePG2 cells were cultured in vitro with 0, 6, 12, or 24 μg/ml TNT solution for 12, 24, and 48 h. Western blotting was performed to detect intracellular ERS-related proteins, including glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, GRP94, Caspase 4, p-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression from the respective genes. Results The expressions of ERS-related proteins GRP78 and GRP94 as well as mRNA and protein expression of ERS signaling apoptotic CHOP in the TNT treatment group were significantly increased. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of ERS-induced apoptotic protein Caspase-4 were significantly increased. Flow cytometry revealed that after TNT treatment, the apoptosis rate also significantly increased. Conclusions TNT could increase the expression levels of GRP78, GRP94, Caspase-4, and CHOP in HePG2 cells; this increase in protein expression might be involved in HePG2 apoptosis through the induction of the ERS pathway. PMID:26551326

  8. Modification of the apolipoprotein B gene in HepG2 cells by gene targeting.

    PubMed Central

    Farese, R V; Flynn, L M; Young, S G

    1992-01-01

    The HepG2 cell line has been used extensively to study the synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B. In this study, we tested whether gene-targeting techniques can be used to inactivate one of the apo B alleles in HepG2 cells by homologous recombination using a transfected gene-targeting vector. Our vector contained exons 1-7 of the apo B gene, in which exon 2 was interrupted by a promoterless neomycin resistance (neo(r)) gene. The recombination of this vector with the cognate gene would inactivate an apo B allele and enable the apo B promoter to activate the transcription of the neo(r) gene. To detect the rare homologous recombinant clone, we developed a novel solid phase RIA that uses the apo B-specific monoclonal antibody MB19 to analyze the apo B secreted by G418-resistant (G418r) clones. Antibody MB19 detects a two-allele genetic polymorphism in apo B by binding to the apo B allotypes MB19(1) and MB19(2) with high and low affinity, respectively. HepG2 cells normally secrete both the apo B MB19 allotypes. Using the MB19 immunoassay, we identified a G418r HepG2 clone that had lost the ability to secrete the MB19(1) allotype. The inactivation of an apo B allele of this clone was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction amplification of an 865-bp fragment unique to the targeted apo B allele and by Southern blotting of genomic DNA. This study demonstrates that gene-targeting techniques can be used to modify the apo B gene in HepG2 cells and demonstrates the usefulness of a novel solid phase RIA system for detecting apo B gene targeting events in this cell line. Images PMID:1321843

  9. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  10. Time-course regulation of survival pathways by epicatechin on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Angeles Martín, María; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura; Ramos, Sonia

    2009-02-01

    Polyphenols, such as epicatechin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent regulation by epicatechin of survival/proliferation pathways in HepG2 cells. Treatment of HepG2 cells with 10 micromol/L epicatechin did not result in any cell damage up to 18 h, as evaluated by the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Moreover, the enhanced cell death evoked by an oxidative stress induced with tert-butyl hydroperoxide was prevented in the cells pretreated 4 or 18 h with epicatechin. Epicatechin-induced survival was a rapid event that was accompanied by early and sustained activation of major survival signaling proteins, such as AKT/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular-regulated kinase (activated from 5 min to 18 h), as well as protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha (30 min to 18 h), in concert with unaltered c-jun N-amino terminal kinase levels and early inactivation of key death-related signals like PKC-delta (5 min to 18 h). Additionally, reactive oxygen species generation was transiently reduced when cells were treated with 10 micromol/L epicatechin (15-240 min). These data suggest that epicatechin induces cellular survival through a tight regulation of survival/proliferation pathways that requires the integration of different signals and persists over time, the ultimate effect on HepG2 cells being regulated by the balance among these signals.

  11. Protection of human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress by cocoa phenolic extract.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Granado Serrano, Ana Belén; Izquierdo-Pulido, María; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2008-09-10

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavanols and procyanidin oligomers with antioxidative properties, providing protection against oxidation and nitration. The present study investigated the potential protective effect of a polyphenolic extract from cocoa on cell viability and antioxidant defenses of cultured human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Pretreatment of cells with 0.05-50 microg/mL of cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) for 2 or 20 h completely prevented cell damage and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes induced by a treatment with t-BOOH. Moreover, lower levels of GSH caused by t-BOOH in HepG2 cells were partly recovered by a pretreatment with CPE. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by t-BOOH was dose-dependently prevented when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with CPE. These results show that treatment of HepG2 in culture with CPE (within the physiological range of concentrations) confers a significant protection against oxidation to the cells.

  12. Toxicogenetic effects of low concentrations of the pesticides imidacloprid and sulfentrazone individually and in combination in in vitro tests with HepG2 cells and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-10-01

    The insecticide imidacloprid and the herbicide sulfentrazone are two different classes of pesticides that are used for pest control in sugarcane agriculture. To evaluate the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of these two pesticides alone and in mixture, the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test employing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a centromeric probe were applied in human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2), in a 24-h assay. Mutagenicity was assessed by Salmonella/microsome assay with TA98 and TA100 strains in the absence and presence of an exogenous metabolizing system (S9). The results showed significant inductions of MN in HepG2 cells by both pesticides, for all the tested concentrations. As evidenced in the comet assay, only the imidacloprid presented significant responses. When the two pesticides were associated, a significant induction of damage was observed in the HepG2 cells by the comet assay, but not by the MN test. Moreover, the MN induced by the mixtures of the pesticides appeared at lower levels than those induced by sulfentrazone and imidacloprid when tested alone. According to the FISH results, the damage induced by imidacloprid in the HepG2 cells resulted from a clastogenic action of this insecticide (76.6% of the MN did not present a centromeric signal). For the herbicide sulfentrazone and for the mixture of the pesticides, a similar frequency of MN with and without the presence of the centromeric signal (herbicide: 52.45% of the MN without centromeric signal and 47.54% of the MN with centromeric signal; mixture: 48.71% of the MN without centromeric signal and 51.42% of the MN with centromeric signal) was verified. Based on these results, it was concluded that each one of the pesticides evaluated interacts with the DNA of HepG2 cells and causes irreparable alterations in the cells. However, the combination of the pesticides showed an antagonistic effect on the cells and the damage induced was milder and not persistent in

  13. Dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling in vivo triggers respiratory adaptation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Desquiret, Valérie; Loiseau, Dominique; Jacques, Caroline; Douay, Olivier; Malthièry, Yves; Ritz, Patrick; Roussel, Damien

    2006-01-01

    Here, we show that 3 days of mitochondrial uncoupling, induced by low concentrations of dinitrophenol (10 and 50 microM) in cultured human HepG2 cells, triggers cellular metabolic adaptation towards oxidative metabolism. Chronic respiratory uncoupling of HepG2 cells induced an increase in cellular oxygen consumption, oxidative capacity and cytochrome c oxidase activity. This was associated with an upregulation of COXIV and ANT3 gene expression, two nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production and growth rate were unaffected, indicating that metabolic adaptation of HepG2 cells undergoing chronic respiratory uncoupling allows continuous and efficient mitochondrial ATP production without the need to increase glycolytic activity. In contrast, 3 days of dinitrophenol treatment did not change the oxidative capacity of human 143B.TK(-) cells, but it increased glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production. Despite a large increase in glycolytic metabolism, the growth rate of 143B.TK(-) cells was significantly reduced by dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. We propose that chronic respiratory uncoupling may constitute an internal bioenergetic signal, which would initiate a coordinated increase in nuclear respiratory gene expression, which ultimately drives mitochondrial metabolic adaptation within cells.

  14. Urotensin II-induced insulin resistance is mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Ying; Shi, Zheng-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Yong; Feng, Ping; Wang, Xue-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigated the effects of urotensin II (UII) on hepatic insulin resistance in HepG2 cells and the potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were cultured with or without exogenous UII for 24 h, in the presence or absence of 100 nmol/L insulin for the last 30 min. Glucose levels were detected by the glucose-oxidase method and glycogen synthesis was analyzed by glycogen colorimetric/fluorometric assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected with a multimode reader using a 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. The protein expression and phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), insulin signal essential molecules such as insulin receptor substrate -1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and glucose transporter-2 (Glut 2), and NADPH oxidase subunits such as gp91phox, p67phox, p47phox, p40phox, and p22phox were evaluated by Western blot. RESULTS: Exposure to 100 nmol/L UII reduced the insulin-induced glucose consumption (P < 0.05) and glycogen content (P < 0.01) in HepG2 cells compared with cells without UII. UII also abolished insulin-stimulated protein expression (P < 0.01) and phosphorylation of IRS-1 (P < 0.05), associated with down-regulation of Akt (P < 0.05) and GSK-3β (P < 0.05) phosphorylation levels, and the expression of Glut 2 (P < 0.001), indicating an insulin-resistance state in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, UII enhanced the phosphorylation of JNK (P < 0.05), while the activity of JNK, insulin signaling, such as total protein of IRS-1 (P < 0.001), phosphorylation of IRS-1 (P < 0.001) and GSK-3β (P < 0.05), and glycogen synthesis (P < 0.001) could be reversed by pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Besides, UII markedly improved ROS generation (P < 0.05) and NADPH oxidase subunit expression (P < 0.05). However, the antioxidant/NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin could decrease UII-induced ROS production (P < 0.05), JNK phosphorylation (P < 0

  15. Riboflavin deficiency induces a significant change in proteomic profiles in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhonghao; Pu, Lingling; Gao, Weina; Wang, Yawen; Wei, Jingyu; Shi, Tala; Yao, Zhanxin; Guo, Changjiang

    2017-01-01

    Riboflavin deficiency is widespread in many regions over the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of riboflavin deficiency on protein expression profiles in HepG2 cells in order to provide molecular information for the abnormalities induced by riboflavin deficiency. HepG2 cells were cultured in media containing different concentrations of riboflavin. Changes of cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed using a label-free shotgun method with LC–MS/MS to investigate the global changes of proteomic profiles in response to riboflavin deficiency. Immunoblotting test was used to validate the results of proteomic approach. The cell viability and apoptosis tests showed that riboflavin was vital in maintaining the cytoactivity of HepG2 cells. The label-free proteomic analysis revealed that a total of 37 proteins showing differential expression (±2 fold, p < 0.05) were identified after riboflavin deficiency. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the riboflavin deficiency caused an up-regulation of Parkinson’s disease pathway, steroid catabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptotic process, while the fatty acid metabolism, tricarboxylic citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and iron metabolism were down-regulated. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the effects caused by riboflavin deficiency. PMID:28367977

  16. Mechanism of the promotion of steatotic HepG2 cell apoptosis by cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunyan; Xie, Ping; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Lingqiang; An, Wei; Zhan, Yutao

    2014-01-01

    The role of cholesterol in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. It is known that apoptosis of hepatocytes is an important characteristics of NASH. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cholesterol on steatotic HepG2 cell apoptosis and the possible mechanism in vitro. In this study, HepG2 cells were divided into three groups: (1) normal group, (2) steatosis group and (3) cholesterol group. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid to establish a steatosis study model. Steatosis was assessed by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride content assay. Cell apoptosis was measured using an apoptosis kit. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins (P53, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, cyclin A, cyclin B1 and cyclin E) were determined by western blot analyses. We found that a hepatocyte steatosis model was successfully established by oleic acid (200 μmol/L) induction. The cholesterol (50 mg/L) group had similar amount of lipid droplets and triglyceride content as steatosis group (P > 0.5). However, the apoptosis rate (P < 0.01) of the cholesterol group was significantly higher than that of the normal group or the steatosis group, and the protein expressions of Bax and caspase-3, but not P53, Bcl-2, cyclin A, cyclin B1 and cyclin E, were also increased in the cholesterol group. Those results suggested that cholesterol markedly promoted apoptosis of steatosis HepG2 cells in vitro, likely through the up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expression. This study contributes to explain the effect of cholesterol on NASH pathogenesis. PMID:25400762

  17. Biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles and its cytotoxic effect on HepG2 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Kumar; Karunagaran, Vithiya; Mahanty, Biswanath; Sen, Shampa

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were gaining significant importance in a variety of applications due to its paramagnetic properties and biocompatibility. Various chemical methods were employed for hematite nanoparticle synthesis which require special equipment or a complex production process. In this study, protein capped crystalline hexagonal hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by green approach using culture supernatant of a newly isolated bacterium, Bacillus cereus SVK1 at ambient conditions. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Nanoparticles were evaluated for its possible anticancer activity against HepG2 liver cancer cells by MTT assay. Hematite nanoparticles with an average diameter of 30.2 nm, exhibited a significant cytotoxicity toward HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (CTC50=704 ng/ml).

  18. Lovastatin prevents bleomycin-induced DNA damage to HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Marjan; Etebari, Mahmoud; Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Moradi, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    Lovastatin as a member of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors is used as a lipid-lowering agent. It can also inhibit the formation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion and finally leads to decline in oxidative stress processes. Here, we evaluated whether lovastatin can increase DNA damage resistance of HepG2 cells against genotoxicity of the anticancer drug bleomycin (BLM). HepG2 cells were incubated with different concentrations of lovastatin (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 µM) before exposure to BLM (0.5 µg/mL for one h). The genotoxic dose of BLM and lovastatin was separately determined and comet assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity. After trapping cells in agarose coated lames, they were lysed and the electrophoresis was done in alkaline pH, then colored and monitored by florescent microscope. The results of this study indicated that lovastatin in doses lower than 5 µM has genoprotective effect and in doses higher than 50 µM is genotoxic. In conclusion, lovastatin is able to protect genotoxic effects of BLM in HepG2 cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process. PMID:28003840

  19. Selenocystine against methyl mercury cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Bin

    2017-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is a highly toxic substance and the effect of selenium against MeHg toxicity is a hot topic. Until now, no related works have been reported from the view of the point of elemental speciation which is promising to study the mechanism at the molecular level. In this work, to reveal the effect of selenocystine (SeCys2) against MeHg cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, a comprehensive analytical platform for speciation study of mercury and selenium in MeHg incubated or MeHg and SeCys2 co-incubated HepG2 cells was developed by integrating liquid chromatography (LC) - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) hyphenated techniques and chip-based pretreatment method. Interesting phenomenon was found that the co-incubation of MeHg with SeCys2 promoted the uptake of MeHg in HepG2 cells, but reduced the cytotoxicity of MeHg. Results obtained by ICP-MS based hyphenated techniques revealed a possible pathway for the incorporation and excretion of mercury species with the coexistence of SeCys2. The formation of MeHg and SeCys2 aggregation promotes the uptake of MeHg; majority of MeHg transforms into small molecular complexes (MeHg-glutathione (GSH) and MeHg-cysteine (Cys)) in HepG2 cells; and MeHg-GSH is the elimination species which results in reducing the cytotoxicity of MeHg.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of methylmercury-induced cell death in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cuello, Susana; Goya, Luis; Madrid, Yolanda; Campuzano, Susana; Pedrero, Maria; Bravo, Laura; Cámara, Carmen; Ramos, Sonia

    2010-05-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been suggested to exert cytotoxicity through multiple mechanisms, but the precise biochemical machinery has not been fully defined. This study was aimed at investigating the time-course (0-24h) effect of 2mg/L MeHg on cell death in human HepG2 cells. MeHg decreased cell viability in a time-dependent manner, which was concomitant with increased LDH leakage, reduced GSH levels, CAT activity and altered activity of the antioxidant enzymes GPx and GR at the longest times of incubation (16 and 24h). Activity of the detoxifying enzyme GST was also early enhanced (2h). Caspase-3 activity reached a maximum value at 8h and continued increased up to 24h. This feature was preceded by an enhancement in the caspase-9 activity (2h), whereas caspase-8 activity remained unchanged. MeHg early diminished Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(S) ratio and increased levels of the pro-apoptotic Bax and Bad. Moreover, MeHg-induced cytotoxicity was completely inhibited by the antioxidants (GSH and NAC) and notably by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone, but not by the NADH oxidase inhibitor DPI. In summary, MeHg induced an oxidative stress responsible for apoptosis in HepG2 cells through direct activation of the caspase cascade and altered the cellular antioxidant and detoxificant enzymatic system to later provoke necrosis at later stages.

  1. [Experimental study on the immune response of fusion tumor vaccine of HepG2 and dendritic cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Pang, Y B; Cui, B Y; He, J; Huang, X P; Liang, W; Li, L Q; Luo, X L

    2017-02-21

    Objective: To estimate the immune response of HepG2/dendritic cell (DC) fusion cells vaccines against HepG2 cells in vitro. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from healthy donors by Ficoll-Hypaque density-gradient centrifugation.Then DC were obtain from PBMCs by culturing in medium containing granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) for 5 days.DC and HepG2 fusion cells were induced by polythyleneglycol (PEG). The fusion cells were examined under fluorescence microscope by labeling DCs and HepG2 with green and red fluorescein, respectively, and then the fusion rates were analyzed by flow cytometry.The capacity of fusion cells to secrete interleukin (IL)-12 and stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocyte was assessed by ELISA and Flow cytometry, respectively.ELISPOT was used to assess the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) produced by cytotoxicity T lymphocyte (CTL), and the specific killing ability of fusion cells induce-CTL targeting HepG2 was estimated. Results: The fusion rate of HepG2/DC was 54.5%, and the fusion cells expressed a higher levels of DC mature marker CD80 and costimulatory molecules CD83, CD86 and MHC-Ⅰ, MHC-Ⅱ molecules HLA-ABC and HLA-DR than those in immature DCs (P<0.01). HepG2/DC showed a greater capacity to secrete high level of IL-12 (P<0.05) and activate proliferation of lymphocytes in vitro, as compared with DCs alone and DCs mix HepG2 (P<0.01). The HepG2/DC -activated CTL generated higher IFN-γ level and had a specific killing ability against HepG2 cells at the effecter/target ratio 30∶1 (31.4%±2.4%) and 100∶1 (57.6%±7.3%) (P<0.01). Conclusions: HepG2/DC fusion cells could efficiently stimulate T lymphocytes to generate specific CTL targeting HepG2 cells.It might be a promising strategy of immunotherapy for HCC.

  2. Downregulation of human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) by organophosphate pesticides in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha; Ponce-Ruiz, Néstor; Ramírez-Chávez, Bryana; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia S; Elizondo, Guillermo; Bernal-Hernández, Yael Y

    2017-02-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a calcium-dependent esterase synthesized primarily in the liver and secreted into the plasma where it is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL). PON1 hydrolyzes and detoxifies some toxic metabolites of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) such as methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos. Thus, PON1 activity and expression levels are important for determining susceptibility against OPs poisoning. Some studies have demonstrated that OPs can modulate gene expression through interactions with nuclear receptors. In this study, we evaluated the effects of methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos on the modulation of PON1 in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) cells by real-time PCR, PON1 activity assay, and western blot. The results showed that the treatments with methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos decreased PON1 mRNA and immunoreactive protein and increased inflammatory cytokines in HepG2 cells. The effects of methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos on the downregulation of PON1 gene expression in HepG2 cells may provide evidence of OPs cytotoxicity related to oxidative stress and an inflammatory response. A decrease in the expression of the PON1 gene may increase the susceptibility to OPs intoxication and the risk of diseases related to inflammation and oxidative stress. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 490-500, 2017.

  3. Apoptosis-inducing activity of cisplatin (CDDP) against human hepatoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Masahiko; Hashimoto, Ken; Shimada, Jun; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    The sensitivity of human hepatoma (HepG2) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2) cell lines against various apoptosis-inducing agents was compared. HepG2 cells were generally more resistant to an oxidant (H2O2), antioxidants (sodium ascorbate, gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate) and anticancer drugs (doxorubicin, methotrexate, cisplatin (CDDP), etoposide, 5-fluoro-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione (5-FU), peplomycin sulfate) as compared to HSC-2 cells. Lower concentrations of CDDP, but not other anticancer drugs, induced comparable cytostatic effects on both HSC-2 and HepG2 cells. CDDP induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9 in HepG2 cells. On the other hand, CDDP did not induce DNA fragmentation and activated caspase 3 only marginally in HSC-2 cells. Combination treatment with CDDP (10 microM) and 5-FU (100 microM) additively activated all three caspases in HepG2 cells, but not in HSC-2 cells. The present study demonstrated the chemotherapeutic potential of combined treatment of CDDP and 5-FU against hepatoma cells and the considerable variation of drug sensitivity between cancer cell lines.

  4. Quercetin reduces cyclin D1 activity and induces G1 phase arrest in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, JIN; LI, LU; FANG, LI; XIE, HUA; YAO, WENXIU; ZHOU, XIANG; XIONG, ZHUJUAN; WANG, LI; LI, ZHIXI; LUO, FENG

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is able to inhibit proliferation of malignant tumor cells; however, the exact mechanism involved in this biological process remains unclear. The current study utilized a quantitative proteomic analysis to explore the antitumor mechanisms of quercetin. The leucine of HepG2 cells treated with quercetin was labeled as d3 by stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). The isotope peaks of control HepG2 cells were compared with the d3-labeled HepG2 cells by mass spectrometry (MS) to identify significantly altered proteins. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were subsequently employed to verify the results of the MS analysis. A flow cytometry assay was designed to observe the influence of various quercetin treatment concentrations on the cell cycle distribution of HepG2 cells. The results indicated that quercetin is able to substantially inhibit proliferation of HepG2 cells and induce an obvious morphological alteration of cells. According to the MS results, the 70 credibly-changed proteins that were identified may play important roles in multiple cellular processes, including protein synthesis, signaling, cytoskeletal processes and metabolism. Among these functional proteins, the expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) was found to be significantly decreased. RT-PCR and western blot analyses verified the SILAC-MS results of decreased CCND1 expression. In summary, flow cytometry revealed that quercetin is able to induce G1 phase arrest in HepG2 cells. Based on the aforementioned observations, it is suggested that quercetin exerts antitumor activity in HepG2 cells through multiple pathways, including interfering with CCND1 gene expression to disrupt the cell cycle and proliferation of HepG2 cells. In the future, we aim to explore this effect in vivo. PMID:27347174

  5. Investigation of quercetin-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis-associated cellular biophysical alterations by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jiang; Li, Baole; Tu, Lvying; Zhu, Haiyan; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Bai, Haihua; Cai, Huaihong; Cai, Jiye

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a wildly distributed bioflavonoid, has been proved to possess excellent antitumor activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, the biophysical properties of HepG2 cells were qualitatively and quantitatively determined using high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to understand the anticancer effects of quercetin on HCC cells at nanoscale. The results showed that quercetin could induce severe apoptosis in HepG2 cells through arrest of cell cycle and disruption of mitochondria membrane potential. Additionally, the nuclei and F-actin structures of HepG2 cells were destroyed by quercetin treatment as well. AFM morphological data showed some typical apoptotic characterization of HepG2 cells with increased particle size and roughness in the ultrastructure of cell surface upon quercetin treatment. As an important biophysical property of cells, the membrane stiffness of HepG2 cells was further quantified by AFM force measurements, which indicated that HepG2 cells became much stiffer after quercetin treatment. These results collectively suggest that quercetin can be served as a potential therapeutic agent for HCC, which not only extends our understanding of the anticancer effects of quercetin against HCC cells into nanoscale, but also highlights the applications of AFM for the investigation of anticancer drugs.

  6. Autophagy in anti-apoptotic effect of augmenter of liver regeneration in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong-Bo; Sun, Hai-Qing; Shi, Hong-Lin; Ren, Feng; Chen, Yu; Chen, De-Xi; Lou, Jin-Li; Duan, Zhong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of autophagy in the anti-apoptotic effect of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR). METHODS: Autophagy was induced through serum deprivation. An ALR-expressing plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells, and autophagic flux was determined using fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. After ALR-expressing plasmid transfection, an autophagy inhibitor [3-methyladenine (3-MA)] was added to HepG2 cells, and apoptosis was observed using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. RESULTS: Autophagy was activated in HepG2 cells, peaking at 24 h after serum deprivation. Microtubule-associated protein light chain three-II levels were higher in HepG2 cells treated with ALR than in control cells, fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and qPCR studies showed the similar trend, and p62 levels showed the opposite trend, which indicated that ALR may play an important role in increasing autophagy flux. The numbers of apoptotic cells were substantially higher in HepG2 cells treated with both ALR and 3-MA than in cells treated with ALR alone. Therefore, the protective effect of ALR was significantly attenuated or abolished when autophagy was inhibited, indicating that the anti-apoptotic effect of ALR may be related to autophagy. CONCLUSION: ALR protects cells from apoptosis partly through increased autophagy in HepG2 cells and may be valuable as a new therapeutic treatment for liver disease. PMID:25954098

  7. Selective killing of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by three-dimensional nanographene nanoparticles based on triptycene.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoqin; Gan, Lu; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Yong, Tuying; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-03-12

    Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. NG nanoparticle-induced ROS result in apoptosis induction and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Moreover, IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is found to be activated by NG nanoparticle-induced ROS and serves to antagonize NG nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our studies show that the distinct behaviors of cellular uptake and ROS-mediated cytotoxicity are responsible for the selective killing of HepG2 cells. This study provides a foundation for understanding the mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by NG nanoparticles and designing more effective chemotherapeutical agents.

  8. Glutathione and thioredoxin type 1 cooperatively denitrosate HepG2 cells-derived cytosolic S-nitrosoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanovsky, Detcho A.; Scott, Melanie J.; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence that glutathione acts in concert with human thioredoxin type 1 in the denitrosation of cytosolic S-nitrosoproteins (PSNOs) from HepG2 cells. PMID:23743503

  9. Growth inhibition effect of HMME-mediated PDT on hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Song, Yuanjian; Ma, Limin; Zang, Lixin; Tao, Lili; Zhang, Zhiguo; Han, Jiwu

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered a promising new strategy for liver cancer treatment. Three elements of PDT--optical output power, irradiation time, and photosensitizer concentration--play important roles in promoting cell death. This research aimed to characterize the effects of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)-based PDT on hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 and thus elucidate the relationship between cell death and the three elements mentioned earlier. Furthermore, in this study, we present a parameter that represents the cumulative effects of these elements. The accumulation of HMME in HepG2 cells was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The absorption spectrum of HMME was detected using fluorescence spectral analysis. The viability of the treated cells was determined using the MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry. We found that the fluorescence intensity was positively correlated with the incubation time for up to 2 h. The cell growth inhibition rate was significantly high and gradually increased with increasing concentrations of HMME or increasing light intensity, which was calculated as optical output power × irradiation time. Further analysis revealed an e-exponential decay of the cell survival rate to the product of the HMME concentration and the light intensity. We defined the product as parameter B (B = optical output power × irradiation time × HMME concentration). Similarly, the rate of cell apoptosis showed roughly e-exponential growth to parameter B. In conclusion, HMME-mediated PDT can significantly kill HepG2 cells, and the killing effect was related to the cumulative effects of the optical output power, the irradiation time, and the HMME concentration. Therefore, the newly defined parameter B, as a comprehensive physical quantity, may be of great significance for the regulation of light and photosensitizer according to patient-specific conditions in clinical practice.

  10. Induction of micronuclei and alteration of gene expression by an organomodified clay in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Maisanaba, Sara; Hercog, Klara; Ortuño, Natalia; Jos, Ángeles; Žegura, Bojana

    2016-07-01

    Clay2 is an organomodified montmorillonite developed by the Technological Institute of Packaging, Transport and Logistic (ITENE) in order to improve polymeric materials used in food packaging. There is not much known on Clay2 toxic potential, particularly at DNA level, therefore it is mandatory to assess its toxicity prior to its commercialization. In the present study the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) was exposed to non-cytotoxic concentrations of Clay2 and the genomic stability was studied with the Cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay, by determining the formation of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs). Moreover, the expression of various genes involved in the mechanisms of its action using the real-time quantitative PCR was studied. The results obtained provide the evidence that Clay2 is potentially genotoxic as it increased the frequency of micronuclei. In addition it deregulated genes involved in the metabolism, immediate-early response/signaling, DNA damage and oxidative stress showing new valuable information on the cellular response to Clay2. Nonetheless, further studies are highly needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of clays toxicity.

  11. Use of high concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide for cryopreservation of HepG2 cells adhered to glass and polydimethylsiloxane matrices.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Yukitoshi; Sekine, Hiroaki; Otaki, Mari; Hayashi, Masakazu; Murase, Norio

    2016-02-01

    Animal cells are generally cryopreserved in cryovials in a cell suspension state containing 5%-10% v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) used as a cryoprotective agent. However, cryopreservation of cells in an attached state has not been intensively studied, and the effective freezing solution remains unknown. Here we determined the suitable DMSO concentration for the cryopreservation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells attached to glass and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrices coated with poly-l-lysine. With the use of the glass matrix, the rate of cell adhesion increased with the DMSO concentration up to 30% v/v in the freezing solution. In contrast, the cell-adhesion rate remained constant in the case of the PDMS matrix irrespective of the DMSO concentration between 10% v/v and 30% v/v. The viability of post-thawed cells attached to glass or PDMS matrix was also investigated. The viability was highest at the DMSO concentration of 20% v/v in the freezing solution. The DMSO concentration of 30% v/v, however, had a cytotoxic effect on the cell viability. Thus, the 20% v/v DMSO concentration was found to be most suitable for the cryopreservation of HepG2 cells in the attached state. This dose is high compared to the DMSO concentration used for the cryopreservation of cells in the suspended state.

  12. Eurycomanone induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via up-regulation of p53

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Yusmazura; Rahmat, Asmah; Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah Lope; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Houghton, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Background Eurycomanone is a cytotoxic compound found in Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previous studies had noted the cytotoxic effect against various cancer cell lines. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxicity against human hepato carcinoma cell in vitro and the mode of action. The cytotoxicity of eurycomanone was evaluated using MTT assay and the mode of cell death was detected by Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining and flow cytometry with Annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. The protein expression Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and cytochrome C were studied by flow cytometry using a spesific antibody conjugated fluorescent dye to confirm the up-regulation of p53 and Bax in cancer cells. Results The findings suggested that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on cancerous liver cell, HepG2 and less toxic on normal cells Chang's liver and WLR-68. Furthermore, various methods proved that apoptosis was the mode of death in eurycomanone-treated HepG2 cells. The characteristics of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic bodies were found following eurycomanone treatment. This study also found that apoptotic process triggered by eurycomanone involved the up-regulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. The up-regulation of p53 was followed by the increasing of pro-apoptotic Bax and decreasing of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. The increased of cytochrome C levels in cytosol also results in induction of apoptosis. Conclusion The data suggest that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis through the up-regulation of p53 and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. PMID:19508737

  13. Induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells by solanine and Bcl-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y B; Gao, S Y; Ji, C F; Zou, X

    2008-01-17

    The nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.) has been widely used in Chinese traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of digestive system cancer. The anti-tumor activity of solanine, a steroid alkaloid isolated from the nightshade has been demonstrated. To observe the effect of anti-tumor and mechanism of solanine. The MTT assay was used to evaluate the IC(50) on the three digestive system tumor cell lines. The effect on the morphology was observed with a laser confocal microscopy; the rate of apoptosis and the cell cycle were measured using flow cytometry (FCM); the expression of Bcl-2 protein was measured by Western blot. The results show that the IC(50) for HepG(2), SGC-7901, and LS-174 were 14.47, >50, and >50 microg/ml, respectively; the morphology of cells in the negative control was normal; for the treated groups, typical signs for apoptosis were found. The rate of apoptosis in HepG(2) cells induced by solanine was found to be 6.0, 14.4, 17.3, 18.9, and 32.2%, respectively. Observation of the cell cycle showed that cells in the G(2)/M phases disappeared while the number of cells in the S phase increased significantly for treated groups. Western blot showed that solanine decreased the expression of Bcl-2 protein. Therefore, the target of solanine in inducing apoptosis in HepG(2) cells seems to be mediated by the inhibition in the expression of Bcl-2 protein.

  14. Induction of apoptosis by FFJ-5, a novel naphthoquinone compound, occurs via downregulation of PKM2 in A549 and HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoli; Li, Ming; Ma, Mingming; Jia, Huina; Zhang, Yu; Kang, Wenyi; Wang, Tianxiao; Shi, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2) has previously been identified as a tumor biomarker and as a potential target for cancer therapy. In this study, F§FJ-5, a characterized naphthoquinone modifier of mollugin, was synthesized in order to investigate its anticancer activity and the potential mechanisms. It was observed that FFJ-5 inhibited the cell growth of human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 and human hepatoma cells HepG2 by MTT assays. FFJ-5 arrested cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Further analyses demonstrated that FFJ-5 attenuated the expression of PKM2 and reduced the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Reduced expression and activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt were observed in A549 and HepG2 cells exposed to FFJ-5. FFJ-5 exposure also resulted in cell apoptosis, in association with decreased intracellular pH level and mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, FFJ-5 activated the caspase-3 cascade. In conclusion, FFJ-5 inhibited cancer cell growth via the blocking the EGFR-Akt-PKM2 pathway or through the synergistic action of EGFR, Akt and PKM2 proteins, alongside a decrease in ATP production. In addition, FFJ-5 induced cancer cell apoptosis by decreasing the intracellular pH level and the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. The present results suggest a potential role of FFJ-5 on the therapy of human cancer. PMID:28356960

  15. Silencing of Wnt10B reduces viability of heptocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guohui; Fan, Xiaoli; Sun, Li

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of Wnt-mediated β-catenin signaling is associated with carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous studies showed that the Wnt10B gene, a member of Wnt gene family, over-activated in HCC tissues and cells. Here we demonstrate that stable silencing of Wnt10B reduces the viability of HCC cells in culture. HepG2, a human HCC cell line, was cultured in vitro and Wnt10B gene in the cells stably silenced, as showed in Western blotting analysis, by the shRNA interference with lentivirus plasmid transfection. Compared to the control (HepG2 cells without Wnt10B silencing), the Wnt10B-silencing cells showed significant reductions in proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, serum deprivation-induced apoptotic death, assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining and fluorescent microscopy, increased significantly in the Wnt10B-silencing cells. FACScan analysis indicated an arrest of the cell cycle in the Wnt10B-silencing HCC cells, with significant increases in the number of cells in G0-G1 and S phases. Thus, we hypothesize that Wnt10B plays an oncogenic role in HCC and is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26269753

  16. Condition medium of HepG-2 cells induces the transdifferentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into cancerous mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Miao, Yinglei; Chang, Yefei; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yubo; Zheng, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the transdifferentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) into cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSCs) after incubation with condition medium (CM) from liver cancer HepG-2 cells, and the biobehaviors (proliferation and migration) of these CA-MSCs were further evaluated. The supernatant of HepG-2 cells was collected and mixed with equal volume of low glucose DMEM. The resultant medium was used to treat hUCMSCs for 48 h. The expression of CA-MSCs related proteins and miR-221 was detected in cells. The supernatant of induced hUCMSCs was mixed with equal volume of high glucose DMEM, and the resultant medium was used treat HepG-2 cells for 48 h and the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells were evaluated. Moreover, HepG-2 cells were co-cultured with hUCMSCs and then the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells were assessed. After incubation with the supernatant from HepG-2 cells, hUCMSCs showed significantly elevated expression of vimentin, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and miR-221. The supernatant of induced hUCMSCs was able to significantly increase the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells. Following co-culture, the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells increased dramatically. These findings suggest that the supernatant of HepG-2 cells is able to induce the phenotype of CA-MSCs and the supernatant of CA-MSCs may promote the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells. These findings provide experimental evidence for the cellular remodeling in tumor microenvironment and the safety of clinical use of hUCMSCs. PMID:27648133

  17. Metallomics Study of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Qiao, Yu; Hu, Bin

    2015-10-27

    Toxicity of quantum dots (QDs) has been a hot research concern in the past decade, and there is a lot of challenge in this field. The physicochemical characteristics of QDs can affect their toxicity, while little is known about the specific chemical form of QDs in living cells after incubation so far. In this work, speciation of four CdSe/ZnS QDs in HepG2 cells was carried out from the metallomics' point of view for the first time by using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). On the basis of the signal of Cd, two kinds of chemical forms, named as QD-1 and QD-2, were observed in HepG2 cells incubated with CdSe/ZnS QDs. QD-1 was demonstrated to be a kind of QD-like nanoparticles, confirmed by chromatographic retention time, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization, and fluorescence detection. QD-2 was demonstrated to be cadmium-metallothioneins complex (Cd-MTs) by reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) synchronously coupled with ICP-MS and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS) analysis. Meanwhile, speciation of QDs in HepG2 cells incubated with different conditions was analyzed. With the variation of QDs incubation concentration/time, and elimination time, the species of QD-1 and QD-2 were also observed without other obvious species, and both the amount of QD-1 and QD-2 increased with incubation concentration and time. The obtained results provide valuable information and a strategy for the study of existing chemical form of QDs, greatly benefiting the understanding of QDs toxicity in living cells.

  18. Lead enhances fluoride influence on apoptotic processes in the HepG2 liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Siwiec, Ewa; Szczuko, Małgorzata; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Kondarewicz, Anna; Rybicka, Marta; Dunaj-Stańczyk, Małgorzata; Wiernicki, Ireneusz; Chlubek, Dariusz; Stachowska, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    Chronic long-term exposure to high levels of fluoride leads to fluorosis, manifested by skeletal fluorosis and damage to internal organs, including kidneys, liver, parathyroid glands, and brain. Excess fluoride can also cause DNA damage, trigger apoptosis, and change cell cycle. The effect of fluoride may be exacerbated by lead (Pb), a potent inhibitor of many enzymes and a factor causing apoptosis, still present in the environment in excessive amounts. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) and/or lead acetate (PbAc) on development of apoptosis, cell vitality, and proliferation in the liver cell line HepG2. We examined hepatocytes from the liver cell line HepG2, incubated for 48 h with NaF, PbAc, and their mixture (NaF + PbAc), and used for measuring apoptosis, index of proliferation, and vitality of cells. Incubation of the hepatocytes with NaF or PbAc increased apoptosis, more when fluoride and Pb were used simultaneously. Vitality of the cells depended on the compound used and its concentration. Proliferation slightly increased and then decreased in a high fluoride environment; it decreased significantly after addition of Pb in a dose-dependent manner. When used together, fluoride inhibited the decreasing effect of Pb on cell proliferation.

  19. Protection of human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress by the flavonoid epicatechin.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Izquierdo-Pulido, María; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2010-04-01

    Flavanols, such as epicatechin (EC), constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in green tea, grapes and cocoa and possess different biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic. This study investigated the potential chemo-protective effect of EC against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on human HepG2 cells. Cell viability by lactate dehydrogenase assay and markers of oxidative status: reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were evaluated. Pretreatment of cells with EC for 20 h prevented the enhanced cell damage and GPx and GR activities as well as the decrease in GSH induced by t-BOOH. The increased ROS generation induced by t-BOOH was also partly prevented by a pretreatment for 20 h with EC. In addition, pretreatment of cells with EC for 20 h recovered the t-BOOH-induced MDA concentration to control values. A pretreatment for 2 h with EC did not reduce cell damage but partly recovered GSH, reduced ROS levels and muffled the increase of GPx and GR after exposure to t-BOOH. Treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of EC in the micromolar range confers a significant protection against oxidative stress.

  20. Pinolenic Acid Downregulates Lipid Anabolic Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ah Ron; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-07-01

    Pine nut oil (PNO) was reported to reduce lipid accumulation in the liver. However, the specific effect of pinolenic acid (18:3, all-cis-Δ5,9,12), a unique component of PNO, on lipid metabolism has not been studied. We hypothesized that pinolenic acid downregulates the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were incubated in serum-free medium supplemented with 50 μM bovine serum albumin (BSA), palmitic acid, oleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, pinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or α-linolenic acid for 24 h. Lipid accumulation was determined by Oil Red O (ORO) staining. The mRNA levels of genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis (SREBP1c, FAS, SCD1, and ACC1), fatty acid oxidation (ACC2, PPARα, CPT1A, and ACADL), cholesterol synthesis (SREBP2 and HMGCR), and lipoprotein uptake (LDLr) and of genes that may be involved in the downregulation of the lipogenic pathway (ACSL3, ACSL4, and ACSL5) were determined by qPCR. LDLR protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. The mRNA levels of SREBP1c, FAS, and SCD1 were significantly downregulated by pinolenic acid treatment compared to BSA control (53, 54, and 38 % lower, respectively). In addition, the mRNA levels of HMGCR, ACSL3, and LDLr were significantly lower (30, 30, and 43 % lower, respectively), and ACSL4 tended to be lower in the pinolenic acid group (20 % lower, P = 0.082) relative to the control group. In conclusion, pinolenic acid downregulated the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells by reducing expression of genes related to lipid synthesis, lipoprotein uptake, and the regulation of the lipogenic pathway.

  1. Protective effects of garlic sulfur compounds against DNA damage induced by direct- and indirect-acting genotoxic agents in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Belloir, C; Singh, V; Daurat, C; Siess, M H; Le Bon, A M

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antigenotoxic activity of several garlic organosulfur compounds (OSC) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, using comet assay. The OSC selected were allicin (DADSO), diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), S-allyl cysteine (SAC) and allyl mercaptan (AM). To explore their potential mechanisms of action, two approaches were performed: (i) a pre-treatment protocol which allowed study of the possible modulation of drug metabolism enzymes by OSC before treatment of the cells with the genotoxic agent; (ii) a co-treatment protocol by which the ability of OSC to scavenge direct-acting compounds was assessed. Preliminary studies showed that, over the concentration range tested (5-100 microM), the studied OSC neither affected cell viability nor induced DNA damage by themselves. In the pre-treatment protocol, aflatoxin B1 genotoxicity was significantly reduced by all the OSC tested except AM. DADS was the most efficient OSC in reducing benzo(a)pyrene genotoxicity. SAC and AM significantly decreased DNA breaks in HepG2 cells treated with dimethylnitrosamine. Additionally, all the OSC studied were shown to decrease the genotoxicity of the direct-acting compounds, hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate. This study demonstrated that garlic OSC displayed antigenotoxic activity in human metabolically competent cells.

  2. Biscuit melanoidins of different molecular masses protect human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Rufián-Henares, José Angel; Morales, Francisco José; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Soluble melanoidins from biscuits were enzymatically solubilized and isolated by sequential ultrafiltration and separated by molecular mass in three different fractions, below 3 kDa, between 3 and 10 kDa, and over 10 kDa; the latter was subsequently digested by simulating gastric plus pancreatic digestive conditions. The four fractions were investigated for their protective effect against an oxidative challenge in HepG2 cells. Pretreatment of cells for 20 h with 0.5-10 microg/mL of any of the four fractions prevented the increased cell damage evoked by the challenge but, except for the intermediate size fraction, did not suppress the increased reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant defenses were rapidly restored after the challenge, and the increase of the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde was prevented by the pretreatment with all but the undigested high molecular mass fraction. The results show that treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of biscuit melanoidins within the expected physiological range confers on the cells a significant protection against an oxidative challenge.

  3. Crambescin C1 Exerts a Cytoprotective Effect on HepG2 Cells through Metallothionein Induction

    PubMed Central

    Roel, María; Rubiolo, Juan A.; Ternon, Eva; Thomas, Olivier P.; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean marine sponge Crambe crambe is the source of two families of guanidine alkaloids known as crambescins and crambescidins. Some of the biological effects of crambescidins have been previously reported while crambescins have undergone little study. Taking this into account, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis to examine the effect of crambescin-C1 (CC1) on human tumor hepatocarcinoma cells HepG2 followed by validation experiments to confirm its predicted biological activities. We report herein that, while crambescin-A1 has a minor effect on these cells, CC1 protects them against oxidative injury by means of metallothionein induction even at low concentrations. Additionally, at high doses, CC1 arrests the HepG2 cell cycle in G0/G1 and thus inhibits tumor cell proliferation. The findings presented here provide the first detailed approach regarding the different effects of crambescins on tumor cells and provide a basis for future studies on other possible cellular mechanisms related to these bioactivities. PMID:26225985

  4. Quercetin induces HepG2 cell apoptosis by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, PENG; MAO, JUN-MIN; ZHANG, SHU-YUN; ZHOU, ZE-QUAN; TAN, YANG; ZHANG, YU

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin can inhibit the growth of cancer cells with the ability to act as a ‘chemopreventer’. Its cancer-preventive effect has been attributed to various mechanisms, including the induction of cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, as well as its antioxidant functions. Quercetin can also reduce adipogenesis. Previous studies have shown that quercetin has potent inhibitory effects on animal fatty acid synthase (FASN). In the present study, activity of quercetin was evaluated in human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Intracellular FASN activity was calculated by measuring the absorption of NADPH via a spectrophotometer. MTT assay was used to test the cell viability, immunoblot analysis was performed to detect FASN expression levels and the apoptotic effect was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining. In the present study, it was found that quercetin could induce apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells with overexpression of FASN. This apoptosis was accompanied by the reduction of intracellular FASN activity and could be rescued by 25 or 50 μM exogenous palmitic acids, the final product of FASN-catalyzed synthesis. These results suggested that the apoptosis induced by quercetin was via the inhibition of FASN. These findings suggested that quercetin may be useful for preventing human liver cancer. PMID:25009654

  5. Crambescin C1 Exerts a Cytoprotective Effect on HepG2 Cells through Metallothionein Induction.

    PubMed

    Roel, María; Rubiolo, Juan A; Ternon, Eva; Thomas, Olivier P; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2015-07-27

    The Mediterranean marine sponge Crambe crambe is the source of two families of guanidine alkaloids known as crambescins and crambescidins. Some of the biological effects of crambescidins have been previously reported while crambescins have undergone little study. Taking this into account, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis to examine the effect of crambescin-C1 (CC1) on human tumor hepatocarcinoma cells HepG2 followed by validation experiments to confirm its predicted biological activities. We report herein that, while crambescin-A1 has a minor effect on these cells, CC1 protects them against oxidative injury by means of metallothionein induction even at low concentrations. Additionally, at high doses, CC1 arrests the HepG2 cell cycle in G0/G1 and thus inhibits tumor cell proliferation. The findings presented here provide the first detailed approach regarding the different effects of crambescins on tumor cells and provide a basis for future studies on other possible cellular mechanisms related to these bioactivities.

  6. Quercetin induces HepG2 cell apoptosis by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Mao, Jun-Min; Zhang, Shu-Yun; Zhou, Ze-Quan; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Quercetin can inhibit the growth of cancer cells with the ability to act as a 'chemopreventer'. Its cancer-preventive effect has been attributed to various mechanisms, including the induction of cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, as well as its antioxidant functions. Quercetin can also reduce adipogenesis. Previous studies have shown that quercetin has potent inhibitory effects on animal fatty acid synthase (FASN). In the present study, activity of quercetin was evaluated in human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Intracellular FASN activity was calculated by measuring the absorption of NADPH via a spectrophotometer. MTT assay was used to test the cell viability, immunoblot analysis was performed to detect FASN expression levels and the apoptotic effect was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining. In the present study, it was found that quercetin could induce apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells with overexpression of FASN. This apoptosis was accompanied by the reduction of intracellular FASN activity and could be rescued by 25 or 50 μM exogenous palmitic acids, the final product of FASN-catalyzed synthesis. These results suggested that the apoptosis induced by quercetin was via the inhibition of FASN. These findings suggested that quercetin may be useful for preventing human liver cancer.

  7. An autophagic process is activated in HepG2 cells to mediate BDE-100-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lilian Cristina; Duarte, Filipe Valente; Varela, Ana Teresa Inácio Ferreira; Rolo, Anabela Pinto; Palmeira, Carlos Manuel Marques; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2017-02-01

    To reduce flammability and meet regulatory requirements, Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) are added to a wide variety of consumer products including furniture, textiles, electronics, and construction materials. Exposure to polybrominated phenyl ethers (PBDEs) adversely affects the human health. Bearing in mind that (i) PBDEs are potentially toxic, (ii) the mechanism of PBDE toxicity is unclear, and (iii) the importance of the autophagy to the field of toxicology is overlooked, this study investigates whether an autophagic process is activated in HepG2 cells (human hepatoblastoma cell line) to mediate BDE-100-induced toxicity. HepG2 cells were exposed with BDE-100 at three concentrations (0.1, 5, and 25μM), selected from preliminary toxicity tests, for 24 and 48h. To assess autophagy, immunocytochemistry was performed after exposure of HepG2 cells to BDE-100. Labeling of HepG2 cells with 100nM LysoTracker Red DND-99 aided examination of lysosome distribution. Proteins that are key to the autophagic process (p62 and LC3) were evaluated by western blotting. DNA was isolated and quantified to assess mitochondrial DNA copy number by qPCR on the basis of the number of DNA copies of a mitochondrial encoded gene normalized against a nuclear encoded gene. Conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II increased in HepG2 cells. Pre-addition of 100nM wortmannin decreased the amount of LC3 in the punctuate form and increased nuclear fragmentation (apoptotic feature). HepG2 cells exposed to BDE-100 presented increased staining with the lysosomal dye and had larger LC3 and p62 content after pre-treatment with ammonium chloride. The mitochondrial DNA copy number decreased, which probably constituted an attempt of the cell to manage mitochondrial damage by selective mitochondrial degradation (mitophagy). In conclusion, an autophagic process is activated in HepG2 cells to mediate BDE-100-induced toxicity.

  8. A proteomic analysis of mushroom polysaccharide-treated HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yangyang; Wang, Guibin; Fan, Lili; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    The anti-tumor properties of fungal polysaccharides have gained significant recognition in Asia and tropical America. In this study, the differential expression of proteins in normal HepG2 cells and those treated with polysaccharides that had been isolated from Phellinus linteus (PL), Ganoderma lucidum (GL) and Auricularia auricula (AA) was investigated. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), a total of 104 protein spots were determined to be overexpressed in these cells compared with noncancerous regions. A total of 59 differentially expressed proteins were identified through MALDI-TOF-MS. In addition, 400 biological processes (BP), 133 cell components (CC) and 146 molecular functions (MF) were enriched by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, and 78 KEGG pathways were enriched by pathway enrichment. Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) analysis demonstrated the interaction networks affected by polysaccharides in HepG2 cells. Then, DJ-1 and 14-3-3 were identified as the key proteins in the networks, and the expression of the mRNA and proteins were evaluated using Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting (WB), respectively. The results were in agreement with the 2DE. These results provided information on significant proteins of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and form an important basis for the future development of valuable medicinal mushroom resources. PMID:27020667

  9. Protective Effects of Sweet Orange, Unshiu Mikan, and Mini Tomato Juice Powders on t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jannat, Susoma; Ali, Md Yousof; Kim, Hyeung-Rak; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of juice powders from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], unshiu mikan (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and mini tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and their major flavonoids, hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The increased reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels observed in t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells were ameliorated by pretreatment with juice powders, indicating that the hepatoprotective effects of juice powders and their major flavonoids are mediated by induction of cellular defense against oxidative stress. Moreover, pretreatment with juice powders up-regulated phase-II genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), thereby preventing cellular damage and the resultant increase in HO-1 expression. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the juice powders confirmed that hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin were the key flavonoids present. Our results suggest that these fruit juice powders and their major flavonoids provide a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which is most likely due to the flavonoid-related bioactive compounds present, leading to the normal redox status of cells. Therefore, these fruit juice powders could be advantageous as bioactive sources for the prevention of oxidative injury in hepatoma cells. PMID:27752497

  10. Protective Effects of Sweet Orange, Unshiu Mikan, and Mini Tomato Juice Powders on t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jannat, Susoma; Ali, Md Yousof; Kim, Hyeung-Rak; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of juice powders from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], unshiu mikan (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and mini tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and their major flavonoids, hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The increased reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels observed in t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells were ameliorated by pretreatment with juice powders, indicating that the hepatoprotective effects of juice powders and their major flavonoids are mediated by induction of cellular defense against oxidative stress. Moreover, pretreatment with juice powders up-regulated phase-II genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), thereby preventing cellular damage and the resultant increase in HO-1 expression. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the juice powders confirmed that hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin were the key flavonoids present. Our results suggest that these fruit juice powders and their major flavonoids provide a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which is most likely due to the flavonoid-related bioactive compounds present, leading to the normal redox status of cells. Therefore, these fruit juice powders could be advantageous as bioactive sources for the prevention of oxidative injury in hepatoma cells.

  11. Toxicity Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Mice Liver Primary Cell Culture and HepG2 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Faedmaleki, Firouz; H Shirazi, Farshad; Salarian, Amir-Ahmad; Ahmadi Ashtiani, Hamidreza; Rastegar, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Nano-silver (AgNP) has biological properties which are significant for consumer products, food technology, textiles and medical applications (e.g. wound care products, implantable medical devices, in diagnosis, drug delivery, and imaging). For their antibacterial activity, silver nanoparticles are largely used in various commercially available products. Thus, the use of nano-silver is becoming more and more widespread in medicine. In this study we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs on liver primary cells of mice, as well as the human liver HepG2 cell. Cell viability was examined with MTT assay after HepG2 cells exposure to AgNPs at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, 10 ppm compared to mice primary liver cells at 1, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 400 ppm for 24h. AgNPs caused a concentration-dependent decrease of cell viability in both cells. IC50 value of 2.764 ppm (µg/mL) was calculated in HepG2 cell line and IC50 value of 121.7 ppm (µg/mL) was calculated in primary liver cells of mice. The results of this experiment indicated that silver nanoparticles had cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cell line and primary liver cells of mice. The results illustrated that nano-silver had 44 times stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of cancerous cells (HepG2 cell line) compared to the normal cells (primary liver cells of mice). which might further justify AgNPs as a cytotoxic agents and a potential anticancer candidate which needs further studies in this regard.

  12. Glibenclamide induces apoptosis through inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) release in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, J A; Kang, Y S; Lee, S H; Lee, E H; Yoo, B H; Lee, Y S

    1999-08-11

    Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels, induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells. Glibenclamide increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which was significantly inhibited by Ca(2+) release blockers dantrolene and TMB-8. BAPTA/AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, and the Ca(2+) release blockers significantly inhibited glibenclamide-induced apoptosis. Glibanclamide also increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration, which was significantly blocked by CFTR Cl(-) channel activators levamisole and bromotetramisole. These activators also significantly inhibited both intracellular Ca(2+) release and apoptosis induced by glibenclamide. The expression of CFTR protein in the cells was confirmed by Western blot analysis. These results suggest that glibenclamide induced apoptosis through inhibition of CFTR Cl(-) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) release and that this protein may be a good target for treatment of human hepatomas.

  13. Regulation of the Lactobacillus Strains on HMGCoA Reductase Gene Transcription in Human HepG2 Cells via Nuclear Factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Li, Shaocong; Chen, Fang; Li, Jun; Luo, Xuegang

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have been identified to be effective in reducing cholesterol levels. Most of the mechanistic studies were focused on the bile salt deconjugation ability of bile salt hydrolase in lactic acid bacteria. However, the mechanism by which Lactobacillus decreases cholesterol levels has not been thoroughly studied in intact primate cells. 3-Hydroxy-3- methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) is the vital enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. To confirm the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on HMGCR level, in the present study, human hepatoma HepG2 cells were treated with Lactobacillus strains, and then the HMGCR level was illustrated by luciferase reporter assay and RT-PCR. The results showed that the level of HMGCR was suppressed after being treated with the live Lactobacillus strains. These works might set a foundation for the following study of the antihyperlipidemic effects of L. acidophilus, and contribute to the development of functional foods or drugs that benefit patients suffering from hyperlipidemia diseases.

  14. Study of the efficacy of photofrin®-Mediated PDT on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Fakhar-e-Alam, M.; Zaidi, S. S. Z.; Suleman, R.

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photofrin® using human liver cancer cells (HepG2) as an experimental model. We optimized the different PDT parameters, e.g. (time of incubation, optimal dose of light and drug concentration), cytotoxicity, phototoxicity, and cellular viability of the HepG2 cells has also been investigated in this experimental work. The effect of light on the viability of cells without the photosensitizer was examined firstly, HepG2 cell line was irradiated with red light (a diode laser, λ = 635 nm). The toxicity of the photosensitizer in the absence of light in current cell line was investigated secondly, Photofrin® has been used as photosensitizing agent. Optimal dose of light along with suitable concentration of Photofrin® were traced into HepG2 cell line, by means of spectrophotometric measurement. Cells viability was determined by means of neutral red assay (NRA). Finally, it was observed that no toxic effects with the absence of light, and no significant photodamage effect on the cells without the presence of photosensitizer were found, when studied independently. Our results showed that light doses of 100 J/cm2 gives effective PDT outcome for HepG2 cell line at photosensitizer concentration of 100 μg/ml.

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone-induces miR-21 transcription in HepG2 cells through estrogen receptor β and androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yun; Litchfield, Lacey M.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Prough, Russell A.; Clark, Barbara J.; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Although oncomiR miR-21 is highly expressed in liver and overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its regulation is uncharacterized. We examined the effect of physiologically relevant nanomolar concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) on miR-21 expression in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. 10 nM DHEA and DHEA-S increase pri-miR-21 transcription in HepG2 cells. Dietary DHEA increased miR-21 in vivo in mouse liver. siRNA and inhibitor studies suggest that DHEA-S requires desulfation for activity and that DHEA-induced pri-miR-21 transcription involves metabolism to androgen and estrogen receptor (AR and ER) ligands. Activation of ERβ and AR by DHEA metabolites androst-5-ene-3,17-dione (ADIONE), androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol (ADIOL), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol (3β-Adiol) increased miR-21 transcription. DHEA-induced miR-21 increased cell proliferation and decreased Pdcd4 protein, a bona fide miR-21. Estradiol (E2) inhibited miR-21 expression via ERα. DHEA increased ERβ and AR recruitment to the miR-21 promoter within the VMP1/TMEM49 gene, with possible significance in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24845419

  16. An 'activatable' aptamer-based fluorescence probe for the detection of HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zongqiang; Tan, Juntao; Wan, Ruirong; Tan, Jie; Zhang, Zhenghua; Hu, Zixi; Li, Jieping; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yiwei; Jiang, Yafeng; He, Jian; Yang, Nuo; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2017-05-01

    It is significant to develop a probe with sensitivity and specificity for the detection of cancer cells. The present study aimed to develop an 'activatable' aptamer-based fluorescence probe (AAFP) to detect cancer cells and frozen cancer tissue. This AAFP consisted of two fragments: aptamer TLS11a that targets HepG2 cells, and two short extending complementary DNA sequences with a 5'- and 3'-terminus that make the aptamer in hairpin structure a capable quencher to fluorophore. The ability of the AAFP to bind specifically to cancer cells was assessed using flow cytometry, fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Its ability to bind to frozen cancer tissue was assessed using fluorescence microscopy. As a result, in the absence of cancer cells, AAFP showed minimal fluorescence, reflecting auto-quenching. In the presence of cancer cells, however, AAFP showed a strong fluorescent signal. Therefore, this AAFP may be a promising tool for sensitive and specific detection of cancer.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates sulforaphane-induced apoptosis of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Qu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Yueni; Shi, Xin; Ji, Yubin

    2017-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent, which effectively inhibits proliferation of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via mitochondria‑mediated apoptosis. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is considered the most important cause of cell apoptosis; therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether the endoplasmic reticulum pathway was involved in SFN-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. An MTT assay was used to detect the inhibitory effects of SFN on HepG2 cells. Fluorescence microscopy was used to observe the morphological changes in apoptotic cells, and western blot analysis was conducted to detect the expression of binding immunoglobulin protein (Bip)/glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), X‑box binding protein‑1 (XBP‑1) and BH3 interacting domain death agonist (Bid). Furthermore, flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptotic rate of HepG2 cells, and the protein expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)/growth arrest‑ and DNA damage‑inducible gene 153 (GADD153) and caspase-12 in HepG2 cells. The results indicated that SFN significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells; the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were 32.03±0.96, 20.90±1.96 and 13.87±0.44 µmol/l, following treatment with SFN for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Following 48 h of SFN treatment (10, 20 and 40 µmol/l), the apoptotic rates of HepG2 cells were 31.8, 61.3 and 77.1%, respectively. Furthermore, after 48 h of exposure to SFN, the cells presented typical morphological alterations of apoptosis, as detected under fluorescence microscopy. Treatment with SFN for 48 h also significantly upregulated the protein expression levels of Bip/GRP78, XBP‑1, caspase‑12, CHOP/GADD153 and Bid in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, endoplasmic reticulum stress may be considered the most important mechanism underlying SFN-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

  18. Constitutive Effects of Lead on Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Gene Battery and Protection by β-carotene and Ascorbic Acid in Human HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Wageh S; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant that can get entry into human body through contaminated foods, drinks, and inhaled air leading to severe biological consequences, and has been responsible for many deaths worldwide. The objectives of this study were 1st to investigate the modulatory effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb on AhR gene battery, which is controlling xenobiotics metabolism. 2nd, trials to reduce Pb-induced adverse effects were done using some phytochemicals like β-carotene or ascorbic acid. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines were exposed to a wide range of Pb concentrations varying from physiological to toxic levels (0 to 10 mg/L) for 24 h. High Pb concentrations (1 to 10 mg/L) significantly reduced phase I (CYP1A1 and 1A2) and phase II (UGT1A6 and NQO1) xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme mRNA expression in a mechanistic manner through the AhR regulation pathway. Additionally, these Pb concentrations induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells in terms of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent phenomenon. Coexposure of HepG2 cells to physiological concentrations of some micronutrients, like β-carotene (10 μM) or ascorbic acid (0.1 mM), along with Pb (1 mg/L) for 24 h significantly reduced the levels of ROS production and recovered AhR mRNA expression into the normal levels. Thus, consumption of foods rich in these micronutrients may help to reduce the adverse effects of lead in areas with high levels of pollution.

  19. Borax-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves p53, Bcl-2, and Bax.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Yuan, F J; Zhou, W B; Wu, L; Chen, L; Wang, J J; Zhang, Y S

    2016-06-21

    Borax, a boron compound and a salt of boric acid, is known to inhibit the growth of tumor cells. HepG2 cells have been shown to be clearly susceptible to the anti-proliferative effects of borax. However, the specific mechanisms regulating this effect are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the pathways underlying the growth inhibition induced by borax in HepG2 cells. The effects of borax on HepG2 cell viability were characterized using MTT. Apoptosis was also verified by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. JC-1 dye and western blotting techniques were used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential and p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Relevant mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR. Borax inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. The apoptotic process triggered by borax involved the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2, which was confirmed by a change in the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results elucidate a borax-induced apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells that involves the upregulation of p53 and Bax and the downregulation of Bcl-2.

  20. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management.

  1. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protects against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage by Modulating Inflammatory Mediators in Mice and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung Dae; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Taeseong; Jang, Seon-A; Kang, Se Chan; Koo, Hyun Jung; Sohn, Eunsoo; Bak, Jong Phil; Namkoong, Seung; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Song, In Sung; Kim, Nari; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Han, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or without fucoidan (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) for seven days. Alcohol administration increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, but these increases were suppressed by the treatment of fucoidan. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a liver fibrosis-inducing factor, was highly expressed in the alcohol-fed group and human hepatoma HepG2 cell; however, the increase in TGF-β1 expression was reduced following fucoidan administration. Treatment with fucoidan was also found to significantly reduce the production of inflammation-promoting cyclooygenase-2 and nitric oxide, while markedly increasing the expression of the hepatoprotective enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, on murine liver and HepG2 cells. Taken together, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on alcohol-induced liver damage may provide valuable insights into developing new therapeutics or interventions. PMID:25690093

  2. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus protects against alcohol-induced liver damage by modulating inflammatory mediators in mice and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung Dae; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Taeseong; Jang, Seon-A; Kang, Se Chan; Koo, Hyun Jung; Sohn, Eunsoo; Bak, Jong Phil; Namkoong, Seung; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Song, In Sung; Kim, Nari; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Han, Jin

    2015-02-16

    Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or without fucoidan (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) for seven days. Alcohol administration increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, but these increases were suppressed by the treatment of fucoidan. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a liver fibrosis-inducing factor, was highly expressed in the alcohol-fed group and human hepatoma HepG2 cell; however, the increase in TGF-β1 expression was reduced following fucoidan administration. Treatment with fucoidan was also found to significantly reduce the production of inflammation-promoting cyclooygenase-2 and nitric oxide, while markedly increasing the expression of the hepatoprotective enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, on murine liver and HepG2 cells. Taken together, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on alcohol-induced liver damage may provide valuable insights into developing new therapeutics or interventions.

  3. Selective killing of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by three-dimensional nanographene nanoparticles based on triptycene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoqin; Gan, Lu; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Yong, Tuying; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. NG nanoparticle-induced ROS result in apoptosis induction and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Moreover, IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is found to be activated by NG nanoparticle-induced ROS and serves to antagonize NG nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our studies show that the distinct behaviors of cellular uptake and ROS-mediated cytotoxicity are responsible for the selective killing of HepG2 cells. This study provides a foundation for understanding the mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by NG nanoparticles and designing more effective chemotherapeutical agents.Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702

  4. Liv.52 protects HepG2 cells from oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, S; K Mitra, S; Nandakumar, Krishna S

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced by toxicants is known to cause various complications in the liver. Herbal drug such as Liv.52 is found to have hepatoprotective effect. However, the biochemical mechanism involved in the Liv.52 mediated protection against toxicity is not well elucidated using suitable in vitro models. Hence, in the present study, the hepatoprotective effect of Liv.52 against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) in HepG2 cells was evaluated in order to relate in vitro antioxidant activity with cytoprotective effects. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. Antioxidant effect of Liv.52 was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and lipid peroxidation and measurement of non-enzymic and antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells exposed to t-BHP over a period of 24 h. The results obtained indicate that t-BHP induced cell damage in HepG2 cells as shown by significant increase in lipid peroxidation as well as decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Liv.52 significantly decreased toxicity induced by t-BHP in HepG2 cells. Liv.52 was also significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and prevented GSH depletion in HepG2 cells induced by t-BHP. Therefore, Liv.52 appeared to be important for cell survival when exposed to t-BHP. The protective effect of Liv.52 against cell death evoked by t-BHP was probably achieved by preventing intracellular GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation. The results showed protective effect of Liv.52 against oxidative damage induced in HepG2 cells. Hence, taken together, these findings derived from the present study suggest the beneficial effect of Liv.52 in regulating oxidative stress induced in liver by toxicants.

  5. Sodium valproate induces mitochondrial respiration dysfunction in HepG2 in vitro cell model.

    PubMed

    Komulainen, Tuomas; Lodge, Tiffany; Hinttala, Reetta; Bolszak, Maija; Pietilä, Mika; Koivunen, Peppi; Hakkola, Jukka; Poulton, Joanna; Morten, Karl J; Uusimaa, Johanna

    2015-05-04

    Sodium valproate (VPA) is a potentially hepatotoxic antiepileptic drug. Risk of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity is increased in patients with mitochondrial diseases and especially in patients with POLG1 gene mutations. We used a HepG2 cell in vitro model to investigate the effect of VPA on mitochondrial activity. Cells were incubated in glucose medium and mitochondrial respiration-inducing medium supplemented with galactose and pyruvate. VPA treatments were carried out at concentrations of 0-2.0mM for 24-72 h. In both media, VPA caused decrease in oxygen consumption rates and mitochondrial membrane potential. VPA exposure led to depleted ATP levels in HepG2 cells incubated in galactose medium suggesting dysfunction in mitochondrial ATP production. In addition, VPA exposure for 72 h increased levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), but adversely decreased protein levels of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase SOD2, suggesting oxidative stress caused by impaired elimination of mitochondrial ROS and a novel pathomechanism related to VPA toxicity. Increased cell death and decrease in cell number was detected under both metabolic conditions. However, immunoblotting did not show any changes in the protein levels of the catalytic subunit A of mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ, the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II and IV, ATP synthase, E3 subunit dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase. Our results show that VPA inhibits mitochondrial respiration and leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and increased cell death, thus suggesting an essential role of mitochondria in VPA-induced hepatotoxicity.

  6. Inflammation response at the transcriptional level of HepG2 cells induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piret, Jean-Pascal; Vankoningsloo, Sébastien; Noël, Florence; Mejia Mendoza, Jorge; Lucas, Stéphane; Saout, Christelle; Toussaint, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Poor information are currently available about the biological effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the liver. In this study, we evaluated the effects of MWCNT at the transcriptional level on the classical in vitro model of HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. The expression levels of 96 transcript species implicated in the inflammatory and immune responses was studied after a 24h incubation of HepG2 cells in presence of raw MWCNT dispersed in water by stirring. Among the 46 transcript species detected, only a few transcripts including mRNA coding for interleukine-7, chemokines receptor of the C-C families CCR7, as well as Endothelin-1, were statistically more abundant after treatment with MWCNT. Altogether, these data indicate that MWCNT can only induce a weak inflammatory response in HepG2 cells.

  7. Sasa quelpaertensis and p-coumaric acid attenuate oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kang, Seong-Il; Shin, Hye-Sun; Yoon, Seon-A; Kang, Seung-Woo; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of Jeju dwarf bamboo (Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai) extract (JBE) and p-coumaric acid (CA) on oleic acid (OA)-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. JBE and CA increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a) in OA-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, these compounds decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and OA-induced lipid accumulation, suggesting that JBE and CA modulate lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells via the AMPK activation pathway.

  8. Inhibition of net HepG2 cell apolipoprotein B secretion by the citrus flavonoid naringenin involves activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, independent of insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Borradaile, Nica M; de Dreu, Linda E; Huff, Murray W

    2003-10-01

    The flavonoid naringenin improves hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-treated rats. In HepG2 human hepatoma cells, naringenin inhibits apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion primarily by inhibiting microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and enhances LDL receptor (LDLr)-mediated apoB-containing lipoprotein uptake. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation by insulin increases sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 and LDLr expression and inhibits apoB secretion in hepatocytes. Thus, we determined whether naringenin activates this pathway. Insulin and naringenin induced PI3K-dependent increases in cytosolic and nuclear SREBP-1 and LDLr expression. Similar PI3K-mediated increases in SREBP-1 were observed in McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells, which express predominantly SREBP-1c. Reductions in HepG2 cell media apoB with naringenin were partially attenuated by wortmannin, whereas the effect of insulin was completely blocked. Both treatments reduced apoB100 secretion in wild-type and LDLr(-/-) mouse hepatocytes to the same extent. Insulin and naringenin increased HepG2 cell PI3K activity and decreased insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 levels. In sharp contrast to insulin, naringenin did not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1. We conclude that naringenin increases LDLr expression in HepG2 cells via PI3K-mediated upregulation of SREBP-1, independent of IRS-1 phosphorylation. Although this pathway may not regulate apoB secretion in primary hepatocytes, PI3K activation by this novel mechanism may explain the insulin-like effects of naringenin in vivo.

  9. Dietary catechins and procyanidins modulate zinc homeostasis in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Isabel M; Bustos, Mario; Blay, Mayte; Pujadas, Gerard; Ardèvol, Anna; Salvadó, M Josepa; Bladé, Cinta; Arola, Lluís; Fernández-Larrea, Juan

    2011-02-01

    Catechins and their polymers procyanidins are health-promoting flavonoids found in edible vegetables and fruits. They act as antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species and by chelating the redox-active metals iron and copper. They also behave as signaling molecules, modulating multiple cell signalling pathways and gene expression, including that of antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed at determining whether catechins and procyanidins interact with the redox-inactive metal zinc and at assessing their effect on cellular zinc homeostasis. We found that a grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) and the green tea flavonoid (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) bind zinc cations in solution with higher affinity than the zinc-specific chelator Zinquin, and dose-dependently prevent zinc-induced toxicity in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, evaluated by the lactate dehydrogenase test. GSPE and EGCG hinder intracellular accumulation of total zinc, measured by atomic flame absorption spectrometry, concomitantly increasing the level of cytoplasmic labile zinc detectable by Zinquin fluorescence. Concurrently, GSPE and EGCG inhibit the expression, evaluated at the mRNA level by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, of zinc-binding metallothioneins and of plasma membrane zinc exporter ZnT1 (SLC30A1), while enhancing the expression of cellular zinc importers ZIP1 (SLC39A1) and ZIP4 (SLC39A4). GSPE and EGCG also produce all these effects when HepG2 cells are stimulated to import zinc by treatment with supplemental zinc or the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. We suggest that extracellular complexation of zinc cations and the elevation of cytoplasmic labile zinc may be relevant mechanisms underlying the modulation of diverse cell signaling and metabolic pathways by catechins and procyanidins.

  10. Altered gene expression in HepG2 cells exposed to a methanolic coal dust extract.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Castilla, Angelica; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to coal dust has been associated with different chronic diseases and mortality risk. This airborne pollutant is produced during coal mining and transport activities, generating environmental and human toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a coal dust methanolic extract on HepG2, a human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Cells were exposed to 5-100ppm methanolic coal extract for 12h, using DMSO as control. MTT and comet assays were used for the evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, respectively. Real time PCR was utilized to quantify relative expression of genes related to oxidative stress, xenobiotic metabolism and DNA damage. Coal extract concentrations did not induce significant changes in HepG2 cell viability after 12h exposure; however, 50 and 100ppm of the coal extract produced a significant increase in genetic damage index with respect to negative control. Compared to vehicle control, mRNA CYP1A1 (up to 163-fold), NQO1 (up to 4.7-fold), and GADD45B (up to 4.7-fold) were up regulated, whereas PRDX1, SOD, CAT, GPX1, XPA, ERCC1 and APEX1 remained unaltered. This expression profile suggests that cells exposed to coal dust extract shows aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated alterations, changes in cellular oxidative status, and genotoxic effects. These findings share some similarities with those observed in liver of mice captured near coal mining areas, and add evidence that living around these industrial operations may be negatively impacting the biota and human health.

  11. Cisplatin combined with hyperthermia kills HepG2 cells in intraoperative blood salvage but preserves the function of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-ting; Tang, Li-hui; Liu, Yun-qing; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-ju; Zhang, Feng-jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-05-01

    The safe use of intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery remains controversial. Here, we investigated the killing effect of cisplatin combined with hyperthermia on human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells and erythrocytes from IBS in vitro. HepG2 cells were mixed with concentrated erythrocytes and pretreated with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) alone at 37 °C for 60 min and cisplatin (25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia at 42 °C for 60 min. After pretreatment, the cell viability, colony formation and DNA metabolism in HepG2 and the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration, free hemoglobin (Hb) level, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, and blood gas variables in erythrocytes were determined. Pretreatment with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min significantly decreased HepG2 cell viability, and completely inhibited colony formation and DNA metabolism when the HepG2 cell concentration was 5×10(4) ml(-1) in the erythrocyte (P<0.01). Erythrocytic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, 2,3-DPG level, phosphatidylserine externalization, and extra-erythrocytic free Hb were significantly altered by hyperthermia plus high concentrations of cisplatin (100 and 200 μg/ml) (P<0.05), but not by hyperthermia plus 50 μg/ml cisplatin (P>0.05). In conclusion, pretreatment with cisplatin (50 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min effectively eliminated HepG2 cells from IBS but did not significantly affect erythrocytes in vitro.

  12. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients.

  13. Cytotoxicity of thiazolidinedione-, oxazolidinedione- and pyrrolidinedione-ring containing compounds in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Keil, Alyssa M; Frederick, Douglas M; Jacinto, Erina Y; Kennedy, Erica L; Zauhar, Randy J; West, Nathan M; Tchao, Ruy; Harvison, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Liver damage occurred in some patients who took troglitazone (TGZ) for type II diabetes. The 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) ring in TGZ's structure has been implicated in its hepatotoxicity. To further examine the potential role of a TZD ring in toxicity we used HepG2 cells to evaluate two series of compounds containing different cyclic imides. N-phenyl analogues comprised 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT); 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-oxazolidinedione (DCPO) and N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)succinimide (NDPS). Benzylic compounds, which closely resemble TGZ, included 5-(3,5-dichlorophenylmethyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPMT); 5-(4-methoxyphenylmethyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (MPMT); 5-(4-methoxyphenylmethylene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (MPMT-I); 5-(4-methoxyphenylmethyl)-2,4-oxazolidinedione (MPMO); 3-(4-methoxyphenylmethyl)succinimide (MPMS) and 3-(4-methoxyphenylmethylene)succinimide (MPMS-I). Cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTS assay after incubating the compounds (0-250μM) with HepG2 cells for 24h. Only certain TZD derivatives (TGZ, DCPT, DCPMT and MPMT-I) markedly decreased cell viability, whereas MPMT had low toxicity. In contrast, analogues without a TZD ring (DCPO, NDPS, MPMO, MPMS and MPMS-I) were not cytotoxic. These findings suggest that a TZD ring may be an important determinant of toxicity, although different structural features, chemical stability, cellular uptake or metabolism, etc., may also be involved. A simple clustering approach, using chemical fingerprints, assigned each compound to one of three classes (each containing one active compound and close homologues), and provided a framework for rationalizing the activity in terms of structure.

  14. Prooxidant and antioxidant properties of salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone iron chelators in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Andres A.; Commissariat, Ava; Dunn, Caroline; Kim, Hyunjoo; García, Salvador Lorente; Smith, Allen; Strang, Harrison; Stuppy, Jake; Desrochers, Linda P.; Goodwin, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) is an iron chelator of the aroylhydrazone class that displays antioxidant or prooxidant effects in different mammalian cell lines. Because the liver is the major site of iron storage, elucidating the effect of SIH on hepatic oxidative metabolism is critical for designing effective hepatic antioxidant therapies. Methods Hepatocyte-like HepG2 cells were exposed to SIH or to analogs showing greater stability, such as N′-[1-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)ethyliden]isonicotinoyl hydrazide (HAPI), or devoid of iron chelating properties, such as benzaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (BIH), and toxicity, oxidative stress and antioxidant (glutathione) metabolism were evaluated. Results Autoxidation of Fe2+ in vitro increased in the presence of SIH or HAPI (but not BIH), an effect partially blocked by Fe2+ chelation. Incubation of HepG2 cells with SIH or HAPI (but not BIH) was non-toxic and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, activated the transcription factor Nrf2, induced the catalytic subunit of γ-glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc), and increased glutathione concentration. Fe2+ chelation decreased ROS and inhibited Nrf2 activation, and Nrf2 knock-down inhibited the induction of Gclc in the presence of HAPI. Inhibition of γ-glutamate cysteine ligase enzymatic activity inhibited the increase in glutathione caused by HAPI, and increased oxidative stress. Conclusions SIH iron chelators display both prooxidant (increasing the autoxidation rate of Fe2+) and antioxidant (activating Nrf2 signaling) effects. General significance Activation by SIH iron chelators of a hormetic antioxidant response contributes to its antioxidant properties and modulates the anti- and pro-oxidant balance. PMID:26275495

  15. SiC nanoparticles cyto- and genotoxicity to Hep-G2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barillet, Sabrina; Jugan, Mary-Line; Simon-Deckers, Angélique; Leconte, Yann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Mayne-l'Hermite, Martine; Reynaud, Cécile; Carrière, Marie

    2009-05-01

    While emerging nanotechnologies have seen significant development in recent years, knowledge on exposure levels as well as data on toxicity of nanoparticles are still quite limited. Indeed, there is a general agreement that development of nanotechnologies may lead to considerable dissemination of nanoparticles in the environment. Nevertheless, questions relative to toxicity versus innocuousness of such materials still remain. Our present study has thus been carried out with the purpose of assessing some aspects of toxicological capacities of three kinds of nano-sized particles: TiO2 and SiC nanoparticles, as well as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT). In order to address the question of their potential toxicity toward living cells, we chose several cellular models. Assuming inhalation as the most probable exposure scenario, we used A549 alveolar epithelial cells as a model for mammalian primary target organ (lung). Furthermore, we considered that nanoparticles that would deposit into the pulmonary system may be translocated to the circulatory system. Thus, we decided to study the effect of nanoparticles on potentially secondary target organs: liver (WIF-B9, Can-10, HepG2) and kidneys (NRK-52E, LLC-PK1). Herein, we will focus our attention on results obtained on the HepG2 cell line exposed to SiC nanoparticles. Scarce literature exists on SiC nanotoxicology. According to the authors that have already carried out studies on this particular nanoparticle, it would seem that SiC nanoparticles do not induce cytotoxicity. That is one of the reasons of the potential use of these nanoparticles as biological labels [1]. We thus were interested in acquiring more data on biological effects induced by SiC nanoparticles. Furthermore, one of the particular aspects of the present study lies in the fact that we tried to specify the influence of physico-chemical characteristics of nanoparticles on toxicological endpoints (cytotoxicity and genotoxicity).

  16. Time-course regulation of quercetin on cell survival/proliferation pathways in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Angeles Martín, María; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2008-04-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid, has been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties, but the precise molecular mechanisms of action are not thoroughly elucidated. This study was aimed at investigating the time-course regulation effect of quercetin on survival/proliferation pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Quercetin induced a significant time-dependent inactivation of the major survival signaling proteins, i. e., phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha), in concert with a time-dependent activation of key death-related signals: c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and PKC-delta. These data suggest that quercetin exerts a tight regulation of survival/proliferation pathways that requires the integration of different signals and persists over time, being the balance of these regulatory signals what determines the fate of HepG2 cells.

  17. Impairment of oxidative phosphorylation increases the toxicity of SYD-1 on hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Brandt, Anna Paula; Gozzi, Gustavo Jabor; Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Dos Santos Canuto, André Vinícius; Echevarria, Aurea; Di Pietro, Attilio; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

    2016-08-25

    Toxicity of the SYD-1 mesoionic compound (3-[4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate) was evaluated on human liver cancer cells (HepG2) grown in either high glucose (HG) or galactose (GAL) medium, and also on suspended cells kept in HG medium. SYD-1 was able to decrease the viability of cultured HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as assessed by MTT, LDH release and dye with crystal violet assays, but no effect was observed on suspended cells after 1-40 min of treatment. Respiration analysis was performed after 2 min (suspended cells) or 24 h (cultured cells) of treatment: no change was observed in suspended cells, whereas SYD-1 inhibited as well basal, leak and uncoupled states of the respiration in cultured cells with HG medium. These inhibitions were consistent with the decrease in pyruvate level and increase in lactate level. Even more extended results were obtained with HepG2 cells grown in GAL medium where, additionally, the ATP amount was reduced. Furthermore, SYD-1 appears not to be transported by the main ABC multidrug transporters. These results show that SYD-1 is able to change the metabolism of HepG2 cells, and suggest that its cytotoxicity is related to impairment of mitochondrial metabolism. Therefore, we may propose that SYD-1 is a potential candidate for hepatocarcinoma treatment.

  18. Effect of copper overload on the survival of HepG2 and A-549 human-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Arnal, N; de Alaniz, M J T; Marra, C A

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the effect of copper (Cu) overload (20-160 µM/24 h) in two cell lines of human hepatic (HepG2) and pulmonary (A-549) origin by determining lipid and protein damage and the response of the antioxidant defence system. A-549 cells were more sensitive to Cu overload than HepG2 cells. A marked increase was observed in both the cell lines in the nitrate plus nitrite concentration, protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The TBARS increase was consistent with an increment in saturated fatty acids at the expense of polyunsaturated acids in a Cu concentration-dependent fashion. Antioxidant enzymes were stimulated by Cu overload. Superoxide dismutase activity increased significantly in both the cell lines, with greater increases in HepG2 than in A-549 cells. A marked increase in ceruloplasmin and metallothionein content in both the cell types was also observed. Dose-dependent decreases in α-tocopherol and ferric reducing ability were observed. Total glutathione content was lower in A-549 cells and higher in HepG2. Calpain and caspase-3 were differentially activated in a dose-dependent manner under copper-induced reactive oxygen species production. We conclude that Cu exposure of human lung- and liver-derived cells should be considered a reliable experimental system for detailed study of mechanism/mechanisms by which Cu overload exerts its deleterious effects.

  19. Involvement of the prostaglandin E receptor EP2 in paeoniflorin-induced human hepatoma cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanshan; Sun, Wuyi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Di; Jin, Juan; Wu, Jingjing; Chen, Jingyu; Wu, Huaxun; Wang, Qingtong

    2013-02-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to play an important role in tumor development and progression. PGE2 mediates its biological activity by binding any one of four prostanoid receptors (EP1 through EP4). The present study was designed to determine the role of the EP2 receptor during the proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell lines and the effect of paeoniflorin, a monoterpene glycoside. The proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium after exposure to the selective EP2 receptor agonists butaprost and paeoniflorin. Apoptosis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells was also quantified by flow cytometry with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining. The expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were quantified by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The expression of the EP2 receptor and cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 was determined by western blotting. Butaprost significantly increased proliferation in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Paeoniflorin significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells stimulated by butaprost at multiple time points (24, 48, and 72 h). Paeoniflorin induced apoptosis in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, which was quantified by annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. Our results indicate that the expression of the EP2 receptor and Bcl-2 was significantly increased, whereas that of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 was decreased in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells after stimulation by butaprost. Paeoniflorin significantly decreased the expression of the EP2 receptor and Bcl-2 and increased Bax and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells on addition of butaprost. Our results show that the PGE2 receptor subtype EP2 may play a vital role in the survival of both HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Paeoniflorin, which may be a promising agent in the treatment of liver cancer, induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by downregulating

  20. Flavonoids of Korean Citrus aurantium L. Induce Apoptosis via Intrinsic Pathway in Human Hepatoblastoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Yumnam, Silvia; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Raha, Suchismita; Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Lee, Ho Jeong; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Won-Sup; Kim, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyeon Soo; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-12-01

    Korean Citrus aurantium L. has long been used as a medicinal herb for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. The present study investigates the anticancer role of flavonoids extracted from C. aurantium on human hepatoblastoma cell, HepG2. The Citrus flavonoids inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This result was consistent with the in vivo xenograft results. Apoptosis was detected by cell morphology, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblot. Flavonoids decreased the level of pAkt and other downstream targets of phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway - P-4EBP1 and P-p70S6K. The expressions of cleaved caspase 3, Bax, and Bak were increased, while those of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were decreased with an increase in the expression of Bax/Bcl-xL ratio in treated cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was also observed in flavonoid-treated HepG2 cells. It was also observed that the P-p38 protein level was increased both dose and time dependently in flavonoid-treated cells. Collectively, these results suggest that flavonoid extracted from Citrus inhibits HepG2 cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis via an intrinsic pathway. These findings suggest that flavonoids extracted from C. aurantium L. are potential chemotherapeutic agents against liver cancer.

  1. Data on HepG2 cells changes following exposure to cadmium sulphide quantum dots (CdS QDs).

    PubMed

    Paesano, Laura; Perotti, Alessio; Buschini, Annamaria; Carubbi, Cecilia; Marmiroli, Marta; Maestri, Elena; Iannotta, Salvatore; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2017-04-01

    The data included in this paper are associated with the research article entitled "Markers for toxicity to HepG2 exposed to cadmium sulphide quantum dots; damage to mitochondria" (Paesano et al.) [1]. The article concerns the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CdS QDs in HepG2 cells and the mechanisms involved. In this dataset, changes in expression levels of candidate genes are reported, together with details concerning synthesis and properties of CdS QDs, additional information obtained through literature survey, measures of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the glutathione redox state.

  2. Solanine-induced reactive oxygen species inhibit the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    MENG, XUE-QIN; ZHANG, WEI; ZHANG, FENG; YIN, SHENG-YONG; XIE, HAI-YANG; ZHOU, LIN; ZHENG, SHU-SEN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of solanine on promoting human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Solanine was administered to HepG2 cells in vitro. A selection of probes targeting various cellular localizations of ROS were used to detect ROS expression using flow cytometry. The expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins, including apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and thioredoxin binding protein 2 (TBP-2), and proliferation-associated proteins, including histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), were detected using western blotting. The percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay, and cell morphology was examined using Wright's stain followed by inverted microscopy analysis. ROS detection probes 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and dihydrorhodamine 123 identified that abundant ROS, including hydroxyl radical (OH−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), were produced in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of the solanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells (P<0.05). Superoxide anion specific probes dihydroethidium and MitoSOX™ demonstrated that there were no significant alterations in the HepG2 cells following solanine treatment compared with the control cells (P>0.05). Western blotting results revealed that solanine upregulated the expression levels of ASK1 and TBP-2 and enhanced their kinase activities, whereas solanine decreased the expression level of the proliferation-associated protein, HDAC1. The cell apoptotic rate was significantly increased (P<0.0001) in the solanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells. (P<0.05). Overall, the study indicated that solanine induces HepG2 cells to produce ROS, mainly OH− and H2O2, in a mitochondria-dependent and -independent manner. In addition, solanine stimulates the expression

  3. Solanine-induced reactive oxygen species inhibit the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Feng; Yin, Sheng-Yong; Xie, Hai-Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of solanine on promoting human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Solanine was administered to HepG2 cells in vitro. A selection of probes targeting various cellular localizations of ROS were used to detect ROS expression using flow cytometry. The expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins, including apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and thioredoxin binding protein 2 (TBP-2), and proliferation-associated proteins, including histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), were detected using western blotting. The percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay, and cell morphology was examined using Wright's stain followed by inverted microscopy analysis. ROS detection probes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and dihydrorhodamine 123 identified that abundant ROS, including hydroxyl radical (OH(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), were produced in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of the solanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells (P<0.05). Superoxide anion specific probes dihydroethidium and MitoSOX™ demonstrated that there were no significant alterations in the HepG2 cells following solanine treatment compared with the control cells (P>0.05). Western blotting results revealed that solanine upregulated the expression levels of ASK1 and TBP-2 and enhanced their kinase activities, whereas solanine decreased the expression level of the proliferation-associated protein, HDAC1. The cell apoptotic rate was significantly increased (P<0.0001) in the solanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells. (P<0.05). Overall, the study indicated that solanine induces HepG2 cells to produce ROS, mainly OH(-) and H2O2, in a mitochondria-dependent and -independent manner. In addition, solanine stimulates the expression of

  4. Polyethylenimine-functionalized silver nanoparticle-based co-delivery of paclitaxel to induce HepG2 cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinghua; Guo, Min; Lin, Zhengfang; Zhao, Mingqi; Xiao, Misi; Wang, Changbing; Xu, Tiantian; Chen, Tianfeng; Zhu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocarcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world. Recently, a novel emerging nanosystem as anticancer therapeutic agents with intrinsic therapeutic properties has been widely used in various medical applications. In this study, surface decoration of functionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by polyethylenimine (PEI) and paclitaxel (PTX) was synthesized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ag@ PEI@PTX on cytotoxic and anticancer mechanism on HepG2 cells. The transmission electron microscope image and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that Ag@PEI@PTX had satisfactory size distribution and high stability and selectivity between cancer and normal cells. Ag@PEI@PTX-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis was confirmed by accumulation of the sub-G1 cells population, translocation of phosphatidylserine, depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Furthermore, Ag@PEI@PTX enhanced cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells and triggered intracellular reactive oxygen species; the signaling pathways of AKT, p53, and MAPK were activated to advance cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the results reveal that Ag@ PEI@PTX may provide useful information on Ag@PEI@PTX-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis and as appropriate candidate for chemotherapy of cancer. PMID:27994465

  5. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.

  6. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  7. Expression of CAR in SW480 and HepG2 cells during G1 is associated with cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Osabe, Makoto; Sugatani, Junko Takemura, Akiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Ikari, Akira; Kitamura, Naomi; Negishi, Masahiko; Miwa, Masao

    2008-05-16

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a transcription factor to regulate the expression of several genes related to drug-metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that CAR protein accumulates during G1 in human SW480 and HepG2 cells. After the G1/S phase transition, CAR protein levels decreased, and CAR was hardly detected in cells by the late M phase. CAR expression in both cell lines was suppressed by RNA interference-mediated suppression of CDK4. Depletion of CAR by RNA interference in both cells and by hepatocyte growth factor treatment in HepG2 cells resulted in decreased MDM2 expression that led to p21 upregulation and repression of HepG2 cell growth. Thus, our results demonstrate that CAR expression is an early G1 event regulated by CDK4 that contributes to MDM2 expression; these findings suggest that CAR may influence the expression of genes involved in not only the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances but also in the cell proliferation.

  8. Effects of TLR4 gene silencing on the proliferation and apotosis of hepatocarcinoma HEPG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yating; Li, Tao; Xu, Yuanhong; Xu, Enjun; Zhou, Min; Wang, Baolong; Shen, Jilong

    2016-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key factors in the innate immune system and initiate an inflammatory response to foreign pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. TLR4-mediated signaling has been implicated in tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis in numerous cancers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological effect of TLR4 on the proliferation and apoptosis of human liver cancer cells and the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular responses following TLR4 gene knockdown. Three TLR4 small interfering (si)RNA constructs, consisting of TLR4-siRNA-1, TLR4-siRNA-2 and TLR4-siRNA-3, were transiently transfected into HepG2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. TLR4 knockdown was confirmed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The effect of the TLR4 siRNA on tumor cell proliferation was monitored by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and cell apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry. The expression of TLR4-associated proteins, consisting of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), Toll-interleukin-1R-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, NF-κB inhibitor α (IκBα), phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was detected by western blot analysis. TLR4-siRNA-1 had the strongest knockdown effect and inhibited TLR4 messenger RNA and protein expression. TLR4 knockdown with TLR4-siRNA-1 reduced cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. MyD88, TRIF, IRF3, IκBα, JNK and ERK were markedly suppressed in the cells transfected with TLR4 siRNA. However, nuclear expression of NF-κB and p-IκBα increased in HepG2 cells with TLR4 gene knockdown. The present study revealed that TLR4-mediated signaling plays a key role in the proliferation and apoptosis of cultured hepatocarcinoma cells. Therefore, RNA interference-directed targeting of TLR4 may raise

  9. Quantification of the uptake of silver nanoparticles and ions to HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Su-juan; Chao, Jing-bo; Sun, Jia; Yin, Yong-guang; Liu, Jing-fu; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2013-04-02

    The toxic mechanism of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is still debating, partially because of the common co-occurrence and the lack of methods for separation of AgNPs and Ag(+) in biological matrices. For the first time, Triton-X 114-based cloud point extraction (CPE) was proposed to separate AgNPs and Ag(+) in the cell lysates of exposed HepG2 cells. Cell lysates were subjected to CPE after adding Na2S2O3, which facilitated the transfer of AgNPs into the nether Triton X-114-rich phase by salt effect and the preserve of Ag(+) in the upper aqueous phase through the formation of hydrophilic complex. Then the AgNP and Ag(+) contents in the exposed cells were determined by ICP-MS after microwave digestion of the two phases, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, over 67% of AgNPs in cell lysates were extracted into the Triton X-114-rich phase while 94% of Ag(+) remained in the aqueous phase, and the limits of detection for AgNPs and Ag(+) were 2.94 μg/L and 2.40 μg/L, respectively. This developed analytical method was applied to quantify the uptake of AgNPs to the HepG2 cells. After exposure to 10 mg/L AgNPs for 24 h, about 67.8 ng Ag were assimilated per 10(4) cells, in which about 10.3% silver existed as Ag(+). Compared to the pristine AgNPs (with 5.2% Ag(+)) for exposure, the higher ratio of Ag(+) to AgNPs in the exposed cells (10.3% Ag(+)) suggests the transformation of AgNPs into Ag(+) in the cells and/or the higher uptake rate of Ag(+) than that of AgNPs. Given that the toxicity of Ag(+) is much higher than that of AgNPs, the substantial content of Ag(+) in the exposed cells suggests that the contribution of Ag(+) should be taken into account in evaluating the toxicity of AgNPs to organisms, and previous results obtained by regarding the total Ag content in organisms as AgNPs should be reconsidered.

  10. [Evaluation of the infectivity of dengue 1 strains in the HepG2 and Vero cell lines].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Barroso, Alicia; Amin Blanco, Nevis; Morier Díaz, Luis; Pérez Hernández, Ela María

    2005-01-01

    Viral infectivity of Hawaii, 3 Peri and Riberao Pretto dengue 1 strains was evaluated in Vero and HepG2 cell lines by indirect immunofluorescence techniques. Dengue virus cellular tropism in vitro is diverse. They may replicate themselves in a great variety of cellular cultures, whose sensibility to viral infection is variable. The greatest percentage of infected cells in the HepG2 cell line was obtained with the highest multiplicities of infection (0.04 for Hawaii and Riberao Pretto strains and 0.01 for 3 Perú). The highest percentage of infected HepG2 and Vero cells for the studied strains and the greatest titer in the viral overnadant was obtained on the 5th day. Vero cell line was more sensitive to viral infection, since for the same multiplicity values it was detected a higher number of fluorescent cells and a better viral titre in the line of this overnadant than in the HepG2. The best result was obtained with the Hawaii strain that allowed to confirm faster the infection of the studied cellular lines.

  11. Zebularine upregulates expression of CYP genes through inhibition of DNMT1 and PKR in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuaki; Aizawa, Kazuko; Aung, Kyaw Htet; Yamauchi, Junji; Tanoue, Akito

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is one of the major reasons cited for drug withdrawal. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to detect human hepatotoxic candidates as early as possible during the drug development process. In this study, we aimed to enhance hepatocyte functions such as CYP gene expression in HepG2 cells, one of the most extensively used cell lines in evaluating hepatotoxicity of chemicals and drugs. We found that zebularine, a potent inhibitor of DNA methylation, remarkably upregulates the expression of CYP genes in HepG2 cells. In addition, we revealed that the upregulation of CYP gene expression by zebularine was mediated through the inhibition of both DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). Furthermore, HepG2 cells treated with zebularine were more sensitive than control cells to drug toxicity. Taken together, our results show that zebularine may make HepG2 cells high-functioning and thus could be useful for evaluating the hepatotoxicity of chemicals and drugs speedily and accurately in in-vitro systems. The finding that zebularine upregulates CYP gene expression through DNMT1 and PKR modulation sheds light on the mechanisms controlling hepatocyte function and thus may aid in the development of new in-vitro systems using high-functioning hepatocytes. PMID:28112215

  12. Cytotoxicity assessments of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum seed extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The Pharmacological potential, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities of Portulaca oleracea (PO) and Petroselinum sativum (PS) extracts are well known. However, the preventive properties against hepatocellular carcinoma cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to study the anticancer activity of seed extracts of PO and PS on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The HepG2 cells were exposed with 5-500 μg/ml of PO and PS for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red uptake (NRU) assay, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscope were studied. The results showed that PO and PS extracts significantly reduced the cell viability of HepG2 in a concentration dependent manner. The cell viability was recorded to be 67%, 31%, 21%, and 17% at 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PO, respectively by MTT assay and 91%, 62%, 27%, and 18% at 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PO, respectively by NRU assay. PS exposed HepG2 cells with 100 μg/ml and higher concentrations were also found to be cytotoxic. The decrease in the cell viability at 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PS was recorded as 70%, 33%, and 15% by MTT assay and 63%, 29%, and 17%, respectively by NRU assay. Results also showed that PO and PS exposed cells reduced the normal morphology and adhesion capacity of HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells exposed with 50 μg/ml and higher concentrations of PO and PS lost their typical morphology, become smaller in size, and appeared in rounded bodies. Our results demonstrated preliminary screening of anticancer activity of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum extracts against HepG2 cells, which can be further used for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent.

  13. GRK2 negatively regulates IGF-1R signaling pathway and cyclins' expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengyu; Hurtt, Reginald; Gu, Tina; Bodzin, Adam S; Koch, Walter J; Doria, Cataldo

    2013-09-01

    G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) plays a central role in the regulation of a variety of important signaling pathways. Alternation of GRK2 protein level and activity casts profound effects on cell physiological functions and causes diseases such as heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, and obesity. We have previously reported that overexpression of GRK2 has an inhibitory role in cancer cell growth. To further examine the role of GRK2 in cancer, in this study, we investigated the effects of reduced protein level of GRK2 on insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. We created a GRK2 knockdown cell line using a lentiviral vector mediated expression of GRK2 specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Under IGF-1 stimulation, HepG2 cells with reduced level of GRK2 showed elevated total IGF-1R protein expression as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of receptor. In addition, HepG2 cells with reduced level of GRK2 also demonstrated increased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 at the residue 612 and increased phosphorylation of Akt, indicating a stronger activation of IGF-1R signaling pathway. However, HepG2 cells with reduced level of GRK2 did not display any growth advantage in culture as compared with the scramble control cells. We further detected that reduced level of GRK2 induced a small cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase by enhancing the expression of cyclin A, B1, and E. Our results indicate that GRK2 has contrasting roles on HepG2 cell growth by negatively regulating the IGF-1R signaling pathway and cyclins' expression.

  14. Specific gene transfer mediated by lactosylated poly-L-lysine into hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Midoux, P; Mendes, C; Legrand, A; Raimond, J; Mayer, R; Monsigny, M; Roche, A C

    1993-01-01

    Plasmid DNA/glycosylated polylysine complexes were used to transfer in vitro a luciferase reporter gene into human hepatoma cells by a receptor-mediated endocytosis process. HepG2 cells which express a galactose specific membrane lectin were efficiently and selectively transfected with pSV2Luc/lactosylated polylysine complexes in a sugar dependent manner: i) HepG2 cells which do not express membrane lectin specific for mannose were quite poorly transfected with pSV2Luc/mannosylated polylysine complexes, ii) HeLa cells which do not express membrane lectin specific for galactose were not transfected with pSV2Luc/lactosylated polylysine complexes. The transfection efficiency of HepG2 cells with pSV2Luc/lactosylated polylysine complexes was greatly enhanced either in the presence of chloroquine or in the presence of a fusogenic peptide. A 22-residue peptide derived from the influenza virus hemagglutinin HA2 N-terminal polypeptide that mimics the fusogenic activity of the virus, was selected. In the presence of the fusogenic peptide, the luciferase activity in HepG2 cells was 10 fold larger than that of cells transfected with pSV2Luc/lactosylated polylysine complexes in the presence of chloroquine. Images PMID:8383843

  15. Citreoviridin Induces Autophagy-Dependent Apoptosis through Lysosomal-Mitochondrial Axis in Human Liver HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexia; Liu, Yanan; Liu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Liping; Yang, Guang; Sun, Xiance; Geng, Chengyan; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Min

    2015-01-01

    Citreoviridin (CIT) is a mycotoxin derived from fungal species in moldy cereals. In our previous study, we reported that CIT stimulated autophagosome formation in human liver HepG2 cells. Here, we aimed to explore the relationship of autophagy with lysosomal membrane permeabilization and apoptosis in CIT-treated cells. Our data showed that CIT increased the expression of LC3-II, an autophagosome biomarker, from the early stage of treatment (6 h). After treatment with CIT for 12 h, lysosomal membrane permeabilization occurred, followed by the release of cathepsin D in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of autophagosome formation with siRNA against Atg5 attenuated CIT-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization. In addition, CIT induced collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential as assessed by JC-1 staining. Furthermore, caspase-3 activity assay showed that CIT induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of autophagosome formation attenuated CIT-induced apoptosis, indicating that CIT-induced apoptosis was autophagy-dependent. Cathepsin D inhibitor, pepstatin A, relieved CIT-induced apoptosis as well, suggesting the involvement of the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in CIT-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrated that CIT induced autophagy-dependent apoptosis through the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in HepG2 cells. The study thus provides essential mechanistic insight, and suggests clues for the effective management and treatment of CIT-related diseases. PMID:26258792

  16. Anticancer effects of bufalin on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells: roles of apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qing; Bi, Lin-Lin; Li, Xin; Miao, Shan; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Song; Yang, Qian; Xie, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Si-Wang

    2013-01-11

    The traditional Chinese medicine bufalin, extracted from toad's skin, has been demonstrated to exert anticancer activities in various kinds of human cancers. The mechanisms of action lie in its capacity to induce apoptosis, or termed type I programmed cell death (PCD). However, type II PCD, or autophagy, participates in cancer proliferation, progression, and relapse, as well. Recent studies on autophagy seem to be controversial because of the dual roles of autophagy in cancer survival and death. In good agreement with previous studies, we found that 100 nM bufalin induced extensive HepG2 cell apoptosis. However, we also noticed bufalin triggered autophagy and enhanced Beclin-1 expression, LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, as well as decreased p62 expression and mTOR signaling activation in HepG2 cells. Blockage of autophagy by selective inhibitor 3-MA decreased apoptotic ratio in bufalin-treated HepG2 cells, suggesting a proapoptotic role of bufalin-induced autophagy. Furthermore, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of bufalin-induced autophagy. Bufalin treatment dose-dependently promoted AMPK phosphorylation while AMPK inhibition by compound C significantly attenuated bufalin-induced autophagy. Taken together, we report for the first time that bufalin induces HepG2 cells PCD, especially for autophagy, and the mechanism of action is, at least in part, AMPK-mTOR dependent.

  17. Citreoviridin Induces Autophagy-Dependent Apoptosis through Lysosomal-Mitochondrial Axis in Human Liver HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexia; Liu, Yanan; Liu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Liping; Yang, Guang; Sun, Xiance; Geng, Chengyan; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Min

    2015-08-06

    Citreoviridin (CIT) is a mycotoxin derived from fungal species in moldy cereals. In our previous study, we reported that CIT stimulated autophagosome formation in human liver HepG2 cells. Here, we aimed to explore the relationship of autophagy with lysosomal membrane permeabilization and apoptosis in CIT-treated cells. Our data showed that CIT increased the expression of LC3-II, an autophagosome biomarker, from the early stage of treatment (6 h). After treatment with CIT for 12 h, lysosomal membrane permeabilization occurred, followed by the release of cathepsin D in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of autophagosome formation with siRNA against Atg5 attenuated CIT-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization. In addition, CIT induced collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential as assessed by JC-1 staining. Furthermore, caspase-3 activity assay showed that CIT induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of autophagosome formation attenuated CIT-induced apoptosis, indicating that CIT-induced apoptosis was autophagy-dependent. Cathepsin D inhibitor, pepstatin A, relieved CIT-induced apoptosis as well, suggesting the involvement of the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in CIT-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrated that CIT induced autophagy-dependent apoptosis through the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in HepG2 cells. The study thus provides essential mechanistic insight, and suggests clues for the effective management and treatment of CIT-related diseases.

  18. Melatonin, a novel selective ATF-6 inhibitor, induces human hepatoma cell apoptosis through COX-2 downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Li-Jia; Yu, Han-Qing; Fan, Lu-Lu; Li, Xiao-Qiu; Wang, Fang; Liu, Jia-Tao; Zhong, Fei; Zhang, Cong-Jun; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hua; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    AIM To clarify the mechanisms involved in the critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress initiating unfolded protein response pathway modified by melatonin. METHODS Hepatoma cells, HepG2, were cultured in vitro. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to measure HepG2 cell apoptosis. Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods were used to determine the protein and messenger RNA levels of ER stress and apoptosis related genes’ expression, respectively. Tissue microarray construction from patients was verified by immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS In the present study, we first identified that melatonin selectively blocked activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6) and then inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, leading to enhanced liver cancer cell apoptosis under ER stress condition. Dramatically increased CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein level, suppressed COX-2 and decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio by melatonin or ATF-6 siRNA contributed the enhanced HepG2 cell apoptosis under tunicamycin (an ER stress inducer) stimulation. In clinical hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the close relationship between ATF-6 and COX-2 was further confirmed. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that melatonin as a novel selective ATF-6 inhibitor can sensitize human hepatoma cells to ER stress inducing apoptosis. PMID:28246472

  19. Cytotoxic effect of Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus β-D-glucans on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Ruthes, Andrea Caroline; Cadena, Silvia Maria Suter Correia; Acco, Alexandra; Gorin, Philip Albert James; Iacomini, Marcello

    2013-07-01

    The cytotoxic activity of β-D-glucans isolated from Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus fruiting bodies was evaluated on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). NMR and methylation analysis suggest that these β-d-glucans were composed of a linear (1→6)-linked and a branched (1→3), (1→6)-linked backbone, respectively. They both decreased cell viability at concentrations of up to 100 μg mL(-1), as shown by MTT assay. The amount of LDH released and the analysis of cell morphology corroborated these values and also showed that the β-D-glucan of L. rufus was more cytotoxic to HepG2 cells than that of A. bisporus. The treatment of HepG2 cells with L. rufus and A. bisporus β-D-glucans at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1) for 24h promoted an increase of cytochrome c release and a decrease of ATP content, suggesting that these polysaccharides could promote cell death by apoptosis. Both β-D-glucans were tested against murine primary hepatocytes at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1). The results suggest that the L. rufus β-d-glucan was as cytotoxic for hepatocytes as for HepG2 cells, whereas the A. bisporus β-D-glucan, under the same conditions, was cytotoxic only for HepG2 cells, suggesting cell selectivity. These results open new possibilities for use of mushroom β-D-glucans in cancer therapy.

  20. ssDNA Aptamer Specifically Targets and Selectively Delivers Cytotoxic Drug Doxorubicin to HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ge; Li, Huan; Yang, Shuanghui; Wen, Jianguo; Niu, Junqi; Zu, Youli

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of death due to cancer worldwide with over 500,000 people affected annually. Although chemotherapy has been widely used to treat patients with HCC, alternate modalities to specifically deliver therapeutic cargos to cancer cells have been sought in recent years due to the severe side effects of chemotherapy. In this respect, aptamer-based tumor targeted drug delivery has emerged as a promising approach to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy and reduce or eliminate drug toxicity. In this study, we developed a new HepG2-specific aptamer (HCA#3) by a procedure known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and exploited its role as a targeting ligand to deliver doxorubicin (Dox) to HepG2 cells in vitro. The selected 76-base nucleotide aptamer preferentially bound to HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells but not to control cells. The aptamer HCA#3 was modified with paired CG repeats at the 5′-end to carry and deliver a high payload of intercalated Dox molecules at the CG sites. Four Dox molecules (mol/mol) were fully intercalated in each conjugate aptamer-Dox (ApDC) molecule. Biostability analysis showed that the ApDC molecules are stable in serum. Functional analysis showed that ApDC specifically targeted and released Dox within HepG2 cells but not in control cells, and treatment with HCA#3 ApDC induced HepG2 cell apoptosis but had minimal effect on control cells. Our study demonstrated that HCA#3 ApDC is a promising aptamer-targeted therapeutic that can specifically deliver and release a high doxorubicin payload in HCC cells. PMID:26808385

  1. NOX1 Supports the Metabolic Remodeling of HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weitnauer, Michael; Linne, Uwe; Görlach, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which act as signaling molecules in the regulation of protein expression, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell death. The NOX1 subunit is over-expressed in several cancers and NOX1 derived ROS have been repeatedly linked with tumorigenesis and tumor progression although underlying pathways are ill defined. We engineered NOX1-depleted HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells and employed differential display 2DE experiments in order to investigate changes in NOX1-dependent protein expression profiles. A total of 17 protein functions were identified to be dysregulated in NOX1-depleted cells. The proteomic results support a connection between NOX1 and the Warburg effect and a role for NOX in the regulation of glucose and glutamine metabolism as well as of lipid, protein and nucleotide synthesis in hepatic tumor cells. Metabolic remodeling is a common feature of tumor cells and understanding the underlying mechanisms is essential for the development of new cancer treatments. Our results reveal a manifold involvement of NOX1 in the metabolic remodeling of hepatoblastoma cells towards a sustained production of building blocks required to maintain a high proliferative rate, thus rendering NOX1 a potential target for cancer therapy. PMID:25806803

  2. Differential genomic effects on signaling pathways by two different CeO2 nanoparticles in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate genomic effects, human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were exposed for three days to two different forms of nanoparticles both composed of Ce02 (0.3, 3 and 30 µg/mL). The two Ce02 nanopartices had dry primary particle sizes of 8 nanometers {(M) ...

  3. Biochemical Effects of six Ti02 and four Ce02 Nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The potential mammalian hepatotoxicity of nanomaterials were explored in dose-response and structure-activity studies with human hepatic HepG2 cells exposed to between 10 and 1000 ug/ml of six different TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials for 3 days. Var...

  4. N-Acetyl-Serotonin Protects HepG2 Cells from Oxidative Stress Injury Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiying; Yu, Shuna; Jiang, Zhengchen; Liang, Cuihong; Yu, Wenbo; Li, Jin; Du, Xiaodong; Wang, Hailiang; Gao, Xianghong; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. N-Acetyl-serotonin (NAS) has been reported to protect against oxidative damage, though the mechanisms by which NAS protects hepatocytes from oxidative stress remain unknown. To determine whether pretreatment with NAS could reduce hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, we investigated the H2O2-induced oxidative damage to HepG2 cells with or without NAS using MTT, Hoechst 33342, rhodamine 123, Terminal dUTP Nick End Labeling Assay (TUNEL), dihydrodichlorofluorescein (H2DCF), Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double staining, immunocytochemistry, and western blot. H2O2 produced dramatic injuries in HepG2 cells, represented by classical morphological changes of apoptosis, increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increased activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3, release of cytochrome c (Cyt-C) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, and loss of membrane potential (ΔΨm). NAS significantly inhibited H2O2-induced changes, indicating that it protected against H2O2-induced oxidative damage by reducing MDA levels and increasing SOD activity and that it protected the HepG2 cells from apoptosis through regulating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, involving inhibition of mitochondrial hyperpolarization, release of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors, and caspase activity. PMID:25013541

  5. Ovothiol Isolated from Sea Urchin Oocytes Induces Autophagy in the Hep-G2 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Gian Luigi; Russo, Maria; Castellano, Immacolata; Napolitano, Alessandra; Palumbo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Ovothiols are histidine-derived thiols isolated from sea urchin eggs, where they play a key role in the protection of cells toward the oxidative burst associated with fertilization by controlling the cellular redox balance and recycling oxidized glutathione. In this study, we show that treatment of a human liver carcinoma cell line, Hep-G2, with ovothiol A, isolated from Paracentrotus lividus oocytes, results in a decrease of cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of an autophagic process is revealed by phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, together with the expression of the specific autophagic molecular markers, LC3 II and Beclin-1. The effect of ovothiol is not due to its antioxidant capacity or to hydrogen peroxide generation. The concentration of ovothiol A in the culture media, as monitored by HPLC analysis, decreased by about 24% within 30 min from treatment. The proliferation of normal human embryonic lung cells is not affected by ovothiol A. These results hint at ovothiol as a promising bioactive molecule from marine organisms able to inhibit cell proliferation in cancer cells. PMID:25003791

  6. The toxicity of extracts of plant parts of Moringa stenopetala in HEPG2 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Negussu; Houghton, Peter; Timbrell, John

    2005-10-01

    The cytotoxicity of extracts from a widely used species of plant, Moringa stenopetala, was assessed in HEPG2 cells, by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell viability. The functional integrity of extract-exposed cells was determined by measuring intracellular levels of ATP and glutathione (GSH). The ethanol extracts of leaves and seeds increased significantly (p < 0.01) LDH leakage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The water extract of leaves and the ethanol extract of the root did not increase LDH leakage. A highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in HEPG2 viability was found after incubating the cells with the highest concentration (500 microg/mL) of the ethanol leaf and seed extracts. At a concentration of 500 microg/mL, the water extract of leaves increased (p < 0.01), while the ethanol extract of the same plant part decreased (p < 0.01), ATP levels. The root and seed extracts had no significant effect on ATP levels. The ethanol leaf extract decreased GSH levels at a concentration of 500 microg/mL (p < 0.01), as did the ethanol extract of the seeds at 250 microg/mL and 500 microg/mL (p < 0.05). The water extract of the leaves did not alter GSH or LDH levels or affect cell viability, suggesting that it may be non-toxic, and is consistent with its use as a vegetable. The data obtained from the studies with the ethanol extract of the leaves and seeds from Moringa stenopetala show that they contain toxic substances that are extractable with organic solvents or are formed during the process of extraction with these solvents. The significant depletion of ATP and GSH only occurred at concentrations of extract that caused leakage of LDH. Further investigation with this plant in order to identify the constituents extracted and their individual toxic effects both in vivo and in vitro is warranted. This study also illustrates the utility of cell culture for screening plant extracts for potential toxicity.

  7. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  8. The color and size of chili peppers (Capsicum annuum) influence Hep-G2 cell growth.

    PubMed

    Popovich, David G; Sia, Sharon Y; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Mon L

    2014-11-01

    Four types of chili (Capsicum annuum) extracts, categorized according to color; green and red, and size; small and large were studied in Hep-G2 cells. Red small (RS) chili had an LC50 value of 0.378 ± 0.029 compared to green big (GB) 1.034 ± 0.061 and green small (GS) 1.070 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Red big (RB) was not cytotoxic. Capsaicin content was highest in RS and produced a greater percentage sub-G1 cells (6.47 ± 1.8%) after 24 h compared to GS (2.96 ± 1.3%) and control (1.29 ± 0.8%) cells. G2/M phase was reduced by GS compared to RS and control cells. RS at the LC50 concentration contained 1.6 times the amount of pure capsaicin LC50 to achieve the same effect of capsaicin alone. GS and GB capsaicin content at the LC50 value was lower (0.2 and 0.66, respectively) compared to the amount of capsaicin to achieve a similar reduction in cell growth.

  9. Kaempferol induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells via activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haiqing; Ren, Feng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xiangying; Yang, Rongrong; Xie, Bangxiang; Li, Zhuo; Hu, Zhongjie; Duan, Zhongping; Zhang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Kaempferol is a flavonoid compound that has gained importance due to its antitumor properties; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the antitumor function of kaempferol in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Kaempferol was determined to reduce cell viability, increase lactate dehydrogenase activity and induce apoptosis in a concentration‑ and time‑dependent manner in HepG2 cells. Additionally, kaempferol‑induced apoptosis possibly acts via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, due to the significant increase in the protein expression levels of glucose‑regulated protein 78, glucose‑regulated protein 94, protein kinase R‑like ER kinase, inositol‑requiring enzyme 1α, partial activating transcription factor 6 cleavage, caspase‑4, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and cleaved caspase‑3. The pro‑apoptotic activity of kaempferol was determined to be due to induction of the ER stress‑CHOP pathway, as: i) ER stress was blocked by 4‑phenyl butyric acid (4‑PBA) pretreatment and knockdown of CHOP with small interfering RNA, which resulted in alleviation of kaempferol‑induced HepG2 cell apoptosis; and ii) transfection with plasmid overexpressing CHOP reversed the protective effect of 4‑PBA in kaempferol‑induced HepG2 cells and increased the apoptotic rate. Thus, kaempferol promoted HepG2 cell apoptosis via induction of the ER stress‑CHOP signaling pathway. These observations indicate that kaempferol may be used as a potential chemopreventive treatment strategy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yi Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  11. Activation of autophagy by globular adiponectin attenuates ethanol-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells: involvement of AMPK/FoxO3A axis.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Saroj; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    Hepatocellular apoptosis is an important pathological entity of alcoholic liver disease. Previously, we have shown that globular adiponectin (gAcrp) protects liver cells from ethanol-induced apoptosis by modulating an array of signaling pathways. In the present study, we investigated the role of autophagy induction by gAcrp in the suppression of ethanol-induced apoptosis and its potential mechanism(s) in liver cells. Here, we demonstrated that gAcrp significantly restores ethanol-induced suppression of autophagy-related genes, including Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3B) both in primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Globular adiponectin also restored autophagosome formation suppressed by ethanol treatment in HepG2. Furthermore, inhibition of gAcrp-induced autophagic process by knock-down of LC3B prevented protection from ethanol-induced apoptosis. In particular, the autophagic process induced by gAcrp was involved in the suppression of ethanol-induced activation of caspase-8 and expression of Bax. Moreover, knock-down of AMPK by small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked gAcrp-induced expression of genes related to autophagy, which in turn prevented protection from ethanol-induced apoptosis, suggesting that AMPK plays an important role in the induction of autophagy and protection of liver cells by gAcrp. Finally, we also showed that gAcrp treatment induces translocation of the forkhead box O member protein, FoxO3A, into the nucleus, which may play a role in the induction of autophagy-related genes. Taken together, our data demonstrated that gAcrp protects liver cells from ethanol-induced apoptosis via induction of autophagy. Further, the AMPK-FoxO3A axis plays a cardinal role in gAcrp-induced autophagy and subsequent inhibition of ethanol-induced apoptosis.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Oat Proteins Derived Peptides in Stressed Hepatic HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yichen; Esfandi, Ramak; Willmore, William G.; Tsopmo, Apollinaire

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, antioxidant activities of seven peptides (P1–P7) derived from hydrolysis of oat proteins in a cellular model. In the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, it was found that P2 had the highest radical scavenging activity (0.67 ± 0.02 µM Trolox equivalent (TE)/µM peptide) followed by P5, P3, P6, P4, P1, and P7 whose activities were between 0.14–0.61 µM TE/µM). In the hepatic HepG2 cells, none of the peptides was cytotoxic at 20–300 µM. In addition to having the highest ORAC value, P2 was also the most protective (29% increase in cell viability) against 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride -induced oxidative stress. P1, P6, and P7 protected at a lesser extent, with an 8%–21% increase viability of cells. The protection of cells was attributed to several factors including reduced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, increased cellular glutathione, and increased activities of three main endogenous antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27775607

  13. Investigation of the anti-cancer effect of quercetin on HepG2 cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Yao, Wenxiu; Xiong, Zhujuan; Zhou, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Quercetin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid compound, can inhibit the growth of several malignant cancers. However, the mechanism still remains unclear. Our previous findings have suggested that quercetin can significantly inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis in vitro. It can also affect cell cycle distribution and significantly decrease cyclin D1 expression. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of quercetin on HepG2 tumor-bearing nude mice and its effect on cyclin D1 expression in the tumor tissue. First, the nude murine tumor model was established by subcutaneous inoculation of HepG2 cells, then quercetin was administered intraperitoneally, and the mice injected with saline solution were used as controls. The daily behavior of the tumor-bearing mice was observed and differences in tumor growth and survival rate were monitored. The expression of cyclin D1 in isolated tumor sections was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We found that HepG2 tumor became palpable in the mice one-week post-inoculation. Tumors in the control group grew rapidly and the daily behavior of the mice changed significantly, including listlessness, poor feeding and ataxia. The mice in quercetin-treated group showed delayed tumor growth, no significant changes in daily behavior, and the survival rate was significantly improved. Finally, we observed increased tumor necrosis and a lighter cyclin D1 staining with reduced staining areas. Our findings thus suggest that quercetin can significantly inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation, and this effect may be achieved through the regulation of cyclin D1 expression. PMID:28264020

  14. Investigation of the anti-cancer effect of quercetin on HepG2 cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Fang, Li; Liao, Jiaxu; Li, Lin; Yao, Wenxiu; Xiong, Zhujuan; Zhou, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Quercetin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid compound, can inhibit the growth of several malignant cancers. However, the mechanism still remains unclear. Our previous findings have suggested that quercetin can significantly inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis in vitro. It can also affect cell cycle distribution and significantly decrease cyclin D1 expression. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of quercetin on HepG2 tumor-bearing nude mice and its effect on cyclin D1 expression in the tumor tissue. First, the nude murine tumor model was established by subcutaneous inoculation of HepG2 cells, then quercetin was administered intraperitoneally, and the mice injected with saline solution were used as controls. The daily behavior of the tumor-bearing mice was observed and differences in tumor growth and survival rate were monitored. The expression of cyclin D1 in isolated tumor sections was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We found that HepG2 tumor became palpable in the mice one-week post-inoculation. Tumors in the control group grew rapidly and the daily behavior of the mice changed significantly, including listlessness, poor feeding and ataxia. The mice in quercetin-treated group showed delayed tumor growth, no significant changes in daily behavior, and the survival rate was significantly improved. Finally, we observed increased tumor necrosis and a lighter cyclin D1 staining with reduced staining areas. Our findings thus suggest that quercetin can significantly inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation, and this effect may be achieved through the regulation of cyclin D1 expression.

  15. HMGB1 release by human liver L02 and HepG2 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ze-Bing; Dai, Xia-Hong; Xiao, Mei-Fang; Zhou, Rong-Rong; Zhao, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Bao-Xin; Yi, Pan-Pan; Chen, Ruo-Chan; Li, Wen-Ting; Yaser, Ai-Madhagi; Huang, Yan; Fan, Xue-Gong

    2013-07-01

    Liver cells release the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein when exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). However, the timing and levels of protein released remain unclear. The present study aimed to characterize the secretion of the late pro-inflammatory cytokine HMGB1 by liver L02 and HepG2 cells. The human mononuclear macrophage cell line U937 was used as a control. Various concentrations of LPS were added to human U937, L02 and HepG2 cells for different durations, and the cells were analyzed at different time-points following this addition. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure cellular HMGB1 mRNA levels, western blotting was performed to detect HMGB1 in cellular supernatants and the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytosol was examined using immunofluorescence staining. L02 and HepG2 cells exhibited higher HMGB1 mRNA levels compared with the control U937 cells 20 and 24 h following continuous exposure to LPS. U937 cells exhibited higher HMGB1 mRNA levels compared with the corresponding L02 and HepG2 cells 16 h following LPS exposure. The phase of HMGB1 protein detected in the cellular supernatants of L02 and HepG2 cells (16 h) was later than that of U937 cells (8 h). For the three cell lines, HMGB1 levels demonstrated a time dependency; however, the protein level was the highest in U937 cells. In the three cell lines, translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytosol occurred; however, the phases of HMGB1 translocation in L02 and HepG2 cells occurred later than in U937 cells. LPS-induced secretion of the late pro‑inflammatory cytokine HMGB1 by liver cells is characterized by a late phase of release and smaller quantity, and the process of HMGB1 secretion appears to be associated with HMGB1 translocation.

  16. Soya phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, decrease apolipoprotein B secretion from HepG2 cells through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Borradaile, Nica M; de Dreu, Linda E; Wilcox, Lisa J; Edwards, Jane Y; Huff, Murray W

    2002-09-01

    Diets containing the soya-derived phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, decrease plasma cholesterol in humans and experimental animals. The mechanisms responsible for the hypocholesterolaemic effects of these isoflavones are unknown. The present study was conducted to determine if genistein and daidzein regulate hepatocyte cholesterol metabolism and apolipoprotein (apo) B secretion in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. ApoB secretion was decreased dose-dependently by up to 63% and 71% by genistein and daidzein (100 microM; P<0.0001) respectively. In contrast, no effect on apoAI secretion was observed. Cellular cholesterol synthesis was inhibited 41% by genistein (100 microM; P<0.005) and 18% by daidzein (100 microM; P<0.05), which was associated with significant increases in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA. Cellular cholesterol esterification was decreased 56% by genistein (100 microM; P<0.04) and 29% by daidzein (100 microM; P<0.04); however, mRNA levels for acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) 1 and ACAT2 were unaffected. At 100 microM, both isoflavones equally inhibited the activities of both forms of ACAT in cells transfected with either ACAT1 or ACAT2. Genistein (100 microM) and daidzein (100 microM) significantly decreased the activity of microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) by 30% and 24% respectively, and significantly decreased MTP mRNA levels by 35% and 55%. Both isoflavones increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor mRNA levels by 3- to 6-fold (100 microM; P<0.03) and significantly increased the binding, uptake and degradation of (125)I-labelled LDL, suggesting that enhanced reuptake of newly secreted apoB-containing lipoproteins contributed to the net decrease in apoB secretion. These results indicate that genistein and daidzein inhibit hepatocyte apoB secretion through several mechanisms, including inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and esterification, inhibition of MTP activity and expression and

  17. Soya phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, decrease apolipoprotein B secretion from HepG2 cells through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Borradaile, Nica M; de Dreu, Linda E; Wilcox, Lisa J; Edwards, Jane Y; Huff, Murray W

    2002-01-01

    Diets containing the soya-derived phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, decrease plasma cholesterol in humans and experimental animals. The mechanisms responsible for the hypocholesterolaemic effects of these isoflavones are unknown. The present study was conducted to determine if genistein and daidzein regulate hepatocyte cholesterol metabolism and apolipoprotein (apo) B secretion in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. ApoB secretion was decreased dose-dependently by up to 63% and 71% by genistein and daidzein (100 microM; P<0.0001) respectively. In contrast, no effect on apoAI secretion was observed. Cellular cholesterol synthesis was inhibited 41% by genistein (100 microM; P<0.005) and 18% by daidzein (100 microM; P<0.05), which was associated with significant increases in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA. Cellular cholesterol esterification was decreased 56% by genistein (100 microM; P<0.04) and 29% by daidzein (100 microM; P<0.04); however, mRNA levels for acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) 1 and ACAT2 were unaffected. At 100 microM, both isoflavones equally inhibited the activities of both forms of ACAT in cells transfected with either ACAT1 or ACAT2. Genistein (100 microM) and daidzein (100 microM) significantly decreased the activity of microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) by 30% and 24% respectively, and significantly decreased MTP mRNA levels by 35% and 55%. Both isoflavones increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor mRNA levels by 3- to 6-fold (100 microM; P<0.03) and significantly increased the binding, uptake and degradation of (125)I-labelled LDL, suggesting that enhanced reuptake of newly secreted apoB-containing lipoproteins contributed to the net decrease in apoB secretion. These results indicate that genistein and daidzein inhibit hepatocyte apoB secretion through several mechanisms, including inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and esterification, inhibition of MTP activity and expression and

  18. Effect of acetone extract from stem bark of Acacia species (A. dealbata, A. ferruginea and A. leucophloea) on antioxidant enzymes status in hydrogen peroxide-induced HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Hong, Sunghyun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Songmun; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2015-01-01

    Acacia species are multipurpose trees, widely used in the traditional systems of medicine to treat various ailments. The major objective of the present study was to determine the gene expression of enzymatic antioxidants by acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase containing copper–zinc (CuZnSOD)/manganese (MnSOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in HepG2 cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. The results of antioxidant enzyme expression in real-time PCR study revealed that the H2O2 (200 μM) challenged HepG2 cells reduced the expression of enzymes such as SOD, GPx and CAT. However, the cells pre-treated with acetone extracts of all the three Acacia species significantly (P > 0.05) up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes in a concentration dependent manner (25, 50 and 75 μg/mL). In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the acetone extract of Acacia species effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases. PMID:26586994

  19. Effect of acetone extract from stem bark of Acacia species (A. dealbata, A. ferruginea and A. leucophloea) on antioxidant enzymes status in hydrogen peroxide-induced HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Hong, Sunghyun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Songmun; Chin, Nyuk Ling

    2015-11-01

    Acacia species are multipurpose trees, widely used in the traditional systems of medicine to treat various ailments. The major objective of the present study was to determine the gene expression of enzymatic antioxidants by acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase containing copper-zinc (CuZnSOD)/manganese (MnSOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in HepG2 cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. The results of antioxidant enzyme expression in real-time PCR study revealed that the H2O2 (200 μM) challenged HepG2 cells reduced the expression of enzymes such as SOD, GPx and CAT. However, the cells pre-treated with acetone extracts of all the three Acacia species significantly (P > 0.05) up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes in a concentration dependent manner (25, 50 and 75 μg/mL). In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the acetone extract of Acacia species effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  20. A Homogeneous Polysaccharide from Fructus Schisandra chinensis (Turz.) Baill Induces Mitochondrial Apoptosis through the Hsp90/AKT Signalling Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonglin; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Huijun; Li, Ning; Su, Juan; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Shunchun

    2016-06-28

    According to the potential anti-hepatoma therapeutic effect of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharides presented in previous studies, a bioactive constituent, homogeneous Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide-0-1 (SCP-0-1), molecular weight (MW) circa 69.980 kDa, was isolated and purified. We assessed the efficacy of SCP-0-1 against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to investigate the effects of its antitumour activity and molecular mechanisms. Anticancer activity was evaluated using microscopy, 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, acridine orange (AO) staining, flow cytometry (FCM), and cell-cycle analysis. SCP-0-1 inhibited the HepG2 cells' growth via inducing apoptosis and second gap/mitosis (G2/M) arrest dose-dependently, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 479.63 µg/mL. Western blotting of key proteins revealed the apoptotic and autophagic potential of SCP-0-1. Besides, SCP-0-1 upregulated Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax) and downregulated B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in the HepG2 cells. The expression of caspase-3, -8, and -9; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP); cytochrome c (Cyt C); tumor protein 53 (p53); survivin; sequestosome 1 (p62); microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (LC3B); mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38); extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK); c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); protein kinase B (AKT); and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) were evaluated using Western blotting. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism through which SCP-0-1 exerts its antiproliferative activity and induces mitochondrial apoptosis rather than autophagy. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis was attributed to the inhibition of the Hsp90/AKT signalling pathway in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. The results also provide initial evidence on a molecular basis that SCP-0-1 can be used as an anti

  1. Ursolic acid sensitizes cisplatin-resistant HepG2/DDP cells to cisplatin via inhibiting Nrf2/ARE pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shouhai; Zhang, Tianpeng; Du, Jingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Combinations of adjuvant sensitizers with anticancer drugs is a promising new strategy to reverse chemoresistance. Ursolic acid (UA) is one of the natural pentacyclic triterpene compounds known to have many pharmacological characteristics such as anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. This study investigates whether UA can sensitize hepatocellular carcinoma cells to cisplatin. Materials and methods Cells were transfected with nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) small interfering RNA and Nrf2 complementary DNA by using Lipofectin 2000. The cytotoxicity of cells was investigated by Cell Counting Kit 8 assay. Cell apoptosis, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by flow cytometry fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The protein level of Nrf2, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was detected by Western blot analysis. Results The results showed that the reverse index was 2.9- and 9.69-fold by UA of 1.125 μg/mL and 2.25 μg/mL, respectively, for cisplatin to HepG2/DDP cells. UA–cisplatin combination induced cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species, blocked the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase, and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, UA–cisplatin dramatically decreased the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes. The sensibilization of UA–cisplatin combination was diminished in Nrf2 small interfering RNA-transfected HepG2/DDP cells, as well as in Nrf2 complementary DNA-transfected HepG2/DDP cells. Conclusion The results confirmed the sensibilization of UA on HepG2/DDP cells to cisplatin, which was possibly mediated via the Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway. PMID:27822011

  2. Size-mediated cytotoxicity of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide, pure and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devanand Venkatasubbu, G.; Ramasamy, S.; Avadhani, G. S.; Palanikumar, L.; Kumar, J.

    2012-03-01

    Nanoparticles are highly used in biological applications including nanomedicine. In this present study, the interaction of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC) with hydroxyapatite (HAp), zinc-doped hydroxyapatite, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were investigated. Hydroxyapatite, zinc-doped hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet precipitation method. They were subjected to isochronal annealing at different temperatures. Particle morphology and size distribution were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The nanoparticles were co-cultured with HepG2 cells. MTT assay was employed to evaluate the proliferation of tumor cells. The DNA damaging effect of HAp, Zn-doped HAp, and TiO2 nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were evaluated using DNA fragmentation studies. The results showed that in HepG2 cells, the anti-tumor activity strongly depend on the size of nanoparticles in HCC cells. Cell cycle arrest analysis for HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and TiO2 nanoparticles revealed the influence of HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. The results imply that the novel nano nature effect plays an important role in the biomedicinal application of nanoparticles.

  3. Crosstalk between microRNA-122 and FOX family genes in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Subodh; Batra, Ankita; Kanthaje, Shruthi; Ghosh, Sujata; Chakraborti, Anuradha

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is liver specific and plays an important role in physiology as well as diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Downregulation of miR-122 in HCC modulates apoptosis. Similarly, the putative targets of miR-122, the forkhead box (FOX) family genes also play an important role in the regulation of apoptosis. Hence, an interplay between miR-122 and FOX family genes has been explored in this study. Initially, an augmentation of apoptosis was noticed in HepG2 cells after transfection with miR-122. Further, the predicted miR-122 targets, the FOX family genes ( FOXM1b, FOXP1, and FOXO4) were selected via in silico analysis based on their role in apoptosis. We checked the expression of all these genes at transcript level after the transfection of miR-122 and found that the relative expression of FOXP1 and FOXM1b was significantly downregulated (p < 0.005) and that of FOXO4 was upregulated (p < 0.005). Thus, the finding indicates deregulation of these FOX genes as a result of miR-122 augmentation might be involved in the modulation of apoptosis.

  4. Human hepatitis B virus X protein induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells: Role of BH3 domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.W.; Chen, W.N. . E-mail: WNChen@ntu.edu.sg

    2005-12-23

    The smallest protein of hepatitis B virus, HBX, has been implicated in the development of liver diseases by interfering with normal cellular processes. Its role in cell proliferation has been unclear as both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic activities have been reported. We showed molecular evidence that HBX induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. A Bcl-2 Homology Domain 3 was identified in HBX, which interacted with anti-apoptotic but not pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. HBX induced apoptosis when transfected into HepG2 cells, as demonstrated by both flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity. However, HBX protein may not be stable in apoptotic cells triggered by its own expression as only its mRNA or the fusion protein with the glutathione-S-transferase was detected in transfected cells. Our results suggested that HBX behaved as a pro-apoptotic protein and was able to induce apoptosis.

  5. A Homogeneous Polysaccharide from Fructus Schisandra chinensis (Turz.) Baill Induces Mitochondrial Apoptosis through the Hsp90/AKT Signalling Pathway in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yonglin; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Huijun; Li, Ning; Su, Juan; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Shunchun

    2016-01-01

    According to the potential anti-hepatoma therapeutic effect of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharides presented in previous studies, a bioactive constituent, homogeneous Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide-0-1 (SCP-0-1), molecular weight (MW) circa 69.980 kDa, was isolated and purified. We assessed the efficacy of SCP-0-1 against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to investigate the effects of its antitumour activity and molecular mechanisms. Anticancer activity was evaluated using microscopy, 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, acridine orange (AO) staining, flow cytometry (FCM), and cell-cycle analysis. SCP-0-1 inhibited the HepG2 cells’ growth via inducing apoptosis and second gap/mitosis (G2/M) arrest dose-dependently, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 479.63 µg/mL. Western blotting of key proteins revealed the apoptotic and autophagic potential of SCP-0-1. Besides, SCP-0-1 upregulated Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax) and downregulated B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in the HepG2 cells. The expression of caspase-3, -8, and -9; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP); cytochrome c (Cyt C); tumor protein 53 (p53); survivin; sequestosome 1 (p62); microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (LC3B); mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38); extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK); c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); protein kinase B (AKT); and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) were evaluated using Western blotting. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism through which SCP-0-1 exerts its antiproliferative activity and induces mitochondrial apoptosis rather than autophagy. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis was attributed to the inhibition of the Hsp90/AKT signalling pathway in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. The results also provide initial evidence on a molecular basis that SCP-0-1 can be used as an anti

  6. Effect of sevoflurane on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells under conditions of high glucose and insulin.

    PubMed

    Nishiwada, Tadashi; Kawaraguchi, Yoshitaka; Uemura, Keiko; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Masahiko

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with morbidity and progression of some cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been reported that sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic agent commonly used in cancer surgery, can lead to lower overall survival rates than those observed when propofol is used to treat cancer patients, and sevoflurane increases cancer cell proliferation in in vitro studies. It has been also reported that glucose levels in rats anesthetized with sevoflurane were higher than those in rats anesthetized with propofol. We investigated the effect of sevoflurane, under conditions of high glucose and insulin, on cell proliferation in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2. First, we exposed HepG2 cells to sevoflurane at 1 or 2 % concentration for 6 h in various glucose concentrations and then evaluated cell proliferation using the MTT assay. Subsequently, to mimic diabetic conditions observed during surgery, HepG2 cells were exposed to sevoflurane at 1 or 2 % concentration in high glucose concentrations at various concentrations of insulin for 6 h. One-percent sevoflurane exposure enhanced cell proliferation under conditions of high glucose, treated with 0.05 mg/l insulin. Our study implies that sevoflurane may affect cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in a physiological situation mimicking that of diabetes.

  7. Prevention of phosphine-induced cytotoxicity by nutrients in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Mehrabadi, Abbas Rezaiean; Niknahad, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Phosphides used as an insecticide and rodenticide, produce phosphine (PH3) which causes accidental and intentional poisoning cases and deaths. There is no specific treatment or antidote available for PH3 poisoning. It is suggested that PH3-induced toxicity is associated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion; therefore, in this study the effect of some nutrients was evaluated on PH3 cytotoxicity in a cell culture model. Methods: PH3 was generated from reaction of zinc phosphide (10 mM) with water in the closed culture medium of HepG2 cells, and cytotoxicity was measured after one and three hours of incubation. ATP, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation were also assessed at one or three hours post-incubation. ATP suppliers including dihydroxyacetone, glyceraldehyde and fructose were added to the culture medium 10 min before PH3 generation to prevent or reduce phosphine-induced cytotoxicity. Results: Phosphine caused about 30 and 66 per cent cell death at one and three hours of incubation, respectively. ATP content of the cells was depleted to 14.7 per cent of control at one hour of incubation. ATP suppliers were able to prevent cytotoxicity and ATP depletion induced by PH3. Dihydroxyacetone, α-ketoglutarate, fructose and mannitol restored the ATP content of the cells from 14.7 per cent to about 40, 34, 32 and 30 per cent, respectively. Lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion were not significantly induced by zinc phosphide in this study. Interpretation & conclusions: The results supported the hypothesis that phosphine-induced cytotoxicity was due to decrease of ATP levels. ATP suppliers could prevent its toxicity by generating ATP through glycolysis. α-keto compounds such as dihydroxyacetone and α-ketoglutarate may bind to phosphine and restore mitochondrial respiration. PMID:28256464

  8. Realgar quantum dots induce apoptosis and necrosis in HepG2 cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    QIN, YU; WANG, HUAN; LIU, ZHENG-YUN; LIU, JIE; WU, JIN-ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Realgar (As4S4) has been used in traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of malignancies. However, the poor water solubility of realgar limits its clinical application. To overcome this problem, realgar quantum dots (RQDs; 5.48±1.09 nm) were prepared by a photoluminescence method. The mean particle size was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Our recent studies revealed that the RQDs were effective against tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice without producing apparent toxicity. The present study investigated their anticancer effects and mechanisms in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The HepG2 cells and human normal liver (L02) cells were used to determine the cytotoxicity of RQDs. The portion of apoptotic and dead cells were measured by flow cytometry with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining. Apoptosis-related proteins and genes were examined by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was assayed by confocal microscope with JC-1 as a probe. RQDs exhibited cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner and HepG2 cells were more sensitive compared with normal L02 cells. At 15 µg/ml, 20% of the cells were apoptotic, while 60% of the cells were necrotic at 30 µg/ml. The anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 was dose-dependently decreased, while pro-apoptotic protein Bax was increased. There was a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of the stress genes C/EBP-homologous protein 10 and glucose-regulated protein 78 was increased by RQDs. RQDs were effective in the inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation and this effect was due to induction of apoptosis and necrosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26405541

  9. Activation of apoptosis by ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Dianthus superbus in HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Qing; Yin, Yan; Lei, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiu-Qiao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Cheng-Li; Wu, Shan; He, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yan-Wen; Zou, Guo-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Dianthus superbus L. is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine. We recently showed that ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from ethanol extract of D. superbus exhibited the strongest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. In this study, we examined apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS, and the mechanism underlying apoptosis was also investigated. Treatment of HepG2 cells with EE-DS (20-80 μg/ml) for 48 h led to a significant dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase by analysis of the content of DNA in cells, and a large number of apoptotic bodies containing nuclear fragments were observed in cells treated with 80 μg/ml of EE-DS for 24 h by using Hoechst 33258 staining. These data show that EE-DS can induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that EE-DS significantly suppressed the expressions of Bcl-2 and NF-κB. Treatment of cells with EE-DS (80 μg/ml) for 48 h resulted in significant increase of cytochrome c in the cytosol, which indicated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Activation of caspase-9 and -3 were also determined when the cells treated with EE-DS. The results suggest that apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS could be through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data showed that the composition of EE-DS is complicated. Further studies are needed to find the effective constituents of EE-DS.

  10. Comparative cytotoxicity of dolomite nanoparticles in human larynx HEp2 and liver HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Ahmad, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Khan, Shams T; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2015-06-01

    Dolomite is a natural mineral of great industrial and commercial importance. With the advent of nanotechnology, natural minerals including dolomite in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) are being utilized in various applications to improve the quality of products. However, safety or toxicity information of dolomite NPs is largely lacking. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of dolomite NPs in two widely used in vitro cell culture models: human airway epithelial (HEp2) and human liver (HepG2) cells. Concentration-dependent decreased cell viability and damaged cell membrane integrity revealed the cytotoxicity of dolomite NPs. We further observed that dolomite NPs induce oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner, as indicated by depletion of glutathione and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Quantitative real-time PCR data demonstrated that the mRNA level of tumor suppressor gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax, CASP3 and CASP9) were up-regulated whereas the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated in HEp2 and HepG2 cells exposed to dolomite NPs. Moreover, the activity of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-9) was also higher in both kinds of cells treated with dolomite NPs. It is also worth mentioning that HEp2 cells seem to be marginally more susceptible to dolomite NPs exposure than HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity induced by dolomite NPs was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl cysteine treatment, which suggests that oxidative stress is primarily responsible for the cytotoxicity of dolomite NPs in both HEp2 and HepG2 cells. Toxicity mechanisms of dolomite NPs warrant further investigations at the in vivo level.

  11. Knockdown of Decoy Receptor 3 Impairs Growth and Invasiveness of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line of HepG2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Na; Li, Guang-Ming; Xu, Ying-Chen; Zhao, Tuan-Jie; Wu, Ji-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) binds to Fas ligand (FasL) and inhibits FasL-induced apoptosis. The receptor is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and it is associated with the growth and metastatic spread of tumors. DcR3 holds promises as a new target for the treatment of HCC, but little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the oncogenic properties of DcR3. The present work, therefore, examined the role of DcR3 in regulating the growth and invasive property of liver cancer cell HepG2. Methods: HepG2 cells were stably transfected with lentivirus-based short hairpin RNA vector targeting DcR3. After the knockdown of DcR3 was confirmed, cell proliferation, clone formation, ability of migrating across transwell membrane, and wound healing were assessed in vitro. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP 9) and vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and D expressions of the DcR3 knockdown were also studied. Comparisons between multiple groups were done using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), while pairwise comparisons were performed using Student's t test. P < 0.05 was regarded statistically significant. Results: DcR3 was overexpressed in HepG2 compared to other HCC cell lines and normal hepatocyte Lo-2. Stable knockdown of DcR3 slowed down the growth of HepG2 (P < 0.05) and reduced the number of clones formed by 50% compared to those without DcR3 knockdown (P < 0.05). The knockdown also reduced the migration of HepG2 across transwell matrix membrane by five folds compared to the control (P < 0.05) and suppressed the closure of scratch wound (P < 0.05). In addition, the messenger RNA levels of MMP 9, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D were significantly suppressed by DcR3 knockdown by 90% when compared with the mock control (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Loss of DcR3 impaired the growth and invasive property of HCC cell line of HepG2. Targeting DcR3 may be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of HCC. PMID:27779171

  12. Apoptosis induction by silica nanoparticles mediated through reactive oxygen species in human liver cell line HepG2

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2012-03-01

    Silica nanoparticles are increasingly utilized in various applications including agriculture and medicine. In vivo studies have shown that liver is one of the primary target organ of silica nanoparticles. However, possible mechanisms of hepatotoxicity caused by silica nanoparticles still remain unclear. In this study, we explored the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis induced by well-characterized 14 nm silica nanoparticles in human liver cell line HepG2. Silica nanoparticles (25–200 μg/ml) induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Silica nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner indicated by induction of ROS and lipid peroxidation and depletion of glutathione (GSH). Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting results showed that both the mRNA and protein expressions of cell cycle checkpoint gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax and caspase-3) were up-regulated while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated in silica nanoparticles treated cells. Moreover, co-treatment of ROS scavenger vitamin C significantly attenuated the modulation of apoptotic markers along with the preservation of cell viability caused by silica nanoparticles. Our data demonstrated that silica nanoparticles induced apoptosis in human liver cells, which is ROS mediated and regulated through p53, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways. This study suggests that toxicity mechanisms of silica nanoparticles should be further investigated at in vivo level. -- Highlights: ► We explored the mechanisms of toxicity caused by silica NPs in human liver HepG2 cells. ► Silica NPs induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ► Silica NPs induced ROS generation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. ► Silica NPs were also modulated apoptosis markers both at mRNA and protein levels. ► ROS mediated apoptosis induced by silica NPs was preserved by vitamin C.

  13. Microarray analysis of genes differentially expressed in HepG2 cells cultured in simulated microgravity: preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaoustov, V. I.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; Yoffe, B.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Developed at NASA, the rotary cell culture system (RCCS) allows the creation of unique microgravity environment of low shear force, high-mass transfer, and enables three-dimensional (3D) cell culture of dissimilar cell types. Recently we demonstrated that a simulated microgravity is conducive for maintaining long-term cultures of functional hepatocytes and promote 3D cell assembly. Using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarray technology, it is now possible to measure the levels of thousands of different messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) in a single hybridization step. This technique is particularly powerful for comparing gene expression in the same tissue under different environmental conditions. The aim of this research was to analyze gene expression of hepatoblastoma cell line (HepG2) during early stage of 3D-cell assembly in simulated microgravity. For this, mRNA from HepG2 cultured in the RCCS was analyzed by deoxyribonucleic acid microarray. Analyses of HepG2 mRNA by using 6K glass DNA microarray revealed changes in expression of 95 genes (overexpression of 85 genes and downregulation of 10 genes). Our preliminary results indicated that simulated microgravity modifies the expression of several genes and that microarray technology may provide new understanding of the fundamental biological questions of how gravity affects the development and function of individual cells.

  14. Antiproliferative effects of crocin in HepG2 cells by telomerase inhibition and hTERT down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Noureini, Sakineh Kazemi; Wink, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Crocin, the main pigment of Crocus sativus L., has been shown to have antiproliferative effects on cancer cells, but the involved mechanisms are only poor understood. This study focused on probable effect of crocin on the immortality of hepatic cancer cells. Cytotoxicity of crocin (IC50 3 mg/ml) in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells was determined after 48 h by neutral red uptake assay and MTT test. Immortality was investigated through quantification of relative telomerase activity with a quantitative real-time PCR-based telomerase repeat amplification protocol (qTRAP). Telomerase activity in 0.5 μg protein extract of HepG2 cells treated with 3 mg/ml crocin was reduced to about 51% as compared to untreated control cells. Two mechanisms of inhibition, i.e. interaction of crocin with telomeric quadruplex sequences and down regulation of hTERT expression, were examined using FRET analysis to measure melting temperature of a synthetic telomeric oligonucleotide in the presence of crocin and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, respectively. No significant changes were observed in the Tm telomeric oligonucleotides, while the relative expression level of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) gene showed a 60% decrease as compared to untreated control cells. In conclusion, telomerase activity of HepG2 cells decreases after treatment with crocin, which is probably caused by down-regulation of the expression of the catalytic subunit of the enzyme.

  15. Andrographolide inhibits hepatoma cells growth and affects the expression of cell cycle related proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai-Kai; Liu, Tian-Yu; Xu, Chong; Ji, Li-Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2009-09-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the toxic effects of andrographolide (Andro) on hepatoma cells and elucidate its preliminary mechanisms. After cells were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-50 micromol x L(-1)) for 24 h, cell viability was evaluated with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, after hepatoma cells (Hep3B and HepG2) were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-30 micromol x L(-1)) for 14 d, the number of colony formation was accounted under microscope. Cell cycle related proteins such as Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin B and Cyclin D1 were detected with Western blotting assay and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. MTT results showed that Andro induced growth inhibition of hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no significant effects on human normal liver L-02 cells. Andro dramatically decreased the colony formation of hepatoma cells in the concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, Andro induced a decrease of Hep3B cells at the G0-G1 phase and a concomitant accumulation of cells at G2-M phase. At the molecular level, Western blotting results showed that Andro decreased the expression of Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B proteins in a time-dependent manner, which are all cell cycle related proteins. Taken together, the results demonstrated that Andro specifically inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and cellular cell cycle related proteins were possibly involved in this process.

  16. Anti-tumor effects of bemiparin in HepG2 and MIA PaCa-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Alur, İhsan; Dodurga, Yavuz; Seçme, Mücahit; Elmas, Levent; Bağcı, Gülseren; Gökşin, İbrahim; Avcı, Çığır Biray

    2016-07-10

    Recent researches have demonstrated improved survival in oncologic patients treated with low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) which are anticoagulant drugs. We evaluated "second generation" LMWH bemiparin and its in vitro anti-tumor effects on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and MIA PaCa-2 cancer cells. The aim of the study is to investigate anti-cancer mechanism of bemiparin in HepG2 and Mia-Paca-2 cancer cells. Cytotoxic effects of bemiparin were determined by XTT assay. IC50 dose of bemiparin was found to be 200 IU/mL in the 48th hour in the MiaPaCa-2 cell line and 50 IU/mL in the 48th hour in the HepG2 cell line. CCND1 (cyclin D1), CDK4, CDK6, p21, p16, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, Bcl-2, BID, DR4, DR5, FADD, TRADD, Bax, gene mRNA expressions were evaluated by Real-time PCR. Real-time PCR analysis showed that CCND1 expression was reduced in HepG2 dose the group cells when compared with the control group cells and p53, caspase-3, caspase p21, caspase-8 and expressions were increased in the dose group cells when compared with the control group cells. CCND1, CDK4 and CDK6 expressions were reduced in MIA PaCa-2 dose group cells when compared with the control group cells and p53 expression was increased in the dose group cells when compared with the control group cells. Other expressions of genes were found statistically insignificant both of cell lines. It was found that bemiparin in HepG2 and MIA PaCa-2 cells suppressed invasion, migration, and colony formation by using matrigel invasion chamber, and colony formation assay, respectively. In conclusion, it is thought that bemiparin indicates anti-tumor activity by affecting cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, invasion, migration, and colony formation on cancer cells.

  17. N-acetyl-cysteine protects against DNA damage associated with lead toxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Christine K; Haile, Samuel; Edwards, Falicia; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2010-01-01

    Lead toxicity has been associated with its ability to interact and damage DNA. However, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In vitro studies in our laboratory indicated that lead nitrate (PbNO3) induces cytotoxicity and oxidative stress to human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells in a dose-dependent manner. In this research, we hypothesized that n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a known antioxidant compound, affords protection against lead-induced cell death associated with genotoxic damage. To test this hypothesis, HepG2 cells were treated either with a physiologic dose of NAC, NAC plus PbNO3, or PbNO3 alone, followed by incubation in humidified 5% CO2 incubator at 37 degrees C for 48 hr. The cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion test. The degree of DNA damage was detected by micro gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Our results showed that lead exposure induces a substantial cytotoxicity as well as a significant genotoxicity to HepG2 cells. However, co-treatment with a physiologic dose (500 microM) of NAC slightly increases cell viability, and significantly reduced (P < .05) the degree of DNA damage. Hence, NAC treatment may be a promising therapeutic candidate for chemoprevention against lead toxicity, based on its ability to scavenge free radicals.

  18. Alantolactone Induces Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells through GSH Depletion, Inhibition of STAT3 Activation, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad; Li, Ting; Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Khalil; Rasul, Azhar; Nawaz, Faisal; Sun, Meiyan; Zheng, Yongchen; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) constitutively expresses in human liver cancer cells and has been implicated in apoptosis resistance and tumorigenesis. Alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone, has been shown to possess anticancer activities in various cancer cell lines. In our previous report, we showed that alantolactone induced apoptosis in U87 glioblastoma cells via GSH depletion and ROS generation. However, the molecular mechanism of GSH depletion remained unexplored. The present study was conducted to envisage the molecular mechanism of alantolactone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells by focusing on the molecular mechanism of GSH depletion and its effect on STAT3 activation. We found that alantolactone induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This alantolactone-induced apoptosis was found to be associated with GSH depletion, inhibition of STAT3 activation, ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation, and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. This alantolactone-induced apoptosis and GSH depletion were effectively inhibited or abrogated by a thiol antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The data demonstrate clearly that intracellular GSH plays a central role in alantolactone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Thus, alantolactone may become a lead chemotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of liver cancer. PMID:23533997

  19. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 Replication in the Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2/C3A

    PubMed Central

    Shier, Medhat K.; El-Wetidy, Mohammad S.; Ali, Hebatallah H.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The lack of a reliable cell culture system allowing persistent in vitro hepatitis C virus (HCV) propagation is still restraining the search for novel antiviral strategies. HepG2 cells transfection with HCV allows for viral replication. However, the replication is weak presumably because of HepG2 lack of miRNA-122, which is essential for viral replication. Other agents such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been shown to increase the efficiency of infection with other viruses. This study included comparison of HCV genotype 4 5′UTR and core RNA levels and HCV core protein expression at different time intervals in the absence or presence of PEG and/or DMSO postinfection. Materials and Methods: We used serum with native HCV particles in infecting HepG2 cells in vitro. HCV replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of HCV RNA and immunofluorescence and flow cytometry for detection of HCV core protein. Results: HCV 5′UTR and core RNA expression was evident at different time intervals after viral infection, especially after cells were treated with PEG. HCV core protein was also evident at different time intervals using both immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. PEG, not DMSO, has increased the HCV core protein expression in the treated cells, similar to its effect on viral RNA expression. Conclusions: These expression profiles suggest that the current model of cultured HepG2 cells allows the study of HCV genotype 4 replication and different stages of the viral life cycle. PMID:27184644

  20. Quercetin modulates Nrf2 and glutathione-related defenses in HepG2 cells: Involvement of p38.

    PubMed

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2012-01-25

    Dietary flavonoid quercetin has been suggested as a cancer chemopreventive agent, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study investigated the influence of quercetin on p38-MAPK and the potential regulation of the nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2p45-related factor (Nrf2) and the cellular antioxidant/detoxifying defense system related to glutathione (GSH) by p38 in HepG2 cells. Incubation of HepG2 cells with quercetin at a range of concentrations (5-50μM) for 4 or 18h induced a differential effect on the modulation of p38 and Nrf2 in HepG2 cells, 50μM quercetin showed the highest activation of p38 at 4h of treatment and values of p38 similar to those of control cells after 18 h of incubation, together with the inhibition of Nrf2 at both incubation times. Quercetin (50μM) induced a time-dependent activation of p38, which was in concert with a transient stimulation of Nrf2 to provoke its inhibition afterward. Quercetin also increased GSH content, mRNA levels of glutamylcysteine-synthetase (GCS) and expression and/or activity of glutathione-peroxidase, glutathione-reductase and GCS after 4h of incubation, and glutathione-S-transferase after 18h of exposure. Further studies with the p38 specific inhibitor SB203580 showed that the p38 blockage restored the inhibited Nrf2 transcription factor and the enzymatic expression and activity of antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes after 4h exposure. In conclusion, p38-MAPK is involved in the mechanisms of the cell response to quercetin through the modulation of Nrf2 and glutathione-related enzymes in HepG2 cells.

  1. Effects of Nano-CeO₂ with Different Nanocrystal Morphologies on Cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Ai, Wenchao; Zhai, Yanwu; Li, Haishan; Zhou, Kebin; Chen, Huiming

    2015-09-02

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO₂) have been reported to cause damage and apoptosis in human primary hepatocytes. Here, we compared the toxicity of three types of nano-CeO₂ with different nanocrystal morphologies (cube-, octahedron-, and rod-like crystals) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The cells were treated with the nano-CeO₂ at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL). The crystal structure, size and morphology of nano-CeO₂ were investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface area was detected using the Brunauer, Emmet and Teller method. The cellular morphological and internal structure were observed by microscopy; apoptotic alterations were measured using flow cytometry; nuclear DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in HepG2 cells were measured using high content screening technology. The scavenging ability of hydroxyl free radicals and the redox properties of the nano-CeO₂ were measured by square-wave voltammetry and temperature-programmed-reduction methods. All three types of nano-CeO₂ entered the HepG2 cells, localized in the lysosome and cytoplasm, altered cellular shape, and caused cytotoxicity. The nano-CeO₂ with smaller specific surface areas induced more apoptosis, caused an increase in MMP, ROS and GSH, and lowered the cell's ability to scavenge hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidants. In this work, our data demonstrated that compared with cube-like and octahedron-like nano-CeO₂, the rod-like nano-CeO₂ has lowest toxicity to HepG2 cells owing to its larger specific surface areas.

  2. Pfaffosidic Fraction from Hebanthe paniculata Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Caspase-3-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Cogliati, Bruno; Latorre, Andréia Oliveira; Akisue, Gokithi; Nagamine, Márcia Kazumi; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Hansen, Daiane; Sanches, Daniel Soares; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan

    2015-01-01

    Hebanthe paniculata roots (formerly Pfaffia paniculata and popularly known as Brazilian ginseng) show antineoplastic, chemopreventive, and antiproliferative properties. Functional properties of these roots and their extracts are usually attributed to the pfaffosidic fraction, which is composed mainly by pfaffosides A–F. However, the therapeutic potential of this fraction in cancer cells is not yet entirely understood. This study aimed to analyze the antitumoral effects of the purified pfaffosidic fraction or saponinic fraction on the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Cellular viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated, respectively, by MTT assay, BrdU incorporation, activated caspase-3 immunocytochemistry, and DNA fragmentation assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and the cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The cells exposed to pfaffosidic fraction had reduced viability and cellular growth, induced G2/M at 48 h or S at 72 h arrest, and increased sub-G1 cell population via cyclin E downregulation, p27KIP1 overexpression, and caspase-3-induced apoptosis, without affecting the DNA integrity. Antitumoral effects of pfaffosidic fraction from H. paniculata in HepG2 cells originated by multimechanisms of action might be associated with cell cycle arrest in the S phase, by CDK2 and cyclin E downregulation and p27KIP1 overexpression, besides induction of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. PMID:26075002

  3. Protective effects of the extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kin Weng; Mat-Junit, Sarni; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman; Ismail, Amin; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2016-01-01

    Barringtonia racemosa is a tropical plant with medicinal values. In this study, the ability of the water extracts of the leaf (BLE) and stem (BSE) from the shoots to protect HepG2 cells against oxidative damage was studied. Five major polyphenolic compounds consisting of gallic acid, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were identified using HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. Cell viability assay revealed that BLE and BSE were non-cytotoxic (cell viabilities >80%) at concentration less than 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml, respectively. BLE and BSE improved cellular antioxidant status measured by FRAP assay and protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. The extracts also inhibited lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. BLE and BSE could also suppress the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase during oxidative stress. The shoots of B. racemosa can be an alternative bioactive ingredient in the prevention of oxidative damage.

  4. Encapsulation of honokiol into self-assembled pectin nanoparticles for drug delivery to HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxia; Chen, Tong; Yuan, Pei; Tian, Rui; Hu, Wenjing; Tang, Yalan; Jia, Yuntao; Zhang, Liangke

    2015-11-20

    Self-assembled pectin nanoparticles was prepared and evaluated for delivering the hydrophobic drug, honokiol (HK), to HepG2 cells. These hydrophobic drug-loaded nanoparticles were developed without using any surfactant and organic solvent. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HCD) was used to fabricate an inclusion complex with HK (HKHCD) to increase the solubility of the drug and thus facilitate its encapsulation and dispersion in the pectin nanoparticles. Investigation of the in vitro release indicated that the drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibited a higher drug release rate than free honokiol and an effective sustained-release. Cytotoxicity, cell apoptosis and cellular uptake studies further confirmed that the pectin nanoparticles with galactose residues generated higher cytotoxicity than free honokiol on HepG2 cells which highly expressed asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGR). Nevertheless, these findings were not observed in ASGR-negative A549 cells under similar condition. Therefore, pectin nanoparticles demonstrated a specific active targeting ability to ASGR-positive HepG2 cells and could be used as a potential drug carrier for treatment of liver-related tumors.

  5. A comparative toxicity evaluation of Escherichia coli-targeted ssDNA and chlorine in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of ssDNA and chlorine as disinfectants for treating water contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) was investigated on the basis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The gene targets addressed for the ssDNA based inhibition method were marA (multiple antibiotic resistance) and groL (essential gene Hsp60) in E. coli. Based on the maximum log reduction in E. coli cell numbers when compared to no ssDNA control, groL-1 was chosen as the optimized ssDNA for gene silencing-based inactivation. For toxicity assessment, HepG2 cells were exposed to extracts corresponding to concentrations of 0.2, 1, 5, 25 and 50 mL water/mL medium of chlorine doped water and 1, 10, 100, 300 nM of ssDNA. Compared with ssDNA, HepG2 cells exposed to extracts of chlorine doped water for 24 h showed higher cytotoxicity, caspase 3/7 levels, DNA damage, micronuclei frequency, and decreased cell viability. Water doped with chlorine was found to be more toxic than that by ssDNA when exposed to HepG2 cells. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for comparative evaluation of new and conventional disinfection methods by taking into consideration the outcome of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessments.

  6. Chenodeoxycholic acid increases the induction of CYP1A1 in HepG2 and H4IIE cells

    PubMed Central

    IBRAHIM, ZEIN SHABAN

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are considered to promote carcinogenesis. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) plays a critical role in the biotransformation of drugs and procarcinogens. This study aimed to investigate the ability of bile acids to modulate CYP1A1 expression. Treatment of HepG2 cells with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and Sudan III (S.III) upregulated CYP1A1 transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells and CYP1A1 mRNA expression in H4IIE cells. Pretreatment of the HepG2 and H4IIE cells with CDCA upregulated the S.III-induced CYP1A transcriptional activity and mRNA expression. The CDCA-induced enhancement of CYP1A1 was not abolished by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. However, exposure of the cells to the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1/2 inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the CDCA-induced enhancement of CYP1A1. These results show the ability of CDCA to upregulate CYP1A1 transcription and expression, which may explain the hepatocarcinogenesis-inducing effect of cholestasis. The CDCA-induced upregulation of CYP1A1 most probably proceeded through MEK1/2 activation, indicating that this may be a therapeutic target to prevent the cancer-promoting effects of excessive amounts of bile acids. PMID:26640583

  7. Protective effects of the extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kin Weng; Mat-Junit, Sarni; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman; Ismail, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Barringtonia racemosa is a tropical plant with medicinal values. In this study, the ability of the water extracts of the leaf (BLE) and stem (BSE) from the shoots to protect HepG2 cells against oxidative damage was studied. Five major polyphenolic compounds consisting of gallic acid, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were identified using HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. Cell viability assay revealed that BLE and BSE were non-cytotoxic (cell viabilities >80%) at concentration less than 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml, respectively. BLE and BSE improved cellular antioxidant status measured by FRAP assay and protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. The extracts also inhibited lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. BLE and BSE could also suppress the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase during oxidative stress. The shoots of B. racemosa can be an alternative bioactive ingredient in the prevention of oxidative damage. PMID:26839752

  8. Fucoidan induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells by down-regulating p-Stat3.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Sadia; Liu, Yun-yi; Banafa, Amal; Chen, Hui-jie; Li, Ke-xiu; Yang, Guang-xiao; He, Guang-yuan; Chen, Ming-jie

    2014-06-01

    Fucoidan is one of the main bioactive components of polysaccharides. The current study was focused on the anti-tumor effects of fucoidan on human heptoma cell line HepG2 and the possible mechanisms. Fucoidan treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The results of flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan induced G2/M arrest in the cell cycle progression. Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/PI staining results showed that the apoptotic cell number was increased, which was associated with a dose-dependent up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and p-Stat3. In parallel, the up-regulation of p53 and the increase in reactive oxygen species were also observed, which may play important roles in the inhibition of HepG2 growth by fucoidan. In the meantime, Cyclin B1 and CDK1 were down-regulated by fucoidan treatment. Down-regulation of p-Stat3 by fucoidan resulted in apoptosis and an increase in ROS in response to fucoidan exposure. We therefore concluded that fucoidan induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of p-Stat3. These results suggest that fucoidan may be used as a novel anti-cancer agent for hepatocarcinoma.

  9. Solid lipid nanoparticles for hydrophilic biotech drugs: optimization and cell viability studies (Caco-2 & HEPG-2 cell lines).

    PubMed

    Severino, Patrícia; Andreani, Tatiana; Jäger, Alessandro; Chaud, Marco V; Santana, Maria Helena A; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B

    2014-06-23

    Insulin was used as model protein to developed innovative Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) for the delivery of hydrophilic biotech drugs, with potential use in medicinal chemistry. SLNs were prepared by double emulsion with the purpose of promoting stability and enhancing the protein bioavailability. Softisan(®)100 was selected as solid lipid matrix. The surfactants (Tween(®)80, Span(®)80 and Lipoid(®)S75) and insulin were chosen applying a 2(2) factorial design with triplicate of central point, evaluating the influence of dependents variables as polydispersity index (PI), mean particle size (z-AVE), zeta potential (ZP) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) by factorial design using the ANOVA test. Therefore, thermodynamic stability, polymorphism and matrix crystallinity were checked by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD), whereas the effect of toxicity of SLNs was check in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. Results showed a mean particle size (z-AVE) width between 294.6 nm and 627.0 nm, a PI in the range of 0.425-0.750, ZP about -3 mV, and the EE between 38.39% and 81.20%. After tempering the bulk lipid (mimicking the end process of production), the lipid showed amorphous characteristics, with a melting point of ca. 30 °C. The toxicity of SLNs was evaluated in two distinct cell lines (HEPG-2 and Caco-2), showing to be dependent on the concentration of particles in HEPG-2 cells, while no toxicity in was reported in Caco-2 cells. SLNs were stable for 24 h in in vitro human serum albumin (HSA) solution. The resulting SLNs fabricated by double emulsion may provide a promising approach for administration of protein therapeutics and antigens.

  10. Effects of Nano-CeO2 with Different Nanocrystal Morphologies on Cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Ai, Wenchao; Zhai, Yanwu; Li, Haishan; Zhou, Kebin; Chen, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) have been reported to cause damage and apoptosis in human primary hepatocytes. Here, we compared the toxicity of three types of nano-CeO2 with different nanocrystal morphologies (cube-, octahedron-, and rod-like crystals) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The cells were treated with the nano-CeO2 at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL). The crystal structure, size and morphology of nano-CeO2 were investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface area was detected using the Brunauer, Emmet and Teller method. The cellular morphological and internal structure were observed by microscopy; apoptotic alterations were measured using flow cytometry; nuclear DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in HepG2 cells were measured using high content screening technology. The scavenging ability of hydroxyl free radicals and the redox properties of the nano-CeO2 were measured by square-wave voltammetry and temperature-programmed-reduction methods. All three types of nano-CeO2 entered the HepG2 cells, localized in the lysosome and cytoplasm, altered cellular shape, and caused cytotoxicity. The nano-CeO2 with smaller specific surface areas induced more apoptosis, caused an increase in MMP, ROS and GSH, and lowered the cell’s ability to scavenge hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidants. In this work, our data demonstrated that compared with cube-like and octahedron-like nano-CeO2, the rod-like nano-CeO2 has lowest toxicity to HepG2 cells owing to its larger specific surface areas. PMID:26404340

  11. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of six herbal plants against the human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 μg/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 μg/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 μg/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells. PMID:22041055

  12. Asiatic acid uncouples respiration in isolated mouse liver mitochondria and induces HepG2 cells death.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yapeng; Liu, Siyuan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Dang; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Li

    2016-09-05

    Asiatic acid, one of the triterpenoid components isolated from Centella asiatica, has received increasing attention due to a wide variety of biological activities. To date, little is known about its mechanisms of action. Here we examined the cytotoxic effect of asiatic acid on HepG2 cells and elucidated some of the underlying mechanisms. Asiatic acid induced rapid cell death, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation, ATP depletion and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. In mitochondria isolated from mouse liver, asiatic acid treatment significantly stimulated the succinate-supported state 4 respiration rate, dissipated the MMP, increased Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria, decreased ATP content and promoted cytochrome c release, indicating the uncoupling effect of asiatic acid. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by succinate-supported mitochondrial respiration was also significantly inhibited by asiatic acid. In addition, asiatic acid inhibited Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling but did not induce mitochondrial swelling in hyposmotic potassium acetate medium which suggested that asiatic acid may not act as a protonophoric uncoupler. Inhibition of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) or blockade of adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) attenuated the effect of asiatic acid on MMP dissipation, Ca(2+) release, mitochondrial respiration and HepG2 cell death. When combined inhibition of UCPs and ANT, asiatic acid-mediated uncoupling effect was noticeably alleviated. These results suggested that both UCPs and ANT partially contribute to the uncoupling properties of asiatic acid. In conclusion, asiatic acid is a novel mitochondrial uncoupler and this property is potentially involved in its toxicity on HepG2 cells.

  13. Mitophagy inhibits proliferation by decreasing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in arsenic trioxide-treated HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhidan; Zhang, Wenya; Gu, Xueyan; Zhang, Xiaoning; Qi, Yongmei; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial damage can trigger mitophagy and eventually suppress proliferation. However, the effect of mitophagy on proliferation remains unclear. In this study, HepG2 cells were used to assess mitophagy and proliferation arrest in response to As2O3 exposure. The stimulatory effect of As2O3 on mitophagy was investigated by assessing morphology (mitophagosome and mitolysosome) and relevant proteins (PINK1, LC3 II/I, and COX IV). Additionally, the relationship of mitophagy and proliferation was explored through the use of mitophagy inhibitors (CsA, Mdivi-1). Interestingly, the inhibition of mitophagy rescued proliferation arrest by restoring COX-2 protein level and countered the elimination of mitochondria-located COX-2 and up-regulated the COX-2 mRNA level. Taken together, our findings indicated that mitophagy can be induced and can inhibit proliferation by reducing COX-2 in HepG2 cells during As2O3 treatment.

  14. Organic extracts of coke oven emissions can induce genetic damage in metabolically competent HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lili; Wang, Jianshu; Guo, Sifan; Wu, Yanhu; Li, Xiaohai; Deng, Huaxin; Kuang, Dan; Xiao, Wei; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2014-05-01

    Coke oven emissions (COEs) containing various carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent the coal-burning pollution in the air. Organic pollutants in the aerosol and particulate matter of COEs were collected from the bottom, side, and top of a coke oven. The Comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay were conducted to analyze the genetic damage of extractable organic matter (EOM) of COEs on HepG2 cells. All the three EOMs could induce significant dose-dependent increases in Olive tail moment, tail DNA, and tail length, micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds frequencies, which were mostly positively correlated with the total PAHs concentration in each EOM. In conclusion, EOMs of COEs in the three typical working places of coke oven can induce DNA strand breaks and genomic instability in the metabolically competent HepG2 cells. The PAHs in EOMs may be important causative agents for the genotoxic effects of COEs.

  15. Ethanol Extract of Dianthus chinensis L. Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nho, Kyoung Jin; Chun, Jin Mi; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis L. is used to treat various diseases including cancer; however, the molecular mechanism by which the ethanol extract of Dianthus chinensis L. (EDCL) induces apoptosis is unknown. In this study, the apoptotic effects of EDCL were investigated in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Treatment with EDCL significantly inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. This induction was associated with chromatin condensation, activation of caspases, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. However, apoptosis induced by EDCL was attenuated by caspase inhibitor, indicating an important role for caspases in EDCL responses. Furthermore, EDCL did not alter the expression of bax in HepG2 cells but did selectively downregulate the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xl, resulting in an increase in the ratio of bax:bcl-2 and bax:bcl-xl. These results support a mechanism whereby EDCL induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in HepG2 cells. PMID:22645629

  16. Enhancement of amygdalin activated with β-D-glucosidase on HepG2 cells proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cunshan; Qian, Lichun; Ma, Haile; Yu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Youzuo; Qu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xia, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis brought by amygdalin and activated with β-D-glucosidase were tested for cytoactivity in HepG2 cells. The MTT viability assay showed that all samples had effects on HepG2 proliferation in dose and time response manners. IC50 of stand-alone amygdalin and activation with β-D-glucosidase on the proliferation of HepG2 cells for 48 h were 458.10 mg/mL and 3.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, apoptotic cells were determined by AO/EB (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) fluorescent staining method and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining flow cytometry cell cycle analysis. With increasing of amygdalin concentration and the incubation time, the apoptotic rate was heightened. Compared with the control, there was significant difference (p<0.01). Together, these findings indicate that amygdalin had no strong anti-HepG2 activity; however the ingredients of amygdalin activated with β-D-glucosidase had a higher and efficient anti-HepG2 activity. It was therefore suggested that this combination strategy may be applicable for treating tumors with a higher activity.

  17. A polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa relieves insulin resistance of HepG2 cell by Akt-GSK-3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaolei; Zhou, Fuchuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Hou, Lihua; Cao, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunling

    2014-07-01

    Grifola frondosa is an important fungal research resource. However, there was little report about hyperglycemic activity of Grifola frondosa polysaccharide on insulin resistance in vitro. In this study, the hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide obtained from Grifola frondosa (GFP) on HepG2 cell and hpyerglycemic mechanism were investigated. The purity of the isolated polysaccharides was examined by HPLC. In this research, it was found that GFP enhanced the absorption of glucose of HepG2 cells in a dose dependent manner at 24 h of 30 ugmL⁻¹. GC-MS and FT-IR spectroscopy analysis results showed that glucose and galactose were the dominant monosaccharides in GFP and the major component of GFP was β-pyranoside. Western-blotting results showed that the HepG2 cell model treated with GFP activated the insulin receptor protein (IRS) in the cell membrane and increased phosphorylated-AktSer473 expression, which had an inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3). The down-regulation of GSK-3 stimulated synthesis of intracellular glycogen. The results above suggested that the GFP increased the metabolism of glucose and stimulated synthesis of intracellular glycogen through the Akt/GSK-3 pathway.

  18. Protective Effect of Pinus koraiensis Needle Water Extract Against Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells and Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Won, Sae Bom; Jung, Ga-young; Kim, Juhae; Chung, Young Shin; Hong, Eun Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Needles of pine species are rich in polyphenols, which may exert beneficial effects on human health. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of Pinus koraiensis needle water extracts (PKW). HepG2 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of PKW (from 10−3 to 1 mg/mL) and oxidative stress was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). In the animal model, male ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity, and then mice were continually fed a high-fat diet with or without orally administered PKW (400 mg/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. Pretreatment with PKW prevented significant increases in cytotoxicity and catalase activity induced by t-BOOH in HepG2 cells. Similarly, the catalase protein expression levels elevated by t-BOOH were abrogated in cells pretreated with PKW. In mice fed a high-fat diet, PKW significantly increased hepatic activities of catalase and glutathione reductase and lower lipid peroxidation levels were observed in the liver and kidney of mice with PKW supplementation. The present study demonstrates that PKW protects against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells treated with t-BOOH and in mice fed a high-fat diet. PMID:23822143

  19. Protective role of metabolism by intestinal microflora in butyl paraben-induced toxicity in HepG2 cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Tilak; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Jin, Sun Woo; Shim, Eol; Han, Hwa Jeong; Noh, Keumhan; Park, Sunkyoung; Lee, Dae Hun; Kang, Wonku; Yeo, Hee Kyung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2012-09-03

    Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (BA), including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben, propyl paraben (PP), and butyl paraben (BP). In the present study, possible role of metabolism by fecalase in BP-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in HepG2 cell cultures. As an intestinal bacterial metabolic system, a human fecalase prepared from human fecal specimen was employed. Among the parabens tested, cytotoxicity of BP was most severe. BA, the de-esterified metabolite, did not induce cytotoxicity when compared to other parabens. When BP was incubated with fecalase, it rapidly disappeared, in association with reduced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. In addition, BP incubated with fecalase significantly caused an increase in Bcl-2 expression together with a decrease in Bax expression and cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, anti-apoptotic effect by the incubation of BP with fecalase was also confirmed by the TUNEL assay. Furthermore, BP induced a sustained activation of the phosphorylation of JNK only when it was treated alone. Meanwhile, BP-induced cell death was reversed by the pre-incubation of BP with either fecalase or SP600125. Taken together, the findings suggested that metabolism of BP by human fecalase might have protective effects against BP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells.

  20. HNF-4alpha Negatively Regulates Hepcidin Expression Through BMPR1A in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wencai; Wang, Heyang; Zheng, Xuan; Jiang, Xin; Xu, Zheng; Shen, Hui; Li, Min

    2016-09-23

    Hepcidin synthesis is reported to be inadequate according to the body iron store in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) undergoing hepatic iron overload (HIO). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α) may negatively regulate hepcidin expression and contribute to hepcidin deficiency in NAFLD patients. The effect of HNF-4α on hepcidin expression was observed by transfecting specific HNF-4α small interfering RNA (siRNA) or plasmids into HepG2 cells. Both direct and indirect mechanisms involved in the regulation of HNF-4α on hepcidin were detected by real-time PCR, Western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation (chIP), and reporter genes. It was found that HNF-4α suppressed hepcidin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions in HepG2 cells, and this suppressive effect was independent of the potential HNF-4α response elements. Phosphorylation of SMAD1 but not STAT3 was inactivated by HNF-4α, and the SMAD4 response element was found essential to HNF-4α-induced hepcidin reduction. Neither inhibitory SMADs, SMAD6, and SMAD7 nor BMPR ligands, BMP2, BMP4, BMP6, and BMP7 were regulated by HNF-4α in HepG2 cells. BMPR1A, but not BMPR1B, BMPR2, ActR2A, ActR2B, or HJV, was decreased by HNF-4α, and HNF4α-knockdown-induced stimulation of hepcidin could be entirely blocked when BMPR1A was interfered with at the same time. In conclusion, the present study suggests that HNF-4α has a suppressive effect on hepcidin expression by inactivating the BMP pathway, specifically via BMPR1A, in HepG2 cells.

  1. Mulberry leaf phenolics ameliorate hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yu-Xiao; Shen, Wei-Zhi; Liao, Sen-Tai; Liu, Fan; Zheng, Shan-Qing; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of phenolics in mulberry leaves (mulberry leaf phenolics; MLP) on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in HepG2 cells; we treated HepG2 with glucose [5.5 (N-Glc) or 50 mmol/L (Hi-Glc)] with or without MLP at 10 or 100 µmol/L gallic acid equivalents and assessed level of reactive oxidant species (ROS), ΔΨm, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation. Hi-Glc-induced oxidative damage was demonstrated by a series of increase in superoxides (560%, 0.5 h), MDA (400%, 24 h), NF-κB activation (474%, 4 h) and a wild fluctuation of ΔΨm relative to the control cells (p ≤ 0.05). MLP treatments ameliorate Hi-Glc-induced negative effects by a 40% reduction in ROS production, 34-44% reduction in MDA production, over 35% inhibition of NF-κB activation, as well as exert protective effect on HepG2 cells from change in ΔΨm. Our data show that MLP in vitro can protect hepatoctyes from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damages.

  2. Comparative Proteomics Analysis Reveals L-Arginine Activates Ethanol Degradation Pathways in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Guokai; Lestari, Retno; Long, Baisheng; Fan, Qiwen; Wang, Zhichang; Guo, Xiaozhen; Yu, Jie; Hu, Jun; Yang, Xingya; Chen, Changqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Xiuzhi; Purnomoadi, Agung; Achmadi, Joelal; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    L-Arginine (Arg) is a versatile amino acid that plays crucial roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. In this study, to investigate the alteration induced by Arg supplementation in proteome scale, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based proteomic approach was employed to comparatively characterize the differentially expressed proteins between Arg deprivation (Ctrl) and Arg supplementation (+Arg) treated human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. A total of 21 proteins were identified as differentially expressed proteins and these 21 proteins were all up-regulated by Arg supplementation. Six amino acid metabolism-related proteins, mostly metabolic enzymes, showed differential expressions. Intriguingly, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) based pathway analysis suggested that the three ethanol degradation pathways were significantly altered between Ctrl and +Arg. Western blotting and enzymatic activity assays validated that the key enzymes ADH1C, ALDH1A1, and ALDH2, which are mainly involved in ethanol degradation pathways, were highly differentially expressed, and activated between Ctrl and +Arg in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, 10 mM Arg significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity induced by 100 mM ethanol treatment (P < 0.0001). This study is the first time to reveal that Arg activates ethanol degradation pathways in HepG2 cells. PMID:26983598

  3. Curcumin attenuates acrylamide-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells by ROS scavenging.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Liu, Yong; Jia, Li; Jiang, Li-Ping; Geng, Cheng-Yan; Yao, Xiao-Feng; Kong, Ying; Jiang, Bao-Na; Zhong, Lai-Fu

    2008-12-24

    Acrylamide (AA), a proven rodent carcinogen, has recently been discovered in foods heated at high temperatures. This finding raises public health concerns. In our previous study, we found that AA caused DNA fragments and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and induced genotoxicity and weak cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Presently, curcumin, a natural antioxidant compound present in turmeric was evaluated for its protective effects. The results showed that curcumin at the concentration of 2.5 microg/mL significantly reduced AA-induced ROS production, DNA fragments, micronuclei formation, and cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. The effect of PEG-catalase on protecting against AA-induced cytotoxicity suggests that AA-induced cytotoxicity is directly dependent on hydrogen peroxide production. These data suggest that curcumin could attenuate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by AA in HepG2 cells. The protection is probably mediated by an antioxidant protective mechanism. Consumption of curcumin may be a plausible way to prevent AA-mediated genotoxicity.

  4. 3,3'-OH curcumin causes apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Yun; Sun, Yong-Zheng; Zhou, Na; Du, Xiu-Mei; Yang, Jie; Guo, Shang-Jing

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, we synthesized a series of curcumin analogs and evaluated their cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells. The results exhibited that the hydroxyl group at 3,3'-position play an essential role in enhancing their anti-proliferation activity. More importantly, 3,3'-hydroxy curcumin (1b) caused apoptosis in HepG2 cells with the ROS generation, which may be mainly composed of hydroxyl radicals (HO) and H2O2. The more cytotoxic activity and ROS-generating ability of 1b may be due to the more stable in (RPMI)-1640 medium and more massive uptake than curcumin. Then the generation of ROS can disrupt the intracellular redox balance, induce lipid peroxidation, cause the collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ultimately lead to apoptosis. The results not only suggest that 3,3'-hydroxy curcumin (1b) may cause HepG2 cells apoptosis through ROS-mediated pathway, but also offer an important information for design of curcumin analog.

  5. Catalytic activity is not required for secreted PCSK9 to reduce low density lipoprotein receptors in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    McNutt, Markey C; Lagace, Thomas A; Horton, Jay D

    2007-07-20

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a member of the proteinase K subfamily of subtilases, promotes internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) after binding the receptor on the surface of hepatocytes. PCSK9 has autocatalytic activity that releases the prodomain at the N terminus of the protein. The prodomain remains tightly associated with the catalytic domain as the complex transits the secretory pathway. It is not known whether enzymatic activity is required for the LDLR-reducing effects of PCSK9. Here we expressed the prodomain together with a catalytically inactive protease domain in cells and purified the protein from the medium. The ability of the catalytically inactive PCSK9 to bind and degrade LDLRs when added to culture medium of human hepatoma HepG2 cells at physiological concentrations was similar to that seen using wild-type protein. Similarly, a catalytic-dead version of a gain-of-function mutant, PCSK9(D374Y), showed no loss of activity compared with a catalytically active counterpart; both proteins displayed approximately 10-fold increased activity in degradation of cell surface LDLRs compared with wild-type PCSK9. We conclude that the ability of PCSK9 to degrade LDLRs is independent of catalytic activity and suggest that PCSK9 functions as a chaperone to prevent LDLR recycling and/or to target LDLRs for lysosomal degradation.

  6. DNA damage caused by inorganic particulate matter on Raji and HepG2 cell lines exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Michael; Helsing, Albert V; Lynch, Philip M; El-Naggar, Atif; Alegre, Melissa M; Robison, Richard A; O'Neill, Kim L

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have correlated exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated particulate matter with cardiovascular, respiratory, and lung diseases. This study investigated the DNA damage induced by two major inorganic particulate matter compounds found in diesel exhaust, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, on Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. We found a dose-dependent positive correlation of accumulated DNA damage at concentrations of ammonium nitrate (25 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml, 400 μg/ml) with ultraviolet exposure (250 J/m(2), 400 J/m(2), 600 J/m(2), 850 J/m(2)), as measured by the comet assay in both cell lines. There was a significant difference between the treated ammonium nitrate samples and negative control samples in Raji and HepG2 cells (p<0.001). Apoptosis was shown in Raji and HepG2 cells when exposed to high concentrations of ammonium nitrate (200 μg/ml and 400 μg/ml) for 1h in samples without ultraviolet exposure, as assessed by the comet assay. However, the level of apoptosis greatly diminished after ultraviolet exposure at these concentrations. Over a 24h period, at intervals of 1, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24h, we also observed that ammonium nitrate decreased viability in Raji and HepG2 cell lines and inhibited cell growth. Ammonium sulfate-induced DNA damage was minimal in both cell lines, but there remained a significant difference (p<0.05) between the ultraviolet radiation treated and negative control samples. These results indicate that the inorganic particulate compound, ammonium nitrate, induced DNA strand breaks at all concentrations, and indications of apoptosis at high concentrations in Raji and HepG2 cells, with ultraviolet radiation preventing apoptosis at high concentrations. We hypothesize that ultraviolet radiation may inhibit an essential cellular mechanism, possibly involving p53, thereby explaining this phenomenon. Further studies are necessary to characterize the roles of

  7. The p53-inducible gene 3 involved in flavonoid-induced cytotoxicity through the reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Guangdong; Qiu, Hongbin; Zhu, Liling; Ren, Zhongjuan; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit prooxidant cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we investigated the potential mechanism that p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), a NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase, mediated the prooxidant cytotoxicity of flavonoids on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The results showed that flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, and quercetin) inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dosage- and time-dependent manner, and induced the morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. We also found that expression of PIG3 was increased markedly in HepG2 cells treated with flavonoids at both mRNA and protein levels, which was accompanied by increased intracellular ROS production and a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). All these effects were largely reversed through knockdown of the PIG3 gene in HepG2 cells. Western blotting indicated that flavonoids increased cytochrome c release, upregulated the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and activated the caspases-9 and -3. Moreover, knockdown of PIG3 could reverse the changes of these apoptotic-related proteins. These results suggest that PIG3 plays an important role in regulating the prooxidant activity and apoptosis-inducing action of flavonoids on HepG2 cells though the ROS-triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  8. The augmented anti-tumor effects of Antrodia camphorata co-fermented with Chinese medicinal herb in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Lai; Huang, Zih-Ning; Hsieh, Hsiao-Hui; Yu, Wen-Chun; Tzeng, Win-Yu; Lee, Guo-Yang; Chen, Yi-Peng; Chang, Chia-Yu; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2009-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata, unique fungal specie, has been used as a folk medicine in Taiwan for many years. The purpose of this study was to compare the extracts from the solid-state culture of A. camphorata co-fermented with Chinese medicinal herb (AC-CF) with two other extracts from fruiting bodies (AC-FB) or solid-state culture (AC-SS), for their anti-tumor effects in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. We measured in vitro cell proliferation, percentage of apoptosis, population distribution of cell cycles, Western blot analysis of multiple drugs resistance-1 (MDR-1), and apoptosis-related proteins in HepG2 cells treated with three different preparations of A. camphorate extracts. Our results showed that AC-CF had better anti-proliferation effect on human hepatoma HepG2 cells than AC-FB or AC-SS dose-dependently. In addition, AC-CF in combination with anti-tumor agents (mitomycin C or methotrexate) showed better adjuvant anti-tumor effects than AC-FB or AC-SS. We further demonstrated the augmented adjuvant anti-tumor effects of AC-CF not only through down regulation of MDR-1 expression but also through a COX-2 dependent apoptosis pathway, involving down-regulation of COX-2 and p-AKT and up-regulation of PARP-1. In conclusion, in this study, we have demonstrated a novel strategy of fermenting A. camphorata with Chinese medicinal herb (AC-CF), which augmented their anti-tumor effects in human hepatoma HepG2 cells as compared to the traditional ones (AC-FB or AC-SS).

  9. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of Caspase3 in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Jianshu; Qin, Qizhi; Jiang, Ying; Yang, Guangtao; Rao, Kaimin; Wang, Qian; Xiong, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2012-05-01

    L02 and HepG2 cells were exposed to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) at concentrations of 6.25-100μM. After 48h treatment, MEHP decreased HepG2 cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner and L02 cell viability in the 50 and 100μM groups (p<0.01). Furthermore, at 24 and 48h after treatment, MEHP decreased the glutathione levels of HepG2 cells in all treatment groups and in the ΔΨ(m) in L02 and HepG2 cells with MEHP≥25μM (p<0.05 or p<0.01). At 24h after treatment, MEHP induced activation of caspase3 in all treated HepG2 and L02 cells (p<0.05 or p<0.01) except the 100μM MEHP treatment group. The increase in the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio suggests that Bcl-2 family involved in the control of MEHP-induced apoptosis in these two cell types. The data suggest that MEHP could induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells through mitochondria- and caspase3-dependent pathways.

  10. BC047440 antisense eukaryotic expression vectors inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation and suppressed xenograft tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lu; Liang, Ping; Zhou, JianBo; Huang, XiaoBing; Wen, Yu; Wang, Zheng; Li, Jing

    2012-02-01

    The biological functions of the BC047440 gene highly expressed by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unknown. The objective of this study was to reconstruct antisense eukaryotic expression vectors of the gene for inhibiting HepG(2) cell proliferation and suppressing their xenograft tumorigenicity. The full-length BC047440 cDNA was cloned from human primary HCC by RT-PCR. BC047440 gene fragments were ligated with pMD18-T simple vectors and subsequent pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids to construct the recombinant antisense eukaryotic vector pcDNA3.1(+)BC047440AS. The endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance in target gene-transfected, vector-transfected and naive HepG(2) cells was semiquantitatively analyzed by RT-PCR and cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were profiled by flow cytometry. The in vivo xenograft experiment was performed on nude mice to examine the effects of antisense vector on tumorigenicity. BC047440 cDNA fragments were reversely inserted into pcDNA3.1(+) plasmids. The antisense vector significantly reduced the endogenous BC047440 mRNA abundance by 41% in HepG(2) cells and inhibited their proliferation in vitro (P < 0.01). More cells were arrested by the antisense vector at the G(1) phase in an apoptosis-independent manner (P = 0.014). Additionally, transfection with pcDNA3.1(+)BC047440AS significantly reduced the xenograft tumorigenicity in nude mice. As a novel cell cycle regulator associated with HCC, the BC047440 gene was involved in cell proliferation in vitro and xenograft tumorigenicity in vivo through apoptosis-independent mechanisms.

  11. The p90rsk-mediated signaling of ethanol-induced cell proliferation in HepG2 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han Sang; Kim, Su-Jin; Bae, Jinhyung; Wang, Yiyi; Park, Sun Young; Min, Young Sil; Je, Hyun Dong

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal S6 kinase is a family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in the regulation of cell viability. There are two subfamilies of ribosomal s6 kinase, (p90rsk, p70rsk). Especially, p90rsk is known to be an important downstream kinase of p44/42 MAPK. We investigated the role of p90rsk on ethanol-induced cell proliferation of HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were treated with 10~50 mM of ethanol with or without ERK and p90rsk inhibitors. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The expression of pERK1, NHE1 was measured by Western blots. The phosphorylation of p90rsk was measured by ELISA kits. The expression of Bcl-2 was measured by qRT-PCR. When the cells were treated with 10~30 mM of ethanol for 24 hour, it showed significant increase in cell viability versus control group. Besides, 10~30 mM of ethanol induced increased expression of pERK1, p-p90rsk, NHE1 and Bcl-2. Moreover treatment of p90rsk inhibitor attenuated the ethanol-induced increase in cell viability and NHE1 and Bcl-2 expression. In summary, these results suggest that p90rsk, a downstream kinase of ERK, plays a stimulatory role on ethanol-induced hepatocellular carcinoma progression by activating anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 and NHE1 known to regulate cell survival. PMID:27847436

  12. The effects of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide on the apoptosis of the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun; Zhang, Bing-Yuan; Dong, Qian; Wang, Bao-Lei; Sun, Xi-Bao

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the effects of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide (SJAMP) on the apoptosis of the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 were examined. The underlying mechanism was investigated by determining the effect of SJAMP on the expression of Bcl-2 and nm23-H1 genes in HepG2 cells. In vitro cultured HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of SJAMP. The dimethylthiazol (MTT) assay was used to determine the inhibition of cell proliferation. Expression of Bcl-2 and nm23-H1 genes was determined by Western blot analysis. The results showed that SJAMP inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, SJAMP induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, and SJAMP decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and increased the expression of nm23-H1. We conclude that SJAMP inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis. These results provide a theoretical basis for the utilization of SJAMP as a potential antitumor component for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. The target gene carrying validity to HePG2 cells with the brush-like glutathione modified chitosan compound.

    PubMed

    Li, Congxin; Zhou, Dezhong; Hu, Yuling; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Jiatong; Zhang, Zhengpu; Guo, Tianying

    2012-06-05

    The grafting modified chitosan with L-glutathione (GSH) end capped PEG brush-like poly [poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] (PMPEG), CS-PMPEG-GSH, as the pDNA condensed vector material could result in a much higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxity for NIH3T3 cells. In this work, we have further examined the morphology stabilities of CS-PMPEG-GSH/pDNA vectors at different medium pH values and in the presence of serum protein in detail. And then the targeted characters for HepG2 cells have been probed by tracing the cell uptake behavior and transfection efficiency.

  14. A bioassay using the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 for detecting phototoxicity of furocoumarins.

    PubMed

    Colombain, M; Goll, V; Muyard, F; Girard, C; Bévalot, F; Richert, L

    2001-10-01

    We successfully evaluated the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 as a model to assess phototoxicity of coumarins. Five natural furocoumarins were tested and their phototoxic activities, obtained by measuring cell viability in the presence of UV using the MTT test, were as follows: xanthotoxin (8-MOP) > heraclenol = trichoclin = imperatorin > peucedanin, both in growing and confluent cell cultures. This easy-to-perform, miniaturised, quantitative and sensitive method could therefore be used as a primary screening test for phototoxicity of a large number of compounds and plant extracts.

  15. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS-Ca(2+)-JNK mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Han, Lirong; Qi, Wentao; Cheng, Dai; Ma, Xiaolei; Hou, Lihua; Cao, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunling

    2015-01-24

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a well-known dietary n-3 PUFAS, has been considered to inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanism related to EPA-induced liver cancer cells apoptosis has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA on HepG2 cells proliferation and apoptosis mechanism through mitochondrial pathways. EPA inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and had no significant effect on the cell viability of humor normal liver L-02 cells. It was found that EPA initially evoked ROS formation, leading to [Ca(2+)]c accumulation and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening; EPA-induced HepG2 cells apoptosis was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an inhibitor of ROS), 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM, a chelator of calcium) and CsA (inhibitor of MPTP). The relationship between ROS production, the increase of cytoplasmic Ca and MPTP opening was detected. It seems that ROS may act as an upstream regulator of EPA-induced [Ca(2+)]c generation, moreover, generation of ROS, overload of mitochondrial [Ca(2+)]c, and JNK activated cause the opening of MPTP. Western blotting results showed that EPA elevated the phosphorylation status of JNK, processes associated with the ROS generation. Simultaneously, the apoptosis induced by EPA was related to release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm through the MPTP and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These results suggest that EPA induces apoptosis through ROS-Ca(2+)-JNK mitochondrial pathways.

  16. Water and methanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis protect HepG2 cells from t-BHP induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristovao F; Valentao, Patricia C R; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2007-04-25

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is an aromatic and medicinal plant well known for its antioxidant properties. Some in vivo studies have shown the biological antioxidant effects of sage. However, the intracellular antioxidant mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the cytoprotective effects of two sage extracts (a water and a methanolic extract) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. The most abundant phenolic compounds present in the extracts were rosmarinic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside. Both extracts, when co-incubated with the toxicant, protected significantly HepG2 cells against cell death. The methanolic extract, with a higher content of phenolic compounds than the water extract, conferred better protection in this in vitro model of oxidative stress with liver cells. Both extracts, tested in a concentration that protects 80% against cell death (IC(80)), significantly prevented t-BHP-induced lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion, but not DNA damage assessed by the comet assay. The ability of sage extracts to reduce t-BHP-induced GSH depletion by 62% was probably the most relevant contributor to the observed cytoprotection. A good correlation between the above cellular effects of sage and the effects of their main phenolic compounds was found. When incubated alone for 5h, sage extracts induced an increase in basal GSH levels of HepG2 cells, which indicates an improvement of the antioxidant potential of the cells. Compounds present in sage extracts other than phenolics may also contribute to this latter effect. Based in these results, it would be of interest to investigate whether sage has protective effects in suitable in vivo models of liver diseases, where it is known that oxidative stress is involved.

  17. Black Soybean Seed Coat Extract Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Cell Death via Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase Signalling in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Oki, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Kazunori; Suda, Ikuo; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress reduces cell viability and contributes to disease processes. Flavonoids including anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins reportedly induce intracellular antioxidant defence systems. Thus, in this study, we examined the antioxidant effects of a commercial extract from black soybean seed coats (BE), which are rich in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin, and investigated the associated intracellular mechanisms in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide (HPO) showed 60% viability, whereas pretreatment with BE-containing media for 2 h ameliorated HPO-mediated cell death by up to 90%. Pretreatment with BE for 2 h partially blocked HPO-mediated activation of ERK in HepG2 cells, and that for 1 h led to a 20% increase in intracellular total protein phosphatase (PP) activity, which is known to deactivate protein kinases. These results indicate that BE prevents HPO-mediated cell damage by inhibiting ERK signalling, potentially via PPs.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer effect of the ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dan; Lai, Shang-Hai; Yang, Hui-Hui; Tang, Bing; Zhang, Cheng; Yin, Hui; Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2016-12-01

    As one of the major cell regulated center, mitochondria are closely associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis of tumor cell. In this work, four new ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(bpy)2(FTTP)](ClO4)2 (1) (FTTP=11-(3-fluoro-naphthalen-2-yloxy)-4,5,9,14-tetraaza-benzo[b]triphenylene, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine), [Ru(phen)2(FTTP)](ClO4)2 (2) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline), [Ru(bpy)2(PTTP)](ClO4)2 (3) (PTTP=2-phenoxy-1,4,8,9-tetraazatriphenylene) and [Ru(phen)2(PTTP)](ClO4)2 (4) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The cytotoxic activity, ability of inhibiting cell invasion, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-inducing mechanism of these Ru(II) complexes have been investigated in detail by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method, invasion assay, comet assay as well as western blotting techniques. Notably, complexes 1-4 displayed high cytotoxic activity against liver carcinoma HepG2 cells and the IC50 values of complexes 1-4 against HepG2 cells are 10.4±1.2, 9.3±0.6, 29.1±1.5 and 5.6±1.2μM, respectively. The comet assay showed that the complexes can induce DNA damage. The acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) staining method indicated that the complexes can cause apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Further studies showed that complexes 1-4 caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and induced HepG2 cells apoptosis through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway, which involved an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases and Bcl-2 family proteins.

  19. Amphiregulin impairs apoptosis-stimulating protein 2 of p53 overexpression-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Lin, Dongdong; Ouyang, Yabo; Pang, Lijun; Guo, Xianghua; Wang, Shanshan; Zang, Yunjin; Chen, Dexi

    2017-03-01

    Overexpression of apoptosis-stimulating protein 2 of p53 (ASPP2) induces apoptotic cell death in hepatoma cells (e.g. HepG2 cells) by enhancing the transactivation activity of p53, but long-term ASPP2 overexpression fails to induce more apoptosis since activation of the epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor/SOS1 pathway impairs the pro-apoptotic role of ASPP2. In this study, in recombinant adenovirus-ASPP2-infected HepG2 cells, ASPP2 overexpression induces amphiregulin expression in a p53-dependent manner. Although amphiregulin initially contributes to ASPP2-induced apoptosis, it eventually impairs the pro-apoptotic function of ASPP2 by activating the epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor/SOS1 pathway, leading to apoptosis resistance. Moreover, blocking soluble amphiregulin with a neutralizing antibody also significantly increased apoptotic cell death of HepG2 cells due to treatment with methyl methanesulfonate, cisplatin, or a recombinant p53 adenovirus, suggesting that the function of amphiregulin involved in inhibiting apoptosis may be a common mechanism by which hepatoma cells escape from stimulus-induced apoptosis. Thus, our data elucidate an apoptosis-evasion mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma and have potential implications for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  20. Hepatoprotective potential of Lavandula coronopifolia extracts against ethanol induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtsam S; Al-Oqail, Mai M; Hassan, Wafaa H B; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

    2015-08-01

    The present investigations were carried out to study the protective potential of four extracts (namely petroleum ether extract (LCR), chloroform extract (LCM), ethyl acetate extract (LCE), and alcoholic extract (LCL)) of Lavandula coronopifolia on oxidative stress-mediated cell death induced by ethanol, a known hepatotoxin in human hapatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cells were pretreated with LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts (10-50 μg/ml) of L. coronopifolia for 24 h and then ethanol was added and incubated further for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red uptake assays and morphological changes in HepG2 cells were studied. Pretreatment with various extracts of L. coronpifolia was found to be significantly effective in countering the cytotoxic responses of ethanol. Antioxidant properties of these L. coronopifolia extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels induced by ethanol were investigated. Results show that pretreatment with these extracts for 24 h significantly inhibited ROS generation and LPO induced and increased the GSH levels reduced by ethanol. The data from the study suggests that LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts of L. coronopifolia showed hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced damage in HepG2 cells. However, a comparative study revealed that the LCE extract was found to be the most effective and LCL the least effective. The hepatoprotective effects observed in the study could be associated with the antioxidant properties of these extracts of L. coronopifolia.

  1. Comparative cytotoxicity of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Zheng, Jiwen; Graham, Lesley; Chen, Lynn; Ihrie, John; Yourick, Jeffrey J; Sprando, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles in food, food contact materials, dietary supplements and cosmetics has increased significantly owing to their antibacterial and antifungal properties. As a consequence, the need for validated rapid screening methods to assess their toxicity is necessary to ensure consumer safety. This study evaluated two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 cells and human colon Caco2 cells, as tools for assessing the potential cytotoxicity of food- and cosmetic-related nanoparticles. The two cell culture models were utilized to compare the potential cytotoxicity of 20-nm silver. The average size of the silver nanoparticle determined by our transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was 20.4 nm. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis showed no large agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. The concentration of the 20-nm silver solution determined by our inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was 0.962 mg ml(-1) . Our ICP-MS and TEM analysis demonstrated the uptake of 20-nm silver by both HepG2 and Caco2 cells. Cytotoxicity, determined by the Alamar Blue reduction assay, was evaluated in the nanosilver concentration range of 0.1 to 20 µg ml(-1) . Significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of the nanosilver in HepG2 cells was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 20 µg ml(-1) and at a higher concentration range of 10 to 20 µg ml(-1) in Caco2 cells compared with the vehicle control. A concentration-dependent decrease in dsDNA content was observed in both cell types exposed to nanosilver but not controls, suggesting an increase in DNA damage. The DNA damage was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 20 µg ml(-1) . Nanosilver-exposed HepG2 and Caco2 cells showed no cellular oxidative stress, determined by the dichlorofluorescein assay, compared with the vehicle control in the concentration range used in this study. A concentration-dependent decrease in

  2. Gallic acid reduces cell growth by induction of apoptosis and reduction of IL-8 in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lima, Kelly Goulart; Krause, Gabriele Catyana; Schuster, Aline Daniele; Catarina, Anderson Velasque; Basso, Bruno Souza; De Mesquita, Fernanda Cristina; Pedrazza, Leonardo; Marczak, Elisa Simon; Martha, Bianca Andrade; Nunes, Fernanda Bordignon; Chiela, Eduardo Cremonese Filippi; Jaeger, Natália; Thomé, Marcos Paulo; Haute, Gabriela Viegas; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes; De Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most prevalent primary liver tumor and is among the top ten cancer that affect the world population. Its development is related, in most cases, to the existence of chronic liver injury, such as in cirrhosis. The knowledge about the correlation between chronic inflammation and cancer has driven new researches with anti-inflammatory agents that have potential for the development of antitumor drugs. Gallic acid is a phenolic acid found in many natural products and have shown anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-mutagenic and antioxidant actions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gallic acid on acute and chronic cell proliferation and inflammatory parameters of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), as well as to investigate the mechanisms involved. Results showed that the gallic acid decreased the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner (Trypan blue exclusion assay), without causing necrosis (LDH assay). We observed a significant increase in the percentage of small and regular nuclei (Nuclear Morphometric Analysis assay), a significant induction of apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC and PI assay and no interference with the cell cycle using the FITC BrdU Flow Kit. We observed a significant reduction in the levels of IL-8 and increased levels of IL-10 and IL-12 (Cytometric Bead Array Human Inflammation Assay). Furthermore, gallic acid caused no cancer cells regrowth at a long term (Cumulative Population Doubling assay). According to these results, gallic acid showed a strong potential as an anti-tumor agent in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  3. Galangin Induces Autophagy via Deacetylation of LC3 by SIRT1 in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xv; Wang, Yajun; Xiong, Yuzhen; Wu, Jun; Ding, Hang; Chen, Xiaoyi; Lan, Liubo; Zhang, Haitao

    2016-07-27

    Galangin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis and autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, but the precise mechanism is not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that galangin induced autophagy, enhanced the binding of SIRT1-LC3 and reduced the acetylation of endogenous LC3 in HepG2 cells. But this autophagy was inhibited by inactivation of SIRT1 meanwhile, galangin failed to reduce the acetylation of endogenous LC3 after SIRT1 was knocked-down. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a new mechanism by which galangin induces autophagy via the deacetylation of endogenous LC3 by SIRT1.

  4. Galangin Induces Autophagy via Deacetylation of LC3 by SIRT1 in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xv; Wang, Yajun; Xiong, Yuzhen; Wu, Jun; Ding, Hang; Chen, Xiaoyi; Lan, Liubo; Zhang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Galangin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis and autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, but the precise mechanism is not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that galangin induced autophagy, enhanced the binding of SIRT1-LC3 and reduced the acetylation of endogenous LC3 in HepG2 cells. But this autophagy was inhibited by inactivation of SIRT1 meanwhile, galangin failed to reduce the acetylation of endogenous LC3 after SIRT1 was knocked-down. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a new mechanism by which galangin induces autophagy via the deacetylation of endogenous LC3 by SIRT1. PMID:27460655

  5. Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells and in mice.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Su-yin; Lee, Pei-yi; Lai, Ming-tsung; Shen, Li-ching; Chung, Wen-sheng; Huang, Hui-fen; Wu, Kuen-yuh; Wu, Hsiu-ching

    2011-12-24

    Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SAFO) is a reactive electrophilic metabolite of the hepatocarcinogen safrole, the main component of sassafras oil. Safrole occurs naturally in a variety of spices and herbs, including the commonly used Chinese medicine Xi xin (Asari Radix et Rhizoma) and Dong quai (Angelica sinensis). SAFO is the most mutagenic metabolite of safrole tested in the Ames test. However, little or no data are available on the genotoxicity of SAFO in mammalian systems. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SAFO in human HepG2 cells and male FVB mice. Using MTT assay, SAFO exhibited a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells with TC(50) values of 361.9μM and 193.2μM after 24 and 48h exposure, respectively. In addition, treatment with SAFO at doses of 125μM and higher for 24h in HepG2 cells resulted in a 5.1-79.6-fold increase in mean Comet tail moment by the alkaline Comet assay and a 2.6-7.8-fold increase in the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Furthermore, repeated intraperitoneal administration of SAFO (15, 30, 45, and 60mg/kg) to mice every other day for a total of twelve doses caused a significant dose-dependent increase in mean Comet tail moment in peripheral blood leukocytes (13.3-43.4-fold) and in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (1.5-5.8-fold). Repeated administration of SAFO (60mg/kg) to mice caused liver lesions manifested as a rim of ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes immediately surrounding the central vein. Our data clearly demonstrate that SAFO significantly induced cytotoxicity, DNA strand breaks, micronuclei formation both in human cells in vitro and in mice. More studies are needed to explore the role SAFO plays in safrole-induced genotoxicity.

  6. Berberine Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression through Proteasomal Degradation in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Xuanbin; Tan, Hor-Yue; Li, Sha; Tsang, Chi Man; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the underlying mechanism on berberine-induced Cyclin D1 degradation in human hepatic carcinoma. We observed that berberine could suppress both in vitro and in vivo expression of Cyclin D1 in hepatoma cells. Berberine exhibits dose- and time-dependent inhibition on Cyclin D1 expression in human hepatoma cell HepG2. Berberine increases the phosphorylation of Cyclin D1 at Thr286 site and potentiates Cyclin D1 nuclear export to cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. In addition, berberine recruits the Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex-β-Transducin Repeat Containing Protein (SCFβ-TrCP) complex to facilitate Cyclin D1 ubiquitin-proteasome dependent proteolysis. Knockdown of β-TrCP blocks Cyclin D1 turnover induced by berberine; blocking the protein degradation induced by berberine in HepG2 cells increases tumor cell resistance to berberine. Our results shed light on berberine′s potential as an anti-tumor agent for clinical cancer therapy. PMID:27854312

  7. Peroxisomal oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) by human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, P.A.; Ferrell, E.V. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Beta-oxidation of VLCFA was studied in a human hepatoma cell line (HEP-G2). These cells, disrupted by exposure to low concentrations of digitonin, oxidize (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate (C16:0) and (1-/sup 14/C)lignocerate (C24:0) to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and water-soluble products. It was recently reported that in rat liver the beta-oxidation of VLCFA takes place primarily in the peroxisome rather than the mitochondrion. The precise site of VLCFA oxidation in human tissues has not been clearly elucidated. The peroxisome has been implicated since there is impaired VLCFA oxidation in fibroblasts from Zellweger syndrome patients, in which this organelle is deficient. In order to define the subcellular localization of human VLCFA oxidation, homogenates of HEP-G2 cells were fractionated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Fractions enriched in the peroxisomal marker catalase oxidized C24:0 at significantly greater rates than fractions enriched in the mitochondrial marker succinate:cytochrome c reductase. C16:0 oxidation was catalyzed by both peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. These results suggest that the subcellular site of VLCFA oxidation in human hepatoma cells and rat liver is similar.

  8. Akbu-LAAO exhibits potent anti-tumor activity to HepG2 cells partially through produced H2O2 via TGF-β signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunmei; Liu, Shuqing; Dong, Panpan; Zhao, Dongting; Wang, Chengyi; Tao, Zhiwei; Sun, Ming-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we characterized the biological properties of Akbu-LAAO, a novel L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom (SV). Current work investigated its in vitro anti-tumor activity and underlying mechanism on HepG2 cells. Akbu-LAAO inhibited HepG2 growth time and dose-dependently with an IC50 of ~38.82 μg/mL. It could induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Akbu-LAAO exhibited cytotoxicity by inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis of HepG2 as it showed no effect on its cell cycle. The inhibition of Akbu-LAAO to HepG2 growth partially relied on enzymatic-released H2O2 as catalase only partially antagonized this effect. cDNA microarray results indicated TGF-β signaling pathway was linked to the cytotoxicity of Akbu-LAAO on HepG2. TGF-β pathway related molecules CYR61, p53, GDF15, TOB1, BTG2, BMP2, BMP6, SMAD9, JUN, JUNB, LOX, CCND1, CDK6, GADD45A, CDKN1A were deregulated in HepG2 following Akbu-LAAO stimulation. The presence of catalase only slightly restored the mRNA changes induced by Akbu-LAAO for differentially expressed genes. Meanwhile, LDN-193189, a TGF-β pathway inhibitor reduced Akbu-LAAO cytotoxicity on HepG2. Collectively, we reported, for the first time, SV-LAAO showed anti-tumor cell activity via TGF-β pathway. It provides new insight of SV-LAAO exhibiting anti-tumor effect via a novel signaling pathway. PMID:26655928

  9. FoxO proteins' nuclear retention and BH3-only protein Bim induction evoke mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated apoptosis in berberine-treated HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shatrunajay; Rizvi, Fatima; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Kakkar, Poonam

    2014-11-01

    Mammalian forkhead-box family members belonging to the 'O' category (FoxO) manipulate a plethora of genes modulating a wide array of cellular functions including cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, and energy metabolism. FoxO overexpression and nuclear accumulation have been reported to show correlation with hindered tumor growth in vitro and size in vivo, while FoxO's downregulation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway has been linked with tumor promotion. In this study, we have explored for the first time intervention of berberine, a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid, with FoxO family proteins in hepatoma cells. We observed that berberine significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of both FoxO1 and FoxO3a. Their phosphorylation-mediated cytoplasmic sequestration followed by degradation was prevented by berberine-induced downmodulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway which promoted FoxO nuclear retention. PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene and negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt axis, was upregulated while phosphorylation of its Ser380 residue (possible mechanism of PTEN degradation) was significantly decreased in treated HepG2 cells. Exposure to berberine induced a significant increase in transcriptional activity of FoxO, as shown by GFP reporter assay. FoxO transcription factors effectively heightened BH3-only protein Bim expression, which in turn, being a direct activator of proapoptotic protein Bax, altered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, culminating into mitochondrial dysfunction, caspases activation, and DNA fragmentation. The pivotal role of Bim in berberine-mediated cytotoxicity was further corroborated by knockdown experiments where Bim-silencing partially restored HepG2 cell viability during berberine exposure. In addition, a correlation between oxidative overload and FoxO's nuclear accumulation via JNK activation was evident as berberine treatment led to a pronounced increase in JNK phosphorylation together with enhanced

  10. Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) aggregates inhibited proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted apoptosis, especially for hepatoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinqian; Sun, Qiang; Bo, Jian; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Mengran; Xia, Zhenglin; Ju, Lili; Xiang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) may be useful as carriers for anticancer drugs due to their particular structure. However, the interactions between the material itself and cancerous or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, the effects of raw SWNH material on the biological functions of human liver cell lines were studied. Our results showed that unmodified SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth, and proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted their apoptosis, especially in hepatoma cell lines. Individual spherical SWNH particles were found inside the nuclei of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the lysosomes of normal human liver L02 cells, implying that SWNH particles could penetrate into human liver cells_and the different interacted mechanisms on human normal cell lines compared to hepatoma cell lines. Further research on the mechanisms and application in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with SWNHs is needed. PMID:24523586

  11. TALENs-directed knockout of the full-length transcription factor Nrf1α that represses malignant behaviour of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yonggang; Qiu, Lu; Lü, Fenglin; Ru, Xufang; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Yu, Siwang; Zhang, Yiguo

    2016-04-11

    The full-length Nrf1α is processed into distinct isoforms, which together regulate genes essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and organ integrity, and liver-specific loss of Nrf1 in mice results in spontaneous hepatoma. Herein, we report that the human constitutive Nrf1α, rather than smaller Nrf1β/γ, expression is attenuated or abolished in the case of low-differentiated high-metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas. Therefore, Nrf1α is of importance in the physio-pathological origin and development, but its specific pathobiological function(s) remains elusive. To address this, TALENs-directed knockout of Nrf1α, but not Nrf1β/γ, is created in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The resulting Nrf1α(-/-) cells are elongated, with slender spindle-shapes and enlarged gaps between cells observed under scanning electron microscope. When compared with wild-type controls, the invasive and migratory abilities of Nrf1α(-/-) cells are increased significantly, along with the cell-cycle G2-M arrest and S-phase reduction, as accompanied by suppressed apoptosis. Despite a modest increase in the soft-agar colony formation of Nrf1α(-/-) cells, its loss-of-function markedly promotes malgrowth of the subcutaneous carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with hepatic metastasis. Together with molecular expression results, we thus suppose requirement of Nrf1α (and major derivates) for gene regulatory mechanisms repressing cancer cell process (e.g. EMT) and malignant behaviour (e.g. migration).

  12. TALENs-directed knockout of the full-length transcription factor Nrf1α that represses malignant behaviour of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yonggang; Qiu, Lu; Lü, Fenglin; Ru, Xufang; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Yu, Siwang; Zhang, Yiguo

    2016-01-01

    The full-length Nrf1α is processed into distinct isoforms, which together regulate genes essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and organ integrity, and liver-specific loss of Nrf1 in mice results in spontaneous hepatoma. Herein, we report that the human constitutive Nrf1α, rather than smaller Nrf1β/γ, expression is attenuated or abolished in the case of low-differentiated high-metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas. Therefore, Nrf1α is of importance in the physio-pathological origin and development, but its specific pathobiological function(s) remains elusive. To address this, TALENs-directed knockout of Nrf1α, but not Nrf1β/γ, is created in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The resulting Nrf1α−/− cells are elongated, with slender spindle-shapes and enlarged gaps between cells observed under scanning electron microscope. When compared with wild-type controls, the invasive and migratory abilities of Nrf1α−/− cells are increased significantly, along with the cell-cycle G2-M arrest and S-phase reduction, as accompanied by suppressed apoptosis. Despite a modest increase in the soft-agar colony formation of Nrf1α−/− cells, its loss-of-function markedly promotes malgrowth of the subcutaneous carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with hepatic metastasis. Together with molecular expression results, we thus suppose requirement of Nrf1α (and major derivates) for gene regulatory mechanisms repressing cancer cell process (e.g. EMT) and malignant behaviour (e.g. migration). PMID:27065079

  13. Berberine relieves insulin resistance via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Fen; Zhao, Yun-bin; Wang, Ding-kun; Zou, Xin; Fang, Ke; Wang, Kai-fu

    2016-02-01

    Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Rhizoma coptidis and has been used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in China. The development of T2DM is often associated with insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. In this study, we examined whether BBR attenuated glucose uptake dysfunction through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in HepG2 cells. Cellular glucose uptake, quantified by the 2-[N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG), was inhibited by 21% after HepG2 cells were incubated with insulin (10(-6) mol/L) for 36 h. Meanwhile, the expression of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) protein was reduced without the change of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the culture supernatant, the ratio of phosphorylated I-kappa-B kinase-β (IKκβ) Ser181/IKKβ and the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein were also increased. However, the treatment with BBR enhanced the glucose uptake, increased the expression of α7nAChR protein and inhibited AChE activity. These changes were also accompanied with the decrease of the ratio of pIKKβ Ser181/IKKβ, NF-κB p65 expression and IL-6 level. Taken together, these results suggest that BBR could enhance glucose uptake, and relieve insulin resistance and inflammation in HepG2 cells. The mechanism may be related to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and the inhibition of AChE activity.

  14. Fucosterol activates the insulin signaling pathway in insulin resistant HepG2 cells via inhibiting PTP1B.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Ah; Bhakta, Himanshu Kumar; Min, Byung-Sun; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-10-01

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. This study investigated the modulatory effects of fucosterol on the insulin signaling pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). In addition, molecular docking simulation studies were performed to predict binding energies, the specific binding site of fucosterol to PTP1B, and to identify interacting residues using Autodock 4.2 software. Glucose uptake was determined using a fluorescent D-glucose analogue and the glucose tracer 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxyglucose, and the signaling pathway was detected by Western blot analysis. We found that fucosterol enhanced insulin-provoked glucose uptake and conjointly decreased PTP1B expression level in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. Moreover, fucosterol significantly reduced insulin-stimulated serine (Ser307) phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and increased phosphorylation of Akt, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and extracellular signal- regulated kinase 1 at concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 µM in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. Fucosterol inhibited caspase-3 activation and nuclear factor kappa B in insulin-resistant hepatocytes. These results suggest that fucosterol stimulates glucose uptake and improves insulin resistance by downregulating expression of PTP1B and activating the insulin signaling pathway. Thus, fucosterol has potential for development as an anti-diabetic agent.

  15. The role of lysosomes in BDE 47-mediated activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Jian; Lu, Chengquan; Zhu, Chunyan; Qian, Bo; Li, Zhenwei; Liu, Chang; Shao, Jing; Yan, Jinsong

    2015-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of widely used flame retardants. The rising presence of PBDEs in human tissues has received considerable concerns with regard to potential health risks. While the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway has been suggested in PBDEs-induced apoptosis, the role of lysosomes is yet to be understood. In the present study, HepG2 cells were exposed to BDE 47 at various concentrations and durations to establish the causal and temporal relationships among various cellular events, such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, and expression of cytochrome C and caspase 3. The involvement of lysosomes was simultaneously studied by evaluating lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP) and changes in the expression of cathepsin B, a lysosome hydrolase. In addition, a cathepsin B inhibitor (10 μM CA-074) was used to determine the involvement of lysosomes and potential interactions between lysosomes and mitochondria. Our results showed that ROS production was an initial response of HepG2 to BDE 47 exposure, followed by a decreased MMP; a loss of MMP caused additional ROS generation which acted to induce LMP; an increased LMP resulted in a release of cathepsin B which aggravated the loss of MMP leading to release of cytochrome C and caspase 3 and subsequent apoptosis. Pretreatment with CA-074 did not abolish the initial ROS generation, however, all downstream events were dramatically alleviated. Taken together, our data indicate that lysosomes might be involved in BDE 47-mediated mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway in HepG2 cells, possibly through feedback interactions between mitochondria and lysosomes.

  16. Crude extract and solvent fractions of Calystegia soldanella induce G1 and S phase arrest of the cell cycle in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Im; Kim, In-Hye; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    The representative halophyte Calystegia soldanella (L) Roem. et Schult is a perennial vine herb that grows in coastal dunes throughout South Korea as well as in other regions around the world. This plant has long been used as an edible and medicinal herb to cure rheumatic arthritis, sore throat, dropsy, and scurvy. Some studies have also shown that this plant species exhibits various biological activities. However, there are few studies on cytotoxicity induced by C. soldanella treatment in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In this study, we investigated the viability of HepG2 cells following treatment with crude extracts and four solvent-partitioned fractions of C. soldanella. Of the crude extract and four solvent fractions tested, treatment with the 85% aqueous methanol (aq. MeOH) fraction resulted in the greatest inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation. Flow cytometry showed that the 85% aq. MeOH fraction induced a G0/G1 and S phase arrest of the cell cycle progression. The 85% aq. MeOH fraction arrested HepG2 cells at the G0/G1 phase in a concentration-dependent manner, and resulted in decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, CDK4, CDK6, p21, and p27. Additionally, the 85% aq. MeOH fraction treatment also arrested HepG2 cells in the S phase, with decreased expression of cyclin A, CDK2, and CDC25A. Also, treatment with this fraction reduced the expression of retinoblastoma (RB) protein and the transcription factor E2F. These results suggest that the 85% aq. MeOH fraction exhibits potential anticancer activity in HepG2 cells by inducing G0/G1 and S phase arrest of the cell cycle. PMID:28101580

  17. Effect of knockdown of ezrin, radixin, and moesin on P-glycoprotein function in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kano, Takashi; Wada, Sho; Morimoto, Kaori; Kato, Yukio; Ogihara, Takuo

    2011-12-01

    Ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) proteins regulate functional expression of certain transporters, but little is known about their effect on P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Here, we investigated the influence of ERM proteins on the expression and activity of P-gp at the transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels, using HepG2 as a model cell line. Knockdown of ezrin with RNA interference decreased the level of P-gp messenger RNA. On the contrary, knockdown of radixin caused a decrease of the P-gp gene product at the cell surface, but not in whole cell lysate. Furthermore, a significant increase in accumulation of rhodamine123, a typical P-gp substrate, was observed in radixin knockdown cells, compared with control cells. Knockdown of moesin did not influence the expression or function of P-gp. These results indicate that ezrin influences the expression of P-gp at the translational level, whereas radixin is involved in membrane localization of P-gp in HepG2 cells.

  18. Cytotoxicity of 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT) and analogues in wild type and CYP3A4 stably transfected HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Douglas M; Jacinto, Erina Y; Patel, Niti N; Rushmore, Thomas H; Tchao, Ruy; Harvison, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    The thiazolidinedione (TZD) ring is a constituent of the glitazones that are used to treat type II diabetes. Liver injury has been reported following chronic glitazone use; however, they do not produce hepatic damage in common laboratory animal species. In contrast, 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT) causes hepatotoxicity in rats. DCPT toxicity is dependent upon the presence of an intact TZD ring and cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated biotransformation. To further investigate TZD ring-induced toxicity, DCPT and several structural analogues or potential metabolites were tested in vitro using wild type human hepatoma HepG2 and HepG2 cells stably transfected with the CYP3A4 isozyme. CYP3A4 activity was confirmed by measuring testosterone 6β-hydroxylation. Both cell lines were treated with 0-250 μM of the compounds in Hanks' balanced salt solution. Cell viability was measured after 24 h. DCPT and S-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)aminocarbonyl thioglycolic acid (DCTA) were the most toxic compounds of the series. Furthermore, DCPT was significantly more toxic in transfected cells (LC50=160.2±5.9 μM) than in wild type cells (LC50=233.0±19.7 μM). Treatment with a CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer attenuated or potentiated DCPT cytotoxicity, respectively. These results suggest that DCPT-induced cytotoxicity in the transfected HepG2 cells is partially dependent on CYP3A4.

  19. Cytotoxicity of 3-(3,5-Dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT) and Analogues in Wild Type and CYP3A4 Stably Transfected HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Douglas M.; Jacinto, Erina Y.; Patel, Niti N.; Rushmore, Thomas H.; Tchao, Ruy; Harvison, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The thiazolidinedione (TZD) ring is a constituent of the glitazones that are used to treat type II diabetes. Liver injury has been reported following chronic glitazone use; however, they do not produce hepatic damage in common laboratory animal species. In contrast, 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT) causes hepatotoxicity in rats. DCPT toxicity is dependent upon the presence of an intact TZD ring and cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated biotransformation. To further investigate TZD ring-induced toxicity, DCPT and several structural analogues or potential metabolites were tested in vitro using wild type human hepatoma HepG2 and HepG2 cells stably transfected with the CYP3A4 isozyme. CYP3A4 activity was confirmed by measuring testosterone 6β-hydroxylation. Both cell lines were treated with 0-250 μM of the compounds in Hanks' balanced salt solution. Cell viability was measured after 24 hrs. DCPT and S-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)aminocarbonyl thioglycolic acid (DCTA) were the most toxic compounds of the series. Furthermore, DCPT was significantly more toxic in transfected cells (LC50 = 160.2 ± 5.9 μM) than in wild type cells (LC50 = 233.0 ± 19.7 μM). Treatment with a CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer attenuated or potentiated DCPT cytotoxicity, respectively. These results suggest that DCPT-induced cytotoxicity in the transfected HepG2 cells is partially dependent on CYP3A4. PMID:21964476

  20. Allyl-isatin suppresses cell viability, induces cell cycle arrest, and promotes cell apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bian, Weihua; An, Yukuan; Qu, Huiqing; Yang, Yue; Yang, Junhou; Xu, Yanyan

    2016-06-01

    The anticancer effect of the newly synthesized isatin derivative, N-allyl-isatin (Allyl-I), was evaluated in vitro with human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay. Acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double staining was used to observe the cell morphology. Flow cytometry was used to assess the effects of Allyl-I on the cell cycle, apoptosis rate, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Western blot analysis was performed to detect the influence of Ally1-I on the expression of cytochrome c (cyt c), Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3. Allyl-I significantly inhibited HepG2 cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Allyl-I can induce cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the G2/M phase. Apoptotic nuclear morphological changes were observed after AO/EB double staining. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Annexin V (Annexin V-FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) double staining showed that the apoptotic rates significantly increased in the presence of Allyl-I. Rhodamine 123 staining indicated that Allyl-I can decrease the MMP. Allyl-I also altered the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins. Protein levels of cyt c and cleaved caspase-3 were upregulated following Allyl-I treatment. By contrast, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio decreased. Results suggest that Allyl-I suppresses cell viability, induces cell cycle arrest, and promotes cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the induction of apoptosis might be correlated with the mitochondrial pathway.

  1. Cellular uptake, elimination and toxicity of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Wu, Qiumei; Zhang, Zhiling; Pang, Daiwen; Zhu, Ying; Hu, Bin

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the cellular uptake, elimination and toxicity of CdSe/ZnS QDs in HepG2 cells were comprehensively studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), MTT assay, AO/EB staining, and glutathione level and gene expression analysis. ICP-MS analytical results showed that the uptake efficiency of CdSe QDs by HepG2 cells was lower than that of Cd(II) and Se(IV), and the uptake was dose- and time-dependent. The uptake amount was related to the physicochemical properties of QDs, and NH2-QDs with smaller size were more easily taken up by cells. In combination with various biochemical methodologies, a systematic and thorough quantitative analysis of the in vitro effects of CdSe/ZnS QDs with different coatings was conducted, along with that of Cd (II) and Se (IV). Although Cd(II) above 8.9 μM exhibited obvious toxicity to the cells, no obvious toxicity of four CdSe/ZnS QDs was observed within the tested concentration range (10-100 nM), most likely due to the protection of the ZnS shell and the PEG coating. From the molecular level's point of view, QDs at concentration of 100 nM exhibit obvious impact on the cells, such as increased gene expression (MT1A and CYP1A1), which was positively correlated with the intracellular concentration of QDs.

  2. Differential Genomic Effects of Six Different TiO2 Nanomaterials on Human Liver HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Thai, Sheau-Fung; Wallace, Kathleen A; Jones, Carlton P; Ren, Hongzu; Grulke, Eric; Castellon, Benjamin T; Crooks, James; Kitchin, Kirk T

    2016-07-01

    Human HepG2 cells were exposed to six TiO2 nanomaterials (with dry primary particle sizes ranging from 22 to 214 nm, either 0.3, 3, or 30 μg/mL) for 3 days. Some of these canonical pathways changed by nano-TiO2 in vitro treatments have been already reported in the literature, such as NRF2-mediated stress response, fatty acid metabolism, cell cycle and apoptosis, immune response, cholesterol biosynthesis, and glycolysis. But this genomic study also revealed some novel effects such as protein synthesis, protein ubiquitination, hepatic fibrosis, and cancer-related signaling pathways. More importantly, this genomic analysis of nano-TiO2 treated HepG2 cells linked some of the in vitro canonical pathways to in vivo adverse outcomes: NRF2-mediated response pathways to oxidative stress, acute phase response to inflammation, cholesterol biosynthesis to steroid hormones alteration, fatty acid metabolism changes to lipid homeostasis alteration, G2/M cell checkpoint regulation to apoptosis, and hepatic fibrosis/stellate cell activation to liver fibrosis.

  3. A Silver(I)-Estrogen Nanocluster: GSH Sensitivity and Targeting Suppression on HepG2 Cell.

    PubMed

    Shen, De-Feng; Wu, Shan-Shan; Wang, Rui-Rui; Zhang, Qiang; Ren, Zhong-Juan; Liu, Hong; Guo, Hua-Dong; Gao, Guang-Gang

    2016-11-01

    A structure-determined silver nanocluster of [Ag10 (Eth)4 (CF3 COO)6 (CH3 OH)3 ]·3C-H3 OH (Eth = ethisterone) (1), is firstly demonstrated by self-assembly of silver salt and ethisterone. Due to the thiophilicity of silver(I) ions, complex 1 shows reactivity with glutathione (GSH) molecules in solution and induces the fluorescence quenching behavior. Thus, complex 1 can be used as a fluorescent sensor for GSH. In consideration of the higher level of GSH in cancerous cells, complex 1 presents significant tumor suppression reactivity toward the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells with IC50 value of 165 × 10(-9) m. Especially, complex 1 displays 3.4-fold higher in vitro cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells than that of the normal CCC-HEL-1 cells, which makes complex 1 a potential targeting suppression agent for cancerous cells. The molecular design of complex 1 not only generates a new medicine-silver(I) cluster family, but also opens a new avenue to the targeting anticancer organosilver(I) materials.

  4. Synthesis and anticancer activity of novel benzimidazole and benzothiazole derivatives against HepG2 liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Amal M; Malki, Ahmed; Badr, Mona H; Elbayaa, Rasha Y; Sultan, Ahmed S

    2012-03-01

    Most of cancer chemotherapeutics and chemopreventives exert their effects by triggering apoptotic cell death. In this study, novel benzimidazole and benzothiazole derivatives have been synthesized to investigate their effects on HepG2 liver cancer cell lines after initial screening study. A dose response curve was constructed and the most active derivatives were further studied for apoptotic analysis. Six active benzimidazole derivatives (8, 9, 10, 12, 13 and 14) significantly induced apoptosis compared to control group. Two compounds 10 and 12 induced apoptosis by arresting cells in G1 phase of cell cycle which is confirmed by increased expression level of p21. The activity of caspase-3 which is well known as one of the key executioners of apoptosis was determined in the presence and absence of the tested derivatives. Our results indicated that compounds 10 and 12 significantly increased caspase-3 activity compared to control group. Moreover, a docked pose of compounds 10 and 12 was obtained bound to caspase-3 active site using Molecular Operating Environment module. This study demonstrated that benzimidazole derivatives 10 and 12 provoke cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in liver cancer cells HepG2.

  5. Effect of human mesenchymal stem cells on the growth of HepG2 and Hela cells.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiaohui; Matsumoto, Rena; Yang, Pengyuan; Uemura, Toshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) accumulate at carcinomas and have a great impact on cancer cell's behavior. Here we demonstrated that hMSCs could display both the promotional and inhibitive effects on growth of HepG2 and Hela cells by using the conditioned media, indirect co-culture, and cell-to-cell co-culture. Cell growth was increased following the addition of lower proportion of hMSCs while decreased by treatment of higher proportion of hMSCs. We also established a novel noninvasive label way by using internalizing quantum dots (i-QDs) for study of cell-cell contact in the co-culture, which was effective and sensitive for both tracking and distinguishing different cells population without the disturbance of cells. Furthermore, we investigated the role of hMSCs in regulation of cell growth and showed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways were involved in hMSC-mediated cell inhibition and proliferation. Our findings suggested that hMSCs regulated cancer cell function by providing a suitable environment, and the discovery from the study would provide some clues for development of effective strategy for hMSC-based cancer therapies.

  6. Added value of stress related gene inductions in HepG2 cells as effect measurement in monitoring of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobels, Ingrid; Vanparys, Caroline; Van den Heuvel, Rosette; Vercauteren, Jordy; Blust, Ronny

    2012-08-01

    In this study we studied the effects of particulate matter samples (PM) through gene expression analysis in a routine air quality monitoring campaign by the Flemish Environment Agency (VMM, Belgium). We selected a human hepatoma (HepG2) multiple endpoint reporter assay for targeted stress related endpoint screening. Organic extracts of air samples (total suspended particles, TSP) were collected during one year in an industrial, urban and background location in Flanders, Belgium. Simultaneously, meteorological conditions (temperature, wind speed and precipitation) and particulate matter size ≤ 10 μM (PM10), organic (OC), elemental (EC) and total (TC) carbon were monitored and air samples were collected for chemical analysis (11 PAHs). Correlations between the induction of the different stress genes and the chemical pollutants were analysed. Exposure of HepG2 cells to daily air equivalents (20 m3) of organic TSP extracts revealed the dominant induction of the xenobiotic response element (Xre) and phase I (Cyp1A1) and phase II (GstYa) biotransformation enzymes. Additional effects were the induction of c-Fos, a proto-oncogen and Gadd45, a marker for cell cycle disturbance and responsive to genotoxic compounds. Inductions of other relevant pathways, such as sequestration of heavy metals, retinoids response, protein misfolding and increased cAMP levels were measured occasionally. A significant correlation was found between the genes Cyp1A1 (a typical marker for presence of PAHs and dioxin like compounds), c-Fos, Gadd45, (responsive to DNA damaging compounds) and the amount of PM10 and elemental carbon (EC) whereas no correlation was found between these genes and total PAHs content. This may suggest that the observed induction of Cyp1A1 and DNA damage related genes was provoked (partially) by other particle bound compounds (e.g. pesticides, PCBs, brominated flame retardants, dioxins, …), than PAHs. The contribution of particle bound compounds, other than PAHs might

  7. Cytoprotective and antigenotoxic potential of Mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone against cadmium chloride induced toxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Satish Rao, B S; Sreedevi, M V; Nageshwar Rao, B

    2009-03-01

    Mangiferin (MGN), a glucosylxanthone present in large amounts in the leaves and edible mango fruits of Mangifera indica. Here, we report about MGN's potential for mitigating cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells growing in vitro. The cytoprotective potential was assessed by MTT, clonogenic and apoptotic assays, while antigenotoxic effect by micronucleus and comet assay. The established cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were well indicated after CdCl(2) treatment and was mitigated by pretreatment with MGN. MGN prior to CdCl(2) treatment increased the cell survival (MTT), surviving fraction (clonogenic assay) and inhibited sub-G(1) population (flow cytometric analysis). Further, inhibition of CdCl(2) induced apoptotic cell death by MGN was confirmed by microscopic and DNA fragmentation assays. A significant (p<0.01) reduction in the micronuclei frequency and comet parameters after MGN pretreatment to CdCl(2) clearly indicated the antigenotoxic potential. Similarly, the reactive oxygen species generated by the CdCl(2) treatment were inhibited significantly (p<0.001) by MGN. Taken together, our study revealed that MGN has potent cytoprotective and antigenotoxic effect against CdCl(2) induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line and which may be attributed to decrease in CdCl(2) induced reactive oxygen species levels and resultant oxidative stress.

  8. Effervescent Granules Prepared Using Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. and Moso Bamboo Leaves: Hypoglycemic Activity in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (E. ulmoides Oliv.) and moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) leaves are used as folk medicines in central-western China to treat diabetes. To investigate the hypoglycemic activity of the effervescent granules prepared using E. ulmoides Oliv. and moso bamboo leaves (EBEG) in HepG2 cells, EBEG were prepared with 5% of each of polysaccharides and chlorogenic acids from moso bamboo and E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves, respectively. HepG2 cells cultured in a high-glucose medium were classified into different groups. The results displayed EBEG-treated cells showed better glucose utilization than the negative controls; thus, the hypoglycemic effect of EBEG was much greater than that of granules prepared using either component alone, thereby indicating that this effect was due to a synergistic action of the components. Further, glucose consumption levels in the cells treated with EBEG (156.35% at 200 μg/mL) and the positive controls (metformin, 162.29%; insulin, 161.52%) were similar. Thus, EBEG exhibited good potential for use as a natural antidiabetic agent. The hypoglycemic effect of EBEG could be due to the synergistic action of polysaccharides from the moso bamboo leaves and chlorogenic acids from E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves via the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and glucose-6-phosphate displacement enzyme. PMID:27656239

  9. Effervescent Granules Prepared Using Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. and Moso Bamboo Leaves: Hypoglycemic Activity in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Zhou; Zhang, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (E. ulmoides Oliv.) and moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) leaves are used as folk medicines in central-western China to treat diabetes. To investigate the hypoglycemic activity of the effervescent granules prepared using E. ulmoides Oliv. and moso bamboo leaves (EBEG) in HepG2 cells, EBEG were prepared with 5% of each of polysaccharides and chlorogenic acids from moso bamboo and E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves, respectively. HepG2 cells cultured in a high-glucose medium were classified into different groups. The results displayed EBEG-treated cells showed better glucose utilization than the negative controls; thus, the hypoglycemic effect of EBEG was much greater than that of granules prepared using either component alone, thereby indicating that this effect was due to a synergistic action of the components. Further, glucose consumption levels in the cells treated with EBEG (156.35% at 200 μg/mL) and the positive controls (metformin, 162.29%; insulin, 161.52%) were similar. Thus, EBEG exhibited good potential for use as a natural antidiabetic agent. The hypoglycemic effect of EBEG could be due to the synergistic action of polysaccharides from the moso bamboo leaves and chlorogenic acids from E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves via the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and glucose-6-phosphate displacement enzyme.

  10. Interaction between caspase-8 activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced apoptotic HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Iizaka, Toru; Tsuji, Mayumi; Oyamada, Hideto; Morio, Yuri; Oguchi, Katsuji

    2007-11-30

    The accumulation of hydrophobic bile acid, such as glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), in the liver has been thought to induce hepatocellular damage in human chronic cholestatic liver diseases. We previously reported that GCDCA-induced apoptosis was promoted by both mitochondria-mediated and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pathways in rat hepatocytes. In this study, we elucidated the relationship between these pathways in GCDCA-induced apoptotic HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were treated with GCDCA (100-500microM) with or without a caspase-8 inhibitor, Z-IETD-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-IETD-FMK) (30microM) for 3-24h. We demonstrated the presence of both apoptotic pathways in these cells; that is, we showed increases in cleaved caspase-3 proteins, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and the expression of ER resident molecular chaperone Bip mRNA and ER stress response-associated transcription factor Chop mRNA. On the other hand, pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK significantly reduced the increases, compared with treatment with GCDCA alone. Immunofluorescence microscopic analysis showed that treatment with GCDCA increased the cleavage of BAP31, an integral membrane protein of ER, and pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK suppressed the increase of caspase-8 and BAP31 cleavage. In conclusion, these results suggest that intact activated caspase-8 may promote and amplify the ER stress response by cleaving BAP31 in GCDCA-induced apoptotic cells.

  11. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. IV. Lack of adrenergic activation of phosphorylase in rat ascites hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Yanaoka, T; Sanae, F; Wakusawa, S; Koshiura, R

    1986-10-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase a activity in 7 rat ascites hepatoma cell lines treated with adrenergic agents, phenylephrine, epinephrine and isoproterenol, was investigated as compared with that in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Basal phosphorylase activities in hepatoma cells except AH7974 cells were lower than that in hepatocytes. Phosphorylase in hepatoma cells was not activated by any of the agents, while the enzyme activity in hepatocytes was clearly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Phosphorylase in hepatocytes was sensitive to glucagon, but it was found to be insensitive to glucagon in all hepatoma cells. The present results suggest that rat ascites hepatoma cells may escape the glycogenolytic regulation by catecholamines and glucagon.

  12. Alkaloids from beach spider lily (Hymenocallis littoralis) induce apoptosis of HepG-2 cells by the fas-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Bin; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ling, Na; Li, Wen-Lan; Song, Dong-Xue; Gao, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Wang-Cheng; Ma, Nan-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloids are the most extensively featured compounds of natural anti-tumor herbs, which have attracted much attention in pharmaceutical research. In our previous studies, a mixture of major three alkaloid components (5, 6-dihydrobicolorine, 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine, littoraline) from Hymenocallis littoralis were extracted, analyzed and designated as AHL. In this paper, AHL extracts were added to human liver hepatocellular cells HepG-2, human gastric cancer cell SGC-7901, human breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7 and human umbilical vein endothelial cell EVC-304, to screen one or more AHL-sensitive tumor cell. Among these cells, HepG-2 was the most sensitive to AHL treatment, a very low dose (0.8μg/ml) significantly inhibiting proliferation . The non- tumor cell EVC-304, however, was not apparently affected. Effect of AHL on HepG-2 cells was then explored. We found that the AHL could cause HepG-2 cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint, induce apoptosis, and interrupt polymerization of microtubules. In addition, expression of two cell cycle-regulated proteins, CyclinB1 and CDK1, was up-regulated upon AHL treatment. Up-regulation of the Fas, Fas ligand, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 was observed as well, which might imply roles for the Fas/FsaL signaling pathway in the AHL-induced apoptosis of HepG-2 cells.

  13. HepG2 cells biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis for screening potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuqiang; Tan, Zhibin; Li, Pingting; Gao, Xiaoling; Zeng, Yuaner; Wang, Shuling

    2016-03-20

    HepG2 cells biospecific extraction method and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis was proposed for screening of potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix, a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The hypothesis suggested that when cells are incubated together with the extracts of TCM, the potential bioactive components in the TCM should selectively combine with the receptor or channel of HepG2 cells, then the eluate which contained biospecific component binding to HepG2 cells was identified using HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The potential bioactive components of Bupeuri radix were investigated using the proposed approach. Five compounds in the saikosaponins of Bupeuri radix were detected as these components selectively combined with HepG2 cells, among these compounds, two potentially bioactive compounds namely saikosaponin b1 and saikosaponin b2 (SSb2) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of the standard sample and analysis of the structural clearance characterization of MS. Then SSb2 was used to assess the uptake of DiI-high density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells for antiatherosclerotic activity. The results have showed that SSb2, with indicated concentrations (5, 15, 25, and 40 μM) could remarkably uptake dioctadecylindocarbocyanine labeled- (DiI) -HDL in HepG2 cells (Vs control group, *P<0.01). In conclusion, the application of HepG2 biospecific extraction coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS analysis is a rapid, convenient, and reliable method for screening potential bioactive components in TCM and SSb2 may be a valuable novel drug agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  14. Polyethyleneimine-coated quantum dots for miRNA delivery and its enhanced suppression in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Gaofeng; Li, Yang; Feng, Wenpo; Wang, Xinshuai; Jing, Aihua; Li, Jinghua; Ma, Kaiwang

    2016-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have been intensively investigated for bioimaging, drug delivery, and labeling probes because of their unique optical properties. In this study, CdSe/ZnS QDs-based nonviral vectors with the dual functions of delivering miR-26a plasmid and bioimaging were formulated by capping the surface of CdSe/ZnS QDs with polyethyleneimine (PEI). The PEI-coated QDs were capable of condensing miR-26a expression vector into nanocomplexes that can emit strong red luminescence when loaded with CdSe/ZnS QDs. Further results showed that PEI-modified nanoparticles (NPs) could transfect miR-26a plasmid into HepG2 cells in vitro. Meanwhile, imaging of living cells could be achieved based on the CdSe/ZnS QDs. Further study suggested that miR-26a transfection up-regulated miR-26a expression, induced cycle arrest, and triggered proliferation inhibition in HepG2 cells. The results indicated that PEI-coated QD NPs possess the capability of bioimaging and gene delivery and could be a promising vehicle with the engineering of QD NPs for gene therapy in the future. PMID:27895481

  15. A comparison of whole genome gene expression profiles of HepaRG cells and HepG2 cells to primary human hepatocytes and human liver tissues.

    PubMed

    Hart, Steven N; Li, Ye; Nakamoto, Kaori; Subileau, Eva-anne; Steen, David; Zhong, Xiao-bo

    2010-06-01

    HepaRG cells, derived from a female hepatocarcinoma patient, are capable of differentiating into biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes. More importantly, differentiated HepaRG cells are able to maintain activities of many xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, and expression of the metabolizing enzyme genes can be induced by xenobiotics. The ability of these cells to express and induce xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes is in stark contrast to the frequently used HepG2 cells. The previous studies have mainly focused on a set of selected genes; therefore, it is of significant interest to know the extent of similarity of gene expression at whole genome levels in HepaRG cells and HepG2 cells compared with primary human hepatocytes and human liver tissues. To accomplish this objective, we used Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) U133 Plus 2.0 arrays to characterize the whole genome gene expression profiles in triplicate biological samples from HepG2 cells, HepaRG cells (undifferentiated and differentiated cells), freshly isolated primary human hepatocytes, and frozen liver tissues. After using similarity matrix, principal components, and hierarchical clustering methods, we found that HepaRG cells globally transcribe genes at levels more similar to human primary hepatocytes and human liver tissues than HepG2 cells. In particular, many genes encoding drug-processing proteins are transcribed at a more similar level in HepaRG cells than in HepG2 cells compared with primary human hepatocytes and liver samples. The transcriptomic similarity of HepaRG with primary human hepatocytes is encouraging for use of HepaRG cells in the study of xenobiotic metabolism, hepatotoxicology, and hepatocyte differentiation.

  16. Apoptotic and Inhibitory Effects on Cell Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells by Methanol Leaf Extract of Costus speciosus

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sandhya V. G.; Hettihewa, Menik; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Costus speciosus is a medicinal plant commonly known as wild ginger distributed in South and Southeast Asian countries. Leaves of this plant are used for ayurvedic treatment regimes in malignancies and mental illness. Rhizome extract from the plant is used to treat malignancies, pneumonia, urinary disorders, jaundice, rheumatism, and diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of leaves of C. speciosus on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and understand possible mechanisms of its action. Viability of HepG2 cells were measured by MTS assay after 24 h and 48 h treatment with extracts of 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL concentrations. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 induction. HepG2 cells treated with 100 μg/mL methanol leaf extract for 24 h displayed a significant reduction in cell viability (P ≤ 0.05). The methanol extract perturbed cell cycle progression, modulated cell cycle and regulated, signal molecules were involved in induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals of leaves of C. speciosus shows potential for natural therapeutic product development for hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro anticancer activity of leaf extract of C. speciosus in relation to liver cancer. PMID:24818148

  17. β-Elemene Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Regulating the Expression and Activity of Topoisomerases I and IIα in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Min; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Ya-jie; Zhai, Ping-ping; Su, Xi; Li, Xiang; Li, Yan; Hou, Li; Cui, Xiao-nan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of β-Elemene (β-ELE) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and topoisomerase I (TOPO I) and topoisomerase IIα (TOPO IIα) expression and activity of human hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 cells. Methods. After treatment with β-ELE, morphological alterations of HepG-2 cells were observed under an inverted microscope. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTT assay, cell cycles were analyzed using flow cytometry, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/PI staining. The expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα was analyzed by Western blot techniques, and their activity was measured using the TOPO I-mediated, supercoiled pBR322 DNA relaxation and TOPO IIα-mediated Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) decatenation assays, respectively. Supercoiled pBR322 and kDNA were also used to determine the direct effect of β-ELE on DNA breaks. Results. β-ELE significantly inhibited HepG-2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. β-ELE also induced tumor cell arrest at S phase, induced cell apoptosis, and downregulated the protein expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα in a dose-dependent manner. β-ELE also inhibited TOPO I- and TOPO IIα-mediated DNA relaxation but did not directly induce DNA breakage at any concentration. Conclusion. β-ELE could inhibit the proliferation of HepG-2 cells and interfere with the expression and activity of TOPO I and TOPO IIα. PMID:26221582

  18. Impact of Cadmium on Intracellular Zinc Levels in HepG2 Cells: Quantitative Evaluations and Molecular Effects

    PubMed Central

    Urani, Chiara; Melchioretto, Pasquale; Bruschi, Maurizio; Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is classified as a human carcinogen, and its disturbance in zinc homeostasis has been well established. However, its extent as well as molecular mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis has yet to be fully clarified. To this end, we used the zinc specific probe Zinquin to visualize and to quantitatively evaluate changes in the concentration of labile zinc, in an in vitro model of human hepatic cells (HepG2) exposed to cadmium. A very large increase (+93%) of intracellular labile zinc, displaced by cadmium from the zinc proteome, was measured when HepG2 were exposed to 10 µM cadmium for 24 hrs. Microarray expression profiling showed that in cells, featuring an increase of labile zinc after cadmium exposure, one of the top regulated genes is Snail1 (+3.6), which is included in the adherens junction pathway and linked to cancer. In the same pathway MET, TGF-βR, and two members of the Rho-family GTPase, Rac, and cdc42 all implicated in the loss of adherence features and acquisition of migratory and cancer properties were regulated, as well. The microRNAs analysis showed a downregulation of miR-34a and miR-200a, both implicated in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These microRNAs results support the role played by zinc in affecting gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. PMID:26339654

  19. Organophosphate pesticides increase the expression of alpha glutathione S-transferase in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Medina-Díaz, I M; Rubio-Ortíz, M; Martínez-Guzmán, M C; Dávalos-Ibarra, R L; Rojas-García, A E; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Girón-Pérez, M I; Elizondo, G

    2011-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion are among the most widely used insecticides in the world. Human populations are constantly exposed to low doses of both due to their extensive use and presence in food and drinking water. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) catalyzes the conjugation of glutathione on electrophilic substrates and is an important line of defense in the protection of cellular components from reactive species. GST alpha1 (GSTA1) is the predominant isoform of GST expressed in the human liver; thus, determining the effect of insecticides on GSTA1 transcription is very important. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos on GSTA1 gene expression in HepG2 cells using real time PCR, and activity and immunoreactive protein assays. The results demonstrated that exposure to methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos increased the level of GSTA1 mRNA, GSTA1 immunoreactive protein and GST activity relative to a control. These results demonstrated that these insecticides can increase the expression of GSTA1. In conclusion, HepG2 cell cultures treated with methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos could be a useful model for studying the function of GSTA1 and its role in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the liver.

  20. Cichoric Acid Reverses Insulin Resistance and Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in the Glucosamine-Induced HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Di; Wang, Yutang; Du, Qingwei; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Xuebo

    2015-12-30

    Cichoric acid, a caffeic acid derivative found in Echinacea purpurea, basil, and chicory, has been reported to have bioactive effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and preventing insulin resistance. In this study, to explore the effects of CA on regulating insulin resistance and chronic inflammatory responses, the insulin resistance model was constructed by glucosamine in HepG2 cells. CA stimulated glucosamine-mediated glucose uptake by stimulating translocation of the glucose transporter 2. Moreover, the production of reactive oxygen, the expression of COX-2 and iNOS, and the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were attenuated. Furthermore, CA was verified to promote glucosamine-mediated glucose uptake and inhibited inflammation through PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and MAPK signaling pathways in HepG2 cells. These results implied that CA could increase glucose uptake, improve insulin resistance, and attenuate glucosamine-induced inflammation, suggesting that CA is a potential natural nutraceutical with antidiabetic properties and anti-inflammatory effects.

  1. DNA Microarray Profiling Highlights Nrf2-Mediated Chemoprevention Targeted by Wasabi-Derived Isothiocyanates in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Kawahara, Atsuyoshi; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2017-01-01

    6-MSITC and 6-MTITC are sulforaphane (SFN) analogs found in Japanese Wasabi. As we reported previously, Wasabi isothiocyanates (ITCs) are activators of Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway, and also inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2. This study is the first to assess the global changes in transcript levels by Wasabi ITCs, comparing with SFN, in HepG2 cells. We performed comparative gene expression profiling by treating HepG2 cells with ITCs, followed by DNA microarray analyses using HG-U133 plus 2.0 oligonucleotide array. Partial array data on selected gene products were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to identify functional subsets of genes and biologically significant network pathways. 6-MTITC showed the highest number of differentially altered (≥2 folds) gene expression, of which 114 genes were upregulated and 75 were downregulated. IPA revealed that Nrf2-mediated pathway, together with glutamate metabolism, is the common significantly modulated pathway across treatments. Interestingly, 6-MSITC exhibited the most potent effect toward Nrf2-mediated pathway. Our data suggest that 6-MSITC could exert chemopreventive role against cancer through its underlying antioxidant activity via the activation of Nrf2-mediated subsequent induction of cytoprotective genes.

  2. Artesunate acts as fuel to fire in sensitizing HepG2 cells towards TRAIL mediated apoptosis via STAT3 inhibition and DR4 augmentation.

    PubMed

    Ilamathi, M; Sivaramakrishnan, V

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated in vitro, the role of artesunate (ATS) with comparable potency to oxaliplatin (OXP) in sensitizing tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistant HepG2 cells towards apoptosis. ATS in consistency with OXP was found to reverse TRAIL resistant HepG2 cells towards TRAIL mediated apoptosis by enhancing caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. Additionally, ATS also suppressed the nuclear translocation of activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) thereby sensitizing the HepG2 cells towards only death receptor 4 (DR4) mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, ATS exposure in TRAIL resistant cells resulted in significant increase of both DR4/DR5 expression and STAT3 inhibition thereby arbitrating TRAIL mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The increase in expression was comparable to that of STAT3 silenced cells. From all the above observations, we conclude that ATS up-regulated DR4 expression by targeting STAT3, which in turn sensitized HepG2 cells to TRAIL mediated apoptosis.

  3. [Inhibitory Effect of the Excretory/Scretory Proteins of Trichinella spiralis on Proliferation of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cell line].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying-jie; Xu, Jing; Huang, Hong-ying; Xu, Guo-qiang

    2015-08-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 Cell line were cultured with different concentrations of excretory/secretory proteins from Trichinella spiralis, and MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell inhibition rate. After co-cultured with 300 µg/ml excretory/secretory proteins for 24 h, the HepG2 cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope with AO and EB staining. When co-cultured with 75 µg/ml excretory/secretory proteins for 24 h, the HepG2 cells were quantified by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC/PI stain, and the expression of cleaved-caspase 9 was detected by immunofluorescence assay. The proliferation of HepG2 cells was inhibited significantly by excretory/secretory proteins in a dosage dependant manner. Under fluorescence microscope, some HepG2 cells presented typical apoptotic morphologic changes and the cleaved-caspase 9 protein expression was higher than that of the control. The early and late apoptotic cells and necrotic ones occupied 17.9%, 7.3%, and 6.6%, respectively.

  4. Partial least squares regression and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy for prediction of resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Junhom, Cholpajsorn; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida; Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Thumanu, Kanjana

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of FTIR microspectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression (PLS-R) for determination of resistance in HepG2 cells. Cell viability testing was performed using neutral red assay for the concentration of cisplatin resulting in 50% antiproliferation (IC50). The resistance index (RI) is the ratio of the IC50 in resistant HepG2 cells vs. parental HepG2 cells. Principal component and unsupervised hierarchical cluster analyses were applied and a differentiation of samples of cells (parental, 1.8RI, 2.3RI, 3.0RI, and 3.5RI) was demonstrated (3000-2800cm(-1) in the lipid and 1700-1500cm(-1) in the protein regions. The FTIR spectra were preprocessed with several treatments to test the algorithm. PLS-R models were built using the 1170 spectra of the HepG2 cells. Cross-validation was used to evaluate prediction of the RI value using this model. PLS-R models-preprocessed with the second derivative FTIR spectra-yielded the best model (R(2)=0.99, RMSEE=0.095 and RPD=7.98). Most RI values were predicted with high accuracy (91-100%) such that the linear correlation between the actual and predicted RI values was nearly perfect (slope~1). FTIR microspectroscopy combined with chemometric analysis using PLS-R offers quick, accurate, and reliable quantitative analysis of HepG2 cell resistance.

  5. Simultaneous detection of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells in blood by ICP-MS with gold nanoparticles and quantum dots as elemental tags.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoting; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Wang, Han; Xiao, Guangyang; Yang, Bin; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-15

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel method based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) labeling for the simultaneous counting of two circulating tumor cell lines (MCF-7 and HepG2 cells) in human blood. MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were captured by magnetic beads coupled with anti-EpCAM and then specifically labeled by CdSe QDs-anti-ASGPR and Au NPs-anti-MUC1, respectively, which were used as signal probes for ICP-MS measurement. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection of 50 MCF-7, 89 HepG2 cells and the linear ranges of 200-40000 MCF-7, 300-30000 HepG2 cells were obtained, and the relative standard deviations for seven replicate detections of 800 MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were 4.6% and 5.7%, respectively. This method has the advantages of high sensitivity, low sample consumption, wide linear range and can be extended to the simultaneous detection of multiple CTC lines in human peripheral blood.

  6. Silica bioreplication preserves three-dimensional spheroid structures of human pluripotent stem cells and HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yan-Ru; Kanninen, Liisa; Kaehr, Bryan; Townson, Jason L.; Niklander, Johanna; Harjumäki, Riina; Jeffrey Brinker, C.; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures produce more in vivo-like multicellular structures such as spheroids that cannot be obtained in two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Thus, they are increasingly employed as models for cancer and drug research, as well as tissue engineering. It has proven challenging to stabilize spheroid architectures for detailed morphological examination. Here we overcome this issue using a silica bioreplication (SBR) process employed on spheroids formed from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells cultured in the nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogel. The cells in the spheroids are more round and tightly interacting with each other than those in 2D cultures, and they develop microvilli-like structures on the cell membranes as seen in 2D cultures. Furthermore, SBR preserves extracellular matrix-like materials and cellular proteins. These findings provide the first evidence of intact hPSC spheroid architectures and similar fine structures to 2D-cultured cells, providing a pathway to enable our understanding of morphogenesis in 3D cultures. PMID:26323570

  7. Silica bioreplication preserves three-dimensional spheroid structures of human pluripotent stem cells and HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Yan-Ru; Kanninen, Liisa; Kaehr, Bryan; Townson, Jason L.; Niklander, Johanna; Harjumäki, Riina; Jeffrey Brinker, C.; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures produce more in vivo-like multicellular structures such as spheroids that cannot be obtained in two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Thus, they are increasingly employed as models for cancer and drug research, as well as tissue engineering. It has proven challenging to stabilize spheroid architectures for detailed morphological examination. Here we overcome this issue using a silica bioreplication (SBR) process employed on spheroids formed from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells cultured in the nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogel. The cells in the spheroids are more round and tightly interacting with each other than those in 2D cultures, and they develop microvilli-like structures on the cell membranes as seen in 2D cultures. Furthermore, SBR preserves extracellular matrix-like materials and cellular proteins. In conclusion, these findings provide the first evidence of intact hPSC spheroid architectures and similar fine structures to 2D-cultured cells, providing a pathway to enable our understanding of morphogenesis in 3D cultures.

  8. Silica bioreplication preserves three-dimensional spheroid structures of human pluripotent stem cells and HepG2 cells

    DOE PAGES

    Lou, Yan-Ru; Kanninen, Liisa; Kaehr, Bryan; ...

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures produce more in vivo-like multicellular structures such as spheroids that cannot be obtained in two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Thus, they are increasingly employed as models for cancer and drug research, as well as tissue engineering. It has proven challenging to stabilize spheroid architectures for detailed morphological examination. Here we overcome this issue using a silica bioreplication (SBR) process employed on spheroids formed from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells cultured in the nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogel. The cells in the spheroids are more round and tightly interacting with each other than thosemore » in 2D cultures, and they develop microvilli-like structures on the cell membranes as seen in 2D cultures. Furthermore, SBR preserves extracellular matrix-like materials and cellular proteins. In conclusion, these findings provide the first evidence of intact hPSC spheroid architectures and similar fine structures to 2D-cultured cells, providing a pathway to enable our understanding of morphogenesis in 3D cultures.« less

  9. Intracellular distribution and mechanisms of actions of photosensitizer Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine solubilized in Cremophor EL against human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingwei; Dai, Yongchao; Zhao, Wenna; Xie, Jingjing; Xue, Jinping; Ye, Jianhui; Jia, Lee

    2013-03-01

    Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is a metal photosensitizer. In the present study, we formulated the poorly-soluble ZnPc in Cremophor EL solution to enhance its solubility and determined its intracellular distribution and mechanisms of action on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. ZnPc uptake by the cells reached a plateau by 8h. ZnPc primarily located in mitochondria, lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum. The concentration-growth inhibition curves of ZnPc on the cell lines were pharmacodynamically enhanced by 10-50 folds by irradiation. Once irradiated, ZnPc produced significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, arrested cell cycle mainly at G2/M stage, and decreased membrane potential (ΔΨm) of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the present study first elucidated cellular and molecular mechanisms of ZnPc on HepG2 cells.

  10. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line, HepG2, Mediated by Upregulation of p53 and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mahmoud I. M.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; El-Gaaly, Gehan A.; Sultan, Ahmed S.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and most current therapies are of limited efficacy. Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) is a traditional herbal plant with antitumor activity, although the mechanisms of its activity remain unclear. Herein, a crude methanol extract was prepared from Fenugreek seeds (FCE) and its anticancer mechanism was evaluated, using HepG2 cell line. Growth-inhibitory effect and apoptosis induction of HepG2 cells were evidenced by MTT assay, cell morphology alteration, apoptosis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity, and expression of p53, proapoptotic protein, Bax, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after (100∼500 μg/mL) FCE treatment for 48 h. Furthermore, FCE was analyzed by Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Our results revealed that FCE treatment for 48 h showed a cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction in a dose-dependent manner that was mediated by upregulation of p53, Bax, PCNA, and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 cells. GC-MS analysis of FCE showed the presence of fourteen bioactive compounds such as Terpenoids and Flavonoids, including two main constituents with anticancer activity, Squalene and Naringenin (27.71% and 24.05%), respectively. Our data introduced FCE as a promising nontoxic herbal with therapeutic potential to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through p53, Bax, and PCNA upregulation in caspase-3 dependent manner. PMID:26557712

  11. The protective effects of carvacrol and thymol against paracetamol-induced toxicity on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Palabiyik, S S; Karakus, E; Halici, Z; Cadirci, E; Bayir, Y; Ayaz, G; Cinar, I

    2016-12-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose could induce liver damage and lead to acute liver failure. The treatment of APAP overdoses could be improved by new therapeutic strategies. Thymus spp., which has many beneficial effects and has been used in folk medicine, is one such potential strategy. In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of the main constituents of Thymus spp., carvacrol and thymol, were evaluated in light of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We hoped to understand the hepatoprotective mechanism of these agents on the antioxidant system and pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Dose-dependent effects of thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, and 100 µM) were tested on cultured HepG2 cells. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) was tested as positive control. We showed that APAP inhibited HepG2 cell growth by inducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Incubating APAP-exposed HepG2 cells with carvacrol and thymol for 24 h ameliorated this inflammation and oxidative stress. We also evaluated alanine transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase levels of HepG2 cells. We found that thymol and carvacrol protected against APAP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells by increasing antioxidant activity and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β. Taking together high-dose thymol and carvacrol treatment has an effect close to NAC treatment in APAP toxicity, but thymol has better treatment effect than carvacrol.

  12. LRD-22, a novel dual dithiocarbamatic acid ester, inhibits Aurora-A kinase and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiling; Li, Ridong; Li, Li; Ge, Zemei; Zhou, Rouli; Li, Runtao

    2015-02-27

    In this study we investigated the antitumor activity of the novel dual dithiocarbamatic acid ester LRD-22 in vitro and in vivo. Several cancer cell lines were employed to determine the effect of LRD-22 on cell growth, and the MTT assay showed there was a significant decrease in viable tumor cell numbers in the presence of LRD-22, especially in the HepG2 cell line. Colony formation assay also showed LRD-22 strongly inhibits HepG2 cell growth. Evaluation of the mechanism involved showed that inhibitory effects of LRD-22 on cell growth are due to induction of apoptosis and G2/M arrest. LRD-22 inhibited Aurora-A phosphorylation at Thr{sub 288} and subsequently impaired p53 phosphorylation at Ser{sub 315} which was associated with the proteasome degradation pathway. Tumor suppressor protein p53 is stabilized by this mechanism and accumulates through inhibition of Aurora-A kinase activity via treatment with LRD-22. In vivo study of HepG2 xenograft in nude mice also shows LRD-22 suppresses tumor growth at a concentration of 5 mg/kg without animals suffering loss of body weight. In conclusion, our results demonstrate LRD-22 acts as an Aurora-A kinase inhibitor to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in HepG2 cells, and should be considered as a promising targeting agent for HCC therapy. - Highlights: • LRD-22 significantly inhibits cancer cell growth, especially in the HepG2 cell line. • The inhibitory effect of LRD-22 is due to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. • LRD-22 inhibits Aurora-A phosphorylation which results in subsequent impairment of the p53 pathway. • LRD-22 suppresses tumor growth in xenograft mice without body weight loss.

  13. Diosmetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by regulating autophagy via the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Ren, Hao; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Qingyu; Li, Mingyi; Zhu, Runzhi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is a type of malignant tumor, is the fifth most common cancer in men and ninth in women worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effect of diosmetin (DIOS) in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. The proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy rates of HepG2 cells were measured following treatment with DIOS. The effects of DIOS treatment on HepG2 cell proliferation and apoptosis rates were analyzed using MTT assays and Annexin V staining, respectively. The effect of DIOS treatment on autophagy levels was assessed using transmission electron microscopy, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (LC3) transfection and LysoTracker Red staining. Furthermore, bafilomycin A1 (BA1), an autophagy inhibitor, was used to assess the association between DIOS and cell autophagy, proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, the expression of autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, P70S6K, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase and Akt] and apoptosis-related proteins [B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-associated X protein, Bak, p53, Bcl-2 and caspase-3] were analyzed by western blotting. The results revealed that DIOS significantly inhibited proliferation (P<0.01) and induced apoptosis (P<0.001) in HepG2 cells. It was also demonstrated that DIOS triggered autophagy by regulating the mTOR pathway in HepG2 cells. Notably, following treatment of HepG2 cells with the autophagy inhibitor, BA1, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, including Bax, Bak and p53, were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and cell viability was recovered to a certain extent. In conclusion, DIOS inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells via regulation of the mTOR pathway. Thus, the results of the current study indicate that DIOS may present a potential therapeutic

  14. Vanadium compounds discriminate hepatoma and normal hepatic cells by differential regulation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Liu, Tong-Tong; Fu, Ying; Wang, Kui; Yang, Xiao-Gai

    2010-09-01

    Our previous study indicated that vanadium compounds can block cell cycle progression at the G1/S phase in human hepatoma HepG2 cells via a highly activated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signal. To explore their differential action on normal cells, we investigated the response of an immortalized hepatic cell line, L02 cells. The results demonstrated that a higher concentration of vanadium compounds was needed to inhibit L02 proliferation, which was associated with S and G2/M cell cycle arrest. In addition, in contrast to insignificant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HepG2 cells, all of the vanadium compounds resulted significant increases in both O2.- and H2O2 levels in L02 cells. At the same time, ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as well as cell division control protein 2 homolog (Cdc2) were found to be highly phosphorylated, which could be counteracted with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The current study also demonstrated that both the ERK and the JNK pathways contributed to the cell cycle arrest induced by vanadium compounds in L02 cells. More importantly, it was found that although NAC can ameliorate the cytotoxicity of vanadium compounds in L02 cells, it did not decrease their cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. It thus shed light on the potential therapeutic applications of vanadium compounds with antioxidants as synergistic agents to reduce their toxicities in human normal cells without affecting their antitumor activities in cancer cells.

  15. OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) interacts with Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) and mediates oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wenbin; Zhou, You; Li, Jiwei; Mysore, Raghavendra; Luo, Wei; Li, Shiqian; Chang, Mau-Sun; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Yan, Daoguang

    2014-04-01

    We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis, migration, and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5)/Astrin as interaction partner of ORP8. The putative interaction was further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. ORP8 did not colocalize with kinetochore-associated SPAG5 in mitotic HepG2 or HuH7 cells, but overexpressed ORP8 was capable of recruiting SPAG5 onto endoplasmic reticulum membranes in interphase cells. In our experiments, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) retarded the HepG2 cell cycle, causing accumulation in G2/M phase; ORP8 overexpression resulted in the same phenotype. Importantly, ORP8 knock-down dramatically inhibited the oxysterol effect on HepG2 cell cycle, suggesting a mediating role of ORP8. Furthermore, knock-down of SPAG5 significantly reduced the effects of both ORP8 overexpression and 25OHC on the cell cycle, placing SPAG5 downstream of the two cell-cycle interfering factors. Taken together, the present results suggest that ORP8 may via SPAG5 mediate oxysterol interference of the HepG2 cell cycle. - Highlights: • The oxysterol-binding protein ORP8 was found to interact with the mitotic regulator SPAG5/Astrin. • Treatment of HepG2 cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol caused cell cycle retardation in G2/M. • ORP8 overexpression caused a similar G2/M accumulation, and ORP8 knock-down reversed the 25-hydroxycholesterol effect. • Reduction of cellular of SPAG5/Astrin reversed the cell cycle effects of both 25-hydroxycholesterol and ORP8 overexpression. • Our results suggest that ORP8 mediates via SPAG5/Astrin the oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle.

  16. Zinc inhibits aflatoxin B1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuan; Lv, Yangjun; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has strong carcinogenicity. Consumption of AFB1-contaminated agricultural products and the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma have received widespread attention. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplementation could inhibit AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of this inhibition. Our data suggest that zinc sources can relieve a certain degree of AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by protecting against apoptotic body formation and DNA strand breaks, affecting S phase cell cycle arrest, reducing 8-OHdG formation, inhibiting global DNA hypomethylation and regulating gene expression in antioxidation, zinc-association and apoptosis processes. Consequently, zinc stabilizes the integrity of DNA and improves cell survival. These data provides new insights into the protective role of zinc in alleviating AFB1-induced cytotoxicity and mediating epigenetic changes in hepatocytes, demonstrating that zinc sources have detoxification properties in mycotoxin-induced toxicity.

  17. A cell-based, multiparametric sensor approach characterises drug-induced cytotoxicity in human liver HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Seeland, Swen; Török, Michael; Kettiger, Helene; Treiber, Alexander; Hafner, Mathias; Huwyler, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Drug-induced toxicity is of considerable concern in drug discovery and development, placing emphasis on the need for predictive in vitro technologies that identify potential cytotoxic side effects of drugs. A label-free, real-time, multiparametric cytosensor system has therefore been established for in vitro assessment of drug-induced toxicity. The system is based on monitoring cellular oxygen consumption, acidification and impedance of human hepatocarcinoma-derived HepG2 cells. The read-out derived from the multiparametric cytosensor system has been optimised and permits sensitive, reliable, and simultaneous recording of cell physiological signals, such as metabolic activity, cellular respiration and morphological changes and cell adhesion upon exposure to a drug. Analysis of eight prototypic reference drugs revealed distinct patterns of drug-induced physiological signals. Effects proved to be rigidly concentration-dependent. Based on signal patterns and reversibility of the observed effects, compounds could be classified based as triggering mechanisms of respiratory or metabolic stress or conditions leading to cell death (necrosis-like and apoptosis-like). A test-flag-risk mitigation strategy is proposed to address potential risks for drug-induced cytotoxicity.

  18. Comparative cytotoxic response of nickel ferrite nanoparticles in human liver HepG2 and breast MFC-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Khan, M A Majeed; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2015-09-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) have received much attention for their potential applications in biomedical fields such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia. However, little is known about the toxicity of nickel ferrite NPs at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in two different types of human cells (i.e., liver HepG2 and breast MCF-7). Nickel ferrite NPs induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both types of cells, which was demonstrated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Nickel ferrite NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress, which was evident by the depletion of glutathione and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The mitochondrial membrane potential due to nickel ferrite NP exposure was also observed. The mRNA levels for the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the apoptotic genes bax, CASP3 and CASP9 were up-regulated, while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated following nickel ferrite NP exposure. Furthermore, the activities of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-9) were also higher in both types of cells treated with nickel ferrite NPs. Cytotoxicity induced by nickel ferrite was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl cysteine (ROS scavenger) treatment, which suggested that oxidative stress might be one of the possible mechanisms of nickel ferrite NP toxicity. We also observed that MCF-7 cells were slightly more susceptible to nickel ferrite NP exposure than HepG2 cells. This study warrants further investigation to explore the potential mechanisms of different cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in different cell lines.

  19. PLGA-based gene delivering nanoparticle enhance suppression effect of miRNA in HePG2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng Liang, Gao; Zhu, Yan Liang; Sun, Bo; Hu, Fei Hu; Tian, Tian; Li, Shu Chun; Xiao, Zhong Dang

    2011-07-01

    The biggest challenge in the field of gene therapy is how to effectively deliver target genes to special cells. This study aimed to develop a new type of poly( D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles for gene delivery, which are capable of overcoming the disadvantages of polyethylenimine (PEI)- or cationic liposome-based gene carrier, such as the cytotoxicity induced by excess positive charge, as well as the aggregation on the cell surface. The PLGA-based nanoparticles presented in this study were synthesized by emulsion evaporation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The size of PLGA/PEI nanoparticles in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was about 60 nm at the optimal charge ratio. Without observable aggregation, the nanoparticles showed a better monodispersity. The PLGA-based nanoparticles were used as vector carrier for miRNA transfection in HepG2 cells. It exhibited a higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells compared to the PEI/DNA complex. The N/P ratio (ratio of the polymer nitrogen to the DNA phosphate) 6 of the PLGA/PEI/DNA nanocomplex displays the best property among various N/P proportions, yielding similar transfection efficiency when compared to Lipofectamine/DNA lipoplexes. Moreover, nanocomplex shows better serum compatibility than commercial liposome. PLGA nanocomplexes obviously accumulate in tumor cells after transfection, which indicate that the complexes contribute to cellular uptake of pDNA and pronouncedly enhance the treatment effect of miR-26a by inducing cell cycle arrest. Therefore, these results demonstrate that PLGA/PEI nanoparticles are promising non-viral vectors for gene delivery.

  20. MicroRNA expression in the vildagliptin-treated two- and three-dimensional HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yasunari; Asakura, Mitsutoshi; Mitsugi, Ryo; Fujii, Hideaki; Nagai, Kenichiro; Atsuda, Koichiro; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2016-06-01

    Vildagliptin is an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 that is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While vildagliptin can induce hepatic dysfunction in humans, the molecular mechanism has not been determined yet. Recent studies indicated that certain types of microRNA (miRNA) were linking to the development of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. In the present study, therefore, we identified hepatic miRNAs that were highly induced or reduced by the vildagliptin treatment in mice. MiR-222 and miR-877, toxicity-associated miRNAs, were induced 31- and 53-fold, respectively, by vildagliptin in the liver. While a number of miRNAs were significantly regulated by the orally treated vildagliptin in vivo, such regulation was not observed in the vildagliptin-treated HepG2 cells. In addition to the regular two-dimensional (2D) culture, we carried out the three-dimensional (3D) culturing of HepG2 cells. In the 3D-HepG2 cells, a significant reduction of miR-222 was observed compared to the expression level in 2D-HepG2 cells. A slight induction of miR-222 by vildagliptin was observed in the 3D-HepG2 cells, although miR-877 was not induced by vildagliptin even in the 3D-HepG2 cells. Further investigations are needed to overcome the discrepancy in the responsiveness of the miRNA expressions to vildagliptin between in vivo and in vitro.

  1. Metformin and AICAR regulate NANOG expression via the JNK pathway in HepG2 cells independently of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Ka, Sun-O; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Byung-Hyun; Park, Ji Hyun

    2016-08-01

    NANOG, a marker of stemness, impacts tumor progression and therapeutic resistance in cancer cells. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), upregulation of NANOG is associated with metastasis and a low survival rate, while its downregulation results in a lower colony formation rate and enhanced chemosensitivity. Metformin, an agent widely used for diabetes treatment, and AICAR, another AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, have been reported to inhibit the growth of several types of cancer. Although inhibitory effects of metformin on NANOG in pancreatic cancer cells and of AICAR in mouse embryonic stem cells have been described, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain uncertain in HCC. In this study, we used the HepG2 cell line and found that metformin/AICAR downregulated NANOG expression with decreased cell viability and enhanced chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Moreover, metformin/AICAR inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity, and blockade of either the JNK MAPK pathway or knockdown of JNK1 gene expression reduced NANOG levels. The upregulation of NANOG and phospho-JNK by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was abrogated by metformin/AICAR. Additionally, although transient upregulation of NANOG within 2 h of treatment with metformin/AICAR was concordant with both JNK and AMPK activation, increased NANOG expression with activation of JNK was also observed following AMPK inhibition with compound C. Taken together, our data suggest that metformin/AICAR regulate NANOG expression via the JNK MAPK pathway in HepG2 cells independently of AMPK, and that this JNK/NANOG signaling pathway may offer new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of HCC.

  2. Inhibition of HBV Replication in HepG2.2.15 Cells by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Song, Hong-Li; Zheng, Wei-Ping; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Anti-HBV therapy is essential for patients awaiting liver transplantation. This study aimed to explore the effects of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from the peripheral blood of hepatitis B patients on the replication of HBV in vivo and to evaluate the biosafety of DCs in clinical therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from HBV-infected patients and maturation-promoting factors and both HBsAg and HBcAg were used to induce DC maturation. Mature DCs and lymphocytes were co-cultured with human hepatocyte cell HL-7702 or HBV-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell HepG2.2.15. We found that mature lymphocytes exposed to DCs in vitro did not influence morphology or activities of HL-7702 and HepG2.2.15 cells. Liver function indexes and endotoxin levels in the cell supernatants did not change in these co-cultures. Additionally, supernatant and intracellular HBV DNA levels were reduced when HepG2.2.15 cells were co-cultured with mature lymphocytes that had been cultured with DCs, and HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) levels in HepG2.2.15 cells also decreased. Importantly, DC-mediated immunotherapy had no mutagenic effect on HBV genomic DNA by gene sequencing of the P, S, X, and C regions of HBV genomic DNA. We conclude that PBMC-derived DCs from HBV-infected patients act on autologous lymphocytes to suppress HBV replication and these DC clusters showed favorable biosafety.

  3. Low simvastatin concentrations reduce oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells: An in vitro model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    ALKHATATBEH, MOHAMMAD J.; LINCZ, LISA F.; THORNE, RICK F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an inflammatory condition caused by hepatic lipid accumulation that is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although statins should be used with caution in liver diseases, they are increasingly investigated as a possible treatment for NAFLD. The present study recreated an in vitro model of NAFLD using HepG2 cells exposed to oleic acid (OA), which was used to quantify OA-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells treated with various concentrations of simvastatin. In addition, the effect of simvastatin on HepG2 cell morphology and microparticle generation as a marker of cell apoptosis was assessed. OA-induced lipid accumulation was quantified by Oil Red O staining and extraction for optical density determination. Stained lipid droplets were visualized using phase contrast microscopy. Furthermore, HepG2 cell-derived microparticles were counted by flow cytometry subsequent to staining for Annexin V. HepG2 cells treated with 0–1 mM OA showed dose-dependent lipid accumulation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with increasing concentrations of simvastatin followed by treatment with 1 mM OA showed that low simvastatin concentrations (4–10 µM) were able to reduce lipid accumulation by ~40%, whereas high simvastatin concentrations (20 and 30 µM) induced apoptotic changes in cell morphology and increased the production of Annexin V+ microparticles. This suggests that low simvastatin doses may have a role in preventing NAFLD. However, further investigations are required to confirm this action in vivo and to determine the underlying mechanism by which simvastatin reduces hepatic steatosis. PMID:27073470

  4. Unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols regulate cholesterol transporter genes in Caco-2 and HepG2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngki; Carr, Timothy P

    2013-02-01

    Dietary consumption of phytosterols and certain fatty acids has been shown to reduce cholesterol absorption and plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether phytosterols or fatty acids can alter the expression of cholesterol transporters by functioning as signaling molecules. This study tested the hypothesis that various fatty acids and phytosterols commonly found in the food supply can modulate the expression of transporters including Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and scavenger receptor class B type I and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in the intestine and liver. Caco-2 cells were used as models of enterocytes, and HepG2 cells were used as a model of hepatocytes. The cells were treated for 18 hours with 100 μmol/L of a fatty acid, or for 24 hours with 10 μmol/L of 25α-hydroxycholesterol, or 100 μmol/L of cholesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol to measure expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caco-2 cells and sterols in HepG2 cells significantly reduced the messenger RNA expression levels of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, scavenger receptor class B type I, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Importantly, sitosterol and stigmasterol reduced the messenger RNA levels of genes to a similar extent as cholesterol. The data support the hypothesis that unsaturated fatty acid and phytosterols can act as signaling molecules and alter the expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and metabolism.

  5. An Efficient Sonochemical Synthesis of Novel Schiff's Bases, Thiazolidine, and Pyrazolidine Incorporating 1,8-Naphthyridine Moiety and Their Cytotoxic Activity against HePG2 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, N. S.; Alfooty, K. O.; Khalifah, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Novel Schiff's bases 4a–e, 5a, 5b, and 6, thiazolidine 7a–d, and pyrazolidine 8 have been synthesized using the versatile synthon 4-hydroxy-2,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine 1. Reactions carried out under ultrasound irradiation showed higher rates and yields than those done under silent conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for HepG2 cell growth inhibition. The results obtained revealed that the tested compounds possess inhibitory effect on the growth of HepG2 liver cancer cells. The results were compared to doxorubicin as a reference drug (IC50: 0.04). Compounds 4a and 7b showed the highest inhibition activity against the HepG2 cell line (IC50: 0.047 and 0.041 µM, resp.) among all the tested compounds. PMID:24723815

  6. In vivo treatment of HCV core-positive HepG2 cells with the transfer of recombinant caspase-3 using a 2'-5' OAS promoter.

    PubMed

    Zi, Yuan; Wang, Ying; Wiegmann, Peter S; Luo, Junming; Feng, Deyun

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most common pathogens causing liver-related morbidity and mortality, which affect 170 million individuals worldwide. There is no vaccine available, and current therapy is only partially effective. In a previous study, we constructed a recombinant caspase-3 expression vector under the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene (OAS) promoter (pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3) and demonstrated that it is an effective gene therapy for HCV core-positive liver cells in vitro. In the present study, the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 was transfected with the pcDNA3.1-HCV-core-EGFP plasmid and selected by G418. Expression of HCV core protein was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Both HepG2-expressing HCV core protein and parental HepG2 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into BALB/c mice, respectively. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with an intratumoral injection of pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3. The mice were sacrificed after 48 h. The correlation between HCV core and caspase-3 expression in tumor tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and double-label immunofluorescence staining. The subcutaneous hepatoma in vivo mouse models stably expressing HCV core protein and co-expressing HCV core protein and pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3 were established. Double-label immunofluorescence staining showed that the percentage of co-expression of both HCV core and caspase-3 was 76 ± 6% in the group treated with pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3. There was a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the group treated with the pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3 system by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and transmission electron microscopy. The results suggest that the pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3 construct can effectively induce apoptosis in HCV core-positive hepatocytes in vivo. The results presented strongly suggest that the transfer of pGL3-OAS-re-caspase-3 is an effective and promising gene therapy strategy for HCV infection.

  7. Selective Cytotoxicity of 1,3,4-Thiadiazolium Mesoionic Derivatives on Hepatocarcinoma Cells (HepG2)

    PubMed Central

    Valdameri, Glaucio; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Acco, Alexandra; Alves de Souza, Carlos Eduardo; Echevarria, Aurea; Moretto dos Reis, Camilla; Di Pietro, Attilio; Suter Correia Cadena, Sílvia Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of mesoionic 4-phenyl-5-(2-Y, 4-X or 4-X-cinnamoyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazolium-2-phenylamine chloride derivatives (MI-J: X=OH, Y=H; MI-D: X=NO2, Y=H; MI-4F: X=F, Y=H; MI-2,4diF: X=Y=F) on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), and non-tumor cells (rat hepatocytes) for comparison. MI-J, M-4F and MI-2,4diF reduced HepG2 viability by ~ 50% at 25 μM after 24-h treatment, whereas MI-D required a 50 μM concentration, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. The cytotoxicity was confirmed with lactate dehydrogenase assay, of which activity was increased by 55, 24 and 16% for MI-J, MI-4F and MI-2,4diF respectively (at 25 μM after 24 h). To identify the death pathway related to cytotoxicity, the HepG2 cells treated by mesoionic compounds were labeled with both annexin V and PI, and analyzed by flow cytometry. All compounds increased the number of doubly-stained cells at 25 μM after 24 h: by 76% for MI-J, 25% for MI-4F and MI-2,4diF, and 11% for MI-D. It was also verified that increased DNA fragmentation occurred upon MI-J, MI-4F and MI-2,4diF treatments (by 12%, 9% and 8%, respectively, at 25 μM after 24 h). These compounds were only weakly, or not at all, transported by the main multidrug transporters, P-glycoprotein, ABCG2 and MRP1, and were able to slightly inhibit their drug-transport activity. It may be concluded that 1,3,4-thiadiazolium compounds, especially the hydroxy derivative MI-J, constitute promising candidates for future investigations on in-vivo treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26083249

  8. Hesperidin from Citrus seed induces human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Wudtiwai, Benjawan; Khaw-On, Patompong; Rachakhom, Wasitta; Duangnil, Natthachai; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    Citrus seeds are full of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids. The aims of this study were to identify the types of flavonoids in Citrus seed extracts, the cytotoxic effect, mode of cell death, and signaling pathway in human hepatic cancer HepG2 cells. The flavonoids contain anticancer, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. Neohesperidin, hesperidin, and naringin, active flavanone glycosides, were identified in Citrus seed extract. The cytotoxic effect of three compounds was in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 levels were determined. The sensitivity of human HepG2 cells was as follows: hesperidin > naringin > neohesperidin > naringenin. Hesperidin induced HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by the externalization of phosphatidylserine and determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining using flow cytometry. Hesperidin did not induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which was determined by using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry method. The number of hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential increased concentration dependently, using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide employing flow cytometry. Caspase-9, -8, and -3 activities were activated and increased in hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells. Bcl-xL protein was downregulated whereas Bax, Bak, and tBid protein levels were upregulated after treatment with hesperidin in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the bioflavanone from Citrus seeds, hesperidin, induced human HepG2 cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Citrus seed flavonoids are beneficial and can be developed as anticancer drug or food supplement, which still needs further in vivo investigation in animals and human beings.

  9. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine improves insulin resistance in HepG2 cells by decreasing TNF-α and regulating the expression of insulin signal transduction proteins

    PubMed Central

    GAO, FENG; JIAN, LIUMENG; ZAFAR, MOHAMMAD ISHRAQ; DU, WEN; CAI, QIN; SHAFQAT, RAJA ADEEL; LU, FURONG

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that 4-hydroxy-isoleucine (4-HIL) improves insulin resistance, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying how 4-HIL improves insulin resistance in hepatocytes were examined. HepG2 cells were co-cultured with insulin and a high glucose concentration to obtain insulin-resistant (IR) HepG2 cells. Insulin sensitivity was determined by measuring the glucose uptake rate. The IR HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of 4-HIL to determine its effect on IR Hep2 cells. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and protein levels of TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, IRS-2, phosphorylated (p)-IRS-1 (Ser307) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) were measured by western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that insulin-induced glucose uptake was reduced in IR HepG2 cells; however, this reduction was reversed by 4-HIL in a dose-dependent manner. 4-HIL achieved this effect by downregulating the expression of TNF-α and TACE, and upregulating the expression of TIMP3 in IR HepG2 cells. In addition, 4-HIL increased the expression of the insulin transduction regulators IRS-1 and GLUT4, and decreased the expression of p-IRS-1 (Ser307), without affecting the expression of IRS-2. The present study suggests that 4-HIL improved insulin resistance in HepG2 cells by the following mechanisms: 4-HIL reduced TNF-α levels by affecting the protein expression of the TACE/TIMP3 system and 4-HIL stimulated the expression of IRS-1 and GLUT4, but inhibited the expression of p-IRS-1 (Ser307). PMID:26352439

  10. Ornithine transcarbamylase and arginase I deficiency are responsible for diminished urea cycle function in the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Mavri-Damelin, Demetra; Eaton, Simon; Damelin, Leonard H; Rees, Myrddin; Hodgson, Humphrey J F; Selden, Clare

    2007-01-01

    A possible cell source for a bio-artificial liver is the human hepatblastoma-derived cell line HepG2 as it confers many hepatocyte functions, however, the urea cycle is not maintained resulting in the lack of ammonia detoxification via this cycle. We investigated urea cycle activity in HepG2 cells at both a molecular and biochemical level to determine the causes for the lack of urea cycle expression, and subsequently addressed reinstatement of the cycle by gene transfer. Metabolic labelling studies showed that urea production from 15N-ammonium chloride was not detectable in HepG2 conditioned medium, nor could 14C-labelled urea cycle intermediates be detected. Gene expression data from HepG2 cells revealed that although expression of three urea cycle genes Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase I, Arginosuccinate Synthetase and Arginosuccinate Lyase was evident, Ornithine Transcarbamylase and Arginase I expression were completely absent. These results were confirmed by Western blot for arginase I, where no protein was detected. Radiolabelled enzyme assays showed that Ornithine Transcarbamylase functional activity was missing but that Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase I, Arginosuccinate Synthetase and Arginosuccinate Lyase were functionally expressed at levels comparable to cultured primary human hepatocytes. To restore the urea cycle, HepG2 cells were transfected with full length Ornithine Transcarbamylase and Arginase I cDNA constructs under a CMV promoter. Co-transfected HepG2 cells displayed complete urea cycle activity, producing both labelled urea and urea cycle intermediates. This strategy could provide a cell source capable of urea synthesis, and hence ammonia detoxificatory function, which would be useful in a bio-artificial liver.

  11. Evaluating the extent of LINE-1 mobility following exposure to heavy metals in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Abbas; Madjd, Zahra; Habibi, Laleh; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    The long interspersed elements-1 (LINE1 or L1 retrotransposon) constitute 17% of the human genome and retain mobility properties within the genome. At present, 80-100 human L1 elements are thought to be active in the genome. The mobilization of these active elements may be influenced upon exposure to the heavy metals. In the present study, we evaluated the association of aluminum, lead, and copper exposure with L1 retrotransposition in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line. An in vitro retrotransposition assay using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged L1RP cassette was established to track EGFP shining as the mark of retrotransposition. Following determination of noncytotoxic concentrations of these metals, pL1RP-EGFP-transfected HepG2 cells were subjected to long-term treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of cells treated with various concentrations of these metals along with quantitative real-time PCR was used to quantify L1 retrotransposition frequencies. Aluminum significantly increased L1 retrotransposition frequency, while no significant association was found concerning lead exposure and L1 retrotransposition. Copper treatment downregulated L1 retrotransposition as a result of EGFP-tagged L1RP expression. Our findings suggest that aluminum might have the potential to cause genomic instability by the enhancement of L1 mobilization. Thus, the risk of induced L1 retrotransposition should be considered during drug safety evaluation and risk assessments of exposure to toxic environmental agents. Further studies are needed for a more robust assay to evaluate any associations between long-term lead exposure and L1 mobility in cell culture assay.

  12. TRAM1 protect HepG2 cells from palmitate induced insulin resistance through ER stress-JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhuqi; Zhang, Wanlu; Wan, Chunhua; Xu, Guangfei; Nie, Xiaoke; Zhu, Xiaohui; Xia, Nana; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Suxin; Cui, Shiwei; Wang, Cuifang

    2015-02-20

    Excess serum free fatty acids (FFAs) are fundamental to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a major contributor to obesity-induced insulin resistance in the liver. With high-fat feeding (HFD), FFAs can activate chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in target tissues, initiating negative crosstalk between FFAs and insulin signaling. However, the molecular link between insulin resistance and ER stress remains to be identified. We here reported that translocating chain-associated membrane protein 1 (TRAM1), an ER-resident membrane protein, was involved in the onset of insulin resistance in hepatocytes. TRAM1 was significantly up-regulated in insulin-resistant liver tissues and palmitate (PA)-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, we showed that depletion of TRAM1 led to hyperactivation of CHOP and GRP78, and the activation of downstream JNK pathway. Given the fact that the activation of ER stress played a facilitating role in insulin resistance, the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β was also analyzed. We found that depletion of TRAM1 markedly attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β in the cells. Moreover, application with JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed the effect of TRAM1 interference on Akt phosphorylation. The accumulation of lipid droplets and expression of two key gluconeogenic enzymes, PEPCK and G6Pase, were also determined and found to display a similar tendency with the phosphorylation of Akt. Glucose uptake assay indicated that knocking down TRAM1 augmented PA-induced down-regulation of glucose uptake, and inhibition of JNK using SP600125 could block the effect of TRAM1 on glucose uptake. These data implicated that TRAM1 might protect HepG2 cells against PA-induced insulin resistance through alleviating ER stress.

  13. No protective effect of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuping; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Xu, Zengtao; Chen, Lidian; Wang, Yitao

    2011-01-01

    Scavenging of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the potential mechanisms contributing to the protective effects of many antioxidants. Curcumin, a natural product, is an effective ROS scavenger. However, the role of its ROS scavenging ability in its cytoprotective action remains to be clarified. Herein, the protective effects of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)- and tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced ROS formation and HepG2 cell injury were determined. HepG2 cells were pretreated with curcumin for 30 min and then treated with H₂O₂ (500 μM) or tert-butyl hydroperoxide (200 μM) for 24 h. Curcumin pretreatment dramatically decreased H₂O₂- and tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced ROS production, but failed to suppress cytotoxicity of those compounds. H₂O₂ induced decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and increases in DNA fragmentation could not be reversed by curcumin. Furthermore, curcumin enhanced expression of H₂O₂-induced pro-apoptotic protein Bax expression and inhibited expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In addition, curcumin significantly decreased p38MAPK and phospho-CDC-2 protein expression and increased phospho-p38MAPK, p42/44MAPK, and phospho-p42/44MAPK protein expression. These results suggest that short pretreatment and subsequent longer co-treatment of low concentrations of curcumin showed no obvious protective effect on H₂O₂-induced HepG₂ cell injury.

  14. In vitro treatment of HepG2 cells with saturated fatty acids reproduces mitochondrial dysfunction found in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Inmaculada; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Fernández-Moreira, Daniel; Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Herruzo, José A

    2015-02-01

    Activity of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) is decreased in humans and mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Nitro-oxidative stress seems to be involved in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether fatty acids are implicated in the pathogenesis of this mitochondrial defect. In HepG2 cells, we analyzed the effect of saturated (palmitic and stearic acids) and monounsaturated (oleic acid) fatty acids on: OXPHOS activity; levels of protein expression of OXPHOS complexes and their subunits; gene expression and half-life of OXPHOS complexes; nitro-oxidative stress; and NADPH oxidase gene expression and activity. We also studied the effects of inhibiting or silencing NADPH oxidase on the palmitic-acid-induced nitro-oxidative stress and subsequent OXPHOS inhibition. Exposure of cultured HepG2 cells to saturated fatty acids resulted in a significant decrease in the OXPHOS activity. This effect was prevented in the presence of a mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase. Palmitic acid reduced the amount of both fully-assembled OXPHOS complexes and of complex subunits. This reduction was due mainly to an accelerated degradation of these subunits, which was associated with a 3-tyrosine nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Pretreatment of cells with uric acid, an antiperoxynitrite agent, prevented protein degradation induced by palmitic acid. A reduced gene expression also contributed to decrease mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded subunits. Saturated fatty acids induced oxidative stress and caused mtDNA oxidative damage. This effect was prevented by inhibiting NADPH oxidase. These acids activated NADPH oxidase gene expression and increased NADPH oxidase activity. Silencing this oxidase abrogated totally the inhibitory effect of palmitic acid on OXPHOS complex activity. We conclude that saturated fatty acids caused nitro-oxidative stress, reduced OXPHOS complex half-life and activity, and decreased gene expression of mtDNA-encoded subunits

  15. Silver nanoparticles affect glucose metabolism in hepatoma cells through production of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Yun, Su Jin; Jang, Ji-Young; Kang, Hangoo; Kim, Kyongmin; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is a candidate for anticancer therapy because of its effects on cell survival and signaling. Although numerous reports are available regarding their effect on cell death, the effect of AgNPs on metabolism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AgNPs on glucose metabolism in hepatoma cell lines. Lactate release from both HepG2 and Huh7 cells was reduced with 5 nm AgNPs as early as 1 hour after treatment, when cell death did not occur. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs decreased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells but not in Huh7 cells. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs reduced nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 expression in both cell types without affecting its activation at the early time points after AgNPs’ treatment. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected 1 hour after 5 nm AgNPs’ treatment, and lactate release was restored in the presence of an ROS scavenger. Our results suggest that 5 nm AgNPs affect glucose metabolism by producing ROS. PMID:26730190

  16. Silver nanoparticles affect glucose metabolism in hepatoma cells through production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Yun, Su Jin; Jang, Ji-Young; Kang, Hangoo; Kim, Kyongmin; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is a candidate for anticancer therapy because of its effects on cell survival and signaling. Although numerous reports are available regarding their effect on cell death, the effect of AgNPs on metabolism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AgNPs on glucose metabolism in hepatoma cell lines. Lactate release from both HepG2 and Huh7 cells was reduced with 5 nm AgNPs as early as 1 hour after treatment, when cell death did not occur. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs decreased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells but not in Huh7 cells. Treatment with 5 nm AgNPs reduced nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 expression in both cell types without affecting its activation at the early time points after AgNPs' treatment. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected 1 hour after 5 nm AgNPs' treatment, and lactate release was restored in the presence of an ROS scavenger. Our results suggest that 5 nm AgNPs affect glucose metabolism by producing ROS.

  17. Studies on Cytotoxic Activity against HepG-2 Cells of Naphthoquinones from Green Walnut Husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Bingyou; Jiang, Yanqiu; Liu, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yuxin; Wang, Xiaoli; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-08-26

    Twenty-seven naphthoquinones and their derivatives, including four new naphthalenyl glucosides and twenty-three known compounds, were isolated from green walnut husks, which came from Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The structures of four new naphthalenyl glucosides were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the growth of human cancer cells lines HepG-2 by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazo l-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The results were shown that most naphthoquinones in an aglycone form exhibited better cytotoxicity in vitro than naphthalenyl glucosides with IC50 values in the range of 7.33-88.23 μM. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds were discussed.

  18. De novo LINE-1 retrotransposition in HepG2 cells preferentially targets gene poor regions of chromosome 13.

    PubMed

    Bojang, Pasano; Anderton, Mark J; Roberts, Ruth A; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2014-08-01

    Long interspersed nuclear elements (Line-1 or L1s) account for ~17% of the human genome. While the majority of human L1s are inactive, ~80-100 elements remain retrotransposition competent and mobilize through RNA intermediates to different locations within the genome. De novo insertions of L1s account for polymorphic variation of the human genome and disruption of target loci at their new location. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization and DNA sequencing were used to characterize retrotransposition profiles of L1(RP) in cultured human HepG2 cells. While expression of synthetic L1(RP) was associated with full-length and truncated insertions throughout the entire genome, a strong preference for gene-poor regions, such as those found in chromosome 13 was observed for full-length insertions. These findings shed light into L1 targeting mechanisms within the human genome and question the putative randomness of L1 retrotransposition.

  19. Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum and autophagy in microcystin-LR toxicity in Vero-E6 and HepG2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Carina; Alverca, Elsa; Dias, Elsa; Sam-Bento, Filomena; Pereira, Paulo

    2013-02-01

    This work investigates the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and autophagy in microcystin-LR (MCLR) toxicity in Vero-E6 and HepG2 cell lines. Additionally, morphological alterations induced by MCLR in lysosomes and mitochondria were studied. Cytotoxicity evaluation showed that pure MCLR and MCLR from LMECYA110 extract induce concentration dependent viability decays after 24h exposure. HepG2 cells showed an increased sensitivity to MCLR than Vero cells, with lower cytotoxic thresholds and EC(50) values. Conversely, LC3B immunofluorescence showed that autophagy is triggered in both cell lines as a survival response to low MCLR concentrations. Furthermore, MCLR induced a MCLR concentration-dependent decrease of GRP94 expression in HepG2 cells while in Vero cells no alteration was observed. This suggests the involvement of the ER in HepG2 apoptosis elicited by MCLR, while in Vero cells ER destructuration could be a consequence of cytoskeleton inflicted damages. Additionally, in both cell lines, lysosomal destabilization preceded mitochondrial impairment which occurred at high toxin concentrations. Although not an early cellular target of MCLR, mitochondria appears to serve as central mediators of different signaling pathways elicited by the organelles involved in MCLR toxicity. As a result, kidney and hepatic cell lines exhibit cell type and dose-dependent mechanisms to overcome MCLR toxicity.

  20. Regulation of HepG2 cell apolipoprotein B metabolism by the citrus flavanones hesperetin and naringenin.

    PubMed

    Borradaile, N M; Carroll, K K; Kurowska, E M

    1999-06-01

    Our previous studies showed that replacing the drinking water of rabbits fed a casein-containing diet with either orange juice or grapefruit juice reduced serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic cholesteryl ester concentrations. To determine whether the changes observed in rabbits were due to flavonoids present in the juices acting directly on the liver, the effects of hesperetin and naringenin on net apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion by HepG2 cells were investigated. These flavanones dose-dependently reduced net apoB secretion by up to 81% after a 24 h incubation, while doses of 60 micrograms/mL reduced net apoB secretion by 50% after 4 h. Coincubation with the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, did not alter the ability of the flavonoids to reduce net apoB secretion over 4 h, suggesting that the flavonoid-induced changes in apoB metabolism were not due to a direct increase in proteasomal activity. However, the flavonoids were unable to reduce net apoB secretion after 4 h in the presence of oleate, suggesting that these compounds may interfere with the availability of neutral lipids for lipoprotein assembly. Furthermore, our 14C-acetate-labeling studies showed a 50% reduction in cholesteryl ester synthesis in the presence of either flavonoid, which could account for the reduction in net apoB secretion caused by incubation with these compounds. These in vitro studies suggest that hesperetin and naringenin may, in part, reduce net apoB secretion by HepG2 cells by inhibiting cholesteryl ester synthesis and that these compounds are good candidates for further in vivo studies to determine whether they are responsible for the cholesterol-lowering properties of dietary citrus juices.

  1. Role of calcium and calcium-activated proteases in CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in HEPG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Caro, Andres A; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2002-01-04

    The objective of this work was to investigate whether CYP2E1- and oxidative stress-dependent toxicity in HepG2 cells is mediated by an increase of cytosolic Ca2+ and activation of Ca2+-modulated processes. HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 (E47 cells) or control cells not expressing CYP2E1 (C34 cells) were preloaded with arachidonic acid (AA, up to 10 microm) and, after washing, incubated with iron-nitrilotriacetic acid (up to 100 microm) for variable periods (up to 12 h). Toxicity was greater in E47 cells than in C34 cells at all times and combinations of iron/AA tested. Cytosolic calcium increased with incubation time in both cell lines, but the increase was higher in E47 cells than in C34 cells. The rise in calcium was an early event and preceded the developing toxicity. Toxicity in E47 cells and the increase in Ca2+ were inhibited by omission of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium, and toxicity was restored by reincorporation of Ca2+. An inhibitor of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores did not prevent the toxicity or the increase in Ca2+, reflecting a role for the influx of extracellular Ca2+ in the toxicity. Reactive oxygen production was similar in media with or without calcium, indicating that calcium was not modulating CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress. Toxicity, lipid peroxidation, and the increase of Ca2+ in E47 cells exposed to iron-AA were inhibited by alpha-tocopherol. E47 cells (but not C34 cells) exposed to iron-AA showed increased calpain activity in situ (40-fold). The toxicity in E47 cells mirrored calpain activation and was inhibited by calpeptin, suggesting that calpain activation plays a causal role in toxicity. These results suggest that CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in this model depends on the activation of lipid peroxidation, followed by an increased influx of extracellular Ca2+ and activation of Ca2+-dependent proteases.

  2. The effect of solanine on the membrane potential of mitochondria in HepG2 cells and [Ca2+]i in the cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, YuBin; Gao, ShiYong; Ji, ChenFeng; Zou, Xiang

    2008-12-01

    To observe the effect of solanine on the membrane potential of mitochondria in HepG2 cells and [Ca2+]i in the cells, and to uncover the mechanism by which solanine induces apoptosis. HepG2 cells are double stained with and Fluo-3/AM, and both the change in membrane potential of mitochondria and that of [Ca2+]i in the cells are observed using LCSM. The results of double staining with TMRE and Fluo-3/AM show that solanine can lower membrane potential and increase the concentration of Ca2+ in the cells Solanine opens up the PT channels in the membrane by lowering the membrane potential, leading to Ca2+ being transported down its concentration gradient, which in turn leads to the rise of the concentration of Ca2+ in the cell, turning on the mechanism for apoptosis.

  3. Long-chain carboxychromanols are the major metabolites of tocopherols and tocotrienols in A549 lung epithelial cells but not HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    You, Cha-Sook; Sontag, Timothy J; Swanson, Joy E; Parker, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Human lung type II cell derived A549 epithelial cancer cells and HepG2 hepatocytes constitutively express cytochrome P4504F2, a P450 we previously identified as a tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase. To determine if A549 cells would metabolize tocochromanols via the omega-hydroxylase pathway, we compared the metabolism of tocopherols (alpha-, gamma-, delta-TOH) and tocotrienols (alpha-, gamma-, delta-T3) in these 2 cell lines. Cultures were incubated with alpha-, gamma-, or delta-TOH, or the analogous T3s, and synthesis of their metabolites quantitated by GC-MS. A549 cells metabolized all tocochromanols 2-3 times more extensively than HepG2 cells (P < 0.001) except alpha-TOH, a difference not related to cell uptake of substrate but rather was reflective of greater microsomal TOH-omega-hydroxylase enzyme activity. Notably, 9'-carboxychromanols were the major metabolites of all gamma- and delta-TOHs and T3s in A549 cultures, whereas 3'- and 5'-carboxychromanols predominated in HepG2 cultures. Accumulation of 9'-carboxychromanols in A549 cultures was due to their inefficient conversion to 7'-carboxychromanols relative to HepG2 cells. Sesamin inhibited tocochromanol metabolism in both cells types, and neither cell type exhibited evidence of alternative (sesamin-insensitive) pathways of metabolism. TOH-omega-hydroxylase activity was undetectable in rat primary lung type II cells, suggesting that expression of activity was associated with transformation of normal type II cells to cancer cells. Long-chain carboxychromanol metabolites of gamma-TOH and other forms of vitamin E can be biosynthesized in A549 cultures for assessment of their biological activity, including their potential inhibition of synthesis of inflammatory mediators.

  4. Comparative genotoxicity of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells evaluated by a flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Njoroge, Joyce; Bryce, Steven M; Yourick, Jeffrey J; Sprando, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    Two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 cells and human colon Caco2 cells, and flow cytometry techniques were evaluated as tools for rapid screening of potential genotoxicity of food-related nanosilver. Comparative genotoxic potential of 20 nm silver was evaluated in HepG2 and Caco2 cell cultures by a flow cytometric-based in vitro micronucleus assay. The nanosilver, characterized by the dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis, showed no agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated the uptake of 20 nm silver by both cell types. The 20 nm silver exposure of HepG2 cells increased the concentration-dependent micronucleus formation sevenfold at 10 µg ml(-1) concentration in attached cell conditions and 1.3-fold in cell suspension conditions compared to the vehicle controls. However, compared to the vehicle controls, the 20 nm silver exposure of Caco2 cells increased the micronucleus formation 1.2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg ml(-1) both in the attached cell conditions as well as in the cell suspension conditions. Our results of flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay appear to suggest that the HepG2 cells are more susceptible to the nanosilver-induced micronucleus formation than the Caco2 cells compared to the vehicle controls. However, our results also suggest that the widely used in vitro models, HepG2 and Caco2 cells and the flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay are valuable tools for the rapid screening of genotoxic potential of nanosilver and deserve more careful evaluation.

  5. High-dose acetaminophen inhibits the lethal effect of doxorubicin in HepG2 cells: the role of P-glycoprotein and mitogen-activated protein kinase p44/42 pathway.

    PubMed

    Manov, Irena; Bashenko, Yulia; Eliaz-Wolkowicz, Anat; Mizrahi, Meital; Liran, Oded; Iancu, Theodore C

    2007-09-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A major limitation to its effectiveness is the development of multidrug resistance of cancer cells. In clinical trials, patients with advanced HCC were treated with high-dose acetaminophen (HAAP) in an effort to improve the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutics. In this study, we investigated the effect of concomitant treatment of DOX and HAAP on hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells. Viability, cell cycle distribution, and ultrastructure were examined. Unexpectedly, HAAP, when added to DOX-exposed cells, increased cell viability, released cell cycle arrest, and decreased apoptosis. To elucidate the mechanisms by which HAAP reduces the DOX lethal effect to HepG2 cells, we investigated the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and p44/42-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. The P-gp function was enhanced by DOX and HAAP, and it was further stimulated during combined treatment, leading to decreased DOX retention. Verapamil (VRP), when added to DOX + HAAP exposure, increased DOX accumulation and restored DOX-induced toxicity. The increased phospho-p44/42-MAPK level in DOX-exposed cells was inhibited by HAAP. In addition, suppression of p44/42 activation by the p44/42-MAPK inhibitor 2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone (PD98059) blocked DOX-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that the antagonistic effect of concomitant DOX + HAAP treatment occurs as a result of interactive stimulation of P-gp, generating decreased intracellular drug concentrations. Furthermore, inhibition of the p44/42-MAPK phosphorylation by HAAP could abolish the DOX-induced cell death pathway. Thus, combined treatment by DOX + HAAP, intended to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy, could have an opposite effect facilitating cancer cell survival.

  6. Portulaca oleracea Seed Oil Exerts Cytotoxic Effects on Human Liver Cancer (HepG2) and Human Lung Cancer (A-549) Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea (Family: Portulacaceae), is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti- bacterial, and anti-tumor activities. However, cytotoxic effects of seed oil of Portulaca oleracea against human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines have not been studied previously. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Portulaca oleracea seed oil on HepG2 and A-549 cell lines. Both cell lines were exposed to various concentrations of Portulaca oleracea seed oil for 24h. After the exposure, percentage cell viability was studied by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed a concentration-dependent significant reduction in the percentage cell viability and an alteration in the cellular morphology of HepG2 and A-549 cells. The percentage cell viability was recorded as 73%, 63%, and 54% by MTT assay and 76%, 61%, and 50% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in HepG2 cells. Percentage cell viability was recorded as 82%, 72%, and 64% by MTT assay and 83%, 68%, and 56% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in A-549 cells. The 100 μg/ml and lower concentrations were found to be non cytotoxic to A-549 cells, whereas decrease of 14% and 12% were recorded by MTT and NRU assay, respectively in HepG2 cells. Both HepG2 and A-549 cell lines exposed to 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ ml of Portulaca oleracea seed oil lost their normal morphology, cell adhesion capacity, become rounded, and appeared smaller in size. The data from this study showed that exposure to seed oil of Portulaca oleracea resulted in significant cytotoxicity and inhibition of growth of the human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines.

  7. Anticancer and apoptotic activities of oleanolic acid are mediated through cell cycle arrest and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, YUE-YONG; HUANG, HONG-YAN; WU, YIN-LIAN

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive form of cancer, with high rates of morbidity and mortality, a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the anticancer activity of oleanolic acid in HepG2 human HCC cells. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay, following administration of various doses of oleanolic acid. The effect of oleanolic acid on cell cycle phase distribution and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using flow cytometry with propidium iodide and rhodamine-123 DNA-binding cationic fluorescent dyes. Fluorescence microscopy was employed to detect morphological changes in HepG2 cells following oleanolic acid treatment. The results revealed that oleanolic acid induced a dose-dependent, as well as time-dependent inhibition in the growth of HepG2 cancer cells. Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with various doses (0, 5, 25 and 50 µM) of oleanolic acid induced typical morphological changes associated with apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and apoptotic body formation. Cell cycle analysis revealed that oleanolic acid induced cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the sub-G1 (apoptotic) phase of the cell cycle, in a dose-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide revealed that apoptosis occurred early in these cells. Oleanolic acid treatment also resulted in fragmentation of nuclear DNA in a dose-dependent manner, producing the typical features of DNA laddering on an agarose gel. The results also demonstrated that oleanolic acid treatment resulted in a potent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which also occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, oleanolic acid may be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of human HCC. PMID:26151733

  8. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced elevation of GSH level protects against oxidative stress and enhances xenobiotic detoxification in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, T; Yang, M S

    2007-06-03

    Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important antioxidants in mammalian cells. It also plays an important role in chemical detoxification. Some evidence showed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P [50-32-8]), could increase GSH content as a defense mechanism against oxidative stress as well as to promote its detoxification. However, there has been very little study on clarifying the role GSH plays in antioxidation and detoxification actions. Therefore, the present study aims to analyze intracellular glutathione metabolism in the human hepatoma cells (HepG2) upon exposure to B[a]P. Exposure of the cells to B[a]P (1-100 microM) for 24 h did not cause significant cell death in this cell line. By selecting the sublethal concentration of 10 microM, B[a]P caused a significant increase in GSH and a small (13%) but significant decrease in glutathione reductase activity. However, there was no change in the activity of glutathione peroxidase, and no detectable increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Treatment with B[a]P caused up to 1.5 folds increase in gamma-glutamylcysteine synthatase (gamma-GCS) activity over control. Buthioneine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of gamma-GCS, could suppress GSH increase in a dose-dependent manner. Assessment of the oxidative state of the cells indicated that the increase in GSH caused the cells to become more reduced. Thus, the results concluded that cells were not suffering from oxidative stress at 24 h after treatment with 10 microM B[a]P. Upon analyzing the activities of detoxification enzymes, there was an increase in the activity of CYP1A subfamily monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferase. Both changes occurred prior to the changes in gamma-GCS activity and the increase in GSH. In summary, results of the present study demonstrate that B[a]P caused an activation of detoxification enzymes. The increase in intracellular GSH level was due to activation of gamma-GCS activities. Oxidative

  9. Cytotoxic and Apoptosis-Inducing Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from Holothuria scabra and Cucumaria frondosa against HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juanjuan; Han, Hua; Chen, Xiangfeng; Yi, Yanghua; Sun, Hongxiang

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of thirteen triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra Jaeger and Cucumaria frondosa Gunnerus (Holothuroidea) against four human cell lines were detected and their cytotoxicity-structure relationships were established. The apoptosis-inducing activity of a more potent glycoside echinoside A (1) in HepG2 cells was further investigated by determining its effect on the morphology, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and mRNA expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes. The results showed that the number of glycosyl residues in sugar chains and the side chain of aglycone could affect their cytotoxicity towards tumor cells and selective cytotoxicity. 1 significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. 1 also markedly decreased the Δψm and Bcl-2/Bax mRNA express ratio, and up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 in HepG2 cells. Therefore, 1 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. These findings could potentially promote the usage of these glycosides as leading compounds for developing new antitumor drugs. PMID:25062508

  10. Evaluation of three-dimensional cultured HepG2 cells in a nano culture plate system: an in vitro human model of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Aritomi, Kohei; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Tomishima, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Daisuke; Abe, Nazuki; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Irikura, Mitsuru; Kai, Hirofumi; Irie, Tetsumi

    2014-01-01

    Overdoses of acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP) cause severe liver injury, yet there is no common or high throughput in vitro human APAP model. This study examined the characteristics and usefulness of HepG2 cells grown in a nano culture plate (NCP) system, a three-dimensional culture method, as an in vitro human model for APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. The NCP-cultured HepG2 cells showed higher expression of mRNA and protein levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, which metabolizes APAP to a toxic metabolite, APAP-cysteine adduct formation, and higher sensitivity against APAP-induced cell injury compared with conventionally cultured cells. We demonstrated that treatment of APAP in NCP-cultured HepG2 cells shows key mechanistic features of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, such as decreases in intracellular glutathione and mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of JNK, and cellular injury; and pharmacological agents, such as Cyclosporine A (a mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor), prevented cell injury induced by APAP exposure. In addition, the antidote of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, N-acetylcysteine, could attenuate cellular injury induced by APAP in NCP-cultured HepG2 cells. We suggest that cellular injury induced by APAP treatment using an NCP-HepG2 system is a useful human model to study mechanisms and screen drug candidates of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.

  11. Multifunctional selenium nanoparticles as carriers of HSP70 siRNA to induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinghua; Lin, Zhengfang; Zhao, Mingqi; Xu, Tiantian; Wang, Changbing; Xia, Huimin; Wang, Hanzhong; Zhu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a new therapeutic modality holds promise for cancer treatment, but it is unable to cross cell membrane. To overcome this limitation, nanotechnology has been proposed for mediation of siRNA transfection. Selenium (Se) is a vital dietary trace element for mammalian life and plays an essential role in the growth and functioning of humans. As a novel Se species, Se nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention for their higher anticancer efficacy. In the present study, siRNAs with polyethylenimine (PEI)-modified Se nanoparticles (Se@PEI@siRNA) have been demonstrated to enhance the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Heat shock protein (HSP)-70 is overexpressed in many types of human cancer and plays a significant role in several biological processes including the regulation of apoptosis. The objective of this study was to silence inducible HSP70 and promote the apoptosis of Se-induced HepG2 cells. Se@PEI@siRNA were successfully prepared and characterized by various microscopic methods. Se@PEI@siRNA showed satisfactory size distribution, high stability, and selectivity between cancer and normal cells. The cytotoxicity of Se@PEI@siRNA was lower for normal cells than tumor cells, indicating that these compounds may have fewer side effects. The gene-silencing efficiency of Se@PEI@siRNA was significantly much higher than Lipofectamine 2000@siRNA and resulted in a significantly reduced HSP70 mRNA and protein expression in cancer cells. When the expression of HSP70 was diminished, the function of cell protection was also removed and cancer cells became more sensitive to Se@PEI@siRNA. Moreover, Se@PEI@siRNA exhibited enhanced cytotoxic effects on cancer cells and triggered intracellular reactive oxygen species, and the signaling pathways of p53 and AKT were activated to advance cell apoptosis. Taken together, this study provides a strategy for the design of an anticancer nanosystem as a carrier of HSP70 siRNA to achieve synergistic cancer therapy

  12. Imatinib induces up-regulation of NM23, a metastasis suppressor gene, in human Hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz-Pakseresht, Behta; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Baghbani-arani, Fahimeh

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigated the anti-tumor activity of Imatinib mesylate through modulation of NM23 gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line. Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be the third leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Down regulation of NM23, a metastasis suppressor gene, has been associated with several types of malignant cancer. Recently, effects of Imatinib mesylate, a first member of tyrosine kinases inhibitors, were indicated in research and treatment of different malignant tumors. Methods: Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay after HepG2 cells exposure to Imatinib mesylate at various concentrations of 0, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25,50μM for 24 hours. Also, quantitative real time PCR technique was applied for the detection of NM23 gene expression in HepG2 cell line. Results: There was a dose dependent increase in the cytotoxicity effect of imatinib. The real time PCR results demonstrated that inhibitory effect of Imatinib mesylate on viability via up regulation of NM23 gene expression compared to GAPDH gene (internal control gene) in cancer cells. Conclusion: According to our findings, imatinib can modulate metastasis by enhancing Nm23 gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line.

  13. Flavonoid-enriched apple fraction AF4 induces cell cycle arrest, DNA topoisomerase II inhibition, and apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Sudhanshu; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Apples are a major source of dietary phytochemicals such as flavonoids in the Western diet. Here we report anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action of apple flavonoid-enriched fraction (AF4) isolated from the peels of Northern Spy apples in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2. Treatment with AF4 induced cell growth inhibition in HepG2 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. Concentration of 50 μg/ml (50 μg total monomeric polyphenols/ml) AF4 was sufficient to induce a significant reduction in cell viability within 6 h of treatment (92%, P < 0.05) but had very low toxicity (minimum 4% to maximum 16%) on primary liver and lung cells, which was significantly lower than currently prescribed chemotherapy drug Sorafenib (minimum 29% to maximum 49%, P < 0.05). AF4 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells within 6 h of treatment via activation of caspase-3. Cell cycle analysis via flow-cytometer showed that AF4 induced G2/M phase arrest. Further, results showed that AF4 acts as a strong DNA topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor, which may be a plausible reason to drive the cells to apoptosis. Overall, our data suggests that AF4 possesses a significantly stronger antiproliferative and specific action than Sorafenib in vitro and is a potential natural chemotherapy agent for treatment of liver cancer.

  14. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hengwen; Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yajie; Gao, Dongsheng; Zhao, Shenting

    2016-03-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expression in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy.

  15. Cordyceps militaris induces tumor cell death via the caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    SONG, JINGJING; WANG, YINGWU; TENG, MEIYU; ZHANG, SHIQIANG; YIN, MENGYA; LU, JIAHUI; LIU, YAN; LEE, ROBERT J; WANG, DI; TENG, LESHENG

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris (CM), an entomopathogenic fungus belonging to the class ascomycetes, possesses various pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic effects, on various types of human tumor cells. The present study investigated the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and anti-breast cancer effects of CM in in vitro and in vivo models. CM aqueous extract reduced cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation, inhibited cell migration ability, caused the over-release of lactate dehydrogenase, induced mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced apoptotic rates in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. The expression levels of cleaved poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and caspase-3, biomarkers of apoptosis, were increased following treatment with CM aqueous extract for 24 h. Furthermore, in the MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, enhanced levels of B cell-associated X protein and cleaved caspase-8 were observed in the CM-treated cells. Finally, the antitumor activities of CM in HCC and breast cancer were also confirmed in MCF-7- and HepG2-xengraft nude mice models. Collectively, the data obtained in the present study suggested that the cytotoxic effects of CM aqueous extract on HCC and breast cancer are associated with the caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. PMID:27109250

  16. Simultaneous induction of apoptosis and necroptosis by Tanshinone IIA in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C-Y; Chang, T-W; Hsieh, W-H; Hung, M-C; Lin, I-H; Lai, S-C; Tzeng, Y-J

    2016-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), a constituent of the traditional medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, has been reported to possess anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis in many cancer cells. Surprisingly, the present study finds that Tan IIA simultaneously causes apoptosis and necroptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. We further find that apoptosis can be converted to necroptosis by pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk, and the two death modes can be blocked by necroptotic inhibitor necrostatin-1. The underlying mechanisms are revealed by analysis of the signaling molecules using western blotting. In control cells, FLICE inhibitory protein in short form (FLIPS) is expressed in relatively high levels and binds to caspase 8 in ripoptosome, which supposedly sustains cell survival. However, in Tan IIA-treated cells, FLIPS is down-regulated and may thus cause homodimer formation of cleaved caspase 8, cleavage of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinases 1, 3 (RIP1, RIP3), and mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), in turn leads to cell apoptosis. In parallel, Tan IIA causes necroptosis by forming a suggested necrosomal complex composed of RIP1/RIP3. Regarding the inhibitors, z-VAD-fmk diminishes the cleaved caspase 8, RIP1, RIP3, and MLKL induced by Tan IIA, and reconstructs the ripoptosome complex, which marks cells moving from apoptosis to necroptosis. Nec-1 recovers the Tan IIA down-regulated FLIPS, consequently causes FLIPS to form heterodimer with caspase 8 and thus block apoptosis. Meanwhile, cleaved forms of RIP1 and RIP3 were observed preventing necroptosis. Intriguingly, the cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to HepG2 cells is enhanced by Tan IIA in a pilot study, which may be attributed to low FLIPS levels induced by Tan IIA. In short, Tan IIA simultaneously induces both Nec-1 inhibition and FLIPS regulation-mediated apoptosis/necroptosis, which has not been previously documented

  17. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. alleviates lipogenesis and oxidative stress during oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Wi, Hae-Ri; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Kye Won; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2014-07-23

    Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ) can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.

  18. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. Alleviates Lipogenesis and Oxidative Stress during Oleic Acid-Induced Steatosis in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Wi, Hae-Ri; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Kye Won; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ) can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations. PMID:25057104

  19. XRCC1 deficiency increased the DNA damage induced by γ-ray in HepG2 cell: Involvement of DSB repair and cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yujie; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhang, Rong

    2013-09-01

    γ-ray irradiation can induce DNA damages which include base damages, single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks in various type cells. The DNA repair protein XRCC1, as a part of the BER pathway, forms complexes with DNA polymerase beta, DNA ligase III and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in the repair of DNA single strand breaks and also affects the repair of double strand breaks. However, it is still not known well whether XRCC1 contributes to affect the irradiation sensitivity and DNA damage in HepG2 cell and the potential mechanism. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore whether abrogation of XRCC1 gene expression by shRNA could reduce DNA repair and thus sensitize HepG2 cells to γ-ray. Cell viability was measured by Trypan blue staining and cloning efficiency assay. The DNA damage was detected by Comet assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. The DNA-PKcs and gadd153 mRNA expression were determined by Real-time PCR. Our results showed that abrogation of XRCC 1 could sensitize HepG2 cells to γ-ray. This enhanced sensitivity could be attributed to the increased DNA damage and increased cell cycle arrest, which might be related with the increasing of DNA-PKcs and gadd153 mRNA expression. Therefore, our results suggested that the γ-ray irradiation sensitivity could be increased by targeting inhibition of XRCC1 in HepG2 cell.

  20. Cordyceps militaris induces tumor cell death via the caspase‑dependent mitochondrial pathway in HepG2 and MCF‑7 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Teng, Meiyu; Zhang, Shiqiang; Yin, Mengya; Lu, Jiahui; Liu, Yan; Lee, Robert J; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-06-01

    Cordyceps militaris (CM), an entomopathogenic fungus belonging to the class ascomycetes, possesses various pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic effects, on various types of human tumor cells. The present study investigated the anti‑hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and anti‑breast cancer effects of CM in in vitro and in vivo models. CM aqueous extract reduced cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation, inhibited cell migration ability, caused the over-release of lactate dehydrogenase, induced mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced apoptotic rates in MCF‑7 and HepG2 cells. The expression levels of cleaved poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and caspase‑3, biomarkers of apoptosis, were increased following treatment with CM aqueous extract for 24 h. Furthermore, in the MCF‑7 and HepG2 cells, enhanced levels of B cell‑associated X protein and cleaved caspase‑8 were observed in the CM‑treated cells. Finally, the antitumor activities of CM in HCC and breast cancer were also confirmed in MCF‑7‑ and HepG2‑xengraft nude mice models. Collectively, the data obtained in the present study suggested that the cytotoxic effects of CM aqueous extract on HCC and breast cancer are associated with the caspase‑dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  1. Comparative genotoxicity of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells evaluated by fluorescent microscopy of cytochalasin B-blocked micronucleus formation.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Roy, Shambhu; Zheng, Jiwen; Yourick, Jeffrey J; Sprando, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of silver nanoparticles in food, food contact materials, dietary supplements and cosmetics to prevent fungal and bacterial growth, there is a need for validated rapid screening methods to assess the safety of nanoparticle exposure. This study evaluated two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 cells and human colon Caco2 cells, as tools for assessing the potential genotoxicity of 20-nm nanosilver. The average silver nanoparticle size as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was 20.4 nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis showed no large agglomeration of the silver nanoparticles. The silver concentration in a 20-nm nanosilver solution determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis was 0.962 mg ml(-1) . Analysis by ICP-MS and TEM demonstrated the uptake of 20-nm silver by both HepG2 and Caco2 cells. Genotoxicity was determined by the cytochalasin B-blocked micronucleus assay with acridine orange staining and fluorescence microscopy. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in the frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei induced by the nanosilver was observed in the concentration range of 0.5 to 15 µg ml(-1) in both HepG2 and Caco2 cells compared with the control. Our results indicated that HepG2 cells were more sensitive than Caco2 cells in terms of micronuclei formation induced by nanosilver exposure. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the widely used in vitro models, HepG2 and Caco2 cells in culture, represent potential screening models for prediction of genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles by in vitro micronucleus assay.

  2. Cytotoxic activities of naturally occurring oleanane-, ursane-, and lupane-type triterpenes on HepG2 and AGS cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is well known that the naturally occurring modified triterpenes in plants have a wide diversity of chemical structures and biological functions. The lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane-type triterpenes are the three major members of natural triterpenes with a wide range of biological properties. A systematic approach is necessary to review their structures and biological activities according to the backbones and the different substituents. Objective: Thirty lupane-(L1-7), oleanane-(O1-14), and ursane-type (U1-9) triterpenes with structural diversity were examined to evaluate their cytotoxic activities against two cancer cell lines, human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and AGS cells. Materials and Methods: They were isolated from Hedera helix, Juglans sinensis, and Pulsatilla koreana using a series of column chromatography methods and were treated to evaluate their cytotoxic activities against HepG2 and AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cell. Further, two triterpenes showing the most potent activities were subjected to the apoptotic screening assay using flow cytometry. Results: The polar groups, such as an oxo group at C-1, a free hydroxyl at C-2, C-3, or C-23, and a carboxylic moiety at C-28, as well as the type of backbone, explicitly increased the cytotoxic activity on two cancer cells. O5 and U5 showed significantly the potent cytotoxic activity in comparison to other glycosidic triterpenes. In annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) staining assay, the percentage of late apoptosis (annexin-V+/PI+) 12 and 24 h after treatment with O5 and U5 at 25 μM increased from 14.5% to 93.1% and from 46.4% to 49.1%, respectively, in AGS cells. The cytotoxicity induced by O5 showed a significant difference compared to U5 for 12 and 24 h. Conclusion: In the study, we can suggest the potent moieties which influence their cytotoxic activities against two cancer cells. The polar groups at C-1, C-2, C-3, C-23, and C-28 and the linkage of sugar moieties influenced the

  3. Alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome P450 2E1 can be induced by long-term exposure to ethanol in cultured liver HEP-G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Balusikova, Kamila; Kovar, Jan

    2013-09-01

    It has been shown in previous studies that liver HEP-G2 cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma) lose their ability to express active alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Although both are ethanol-inducible enzymes, short-term exposure to ethanol does not cause any changes in expression or activity in cultured HEP-G2 cells. Therefore, we tested the effect of long-term exposure to ethanol on the expression and activity of both ADH and CYP2E1 in these cells. The expression of ADH and CYP2E1 was assessed at the mRNA and/or protein level using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Specific colorimetric assays were used for the measurement of ADH and CYP2E1 enzymatic activities. Caco-2 cells (active CYP2E1 and inactive ADH) were used as control cells. Significantly increased protein expression of ADH (about 2.5-fold) as well as CYP2E1 (about 1.6-fold) was found in HEP-G2 cells after long-term (12 mo) exposure to ethanol. The activity of ADH and CYP2E1 was also significantly increased from 12 ± 3 and 6 ± 1 nmol/h/mg of total protein to 191 ± 9 and 57 ± 9 nmol/h/mg of total protein, respectively. We suggest that the loss of activity of ethanol-metabolizing enzymes in cultured HEP-G2 cells is reversible and can be induced by prolonged exposure to ethanol. We are therefore able to reactivate HEP-G2 cells metabolic functions concerning ethanol oxidation just by modification of in vitro culture conditions without necessity of transfection with its side effect - enzyme overexpression.

  4. Metabolomic effects in HepG2 cells exposed to four TiO2 amd two CeO2 naomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract It is difficult to evaluate nanomaterials potential toxicity and to make science-based societal choices. To better assess potential hepatotoxicity issues, human liver HepG2 cells were exposed to four Ti02 and two Ce02 nanomaterials at 30 ug m1-1 for t...

  5. Differential genomic effects on canonical signaling pathways by two different CeO2 nanoparticles in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential genomic effects on signaling pathways by two different CeO2 nanoparticles in HepG2 cells. Sheau-Fung Thai1, Kathleen A. Wallace1, Carlton P. Jones1, Hongzu Ren2, Benjamin T. Castellon1, James Crooks2, Kirk T. Kitchin1. 1Integrated Systems Toxicology Divison, 2Resea...

  6. Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cellsBecause of their growing number of uses, nanoparticles composed of CeO2 (cosmetics, polishing materials and automotive fuel additives) and TiO2 (pigments, sunscreens and photocatalysts) are of particular to...

  7. Proteomic analysis of the secretome of HepG2 cells indicates differential proteolytic processing after infection with dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Marjolly B; Trugilho, Monique R O; Higa, Luiza M; Teixeira-Ferreira, André S; Perales, Jonas; Da Poian, Andrea T; Zingali, Russolina B

    2017-01-16

    Secretome analysis can be described as a subset of proteomics studies consisting in the analysis of the molecules secreted by cells or tissues. Dengue virus (DENV) infection can lead to a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, with the severe forms of the disease characterized by hemostasis abnormalities and liver injury. The hepatocytes are a relevant site of viral replication and a major source of plasma proteins. Until now, we had limited information on the small molecules secreted by hepatic cells after infection by DENV. In the present study, we analysed a fraction of the secretome of mock- and DENV-infected hepatic cells (HepG2 cells) containing molecules with <10kDa, using different proteomic approaches. We identified 175 proteins, with 57 detected only in the samples from mock-infected cells, 59 only in samples from DENV-infected cells, and 59 in both conditions. Most of the peptides identified were derived from proteins larger than 10kDa, suggesting a proteolytic processing of the secreted molecules. Using in silico analysis, we predicted consistent differences between the proteolytic processing occurring in mock and DENV-infected samples, raising, for the first time, the hypothesis that differential proteolysis of secreted molecules would be involved in the pathogenesis of dengue.

  8. Protective effects of an ethanol extract of Angelica keiskei against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 and HepaRG cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Hee; Lee, Hyun Sook; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Although Angelica keiskei (AK) has widely been utilized for the purpose of general health improvement among Asian, its functionality and mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of ethanol extract of AK (AK-Ex) on acute hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen (AAP) in HepG2 human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells and HepaRG human hepatic progenitor cells. MATERIALS/METHODS AK-Ex was prepared HepG2 and HepaRG cells were cultured with various concentrations and 30 mM AAP. The protective effects of AK-Ex against AAP-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 and HepaRG cells were evaluated using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. RESULTS AK-Ex, when administered prior to AAP, increased cell growth and decreased leakage of LDH in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 and HepaRG cells against AAP-induced hepatotoxicity. AK-Ex increased the level of Bcl-2 and decreased the levels of Bax, Bok and Bik decreased the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane in HepG2 cells intoxicated with AAP. AK-Ex decreased the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and the activation of caspase-9, -7, and -3. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that AK-Ex downregulates apoptosis via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways against AAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We suggest that AK could be a useful preventive agent against AAP-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. PMID:28386382

  9. Inhibitory Effects of PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN on Growth and Invasion of HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Haidong; Qiao, Yu; Sun, Ming; Yuan, Xueyu; Luo, Qiong; Yang, Yuehua; Yuan, Shidong; Lv, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of PEI-RGD/125I-(αV)ASODN (PEI, polyethylenimine; RGD, Arg-Gly-Asp; ASODN, antisense oligodeoxynucleotide) on the growth and invasion of HepG2 cells. Material/Methods ASODN of the integrin αV-subunit was marked with 125I and underwent complexation with PEI-RGD, a PEI derivative. Next, PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN was introduced into HepG2 cells via receptor-mediated transfection, and its inhibition rate on HepG2 cell growth was tested using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. The effects of PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN on HepG2 cell invasion ability were evaluated using the Boyden chamber assay. Results 1) The 125I marking rate of (αV) ASODN was 73.78±4.09%, and the radiochemical purity was 96.68±1.38% (greater than 90% even after a 48-h incubation period at 37°C), indicating high stability. 2) The cytotoxicity assays showed that the cell inhibition rates did not differ significantly between the PEI-RGD/125I-(αV)ASODN group and the PEI-RGD/(αV) ASODN group, but they were both significantly higher than in the other groups and were positively correlated (r=0.879) with the dosage within a certain range. 3) The invasion assays showed that the inhibition rate was significantly greater in the PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN group compared to the other groups. Conclusions PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN can efficiently inhibit the growth and proliferation of HepG2 cells and can also weaken their invasive ability. PMID:26258995

  10. Genotype 2a hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon can replicate in HepG2 and IMY-N9 cells.

    PubMed

    Date, Tomoko; Kato, Takanobu; Miyamoto, Michiko; Zhao, Zijiang; Yasui, Kotaro; Mizokami, Masashi; Wakita, Takaji

    2004-05-21

    A hepatitis C virus genotype 2a subgenomic replicon, JFH-1 replicon, was previously established using the consensus sequence of clone JFH-1 from a patient with fulminant hepatitis and, in a previous report, was indicated to replicate efficiently in Huh7. Here the replication of JFH-1 replicon was tested in HepG2, a human hepatocyte-derived cell line, and in IMY-N9, a cell line developed by fusing human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Following transfection with in vitro transcribed replicon RNA and selection by cultivation with G418, colonies formed in both cell lines although at efficiencies substantially lower than those of Huh7. The H2476L mutation identified in the Huh7 replicon in our previous study increased the colony formation efficiencies of the JFH-1 replicon in HepG2 and IMY-N9 cells. Higher amounts of replicon RNA were detected in IMY-N9 clones than in HepG2 clones by real time detection reverse transcription-PCR, and replicon RNA replication and viral protein expression were confirmed by Northern and Western blotting in isolated clones. Sequencing of replicon RNAs revealed that mutations found in hepatitis C virus-derived regions were not identical and that two of nine HepG2 clones and three of nine IMY-N9 clones had no or one synonymous mutation. This system with the JFH-1 replicon and three cell lines is useful not only for estimating the cellular factors affecting viral activity but also for clarifying the common gene response of the host.

  11. Involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in S-phase cell-cycle arrest induced by Furazolidone in human hepatoma G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Tang, Shusheng; Jin, Xi; Zhang, Chaoming; Zhao, Wenxia; Xiao, Xilong

    2013-12-01

    Given the previously described essential role for the p38 mitogen-activation protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway in human hepatoma G2 cells (HepG2), we undertook the present study to investigate the role of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in cell-cycle arrest induced by Furazolidone (FZD). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of FZD on HepG2 cells by activating and inhibiting the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The cell cycle and proliferation of HepG2 cells treated with FZD were detected by flow cytometry and MTT assay in the presence or absence of p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB203580), respectively. Cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and CDK6 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Our data showed that p38 MAPK became phosphorylated after stimulation with FZD. Activation of p38 MAPK could arise S-phase cell-cycle arrest and suppress cell proliferation. Simultaneously, inhibition of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway significantly prevented S-phase cell-cycle arrest, increased the percentage of cell viability and decreased the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and CDK6. These results demonstrated that FZD arose S-phase cell-cycle arrest via activating the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. Cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and CDK6 are target genes functioning at the downstream of p38 MAPK in HepG2 cells induced by FZD.

  12. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 as a new target of perfluoroalkyl acids in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Lv, Qi-Yan; Guo, Liang-Hong; Wan, Bin; Ren, Xiao-Min; Shi, Ya-Li; Cai, Ya-Qi

    2016-08-29

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widespread environmental contaminants which have been detected in humans and linked to adverse health effects. Previous toxicological studies mostly focused on nuclear receptor-mediated pathways and did not support the observed toxic effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of PFAA toxicities by identifying their biological targets in cells. Using a novel electrochemical biosensor, 16 PFAAs were evaluated for inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 activity. Their potency increased with PFAA chain length, with perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFODA) showing the strongest inhibition. Three selected PFAAs, 25 μM perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, and PFODA, also inhibited SHP-2 activity in HepG2 cells and increased paxillin phosphorylation level. PFOA was detected in the immunoprecipitated SHP-2 from the cells exposed to 250 μM PFOA, providing unequivocal evidence for the direct binding of PFOA with SHP-2 in the cell. Molecular docking rationalized the formation of PFAA/SHP-2 complex and chain length-dependent inhibition potency. Our results have established SHP-2 as a new cellular target of PFAAs.

  13. Evaluation of Important Treatment Parameters in Supraphysiological Thermal Therapy of Human Liver Cancer HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Bhavik

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at simulating the effect of various treatment parameters like heating rate (HR), peak temperature (PT) and hold/total treatment time on the viability of human liver cancer HepG2 cells subjected to different thermal therapy conditions. The problem was approached by investigating the injury kinetics obtained using experimentally measured viability of the cells, heated to temperatures of 50–70°C for 0–9 min at HRs of 100, 200, 300 and 525°C min−1. An empirical expression obtained between the activation energy (E) and HR was extended to obtain the E values over a broad range of HRs from 5 to 600°C min−1 that mimic the actual conditions encountered in a typical thermal therapy protocol. Further, the effect of the HR (5–600°C min−1) and PT (50–85°C) on the cell survival was studied over a range of hold times. A significant drop in survival from 90% to 0% with the simultaneous increase in HR and PT was observed as the hold time increased from 0 to 5 min. For complete cell death, the hold time increased with the increase in the HR for a given PT, while the total time showed presence of minima for 60, 65 and 70°C at HRs of 50, 100 and 200°C min−1, respectively. PMID:17031593

  14. Determination of glutathione in single HepG2 cells by capillary electrophoresis with reduced graphene oxide modified microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Jun; Fu, Hongyan; Liu, Dongju; Chen, Zhenzhen

    2014-12-01

    Determination of intracellular bioactive species will afford beneficial information related to cell metabolism, signal transduction, cell function, and disease treatment. In this study, the electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified carbon fiber microdisk electrode (ER-GOME) was used as a detector of CZE-electrochemical detection and developed to detect glutathione (GSH). The electrocatalytic activity of the modified microelectrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Under optimized experimental conditions, the concentration linear range of GSH was from 1 to 60 μM. When the S/N ratio was 3, the concentration detection limit was 1 μM. Compared with the unmodified carbon fiber microdisk electrode, the sensitivity was enhanced more than five times. With the use of this method, the average contents of GSH in single HepG2 cells were found to be 7.13 ± 1.11 fmol (n = 10). Compared with gold/mercury amalgam microelectrode, which was usually used in determining GSH, the electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified carbon fiber microdisk electrode was friendly to environment for free mercury. Furthermore, there were several merits of the novel electrochemical detector coupled with CE, such as comparative repeatability, easy fabrication, and high sensitivity, hold great potential for the single-cell assay.

  15. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Song, Gye Young; Nam, Myoung Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. - Highlights: ► CKS attenuated fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. ► CKS and its major component, platycodin D, inhibited the levels of SREBP-1 and FAS. ► CKS and platycodin D increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. ► Platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells.

  16. Cholesterol lowering effects of mono-lactose-appended β-cyclodextrin in Niemann–Pick type C disease-like HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, Keiichi; Hirai, Yumi; Nishiyama, Rena; Maeda, Yuki; Higashi, Taishi; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Kondo, Yuki; Irie, Tetsumi; Era, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Niemann–Pick type C disease (NPC) is one of inherited lysosomal storage disorders, emerges the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in endolysosomes. Currently, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD) has been applied for the treatment of NPC. HP-β-CyD improved hepatosplenomegaly in NPC patients, however, a high dose of HP-β-CyD was necessary. Therefore, the decrease in dose by actively targeted-β-CyD to hepatocytes is expected. In the present study, to deliver β-CyD selectively to hepatocytes, we newly fabricated mono-lactose-appended β-CyD (Lac-β-CyD) and evaluated its cholesterol lowering effects in NPC-like HepG2 cells, cholesterol accumulated HepG2 cells induced by treatment with U18666A. Lac-β-CyD (degree of substitution of lactose (DSL) 1) significantly decreased the intracellular cholesterol content in a concentration-dependent manner. TRITC-Lac-β-CyD was associated with NPC-like HepG2 cells higher than TRITC-β-CyD. In addition, TRITC-Lac-β-CyD was partially localized with endolysosomes after endocytosis. Thus, Lac-β-CyD entered NPC-like HepG2 cells via asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-mediated endocytosis and decreased the accumulation of intracellular cholesterol in NPC-like HepG2 cells. These results suggest that Lac-β-CyD may have the potential as a drug for the treatment of hepatosplenomegaly in NPC disease. PMID:26664628

  17. Cholesterol lowering effects of mono-lactose-appended β-cyclodextrin in Niemann-Pick type C disease-like HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Keiichi; Hirai, Yumi; Nishiyama, Rena; Maeda, Yuki; Higashi, Taishi; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Kondo, Yuki; Irie, Tetsumi; Era, Takumi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    The Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is one of inherited lysosomal storage disorders, emerges the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in endolysosomes. Currently, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD) has been applied for the treatment of NPC. HP-β-CyD improved hepatosplenomegaly in NPC patients, however, a high dose of HP-β-CyD was necessary. Therefore, the decrease in dose by actively targeted-β-CyD to hepatocytes is expected. In the present study, to deliver β-CyD selectively to hepatocytes, we newly fabricated mono-lactose-appended β-CyD (Lac-β-CyD) and evaluated its cholesterol lowering effects in NPC-like HepG2 cells, cholesterol accumulated HepG2 cells induced by treatment with U18666A. Lac-β-CyD (degree of substitution of lactose (DSL) 1) significantly decreased the intracellular cholesterol content in a concentration-dependent manner. TRITC-Lac-β-CyD was associated with NPC-like HepG2 cells higher than TRITC-β-CyD. In addition, TRITC-Lac-β-CyD was partially localized with endolysosomes after endocytosis. Thus, Lac-β-CyD entered NPC-like HepG2 cells via asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-mediated endocytosis and decreased the accumulation of intracellular cholesterol in NPC-like HepG2 cells. These results suggest that Lac-β-CyD may have the potential as a drug for the treatment of hepatosplenomegaly in NPC disease.

  18. Activation of AMPK/MnSOD signaling mediates anti-apoptotic effect of hepatitis B virus in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Hong, Hong-Hai; Chen, Shi-Ping; Ma, Cai-Qi; Liu, Han-Yan; Yao, Ya-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-apoptotic capability of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the HepG2 hepatoma cell line and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Targeted knockdown of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) genes as well as AMPK agonist AICAR and antagonist compound C were employed to determine the correlations of expression of these genes. RESULTS: HBV markedly protected the hepatoma cells from growth suppression and cell death in the condition of serum deprivation. A decrease of superoxide anion production accompanied with an increase of MnSOD expression and activity was found in HepG2.215 cells. Moreover, AMPK activation contributed to the up-regulation of MnSOD. HBx protein was identified to induce the expression of AMPK and MnSOD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HBV suppresses mitochondrial superoxide level and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect by activating AMPK/MnSOD signaling pathway, which may provide a novel pharmacological strategy to prevent HCC. PMID:27158203

  19. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of Smilax glabra Roxb. extract on hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sa, Fei; Gao, Jian-Li; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Zheng, Ying; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2008-01-10

    Smilax glabra Roxb. (SGR) is the root of a traditional Chinese herb, referred to as tu fu ling in Chinese medicine. It is an inexpensive traditional Chinese medicine commonly used for the treatment of liver diseases, and a few studies have indicated that SGR has anti-hepatocarcinogenic and anti-cancer growth activities. In the current study, raw SGR plant was extracted with Accelerate Solvent Extractor, and the molecular mechanism by which S. glabra Roxb. extract (SGRE) has an anti-proliferative effect on the human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, was determined. We showed that SGRE inhibited HepG2 and Hep3B cell growth by causing cell-cycle arrest at either S phase or S/G2 transition and induced apoptosis, as evidenced by a DNA fragmentation assay. SGRE-induced apoptosis by alternation of mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The SGRE-mediated mitochondria-caspase dependent apoptotic pathway also involved activation of p38, JNK, and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Isometric compounds of astilbin (flavonoids) and smilagenin (saponin) have been identified as the main chemical constituents in SGRE by HPLC-MS/MS. These results have identified, for the first time, the biological activity of SGRE in HepG2 and Hep3B cells and should lead to further development of SGR for liver disease therapy.

  20. Galangin suppresses HepG2 cell proliferation by activating the TGF-β receptor/Smad pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajun; Wu, Jun; Lin, Biyun; Li, Xv; Zhang, Haitao; Ding, Hang; Chen, Xiaoyi; Lan, Liubo; Luo, Hui

    2014-12-04

    Galangin can suppress hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrated that galangin induced autophagy by activating the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptor/Smad pathway and increased TGF-β receptor I (RI), TGF-βRII, Smad1, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4 levels but decreased Smad6 and Smad7 levels. Autophagy induced by galangin appears to depend on the TGF-β receptor/Smad signalling pathway because the down-regulation of Smad4 by siRNA or inhibition of TGF-β receptor activation by LY2109761 blocked galangin-induced autophagy. The down-regulation of Beclin1, autophagy-related gene (ATG) 16L, ATG12 and ATG3 restored HepG2 cell proliferation and prevented galangin-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate a novel mechanism for galangin-induced autophagy via activation of the TGF-β receptor/Smad pathway. The induction of autophagy thus reflects the anti-proliferation effect of galangin on HCC cells.

  1. Generation of Multilayered 3D Structures of HepG2 Cells Using a Bio-printing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeryeon; Kang, Kyojin; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Paik, Seung Sam; Lee, Sang-Hun; Jeong, Jaemin; Choi, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Chronic liver disease is a major widespread cause of death, and whole liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for patients with end-stage liver diseases. However, many problems, including donor shortage, surgical complications and cost, hinder their usage. Recently, tissue-engineering technology provided a potential breakthrough for solving these problems. Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been used to mimic tissues and organs suitable for transplantation, but applications for the liver have been rare. Methods A 3D bioprinting system was used to construct 3D printed hepatic structures using alginate. HepG2 cells were cultured on these 3D structures for 3 weeks and examined by fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. The expression of liver-specific markers was quantified on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. Results The cells grew well on the alginate scaffold, and liver-specific gene expression increased. The cells grew more extensively in 3D culture than two-dimensional culture and exhibited better structural aspects of the liver, indicating that the 3D bioprinting method recapitulates the liver architecture. Conclusions The 3D bioprinting of hepatic structures appears feasible. This technology may become a major tool and provide a bridge between basic science and the clinical challenges for regenerative medicine of the liver. PMID:27559001

  2. Antagonism of Secreted PCSK9 Increases Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression in HepG2 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Markey C.; Kwon, Hyock Joo; Chen, Chiyuan; Chen, Justin R.; Horton, Jay D.; Lagace, Thomas A.

    2009-07-10

    PCSK9 is a secreted protein that degrades low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in liver by binding to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. It is not known whether PCSK9 causes degradation of LDLRs within the secretory pathway or following secretion and reuptake via endocytosis. Here we show that a mutation in the LDLR EGF-A domain associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, H306Y, results in increased sensitivity to exogenous PCSK9-mediated cellular degradation because of enhanced PCSK9 binding affinity. The crystal structure of the PCSK9-EGF-A(H306Y) complex shows that Tyr-306 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp-374 in PCSK9 at neutral pH, which strengthens the interaction with PCSK9. To block secreted PCSK9 activity, LDLR (H306Y) subfragments were added to the medium of HepG2 cells stably overexpressing wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants associated with hypercholesterolemia (D374Y or S127R). These subfragments blocked secreted PCSK9 binding to cell surface LDLRs and resulted in the recovery of LDLR levels to those of control cells. We conclude that PCSK9 acts primarily as a secreted factor to cause LDLR degradation. These studies support the concept that pharmacological inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR interaction extracellularly will increase hepatic LDLR expression and lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels.

  3. Antagonism of secreted PCSK9 increases low density lipoprotein receptor expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    McNutt, Markey C; Kwon, Hyock Joo; Chen, Chiyuan; Chen, Justin R; Horton, Jay D; Lagace, Thomas A

    2009-04-17

    PCSK9 is a secreted protein that degrades low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in liver by binding to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. It is not known whether PCSK9 causes degradation of LDLRs within the secretory pathway or following secretion and reuptake via endocytosis. Here we show that a mutation in the LDLR EGF-A domain associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, H306Y, results in increased sensitivity to exogenous PCSK9-mediated cellular degradation because of enhanced PCSK9 binding affinity. The crystal structure of the PCSK9-EGF-A(H306Y) complex shows that Tyr-306 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp-374 in PCSK9 at neutral pH, which strengthens the interaction with PCSK9. To block secreted PCSK9 activity, LDLR (H306Y) subfragments were added to the medium of HepG2 cells stably overexpressing wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants associated with hypercholesterolemia (D374Y or S127R). These subfragments blocked secreted PCSK9 binding to cell surface LDLRs and resulted in the recovery of LDLR levels to those of control cells. We conclude that PCSK9 acts primarily as a secreted factor to cause LDLR degradation. These studies support the concept that pharmacological inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR interaction extracellularly will increase hepatic LDLR expression and lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels.

  4. Black soybean seed coat polyphenols prevent AAPH-induced oxidative DNA-damage in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Tianshun; Mitani, Takakazu; Yasuda, Michiko; Nanba, Fumio; Toda, Toshiya; Yamashita, Yoko; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Black soybean seed coat extract (BE), which contains abundant polyphenols such as procyanidins, cyanidin 3-glucoside, (+)-catechin, and (−)­epicatechin, has been reported on health beneficial functions such as antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetic activities. In this study, we investigated that prevention of BE and its polyphenols on 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamide) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative DNA damage, and found that these polyphenols inhibited AAPH-induced formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biomarker for oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. Under the same conditions, these polyphenols also inhibited AAPH-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. Inhibition of ROS accumulation was observed in both cytosol and nucleus. It was confirmed that these polyphenols inhibited formation of AAPH radical using oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay under the cell-free conditions. These results indicate that polyphenols in BE inhibit free radical-induced oxidative DNA damages by their potent antioxidant activity. Thus, BE is an effective food material for prevention of oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damages. PMID:28366989

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of Maytenus robusta Reiss extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Thiesen, Liliani Carolini; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Santin, José Roberto; Bresolin, Tania Mari Bellé; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Amorim, Clarissa de Medeiros; Merlin, Lidia; de Freitas, Rilton Alves; Niero, Rivaldo; Netz, Daisy Janice Aguilar

    2017-03-08

    We investigated the hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract from Maytenus robusta leaves in mice and HepG2 cells. The administration of CCl4 in mice promoted a deep destruction of the histological lobular structure and increased the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels by 46.25% compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The M. robusta extract reduced the hepatic histological changes and normalization the ALT levels. The antioxidant effect of M. robusta in liver tissue promoted the reduction in 31.5% on lipoperoxides levels (p < 0.05), increased by 101.5% the reduced glutathione content (p < 0.05) and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase by 21.3% (p < 0.05), 49.3% (p < 0.05), and 27.6% (p < 0.05), respectively, compared with the vehicle group. Moreover, the extract reduced hepatic inflammation by diminishing myeloperoxidase activity, TNF and interleukin-6 levels by 29.4% (p < 0.05), 46.1% (p < 0.01), and 59.5% (p < 0.0001), respectively, compared with the vehicle group. The viability of HepG2 cells after incubation with CCl4 was 29.56± 3.07%, whereas the extract (300 μg/mL) restored the viability to 65.27± 8.75% and aspartate aminotransferase levels to 41.82 ± 4.41 U/L. The extract scavenged DPPH (IC50 = 14.44 μg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 3.00 μg/mL) radicals and did not produce acute toxicity in mice at 2000 mg/kg. In conclusion, was confirmed the hepatoprotective potential of M. robusta by its antioxidant effects.

  6. Zinc protects HepG2 cells against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Wentao; Luo, YunBo; Hao, Junran; Shen, Xiao Li; Yang, Xuan; Li, Xiaohong; Huang, Kunlun

    2013-04-15

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are the most studied mechanisms by which ochratoxin A (OTA) induces its toxic effects, which include nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Zinc, which is an essential trace element, is considered a potential antioxidant. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplement could inhibit OTA-induced oxidative damage and DNA damage in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that that exposure of OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration; zinc supplement significantly reduced the OTA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but did not affect the OTA-induced decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}). Meanwhile, the addition of the zinc chelator N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) strongly aggravated the OTA-induced oxidative damage. This study also demonstrated that zinc helped to maintain the integrity of DNA through the reduction of OTA-induced DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and DNA hypomethylation. OTA increased the mRNA expression of metallothionein1-A (MT1A), metallothionein2-A (MT2A) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Zinc supplement further enhanced the mRNA expression of MT1A and MT2A, but it had no effect on the mRNA expression of SOD1 and catalase (CAT). Zinc was for the first time proven to reduce the cytotoxicity of OTA through inhibiting the oxidative damage and DNA damage, and regulating the expression of zinc-associated genes. Thus, the addition of zinc can potentially be used to reduce the OTA toxicity of contaminated feeds. - Highlights: ► OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration. ► OTA induced the formation of 8-OHdG in HepG2 cells. ► It was testified for the first time that OTA induced DNA hypomethylation. ► Zinc protects against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by

  7. The protective effects of hydroxytyrosol against ortho-phenylphenol-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianqing; Yang, Guang; Wang, Shaopeng; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Xiaofang; Geng, Chengyan; Zhong, Laifu; Chen, Min

    2012-07-01

    Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) has been found to cause carcinomas in the urinary tract of rats. Since OPP is a potent genotoxic compound, and used as fungicides and antibacterial agents in fruits and fruit products, search for newer, better agents for protection against toxicity of OPP is required. In this study, the chemoprotective effect of hydroxytyrosol (HT) against OPP-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells was investigated. Comet assay was used to detect the DNA damage induced by OPP. To elucidate the possible mechanisms, we tested lysosomal membrane stability, mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reduced glutathione (GSH). Results showed that HT significantly reduced the DNA strand breaks caused by OPP. Moreover, HT effectively suppressed OPP-induced ROS formation, and increased the GSH level. Lysosomal membrane and mitochondrial membrane were also protected when cells were pretreated with HT. These results suggested that the disruption of lysosomal membrane integrity and the oxidative stress, leading to DNA fragmentation, may be the mechanism of DNA damage induced by OPP. The antioxidant activity of HT may play an important part in attenuating the DNA damage of OPP.

  8. Newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles: biosafety and apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.; Salih, Ehab; Yassin, Abdelrahman M.; Hafez, Elsayed E.

    2016-07-01

    The present study reports the biosafety assessment, the exact molecular effects, and apoptosis induction of newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles (Cs-Ag NPs) in HepG2 cells. The investigated hybrid NPs were green synthesized using Cs/grape leaves aqueous extract (Cs/GLE) or Cs/GLE NPs as reducing and stabilizing agents. The successful formation of Cs/GLE NPs and Cs-Ag hybrid NPs has been confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and HRTEM. From the TEM analysis, the prepared Cs/GLE NPs are uniform and spherical with an average size of 150 nm, and the AgNPs (5-10 nm) were formed mainly on their surface. The UV-Vis spectra of Cs-Ag NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at about 450 nm confirming their formation. The synthesized Cs-Ag NPs were found to be crystalline as shown by XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes. The cytotoxicity patterns, the antiproliferative activities, and the possible mechanisms of anticancer activity at molecular level of the newly developed Cs-Ag hybrid NPs were investigated. Cytotoxicity patterns of all the preparations demonstrated that the nontoxic treatment concentrations are ranged from 0.39 to 50 %, and many of the newly prepared Cs-Ag hybrid NPs showed high anticancer activities against HpG2 cells, and induced cellular apoptosis by downregulating BCL2 gene and upregulating P53.

  9. Flow cytometric evaluation of the contribution of ionic silver to genotoxic potential of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Saura C; Njoroge, Joyce; Bryce, Steven M; Zheng, Jiwen; Ihrie, John

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to nanosilver found in food- and cosmetics-related consumer products is of public concern because of the lack of information about its safety. In this study, two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells, and the flow cytometric micronucleus (FCMN) assay were evaluated as tools for rapid predictive screening of the potential genotoxicity of nanosilver. Recently, we reported the genotoxicity of 20 nm nanosilver using these systems. In the current study presented here, we tested the hypothesis that the nanoparticle size and cell types were critical determinants of its genotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, we used the FCMN assay to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 50 nm nanosilver of the same shape, composition, surface charge and obtained from the same commercial source using the same experimental conditions and in vitro models (HepG2 and Caco2) as previously tested for the 20 nm silver. Results of our study show that up to the concentrations tested in these cultured cell test systems, the smaller (20 nm) nanoparticle is genotoxic to both the cell types by inducing micronucleus (MN). However, the larger (50 nm) nanosilver induces MN only in HepG2 cells, but not in Caco2 cells. Also in this study, we evaluated the contribution of ionic silver to the genotoxic potential of nanosilver using silver acetate as the representative ionic silver. The MN frequencies in HepG2 and Caco2 cells exposed to the ionic silver in the concentration range tested are not statistically significant from the control values except at the top concentrations for both the cell types. Therefore, our results indicate that the ionic silver may not contribute to the MN-forming ability of nanosilver in HepG2 and Caco2 cells. Also our results suggest that the HepG2 and Caco2 cell cultures and the FCMN assay are useful tools for rapid predictive screening of a genotoxic potential of food- and cosmetics-related chemicals including nanosilver.

  10. Synergetic effect of functional cadmium-tellurium quantum dots conjugated with gambogic acid for HepG2 cell-labeling and proliferation inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peipei; Li, Jingyuan; Shi, Lixin; Selke, Matthias; Chen, Baoan; Wang, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    We prepared and studied novel fluorescent nanocomposites based on gambogic acid (GA) and cadmium-tellurium (CdTe) quantum dots (CdTe QDs) modified with cysteamine for purpose of cancer cell labeling and combined treatment. The nanocomposites were denoted as GA-CdTe. Characterization results indicated that the CdTe QDs can readily bind onto cell plasma membranes and then be internalized into cancer cells for real-time labeling and tracing of human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cells. GA-CdTe significantly enhanced drug accumulation in HepG2 cells and inhibited cancer cell proliferation. GA-CdTe nanocomposites also improved the drug action of GA molecules in HepG2 cells and induced the G2/M phase arrest of the cancer cell cycle, promoting cell apoptosis. Given the sensitive, pH-triggered release of GA-CdTe, the side effects of GA anticancer agents on normal cells/tissues in the blood circulation markedly decreased. Efficient drug release and accumulation in target tumor cells were also facilitated. Thus, the fluorescent GA-CdTe offered a new strategy for potential multimode cancer therapy and provided new channels for research into naturally-active compounds extracted from traditional Chinese medicinal plants.

  11. Increased oxidative stress and cytotoxicity by hydrogen sulfide in HepG2 cells overexpressing cytochrome P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Caro, Andres A; Thompson, Sarah; Tackett, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of hydrogen sulfide on oxidative stress and cytotoxicity parameters in HepG2 cells and to assess the extent to which cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity modulates the effects of hydrogen sulfide on oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) caused time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in both non-P450-expressing HepG2 cells (C34 cells) and CYP2E1-overexpressing HepG2 cells (E47 cells); however, NaHS-dependent cytotoxicity was higher in E47 than C34 cells. Cytotoxicity by NaHS in C34 and E47 cells was mainly necrotic in nature and associated with an early decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. NaHS caused increased oxidation of lipophilic (C11-BODIPY(581/591)) and hydrophilic (DCFH-DA) probes only in E47 cells, at a time point prior to overt cytotoxicity. Trolox, an amphipathic antioxidant, partially inhibited both the cytotoxicity and the increased oxidative stress detected in E47 cells exposed to NaHS. Cell-permeable iron chelators and CYP2E1 inhibitors significantly inhibited the oxidation of C11-BODIPY(581/591) in E47 cells in the presence of NaHS. NaHS produced lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity in E47 cells supplemented with a representative polyunsaturated fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid) but not in C34 cells; these effects were inhibited by α-tocopherol, a lipophilic antioxidant. These data suggest that CYP2E1 enhances H(2)S-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells through the generation of iron-dependent oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.

  12. Increased oxidative stress and cytotoxicity by hydrogen sulfide in HepG2 cells overexpressing cytochrome P450 2E1

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Andres A.; Thompson, Sarah; Tackett, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of hydrogen sulfide on oxidative stress and cytotoxicity parameters in HepG2 cells and to assess the extent to which cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity modulates the effects of hydrogen sulfide on oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) caused time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in both non-P450-expressing HepG2 cells (C34 cells) and CYP2E1-overexpressing HepG2 cells (E47 cells); however, NaHS-dependent cytotoxicity was higher in E47 than C34 cells. Cytotoxicity by NaHS in C34 and E47 cells was mainly necrotic in nature and associated with an early decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. NaHS caused increased oxidation of lipophilic (C11-BODIPY581/591) and hydrophilic (DCFH-DA) probes only in E47 cells, at a time point prior to overt cytotoxicity. Trolox, an amphipathic antioxidant, partially inhibited both the cytotoxicity and the increased oxidative stress detected in E47 cells exposed to NaHS. Cell-permeable iron chelators and CYP2E1 inhibitors significantly inhibited the oxidation of C11-BODIPY581/591 in E47 cells in the presence of NaHS. NaHS produced lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity in E47 cells supplemented with a representative polyunsaturated fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid) but not in C34 cells; these effects were inhibited by α-tocopherol, a lipophilic antioxidant. These data suggest that CYP2E1 enhances H2S-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells through the generation of iron-dependent oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. PMID:21850523

  13. Temporal metabolomic responses of cultured HepG2 liver cells to high fructose and high glucose exposures

    PubMed Central

    Meissen, John K.; Hirahatake, Kristin M.; Adams, Sean H.; Fiehn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    High fructose consumption has been implicated with deleterious effects on human health, including hyperlipidemia elicited through de novo lipogenesis. However, more global effects of fructose on cellular metabolism have not been elucidated. In order to explore the metabolic impact of fructose-containing nutrients, we applied both GC-TOF and HILIC-QTOF mass spectrometry metabolomic strategies using extracts from cultured HepG2 cells exposed to fructose, glucose, or fructose + glucose. Cellular responses were analyzed in a time-dependent manner, incubated in media containing 5.5 mM glucose + 5.0 mM fructose in comparison to controls incubated in media containing either 5.5 mM glucose or 10.5 mM glucose. Mass spectrometry identified 156 unique known metabolites and a large number of unknown compounds, which revealed metabolite changes due to both utilization of fructose and high-carbohydrate loads independent of hexose structure. Fructose was shown to be partially converted to sorbitol, and generated higher levels of fructose-1-phosphate as a precursor for glycolytic intermediates. Differentially regulated ratios of 3-phosphoglycerate to serine pathway intermediates in high fructose media indicated a diversion of carbon backbones away from energy metabolism. Additionally, high fructose conditions changed levels of complex lipids toward phosphatidylethanolamines. Patterns of acylcarnitines in response to high hexose exposure (10.5 mM glucose or glucose/fructose combination) suggested a reduction in mitochondrial beta-oxidation. PMID:26190955

  14. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPARβ/δ in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanghua; Shi, Yuanping; Zhang, Jun; Mu, Qinfeng; Qin, Li; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Yuehua; Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter; Zhang, Xiaoying; Xu, Ning

    2014-02-28

    It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPARβ/δ pathway.

  15. Preliminary screening of some traditional Zulu medicinal plants for antineoplastic activities versus the HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Opoku, A R; Geheeb-Keller, M; Lin, J; Terblanche, S E; Hutchings, A; Chuturgoon, A; Pillay, D

    2000-11-01

    Aqueous and methanol extracts of nine traditional Zulu medicinal plants, Cissus quandrangularis L., Cyphostemma flaviflorum (Sprague) Descoings, Cyphostemma lanigerum (Harv.) Descoings ex Wild & Drum, Cyphostemma natalitium (Szyszyl.) J. v. d. Merwe, Cyphostemma sp., Rhoicissus digitata (L. F.) Gilg & Brandt, Rhoicissus rhomboidea (E. Mey. Ex harv.) Planch, Rhoicissus tomentosa (Lam.) Wild & Drum, R. tridentata (L. F.) Wild & Drum and Rhoicissus tridentata (L. F.) Wild & Drum subsp. cuneifolia (Eckl. & Zeyh.) N. R. Urton, all belonging to the Vitaceae family, were evaluated to determine their therapeutic potentials as antineoplastic agents. The antiproliferative activity in vitro against HepG2 cells was determined. Twenty-two of the twenty-seven crude plant extracts showed activities ranging from 25% to 97% inhibition of proliferation when compared with the control which showed no inhibitory activity. Higher degrees of growth inhibition were found in aqueous root extracts in comparison with the methanol extracts of the same plant parts. The results show potential antineoplastic activity, indicating some scientific validation for traditional usage.

  16. Cinnamaldehyde enhances Nrf2 nuclear translocation to upregulate phase II detoxifying enzyme expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzou-Chi; Chung, Yu-Ling; Wu, Mei-Li; Chuang, Show-Mei

    2011-05-11

    Cinnamaldehyde has been demonstrated to stimulate glutathione production and the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes in HepG2 cells. The mechanism underlying this cinnamaldehyde-mediated gene expression relies on Nrf2 transcriptional activity. Therefore, the molecular signaling events in cinnamaldehyde-mediated detoxifying enzyme expression were further investigated in this study. Cinnamaldehyde activated ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK signaling pathways, but not the p38 MAP kinase pathway, subsequently leading to Nrf2 nuclear translocation and eventually increasing phase II enzyme expression. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2, Akt, or JNK pathways attenuated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and phase II enzyme expression. Depletion of Nrf2 by small RNA interference (si-RNA) showed that the protein levels of phase II enzymes were no longer induced by cinnamaldehyde. A luciferase reporter assay and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) also demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde-activated signaling resulted in the increased transcriptional activity of Nrf2 through binding to the ARE4 enhancer sequence. Altogether, these data suggest that ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK pathways activated by cinnamaldehyde collectively control Nrf2 nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity, leading to the increase of phase II enzyme expression. Application of an appropriate chemopreventive agent such as cinnamaldehyde could potentially be an alternative strategy for cancer chemoprevention.

  17. Cytotoxicity of Triterpenes from Green Walnut Husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim in HepG-2 Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Bingyou; Liu, Zhaoxi; Jiang, Yanqiu; Liu, Yuxin; Fu, Lei; Wang, Xiaoli; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-10-22

    Among the classes of identified natural products, triterpenoids, one of the largest families, have been studied extensively for their diverse structures and variety of biological activities, including antitumor effects. In the present study, a phytochemical study of the green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim led to the isolation of a new dammarane triterpene, 12β, 20(R), 24(R)-trihydroxydammar-25-en-3-one (6), together with sixteen known compounds, chiefly from chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. According to their structural characteristics, these compounds were divided into dammarane-type, oleanane- and ursane-type. Dammarane-type triterpenoids were isolated for the first time from the Juglans genus. As part of our continuing search for biologically active compounds from this plant, all of these compounds were also evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the growth of human cancer cells lines HepG-2 by the MTT assay. The results were shown that 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid and 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid exhibited better cytotoxicity in vitro with IC50 values of 10.32±1.13, 16.13±3.83, 15.97±2.47 μM, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds were discussed.

  18. Pyrroloquinoline quinone increases the expression and activity of Sirt1 and -3 genes in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Meruvu, Sunitha; Bedi, Yudhishtar Singh; Chau, Jason; Arguelles, Andrix; Rucker, Robert; Choudhury, Mahua

    2015-09-01

    Sirtuin (Sirt) 1 and Sirt 3 are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ((+))-dependent protein deacetylases that are important to a number of mitochondrial-related functions; thus, identification of sirtuin activators is important. Herein, we hypothesize that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) can act as a Sirt1/Sirt3 activator. In HepG2 cell cultures, PQQ increased the expression of Sirt1 and Sirt3 gene, protein, and activity levels (P < .05). We also observed a significant increase in nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase gene expression (as early as 18 hours) and increased NAD(+) activity at 24 hours. In addition, targets of Sirt1 and Sirt3 (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and 2, and mitochondrial transcription factor A) were increased at 48 hours. This is the first report that demonstrates PQQ as an activator of Sirt1 and Sirt3 expression and activity, making it an attractive therapeutic agent for the treatment of metabolic diseases and for healthy aging. Based on our study and the available data in vivo, PQQ has the potential to serve as a therapeutic nutraceutical, when enhancing mitochondrial function.

  19. Effect of Copper Sulfate on Expression of Endogenous L1 Retrotransposons in HepG2 Cells (Hepatocellular Carcinoma).

    PubMed

    Karimi, Abbas; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Madjd, Zahra; Akbari, Abolfazl; Habibi, Laleh; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    The long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) constitutes approximately 17% of human genome. The expression of these elements is deregulated upon exposure to environmental exposures resulting to genomic instability and cancer promotion. The effect of copper as essential elements in regulation of L1 expression remained to be elucidated. Using non-cytotoxic concentrations of the copper, the expression of endogenous L1 was analyzed by qPCR after 6 days of copper pretreatment in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The results indicated that the expression of active L1 elements are significantly downregulated at concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 μM (p < 0.005). Our data imply that low-level copper exposure may have a protective effect to suppress the induction of L1 activity and decrease incidence of cancer-associated L1 mutagenesis. If this achievement is confirmed by further studies, it can be applied in the long-term goals of cancer prevention.

  20. Transportation of Berberine into HepG2, HeLa and SY5Y Cells: A Correlation to Its Anti-Cancer Effect

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yu-Nong; Liang, Yin-Wen; Feng, Tian-Shi; Zhao, Shuang; Wu, Hao; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Lei, Fan; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Du, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The anti-cancer activities of berberine (BBR) have been reported extensively in various cancer cell lines. However, the minimal inhibitory concentrations of BBR varied greatly among different cell lines and very few studies have been devoted to elucidate this aspect. In this study, we employed three cancer cell lines, HepG2, HeLa and SY5Y, to compare the transportation and distribution of BBR. HPLC results demonstrated that BBR was capable of penetrating all the cell lines whereas the cumulative concentrations were significantly different. HepG2 cells accumulated higher level of BBR for longer duration than the other two cell lines. Molecular docking studies revealed the BBR binding site on P-glycoprotein 1 (P-gp). In addition, we elucidated that BBR regulated P-gp at both mRNA and protein levels. BBR induced the transcription and translation of P-gp in HeLa and SY5Y cells, whereas BBR inhibited P-gp expression in HepG2 cells. Further study showed that BBR regulates P-gp expression depending on different mechanisms (or affected by different factors) in different cell lines. To summarize, our study has revealed several mechanistic aspects of BBR regulation on P-gp in different cancer cell lines and might shed some useful insights into the use of BBR in the anti-cancer drug development. PMID:25402492

  1. GNRs@SiO2-FA in combination with radiotherapy induces the apoptosis of HepG2 cells by modulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins

    PubMed Central

    GAO, BIN; SHEN, LEI; HE, KE-WU; XIAO, WEI-HUA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the apoptosis of the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2, induced by treatment with folic acid-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods (GNRs@SiO2-FA) in combination with radiotherapy, and to determine the involvement of apoptosis-related proteins. An MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess the biocompatibility of GNRs@SiO2-FA. The distribution of GNRs@SiO2-FA into the cells was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HepG2 cells cultured in vitro were divided into the following 4 groups: i)the control group (untreated), ii) the GNRs@SiO2-FA group, iii) the radiotherapy group (iodine 125 seeds) and iv) the combination group (treated with GNRs@SiO2-FA and iodine 125 seeds) groups. The apoptosis of the HepG2 cells was detected by flow cytometry. The concentration range of <40 µg/ml GNRs@SiO2-FA was found to be safe for the biological activity of the HepG2 cells. GNRs@SiO2-FA entered the cytoplasm through endocytosis. The apoptotic rates of the HepG2 cells were higher in the GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy groups than in the control group (P<0.05). The apoptotic rate was also significantly higher in the combination group than the GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy groups (P<0.05). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the combination of GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy more effectively induces the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. These apoptotic effects are achieved by increasing the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3, and inhibiting the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Ki-67. The combination of GNRs@SiO2-FA and radiotherapy may thus prove to be a new approach in the treatment of primary liver cancer. PMID:26648274

  2. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine improves insulin resistance in HepG2 cells by decreasing TNF-α and regulating the expression of insulin signal transduction proteins.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Jian, Liumeng; Zafar, Mohammad Ishraq; Du, Wen; Cai, Qin; Shafqat, Raja Adeel; Lu, Furong

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated that 4‑hydroxyisoleucine (4‑HIL) improves insulin resistance, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying how 4‑HIL improves insulin resistance in hepatocytes were examined. HepG2 cells were co‑cultured with insulin and a high glucose concentration to obtain insulin‑resistant (IR) HepG2 cells. Insulin sensitivity was determined by measuring the glucose uptake rate. The IR HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of 4‑HIL to determine its effect on IR Hep2 cells. The levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) were measured by an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay and protein levels of TNF‑α converting enzyme (TACE)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)‑1, IRS‑2, phosphorylated (p)‑IRS‑1 (Ser307) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) were measured by western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that insulin‑induced glucose uptake was reduced in IR HepG2 cells; however, this reduction was reversed by 4‑HIL in a dose‑dependent manner. 4‑HIL achieved this effect by downregulating the expression of TNF‑α and TACE, and upregulating the expression of TIMP3 in IR HepG2 cells. In addition, 4‑HIL increased the expression of the insulin transduction regulators IRS‑1 and GLUT4, and decreased the expression of p‑IRS‑1 (Ser307), without affecting the expression of IRS‑2. The present study suggests that 4‑HIL improved insulin resistance in HepG2 cells by the following mechanisms: 4‑HIL reduced TNF‑α levels by affecting the protein expression of the TACE/TIMP3 system and 4‑HIL stimulated the expression of IRS‑1 and GLUT4, but inhibited the expression of p‑IRS‑1 (Ser307).

  3. Glycoalkaloids and metabolites inhibit the growth of human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kap-Rang; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Han, Jae-Sook; Park, Joon-Hong; Chang, Eun-Young; Baek, Eun-Jung; Chang, Jong-Sun; Friedman, Mendel

    2004-05-19

    As part of an effort to improve plant-derived foods such as potatoes, eggplants, and tomatoes, the antiproliferative activities against human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells of a series of structurally related individual compounds were examined using a microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The objective was to assess the roles of the carbohydrate side chain and aglycon part of Solanum glycosides in influencing inhibitory activities of these compounds. Evaluations were carried out with four concentrations each (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 microg/mL) of the the potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine; the disaccharides beta(1)-chaconine, beta(2)-chaconine, and beta(2)-solanine; the monosaccharide gamma-chaconine and their common aglycon solanidine; the tetrasaccharide potato glycoalkaloid dehydrocommersonine; the potato aglycon demissidine; the tetrasaccharide tomato glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine, the trisaccharide beta(1)-tomatine, the disaccharide gamma-tomatine, the monosaccharide delta-tomatine, and their common aglycon tomatidine; the eggplant glycoalkaloids solamargine and solasonine and their common aglycon solasodine; and the nonsteroidal alkaloid jervine. All compounds were active in the assay, with the glycoalkaloids being the most active and the hydrolysis products less so. The effectiveness against the liver cells was greater than against the colon cells. Potencies of alpha-tomatine and alpha-chaconine at a concentration of 1 microg/mL against the liver carcinoma cells were higher than those observed with the anticancer drugs doxorubicin and camptothecin. Because alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, and alpha-tomatine also inhibited normal human liver HeLa (Chang) cells, safety considerations should guide the use of these compounds as preventative or therapeutic treatments against carcinomas.

  4. Reduced mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 levels in HepG2 cells treated with high-dose simvastatin: A possible role in statin-induced hepatotoxicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Tavintharan, S. Ong, C.N.; Jeyaseelan, K.; Sivakumar, M.; Lim, S.C.; Sum, C.F.

    2007-09-01

    Lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is well achieved by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins). Statins inhibit the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a precursor for cholesterol and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ{sub 10}). In HepG2 cells, simvastatin decreased mitochondrial CoQ{sub 10} levels, and at higher concentrations was associated with a moderately higher degree of cell death, increased DNA oxidative damage and a reduction in ATP synthesis. Supplementation of CoQ{sub 10}, reduced cell death and DNA oxidative stress, and increased ATP synthesis. It is suggested that CoQ{sub 10} deficiency plays an important role in statin-induced hepatopathy, and that CoQ{sub 10} supplementation protects HepG2 cells from this complication.

  5. Internalisation and multiple phosphorylation of γ-Conglutin, the lupin seed glycaemia-lowering protein, in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Faoro, Franco; Maffi, Dario; Scarafoni, Alessio; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa; Parolari, Anna; Manzoni, Cristina; Lovati, Maria Rosa; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •A glycaemia-reducing lupin seed protein is internalized by HepG2 cells. •The protein accumulates in the cytosol in an intact form. •The internalized protein is multiply phosphorylated. -- Abstract: Lupin seed γ-Conglutin is a protein capable of reducing glycaemia in mammalians and increasing glucose uptake by model cells. This work investigated whether γ-Conglutin is internalised into the target cells and undergoes any covalent change during the process, as a first step to understanding its mechanism of action. To this purpose, γ-Conglutin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells were submitted to confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Immune-revelation of γ-Conglutin at various intervals revealed its accumulation inside the cytosol. In parallel, 2D-electrophoresis of the cell lysates and antibody reaction of the blotted maps showed the presence of the protein intact subunits inside the treated cells, whilest no trace of the protein was found in the control cells. However, γ-Conglutin-related spots with an unexpectedly low pI were also observed in the maps. These spots were excised, trypsin-treated and submitted to MS/MS spectrometric analysis. The presence of phosphorylated amino acids was detected. These findings, by showing that γ-Conglutin is internalised by HepG2 cells in an intact form and is modified by multiple phosphorylation, open the way to the understanding of the lupin γ-Conglutin insulin-mimetic activity.

  6. Effect of simvastatin on cholesterol metabolism in C2C12 myotubes and HepG2 cells, and consequences for statin-induced myopathy.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Peter James; Lüscher, Barbara; Scharnagl, Hubert; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Brecht, Karin

    2010-04-15

    The mechanism of statin-induced skeletal muscle myopathy is poorly understood. We investigated how simvastatin affects cholesterol metabolism, ubiquinone levels, and the prenylation and N-linked glycosylation of proteins in C2C12 myotubes. We used liver HepG2 cells for comparison, as their responses to statins are well-characterized in terms of their cholesterol metabolism (in contrast to muscle cells), and statins are well-tolerated in the liver. Differences between the two cell lines could indicate the mechanism behind statin-induced myopathy. Simvastatin reduced de novo cholesterol production in C2C12 myotubes by 95% after 18h treatment. The reduction was 82% in the HepG2 cells. Total cholesterol pools, however, remained constant in both cell lines. Simvastatin treatment similarly did not affect total ubiquinone levels in the myotubes, unlike in HepG2 cells (22% reduction in CoQ10). Statin treatment reduced levels of Ras and Rap1 prenylation in both cell lines, whereas N-linked glycosylation was only affected in C2C12 myotubes (21% reduction in rate). From these observations, we conclude that total cholesterol and ubiquinone levels are unlikely to be involved in statin-mediated myopathy, but reductions in protein prenylation and especially N-linked glycosylation may play a role. This first comparison of the responses to simvastatin between liver and skeletal muscle cell lines may be important for future research directions concerning statin-induced myopathy.

  7. Exposure to BDE-153 induces autophagy in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lilian Cristina; Duarte, Filipe Valente; Varela, Ana Teresa Inácio Ferreira; Rolo, Anabela Pinto; Palmeira, Carlos Manuel Marques; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2017-04-07

    Autophagy is a pro-survival process that occurs under stressful "life-threatening" conditions. This process clears the cells of damaged organelles, long-lived proteins, and/or misfolded proteins. Under stressful conditions, activation of the autophagic process leads to cell death and acts as a protective mechanism against xenobiotic, which is the most widely accepted mechanism in the literature. Exposure to flame retardants and other pollutants is associated with several diseases, during which cell death and mitochondrial damage takes place. Although a body of research has aimed to understand the toxicity mechanism of flame retardants better, risk evaluation and the consequences of exposure to these toxicants have been poorly described. In this work, we have found that the BDE-153 congener (representant of flame retardants) induces autophagy after 24 and 48h (0.1-25μM). The autophagic process is associated with accumulation of lysosomes, and process triggering is evident from the levels of autophagy-related proteins such as p62 and LC3. Mitophagy (an autophagic process that specifically involves damaged mitochondria) may be involved, as judged from the decreased amount of mitochondrial DNA. Taken together, our results point out that induction of autophagy upon cell should contribute to better understanding of the consequences of human exposure to this class of environmental contaminants.

  8. SHRNA SILENCING OF AS3MT EXPRESSION MINIMIZES ARSENIC METHYLATION CAPACITY OF HEPG2 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several methyltransferases have been shown to catalyze the oxidative methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in mammalian species. However, the relative contributions of these enzymes to the overall capacity of cells to methylate iAs have not been characterized. Arsenic (+3 oxidat...

  9. Antioxidant and Proapoptotic Activities of Sclerocarya birrea [(A. Rich.) Hochst.] Methanolic Root Extract on the Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2

    PubMed Central

    Armentano, Maria Francesca; Bisaccia, Faustino; Miglionico, Rocchina; Russo, Daniela; Nolfi, Nicoletta; Carmosino, Monica; Andrade, Paula B.; Valentão, Patrícia; Diop, Moussoukhoye Sissokho

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to characterize the in vitro antioxidant activity and the apoptotic potential of S. birrea methanolic root extract (MRE). Among four tested extracts, obtained with different solvents, MRE showed the highest content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins together with antioxidant activities tested with superoxide, nitric oxide, ABTS, and beta-carotene bleaching assays. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of MRE was evaluated on the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. In these cells, MRE treatment induced apoptosis and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect promoted by MRE was prevented by pretreatment of HepG2 cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), suggesting that oxidative stress was pivotal in MRE-mediated cell death. Moreover, we showed that the MRE treatment induced the mitochondrial membrane depolarization and the cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytosol. It suggests that the apoptosis occurred in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Interestingly, MRE showed a sensibly lower cytotoxicity, associated with a low increase of ROS, in normal human dermal fibroblasts compared to HepG2 cells. It is suggested that the methanolic root extract of S. Birrea is able to selectively increase intracellular ROS levels in cancer cells, promoting cell death. PMID:26075245

  10. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins alleviate hexabromocyclododecane-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells through regulation on ROS formation and mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Chen, Cen; Wang, Xiu; Zhong, Yufang; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin; Yu, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a type of brominated flame retardants (BFR), has become ubiquitous organic contaminants in recent years. However, studies on HBCD toxicity and the related molecular mechanisms are so far limited. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) on cytotoxicity induced by HBCD and the underlying molecular mechanisms. HepG2 cells were treated with HBCD and/or OPCs at different concentrations, and cell viability, cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cellular Ca(2+) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), cytochrome C (Cyt-c) release, and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) proteins expression were evaluated. Results showed that HBCD induced toxic effects in HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. HBCD at high concentrations (40 and 60μM) caused a significant decrease of cell viability and led to elevated cell apoptosis ratio, intracellular Ca(2+) level, cytoplasmic Cyt-c level, and ROS production, together with a loss of ΔΨ and mobilization of Nrf2. Pretreatment with OPCs effectively attenuated the cytotoxic effects and ROS production, as well as mitochondrial responses induced by HBCD. Thus, OPCs could alleviate cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells induced by HBCD through regulation on intracellular Ca(2+) level and ROS formation in a mitochondrial pathway.

  11. Regulation of HepG2 cell apoptosis by hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein via the sirt1-p53-bax pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shenghu; Li, Min; Zhang, Jinqian; Liu, Shunai; Wang, Qi; Quan, Min; Zhang, Mengran; Cheng, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein stimulates many signaling pathways related to apoptosis inhibition resulting in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been reported that sirt1 is involved in regulating apoptosis; therefore, we investigated the influence of HCV core protein on sirt1 expression and apoptosis in human HepG2 cells. Our study showed that HCV core protein inhibited apoptosis of HepG2 cells as well as caspase-3 expression and activity (P < 0.05). At the same time, sirt1 expression was increased at both the mRNA (P < 0.05) and protein (P < 0.05) levels. Furthermore, apoptosis inhibition was reversed when sirt1 was knocked down (P < 0.05). Our study provides further evidence that the sirt1-p53-Bax signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating the suppression of cell apoptosis induced by HCV core protein.

  12. Comparison of three methods for mitochondria isolation from the human liver cell line (HepG2)

    PubMed Central

    Azimzadeh, Pedram; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Tarban, Peyman; Akhondi, Mohammad Mahdi; Shirazi, Abolfazl; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare three available methods for mitochondrial isolation from a human cell line to predict the best method for each probable application. Background: Organelle isolation is gaining importance in experimental laboratory settings. Mitochondrial dysfunction may affect tumorgenesis process. There are some evidences that transplantation of healthy, intact and active mitochondria into cells containing defective mitochondria may reduce the proliferation. Therefore, isolated mitochondria could be considered as an effective tool for assessment and management of mitochondrial related disorders. Patients and methods: Mitochondrial isolation from the human liver cell line (HepG2) was performed using two commercially available kits, including Qproteome (Qiagen) and MITOISO2 (Sigma-Aldrich), as well as a manual method. Integrity of inner membrane of mitochondria was assessed by JC-1 staining. Activity of isolated mitochondria was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining, and total yield of isolated mitochondria determined by micro-Lowry method. Finally, relative quantification using Real-time PCR was conducted to compare the mtDNA copy number of mitochondria isolated by three different methods. Results: Compared to other methods, manual kit resulted in higher yields of total amount of mitochondrial protein and mtDNA copy numbers. Isolated mitochondria by Qproteome kit, showed a higher activity. Finally, the integrity of inner-membrane of isolated mitochondria was significantly higher in Qproteome when compared with the other two methods. Conclusion: Due to differences in quality, quantity and activity of isolated mitochondria using three techniques discussed here, the method in which best-suited to each research project should be selected according to the distinct features of isolated mitochondria. PMID:27099670

  13. Nanosilica induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity and cell type-dependent multinucleation in HepG2 and L-02 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yongbo; Duan, Junchao; Li, Yang; Yu, Yang; Hu, Hejing; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Yannan; Li, Yanbo; CaixiaGuo; Zhou, Xianqing; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-11-01

    The prevalent exposure to nanosilica gained concerns about health effects of these particles on human beings. Although nanosilica-induced multinucleation has been confirmed previously, the underlying mechanism was still not clear; this study was to investigate the origination of multinucleated cells caused by nanosilica (62 nm) in both HepG2 and L-02 cells. Cell viability and cellular uptake was determined by MTT assay and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. Giemsa staining was applied to detect multinucleation. To clarify the origination of multinucleated cells, fluorescent probes, PKH26 and PKH67, time-lapse observation were further conducted by confocal microscopy. Results indicated that nanosilica particles were internalized into cells and induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Quantification analysis showed that nanosilica significantly increased the rates of binucleated and multinucleated cells, which suggested mitotic catastrophe induction. Moreover, dynamic visualization verified that multinucleation resulted from cell fusion in HepG2 cells not in L-02 cells after nanosilica exposure, suggesting cell type-dependent multinucleation formation. Both multinucleation and cell fusion were involved in genetic instability, which emphasized the significance to explore the multinucleation induced by nanosilica via environmental, occupational and consumer product exposure.

  14. Heat-modified citrus pectin induces apoptosis-like cell death and autophagy in HepG2 and A549 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Leclere, Lionel; Fransolet, Maude; Cote, Francois; Cambier, Pierre; Arnould, Thierry; Van Cutsem, Pierre; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and finding new treatments remains a major challenge. Previous studies showed that modified forms of pectin, a complex polysaccharide present in the primary plant cell wall, possess anticancer properties. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of modified pectin and the pathways involved are unclear. Here, we show that citrus pectin modified by heat treatment induced cell death in HepG2 and A549 cells. The induced cell death differs from classical apoptosis because no DNA cleavage was observed. In addition, Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, did not influence the observed cell death in HepG2 cells but appeared to be partly protective in A549 cells, indicating that heat-modified citrus pectin might induce caspase-independent cell death. An increase in the abundance of the phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated Light Chain 3 (LC3) protein and a decrease in p62 protein abundance were observed in both cell types when incubated in the presence of heat-modified citrus pectin. These results indicate the activation of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first time that autophagy has been revealed in cells incubated in the presence of a modified form of pectin. This autophagy activation appears to be protective, at least for A549 cells, because its inhibition with 3-methyladenine increased the observed modified pectin-induced cytotoxicity. This study confirms the potential of modified pectin to improve chemotherapeutic cancer treatments.

  15. Copper(ii) oxide nanoparticles penetrate into HepG2 cells, exert cytotoxicity via oxidative stress and induce pro-inflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piret, Jean-Pascal; Jacques, Diane; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Mejia, Jorge; Boilan, Emmanuelle; Noël, Florence; Fransolet, Maude; Demazy, Catherine; Lucas, Stéphane; Saout, Christelle; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-10-01

    The potential toxic effects of two types of copper(ii) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with different specific surface areas, different shapes (rod or spheric), different sizes as raw materials and similar hydrodynamic diameter in suspension were studied on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Both CuO NPs were shown to be able to enter into HepG2 cells and induce cellular toxicity by generating reactive oxygen species. CuO NPs increased the abundance of several transcripts coding for pro-inflammatory interleukins and chemokines. Transcriptomic data, siRNA knockdown and DNA binding activities suggested that Nrf2, NF-κB and AP-1 were implicated in the response of HepG2 cells to CuO NPs. CuO NP incubation also induced activation of MAPK pathways, ERKs and JNK/SAPK, playing a major role in the activation of AP-1. In addition, cytotoxicity, inflammatory and antioxidative responses and activation of intracellular transduction pathways induced by rod-shaped CuO NPs were more important than spherical CuO NPs. Measurement of Cu2+ released in cell culture medium suggested that Cu2+ cations released from CuO NPs were involved only to a small extent in the toxicity induced by these NPs on HepG2 cells.The potential toxic effects of two types of copper(ii) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with different specific surface areas, different shapes (rod or spheric), different sizes as raw materials and similar hydrodynamic diameter in suspension were studied on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Both CuO NPs were shown to be able to enter into HepG2 cells and induce cellular toxicity by generating reactive oxygen species. CuO NPs increased the abundance of several transcripts coding for pro-inflammatory interleukins and chemokines. Transcriptomic data, siRNA knockdown and DNA binding activities suggested that Nrf2, NF-κB and AP-1 were implicated in the response of HepG2 cells to CuO NPs. CuO NP incubation also induced activation of MAPK pathways, ERKs and JNK/SAPK, playing a major

  16. Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Methyl Parathion and Parathion-Induced Toxicity and Genotoxicity to Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Falicia L.; Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Methyl parathion (C8H10NO5PS) and parathion (C10H14NO5PS) are both organophosphate insecticides (OPI) widely used for household and agricultural applications. They are known for their ability to irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase which often leads to a profound effect on the nervous system of exposed organisms. Many recently published studies have indicated that human exposure to OPI may be associated with neurologic, hematopoietic, cardiovascular, and reproductive adverse effects. Studies have also linked OPI exposure to a number of degenerative diseases including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Also, oxidative stress (OS) has been reported as a possible mechanism of OPI toxicity in humans. Hence, the aim of the present investigation was to use human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells as a test model to evaluate the role of OS in methyl parathion- and parathion-induced toxicity. To achieve this goal, we performed the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay for cell viability, lipid peroxidation assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and Comet assay for DNA damage, respectively. Results from MTT assay indicated that methyl parathion and parathion gradually reduce the viability of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, showing 48 h-LD50 values of 26.20 mM and 23.58 mM, respectively. Lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) of MDA level in methyl parathion- and parathion-treated HepG2 cells compared to controls, suggesting that OS plays a key role in OPI-induced toxicity. Comet assay indicated a significant increase in genotoxicity at higher concentrations of OPI exposure. Overall, we found that methyl-parathion is slightly less toxic than parathion to HepG2 cells. The cytotoxic effect of these OPI was found to be associated, at least in part, with oxidative cell/tissue damage. PMID:21544925

  17. Lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Wenhui; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX is able to upregulate expression of NF-{kappa}B p65. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX enhances nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 via increasing p-I{kappa}B-{alpha} level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX stimulates transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LTB4 activates transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. -- Abstract: The issue that lipid metabolism enzyme and its metabolites regulate transcription factors in cancer cell is not fully understood. In this study, we first report that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and its metabolite leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are capable of activating nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) in hepatoma cells. We found that the treatment of MK886 (an inhibitor of 5-LOX) or knockdown of 5-LOX was able to downregulate the expression of NF-{kappa}B p65 at the mRNA level and decreased the phosphorylation level of inhibitor {kappa}B{alpha} (I{kappa}B{alpha}) in the cytoplasm of hepatoma HepG2 or H7402 cells, which resulted in the decrease of the level of nuclear NF-{kappa}B p65. These were confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in HepG2 cell. Moreover, the above treatments were able to decrease the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in the cells. The LTB4, one of metabolites of 5-LOX, is responsible for 5-LOX-activated NF-{kappa}B in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. Our finding provides new insight into the significance of lipid metabolism in activation of transcription factors in cancer.

  18. Nrf2 is crucial for the down-regulation of Cyp7a1 induced by arachidonic acid in Hepg2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wang, Xing-He; Hao, Li-Hong; Wang, He; Zhang, Xiu-Ying; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Qi, Yue; Li, Guang-Liang; Sun, Xiao-Qi

    2017-03-07

    In former research, cyp7a1 expression was decreased but Nrf2 transcription and hepatic arachidonic acid (AA) concentration were increased in high-fat diet fed mice. This study aims to investigate the influence of AA in CYP7A1 expression and the role of Nrf2 in regulating CYP7A1 in the process. HepG2 cells were administered with different concentrations of AA. Nrf2 and CYP7A1 expressions were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Nrf2 silenced and over-expressed cell models were constructed by Nrf2 siRNA and eukaryotic expression vector transient transfections and were used to investigate the role of Nrf2 in regulating CYP7A1 following AA administration. The results showed that Nrf2 was increased dose-dependently but CYP7A1 was decreased dose-dependently in cells treated with increasing concentrations of AA. The expression of CYP7A1 was increased by Nrf2 silence and was decreased by Nrf2 over-expression in HepG2 cells treated with different concentrations of AA. In conclusion, Nrf2 plays a significant role in the down-regulation of CYP7A1 induced by AA in HepG2 cells.

  19. The induction of apoptosis in HepG-2 cells by ruthenium(II) complexes through an intrinsic ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Lai, Shang-Hai; Yao, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Yin, Hui; Li, Wei; Han, Bing-Jie; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2016-10-21

    Four new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(N-N)2(dhbn)](ClO4)2 (N-N = dmb: 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine 1; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine 2; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline 3; dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline 4) were synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxicity in vitro of the ligand and complexes toward HepG-2, HeLa, MG-63 and A549 were assayed by MTT method. The IC50 values of the complexes against the above cells range from 17.7 ± 1.1 to 45.1 ± 2.8 μM. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes against HepG-2 cells follows the order of 4 > 2 > 3 > 1. Ligand shows no cytotoxic activity against the selected cell lines. Cellular uptake, apoptosis, comet assay, reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle arrest, and the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis pathway induced by the complexes were investigated. The results indicate that complexes 1-4 induce apoptosis in HepG-2 cells through an intrinsic ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

  20. Synergistic effects of acyclic retinoid and OSI-461 on growth inhibition and gene expression in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masahito; Suzui, Masumi; Deguchi, Atsuko; Lim, Jin T E; Xiao, Danhua; Hayes, Julia H; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P; Weinstein, I Bernard

    2004-10-01

    Hepatoma is one of the most frequently occurring cancers worldwide. However, effective chemotherapeutic agents for this disease have not been developed. Acyclic retinoid, a novel synthetic retinoid, can reduce the incidence of postsurgical recurrence of hepatoma and improve the survival rate. OSI-461, a potent derivative of exisulind, can increase intracellular levels of cyclic GMP, which leads to activation of protein kinase G and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the combined effects of acyclic retinoid plus OSI-461 in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line. We found that the combination of as little as 1.0 micromol/L acyclic retinoid and 0.01 micromol/L OSI-461 exerted synergistic inhibition of the growth of HepG2 cells. Combined treatment with low concentrations of these two agents also acted synergistically to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through induction of Bax and Apaf-1, reduction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9. OSI-461 enhanced the G0-G1 arrest caused by acyclic retinoid, and the combination of these agents caused a synergistic decrease in the levels of expression of cyclin D1 protein and mRNA, inhibited cyclin D1 promoter activity, decreased the level of hyperphosphorylated forms of the Rb protein, induced increased cellular levels of the p21(CIP1) protein and mRNA, and stimulated p21(CIP1) promoter activity. Moreover, OSI-461 enhanced the ability of acyclic retinoid to induce increased cellular levels of retinoic acid receptor beta and to stimulate retinoic acid response element-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. A hypothetical model involving concerted effects on p21(CIP1) and retinoic acid receptor beta expression is proposed to explain these synergistic effects. Our results suggest that the combination of acyclic retinoid plus OSI-461 might be an effective regimen for the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of human hepatoma and possibly other malignancies.

  1. Theaflavins attenuate hepatic lipid accumulation through activating AMPK in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Li; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2007-11-01

    Black tea is one of the world's most popular beverages, and its health-promoting effects have been intensively investigated. The antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of black tea have attracted increasing interest, but the mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain unclear. In the present study, the black tea major component theaflavins were assessed for their hepatic lipid-lowering potential when administered in fatty acid overload conditions both in cell culture and in an animal experimental model. We found that theaflavins significantly reduced lipid accumulation, suppressed fatty acid synthesis, and stimulated fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, theaflavins also inhibited acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase activities by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 and reactive oxygen species pathways. These observations support the idea that AMPK is a critical component of decreased hepatic lipid accumulation by theaflavin treatments. Our results show that theaflavins are bioavailable both in vitro and in vivo and may be active in the prevention of fatty liver and obesity.

  2. Distribution of mitochondrial nucleoids upon mitochondrial network fragmentation and network reintegration in HEPG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Jan; Dlasková, Andrea; Šantorová, Jitka; Smolková, Katarína; Alán, Lukáš; Špaček, Tomáš; Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is organized in nucleoids in complex with accessory proteins, proteins of mtDNA replication and gene expression machinery. A robust mtDNA genome is represented by hundreds to thousands of nucleoids in cell mitochondrion. Detailed information is lacking about the dynamics of nucleoid distribution within the mitochondrial network upon physiological and pathological events. Therefore, we used confocal microscopy to study mitochondrial nucleoid redistribution upon mitochondrial fission and following reintegration of the mitochondrial network. Fission was induced by oxidative stress at respiration inhibition by rotenone or upon elimination of the protonmotive force by uncoupling or upon canceling its electrical component, ΔΨ(m), by valinomycin; and by silencing of mitofusin MFN2. Agent withdrawal resulted in concomitant mitochondrial network reintegration. We found two major principal morphological states: (i) a tubular state of the mitochondrial network with equidistant nucleoid spacing, 1.10±0.2 nucleoids per μm, and (ii) a fragmented state of solitary spheroid objects in which several nucleoids were clustered. We rarely observed singular mitochondrial fragments with a single nucleoid inside and very seldom we observed empty fragments. Reintegration of fragments into the mitochondrial network re-established the tubular state with equidistant nucleoid spacing. The two major morphological states coexisted at intermediate stages. These observations suggest that both mitochondrial network fission and reconnection of the disintegrated network are nucleoid-centric, i.e., fission and new mitochondrial tubule formation are initiated around nucleoids. Analyses of combinations of these morphological icons thus provide a basis for a future mitochondrial morphology diagnostics.

  3. Betalain and betaine composition of greenhouse- or field-produced beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.) and inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; An, Dami; Nguyen, Chau T T; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Kim, Jeongyun; Yoo, Kil Sun

    2014-02-12

    The composition of betalain, red or yellow pigments, and betaine (trimethylglycine or glycinebetaine) of nine beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars produced in the greenhouse or field was studied. Inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by betanin and betaine was also tested. Four predominant betalains, two betacyanins (betanin and isobetanin) and two betaxanthins (vulgaxanthin I and miraxanthin V), were isolated and quantified. Betanin and vulgaxanthin I were the major compounds in red and yellow beetroot extracts, respectively, and they comprised >90% of the betalain content in the tested cultivars. The total betalain content of beetroots produced from the field was between 650 and 800 μg/g fresh weight, approximately 25% higher than those from the greenhouse. The betaine content of the beetroot grown in the field was between 3.0 and 4.8 mg/g fresh weight, approximately 20% higher than in plants from the greenhouse. There was great variation among the cultivars with respect to their contents of betalains and betaine. In vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells after exposure to betanin and betaine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 μg/mL and from 0 to 800 μg/mL for 48 h, respectively. Betanin resulted in a 49% inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation at 200 μg/mL, and betaine yielded a 25% inhibition at 800 μg/mL, implying a higher cytotoxicity of betanin compared with betaine. The results indicated that the contents of health-beneficial compounds in beetroots, betalains and betaine, could be increased by modifying the growing conditions and that betanin and betaine extracted from beetroots had some anticancer effects against HepG2 cells.

  4. Oroxylin A reverses CAM-DR of HepG2 cells by suppressing Integrinβ1 and its related pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Binbin; Zhao, Li; Zhu, Litao; Wang, Hu; Sha, Yunying; Yao, Jing; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong

    2012-03-15

    Oroxylin A, a naturally occurring monoflavonoid extracted from Scutellariae radix, shows effective anticancer activities and low toxicities both in vivo and in vitro in previous studies. In this study, we investigated whether the CAM-DR model of HepG2 cells showed resistance to cytotoxic agents compared with normally cultured HepG2 cells. Furthermore, after the treatment of Paclitaxel, less inhibitory effects and decreased apoptosis rate were detected in the model. Data also revealed increased expression of Integrinβ1 might be responsible for the resistance ability. Moreover, Integrinβ1-siRNA-transfected CAM-DR HepG2 cells exhibited more inhibitory effects and higher levels of apoptosis than the non-transfected CAM-DR cells. The data corroborated that Integrinβ1 played a significant role in CAM-DR. After the treatment of weakly-toxic concentrations of Oroxylin A, the apoptosis induced by Paclitaxel in the CAM-DR model increased dramatically. Western blot assay revealed Oroxylin A markedly down-regulated the expression of Integrinβ1 and the activity of related pathway. As a conclusion, Oroxylin A can reverse the resistance of CAM-DR via inhibition of Integrinβ1 and its related pathway. Oroxylin A may be a potential candidate of a CAM-DR reversal agent. Highlights: ► Adhesion of HepG2 cells to fibronectin exhibited resistance to Paclitaxel. ► The resistance was associated with the increased expression of Integrinβ1. ► Knocking down Integrinβ1 can increase the toxicity of Paclitaxel on CAM-DR model. ► Oroxylin A reversed the resistance by suppressing Integrinβ1 and related pathway.

  5. Saikosaponin A, an active glycoside from Radix bupleuri, reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells and HepG2/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rui-Ping; Chen, Zhen-Dong

    2017-02-01

    1. The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR). Saikosaponin A (SSA) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Radix Bupleuri. This study was mainly designed to understand effects of SSA on MDR in MCF-7/ADR and HepG2/ADM cells. 2. MDR reversal was examined as the alteration of cytotoxic drugs IC50 in resistant cells in the presence of SSA by MTT assay, and was compared with the non-resistant cells. Apoptosis and uptake of P-gp substrates in the tumor cells were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to assay the expression of P-gp. 3. Our results demonstrate SSA could increase the chemosensitivity of P-gp overexpressing HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells to doxorubicin (DOX), vincristine (VCR) and paclitaxel. SSA promoted apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cells in the presence of DOX. Moreover, it could also increase the retention of P-gp substrates DOX and rhodamine 123 in MCF-7/ADR cells, and decrease digoxin efflux ratio in Caco-2 cell monolayer. Finally, a mechanistic study showed that SSA reduced P-gp expression without affecting hydrolytic activity of P-gp. 4. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SSA could be further developed for sensitizing resistant cancer cells and used as an adjuvant therapy together with anticancer drugs to improve their therapeutic efficacies.

  6. Effects of cordycepin on HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells: Potential antiproliferative, antimetastatic and anti-angiogenic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haisheng; Li, Xiting; Zhang, Jianying; Shi, Hui; Zhu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiaoshun

    2014-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hypervascular tumor and accumulating evidence suggests that angiogenesis plays an important role in HCC development. Cordycepin, also known as 3'-deoxyadenosine, is a derivative of adenosine, and numerous cellular enzymes cannot differentiate the two. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cordycepin regulates proliferation, migration and angiogenesis in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) and in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). MTT was used to assess cell proliferation. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (propidium iodide staining). Transwell and wound healing assays were used to analyze the migration and invasion of HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells. Angiogenesis in EA.hy926 cells was assessed using a tube formation assay. Cordycepin strongly suppressed HepG2 and EA.hy926 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cordycepin induced EA.hy926 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (2,000 μg/ml: 50.20±1.55% vs. 0 μg/ml: 2.62±0.19%; P<0.01). Cordycepin inhibited EA.hy926 cell migration (percentage of wound healing area, 2,000 μg/ml: 3.45±0.29% vs. 0 μg/ml: 85.48±0.84%; P<0.05), as well as tube formation (total length of tubular structure, 1,000 μg/ml: 107±39 μm vs. 0 μg/ml: 936±56 μm; P<0.05). Cordycepin also efficiently inhibited HepG2 cell invasion and migration. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the cytosol from EA.hy926 cells showed that cordycepin was stable for 3 h. In conclusion, cordycepin not only inhibited human HepG2 cell proliferation and invasion, but also induced apoptosis and inhibited migration and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that cordycepin may be used as a novel anti-angiogenic therapy in HCC.

  7. The Nitric Oxide Prodrug JS-K Induces Ca(2+)-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Jiangang; Wang, Shuying

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common and deadly forms of human malignancies. JS-K, O(2)-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl) piperazin-1-yl] diazen-1-ium-1, 2-diolate, has the ability to induce apoptosis of tumor cell lines. In the present study, JS-K inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and significantly induced apoptosis. JS-K enhanced the ratio of Bax-to-Bcl-2, released of cytochrome c (Cyt c) from mitochondria and the activated caspase-9/3. JS-K caused an increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Carboxy-PTIO (a NO scavenger) and BAPTA-AM (an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) significantly blocked an increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) in JS-K-induced HepG2 cells apoptosis, especially Carboxy-PTIO. Meanwhile, Carboxy-PTIO and BAPTA-AM treatment both attenuate JS-K-induced apoptosis through upregulation of Bcl-2, downregulation of Bax, reduction of Cyt c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm and inactivation of caspase-9/3. In summary, JS-K induced HepG2 cells apoptosis via Ca(2+)/caspase-3-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  8. Induction of apoptosis by ethanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius leaf in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells via a mitochondria-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Jung; Huang, Shang-Yu; Wu, Meng-Yu; Chen, Yu-Ching; Tsang, Shih-Fang; Chyuan, Jong-Ho; Hsu, Hsue-Yin

    2012-08-03

    Corchorus olitorius L.,is a culinary and medicinal herb, widely used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia. Many studies have shown that C. olitorius contains several antioxidants and exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities in various in vitro and in vivo settings. Recently, C. olitorius has been approved for its antitumor activity; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of C. olitorius (ECO) on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG