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Sample records for her2-negative breast tumours

  1. Does Lapatinib Work against HER2-negative Breast Cancers?

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Ingrid A.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant growth factor receptor signaling can augment or suppress estrogen receptor (ER) function in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells and lead to escape from anti-estrogen therapy. Interruption of HER2/ER cross-talk with lapatinib can restore sensitivity to anti-estrogens and thus, should be investigated in combination with endocrine therapy in patients with ER+/HER2−negative breast cancers. PMID:20179241

  2. HER2 somatic mutations are associated with poor survival in HER2-negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tonghui; Xu, Ye; Sheng, Shuyan; Yuan, Hua; Ouyang, Tao; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Lin, Benyao; Xie, Yuntao

    2017-02-06

    It is well documented that HER2 overexpression/amplification is associated with the poor survival in breast cancer patients. However, it is largely unknown whether HER2 somatic mutations are associated with the survival in HER2-negative breast cancer patients. Here, we identified HER2 somatic mutations in tumors from 1,348 unselected breast cancer patients by sequencing the entire HER2 coding region. All these mutations were tested for in corresponding blood samples to determine whether they were somatic or germline mutations. We further investigated the associations between the HER2 somatic mutations and recurrence-free survival (RFS) and distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) in this cohort of patients. We found that 27 of 1,348 (2.0%) of these patients carried a HER2 somatic mutation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that some of novel mutations and those with unknown functions increased HER2 activity. HER2 status was available for 1,306 patients, and the HER2 somatic mutation rates in HER2-positive (n=353) and HER2-negative breast cancers (n=953) were 1.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Among the HER2-negative patients, those with a HER2 somatic mutation had a significantly worse recurrence-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] =2.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-5.72, P=0.002) and distant recurrence-free survival (unadjusted HR=2.50; 95% CI: 1.10-5.68, P=0.004) than those with wild-type HER2. Taken together, our findings suggested that HER2 somatic mutations occur at a higher frequency in HER2-negative breast cancer, and HER2-negative breast cancer patients with these mutations have poor survival. Therefore, HER2-negative patients with a HER2 somatic mutation are potentially good candidates for HER2-targeted therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Systemic treatment approaches in her2-negative advanced breast cancer—guidance on the guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Joy, A.A.; Ghosh, M.; Fernandes, R.; Clemons, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advancements in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer, many patients still develop disease recurrence; others present with de novo metastatic disease. For most patients with advanced breast cancer, the primary treatment intent is noncurative—that is, palliative—in nature. The goals of treatment should therefore focus on maximizing symptom control and extending survival. Treatments should be evaluated on an individualized basis in terms of evidence, but also with full respect for the wishes of the patient in terms of acceptable toxicity. Given the availability of extensive reviews on the roles of endocrine therapy and her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)–targeted therapies for advanced disease, we focus here mainly on treatment guidelines for the non-endocrine management of her2-negative advanced breast cancer in a Canadian health care context. PMID:25848337

  4. Palbociclib for the Treatment of Estrogen Receptor–Positive, HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Aki; Henry, N. Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Palbociclib is a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 that acts by reducing phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor gene Retinoblastoma. When added to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole in a randomized phase II trial for first-line therapy of estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer, palbociclib significantly increased progression-free survival compared to letrozole alone (palbociclib + letrozole: 20.2 months (95% CI 13.8-27.5), letrozole:10.2 months (95% CI 5.7-12.6); hazard ratio 0.49 (95% CI 0.32-0.75), p=0.0004). Based on these results the drug was recently granted accelerated approval by the FDA, and confirmatory studies are ongoing. Since this drug has a rational target in an oncologic pathway, concurrent biomarker development is of interest. In breast cancer, the most useful predictive biomarkers identified thus far are estrogen receptor and HER2 receptor status, although additional studies are ongoing. In this article, we review the development of palbociclib and its use in treatment of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer in the context of other FDA-approved agents in this setting. PMID:26100274

  5. Bevacizumab in combination with paclitaxel for HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dedes, Konstantin J; Matter-Walstra, Klazien; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Fink, Daniel; Brauchli, Peter; Szucs, Thomas D

    2009-05-01

    The addition of bevacizumab to weekly paclitaxel as primary chemotherapy for HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) prolongs progression-free survival without a substantial increase of toxicity. A Markov cohort simulation was used to follow the clinical course of typical patients with MBC. Information on response rates and major adverse effects was derived, and transition probabilities were estimated, based on the results of the E2100 clinical trial. Direct costs were assessed from the perspective of the Swiss health system. The addition of bevacizumab to weekly paclitaxel is estimated to cost an additional 40,369euro and to yield a gain of 0.22 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 189,427euro/QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the willingness-to-pay threshold of 60,000euro was never reached. The addition of bevacizumab to paclitaxel in MBC patients is expensive given the clinical benefit in terms of QALYs gained.

  6. [Clinicopathological features and prognosis of HER2-negative luminal-type breast cancer patients with early and late recurrence].

    PubMed

    Chen, X L; Fan, Y; Xu, B H

    2016-06-23

    To compare the clinicopathological features and prognosis of HER2-negative luminal-type breast cancer patients with early and late recurrence. We reviewed the records of recurrent breast cancer patients who previously underwent surgery at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between 2003 and 2009. A total of 390 cases were identified as eligible recurrent patients with HER2-negative luminal-type breast cancer. Among them, 279 cases had early recurrence (DFS<5 years) and 111 cases had late recurrence (DFS≥5 years). The clinicopathological features, sites of initial metastasis and survival after recurrence in the two groups were compared and analyzed. Patients with vascular invasion or and ≥4 lymph node metastases were found more common in the early recurrence group (P<0.05), while positive status of both hormone receptors and non-standardized hormone therapy were more frequently seen in the late recurrence group (P<0.05). In the late recurrence group, initial lung metastasis was seen in 47.7% of patients, significantly higher than that (25.1%) in the early recurrence group (P<0.001). Although initial multiple organ metastases were more common in the late recurrence group (P<0.05), its median overall survival (OS) after recurrence was 66 months, significantly longer than that of the early recurrence group (39 months) (HR=1.6, P=0.003). The two groups of HER2-negative luminal-type breast cancer patients with early and late recurrence show some differences in clinicopathological features and prognosis. Both vascular invasion and ≥4 lymph node metastases are important factors affecting the DFS in HER-2-negative luminal-type breast cancer patients, and early recurrence is more frequently seen in this group. Late recurrence is the more frequent recurrence pattern in the HER-2 negative luminal type breast cancer patients, especially, in the double hormone receptor-positive patients who received non-standardized hormone therapy. The prognosis for

  7. Association between Ultrasound Features and the 21-Gene Recurrence Score Assays in Patients with Oestrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative, Invasive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chae, Eun Young; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hak Hee; Kim, Won Hwa; Cha, Joo Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Choi, Woo Jung; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Sae Byul; Ahn, Sei Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A multigene expression assay corresponds to the likelihood of breast cancer recurrence after the initial diagnosis and can be used to guide the decision for additional chemotherapy. However, only few studies have investigated the associations between the imaging features of breast cancer and the results of multigene expression assays. Our study was to identify the relationship between imaging features on ultrasound (US) and the recurrence score (RS) on a 21-gene expression assay in patients with oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. 267 patients with ER-positive, HER-negative invasive breast cancer who underwent examinations using US and Oncotype DX assay were included. US images were independently reviewed by dedicated breast radiologists who were blind to the RS. Tumour roundness was measured using a laboratory-developed software program. The pathological data were reviewed, including immunohistochemistry results. Univariate analysis was performed to assess the associations between the RS and each variable. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of high RS. Of 267 patients, 147 (55%) had low, 96 (36%) intermediate, and 24 (9%) had high RS. According to the univariate analysis, parallel orientation, presence of calcification in the mass, and tumour roundness were positively associated with high RS. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that parallel orientation (OR = 5.53) and tumour roundness (OR = 1.70 per 10 increase) were associated with high RS. Parallel orientation and tumour roundness are independent variables that may predict high RS in patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer.

  8. Veliparib and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-04

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  9. Recent advances in systemic therapy. When HER2 is not the target: advances in the treatment of HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miles, David W

    2009-01-01

    The anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) agent trastuzumab has improved outcomes in breast cancer patients with HER2 over-expressing tumours. However, systemic treatment for patients with HER2-negative disease is still limited to endocrine and cytotoxic therapies. The increasing use of the anthracyclines and taxanes in early stage disease has reduced the available therapeutic options for patients with relapsed disease, and choices are further limited for patients with triple-negative tumours, who typically have a poor prognosis. The novel agents bevacizumab and ixabepilone were recently approved for metastatic breast cancer, and numerous other agents are currently in clinical development that may contribute further valuable therapeutic options. PMID:19744307

  10. Detection of HER2-Positive Metastases in Patients with HER2-Negative Primary Breast Cancer Using 89Zr-Trastuzumab PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Ulaner, Gary A; Hyman, David M; Ross, Dara S; Corben, Adriana; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Goldfarb, Shari; McArthur, Heather; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Solomon, Stephen B; Kolb, Hartmuth; Lyashchenko, Serge K; Lewis, Jason S; Carrasquillo, Jorge A

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to determine whether imaging with a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted PET tracer can detect HER2-positive metastases in patients with HER2-negative primary breast cancer.

  11. HER2-associated radiation resistance of breast cancer stem cells isolated from HER2-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Duru, Nadire; Fan, Ming; Candas, Demet; Menaa, Cheikh; Liu, Hsin-Chen; Nantajit, Danupon; Wen, Yunfei; Xiao, Kai; Eldridge, Angela; Chromy, Brett A.; Li, Shiyong; Spitz, Douglas R.; Lam, Kit S.; Wicha, Max S.; Li, Jian Jian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To understand the role of HER2-associated signaling network in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs); using radiation-resistant breast cancer cells and clinical recurrent breast cancers to evaluate HER2-targeted therapy as a tumor eliminating strategy for recurrent HER2−/low breast cancers. Experimental Design HER2-expressing BCSCs (HER2+/CD44+/CD24−/low) were isolated from radiation-treated breast cancer MCF7 cells and in vivo irradiated MCF7 xenograft tumors. Tumor aggressiveness and radiation resistance were analyzed by gap filling, Matrigel invasion, tumor-sphere formation, and clonogenic survival assays. The HER2/CD44 feature was analyzed in 40 primary and recurrent breast cancer specimens. Protein expression profiling in HER2+/CD44+/CD24−/low versus HER2−/CD44+/CD24−/low BCSCs was conducted with 2-D DIGE and HPLC-MS/MS analysis and HER2-mediated signaling network was generated by MetaCore™ program. Results Compared to HER2-negative BCSCs, HER2+/CD44+/CD24−/low cells showed elevated aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and aggressiveness tested by matrigel invasion, tumor sphere formation and in vivo tumorigenesis. The enhanced aggressive phenotype and radioresistance of the HER2+/CD44+/CD24−/low cells were markedly reduced by inhibition of HER2 via siRNA or Herceptin treatments. Clinical breast cancer specimens revealed that cells co-expressing HER2 and CD44 were more frequently detected in recurrent (84.6%) than primary tumors (57.1%). In addition, 2-D DIGE and HPLC-MS/MS of HER2+/CD44+/CD24−/low versus HER2−/CD44+/CD24−/low BCSCs reported a unique HER2-associated protein profile including effectors involved in tumor metastasis, apoptosis, mitochondrial function and DNA repair. A specific feature of HER2-STAT3 network was identified. Conclusion This study provides the evidence that HER2-mediated pro-survival signaling network is responsible for the aggressive phenotype of breast cancer stem cells that could be targeted to control

  12. Alteration of Thyroid Function in Indian HER 2-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Ashif; Bhurani, Dinesh; Agarwal, Nidhi B

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which plays an important role in cell growth, differentiation, development and other aspects of metabolism. It is believed that an active hypothalamic-pituitary axis increases the susceptibility of thyroid dysfunction during systemic chemotherapy. In order to investigate the relation between thyroid function and chemotherapy the present study was designed to investigate TH in breast cancer patients receiving at least three cycles of chemotherapy. The levels of TH were measured at the baseline and before each cycle of chemotherapy. Blood samples for estimation of TH levels were collected from 80 (pre-menopausal-40; post-menopausal-40) breast cancer patients just before they were undergoing--1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th cycle of chemotherapy. The serum was separated and T3, T4 and TSH levels were determined by chemiluminescence method. T3 and T4 were found significantly decreased and TSH was found significantly increased after 1st (p<0.001), 2nd (p<0.0001) and 3rd cycle of chemotherapy (p<0.0001). The variation of T3 levels (decreased) and TSH levels (increased) was found more in post-menopausal (p<0.0001) women then in pre-menopausal women after 3rd cycle of chemotherapy as compared to baseline (p<0.001). TH were remarkably altered after each cycle of chemotherapy leading to decline in thyroid function of breast cancer patients. Further, the results also indicated that post- menopausal women were more prone towards decline in thyroid function then pre-menopausal women. The present study proposes the monitoring of TH after each cycle of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

  13. Current approaches to the management of Her2-negative metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    While metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains incurable, a vast array of active therapeutic agents has provided the opportunity for long-term disease control while maintaining quality of life and physical function. Optimal management of MBC balances a multitude of factors, including a woman's performance status, social support, symptoms, disease burden, prior therapies, and surrogates for tumor biology. Choosing the most appropriate initial therapy and subsequent sequence of treatments demands flexibility as goals and patient preferences may change. Knowledge of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her2 receptor status of the metastatic tumor has become critical to determining the optimal treatment strategy in the metastatic setting as targeted therapeutic approaches are developed. Patients with ER+ or PR+ breast cancer or both have a wide array of hormonal therapy options that can forestall the use of cytotoxic therapies, although rapidly progressive phenotypes and the emergence of resistance may ultimately lead to the need for chemotherapy in this setting. So-called 'triple-negative' breast cancer - lacking ER, PR, and Her2 overexpression - remains a major challenge. These tumors have an aggressive phenotype, and clear targets for therapy have not yet been established. Chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment in this group, but biologically based clinical trials of new agents are critical to developing a more effective set of therapies for this patient population. PMID:22429313

  14. Capecitabine Monotherapy: Review of Studies in First-Line HER-2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Manfred; Siedentopf, Friederike; Dalivoust, Philippe; Debled, Marc; Robert, Nicholas J.; Harbeck, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The goals of treatment for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are to prolong overall survival (OS) while maximizing quality of life, palliating symptoms, and delaying tumor progression. For many years, anthracyclines and taxanes have been the mainstay of treatment for MBC, but these agents are now commonly administered earlier in the course of the disease. A recent meta-analysis revealed adverse effects on OS and overall response rates in patients with MBC receiving first-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy following relapse on adjuvant chemotherapy. Noncrossresistant cytotoxic agents and combinations that combine high clinical activity and acceptable tolerability while being convenient for patients are therefore needed for the first-line treatment of MBC patients. Capecitabine has substantial antitumor activity in the first-line treatment of patients with MBC in prospective, randomized, phase II/III clinical trials as monotherapy and in combination with biologic and novel agents. First-line capecitabine monotherapy has a favorable safety profile, lacking myelosuppression and alopecia, and does not compromise the administration of further lines of chemotherapy. Capecitabine is suitable for long-term administration without the cumulative toxicity that can limit the prolonged use of other chemotherapy agents. Here, we review the available data on capecitabine as a single agent for first-line treatment of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative MBC. PMID:22418569

  15. Hydrophobic Proteome Analysis of Triple Negative and Hormone-Receptor-Positive-Her2-Negative Breast Cancer by Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming; Whelan, Stephen A.; He, Jianbo; Saxton, Romaine E.; Faull, Kym F.; Whitelegge, Julian P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It is widely believed that discovery of specific, sensitive, and reliable tumor biomarkers can improve the treatment of cancer. Currently, there are no obvious targets that can be used in treating triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods To better understand TNBC and find potential biomarkers for targeted treatment, we combined a novel hydrophobic fractionation protocol with mass spectrometry LTQ-orbitrap to explore and compare the hydrophobic sub-proteome of TNBC with another subtype of breast cancer, hormone-receptor-positive-Her2-negative breast cancer (non-TNBC). Results Hydrophobic sub-proteome of breast cancer is rich in membrane proteins. Hundreds of proteins with various defined key cellular functions were identified from TNBC and non-TNBC tumors. In this study, protein profiles of TNBC and non-TNBC were systematically examined, compared, and validated. We have found that nine keratins are down-regulated and several heat shock proteins are up-regulated in TNBC tissues. Our study may provide insights of molecules that are responsible for the aggressiveness of TNBC. Conclusion The initial results obtained using a combination of hydrophobic fractionation and nano-LC mass spectrometry analysis of these proteins appear promising in the discovery of potential cancer biomarkers and bio-signatures. When sufficiently refined, this approach may prove useful in improving breast cancer treatment. PMID:20930921

  16. Challenges in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minetta C; Cortés, Javier; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2016-06-01

    Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer, yet little is known about the optimal treatment of brain disease in this group of patients. Although these patients are at lower risk for brain metastases relative to those with HER2-positive and triple-negative disease, they comprise the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Surgery and radiation continue to have a role in the treatment of brain metastases, but there is a dearth of effective systemic therapies due to the poor penetrability of many systemic drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Additionally, patients with brain metastases have long been excluded from clinical trials, and few studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of systemic therapies specifically for the treatment of HER2-negative breast cancer brain metastases. New approaches are on the horizon, such as nanoparticle-based cytotoxic drugs that have the potential to cross the BBB and provide clinically meaningful benefits to patients with this life-threatening consequence of HR-positive breast cancer.

  17. News on the medical treatment of young women with early-stage HER2-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Matteo; Poggio, Francesca; Vaglica, Marina; Blondeaux, Eva; Del Mastro, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer in young women represents a public health problem with specific age-related issues to be faced by both patients and their treating physicians. This manuscript reviews the recent data on the medical management of young women with early-stage HER2-negative breast cancer. For women candidates to receive (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy, anthracycline- and taxane-based regimens are standard of care. In high-risk patients, dose-dense regimens should be preferred; in women with triple-negative breast cancer and BRCA mutations, the addition of platinum compounds may also be considered. Several adjuvant endocrine therapy options have become available for the treatment of premenopausal women with early-stage luminal breast cancer. Specifically, young patients at low risk of relapse may be safely spared chemotherapy: endocrine therapy alone with tamoxifen for 5 years is the most appropriate treatment. In women at higher risk of relapse, ovarian function suppression is therapeutic: in this scenario, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) should be considered in addition to tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. To women concerned about the possible risk of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure, the use of temporary ovarian suppression with LHRHa should be proposed as a valid strategy to potentially preserve ovarian function and fertility.

  18. Positive Association of Fibroadenomatoid Change with HER2-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer: A Co-Occurrence Study

    PubMed Central

    Kovatich, Albert J.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Jianfang; Kvecher, Leonid; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Mitchell, Edith P.; Rui, Hallgeir; Shriver, Craig D.; Hu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk assessment of a benign breast disease/lesion (BBD) for invasive breast cancer (IBC) is typically done through a longitudinal study. For an infrequently-reported BBD, the shortage of occurrence data alone is a limiting factor to conducting such a study. Here we present an approach based on co-occurrence analysis, to help address this issue. We focus on fibroadenomatoid change (FAC), an under-studied BBD, as our preliminary analysis has suggested its previously unknown significant co-occurrence with IBC. Methods A cohort of 1667 female patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project was identified. A single experienced breast pathologist reviewed all pathology slides for each case and recorded all observed lesions, including FAC. Fibroadenoma (FA) was studied for comparison since FAC had been speculated to be an immature FA. FA and Fibrocystic Changes (FCC) were used for method validation since they have been comprehensively studied. Six common IBC and BBD risk/protective factors were also studied. Co-occurrence analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Results Common risk/protective factors were associated with FA, FCC, and IBC in ways consistent with the literature in general, and they were associated with FAC, FA, and FCC in distinct patterns. Age was associated with FAC in a bell-shape curve so that middle-aged women were more likely to have FAC. We report for the first time that FAC is positively associated with IBC with odds ratio (OR) depending on BMI (OR = 6.78, 95%CI = 3.43-13.42 at BMI<25 kg/m2; OR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.20-3.80 at BMI>25 kg/m2). This association is only significant with HER2-negative IBC subtypes. Conclusions We conclude that FAC is a candidate risk factor for HER2-negative IBCs, and it is a distinct disease from FA. Co-occurrence analysis can be used for initial assessment of the risk for IBC from a BBD, which is vital to the study of infrequently-reported BBDs. PMID:26098961

  19. The Impact of Treatment Preferences in Second-Line Chemotherapy on the Prognosis of HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hirofumi; Hagiwara, Yasuhiro; Imi, Kentaro; Isaka, Hirotsugu; Watanabe, Kenichi; Matsuyama, Yutaka

    2017-08-24

    We assessed the impact of treatment preferences in second-line chemotherapy on breast cancer prognosis using the SELECT BC study. The SELECT BC study was performed in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer treated with initial chemotherapy. From these patients, 618 were assigned to 2 groups (S-1 group, 309; taxane group, 309). The S-1 and taxane groups were each subdivided into 3 groups: crossover group, protocol-recommended group, and other group, and the analysis of overall survival (OS) was performed using Cox regression with inverse probability weighting, to adjust for postrandomization confounding. In the taxane group, the OS of the crossover group (39.6 months) was better than that of the protocol-recommended group (35.7 months) and the other chemotherapy group (36.9 months) (vs. the protocol-recommended group, HR 0.72 [95% CI 0.52-0.98], p = 0.037; vs. the other chemotherapy group, HR 0.71 [95% CI 0.43-1.18], p = 0.183). In the S-1 group, there was no statistically significant difference in OS between the 3 groups. The study of the combination of first-line chemotherapy and second-line chemotherapy showed that S-1 might be recommended as a second-line chemotherapy in patients in whom taxane was the primary chemotherapy. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Absent progesterone receptor expression in the lymph node metastases of ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer is associated with relapse on tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Snell, Cameron E; Gough, Madeline; Middleton, Kathryn; Hsieh, Michael; Furnas, Lauren; Seidl, Brenton; Gibbons, Kristen; Pyke, Christopher; Shannon, Catherine; Woodward, Natasha; Armes, Jane E

    2017-04-17

    Progesterone receptor (PR) expression is prognostic in early stage breast cancer. There are several reports of discordant expression between primary tumour and axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis expression of oestrogen receptor (ER) and PR. We sought to determine whether expression of these biomarkers in the synchronous ALN metastases of ER positive (+), HER2 negative (-) breast cancer could provide more accurate prognostic information. The retrospective cohort included 229 patients from a single institution with ER+, HER2- breast cancer who had synchronous ALN metastatic disease (2005-2014). PR expression was correlated with relapse-free survival, and subset analysis was performed for patients who received adjuvant tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor. One patient had an ER+ primary tumour, which was ER- in the ALN metastasis. 27 (11.3%) were PR- in the primary tumour and 56 (23.6%) in the ALN metastasis. The predominant change was from PR+ in the primary tumour to PR- in the lymph node. Absence of PR expression in the ALN was significantly associated with relapse; however, this was not the case in the primary tumour. In a subset analysis of patients taking adjuvant endocrine therapy, poorer prognosis was limited to those with PR- metastases on tamoxifen (HR=5.203, 95% CI 1.649 to 16.416, p=0.005). No significant prognostic effect of PR- metastases in patients taking aromatase inhibitors was seen (HR=1.519, 95% CI 0.675 to 3.418, p=0.312). Evaluation of PR expression in ALN metastasis may enable prediction of patients who are less likely to benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen. This study should be replicated in other cohorts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Clinicopathological factors predicting early and late distant recurrence in estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiroko; Ogiya, Akiko; Shien, Tadahiko; Horimoto, Yoshiya; Masuda, Norikazu; Inao, Touko; Osako, Tomofumi; Takahashi, Masato; Endo, Yumi; Hosoda, Mitsuchika; Ishida, Naoko; Horii, Rie; Yamazaki, Kieko; Miyoshi, Yuichiro; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Tomioka, Nobumoto

    2016-11-01

    Most studies analyzing prognostic factors for late relapse have been performed in postmenopausal women who received tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. A total of 223 patients (108 premenopausal and 115 postmenopausal) with early distant recurrence and 149 patients (62 premenopausal and 87 postmenopausal) with late distant recurrence of ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer who were given their initial treatment between 2000 and 2004 were registered from nine institutions. For each late recurrence patient, approximately two matched control patients without relapse for more than 10 years were selected. Clinicopathological factors and adjuvant therapies were compared among the three groups by menopausal status and age. Factors predicting early recurrence in premenopausal women were large tumor size, high lymph node category and high tumor grade, whereas predictors for late recurrence were large tumor size and high lymph node category. In postmenopausal women under 60 years of age, factors predicting early recurrence were bilateral breast cancer, large tumor size, high lymph node category, low PgR expression and high Ki67 labeling index (LI), while predictors for late recurrence were large tumor size and high lymph node category. On the other hand, in postmenopausal women aged 60 years or older, factors predicting early recurrence were bilateral breast cancer, large tumor size, high lymph node category, high tumor grade, low ER expression and high Ki67 LI, whereas predictors for late recurrence were high lymph node category, low ER expression and short duration of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Predictors of early and late distant recurrence might differ according to menopausal status and age.

  2. First-line Bevacizumab and Paclitaxel for HER2-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer: A French Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Dieras, Veronique; Pop, Simona; Berger, Frederique; Dujaric, Marie-Eglantine; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Escalup, Laurence; Bidard, François Clement; Cottu, Paul Henri; LE Tourneau, Christophe; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Laurence, Valerie; Robain, Mathieu; Asselain, Bernard; Pierga, Jean-Yves

    2017-03-01

    To assess outcomes in patients treated with first-line bevacizumab-containing therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2-negative metastatic breast cancer (mBC) at a single centre with a homogenous standard-of-care. Information on patient and disease characteristics, efficacy, and safety was extracted from computer-based records of all patients receiving first-line bevacizumab-paclitaxel at the Curie Institute, Paris, France, between 2008 and 2011. Median progression-free survival in the 116 treated patients was 13.2 months; median overall survival was 38.4 months. Corresponding values were 9.0 and 18.8 months, respectively, in patients with triple-negative mBC, and 19.4 and 58.8 months, respectively, in patients receiving maintenance endocrine therapy. No new safety signals were seen. Outcomes in patients treated with bevacizumab-paclitaxel at our center were consistent with efficacy in prospective clinical trials, with notable activity in poor-prognosis disease. Maintenance endocrine or oral therapy with bevacizumab after paclitaxel discontinuation was associated with long-term disease control. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. FDA Approval: Palbociclib for the Treatment of Postmenopausal Patients with Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Julia A; Amiri-Kordestani, Laleh; Charlab, Rosane; Chen, Wei; Palmby, Todd; Tilley, Amy; Zirkelbach, Jeanne Fourie; Yu, Jingyu; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Crich, Joyce; Chen, Xiao Hong; Hughes, Minerva; Bloomquist, Erik; Tang, Shenghui; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Kluetz, Paul G; Kim, Geoffrey; Ibrahim, Amna; Pazdur, Richard; Cortazar, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    On February 3, 2015, the FDA granted accelerated approval to palbociclib (IBRANCE, Pfizer Inc.), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6), for use in combination with letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer as initial endocrine-based therapy for their metastatic disease. The approval is based on a randomized, multicenter, open-label phase I/II trial (PALOMA-1) in 165 patients randomized to palbociclib (125 mg orally daily for 21 consecutive days, followed by 7 days off treatment) plus letrozole (2.5 mg orally daily) or letrozole alone. The phase II portion of the trial was divided into two cohorts: cohort 1 enrolled 66 biomarker-unselected patients and cohort 2 enrolled 99 biomarker-positive patients. The major efficacy outcome measure was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). A large magnitude of improvement in PFS was observed in patients receiving palbociclib plus letrozole compared with patients receiving letrozole alone (HR, 0.488; 95% confidence interval, 0.319-0.748). Multiple sensitivity analyses were supportive of clinical benefit. The most common adverse reaction in patients receiving palbociclib plus letrozole was neutropenia. This article summarizes the FDA thought process and data supporting accelerated approval based on PALOMA-1 that may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in the ongoing and fully accrued confirmatory trial PALOMA-2. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. A phase I clinical trial of bavituximab and paclitaxel in patients with HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Pavani; Marron, Marilyn; Roe, Denise; Clarke, Kathryn; Iannone, Maria; Livingston, Robert B; Shan, Joseph S; Stopeck, Alison T

    2015-07-01

    Bavituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets phosphatidylserine (PS). PS is externalized on cells in the tumor microenvironment when exposed to hypoxia and/or other physiological stressors. On attaching to PS, bavituximab is thought to promote antitumor immunity through its effects on PS receptors in monocytes, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, as well as trigger antitumor effects by inducing an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity on tumor-associated endothelial cells. We conducted a phase I clinical trial of bavituximab in combination with paclitaxel in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Patients were treated with weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2) for 3/4 weeks) and weekly bavituximab (3 mg/kg for 4/4 weeks). Correlative studies included the measurement of circulating microparticles, endothelial cells, and apoptotic tumor cells by flow cytometry. Fourteen patients with metastatic breast cancer were enrolled; all were evaluable for toxicity and 13 were evaluable for response. Treatment resulted in an overall response rate (RR) of 85% with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 7.3 months. Bone pain, fatigue, headache, and neutropenia were the most common adverse effects. Infusion-related reactions were the most common adverse event related to bavituximab therapy. Correlative studies showed an increase in the PS-expressing apoptotic circulating tumor cells in response to bavituximab, but not with paclitaxel. No changes in the number of circulating endothelial cells or apoptotic endothelial cells were observed with therapy. Platelet and monocyte-derived microparticles decreased after initiation of bavituximab. Bavituximab in combination with paclitaxel is well tolerated for treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer with promising results observed in terms of clinical RRs and PFS. The toxicity profile of bavituximab is notable for manageable infusion-related reactions with no evidence for increased

  5. Capecitabine and cisplatin (XP) combination systemic chemotherapy in heavily pre-treated HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jieun; Kim, Hyun Ho; Ro, Sang Mi; Yang, Ji Hyun

    2017-01-01

    After taxane and anthracycline failure, no standard chemotherapy regimen is established in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Capecitabine and cisplatin (XP) combination shows promising results in gastrointestinal cancer, but there are relatively scarce data in MBC. We reviewed the clinical outcome of XP regimen in anthracycline and taxane resistant, heavily pretreated MBC patients. Between Jan. 2010 to Feb. 2016, 48 HER2 negative MBC patients who failed anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy were enrolled. In 43.8% of patients, more than 4 regimens were administrated before XP. Thirty-four patients (70.8%) were hormone receptor (HR) positive MBC. Patients were treated with XP (capecitabine [2000mg/m2 per oral; day 1-14] plus cisplatin [60mg/m2 IV; day 1], every 3 weeks) regimen. Median progression-free survival (PFS) in total population was 4.33 months (range 1.1~33.57 months). HR positive patients showed trends for superior PFS compared to triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), without statistical significance (6.53 vs. 3.83 months, P = 0.168). In HR positive group, patients receiving 3 or less lines of chemotherapy showed superior PFS compared to others (10.1 vs. 3.0 months, P = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, HR positive patients receiving 3 or less lines of regimens still showed superior PFS (HR = 2.624, 95% CI; 1.071~6.43, P = 0.032). Most common toxicity was grade 3-4 neutropenia, without treatment-related deaths. XP combination regimen showed clinical benefit with tolerable toxicity in heavily pretreated patients, including HR positive patients. After anthracycline and taxane failure, early administration of XP regimen in selected patients may have improve clinical outcome in breast cancer.

  6. Capecitabine and cisplatin (XP) combination systemic chemotherapy in heavily pre-treated HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jieun; Kim, Hyun Ho; Ro, Sang Mi; Yang, Ji Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s) After taxane and anthracycline failure, no standard chemotherapy regimen is established in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Capecitabine and cisplatin (XP) combination shows promising results in gastrointestinal cancer, but there are relatively scarce data in MBC. We reviewed the clinical outcome of XP regimen in anthracycline and taxane resistant, heavily pretreated MBC patients. Materials/Methods Between Jan. 2010 to Feb. 2016, 48 HER2 negative MBC patients who failed anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy were enrolled. In 43.8% of patients, more than 4 regimens were administrated before XP. Thirty-four patients (70.8%) were hormone receptor (HR) positive MBC. Patients were treated with XP (capecitabine [2000mg/m2 per oral; day 1–14] plus cisplatin [60mg/m2 IV; day 1], every 3 weeks) regimen. Results Median progression-free survival (PFS) in total population was 4.33 months (range 1.1~33.57 months). HR positive patients showed trends for superior PFS compared to triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), without statistical significance (6.53 vs. 3.83 months, P = 0.168). In HR positive group, patients receiving 3 or less lines of chemotherapy showed superior PFS compared to others (10.1 vs. 3.0 months, P = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, HR positive patients receiving 3 or less lines of regimens still showed superior PFS (HR = 2.624, 95% CI; 1.071~6.43, P = 0.032). Most common toxicity was grade 3–4 neutropenia, without treatment-related deaths. Conclusions XP combination regimen showed clinical benefit with tolerable toxicity in heavily pretreated patients, including HR positive patients. After anthracycline and taxane failure, early administration of XP regimen in selected patients may have improve clinical outcome in breast cancer. PMID:28234911

  7. Retrospective study of the effect of disease progression on patient reported outcomes in HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This retrospective study evaluated the impact of disease progression and of specific sites of metastasis on patient reported outcomes (PROs) that assess symptom burden and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC). Methods HER-2 negative mBC patients (n = 102) were enrolled from 7 U.S. community oncology practices. Demographic, disease and treatment characteristics were abstracted from electronic medical records and linked to archived Patient Care Monitor (PCM) assessments. The PCM is a self-report measure of symptom burden and HRQoL administered as part of routine care in participating practices. Linear mixed models were used to examine change in PCM scores over time. Results Mean age was 57 years, with 72% of patients Caucasian, and 25% African American. Median time from mBC diagnosis to first disease progression was 8.8 months. Metastasis to bone (60%), lung (28%) and liver (26%) predominated at initial metastatic diagnosis. Results showed that PCM items assessing fatigue, physical pain and trouble sleeping were sensitive to either general effects of disease progression or to effects associated with specific sites of metastasis. Progression of disease was also associated with modest but significant worsening of General Physical Symptoms, Treatment Side Effects, Acute Distress and Impaired Performance index scores. In addition, there were marked detrimental effects of liver metastasis on Treatment Side Effects, and of brain metastasis on Acute Distress. Conclusions Disease progression has a detrimental impact on cancer-related symptoms. Delaying disease progression may have a positive impact on patients' HRQoL. PMID:21689425

  8. Phase III randomized trial of sunitinib versus capecitabine in patients with previously treated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei-Ching; Lee, Soo Chin; Vanlemmens, Laurence; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Tabei, Toshio; Pivot, Xavier; Iwata, Hiroji; Aogi, Kenjiro; Lugo-Quintana, Roberto; Harbeck, Nadia; Brickman, Marla J.; Zhang, Ke; Kern, Kenneth A.; Martin, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This multicenter, randomized, open-label phase III trial (planned enrollment: 700 patients) was conducted to test the hypothesis that single-agent sunitinib improves progression-free survival (PFS) compared with capecitabine as treatment for advanced breast cancer (ABC). Patients with HER2-negative ABC that recurred after anthracycline and taxane therapy were randomized (1:1) to sunitinib 37.5 mg/day or capecitabine 1,250 mg/m2 (1,000 mg/m2 in patients >65 years) BID on days 1–14 q3w. The independent data-monitoring committee (DMC) determined during the first interim analysis (238 patients randomized to sunitinib, 244 to capecitabine) that the trial be terminated due to futility in reaching the primary endpoint. No statistical evidence supported the hypothesis that sunitinib improved PFS compared with capecitabine (one-sided P = 0.999). The data indicated that PFS was shorter with sunitinib than capecitabine (median 2.8 vs. 4.2 months, respectively; HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16–1.87; two-sided P = 0.002). Median overall survival (15.3 vs. 24.6 months; HR, 1.17; two-sided P = 0.350) and objective response rates (11 vs. 16%; odds ratio, 0.65; P = 0.109) were numerically inferior with sunitinib versus capecitabine. While no new or unexpected safety findings were reported, sunitinib treatment was associated with higher frequencies and greater severities of many common adverse events (AEs) compared with capecitabine, resulting in more temporary discontinuations due to AEs with sunitinib (66 vs. 51%). The relative dose intensity was lower with sunitinib than capecitabine (73 vs. 95%). Based on these efficacy and safety results, sunitinib should not be used as monotherapy for patients with ABC. PMID:20339913

  9. A phase I clinical trial of bavituximab and paclitaxel in patients with HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Pavani; Marron, Marilyn; Roe, Denise; Clarke, Kathryn; Iannone, Maria; Livingston, Robert B; Shan, Joseph S; Stopeck, Alison T

    2015-01-01

    Bavituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets phosphatidylserine (PS). PS is externalized on cells in the tumor microenvironment when exposed to hypoxia and/or other physiological stressors. On attaching to PS, bavituximab is thought to promote antitumor immunity through its effects on PS receptors in monocytes, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, as well as trigger antitumor effects by inducing an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity on tumor-associated endothelial cells. We conducted a phase I clinical trial of bavituximab in combination with paclitaxel in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Patients were treated with weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 for 3/4 weeks) and weekly bavituximab (3 mg/kg for 4/4 weeks). Correlative studies included the measurement of circulating microparticles, endothelial cells, and apoptotic tumor cells by flow cytometry. Fourteen patients with metastatic breast cancer were enrolled; all were evaluable for toxicity and 13 were evaluable for response. Treatment resulted in an overall response rate (RR) of 85% with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 7.3 months. Bone pain, fatigue, headache, and neutropenia were the most common adverse effects. Infusion-related reactions were the most common adverse event related to bavituximab therapy. Correlative studies showed an increase in the PS-expressing apoptotic circulating tumor cells in response to bavituximab, but not with paclitaxel. No changes in the number of circulating endothelial cells or apoptotic endothelial cells were observed with therapy. Platelet and monocyte-derived microparticles decreased after initiation of bavituximab. Bavituximab in combination with paclitaxel is well tolerated for treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer with promising results observed in terms of clinical RRs and PFS. The toxicity profile of bavituximab is notable for manageable infusion-related reactions with no evidence for increased

  10. Detection of HER2-positive metastases in patients with HER2-negative primary breast cancer using 89Zr-trastuzumab PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Hyman, David M.; Ross, Dara S.; Corben, Adriana; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Goldfarb, Shari; McArthur, Heather; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Solomon, Stephen B; Kolb, Hartmuth; Lyashchenko, Serge K; Lewis, Jason S.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine if imaging with a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeting PET tracer can detect HER2-positive metastases in patients with HER2-negative primary breast cancer. Materials and Methods Patients with HER2-negative primary breast cancer and evidence of distant metastases were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved prospective clinical trial. Archived pathology from the patient’s primary breast cancer was retested to confirm HER2-negative disease. Patients with confirmed HER2-negative primary breast cancer underwent 89Zr-trastuzumab PET/CT to screen for 89Zr-trastuzumab metastases. Metastases avid for 89Zr-trastuzumab by PET/CT were biopsied and pathologically examined to define HER2 status. Patients with pathologically proven HER2-positive metastases subsequently received off-protocol HER2 targeted therapy to evaluate treatment response. Results Nine patients were enrolled, all of whom had pathologic retesting that confirmed HER2-negative primary breast cancer. Five demonstrated suspicious foci on 89Zr-trastuzumab PET/CT. Of these five with suspicious foci, two had biopsy proven HER2-positive metastases and went on to benefit from HER2 targeted therapy. Three of the five patients with suspicious foci had biopsy without evidence of HER2-positive disease, and were considered false positive false positive 89Zr-trastuzumab PET foci. Conclusion In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that 89Zr-trastuzmab PET/CT detects unsuspected HER2-positive metastases in patients with HER2-negtive primary breast cancer. While these are only initial results in a small sample, it is a proof of concept that HER2-targeted imaging can identify additional candidates for HER2-targeted therapy. More specific HER2-targeting agents will be needed for clinical use. PMID:27151988

  11. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy adaptation and serial MRI response monitoring in ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rigter, L S; Loo, C E; Linn, S C; Sonke, G S; van Werkhoven, E; Lips, E H; Warnars, H A; Doll, P K; Bruining, A; Mandjes, I A; Vrancken Peeters, M J; Wesseling, J; Gilhuijs, K G; Rodenhuis, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Changing the neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen in insufficiently responding breast cancer is not a standard policy. We analysed a series of patients with ‘luminal'-type breast cancer in whom the second half of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was selected based on the response to the first half. Methods: Patients with oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2−) breast cancer received three courses of neoadjuvant dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (ddAC). Three further courses of ddAC were administered in case of a ‘favourable response' on the interim magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a switch to docetaxel and capecitabine (DC) was made in case of an ‘unfavourable response', using previously published response criteria. The efficacy of this approach was evaluated by tumour size reductions on serial contrast-enhanced MRI, pathologic response and relapse-free survival. Results: Two hundred and forty-six patients received three courses of ddAC. One hundred and sixty-four patients (67%) had a favourable response at the interim MRI, with a mean tumour size reduction of 31% after the first three courses and 34% after the second three courses. Patients with unfavourable responsive tumours had a mean tumour size reduction of 12% after three courses and received three courses of DC rather than ddAC. This led to a mean shrinkage of 27%. Conclusion: The tumour size reduction of initially less responsive tumours after treatment adaptation adds further evidence that a response-adapted strategy may enhance the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:24149178

  12. GWAS in the SIGNAL/PHARE clinical cohort restricts the association between the FGFR2 locus and estrogen receptor status to HER2-negative breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Cox, David G.; Curtit, Elsa; Romieu, Gilles; Fumoleau, Pierre; Rios, Maria; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Bachelot, Thomas; Soulié, Patrick; Jouannaud, Christelle; Bourgeois, Hugues; Petit, Thierry; Tennevet, Isabelle; Assouline, David; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Jacquin, Jean-Philippe; Lavau-Denes, Sandrine; Darut-Jouve, Ariane; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Tarpin, Carole; Lévy, Christelle; Delecroix, Valérie; Trillet-Lenoir, Véronique; Cojocarasu, Oana; Meunier, Jérôme; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Faure-Mercier, Céline; Blanché, Hélène; Sahbatou, Mourad; Boland, Anne; Bacq, Delphine; Besse, Céline; Deleuze, Jean-François; Pauporté, Iris; Thomas, Gilles; Pivot, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk. Clinical and epidemiological observations suggest that clinical characteristics of breast cancer, such as estrogen receptor or HER2 status, are also influenced by hereditary factors. To identify genetic variants associated with pathological characteristics of breast cancer patients, a Genome Wide Association Study was performed in a cohort of 9365 women from the French nationwide SIGNAL/PHARE studies (NCT00381901/RECF1098). Strong association between the FGFR2 locus and ER status of breast cancer patients was observed (ER-positive n=6211, ER-negative n=2516; rs3135718 OR=1.34 p=5.46×10−12). This association was limited to patients with HER2-negative tumors (ER-positive n=4267, ER-negative n=1185; rs3135724 OR=1.85 p=1.16×10−11). The FGFR2 locus is known to be associated with breast cancer risk. This study provides sound evidence for an association between variants in the FGFR2 locus and ER status among breast cancer patients, particularly among patients with HER2-negative disease. This refinement of the association between FGFR2 variants and ER-status to HER2-negative disease provides novel insight to potential biological and clinical influence of genetic polymorphisms on breast tumors. PMID:27764800

  13. GWAS in the SIGNAL/PHARE clinical cohort restricts the association between the FGFR2 locus and estrogen receptor status to HER2-negative breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cox, David G; Curtit, Elsa; Romieu, Gilles; Fumoleau, Pierre; Rios, Maria; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Bachelot, Thomas; Soulié, Patrick; Jouannaud, Christelle; Bourgeois, Hugues; Petit, Thierry; Tennevet, Isabelle; Assouline, David; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Jacquin, Jean-Philippe; Lavau-Denes, Sandrine; Darut-Jouve, Ariane; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Tarpin, Carole; Lévy, Christelle; Delecroix, Valérie; Trillet-Lenoir, Véronique; Cojocarasu, Oana; Meunier, Jérôme; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Faure-Mercier, Céline; Blanché, Hélène; Sahbatou, Mourad; Boland, Anne; Bacq, Delphine; Besse, Céline; Deleuze, Jean-François; Pauporté, Iris; Thomas, Gilles; Pivot, Xavier

    2016-11-22

    Genetic polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk. Clinical and epidemiological observations suggest that clinical characteristics of breast cancer, such as estrogen receptor or HER2 status, are also influenced by hereditary factors. To identify genetic variants associated with pathological characteristics of breast cancer patients, a Genome Wide Association Study was performed in a cohort of 9365 women from the French nationwide SIGNAL/PHARE studies (NCT00381901/RECF1098). Strong association between the FGFR2 locus and ER status of breast cancer patients was observed (ER-positive n=6211, ER-negative n=2516; rs3135718 OR=1.34 p=5.46×10-12). This association was limited to patients with HER2-negative tumors (ER-positive n=4267, ER-negative n=1185; rs3135724 OR=1.85 p=1.16×10-11). The FGFR2 locus is known to be associated with breast cancer risk. This study provides sound evidence for an association between variants in the FGFR2 locus and ER status among breast cancer patients, particularly among patients with HER2-negative disease. This refinement of the association between FGFR2 variants and ER-status to HER2-negative disease provides novel insight to potential biological and clinical influence of genetic polymorphisms on breast tumors.

  14. Copanlisib, Letrozole, and Palbociclib in Treating Patients With Hormone Receptor Positive HER2 Negative Stage I-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Multifocal Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  15. EndoPredict predicts for the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    The EndoPredict (EP) signature is a prognostic 11-gene expression signature specifically developed in ER+/HER2- node-negative/positive breast cancer. It is associated with relapse-free survival in patients treated with adjuvant hormone therapy, suggesting that EP low-risk patients could be treated with adjuvant hormone therapy alone whereas high-risk patients would deserve addition of adjuvant chemotherapy. Thus, it is important to determine whether EP high-risk patients are or are not more sensitive to chemotherapy than low-risk patients. Here, we have assessed the EP predictive value for pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER+/HER2- breast cancer. We gathered gene expression and histoclinical data of 553 pre-treatment ER+/HER2- breast carcinomas treated with anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We searched for correlation between the pathological complete response (pCR) and the EP score-based classification. The overall pCR rate was 12%. Fifty-one percent of samples were classified as low-risk according to the EP score and 49% as high-risk. EP classification was associated with a pCR rate of 7% in the low-risk group and 17% in the high-risk group (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the EP score remained significantly associated with pCR. Many genes upregulated in the high-risk tumours were involved in cell proliferation, whereas many genes upregulated in the low-risk tumours were involved in ER-signalling and stroma. Despite higher chemosensitivity, the high-risk group was associated with worse disease-free survival. In conclusion, EP high-risk ER+/HER2- breast cancers are more likely to respond to anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

  16. Factors Associated with the Selection of First-line Bevacizumab plus Chemotherapy and Clinical Response in HER2-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer: ONCOSUR AVALOX Study.

    PubMed

    Manso, Luís; Palomo, Andrés García; Pérez Carrión, Ramón; Cassinello, Javier; Gallegos Sancho, Isabel; Chacón López-Muñiz, Ignacio; Olier, Clara; Fernández-Aramburo, Antonio; Llorca, Cristina; González, Xavier; Llorente, Rosa; Torregrosa, Dolores; Álvarez, Iñaki; Gálve, Elena; Bueno, Coralia; Garau, Isabel; García, María José; González-Santiago, Santiago; Ballesteros, Ana Isabel; Blanco, Esperanza; Galán, Antonio; González, Sonia; Perelló, Antonia; Cortés-Funes, Hernán; Grávalos, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate factors associated with the selection of first-line bevacizumab plus chemotherapy and clinical response in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in clinical practice in Spain. All consecutive adult female patients with HER2-negative MBC who had received first-line bevacizumab plus chemotherapy for at least 3 months were enrolled in the present study. A total of 292 evaluable patients were included; 25% had triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and 75% had hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (HRPBC). Nearly 40% of patients had ≥3 metastatic sites, mainly located in the bone (48%) and liver (40%). Bevacizumab was mostly combined with paclitaxel (67.1%). ER-positive tumors were only identified as an independent factor associated with the choice of treatment (odds ratio (OR): 0.538; p=0.02). The overall response rate (ORR) was 63.7% (TNBC: 57.5%; HRPBC: 65.9%). Patients aged 36-50 years (OR: 3.03; p=0.028) and those with metastases at sites other than the bone (OR: 0.38; p=0.001) and ≥3 metastatic sites (OR: 1.41; p=0.018) were more likely to achieve objective responses. First-line bevacizumab plus chemotherapy, mainly paclitaxel, is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for HER2-negative MBC, particularly in more aggressive disease. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Bevacizumab Addition in Neoadjuvant Treatment Increases the Pathological Complete Response Rates in Patients with HER-2 Negative Breast Cancer Especially Triple Negative Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Binglan; Shi, Changle; Liu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant therapy is administered to breast cancer patients as an induction process before surgery or radiotherapy to reduce tumor size. Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) negative breast cancer lacks effective standard target therapy. Bevacizumab has a controversial role in the treatment of breast cancer and we conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the value of adding bevacizumab in neoadjuvant regimen. Methods Potentially eligible studies were retrieved using PubMed, EMBASE and Medline. Clinical characteristics of patients and statistical data with pathological complete response (pCR) data were collected. Then a meta-analysis model was established to investigate the correlation between administration of bevacizumab in neoadjuvant therapy and pCR rates in HER-2 negative breast cancer. Results Seven eligible studies and 5408 patients were yielded. The pCR rates for “breast” or “breast plus lymph node” were similar. In subgroup analysis, we emphasized on patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In the criterion of “lesions in breast” the pooled ORs was 1.55 [1.29, 1.86], P<0.00001 and regarding to the evaluation criterion of “lesions in breast and lymph nodes”, the pooled ORs was 1.48 [1.23, 1.78], P<0.0001, in favor of bevacizumab administration. Conclusion According to our pooled results, we finally find that bevacizumab addition as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy component, for induction use with limited cycle to improve the pCR rates and patients may avoid long-term adverse event and long-term invalid survival improvement. Especially in subgroup analysis, pCR rates could be improved significantly and physicians could consider bevacizumab with caution. As patients could avoid the adverse event caused by long-term using of bevacizumab, long-term quality of life improvement may be achieved, especially in TNBC. PMID:27579484

  18. FDA Approval of Palbociclib in Combination with Fulvestrant for the Treatment of Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Walker, Amanda J; Wedam, Suparna; Amiri-Kordestani, Laleh; Bloomquist, Erik; Tang, Shengui; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Chen, Wei; Palmby, Todd R; Fourie Zirkelbach, Jeanne; Fu, Wentao; Liu, Qi; Tilley, Amy; Kim, Geoffrey; Kluetz, Paul G; McKee, Amy E; Pazdur, Richard

    2016-10-15

    On February 19, 2016, the FDA approved palbociclib (Ibrance, Pfizer) for use in combination with fulvestrant (Faslodex, AstraZeneca) for the treatment of women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with disease progression following endocrine therapy. The approval was based on the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 521 pre- and postmenopausal women with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced or MBC. Patients were randomized (2:1) to receive palbociclib plus fulvestrant (n = 347) or placebo plus fulvestrant (n = 174). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). A statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in PFS (9.5 months vs. 4.6 months) was observed in patients receiving palbociclib plus fulvestrant [HR 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.59; P < 0.0001]. Safety data confirmed the known adverse reaction profile of palbociclib. The most common adverse reactions (>20%) in patients treated with palbociclib were neutropenia, leukopenia, infections, fatigue, nausea, anemia, stomatitis, headache, diarrhea, and thrombocytopenia. This approval was granted in the context of a prior accelerated approval for palbociclib in combination with letrozole in patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer as initial endocrine-based therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 22(20); 4968-72. ©2016 AACR.

  19. Phase II, multicenter, open-label, randomized study of YM155 plus docetaxel as first-line treatment in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Michael R; Gladkov, Oleg A; Gartner, Elaina; Vladimirov, Vladimir; Crown, John; Steinberg, Joyce; Jie, Fei; Keating, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of YM155, a survivin suppressor, in combination with docetaxel, compared with docetaxel alone in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. This phase II, multicenter, open-label, 2-arm study randomized patients (≥18 years) with histologically or cytologically confirmed stage IV HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer and ≥1 measurable lesion, to receive docetaxel alone or docetaxel plus YM155. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), duration of response (DOR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), time to response (TTR), biomarker assessment, and analysis of circulating tumor cells. Patients were women diagnosed with HER2-negative breast cancer; most had received prior drug therapies. The median PFS was 8.4 months with YM155 plus docetaxel (n = 50) and 10.5 months with docetaxel alone (n = 51; HR 1.53; 95 % CI 0.83, 2.83; P = 0.176). No statistically significant differences were observed for secondary endpoints, although slightly greater OS (630 vs 601 days; P = 0.768), CBR (84.3 vs 82.0 %; P = 0.855), DOR, and TTR were observed with docetaxel alone compared with YM155 plus docetaxel, whereas ORR was similar (25.5 vs 26.0). The most common TEAEs observed with YM155 plus docetaxel compared with docetaxel alone were neutropenia (83.3 vs 84.3 %), alopecia (62.5 vs 52.9 %), fatigue (50 vs 41.2 %), and nausea (37.5 vs 41.2 %). Although YM155 is a novel drug that suppresses survivin, YM155 plus docetaxel exhibited no statistically significant differences in endpoints compared with docetaxel alone. The combination regimen was well tolerated.

  20. Cell surface interaction of annexin A2 and galectin-3 modulates epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in Her-2 negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Praveenkumar; Bargale, Anil; Patil, Basavraj R; Mohan, Rajashekar; Dinesh, U S; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Gai, Pramod B; Patil, Vidya S; Amsavardani, T S

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression and activation of tyrosine kinase receptors like EGFR and Src regulate the progression and metastasis of Her-2 negative breast cancer. Recently we have reported the role of cell membrane interaction of phospholipid-binding protein annexin A2 (AnxA2) and EGFR in regulating cellular signaling in the activation of angiogenesis, matrix degradation, invasion, and cancer metastasis. Beta-galactoside-specific animal lectin galectin-3 is an apoptosis inhibitor, and cell surface-associated extracellular galectin-3 also has a role in cell migration, cancer progression, and metastasis. Similar expression pattern and membrane co-localization of these two proteins made us to hypothesize in the current study that galectin-3 and AnxA2 interaction is critical for Her-2 negative breast cancer progression. By various experimental analyses, we confirm that glycosylated AnxA2 at the membrane surface interacts with galectin-3. N-linked glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin treatment convincingly blocked AnxA2 membrane translocation and its association with galectin-3. To analyze whether this interaction has any functional relevance, we tried to dissociate this interaction with purified plant lectin from chickpea (Cicer arietinum agglutinin). This highly specific 30 kDa plant lectin could dissociate AnxA2 from endogenous lectin galectin-3 interaction at the cell surface. This dissociation could down-regulate Bcl-2 family proteins, cell proliferation, and migration simultaneously triggering cell apoptosis. Targeting this interaction of membrane surface glycoprotein and its animal lectin in Her-2 negative breast cancer may be of therapeutic value.

  1. Prognostic significance of the progesterone receptor status in Ki67-high and -low Luminal B-like HER2-negative breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kaolu; Miyashita, Minoru; Ishida, Takanori; Suzuki, Akihiko; Tada, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Go; Sato-Tadano, Akiko; Watanabe, Mika; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and immunohistochemical evaluation is a surrogate marker that is widely used in clinical settings to identify the intrinsic subtypes. The definition of the Luminal B-like breast cancer was changed at the 2013 St. Gallen meeting; therefore, we investigated the clinicopathological features of the new Luminal B-like breast cancer categorized in the latest definition. We also compared the conventional PgR-high Luminal B-like breast cancer with the conventional PgR-low or -negative Luminal B-like breast cancer. We investigated 118 Luminal HER2-negative breast cancer patients who were operated in 2005-2008 at a single institution. Data on each patient's medical history were retrieved. A subset of patients (14.4 %) was categorized as the new Luminal B-like due to low or negative PgR: 58.8 % were histological grade I, 65 % were T1 in tumor size, and half had node involvement. Chemotherapy was performed in half of the cases. Breast cancer-related events were more frequent for the new Luminal B-like breast cancer than for the Luminal A-like breast cancer and were less frequent than for the conventional Luminal B-like breast cancer. Based on multivariate analysis, low or negative expression of PgR and the absence of hormonal therapy were worse prognostic factors. When categorized into two groups by the PgR status, 48.1 % of the conventional Luminal B-like breast cancer was PgR-high; tumor size was smaller, and nodal involvement was less in this group. The rate of adjuvant chemotherapy of the conventional PgR-high Luminal B-like breast cancer was less than that of the conventional PgR-low or -negative Luminal B-like breast cancer. Breast cancer-related events were significantly lower in the conventional PgR-high Luminal B-like breast cancer. Our results show the possibility that PgR status has some influence on the prognosis for Luminal HER2-negative breast cancers. Therefore, attention should be paid to the PgR status as well as Ki-67.

  2. SERPINA6, BEX1, AGTR1, SLC26A3, and LAPTM4B are markers of resistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    de Ronde, Jorma J; Lips, Esther H; Mulder, Lennart; Vincent, Andrew D; Wesseling, Jelle; Nieuwland, Marja; Kerkhoven, Ron; Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T F D; Sonke, Gabe S; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Wessels, Lodewyk F A

    2013-01-01

    Response rates to chemotherapy remain highly variable in breast cancer patients. We set out to identify genes associated with chemotherapy resistance. We analyzed what is currently the largest single-institute set of gene expression profiles derived from breast cancers prior to a single neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen (dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide). We collected, gene expression-profiled, and analyzed 178 HER2-negative breast tumor biopsies ("NKI dataset"). We employed a recently developed approach for detecting imbalanced differential signal (DIDS) to identify markers of resistance to treatment. In contrast to traditional methods, DIDS is able to identify markers that show aberrant expression in only a small subgroup of the non-responder samples. We found a number of markers of resistance to anthracycline-based chemotherapy. We validated our findings in three external datasets, totaling 456 HER2-negative samples. Since these external sets included patients who received differing treatment regimens, the validated markers represent markers of general chemotherapy resistance. There was a highly significant overlap in the markers identified in the NKI dataset and the other three datasets. Five resistance markers, SERPINA6, BEX1, AGTR1, SLC26A3, and LAPTM4B, were identified in three of the four datasets (p value overlap < 1 × 10(-6)). These five genes identified resistant tumors that could not have been identified by merely taking ER status or proliferation into account. The identification of these genes might lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in (clinically) observed chemotherapy resistance and could possibly assist in the recognition of breast cancers in which chemotherapy does not contribute to response or survival.

  3. Nab-Paclitaxel in Advanced HER2-negative Breast Cancer Patients: Efficacy and Safety Beyond Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Antonio; Palumbo, Raffaella; Pedersini, Rebecca; Rota Caremoli, Elena; Gambaro, Anna Rita; Ferzi, Antonella; Riva, Francesca; Grasso, Donatella; Danova, Marco; Tarenzi, Emiliana; Torri, Valter; Cazzaniga, Marina E

    2017-10-01

    Few data are available regarding efficacy and safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel in advanced breast cancer patients outside a controlled trial, especially for the weekly schedule. We prospectively collected data of advanced breast cancer patients who were candidates to be treated with weekly (125 mg/m(2) for 3 consecutive weeks followed by a 1-week rest) or every 3 weeks (260 mg/m(2)) schedules of nab-paclitaxel, according to physician's decision. The study enrolled 209 patients, of whom 92 (39.3%) received weekly nab-paclitaxel. The median age was 58 (range, 31-84) years; 21.8% of the patients were classified as triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen-recetor/progesteron-receptor-negative). The median number of cycles was 5.5. The overall response rate was 32.1% in the whole population, without any significant difference according to schedule, previous paclitaxel exposure, presence of visceral metastases, or line of treatment. The median time to disease progression was 6 months (95% confidence interval, 1-34), with no differences according to the schedule of treatment. Severe adverse events (Grade 3-4) were observed in 60.6% of the patients. The main toxicities were alopecia (53.4%), neutropenia (3%), and sensory neuropathy (2.1%). Our real-life data indicate that both schedules of nab-paclitaxel are manageable and safe in advanced breast cancer patients, even if previously treated with other taxanes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. RESILIENCE: Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Sorafenib With Capecitabine Versus Placebo With Capecitabine in Locally Advanced or Metastatic HER2-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Baselga, José; Zamagni, Claudio; Gómez, Patricia; Bermejo, Begoña; Nagai, Shigenori E; Melichar, Bohuslav; Chan, Arlene; Mángel, Lászlo; Bergh, Jonas; Costa, Frederico; Gómez, Henry L; Gradishar, William J; Hudis, Clifford A; Rapoport, Bernardo L; Roché, Henri; Maeda, Patricia; Huang, Liping; Meinhardt, Gerold; Zhang, Joshua; Schwartzberg, Lee S

    2017-05-22

    Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic/antiproliferative activity. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial, we assessed first- or second-line capecitabine with sorafenib or placebo in patients with locally advanced/metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer resistant to a taxane and anthracycline and with known estrogen/progesterone receptor status. A total of 537 patients were randomized to capecitabine 1000 mg/m(2) orally twice per day for days 1 to 14 every 21 days with oral sorafenib 600 mg/d or placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Patients were stratified according to hormone receptor status, previous chemotherapies for metastatic breast cancer, and geographic region. Treatment with sorafenib with capecitabine, compared with capecitabine with placebo, did not prolong median PFS (5.5 vs. 5.4 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.973; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.779-1.217; P = .811) or overall survival (OS; 18.9 vs. 20.3 months; HR, 1.195; 95% CI, 0.943-1.513; P = .140); or enhance overall response rate (ORR; 13.5% vs. 15.5%; P = .515). Any grade toxicities (sorafenib vs. placebo) included palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES; 79.2% vs. 59.6%), diarrhea (47.3% vs. 37.8%), mucosal inflammation (15.4% vs. 6.7%), and hypertension (26.2% vs. 5.6%). Grade 3/4 toxicities included PPES (15.4% vs. 7.1%), diarrhea (4.2% vs. 6.4%), and vomiting (3.5% vs. 0.7%). The combination of sorafenib with capecitabine did not improve PFS, OS, or ORR in patients with HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. Rates of Grade 3 toxicities were higher in the sorafenib arm. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Feasibility Study of EndoTAG-1, a Tumor Endothelial Targeting Agent, in Combination with Paclitaxel followed by FEC as Induction Therapy in HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lemort, Marc; Wilke, Celine; Vanderbeeken, Marie-Catherine; D’Hondt, Veronique; De Azambuja, Evandro; Gombos, Andrea; Lebrun, Fabienne; Dal Lago, Lissandra; Bustin, Fanny; Maetens, Marion; Ameye, Lieveke; Veys, Isabelle; Michiels, Stefan; Paesmans, Marianne; Larsimont, Denis; Sotiriou, Christos; Nogaret, Jean-Marie; Piccart, Martine; Awada, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background EndoTAG-1, a tumor endothelial targeting agent has shown activity in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (BC) in combination with paclitaxel. Methods HER2-negative BC patients candidates for neoadjuvant chemotherapy were scheduled to receive 12 cycles of weekly EndoTAG-1 22mg/m2 plus paclitaxel 70mg/m2 followed by 3 cycles of FEC (Fluorouracil 500mg/m2, Epirubicin 100mg/m2, Cyclophosphamide 500mg/m2) every 3 weeks followed by surgery. Primary endpoint was percent (%) reduction in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) estimated Gadolinium (Gd) enhancing tumor volume at the end of EndoTAG-1 plus paclitaxel administration as compared to baseline. Safety, pathological complete response (pCR) defined as no residual tumor in breast and axillary nodes at surgery and correlation between % reduction in MRI estimated tumor volume and pCR were also evaluated. Results Fifteen out of 20 scheduled patients were included: Six patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative/HER2-negative and 9 with ER-positive/HER2-negative BC. Nine patients completed treatment as per protocol. Despite premedication and slow infusion rates, grade 3 hypersensitivity reactions to EndoTAG-1 were observed during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th weekly infusion in 4 patients, respectively, and required permanent discontinuation of the EndoTAG-1. Moreover, two additional patients stopped EndoTAG-1 plus paclitaxel after 8 and 9 weeks due to clinical disease progression. Two patients had grade 3 increases in transaminases and 1 patient grade 4 neutropenia. pCR was achieved in 5 of the 6 ER-/HER2- and in none of the 9 ER+/HER2- BC patients. The mean % reduction in MRI estimated tumor volume at the end of EndoTAG-1 plus paclitaxel treatment was 81% (95% CI, 66% to 96%, p<0.001) for the 15 patients that underwent surgery; 96% for patients with pCR and 73% for patients with no pCR (p = 0.04). Conclusions The EndoTAG-1 and paclitaxel combination showed promising preliminary activity as preoperative treatment

  6. Integrated MicroRNA–mRNA Profiling Identifies Oncostatin M as a Marker of Mesenchymal-Like ER-Negative/HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bottai, Giulia; Diao, Lixia; Baggerly, Keith A.; Paladini, Laura; Győrffy, Balázs; Raschioni, Carlotta; Pusztai, Lajos; Calin, George A.; Santarpia, Libero

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) simultaneously modulate different oncogenic networks, establishing a dynamic system of gene expression and pathway regulation. In this study, we analyzed global miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles of 17 cell lines representing different molecular breast cancer subtypes. Spearman’s rank correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation between miRNA and mRNA expression. Hierarchical clustering and pathway analysis were also performed. Publicly available gene expression profiles (n = 699) and tumor tissues (n = 80) were analyzed to assess the relevance of key miRNA-regulated pathways in human breast cancer. We identified 39 significantly deregulated miRNAs, and the integration between miRNA and mRNA data revealed the importance of immune-related pathways, particularly the Oncostatin M (OSM) signaling, associated with mesenchymal-like breast cancer cells. OSM levels correlated with genes involved in the inflammatory response, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling in human estrogen receptor (ER)-negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Our results suggest that the deregulation of specific miRNAs may cooperatively impair immune and EMT pathways. The identification of the OSM inflammatory pathway as an important mediator of EMT in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) may provide a novel potential opportunity to improve therapeutic strategies. PMID:28106823

  7. Chemotherapy versus endocrine therapy as first-line treatment in patients with luminal-like HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: A propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonotto, Marta; Gerratana, Lorenzo; Di Maio, Massimo; De Angelis, Carmine; Cinausero, Marika; Moroso, Stefano; Milano, Monica; Stanzione, Brigida; Gargiulo, Piera; Iacono, Donatella; Minisini, Alessandro Marco; Mansutti, Mauro; Fasola, Gianpiero; De Placido, Sabino; Arpino, Grazia; Puglisi, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    According to current guidelines, endocrine therapy (ET) is recommended as first-line treatment of luminal-like metastatic breast cancer (MBC), whereas chemotherapy (CT) should be considered in presence of life-threatening disease. In daily practice, CT is often used outside of this clinical circumstance. Factors influencing first-line choice and the relative impact on outcome are unknown. A consecutive series of luminal-like HER2-negative MBC patients treated from 2004 to 2014 was analyzed to test the association of disease- and patient-related factors with the choice of first-line treatment (ET vs. CT). A propensity score method was used to estimate impact of first-line strategy on outcome. Of 604 consecutive luminal-like MBC patients identified, 158 cases were excluded due to unknown or positive HER2-status. Among 446 HER2-negative cases, 171 (38%) received first-line CT. On multivariate analysis, the only factors significantly associated with lower CT use were old age (OR 0.25, 95%C.I. 0.13-0.49) or presence of bone metastases only (OR 0.26, 95%C.I. 0.13-0.53). In propensity score matched population, no differences were observed between CT and ET as first-line treatment either in terms of overall survival (37.5 months and 33.4 months respectively, log-rank test, P = 0.62) or progression-free survival (13.3 months and 9.9 months respectively, log-rank test, P = 0.92). High percentage of patients with luminal-like MBC received CT as first-line therapy in real-life. The choice was mainly driven by age and site of metastases. With the limitations of a non-randomized comparison, no differences on patients' outcome were observed depending on the first-line strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Final results of a phase II study of nab-paclitaxel, bevacizumab, and gemcitabine as first-line therapy for patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Christopher; Lopes, Gilberto; Baez, Odalys; Castrellon, Aurelio; Ferrell, Annapoorna; Higgins, Connie; Hurley, Erin; Hurley, Judith; Reis, Isildinha; Richman, Stephen; Seo, Pearl; Silva, Orlando; Slingerland, Joyce; Tukia, Keleni; Welsh, Catherine; Glück, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    In order to examine the efficacy and safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-P) in combination with bevacizumab (B) and gemcitabine (G) for the first-line treatment of patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). In this single-center, open-label phase II trial, patients with HER2-negative MBC received gemcitabine 1500 mg/m(2), nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2), and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg (each administered intravenously) on days 1 and 15 of a 28-day cycle. The primary end point was progression free survival (PFS); secondary end points were overall response rate (ORR), complete (CR) and partial (PR) response rates, clinical benefit (ORR + stable disease), overall survival (OS), and safety. Thirty patients were enrolled. One patient was ineligible and was not included in analysis. Median PFS was 10.4 months (95% CI: 5.6-15.2 months). ORR was 75.9%, comprising eight (27.6%) CRs and 14 (48.3%) PRs; five patients had stable disease (SD) and two patients (6.9%) had progressive disease (PD) as their best response. The clinical benefit rate was 93.1% (27/29) in the overall group and 84.6% in the triple-negative cohort (11/13). The 18-month survival rate was 77.2% (95% CI: 51.1-90.5%). Eight (27.6%) patients experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicity: grade 4 neutropenic fever (n = 1) and grade 3 infection (n = 6), leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, peripheral neuropathy, seizure, shortness of breath, hematuria, and cardiac tamponade (one each). First-line therapy with nab-P, B, and G demonstrated a median PFS of 10.4 months and a 75.9% ORR with acceptable toxicity; this novel combination warrants investigation in a randomized study.

  9. Efficacy of neoadjuvant bevacizumab added to docetaxel followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide, for women with HER2-negative early breast cancer (ARTemis): an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Earl, Helena M; Hiller, Louise; Dunn, Janet A; Blenkinsop, Clare; Grybowicz, Louise; Vallier, Anne-Laure; Abraham, Jean; Thomas, Jeremy; Provenzano, Elena; Hughes-Davies, Luke; Gounaris, Ioannis; McAdam, Karen; Chan, Stephen; Ahmad, Rizvana; Hickish, Tamas; Houston, Stephen; Rea, Daniel; Bartlett, John; Caldas, Carlos; Cameron, David A; Hayward, Larry

    2015-06-01

    The ARTemis trial was developed to assess the efficacy and safety of adding bevacizumab to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative early breast cancer. In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial, we enrolled women (≥18 years) with newly diagnosed HER2-negative early invasive breast cancer (radiological tumour size >20 mm, with or without axillary involvement), at 66 centres in the UK. Patients were randomly assigned via a central computerised minimisation procedure to three cycles of docetaxel (100 mg/m(2) once every 21 days) followed by three cycles of fluorouracil (500 mg/m(2)), epirubicin (100 mg/m(2)), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m(2)) once every 21 days (D-FEC), without or with four cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) (Bev+D-FEC). The primary endpoint was pathological complete response, defined as the absence of invasive disease in the breast and axillary lymph nodes, analysed by intention to treat. The trial has completed and follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered with EudraCT (2008-002322-11), ISRCTN (68502941), and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01093235). Between May 7, 2009, and Jan 9, 2013, we randomly allocated 800 participants to D-FEC (n=401) and Bev+D-FEC (n=399). 781 patients were available for the primary endpoint analysis. Significantly more patients in the bevacizumab group achieved a pathological complete response compared with those treated with chemotherapy alone: 87 (22%, 95% CI 18-27) of 388 patients in the Bev+D-FEC group compared with 66 (17%, 13-21) of 393 patients in the D-FEC group (p=0·03). Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were reported at expected levels in both groups, although more patients had grade 4 neutropenia in the Bev+D-FEC group than in the D-FEC group (85 [22%] vs 68 [17%]). Addition of four cycles of bevacizumab to D-FEC in HER2-negative early breast cancer significantly improved pathological complete response. However, whether the improvement in pathological complete response will lead to improved disease-free and

  10. A functional signal profiling test for identifying a subset of HER2-negative breast cancers with abnormally amplified HER2 signaling activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yao; Burns, David J; Rich, Benjamin E; MacNeil, Ian A; Dandapat, Abhijit; Soltani, Sajjad M.; Myhre, Samantha; Sullivan, Brian F; Furcht, Leo T; Lange, Carol A; Hurvitz, Sara A; Laing, Lance G

    2016-01-01

    The results of clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of HER2 inhibitors in patients with breast cancer indicate that the correlation between HER2 receptor levels and patient outcomes is as low as 50%. The relatively weak correlation between HER2 status and response to HER2-targeting drugs suggests that measurement of HER2 signaling activity, rather than absolute HER2 levels, may more accurately diagnose HER2-driven breast cancer. A new diagnostic test, the CELx HER2 Signaling Profile (CELx HSP) test, is demonstrated to measure real-time HER2 signaling function in live primary cells. In the present study, epithelial cells extracted fresh from breast cancer patient tumors classified as HER2 negative (HER2−, n = 34 of which 33 were estrogen receptor positive) and healthy subjects (n = 16) were evaluated along with reference breast cancer cell lines (n = 19). Live cell response to specific HER2 agonists (NRG1b and EGF) and antagonist (pertuzumab) was measured. Of the HER2− breast tumor cell samples tested, 7 of 34 patients (20.5%; 95% CI = 10%–37%) had HER2 signaling activity that was characterized as abnormally high. Amongst the tumor samples there was no correlation between HER2 protein status (by cell cytometry) and HER2 signaling activity (hyperactive or normal) (Regression analysis P = 0.144, R2 = 0.068). One conclusion is that measurement of HER2 signaling activity can identify a subset of breast cancers with normal HER2 receptor levels with abnormally high levels of HER2 signaling. This result constitutes a new subtype of breast cancer that should be considered for treatment with HER2 pathway inhibitors. PMID:27713176

  11. Patients' preferences and willingness-to-pay for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer treatments after failure of standard treatments.

    PubMed

    Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Thongkeaw, Klangjai

    2015-01-01

    Patients' preferences increasingly play roles in cancer treatments. The objective of this study is to examine breast cancer patients' preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer treatments after failure of standard treatments. Four attributes, i.e. progression free survival (PFS), anemia, pneumonitis, and cost, and their levels of exemestane and exemestane plus everolimus from literature and patient interviews were used to develop a discrete choice experiment questionnaire. Each questionnaire was composed of seven choice sets and each choice set contained those four attributes with different levels. Breast cancer patients were asked to choose one treatment alternative in each choice set. Multinomial logit model was used to determine relative preferences of each attribute and the WTP for all attributes and treatments were calculated. A total of 146 patients were included in study analyses. Results showed that the patients preferred treatments with higher PFS and lower side effects. The patients were willing to pay US$151.6, US$69.8, and US$278.3 per month in exchange for every 1 month increase in PFS and every 1 % decreased risk of anemia and pneumonitis, respectively. The patients were willing to pay for exemestane and exemestane plus everolimus US$551.8 and US$414.2 per month, respectively. In conclusion, patients weighted importance on PFS, anemia, and pneumonitis, when they needed to choose an aromatase inhibitor plus mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor for advanced breast cancer treatments after failure of standard treatments. They valued exemestane alone more than exemestane plus everolimus.

  12. The association of chemotherapy versus hormonal therapy and health outcomes among patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: experience from the patient perspective.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shaloo; Zhang, Jie; Jerusalem, Guy

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize the impact of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and cancer treatments on health-related quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and daily productivity from the patient perspective. This was a cross-sectional survey of patients with MBC (USA, n = 200; EU, n = 160). Post-menopausal women aged ≥50 years with hormone receptor positive (HR+), HER2-negative (HER2-) MBC, currently using hormonal therapy (HT) or using chemotherapy (CT) for ≤1 year were recruited. Fifty three percent (n = 191) reported CT and 47% (n = 169) reported HT use. Adjusting for covariates, HT users reported greater health-related quality of life (p < 0.05), greater satisfaction with treatment and better feelings about side-effects (p < 0.001). HT users reported less bother with treatment side-effects (0-5 scale, p < 0.001) and less activity impairment than CT users (p < 0.001). HT was associated with better patient-reported outcomes than CT in first-line MBC management. These findings should be taken into consideration while making treatment decisions for HR+/HER2- MBC.

  13. Predictive value of angiogenesis-related gene profiling in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer treated with bevacizumab and weekly paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Mendiola, Marta; Martínez-Marin, Virginia; Herranz, Jesús; Heredia, Victoria; Yébenes, Laura; Zamora, Pilar; Castelo, Beatriz; Pinto, Álvaro; Miguel, María; Díaz, Esther; Gámez, Angelo; Fresno, Juan Ángel; de Molina, Ana Ramírez; Hardisson, David; Espinosa, Enrique; Redondo, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab plus weekly paclitaxel improves progression-free survival (PFS) in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (mBC), but its use has been questioned due to the absence of a predictive biomarker, lack of benefit in overall survival (OS) and increased toxicity. We examined the baseline tumor angiogenic-related gene expression of 60 patients with mBC with the aim of finding a signature that predicts benefit from this drug. Multivariate analysis by Lasso-penalized Cox regression generated two predictive models: one, named G-model, including 11 genes, and the other one, named GC-model, including 13 genes plus 5 clinical covariates. Both models identified patients with improved PFS (HR (Hazard Ratio) 2.57 and 4.04, respectively) and OS (HR 3.29 and 3.43, respectively). The G-model distinguished low and high risk patients in the first 6 months, whereas the GC-model maintained significance over time. PMID:26992213

  14. Accuracy of MRI for treatment response assessment after taxane- and anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Charehbili, A; Wasser, M N; Smit, V T H B M; Putter, H; van Leeuwen-Stok, A E; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, W M; Liefers, G J; van de Velde, C J H; Nortier, J W R; Kroep, J R

    2014-10-01

    Studies suggest that MRI is an accurate means for assessing tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). However, accuracy might be dependent on the receptor status of tumors. MRI accuracy for response assessment after homogenous NAC in a relative large group of patients with stage II/III HER2-negative breast cancer has not been reported before. 250 patients from 26 hospitals received NAC (docetaxel, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide) in the context of the NEOZOTAC trial. MRI was done after 3 cycles and post-NAC. Imaging (RECIST 1.1) and pathological (Miller and Payne) responses were recorded. Accuracy measures were calculated and MRI and pathologically assessed tumor sizes were correlated. Tumor size over- and underestimation were quantified. Accuracy of MRI for determining pathological complete response (pCR) was 76%. The ROC-curve of MRI response and pCR had an area under the curve value of 0.63 (95% C.I. 0.52-0.74). The correlation coefficient of MRI and histopathological tumor measurements was 0.46 (p < 0.001). Correlations were different for ER-positive (r = 0.40, p < 0.001) and ER-negative (r = 0.76, p < 0.001) breast tumors. MRI under- and overestimated the tumor size in 47% and 40% of all patients. In cases of substantial tumor size underestimation (>2 cm), surgical margins were more often tumor positive compared to the rest of the patients (33% vs.12%, p = 0.005). MRI measurements correlated moderately with tumor size on the surgical specimen. Only in ER-negative breast tumors, MRI tumor sizes correlated sufficiently with residual tumor size on the pathological specimen. Therefore, post-NAC MRI should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequent detection of PIK3CA mutations in single circulating tumor cells of patients suffering from HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gasch, Christin; Oldopp, Theresa; Mauermann, Oliver; Gorges, Tobias M; Andreas, Antje; Coith, Cornelia; Müller, Volkmar; Fehm, Tanja; Janni, Wolfgang; Pantel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine

    2016-10-01

    Modern technologies enable detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood samples. Thus, CTC have attracted interest as markers for therapeutic response in breast cancer. First studies have incorporated CTC analyses to guide therapeutic interventions and stratification of breast cancer patients. Aim of this study was to analyze characteristic features of CTC as biomarker for predicting resistance to HER2-targeted therapies. Therefore, CTC from metastatic breast cancer patients with HER2-negative primary tumors screened for the prospective randomized phase III trial DETECT III were explored for their HER2 status and the presence of PIK3CA mutations. Detection and characterization of HER2 expression of CTC were conducted with the CellSearch(®) system. Fifteen of 179 CTC-positive patients (8.4%) contained ≥1 CTC with strong HER2 expression. Genomic DNA from individual CTC isolated by micromanipulation was propagated by whole genome amplification and analyzed for PIK3CA mutations in exons 9 and 20 by Sanger sequencing. One or more CTC/7.5 mL were detected in 179/290 patients (61.7%). In 109 patients (34.8%), ≥5 CTC/7.5 mL were found. We detected at least one CTC with the mutation p.E542K, p.E545K, p.H1047R, p.H1047L or p.M1043V in 12/33 patients (36.4%). Thirty six of 114 CTC (31.6%) harbored one of these mutations. CTC in individual patients exhibited heterogeneity concerning PIK3CA mutations and HER2 expression. In conclusion, clinically relevant genomic aberrations such as mutations in the hotspot regions of exon 9 and 20 of the PIK3CA gene can be detected in single CTC and might provide insights into mechanisms of resistance to HER2-targeted therapies.

  16. Neoadjuvant triweekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel followed by epirubicin and cyclophosphamide for Stage II/III HER2-negative breast cancer: evaluation of efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroko; Ueda, Shigeto; Saeki, Toshiaki; Shigekawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hideki; Hirokawa, Eiko; Sugitani, Ikuko; Sugiyama, Michiko; Takahashi, Takao; Matsuura, Kazuo; Yamane, Tomohiko; Kuji, Ichiei; Hasebe, Takahiro; Osaki, Akihiko

    2015-07-01

    Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PTX) is a solvent-free paclitaxel coupled to human albumin without an associated increase in toxicity. The neoadjuvant study of primary breast cancer was planned to evaluate tumor response and safety of triweekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel. Patients with Stage II/III HER2-negative primary breast cancer received four courses of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks (q3w), followed by four courses of epirubicin 90 mg/m(2) plus cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) q3w. Tumor response after nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel was histologically evaluated. In addition, the clinical response, breast-conserving rate and safety of this treatment were monitored. Among 53 patients who received nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel followed by epirubicin and cyclophosphamide neoadjuvant chemotherapy, pathological complete response and near-pathological complete response were confirmed in 3 (5.7%) and 7 (13.2%) patients who had surgery, respectively. The overall objective response rate was 71.7% after completion of chemotherapy. Based on Positron Emission Tomography Response Criteria in Solid Tumors using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, complete metabolic response and partial metabolic response after 2-3 courses of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel were 15.1 and 52.8%, respectively. The most common significant toxicities of q3w nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel were Grade 3 muscle pain, neuropathy and febrile neutropenia, each in 1 (1.9%) patient. There were no incidences of anaphylaxis or Grade 4/5 adverse events. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy using q3w nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel followed by epirubicin and cyclophosphamide was feasible in breast cancer patients with acceptable clinical response and drug tolerance, but conferred a low rate of pathological complete response. Monotherapy with q3w nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel could be an appropriate substitute for solvent-based taxane in

  17. Predictive role of hand–foot syndrome in patients receiving first-line capecitabine plus bevacizumab for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Christoph; Lang, Istvan; Beslija, Semir; Kahan, Zsuzsanna; Inbar, Moshe J; Stemmer, Salomon M; Anghel, Rodica; Vrbanec, Damir; Messinger, Diethelm; Brodowicz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Correlations between development of hand–foot syndrome (HFS) and efficacy in patients receiving capecitabine (CAP)-containing therapy are reported in the literature. We explored the relationship between HFS and efficacy in patients receiving CAP plus bevacizumab (BEV) in the TURANDOT randomised phase III trial. Methods: Patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer (LR/mBC) who had received no prior chemotherapy for LR/mBC were randomised to BEV plus paclitaxel or BEV–CAP until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. This analysis included patients randomised to BEV–CAP who received ⩾1 CAP dose. Potential associations between HFS and both overall survival (OS; primary end point) and progression-free survival (PFS; secondary end point) were explored using Cox proportional hazards analyses with HFS as a time-dependent covariate (to avoid overestimating the effect of HFS on efficacy). Landmark analyses were also performed. Results: Among 277 patients treated with BEV–CAP, 154 (56%) developed HFS. In multivariate analyses, risk of progression or death was reduced by 44% after the occurrence of HFS; risk of death was reduced by 56%. The magnitude of effect on OS increased with increasing HFS grade. In patients developing HFS within the first 3 months, median PFS from the 3-month landmark was 10.0 months vs 6.2 months in patients without HFS. Two-year OS rates were 63% and 44%, respectively. Conclusions: This exploratory analysis indicates that HFS occurrence is a strong predictor of prolonged PFS and OS in patients receiving BEV–CAP for LR/mBC. Early appearance of HFS may help motivate patients to continue therapy. PMID:26657657

  18. Beta blockers and improved progression-free survival in patients with advanced HER2 negative breast cancer: a retrospective analysis of the ROSE/TRIO-012 study.

    PubMed

    Spera, G; Fresco, R; Fung, H; Dyck, J R B; Pituskin, E; Paterson, I; Mackey, J R

    2017-08-01

    Recent retrospective studies suggest that beta-adrenergic blocking drugs (BB) are associated with improved outcomes in patients with a range of cancers. Although limited and discordant data suggest that BB may increase overall survival (OS) in localized breast cancer (BC), there is no information on the effects of BB in women with advanced BC. To explore the association between BB use and BC outcomes, we retrospectively reviewed ROSE/TRIO-012, a double-blinded, multinational phase III trial that randomized 1144 patients with HER2-negative advanced BC to first-line docetaxel in combination with ramucirumab or placebo. We compared progression-free survival (PFS), OS, overall response rate, and clinical benefit rate in patients who received BB to those who did not. 153/1144 (13%) patients received BB; 62% prior to enrolment and 38% began after enrolment. Median PFS in BB treated patients was longer than in patients who did not receive them (10.3 versus 8.3 months; HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.66-0.99; P = 0.038). Patients treated with BB only after enrolment had even higher median PFS (15.5 versus 8.3 months, P < 0.001). In the TNBC subset, median PFS was 13.0 months with BB, compared to 5.2 months without BB (HR 0.52; 95% CI 0.34-0.79; P = 0.002). The benefit of BB intake in PFS was independent of treatment-emergent hypertension (P = 0.476) but associated with treatment arm (P = 0.037). The test for interactions between BB and treatment arm was not significant (P = 0.276). No differences were seen in OS, overall response rate, or clinical benefit rate. A validation dataset analysis had consistent but less substantial improved outcomes for women with node positive operable breast cancer receiving BB in the BCIRG-005 trial. In this exploratory analysis, BB intake was associated with significant improvement in PFS, particularly in patients with TNBC and patients not previously exposed to BB. NCT00703326.

  19. Comparison of risk classification between EndoPredict and MammaPrint in ER-positive/HER2-negative primary invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Peláez-García, Alberto; Yébenes, Laura; Berjón, Alberto; Angulo, Antonia; Zamora, Pilar; Sánchez-Méndez, José Ignacio; Espinosa, Enrique; Redondo, Andrés; Heredia-Soto, Victoria; Mendiola, Marta; Feliú, Jaime; Hardisson, David

    2017-01-01

    To compare the concordance in risk classification between the EndoPredict and the MammaPrint scores obtained for the same cancer samples on 40 estrogen-receptor positive/HER2-negative breast carcinomas. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded invasive breast carcinoma tissues that were previously analyzed with MammaPrint as part of routine care of the patients, and were classified as high-risk (20 patients) and low-risk (20 patients), were selected to be analyzed by the EndoPredict assay, a second generation gene expression test that combines expression of 8 genes (EP score) with two clinicopathological variables (tumor size and nodal status, EPclin score). The EP score classified 15 patients as low-risk and 25 patients as high-risk. EPclin re-classified 5 of the 25 EP high-risk patients into low-risk, resulting in a total of 20 high-risk and 20 low-risk tumors. EP score and MammaPrint score were significantly correlated (p = 0.008). Twelve of 20 samples classified as low-risk by MammaPrint were also low-risk by EP score (60%). 17 of 20 MammaPrint high-risk tumors were also high-risk by EP score. The overall concordance between EP score and MammaPrint was 72.5% (κ = 0.45, (95% CI, 0.182 to 0.718)). EPclin score also correlated with MammaPrint results (p = 0.004). Discrepancies between both tests occurred in 10 cases: 5 MammaPrint low-risk patients were classified as EPclin high-risk and 5 high-risk MammaPrint were classified as low-risk by EPclin and overall concordance of 75% (κ = 0.5, (95% CI, 0.232 to 0.768)). This pilot study demonstrates a limited concordance between MammaPrint and EndoPredict. Differences in results could be explained by the inclusion of different gene sets in each platform, the use of different methodology, and the inclusion of clinicopathological parameters, such as tumor size and nodal status, in the EndoPredict test.

  20. Comparison of risk classification between EndoPredict and MammaPrint in ER-positive/HER2-negative primary invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peláez-García, Alberto; Yébenes, Laura; Berjón, Alberto; Angulo, Antonia; Zamora, Pilar; Sánchez-Méndez, José Ignacio; Espinosa, Enrique; Redondo, Andrés; Heredia-Soto, Victoria; Mendiola, Marta; Feliú, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the concordance in risk classification between the EndoPredict and the MammaPrint scores obtained for the same cancer samples on 40 estrogen-receptor positive/HER2-negative breast carcinomas. Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded invasive breast carcinoma tissues that were previously analyzed with MammaPrint as part of routine care of the patients, and were classified as high-risk (20 patients) and low-risk (20 patients), were selected to be analyzed by the EndoPredict assay, a second generation gene expression test that combines expression of 8 genes (EP score) with two clinicopathological variables (tumor size and nodal status, EPclin score). Results The EP score classified 15 patients as low-risk and 25 patients as high-risk. EPclin re-classified 5 of the 25 EP high-risk patients into low-risk, resulting in a total of 20 high-risk and 20 low-risk tumors. EP score and MammaPrint score were significantly correlated (p = 0.008). Twelve of 20 samples classified as low-risk by MammaPrint were also low-risk by EP score (60%). 17 of 20 MammaPrint high-risk tumors were also high-risk by EP score. The overall concordance between EP score and MammaPrint was 72.5% (κ = 0.45, (95% CI, 0.182 to 0.718)). EPclin score also correlated with MammaPrint results (p = 0.004). Discrepancies between both tests occurred in 10 cases: 5 MammaPrint low-risk patients were classified as EPclin high-risk and 5 high-risk MammaPrint were classified as low-risk by EPclin and overall concordance of 75% (κ = 0.5, (95% CI, 0.232 to 0.768)). Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates a limited concordance between MammaPrint and EndoPredict. Differences in results could be explained by the inclusion of different gene sets in each platform, the use of different methodology, and the inclusion of clinicopathological parameters, such as tumor size and nodal status, in the EndoPredict test. PMID:28886093

  1. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT after two cycles of neoadjuvant therapy may predict response in HER2-negative, but not in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jingyi; Wang, Yujie; Mo, Miao; Bao, Xiao; Zhang, Yingjian; Liu, Guangyu; Zhang, Jun; Geng, Daoying

    2015-10-06

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the ability of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning to predict pathological complete response (pCR) in breast cancer, and to investigate whether timing of the scan and trastuzumab treatment influence the accuracy of pCR prediction in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer patients. We treated 81 locally advanced breast cancer patients with four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). HER2-negative breast cancer patients received NAC alone, while HER2-positive breast cancer patients received NAC plus trastuzumab. (18)FDG PET/CT scans were scheduled at baseline and after the second cycle of NAC. Axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection was performed after the last cycle of neoadjuvant therapy. Relative changes in standardized uptake values (SUV) between the two PET/CT scans (ΔSUV) in primary tumors and ALN metastases were calculated. There were 75 patients with 150 PET/CT scans in the final analysis, including 41 HER2-negative and 34 HER2-positive cases. In the HER2-negative group, the ΔSUV predicted overall and ALN pCR; the receiver operating characteristics-areas under curve (ROC-AUC) were 0.87 and 0.80 (P = 0.0014 and 0.031, respectively) and the negative predictive values were 94% and 89% respectively. However, in the HER2-positive group, ΔSUV could predict neither overall nor ALN pCR; the ROC-AUCs were only 0.56 and 0.53, with P = 0.53 and 0.84, respectively. Hence, the ΔSUV after two cycles of neoadjuvant therapy could predict pCR in HER2-negative patients treated with NAC alone, but not in HER2-positive patients treated with NAC plus trastuzumab.

  2. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Tamoxifen Citrate or Z-Endoxifen Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic, Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-11

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  4. Genetic Analysis in Blood and Tumor Samples From Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Estrogen Receptor Positive and HER2 Negative Breast Cancer Receiving Palbociclib and Endocrine Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-11

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  5. Vaccine Therapy in Preventing Cancer Recurrence in Patients With Non-Metastatic, Node Positive, HER2 Negative Breast Cancer That is in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-06

    HER2/Neu Negative; No Evidence of Disease; One or More Positive Axillary Nodes; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Real-world and trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis of bevacizumab in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer patients: a study of the Southeast Netherlands Breast Cancer Consortium.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, R J W; Ramaekers, B L T; Lobbezoo, D J A; de Boer, M; Dercksen, M W; van den Berkmortel, F; Smilde, T J; van de Wouw, A J; Peters, F P J; van Riel, J M G; Peters, N A J B; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G; Joore, M A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our analysis was to assess the real-world cost-effectiveness of bevacizumab in addition to taxane treatment versus taxane monotherapy for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer compared with the cost-effectiveness based on the efficacy results from a trial. A state transition model was built to estimate costs, life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for both treatments. Two scenarios were examined: a real-world scenario and a trial-based scenario in which transition probabilities were primarily based on a real-world cohort study and the E2100 trial, respectively. In both scenarios, costs and utility parameter estimates were extracted from the real-world cohort study. Moreover, the Dutch health care perspective was adopted. In both the real-world and trial scenarios, bevacizumab-taxane is more expensive (incremental costs of €56,213 and €52,750, respectively) and more effective (incremental QALYs of 0.362 and 0.189, respectively) than taxane monotherapy. In the real-world scenario, bevacizumab-taxane compared to taxane monotherapy led to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €155,261 per QALY gained. In the trial scenario, the ICER amounted to €278,711 per QALY gained. According to the Dutch informal threshold, bevacizumab in addition to taxane treatment was not considered cost-effective for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer both in a real-world and in a trial scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive value and clinical utility of centrally-assessed ER, PgR and Ki-67 to select adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer: TEXT and SOFT trials

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Meredith M.; Pagani, Olivia; Francis, Prudence A.; Fleming, Gini F.; Walley, Barbara A.; Kammler, Roswitha; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Russo, Leila; Szőke, János; Doimi, Franco; Villani, Laura; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Sessa, Fausto; Cámara, Vicente Peg; Peralto, José Luis Rodríguez; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Colleoni, Marco; Goldhirsch, Aron; Price, Karen N.; Coates, Alan S.; Gelber, Richard D.; Viale, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The SOFT and TEXT randomized phase III trials investigated adjuvant endocrine therapies for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early breast cancer. We investigated the prognostic and predictive value of centrally-assessed levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and Ki-67 expression in women with HER2-negative disease. Patients and Methods Of 5707 women enrolled, 4115 with HER2-negative (HR+/HER2-) disease had ER, PgR and Ki-67 centrally assessed by immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was defined from randomization to first invasive local, regional or distant recurrence or contralateral breast cancer. The prognostic and predictive values of ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression levels were assessed using Cox modeling and STEPP methodology. Results In this HR+/HER2- population, the median ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression were 95%, 90% and 18% immunostained cells. As most patients had strongly ER positive tumors, the predictive value of ER levels could not be investigated. Lower PgR and higher Ki-67 expression were associated with reduced BCFI. There was no consistent evidence of heterogeneity of the relative treatment effects according to PgR or Ki-67 expression levels though there was a greater 5-year absolute benefit of exemestane+ovarian function suppression (OFS) versus tamoxifen with or without OFS at lower levels of PgR and higher levels of Ki-67. Conclusions Women with poor prognostic features of low PgR and/or high Ki-67 have greater absolute benefit from exemestane+OFS versus tamoxifen+OFS or tamoxifen-alone, but individually PgR and Ki-67 are of limited predictive value for selecting adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- early breast cancer. PMID:26493064

  8. Predictive value and clinical utility of centrally assessed ER, PgR, and Ki-67 to select adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer: TEXT and SOFT trials.

    PubMed

    Regan, Meredith M; Pagani, Olivia; Francis, Prudence A; Fleming, Gini F; Walley, Barbara A; Kammler, Roswitha; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Russo, Leila; Szőke, János; Doimi, Franco; Villani, Laura; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Sessa, Fausto; Peg Cámara, Vicente; Rodríguez Peralto, José Luis; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Colleoni, Marco; Goldhirsch, Aron; Price, Karen N; Coates, Alan S; Gelber, Richard D; Viale, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    The SOFT and TEXT randomized phase III trials investigated adjuvant endocrine therapies for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early breast cancer. We investigated the prognostic and predictive value of centrally assessed levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and Ki-67 expression in women with HER2-negative disease. Of 5707 women enrolled, 4115 with HER2-negative (HR+/HER2-) disease had ER, PgR, and Ki-67 centrally assessed by immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was defined from randomization to first invasive local, regional, or distant recurrence or contralateral breast cancer. The prognostic and predictive values of ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression levels were assessed using Cox modeling and STEPP methodology. In this HR+/HER2- population, the median ER, PgR, and Ki-67 expressions were 95, 90, and 18 % immunostained cells. As most patients had strongly ER-positive tumors, the predictive value of ER levels could not be investigated. Lower PgR and higher Ki-67 expression were associated with reduced BCFI. There was no consistent evidence of heterogeneity of the relative treatment effects according to PgR or Ki-67 expression levels, though there was a greater 5-year absolute benefit of exemestane + ovarian function suppression (OFS) versus tamoxifen with or without OFS at lower levels of PgR and higher levels of Ki-67. Women with poor prognostic features of low PgR and/or high Ki-67 have greater absolute benefit from exemestane + OFS versus tamoxifen + OFS or tamoxifen alone, but individually PgR and Ki-67 are of limited predictive value for selecting adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- early breast cancer.

  9. A phase II trial of ixabepilone and cyclophosphamide as neoadjuvant therapy for patients with HER2-negative breast cancer: correlation of pathologic complete response with the 21-gene recurrence score.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Denise A; Peacock, Nancy W; Shastry, Mythili; Burris, Howard A; Bechhold, Rebecca G; Hendricks, Carolyn B; Yoshizawa, Carl N; Sing, Amy P; Hainsworth, John D

    2015-11-01

    Ixabepilone and the taxanes have similar activity in the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer, and ixabepilone is sometimes effective in taxane-refractory patients. We conducted a phase 2 trial to evaluate ixabepilone in combination with cyclophosphamide as neoadjuvant treatment for patients with locally advanced HER2-negative breast cancer. Response to neoadjuvant treatment was correlated with the baseline 21-gene Recurrence Score® (Oncotype DX; Genomic Health Inc, Redwood City, CA). Eligible women with HER2-negative locally advanced breast cancer received ixabepilone 40 mg/m(2) plus cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) on day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Following 6 cycles, patients underwent definitive surgery. Primary endpoint was rate of pathologic complete response (pCR). Breast biopsy tumor samples were obtained at pretreatment and at surgery in patients with residual disease. Tumor specimens were analyzed using the 21-gene assay. One hundred sixty-eight patients (median age 52 years; 45 % triple-negative) were enrolled; 161 (96 %) underwent definitive surgery following neoadjuvant ixabepilone/cyclophosphamide. Overall, 27 patients (17 %) achieved pCR, including 19 of 73 (26 %) triple-negative patients. The most frequently occurring grade 3/4 toxicity was neutropenia (98 patients; 58 %). Recurrence Scores were highly correlated with achievement of pCR (0/36 with low or intermediate Recurrence Scores vs. 19/72 with high Recurrence Scores; p = 0.002). There was high concordance between baseline and post-treatment Recurrence Scores in the 72 patients with paired samples. The combination of ixabepilone and cyclophosphamide yielded a pCR rate of 17 %, similar to other neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens. Pathologic complete responses occurred only in patients with high-risk baseline Recurrence Scores.

  10. Buparlisib plus fulvestrant versus placebo plus fulvestrant in postmenopausal, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer (BELLE-2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Baselga, José; Im, Seock-Ah; Iwata, Hiroji; Cortés, Javier; De Laurentiis, Michele; Jiang, Zefei; Arteaga, Carlos L; Jonat, Walter; Clemons, Mark; Ito, Yoshinori; Awada, Ahmad; Chia, Stephen; Jagiełło-Gruszfeld, Agnieszka; Pistilli, Barbara; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Hurvitz, Sara; Masuda, Norikazu; Takahashi, Masato; Vuylsteke, Peter; Hachemi, Soulef; Dharan, Bharani; Di Tomaso, Emmanuelle; Urban, Patrick; Massacesi, Cristian; Campone, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation is a hallmark of endocrine therapy-resistant, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. This phase 3 study assessed the efficacy of the pan-PI3K inhibitor buparlisib plus fulvestrant in patients with advanced breast cancer, including an evaluation of the PI3K pathway activation status as a biomarker for clinical benefit. The BELLE-2 trial was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study. Postmenopausal women aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed, hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor (HER2)-negative inoperable locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer whose disease had progressed on or after aromatase inhibitor treatment and had received up to one previous line of chemotherapy for advanced disease were included. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using interactive voice response technology (block size of 6) on day 15 of cycle 1 to receive oral buparlisib (100 mg/day) or matching placebo, starting on day 15 of cycle 1, plus intramuscular fulvestrant (500 mg) on days 1 and 15 of cycle 1, and on day 1 of subsequent 28-day cycles. Patients were assigned randomisation numbers with a validated interactive response technology; these numbers were linked to different treatment groups which in turn were linked to treatment numbers. PI3K status in tumour tissue was determined via central laboratory during a 14-day run-in phase. Randomisation was stratified by PI3K pathway activation status (activated vs non-activated vs and unknown) and visceral disease status (present vs absent). Patients, investigators, local radiologists, study team, and anyone involved in the study were masked to the identity of the treatment until unblinding. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival by local investigator assessment per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (version 1.1) in the total population, in patients with known (activated or non

  11. Medico-economic impact of MSKCC non-sentinel node prediction nomogram for ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, Eugénie; Feron, Jean-Guillaume; Fourchotte, Virginie; Alran, Séverine; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Cottu, Paul; Lerebours, Florence; Stevens, Denise; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Campana, François; Rouzier, Roman; Reyal, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Background Avoiding axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for invasive breast cancers with isolated tumor cells or micrometastatic sentinel node biopsy (SNB) could decrease morbidity with minimal clinical significance. Purpose The aim of this study is to simulate the medico-economic impact of the routine use of the MSKCC non-sentinel node (NSN) prediction nomogram for ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients. Methods We studied 1036 ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients with a metastatic SNB. All had a complementary ALND. For each patient, we calculated the probability of the NSN positivity using the MSKCC nomogram. After validation of this nomogram in the population, we described how the patients’ characteristics spread as the threshold value changed. Then, we performed an economic simulation study to estimate the total cost of caring for patients treated according to the MSKCC predictive nomogram results. Results A 0.3 threshold discriminate the type of sentinel node (SN) metastases: 98.8% of patients with pN0(i+) and 91.6% of patients with pN1(mic) had a MSKCC score under 0.3 (false negative rate = 6.4%). If we use the 0.3 threshold for economic simulation, 43% of ALND could be avoided, reducing the costs of caring by 1 051 980 EUROS among the 1036 patients. Conclusion We demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of using the MSKCC NSN prediction nomogram by avoiding ALND for the pN0(i+) or pN1(mic) ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients with a MSKCC score of less than or equal to 0.3. PMID:28241044

  12. Maintenance bevacizumab beyond first-line paclitaxel plus bevacizumab in patients with Her2-negative hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer: efficacy in combination with hormonal therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Data on efficacy of bevacizumab (B) beyond first-line taxane -including regimen (BT) as first-line treatment are lacking. Although preclinical results that anti-angiogenic agents combined with hormonal therapy (HT) could be active, no clinical data exist about combination of maintenance Bevacizumab (mBev) with HT. Methods Thirty-five patients who experienced a response after first-line BT, were given mBev at the dose of 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Among 30 pts with hormonal receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC), 20 (66.6%) received HT with mBev (mHTBev). Objective of the study was the outcome and safety of mBev and in two groups of patients receiving HT or not. Results Complete response and partial response was achieved/maintained in 4 (11.4%) and 13 (37.1%) patients, respectively (overall response rate: 48.5%). Clinical benefit was obtained on 23 patients (65.7%). Median of mBev PFS and clinical benefit were 6.8 months (95% CI: 0.8-12.7) and 17.1 months (95% CI :12.2-21.9), respectively. Median PFS of patients who received mHTBev was longer than mBev without HT (13 months and 4.1 months, respectively, p = 0.05). The most common severe toxicities were proteinuria (11.4%) and hypertension (8.5%). No additional toxicity was observed with HTBev. Conclusion Maintenance bevacizumab with or without anti-hormonal therapy in patients with hormone receptor positive breast cancer is tolerable and associated with long-term clinical outcome; these results encourage the strategy of prolonging bevacizumab until progression in combination with anti-hormonal agents. PMID:23083011

  13. Efficacy and safety of everolimus in Chinese metastatic HR positive, HER2 negative breast cancer patients: a real-world retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yannan; Wang, Biyun; Hu, Xichun; Wang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Sheng

    2017-08-29

    Everolimus combined with endocrine therapy has been proved to be effective among postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of everolimus plus endocrine therapy in Chinese real-world practice for the first time, and investigate factors associated with efficacy. Seventy-five HR+/HER2- MBC patients were included in this retrospective study who received everolimus plus endocrine therapy after progression on prior endocrine therapy in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) between June 2013 and February 2016. Main outcome measures are progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR) and safety profile. After a median follow up of 10.3 (range: 2.1-32.2) months, median PFS was 5.9 months (95%CI 4.6-7.2), and median OS was not reached. The CBR was 38.8% (95%CI, 26.8-50.8) and ORR was 9.0% (95%CI, 2.0-16.0). Most common all-grade adverse events were stomatitis (57.1%), fatigue (25.7%), infection (24.3%) and hyperglycemia (21.4%). The most common ≥3 grade adverse events were stomatitis (9.3 %) and thrombocytopenia (5.7%). No treatment-related death was documented during and one month after the drug administration. The combination of everolimus and endocrine therapy proved to be effective in Chinese population. The safety profiles were similar to previous studies but incidences were lower. In conclusion, everolimus combined with endocrine therapy provides a reasonable option for Chinese HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer patients.

  14. First-line Bevacizumab-containing Therapy for HER2-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer: Final Results from a Prospective German Study.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Andreas; Förster, Frank; Tesch, Hans; Aktas, Bahriye; Gluz, Oleg; Geberth, Matthias; Hertz-Eichenrode, Martin M; Schönegg, Winfried; Schumacher, Claudia; Kutscheidt, Andreas; Kiewitz, Claudia; Klawitter, Sandra; Schmidt, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    The German ML21165 study evaluated bevacizumab-containing therapy for metastatic breast cancer (mBC) in routine oncology practice. Patients received bevacizumab with chemotherapy until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or consent withdrawal. Pre-specified end-points were safety and efficacy [response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)]. Between May 2007 and September 2009, 865 patients received first-line bevacizumab plus paclitaxel for mBC, of whom 16% were aged ≥70 years and 9% had ECOG performance status of 2 or more. At data cut-off (median of 15.9 months' follow-up), the median PFS was 9.6 months [95% confidence interval (CI)=9.0-10.4 months] and the median OS was 21.6 months (95% CI=19.4-23.5 months). The most common non-haematological adverse drug reactions of grade 3 or more were pain (9%), hypertension (5%), sensory neuropathy (3%) and proteinuria (3%). Prolonged bevacizumab was well-tolerated. The efficacy and safety of first-line bevacizumab-paclitaxel in routine oncology practice is consistent with results from randomized trials. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Randomized phase II study of nab-paclitaxel as first-line chemotherapy in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kenji; Inoue, Kenichi; Masuda, Norikazu; Takao, Shintaro; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Tokuda, Yutaka; Iwata, Hiroji; Yamamoto, Naohito; Aogi, Kenjiro; Saeki, Toshiaki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Sato, Nobuaki; Toyama, Tatsuya; Ishida, Takanori; Arioka, Hitoshi; Saito, Mitsue; Ohno, Shinji; Yamauchi, Hideko; Yamada, Kimito; Watanabe, Junichiro; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Weekly administration of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in clinical studies. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label phase II study to compare the efficacy and safety of weekly nab-paclitaxel and docetaxel in Japanese patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative MBC. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Patients were randomized to receive nab-paclitaxel (150 mg/m(2) nab-paclitaxel once per week for 3 of 4 weeks; n = 100) or docetaxel (75 mg/m(2) docetaxel every 3 weeks; n = 100). The median PFS by independent radiologist assessment was 9.8 months (90% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5-11.2) for nab-paclitaxel and 11.2 months (90% CI: 8.4-13.8) for docetaxel (hazard ratio: 1.25, P = 0.363), and the median overall survival was 42.4 months and 34.0 months, respectively. The overall response rate was 56.1% for nab-paclitaxel and 52.5% for docetaxel. Adverse events in both treatment arms were similar to previous reports. Neutropenia was the most common adverse event in both arms, with 35.0% of patients in the nab-paclitaxel arm and 89.0% in the docetaxel arm experiencing grade 4 neutropenia. Grade 3 peripheral sensory neuropathy occurred in 22.0% of patients in the nab-paclitaxel and 5.0% in the docetaxel arm. In this study, although weekly nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2) did not show superiority in PFS compared with docetaxel, efficacy outcomes were similar in patients treated with weekly nab-paclitaxel and docetaxel. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Paclitaxel, bevacizumab, and everolimus/placebo as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer: a randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial of the Sarah Cannon Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Denise A; Bosserman, Linda D; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A; Harwin, William N; Morgan, Susan K; Priego, Victor M; Peacock, Nancy W; Bass, J David; Burris, Howard A; Hainsworth, John D

    2015-11-01

    Amplified PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling is common in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The mTOR inhibitor everolimus improves progression-free survival (PFS) when added to steroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy. This randomized phase II trial compares the efficacy of paclitaxel/bevacizumab/everolimus and paclitaxel/bevacizumab/placebo as first-line treatment for MBC. Patients with untreated HER2-negative MBC were randomized (1:1) to receive 28-day cycles of paclitaxel 90 mg/m(2) IV (days 1, 8, and 15) and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV (days 1, 15) with either everolimus 10 mg (Arm 1) or placebo (Arm 2) daily. Treatment continued (evaluation every 8 weeks) until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Treatment of 110 patients allowed detection of an improvement in median PFS from 11 to 16 months (70 % power, α = 0.10). Between August 2009 and June 2011, 113 patients (median age 58 years; 88 % ER or PR positive) were randomized (Arm 1, 56; Arm 2, 57). Patients in both arms received a median of six treatment cycles. Median PFS (95 % CI) was 9.1 months (6.8-18.8) for Arm 1, and 7.1 months (5.6-10.8) for Arm 2 (p = 0.89). Comparisons of other efficacy endpoints were also similar in the two treatment arms. Patients receiving everolimus had more anemia, stomatitis, diarrhea, rash, and arthralgia/myalgia, although the overall incidence of severe (grade 3/4) toxicity was similar. The addition of everolimus did not improve the efficacy of weekly paclitaxel/bevacizumab as first-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative MBC. These results contrast with the demonstrated efficacy of adding everolimus to either hormonal or HER2-targeted therapy in previously treated patients.

  17. Efficacy and safety of adding an agent to bevacizumab/taxane regimens for the first-line treatment of Her2-negative patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: results from seven randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Liu, Xiangdong; Qiao, Tiankui; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The combined therapy of bevacizumab (BEV) with taxane (paclitaxel or docetaxel) has shown an improvement on progression-free survival (PFS) and objective remission in Her2-negative patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (LR/MBC). However, there was no benefit in overall survival (OS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding an agent to the BEV/taxane regimens for the treatment of Her2-negative patients with LR/MBC in a first-line setting. Materials and methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Library databases for eligible trials. A meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.0 freeware package. We calculated the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS and OS. The odds ratio (OR) was used to calculate objective response rate (ORR) and grade 3/4 drug-related adverse events. The heterogeneity of study outcomes was calculated by the χ2 test or I2 statistics. Results A total of 1,124 patients from seven randomized controlled trials were analyzed. Our meta-analysis showed that the ORR was significantly improved in the BEV/taxane-based triplet group when compared with the BEV/taxane-based doublet group (OR =1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.67, P=0.03). A subset analysis showed that a similar result was achieved in the triplet group in which a cytotoxic agent was added (OR =1.46, 95% CI: 1.09–1.95, P=0.01). However, the PFS and OS had no statistically significant differences between the two groups (HR =0.87, 95% CI: 0.68–1.13, P=0.31; HR =0.98, 95% CI: 0.82–1.16, P=0.78, respectively). Regarding safety, thromboembolic events, fatigue, and diarrhea (all $grade 3) were more frequently observed in the BEV/taxane-based triplet group (OR =3.8, 95% CI: 1.86–7.79, P=0.0003; OR =1.55, 95% CI: 1.05–2.27, P=0.03; OR =2.1, 95% CI: 1.29–3.41, P=0.003, respectively). Other toxic effects had no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion Our

  18. Maintenance capecitabine and bevacizumab versus bevacizumab alone after initial first-line bevacizumab and docetaxel for patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (IMELDA): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Gligorov, Joseph; Doval, Dinesh; Bines, José; Alba, Emilio; Cortes, Paulo; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Gupta, Vineet; Costa, Rômulo; Srock, Stefanie; de Ducla, Sabine; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Mustacchi, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    Longer duration of first-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer is associated with prolonged overall survival and improved progression-free survival. We investigated capecitabine added to maintenance bevacizumab after initial treatment with bevacizumab and docetaxel in this setting. We did this open-label randomised phase 3 trial at 54 hospitals in Brazil, China, Egypt, France, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Turkey. We enrolled patients with HER2-negative measurable metastatic breast cancer; each received three to six cycles of first-line bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) and docetaxel (75-100 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks. Progression-free patients were randomly assigned with an interactive voice-response system by block (size four) randomisation (1:1) to receive either bevacizumab and capecitabine or bevacizumab only (bevacizumab 15 mg/kg on day 1; capecitabine 1000 mg/m(2) twice per day on days 1-14, every 3 weeks) until progression, stratified by oestrogen receptor status (positive vs negative), visceral metastases (present vs absent), response status (stable disease vs response vs non-measurable), and lactate dehydrogenase concentration (≤1·5 vs >1·5 × upper limit of normal). Neither patients nor investigators were masked to allocation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (from randomisation) in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00929240. Between July 16, 2009, and March 7, 2011 (when enrolment was prematurely terminated), 284 patients received initial bevacizumab and docetaxel; 185 (65%) were randomly assigned (91 to bevacizumab and capecitabine versus 94 to bevacizumab only). Progression-free survival was significantly longer in the bevacizumab and capecitabine group than in the bevacizumab only group (median 11·9 months [95% CI 9·8-15·4] vs 4·3 months [3·9-6·8]; stratified hazard ratio 0·38 [95% CI 0·27-0·55]; two-sided log-rank p<0·0001), as was overall

  19. Bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus bevacizumab plus capecitabine as first-line treatment for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (TURANDOT): primary endpoint results of a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Christoph; Láng, István; Inbar, Moshe; Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Greil, Richard; Beslija, Semir; Stemmer, Salomon M; Zvirbule, Zanete; Steger, Günther G; Melichar, Bohuslav; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Sirbu, Daniela; Petruzelka, Luboš; Eniu, Alexandru; Nisenbaum, Bella; Dank, Magdalena; Anghel, Rodica; Messinger, Diethelm; Brodowicz, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The randomised phase 3 TURANDOT trial compared two approved bevacizumab-containing regimens for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer in terms of efficacy, safety, and quality of life. The interim analysis did not confirm non-inferior overall survival (stratified hazard ratio [HR] 1·04; 97·5% repeated CI [RCI] -∞ to 1·69). Here we report final results of our study aiming to show non-inferior overall survival with first-line bevacizumab plus capecitabine versus bevacizumab plus paclitaxel for locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. In this multinational, open-label, randomised phase 3 TURANDOT trial, patients aged 18 years or older who had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2 and measurable or non-measurable HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer who had received no previous chemotherapy for locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer were stratified and randomly assigned (1:1) using permuted blocks of size six to either bevacizumab plus paclitaxel (bevacizumab 10 mg/kg on days 1 and 15 plus paclitaxel 90 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks) or bevacizumab plus capecitabine (bevacizumab 15 mg/kg on day 1 plus capecitabine 1000 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1-14 every 3 weeks) until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. Stratification factors were oestrogen or progesterone receptor status, country, and menopausal status. The primary objective was to show non-inferior overall survival with bevacizumab plus capecitabine versus bevacizumab plus paclitaxel in the per-protocol population by rejecting the null hypothesis of inferiority (HR ≥1·33) using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00600340. Between Sept 10, 2008, and Aug 30, 2010, 564 patients were randomised, representing the intent-to-treat population. The per-protocol population comprised 531 patients (266 in the bevacizumab plus paclitaxel group

  20. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2b study evaluating sorafenib in combination with paclitaxel as a first-line therapy in patients with HER2-negative advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gradishar, William J; Kaklamani, Virginia; Sahoo, Tarini P; Lokanatha, Dasappa; Raina, Vinod; Bondarde, Shailesh; Jain, Minish; Ro, Sunhee Kwon; Lokker, Nathalie A; Schwartzberg, Lee

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a phase 2b, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled screening trial to evaluate the addition of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib (antiproliferative/antiangiogenic) to first-line paclitaxel for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer. Patients were randomised to paclitaxel (90mg/m(2), weekly, intravenously, 3 weeks on/1 week off) plus sorafenib (400mg, orally, twice daily) or placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). A sample size of 220 patients was planned with relative risk ≤ 0.82 (1-sided α=0.14) after 120 events supporting a treatment effect. Patients were randomised in India (n=170), the United States (n=52) and Brazil (n=15). Median PFS was 6.9 months for sorafenib versus 5.6 months for placebo (hazard ratio (HR)=0.788; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.558-1.112; P=0.1715 [1-sided P=0.0857]). The addition of sorafenib increased time to progression (median, 8.1 versus 5.6 months; HR=0.674; 95% CI 0.465-0.975; P=0.0343) and improved overall response (67% versus 54%; P=0.0468). Overall survival did not statistically differ (median, 16.8 versus 17.4 months; HR=1.022; 95% CI 0.715-1.461; P=0.904). Grade 3/4 toxicities (sorafenib versus placebo) included hand-foot skin reaction (31% versus 3%), neutropenia (13% versus 7%) and anaemia (11% versus 6%). Two treatment-related deaths occurred (malaria and liver dysfunction) in the sorafenib arm. The addition of sorafenib to paclitaxel improved disease control but did not significantly improve PFS to support a phase 3 trial of similar design. Toxicity of the combination was manageable with dose reductions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Disease-free and overall survival at 3.5 years for neoadjuvant bevacizumab added to docetaxel followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, for women with HER2 negative early breast cancer: ARTemis Trial.

    PubMed

    Earl, H M; Hiller, L; Dunn, J A; Blenkinsop, C; Grybowicz, L; Vallier, A-L; Gounaris, I; Abraham, J E; Hughes-Davies, L; McAdam, K; Chan, S; Ahmad, R; Hickish, T; Rea, D; Caldas, C; Bartlett, J M S; Cameron, D A; Provenzano, E; Thomas, J; Hayward, R L

    2017-08-01

    The ARTemis trial previously reported that addition of neoadjuvant bevacizumab (Bev) to docetaxel (D) followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (D-FEC) in HER2 negative breast cancer improved the pathological complete response (pCR) rate. We present disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) with central pathology review. Patients were randomized to 3 cycles of D followed by 3 cycles of FEC (D-FEC), ±4 cycles of Bev (Bev + D-FEC). DFS and OS were analyzed by treatment and by central pathology reviewed pCR and Residual Cancer Burden (RCB) class. A total of 800 patients were randomized [median follow-up 3.5 years (IQR 3.2-4.4)]. DFS and OS were similar across treatment arms [DFS hazard ratio (HR)=1.18 (95% CI 0.89-1.57), P = 0.25; OS HR = 1.26 (95% CI 0.90-1.76), P = 0.19). Both local pathology report review and central histopathology review confirmed a significant improvement in DFS and OS for patients who achieved a pCR [DFS HR = 0.38 (95% CI 0.23-0.63), P < 0.001; OS HR = 0.43 (95% CI 0.24-0.75), P = 0.003]. However, significant heterogeneity was observed (P = 0.02); larger improvements in DFS were obtained with a pCR achieved with D-FEC than a pCR achieved with Bev + D-FEC. As RCB class increased, significantly worse DFS and OS was observed (P for trend <0.0001), which effect was most marked in the ER negative group. The addition of short course neoadjuvant Bev to standard chemotherapy did not demonstrate a DFS or OS benefit. Achieving a pCR with D-FEC is associated with improved DFS and OS but not when pCR is achieved with Bev + D-FEC. At the present time therefore, Bev is not recommended in early breast cancer. NCT01093235.

  2. Bevacizumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel as first-line therapy for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MERiDiAN): A double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase III trial with prospective biomarker evaluation.

    PubMed

    Miles, David; Cameron, David; Bondarenko, Igor; Manzyuk, Lyudmila; Alcedo, Juan Carlos; Lopez, Roberto Ivan; Im, Seock-Ah; Canon, Jean-Luc; Shparyk, Yaroslav; Yardley, Denise A; Masuda, Norikazu; Ro, Jungsil; Denduluri, Neelima; Hubeaux, Stanislas; Quah, Cheng; Bais, Carlos; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    MERiDiAN evaluated plasma vascular endothelial growth factor-A (pVEGF-A) prospectively as a predictive biomarker for bevacizumab efficacy in metastatic breast cancer (mBC). In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase III trial, eligible patients had HER2-negative mBC previously untreated with chemotherapy. pVEGF-A was measured before randomisation to paclitaxel 90 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 and 15 with either placebo or bevacizumab 10 mg/kg on days 1 and 15, repeated every 4 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or consent withdrawal. Stratification factors were baseline pVEGF-A, prior adjuvant chemotherapy, hormone receptor status and geographic region. Co-primary end-points were investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat and pVEGF-Ahigh populations. Of 481 patients randomised (242 placebo-paclitaxel; 239 bevacizumab-paclitaxel), 471 received study treatment. The stratified PFS hazard ratio was 0.68 (99% confidence interval, 0.51-0.91; log-rank p = 0.0007) in the intent-to-treat population (median 8.8 months with placebo-paclitaxel versus 11.0 months with bevacizumab-paclitaxel) and 0.64 (96% confidence interval, 0.47-0.88; log-rank p = 0.0038) in the pVEGF-Ahigh subgroup. The PFS treatment-by-VEGF-A interaction p value (secondary end-point) was 0.4619. Bevacizumab was associated with increased incidences of bleeding (all grades: 45% versus 27% with placebo), neutropenia (all grades: 39% versus 29%; grade ≥3: 25% versus 13%) and hypertension (all grades: 31% versus 13%; grade ≥3: 11% versus 4%). The significant PFS improvement with bevacizumab is consistent with previous placebo-controlled first-line trials in mBC. Results do not support using baseline pVEGF-A to identify patients benefitting most from bevacizumab. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01663727. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Entinostat, Nivolumab, and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors That Are Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery or Locally Advanced or Metastatic HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-10

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Metastatic Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Unresectable Solid Neoplasm

  4. A phase 3 tRial comparing capecitabinE in combination with SorafenIb or pLacebo for treatment of locally advanced or metastatIc HER2-Negative breast CancEr (the RESILIENCE study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic/antiproliferative activity. A randomized phase 2b screening trial in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer demonstrated a significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) when sorafenib was added to capecitabine versus placebo (median 6.4 versus 4.1 months; hazard ratio = 0.58; P = 0.001). Most drug-related adverse events were Grade 1/2 in severity with the exception of Grade 3 hand-foot skin reaction/syndrome (44% versus 14%, respectively). These results suggest a role for the combination of sorafenib and capecitabine in breast cancer and supported a phase 3 confirmatory trial. Here we describe RESILIENCE - a multinational, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial - assessing the addition of sorafenib to first- or second-line capecitabine in advanced HER2-negative breast cancer. Methods/design Eligibility criteria include ≥18 years of age, ≤1 prior chemotherapy regimen for metastatic disease, and resistant to/failed taxane and anthracycline or no indication for further anthracycline. Prior treatment with a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor is not allowed. Patients with significant cardiovascular disease or active brain metastases are not eligible. Patients are stratified by hormone-receptor status, geographic region, and prior metastatic chemotherapy status and randomized (1:1) to capecitabine (1000 mg/m2 orally twice daily (BID), days 1 to 14 of 21) in combination with sorafenib (orally BID, days 1 to 21, total dose 600 mg/day) or matching placebo. Capecitabine and sorafenib/placebo doses can be escalated to 1250 mg/m2 BID and 400 mg BID, respectively, as tolerated, or reduced to manage toxicity. Dose re-escalation after a reduction is allowed for sorafenib/placebo but not for capecitabine. This dosing algorithm was designed to mitigate dermatologic and other toxicity, in addition to detailed guidelines

  5. High Ki-67 score is indicative of a greater benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy when added to endocrine therapy in luminal B HER2 negative and node-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Criscitiello, Carmen; Disalvatore, Davide; De Laurentiis, Michele; Gelao, Lucia; Fumagalli, Luca; Locatelli, Marzia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Rotmensz, Nicole; Esposito, Angela; Minchella, Ida; De Placido, Sabino; Santangelo, Michele; Viale, Giuseppe; Goldhirsch, Aron; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    The indication of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with highly proliferative estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer is controversial. We analyzed the predictive value of Ki67 for the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with estrogen receptor-positive, node-positive breast cancer. We identified 1241 patients with Luminal B early stage breast cancer with 1-3 axillary positive nodes who underwent surgery between 1995 and 2005 at the European Institute of Oncology and received adjuvant hormonotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Differences in the distribution of characteristics according to treatment were evaluated by the Chi-square test. To evaluate the effect of adding chemotherapy to hormonotherapy, the propensity score method was used to match patients' characteristics minimizing bias related to the non-random assignment of treatment. The probability of receiving chemotherapy was significantly associated with age, tumor grade, degree of hormone responsiveness, tumor size and peripheral vascular invasion. The propensity score distribution was statistically different between the two treatment groups (p < 0.0001). The 5-year OS percentages were 95.8% (95% CI, 93.5-97.2) in the hormonotherapy group and 96.2% (95%CI, 94.4-97.4%) in the hormonotherapy/chemotherapy group (log-rank test p-value 0.663). The 5-year DFS percentages were 84.6% (95% CI, 81.0-87.6%) in the hormonotherapy group and 84.2% (95% CI, 81.3-86.7%) in the hormonotherapy/chemotherapy group (log-rank test p-value 0.388). However, when analyzing the 5-year DFS by Ki-67 distribution, Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis showed a beneficial effect of chemotherapy in patients with highly proliferative tumor (Ki-67 ≥ 32%). The interaction between Ki-67 and treatment was statistically significant (p = 0.027). Ki67 expression identifies a subset of patients with Luminal B and node-positive breast cancer who could benefit from addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to

  6. Palbociclib as a first-line treatment in oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer not cost-effective with current pricing: a health economic analysis of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK).

    PubMed

    Matter-Walstra, K; Ruhstaller, T; Klingbiel, D; Schwenkglenks, M; Dedes, K J

    2016-07-01

    Endocrine therapy continues to be the optimal systemic treatment for metastatic ER(+)HER2(-) breast cancer. The CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib combined with letrozole has recently been shown to significantly improve progression-free survival. Here we examined the cost-effectiveness of this regimen for the Swiss healthcare system. A Markov cohort simulation based on the PALOMA-1 trial (Finn et al. in Lancet Oncol 16:25-35, 2015) was used as the clinical course. Input parameters were based on summary trial data. Costs were assessed from the Swiss healthcare system perspective. Adding palbociclib to letrozole (PALLET) compared to letrozole monotherapy was estimated to cost an additional CHF342,440 and gain 1.14 quality-adjusted life years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CHF301,227/QALY gained. In univariate sensitivity analyses, no tested variation in key parameters resulted in an ICER below a willingness-to-pay threshold of CHF100,000/QALY. PALLET had a 0 % probability of being cost-effective in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Lowering PALLET's price by 75 % resulted in an ICER of CHF73,995/QALY and a 73 % probability of being cost-effective. At current prices, PALLET would cost the Swiss healthcare system an additional CHF155 million/year. Palbociclib plus letrozole cannot be considered cost-effective for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer in the Swiss healthcare system.

  7. A phase II study of metronomic paclitaxel/cyclophosphamide/capecitabine followed by 5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide as preoperative chemotherapy for triple-negative or low hormone receptor expressing/HER2-negative primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Masuda, N; Higaki, K; Takano, T; Matsunami, N; Morimoto, T; Ohtani, S; Mizutani, M; Miyamoto, T; Kuroi, K; Ohno, S; Morita, S; Toi, M

    2014-08-01

    Better treatments for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are needed. To address this need, we studied the effects of preoperative metronomic paclitaxel/cyclophosphamide/capecitabine (mPCX) followed by 5-fluorouracil (FU)/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) as preoperative chemotherapy in TNBC patients. Forty primary TNBC patients received four cycles of metronomic paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2) on Days 1, 8, and 15), cyclophosphamide (50 mg/body daily), and capecitabine (1,200 mg/m(2) daily), followed by four cycles of 5-FU (500 mg/m(2)), epirubicin (100 mg/m(2)), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks. The primary end point was the pathological complete response (pCR) rate. Forty patients formed the intent-to-treat population. The median dose intensities of paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide, and capecitabine were 89.7, 92.1, and 89.8%, respectively. Five patients discontinued mPCX and two discontinued FEC, primarily because of adverse events, resulting in a per-protocol population (PPS) of 33 patients. The pCR (ypT0/Tis ypN0) rate was 47.5% (19/40) in the intent-to-treat population and 54.5% (18/33) in the PPS. The clinical response rates were 36/40 (90.0%) and 31/33 (93.9%) in the intent-to-treat and PPS, respectively. The breast conservation rate was 72.7% (24/33), and 5/13 patients underwent partial resection instead of pre-planned total mastectomy. Grade 3-4 adverse events included neutropenia (35%), leukopenia (25%), and hand-foot syndrome (8%). Metronomic PCX followed by FEC chemotherapy was associated with a high pCR rate and low toxicity in TNBC patients. Further studies of this regimen in larger numbers of patients are warranted.

  8. Bosutinib in combination with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole: a phase II trial in postmenopausal women evaluating first-line endocrine therapy in locally advanced or metastatic hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Moy, Beverly; Neven, Patrick; Lebrun, Fabienne; Bellet, Meritxell; Xu, Binghe; Sarosiek, Tomasz; Chow, Louis; Goss, Paul; Zacharchuk, Charles; Leip, Eric; Turnbull, Kathleen; Bardy-Bouxin, Nathalie; Duvillié, Ladan; Láng, István

    2014-04-01

    Endocrine therapy resistance in hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) may involve crosstalk between HRs and growth factor signaling pathways. We evaluated bosutinib, a dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has previously demonstrated some antitumor activity in BC, plus letrozole as first-line endocrine therapy in locally advanced or metastatic HR+/HER2- BC. METHODS; Sixteen postmenopausal women were enrolled in a phase II study evaluating the safety/efficacy of bosutinib plus letrozole. In the single-arm safety/dose-confirming lead-in (part 1), patients received oral bosutinib at 400 mg/day plus letrozole at 2.5 mg/day; adverse events (AEs) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were monitored, and initial efficacy was assessed. A randomized efficacy/safety phase (part 2) was planned to evaluate the combination versus letrozole monotherapy. Fifteen of 16 subjects experienced treatment-related AEs, most commonly diarrhea (69%). Treatment-related hepatotoxicity AEs (primarily alanine aminotransferase [ALT] or aspartate aminotransferase [AST] elevations) occurred in 6 of 16 patients (38%). Four of 15 evaluable patients (27%) experienced a DLT (grade 3/4 ALT/AST elevations, n = 2; grade 3 rash, n = 1; grade 3 diarrhea or vomiting, n = 1), including 1 Hy's law hepatotoxicity case. All DLTs resolved following treatment discontinuation. One patient achieved confirmed partial response; one had stable disease for >24 weeks. Study termination occurred before part 2. The unfavorable risk-benefit ratio did not warrant further investigation of bosutinib plus letrozole.

  9. Bosutinib in Combination With the Aromatase Inhibitor Letrozole: A Phase II Trial in Postmenopausal Women Evaluating First-Line Endocrine Therapy in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Hormone Receptor-Positive/HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neven, Patrick; Lebrun, Fabienne; Bellet, Meritxell; Xu, Binghe; Sarosiek, Tomasz; Chow, Louis; Goss, Paul; Zacharchuk, Charles; Leip, Eric; Turnbull, Kathleen; Bardy-Bouxin, Nathalie; Duvillié, Ladan; Láng, István

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. Endocrine therapy resistance in hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) may involve crosstalk between HRs and growth factor signaling pathways. We evaluated bosutinib, a dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has previously demonstrated some antitumor activity in BC, plus letrozole as first-line endocrine therapy in locally advanced or metastatic HR+/HER2− BC. Methods. Sixteen postmenopausal women were enrolled in a phase II study evaluating the safety/efficacy of bosutinib plus letrozole. In the single-arm safety/dose-confirming lead-in (part 1), patients received oral bosutinib at 400 mg/day plus letrozole at 2.5 mg/day; adverse events (AEs) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were monitored, and initial efficacy was assessed. A randomized efficacy/safety phase (part 2) was planned to evaluate the combination versus letrozole monotherapy. Results. Fifteen of 16 subjects experienced treatment-related AEs, most commonly diarrhea (69%). Treatment-related hepatotoxicity AEs (primarily alanine aminotransferase [ALT] or aspartate aminotransferase [AST] elevations) occurred in 6 of 16 patients (38%). Four of 15 evaluable patients (27%) experienced a DLT (grade 3/4 ALT/AST elevations, n = 2; grade 3 rash, n = 1; grade 3 diarrhea or vomiting, n = 1), including 1 Hy’s law hepatotoxicity case. All DLTs resolved following treatment discontinuation. One patient achieved confirmed partial response; one had stable disease for >24 weeks. Study termination occurred before part 2. Conclusion. The unfavorable risk-benefit ratio did not warrant further investigation of bosutinib plus letrozole. PMID:24674874

  10. Bosutinib in Combination With the Aromatase Inhibitor Exemestane: A Phase II Trial in Postmenopausal Women With Previously Treated Locally Advanced or Metastatic Hormone Receptor-Positive/HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neven, Patrick; Lebrun, Fabienne; Bellet, Meritxell; Xu, Binghe; Sarosiek, Tomasz; Chow, Louis; Goss, Paul; Zacharchuk, Charles; Leip, Eric; Turnbull, Kathleen; Bardy-Bouxin, Nathalie; Duvillié, Ladan; Láng, István

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. Bosutinib is an oral, selective Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity in breast cancer (BC). We evaluated bosutinib plus exemestane as second-line therapy in previously treated hormone receptor-positive (HR+) locally advanced or metastatic BC. Methods. This was a phase II study with patients enrolled in a single-arm safety lead-in phase. Patients receiving bosutinib at 400 mg or 300 mg/day (based on toxicity) plus exemestane at 25 mg/day were monitored for adverse events (AEs) and dose-limiting toxicities for 28 days, and initial efficacy was assessed. After the lead-in and dose-determination phase, randomized evaluation of combination therapy versus exemestane was planned. Results. Thirty-nine of 42 patients (93%) experienced treatment-related AEs including diarrhea in 28 (67%) and hepatotoxicity in 11 (26%); overall serious treatment-related AEs were recorded in 4 (10%). No liver toxicity met Hy’s law criteria. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 5 of 13 patients receiving 400 mg (38%) and 3 of 26 patients receiving 300 mg (12%) of bosutinib; all resolved on treatment discontinuation. One patient (300 mg/day) achieved confirmed partial response; three (400 mg/day, n = 2; 300 mg/day, n = 1) maintained stable disease for >24 weeks; a best response of progressive disease occurred in 15 of 42 patients (36%). Median progression-free survival was 12.3 weeks (80% confidence interval: 11.0–15.6). Conclusion. The risk-benefit profile of bosutinib at 300 mg/day plus exemestane resulted in early study termination before the randomized portion. Alternative bosutinib regimens merit investigation in BC. PMID:24674873

  11. Bosutinib in combination with the aromatase inhibitor exemestane: a phase II trial in postmenopausal women with previously treated locally advanced or metastatic hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Moy, Beverly; Neven, Patrick; Lebrun, Fabienne; Bellet, Meritxell; Xu, Binghe; Sarosiek, Tomasz; Chow, Louis; Goss, Paul; Zacharchuk, Charles; Leip, Eric; Turnbull, Kathleen; Bardy-Bouxin, Nathalie; Duvillié, Ladan; Láng, István

    2014-04-01

    Bosutinib is an oral, selective Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity in breast cancer (BC). We evaluated bosutinib plus exemestane as second-line therapy in previously treated hormone receptor-positive (HR+) locally advanced or metastatic BC. This was a phase II study with patients enrolled in a single-arm safety lead-in phase. Patients receiving bosutinib at 400 mg or 300 mg/day (based on toxicity) plus exemestane at 25 mg/day were monitored for adverse events (AEs) and dose-limiting toxicities for 28 days, and initial efficacy was assessed. After the lead-in and dose-determination phase, randomized evaluation of combination therapy versus exemestane was planned. Thirty-nine of 42 patients (93%) experienced treatment-related AEs including diarrhea in 28 (67%) and hepatotoxicity in 11 (26%); overall serious treatment-related AEs were recorded in 4 (10%). No liver toxicity met Hy's law criteria. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 5 of 13 patients receiving 400 mg (38%) and 3 of 26 patients receiving 300 mg (12%) of bosutinib; all resolved on treatment discontinuation. One patient (300 mg/day) achieved confirmed partial response; three (400 mg/day, n = 2; 300 mg/day, n = 1) maintained stable disease for >24 weeks; a best response of progressive disease occurred in 15 of 42 patients (36%). Median progression-free survival was 12.3 weeks (80% confidence interval: 11.0-15.6). The risk-benefit profile of bosutinib at 300 mg/day plus exemestane resulted in early study termination before the randomized portion. Alternative bosutinib regimens merit investigation in BC.

  12. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone as second-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (TANIA): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; Puglisi, Fabio; Cortes, Javier; Vrdoljak, Eduard; Marschner, Norbert; Zielinski, Christoph; Villanueva, Cristian; Romieu, Gilles; Lang, István; Ciruelos, Eva; De Laurentiis, Michele; Veyret, Corinne; de Ducla, Sabine; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Srock, Stefanie; Gligorov, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Combining bevacizumab with first-line or second-line chemotherapy improves progression-free survival in HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. We assessed the efficacy and safety of further bevacizumab therapy in patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer whose disease had progressed after treatment with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. In this open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients who had HER2-negative locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer that had progressed after receiving 12 weeks or more of first-line bevacizumab plus chemotherapy from 118 centres in 12 countries. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by use of a central interactive voice response system using a block randomisation schedule (block size four) stratified by hormone receptor status, first-line progression-free survival, selected chemotherapy, and lactate dehydrogenase concentration, to receive second-line single-agent chemotherapy either alone or with bevacizumab (15 mg/kg every 3 weeks or 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks). Second-line therapy was continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. At progression, patients randomly assigned to chemotherapy alone received third-line chemotherapy without bevacizumab; those randomly assigned to bevacizumab continued bevacizumab with third-line chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival from randomisation to second-line progression or death in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is ongoing, and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01250379. Between Feb 17, 2011, and April 3, 2013, 494 patients were randomly assigned to treatment (247 in each group). The median duration of follow-up at the time of this prespecified primary progression-free survival analysis was 15·9 months (IQR 9·1-21·7) in the chemotherapy-alone group and 16·1 months (10·6-22·7) in the combination group. Progression-free survival was significantly

  13. The cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib in combination with letrozole versus letrozole alone as first-line treatment of oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer (PALOMA-1/TRIO-18): a randomised phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Finn, Richard S; Crown, John P; Lang, Istvan; Boer, Katalin; Bondarenko, Igor M; Kulyk, Sergey O; Ettl, Johannes; Patel, Ravindranath; Pinter, Tamas; Schmidt, Marcus; Shparyk, Yaroslav; Thummala, Anu R; Voytko, Nataliya L; Fowst, Camilla; Huang, Xin; Kim, Sindy T; Randolph, Sophia; Slamon, Dennis J

    2015-01-01

    Palbociclib (PD-0332991) is an oral, small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6 with preclinical evidence of growth-inhibitory activity in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells and synergy with anti-oestrogens. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of palbociclib in combination with letrozole as first-line treatment of patients with advanced, oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. In this open-label, randomised phase 2 study, postmenopausal women with advanced oestrogen receptor-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer who had not received any systemic treatment for their advanced disease were eligible to participate. Patients were enrolled in two separate cohorts that accrued sequentially: in cohort 1, patients were enrolled on the basis of their oestrogen receptor-positive and HER2-negative biomarker status alone, whereas in cohort 2 they were also required to have cancers with amplification of cyclin D1 (CCND1), loss of p16 (INK4A or CDKN2A), or both. In both cohorts, patients were randomly assigned 1:1 via an interactive web-based randomisation system, stratified by disease site and disease-free interval, to receive continuous oral letrozole 2.5 mg daily or continuous oral letrozole 2.5 mg daily plus oral palbociclib 125 mg, given once daily for 3 weeks followed by 1 week off over 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Accrual to cohort 2 was stopped after an unplanned interim analysis of cohort 1 and the statistical analysis plan for the primary endpoint was amended to a combined analysis of cohorts 1 and 2 (instead of cohort 2 alone). The study is ongoing but closed to accrual; these are the results of the final analysis of progression-free survival. The study is registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00721409. Between Dec 22, 2009, and May 12, 2012, we randomly assigned 165 patients, 84 to palbociclib

  14. Selection of Optimal Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) -Negative and Adjuvant Targeted Therapy for HER2-Positive Breast Cancers: An American Society of Clinical Oncology Guideline Adaptation of the Cancer Care Ontario Clinical Practice Guideline.

    PubMed

    Denduluri, Neelima; Somerfield, Mark R; Eisen, Andrea; Holloway, Jamie N; Hurria, Arti; King, Tari A; Lyman, Gary H; Partridge, Ann H; Telli, Melinda L; Trudeau, Maureen E; Wolff, Antonio C

    2016-07-10

    A Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) guideline on the selection of optimal adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for early breast cancer including adjuvant targeted therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers was identified for adaptation. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for adapting clinical practice guidelines developed by other organizations. The CCO guideline was reviewed for developmental rigor and content applicability. On the basis of the content review of the CCO guideline, the ASCO Panel agreed that, in general, the recommendations were clear and thorough and were based on the most relevant scientific evidence, and they presented options that will be acceptable to patients. However, for some topics addressed in the CCO guideline, the ASCO Panel formulated a set of adapted recommendations on the basis of local context and practice beliefs of the Panel members. Decisions regarding adjuvant chemotherapy regimens should take into account baseline recurrence risk, toxicities, likelihood of benefit, and host factors such as comorbidities. In high-risk HER2-negative populations with excellent performance status, anthracycline- and taxane-containing regimens are the standard of care. Docetaxel and cyclophosphamide for four cycles is an acceptable non-anthracycline regimen. In high-risk HER2-positive disease, sequential anthracycline and taxanes administered concurrently with trastuzumab or docetaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab for six cycles are recommended. An alternative regimen in a lower-risk, node-negative, HER2-positive population is paclitaxel and trastuzumab once per week for 12 cycles. Trastuzumab should be given for 1 year. Platinum salts should not be routinely administered in the adjuvant triple-negative population until survival efficacy data become available. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. A phase I followed by a randomized phase II trial of two cycles carboplatin-olaparib followed by olaparib monotherapy versus capecitabine in BRCA1- or BRCA2-mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer as first line treatment (REVIVAL): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Philip C; Dackus, Gwen M H E; Marchetti, Serena; van Tinteren, Harm; Sonke, Gabe S; Schellens, Jan H M; Linn, Sabine C

    2016-06-21

    Preclinical studies in breast cancer models showed that BRCA1 or BRCA2 deficient cell lines, when compared to BRCA proficient cell lines, are extremely sensitive to PARP1 inhibition. When combining the PARP1 inhibitor olaparib with cisplatin in a BRCA1-mutated breast cancer mouse model, the combination induced a larger response than either of the two compounds alone. Several clinical studies have investigated single agent therapy or combinations of both drugs, but no randomized clinical evidence exists for the superiority of carboplatin-olaparib versus standard of care therapy in patients with BRCA1- or BRCA2--mutated metastatic breast cancer. This investigator-initiated study contains two parts. Part 1 is a traditional 3 + 3 dose escalation study of the carboplatin-olaparib combination followed by olaparib monotherapy. The carboplatin dose will be escalated from area under the curve (AUC) 3 to AUC 4 with an olaparib dose of 25 mg BID. Olaparib is subsequently escalated to 50, 75, and 100 mg BID until >1/6 of patients develop dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). The dose level below will be the maximum tolerable dose (MTD). It is expected that 15-20 patients are needed in Part I. In Part 2 BRCA1- or BRCA2-mutated HER2-negative breast cancer patients will be randomized between standard capecitabine 1250 mg/m(2) BID day 1-14 q day 22, versus 2 cycles carboplatin-olaparib followed by olaparib monotherapy 300 mg BID. In total 104 events in 110 patients need to be observed to detect a 75 % clinically meaningful improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), from a median of 4 months (control) to 7 months (experimental) assuming a 2-year accrual and ≥6 months of follow-up with 80 % power (5 %, two-sided significance level). After progression on first line treatment, patients will receive physician's best choice of paclitaxel, vinorelbine, eribulin, or capecitabine (experimental arm only) at standard dose. A compassionate use program of olaparib is available

  16. The positive is inside the negative: HER2-negative tumors can express the HER2 intracellular domain and present a HER2-positive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Panis, Carolina; Pizzatti, Luciana; Corrêa, Stephany; Binato, Renata; Lemos, Gabriela Ferreira; Herrera, Ana Cristina da Silva do Amaral; Seixas, Teresa Fernandes; Cecchini, Rubens; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2015-02-01

    Overexpression of human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a poor prognostic factor in breast cancer. HER2 is a transmembrane receptor comprising an extracellular domain (ECD), a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain (ICD) with tyrosine-kinase activity. Receptor dimerization triggers pivotal effector pathways in cancer, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Currently, screening of HER2 in breast tumors for prognostic and therapeutic purposes involves immunohistochemical (IHC) phenotyping for the ECD, in which tumors with IHC scores below 2+ are reported as HER2-negative. We used a label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) proteomic approach to compare plasma samples from patients with HER2-positive breast tumors and patients with HER2-negative tumors. Patients with HER2-negative tumors expressed higher circulating levels of calpain-10 than patients with HER2-positive tumors. Calpains cleave HER2, releasing its ECD and transforming phenotypically positive tumors into phenotypically negative tumors. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the ICD in HER2-negative samples that overexpressed calpain-10. We found that 16% of HER2-negative tumors were positive for HER2-ICD, which was associated with circulating HER2-ECD. HER2 gene amplification was also observed in some HER2-negative tumors. Positive staining for the PI3K pathway was observed in the HER2-negative, ICD-positive tumors, similar to the HER2-positive cohort. Microarray analysis revealed that HER2-negative, ICD-positive samples clustered between HER2-positive tumors and triple-negative tumors. Survival analysis revealed that outcome in women with HER2-negative, ICD-positive tumors was better than in women bearing HER2-negative, ICD-negative (triple negative) tumors but was quite similar to HER2-positive tumors and worse than women with luminal A tumors. Moreover, in vitro analyses revealed that MDA-MB 231, a triple negative cell line

  17. Dose intensity and efficacy of the combination of everolimus and exemestane (EVE/EXE) in a real-world population of hormone receptor-positive (ER+/PgR+), HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients: a multicenter Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Ciccarese, Mariangela; Fabi, Alessandra; Moscetti, Luca; Cazzaniga, Maria Elena; Petrucelli, Luciana; Forcignanò, Rosachiara; Lupo, Laura Isabella; De Matteis, Elisabetta; Chiuri, Vincenzo Emanuele; Cairo, Giuseppe; Febbraro, Antonio; Giordano, Guido; Giampaglia, Marianna; Bilancia, Domenico; La Verde, Nicla; Maiello, Evaristo; Morritti, Maria; Giotta, Francesco; Lorusso, Vito; Latorre, Agnese; Scavelli, Claudio; Romito, Sante; Cusmai, Antonio; Palmiotti, Gennaro; Surico, Giammarco

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective analysis focused on the effect of treatment with EVE/EXE in a real-world population outside of clinical trials. We examined the efficacy of this combination in terms of PFS and RR related to dose intensity (5 mg daily versus 10 mg daily) and tolerability. 163 HER2-negative ER+/PgR+ ABC patients, treated with EVE/EXE from May 2011 to March 2016, were included in the analysis. The primary endpoints were the correlation between the daily dose and RR and PFS, as well as an evaluation of the tolerability of the combination. Secondary endpoints were RR, PFS, and OS according to the line of treatment. Patients were classified into three different groups, each with a different dose intensity of everolimus (A, B, C). RR was 29.8% (A), 27.8% (B) (p = 0.953), and not evaluable (C). PFS was 9 months (95% CI 7-11) (A), 10 months (95% CI 9-11) (B), and 5 months (95% CI 2-8) (C), p = 0.956. OS was 38 months (95% CI 24-38) (A), median not reached (B), and 13 months (95% CI 10-25) (C), p = 0.002. Adverse events were stomatitis 57.7% (11.0% grade 3-4), asthenia 46.0% (6.1% grade 3-4), hypercholesterolemia 46.0% (0.6% grade 3-4), and hyperglycemia 35.6% (5.5% grade 3-4). The main reason for discontinuation/interruption was grade 2-3 stomatitis. No correlation was found between dose intensity (5 vs. 10 mg labeled dose) and efficacy in terms of RR and PFS. The tolerability of the higher dose was poor in our experience, although this had no impact on efficacy.

  18. Tumour markers in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cove, D. H.; Woods, K. L.; Smith, S. C.; Burnett, D.; Leonard, J.; Grieve, R. J.; Howell, A.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of 8 potential tumour markers has been evaluated in 69 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer and 57 patients with Stage III and IV. Serum CEA concentrations were raised in 13% of patients with local and 65% of those with advanced breast cancer. In patients with clinical evidence of progression or regression of tumour, serum CEA levels changed appropriately in 83% of cases. Taking 4 of the markers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lactalbumin, alpha subunit and haptoglobin) serum concentrations of one or more were raised in 33% of patients with local disease and 81% of those with advanced breast cancer. However, marker concentrations were often only marginally raised, and are unlikely to provide sensitive guide to tumour burden. CEA, lactalbumin and alpha subunit were detectable in 68%, 43% and 40% respectively of extracts of primary breast cancers. PMID:92331

  19. [Phyllodes tumour: a rare, rapidly growing breast tumour].

    PubMed

    den Exter, Paul L; Hornstra, Bonne J; Vree, Robbert

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented at the breast outpatient clinic with a giant tumour of her left breast. The size, rapid growth and radiological characteristics of the lesion led us to suspect a phyllodes tumour. A histological examination of a needle biopsy confirmed this diagnosis. An additional CT scan revealed no signs of metastases. We performed a mastectomy during which a tumour measuring 48 x 33 x 25 cm was resected. Histological examination revealed a borderline phyllodes tumour. Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast and pre-operatively these are often difficult to differentiate from fibroadenomas. Phyllodes tumours have a variable clinical course with the ability to metastasize and a propensity to recur locally. Complete excision with wide margins is essential to prevent local recurrence. In our case, the surgical margins were limited and our patient was therefore treated with postoperative radiation therapy.

  20. Peptidomimetic Src/pretubulin inhibitor KX-01 alone and in combination with paclitaxel suppresses growth, metastasis in human ER/PR/HER2-negative tumor xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Ali, Alaa; Jones, Ryan K; Marsden, Carolyn G; Sheng, Mei; Carrier, Latonya; Bu, Yahao; Hangauer, David; Rowan, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Src kinase is elevated in breast tumors that are ER/PR negative and do not overexpress HER2 but clinical trials with Src inhibitors have demonstrated little activity. The present study evaluated preclinical efficacy of a novel peptidomimetic compound, KX-01 (KX2-391), that exhibits dual action as a Src and pretubulin inhibitor. KX-01 was evaluated as a single agent and in combination with paclitaxel in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-157, and MDA-MB-468 human ER/PR/HER2-negative breast cancer cells. Treatments were evaluated by growth/apoptosis, isobologram analysis, migration/invasion assays, tumor xenograft volume, metastasis, and measurement of Src, FAK, microtubules, Ki67, and microvessel density. KX-01 inhibited cell growth in vitro and in combination with paclitaxel resulted in synergistic growth inhibition. KX-01 resulted in a dose dependent inhibition of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 tumor xenografts (1 and 5 mg/kg, BID). KX-01 inhibited activity of Src and downstream mediator FAK in tumors that was coincident with reduced proliferation and angiogenesis, and increased apoptosis. KX01 also resulted in microtubule disruption in tumors. Combination of KX-01 with paclitaxel resulted in significant regression of MDA-MB-231 tumors and reduced metastasis to mouse lung and liver. KX-01 is a potently active Src/pretubulin inhibitor that inhibits breast tumor growth and metastasis. As ER/PR/HER2-negative patients are candidates for paclitaxel therapy, combination with KX-01 may potentiate antitumor efficacy in management of this aggressive breast cancer subtype. PMID:22784709

  1. Effect of fixation time on breast biomarker expression: a controlled study using cell line-derived xenografted (CDX) tumours.

    PubMed

    Kao, K R; Hasan, T; Baptista, A; Truong, T; Gai, L; Smith, A C; Li, S; Gonzales, P; Voisey, K; Erivwo, P; Power, J; Denic, N

    2017-03-23

    Altering the length of time specimens are placed in fixative without compromising analytical testing accuracy is a continuous challenge in the anatomical pathology lab. The aim of this study was to determine under controlled conditions the effects of variable fixation time on breast biomarker expression in human breast cancer cell line-derived xenografted (CDX) tumours. CDX tumours using strong oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive, Her2-negative (MCF7) and weak ER-positive, Her2 equivocal (T47D) breast cancer cell lines were fixed for various times ranging from 1 to 336 hours in 10% neutral buffered formalin. CDX tumours were processed according to routine biomarker testing protocols and stained for ER and Her2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and processed for HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). The tumours were evaluated using Allred scoring for ER and current ASCO/CAP guidelines for Her2, and by objective cell counting methodology. No differences were found in expression of ER in either MCF7 or T47D CDX tumours under variable fixation. T47D tumours displayed variably equivocal Her2 staining when fixed for 24 hours, but fixation for ≤8 hours resulted in consistently negative staining while tumours fixed for >72 hours demonstrated consistent equivocal staining (p<0.01). Cell counting assays revealed only a significant increase in sensitivity in tumours fixed for >72 hours (p<0.01). As expected, FISH results were unaffected by variable fixation. Neither shortened nor prolonged fixation affects ER expression, consistent with previous findings. In equivocal Her2-expressing tumours, however, increasing fixation increased the sensitivity of Her2 IHC reporting while not affecting FISH. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Tetraploidy in BRCA2 breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Asta Bjork; Stefansson, Olafur Andri; Bjornsson, Johannes; Jonasson, Jon G; Ogmundsdottir, Helga M; Eyfjord, Jorunn E

    2012-02-01

    Tetraploidy and aneuploidy can be caused by cell division errors and are frequently observed in many human carcinomas. We have recently reported delayed cytokinesis in primary human fibroblasts from BRCA2 mutation carriers, implying a function for the BRCA2 tumour suppressor in completion of cell division. Here, we address ploidy aberrations in breast tumours derived from BRCA2 germline mutation carriers. Ploidy aberrations were evaluated from flow cytometry histograms on selected breast tumour samples (n=236), previously screened for local BRCA mutations. The ploidy between BRCA2-mutated (n=71) and matched sporadic (n=165) cancers was compared. Differences in ploidy distribution were examined with respect to molecular tumour subtypes, previously defined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray sections. Tetraploidy was significantly 3 times more common in BRCA2 breast cancers than sporadic. However, no differences were found in the overall ploidy distribution between BRCA2-mutation carriers and non-carriers. In BRCA2 cancers, tetraploidy was associated with luminal characteristics. The increased frequency of tetraploidy in BRCA2 associated cancers may be linked to cell division errors, particularly cytokinesis. Additionally, tetraploidy emerges predominantly in BRCA2 breast cancers displaying luminal rather than triple-negative phenotypes.

  3. [An immobilising malignant phyllodes tumour of the breast].

    PubMed

    Fritsche, E; Hug, U; Winterholer, D

    2015-04-01

    Phyllodes tumours of the breast are rare occurrences, but they can reach huge dimensions. Descriptions of tumours whereby the women are immobilised as a consequence of the size of the tumour, are hard to find in the literature. In this presentation we show a case of a woman in otherwise healthy condition with a giant phyllodes tumour of her left breast. Because of the weight of the tumour, the patient could not leave her bed for more than 6 months.

  4. Giant malignant phyllodes tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan; Savasere, Thejas; Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Babu, Rajashekhara; Shivaswamy, Sadashivaiah

    2014-01-01

    The term phyllodes tumour includes lesions ranging from completely benign tumours to malignant sarcomas. Clinically phyllodes tumours are smooth, rounded, and usually painless multinodular lesions indistinguishable from fibroadenomas. Percentage of phyllodes tumour classified as malignant ranges from 23% to 50%. We report a case of second largest phyllodes tumour in a 35-year-old lady who presented with swelling of right breast since 6 months, initially small in size, that progressed gradually to present size. Examination revealed mass in the right breast measuring 36×32 cms with lobulated firm surface and weighing 10 kgs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was reported as borderline phyllodes; however core biopsy examination showed biphasic neoplasm with malignant stromal component. Simple mastectomy was done and specimen was sent for histopathological examination which confirmed the core biopsy report. Postoperatively the patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is on follow-up for a year and has not shown any evidence of metastasis or recurrence.

  5. Circulating tumour markers in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Seregni, Ettore; Coli, Antonio; Mazzucca, Nicola

    2004-06-01

    A large number of markers have been proposed for breast cancer, but among them only CA 15.3, CEA and cytokeratins (i.e. TPA, TPS and Cyfra 21.1) are currently used in clinical practice. Serum marker levels reflect tumour burden and for this reason they are not sensitive enough to be used for screening and early diagnosis of primary breast cancer. By contrast, the role of tumour markers is established in the diagnosis of recurrent disease and in the evaluation of response to treatment. In the former case, however, prospective randomised studies are required to demonstrate any survival benefit when earlier therapeutic interventions are instituted upon elevation of serum markers. In the second case, tumour marker evaluation represents a simple, objective method for monitoring of therapeutic response that seems to offer significant advantages over conventional imaging methods (e.g. objectivity, modifications in tumour biology). Furthermore, research studies are ongoing to identify and validate new biochemical parameters which can be of use not only in advanced disease but also in other stages of the diagnostic work-up of breast cancer.

  6. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-06-21

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  7. Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours.

    PubMed

    2012-10-04

    We analysed primary breast cancers by genomic DNA copy number arrays, DNA methylation, exome sequencing, messenger RNA arrays, microRNA sequencing and reverse-phase protein arrays. Our ability to integrate information across platforms provided key insights into previously defined gene expression subtypes and demonstrated the existence of four main breast cancer classes when combining data from five platforms, each of which shows significant molecular heterogeneity. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers; however, there were numerous subtype-associated and novel gene mutations including the enrichment of specific mutations in GATA3, PIK3CA and MAP3K1 with the luminal A subtype. We identified two novel protein-expression-defined subgroups, possibly produced by stromal/microenvironmental elements, and integrated analyses identified specific signalling pathways dominant in each molecular subtype including a HER2/phosphorylated HER2/EGFR/phosphorylated EGFR signature within the HER2-enriched expression subtype. Comparison of basal-like breast tumours with high-grade serous ovarian tumours showed many molecular commonalities, indicating a related aetiology and similar therapeutic opportunities. The biological finding of the four main breast cancer subtypes caused by different subsets of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities raises the hypothesis that much of the clinically observable plasticity and heterogeneity occurs within, and not across, these major biological subtypes of breast cancer.

  8. Ileocaecal intussusception secondary to metastatic phyllodes tumour of the breast.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Basem B; Baker, Bilal; Hashem, Sameh A

    2010-09-01

    A patient with phyllodes tumour of the breast is discussed. During follow-up, she presented with intestinal obstruction caused by ileocaecal intussusception. The cause of the intussusception was metastatic phyllodes tumour, which is a unique presentation.

  9. Evolution of breast cancer therapeutics: Breast tumour kinase's role in breast cancer and hope for breast tumour kinase targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Haroon A; Harvey, Amanda J

    2014-08-10

    There have been significant improvements in the detection and treatment of breast cancer in recent decades. However, there is still a need to develop more effective therapeutic techniques that are patient specific with reduced toxicity leading to further increases in patients' overall survival; the ongoing progress in understanding recurrence, resistant and spread also needs to be maintained. Better understanding of breast cancer pathology, molecular biology and progression as well as identification of some of the underlying factors involved in breast cancer tumourgenesis and metastasis has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Over a number of years interest has risen in breast tumour kinase (Brk) also known as protein tyrosine kinase 6; the research field has grown and Brk has been described as a desirable therapeutic target in relation to tyrosine kinase inhibition as well as disruption of its kinase independent activity. This review will outline the current "state of play" with respect to targeted therapy for breast cancer, as well as discussing Brk's role in the processes underlying tumour development and metastasis and its potential as a therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  10. Mixed tumour of salivary gland type of the male breast.

    PubMed

    Simha, M R; Doctor, V M; Udwadia, T E

    1992-03-01

    Benign breast tumours with a mixed cartilaginous and epithelial component are distinctly rare as evident from the literature. A case of Mixed Tumour of the breast presenting pre-operatively as a hard mass in a 65 year old male is reported. Histologically, it was composed of a mixture of benign cartilage, myoepithelial cells, tubules and a myxoid stroma in fat. A brief review of cartilage bearing lesions and mixed tumour in the mammary region is discussed.

  11. Tumour location within the breast: Does tumour site have prognostic ability?

    PubMed

    Rummel, Seth; Hueman, Matthew T; Costantino, Nick; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Tumour location within the breast varies with the highest frequency in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ) and lowest frequency in the lower inner quadrant (LIQ). Whether tumour location is prognostic is unclear. To determine whether tumour location is prognostic, associations between tumour site and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. All patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project whose tumour site-UOQ, upper inner quadrant (UIQ), central, LIQ, lower outer quadrant (LOQ)-was determined by a single, dedicated breast pathologist were included in this study. Patients with multicentric disease (n = 122) or tumours spanning multiple quadrants (n = 381) were excluded from further analysis. Clinicopathological characteristics were analysed using chi-square tests for univariate analysis with multivariate analysis performed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple logistic regression. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Of the 980 patients with defined tumour location, 30 had bilateral disease. Tumour location in the UOQ (51.5%) was significantly higher than in the UIQ (15.6%), LOQ (14.2%), central (10.6%), or LIQ (8.1%). Tumours in the central quadrant were significantly more likely to have higher tumour stage (P = 0.003) and size (P < 0.001), metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.001), and mortality (P = 0.011). After multivariate analysis, only tumour size and lymph node status remained significantly associated with survival. Evaluation of tumour location as a prognostic factor revealed that although tumours in the central region are associated with less favourable outcome, these associations are not independent of location but rather driven by larger tumour size. Tumours in the central region are more difficult to detect mammographically, resulting in larger tumour size at diagnosis and thus less favourable prognosis. Together, these data demonstrate that tumour location is not an independent prognostic factor.

  12. Frequent MED12 mutations in phyllodes tumours of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, M; Sekine, S; Ogawa, R; Yoshida, H; Maeshima, A; Kanai, Y; Kinoshita, T; Ochiai, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial tumours of the breast, that include benign, borderline, and malignant lesions. Although the molecular basis of phyllodes tumours largely remains unknown, a recent exome study identified MED12 mutations as a sole recurrent genetic alteration in fibroadenoma, a common benign fibroepithelial tumour that shares some histological features with the phyllodes tumour. Methods: Forty-six phyllodes tumours and 58 fibroadenomas of the breast were analysed for MED12 mutations by using Sanger sequencing. Results: MED12 mutations were identified in 37 out of the 46 phyllodes tumours (80%). The prevalence of MED12 mutations was similar among benign (15/18, 83%), borderline (12/15, 80%), and malignant tumours (10/13, 77%). MED12 mutations were also identified in 36 of the 58 fibroadenomas (62%). The mutations were frequent among intracanalicular-type (24/32, 75%) and complex-type lesions (4/6, 67%), but were significantly less common among the pericanalicular-type lesions (8/20, 40%). A microdissection-based analysis showed that MED12 mutations were confined to the stromal components in both phyllodes tumours and fibroadenomas. Conclusions: MED12 mutations were frequent among the phyllodes tumours of the breast, regardless of the tumour grade. Phyllodes tumours and fibroadenomas share, at least in part, a common genetic background. PMID:25839987

  13. Frequent MED12 mutations in phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Sekine, S; Ogawa, R; Yoshida, H; Maeshima, A; Kanai, Y; Kinoshita, T; Ochiai, A

    2015-05-12

    Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial tumours of the breast, that include benign, borderline, and malignant lesions. Although the molecular basis of phyllodes tumours largely remains unknown, a recent exome study identified MED12 mutations as a sole recurrent genetic alteration in fibroadenoma, a common benign fibroepithelial tumour that shares some histological features with the phyllodes tumour. Forty-six phyllodes tumours and 58 fibroadenomas of the breast were analysed for MED12 mutations by using Sanger sequencing. MED12 mutations were identified in 37 out of the 46 phyllodes tumours (80%). The prevalence of MED12 mutations was similar among benign (15/18, 83%), borderline (12/15, 80%), and malignant tumours (10/13, 77%). MED12 mutations were also identified in 36 of the 58 fibroadenomas (62%). The mutations were frequent among intracanalicular-type (24/32, 75%) and complex-type lesions (4/6, 67%), but were significantly less common among the pericanalicular-type lesions (8/20, 40%). A microdissection-based analysis showed that MED12 mutations were confined to the stromal components in both phyllodes tumours and fibroadenomas. MED12 mutations were frequent among the phyllodes tumours of the breast, regardless of the tumour grade. Phyllodes tumours and fibroadenomas share, at least in part, a common genetic background.

  14. SIRT2: tumour suppressor or tumour promoter in operable breast cancer?

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Liane M; Zino, Samer; MacDonald, Alasdair I; Curle, Jennifer; Reilly, Justice E; Mohammed, Zahra M A; McMillan, Donald C; Mallon, Elizabeth; Payne, Anthony P; Edwards, Joanne; Shiels, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuins comprise a family of genes involved in cellular stress, survival and damage responses. They have been implicated in a range of diseases including cancer, with most information pertaining to their function in tumourigenesis being derived from in vitro studies, or model organisms. Their putative roles as tumour suppressors or tumour promoters remain to be validated in vivo. Little is known about their role in breast tumourigenesis. We sought to evaluate the seven sirtuin family members (SIRT1-7) in a human breast cancer cohort, in relation to clinico-pathological features and outcome of the disease. Immunohistochemical analysis of SIRT1-7 protein levels was undertaken in 392 oestrogen receptor (ER+ve) and 153 ER-ve breast tumour samples. SIRT1-7 transcriptional levels were assessed in normal (n=25), non-malignant (n=73) and malignant (n=70) breast tissue using Relative Quantitative Real Time PCR. Statistical analyses determined if SIRT1-7 transcription or protein expression was associated with clinical parameters or outcome. In ER-ve tumours, high protein levels of nuclear SIRT2 were associated with reduced time to recurrence and disease-specific death. This association was only observed in Grade 3 tumours. In the ER+ve cohort, high SIRT2 nuclear levels were associated with shorter disease-free survival and time to recurrence whilst on Tamoxifen, in patients with Grade 3 tumours. Conversely, in Grade 2 tumours, high SIRT2 levels were associated with increased time to recurrence. Our data suggest that SIRT2 is the sirtuin predominantly involved in breast tumourigenesis and prognosis. It indicates that SIRT2 acts as a tumour suppressor or tumour promoter dependent upon breast tumour grade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Breast-conserving surgery is contraindicated for recurrent giant multifocal phyllodes tumours of breast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The controversy between breast conserving surgery and simple mastectomy for phyllodes tumours of the breast remains because of the unpredictable nature of the disease. Although some benign tumours may show an unusually aggressive behaviour, modified radical surgery for phyllodes tumours offers no survival advantage, and recently more conservative surgical approaches have been deployed. Case presentation A 30-year-old woman with a giant multifocal tumour of the breast underwent breast-conserving surgery that made use of the well- circumscribed feature of the tumour. The case demonstrates the safety, and cosmetic benefit of the breast-conserving approach for multifocal phyllodes tumours except for the high recurrence rate. Conclusions Large size, multifocality, and borderline or malignant histology are contraindications for breast-conserving surgery. PMID:25023082

  16. Comparison of the prevalence of KRAS-LCS6 polymorphism (rs61764370) within different tumour types (colorectal, breast, non-small cell lung cancer and brain tumours). A study of the Czech population.

    PubMed

    Uvirova, Magdalena; Simova, Jarmila; Kubova, Barbora; Dvorackova, Nina; Tomaskova, Hana; Sedivcova, Monika; Dite, Petr

    2015-09-01

    A germline SNP (rs61764370) is located in a let-7 complementary site (LCS6) in the 3'UTR of KRAS oncogene, and it was found to alter the binding capability of the mature let-7 microRNA to the KRAS mRNA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of the KRAS-LCS6 variant allele in different cancer types that included patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer (BC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and brain tumour patient subgroups from the Czech Republic. The occurrence of this genetic variant was correlated with the presence of selected somatic mutations representing predictive biomarkers in the respective tumours. DNA of tumour tissues was isolated from 428 colorectal cancer samples, 311 non-small cell lung cancer samples, 195 breast cancer samples and 151 samples with brain tumour. Analysis of SNP (rs61764370) was performed by the PCR+RFLP method and direct sequencing. KRAS, BRAF and EGFR mutation status was assessed using real-time PCR. The status of the HER2 gene was assessed using the FISH method. The KRAS-LCS6 TG genotype has been detected in 16.4% (32/195) of breast cancer cases (in HER2 positive breast cancer 3.3%, in HER2 negative breast cancer 20.1%), in 12.4% (53/428) of CRC cases (KRAS/BRAF wild type CRC in 10.6%, KRAS mutant CRC in 10.1%, BRAF V600E mutant CRC in 18.5%), in 13.2% (41/311) of NSCLC samples, (EGFR mutant NSCLC patients in 8%, EGFR wild type NSCLC in 12.9%), and 17.9% (27/151) of brain tumour cases. The KRAS-LCS6 TG genotype was not significantly different across the studied tumours. In our study, the GG genotype has not been found among the cancer samples. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the occurrence of the KRAS-LCS6 TG genotype was statistically significantly different in association with status of the HER2 gene in breast cancer. Furthermore, significant association between the mutation status of analysed somatic variants in genes of the EGFR signalling pathway (KRAS, BRAF, EGFR) and the KRAS-LCS6

  17. Class IIa HDAC inhibition reduces breast tumours and metastases through anti-tumour macrophages.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Jennifer L; Sotayo, Alaba; Ponichtera, Holly E; Castrillon, Jessica A; Pourzia, Alexandra L; Schad, Sara; Johnson, Shawn F; Carrasco, Ruben D; Lazo, Suzan; Bronson, Roderick T; Davis, Scott P; Lobera, Mercedes; Nolan, Michael A; Letai, Anthony

    2017-03-16

    Although the main focus of immuno-oncology has been manipulating the adaptive immune system, harnessing both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system might produce superior tumour reduction and elimination. Tumour-associated macrophages often have net pro-tumour effects, but their embedded location and their untapped potential provide impetus to discover strategies to turn them against tumours. Strategies that deplete (anti-CSF-1 antibodies and CSF-1R inhibition) or stimulate (agonistic anti-CD40 or inhibitory anti-CD47 antibodies) tumour-associated macrophages have had some success. We hypothesized that pharmacologic modulation of macrophage phenotype could produce an anti-tumour effect. We previously reported that a first-in-class selective class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, TMP195, influenced human monocyte responses to the colony-stimulating factors CSF-1 and CSF-2 in vitro. Here, we utilize a macrophage-dependent autochthonous mouse model of breast cancer to demonstrate that in vivo TMP195 treatment alters the tumour microenvironment and reduces tumour burden and pulmonary metastases by modulating macrophage phenotypes. TMP195 induces the recruitment and differentiation of highly phagocytic and stimulatory macrophages within tumours. Furthermore, combining TMP195 with chemotherapy regimens or T-cell checkpoint blockade in this model significantly enhances the durability of tumour reduction. These data introduce class IIa HDAC inhibition as a means to harness the anti-tumour potential of macrophages to enhance cancer therapy.

  18. Breast spindle cell tumours: about eight cases.

    PubMed

    Abd el-All, Howayda S

    2006-07-22

    Breast spindle cell tumours (BSCTs), although rare, represent a heterogeneous group with different treatment modalities. This work was undertaken to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in differentiating BSCTs. FNAC of eight breast masses diagnosed cytologically as BSCTs was followed by wide excision biopsy. IHC using a panel of antibodies against vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, s100, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD34, and CD10 was evaluated to define their nature. FNAC defined the tumors as benign (n = 4), suspicious (n = 2) and malignant (n = 3), based on the cytopathological criteria of malignancy. Following wide excision biopsy, the tumors were reclassified into benign (n = 5) and malignant (n = 3). In the benign group, the diagnosis was raised histologically and confirmed by IHC for 3 cases (one spindle cell lipoma, one myofibroblastoma and one leiomyoma). For the remaining two cases, the diagnosis was set up after IHC (one fibromatosis and one spindle cell variant of adenomyoepithelioma). In the malignant group, a leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed histologically, while IHC was crucial to set up the diagnosis of one case of spindle cell carcinoma and one malignant myoepithelioma. FNAC in BSCTs is an insufficient tool and should be followed by wide excision biopsy. The latter technique differentiate benign from malignant BSCTs and is able in 50% of the cases to set up the definite diagnosis. IHC is of value to define the nature of different benign lesions and is mandatory in the malignant ones for optimal treatment. Awareness of the different types of BSCTs prevents unnecessary extensive therapeutic regimes.

  19. Breast tumour visualization using 3D quantitative ultrasound methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Raheem, Abdul; Tadayyon, Hadi; Liu, Simon; Hadizad, Farnoosh; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types accounting for 29% of all cancer cases. Early detection and treatment has a crucial impact on improving the survival of affected patients. Ultrasound (US) is non-ionizing, portable, inexpensive, and real-time imaging modality for screening and quantifying breast cancer. Due to these attractive attributes, the last decade has witnessed many studies on using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods in tissue characterization. However, these studies have mainly been limited to 2-D QUS methods using hand-held US (HHUS) scanners. With the availability of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) technology, this study is the first to develop 3-D QUS methods for the ABUS visualization of breast tumours. Using an ABUS system, unlike the manual 2-D HHUS device, the whole patient's breast was scanned in an automated manner. The acquired frames were subsequently examined and a region of interest (ROI) was selected in each frame where tumour was identified. Standard 2-D QUS methods were used to compute spectral and backscatter coefficient (BSC) parametric maps on the selected ROIs. Next, the computed 2-D parameters were mapped to a Cartesian 3-D space, interpolated, and rendered to provide a transparent color-coded visualization of the entire breast tumour. Such 3-D visualization can potentially be used for further analysis of the breast tumours in terms of their size and extension. Moreover, the 3-D volumetric scans can be used for tissue characterization and the categorization of breast tumours as benign or malignant by quantifying the computed parametric maps over the whole tumour volume.

  20. Biomarkers characterization of circulating tumour cells in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Rosa; Fernandez, Ana; Sanchez-Rovira, Pedro; Salido, Marta; Rodríguez, María; García-Puche, José Luis; Macià, Marta; Corominas, Josep Maria; Delgado-Rodriguez, Miguel; Gonzalez, Lucas; Albanell, Joan; Fernández, Mónica; Solé, Francesc; Lorente, José Antonio; Serrano, María José

    2012-05-03

    Increasing evidence supports the view that the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) predicts outcomes of nonmetastatic breast cancer patients. CTCs differ genetically from the primary tumor and may contribute to variations in prognosis and response to therapy. As we start to understand more about the biology of CTCs, we can begin to address how best to treat this form of disease. Ninety-eight nonmetastatic breast cancer patients were included in this study. CTCs were isolated by immunomagnetic techniques using magnetic beads labelled with a multi-CK-specific antibody (CK3-11D5) and CTC detection through immunocytochemical methods. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were evaluated by immunofluorescence experiments and HER2 and TOP2A by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We aimed to characterize this set of biomarkers in CTCs and correlate it with clinical-pathological characteristics. Baseline detection rate was 46.9% ≥ 1 CTC/30 ml threshold. CTC-positive cells were more frequent in HER2-negative tumors (p = 0.046). In patients younger than 50 years old, HER2-amplified and G1-G2 tumors had a higher possibility of being nondetectable CTCs. Heterogeneous expression of hormonal receptors (HRs) in samples from the same patients was found. Discordances between HR expression, HER2 and TOP2A status in CTCs and their primary tumor were found in the sequential blood samples. Less that 35% of patients switched their CTC status after receiving chemotherapy. EGFR-positive CTCs were associated with Luminal tumors (p = 0.03). This is the largest exploratory CTC biomarker analysis in nonmetastatic BC patients. Our study suggests that CTC biomarkers profiles might be useful as a surrogate marker for therapeutic selection and monitoring since heterogeneity of the biomarker distribution in CTCs and the lack of correlation with the primary tumor biomarker status were found. Further exploration of the association between EGFR

  1. Pleomorphic adenoma-like tumour of the breast.

    PubMed

    Rakha, Emad A; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Samaka, Rehab M; Hodi, Zsolt; Lee, Andrew H S; Ellis, Ian O

    2016-02-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of the breast is a rare tumour seen usually in postmenopausal women. Although PA of the salivary glands (SG) is recognized to be a benign tumour, the nature and biology of similar tumours seen in the breast remains to be defined. The aim of this study was to describe PA of the breast that was reported on core biopsy as an invasive matrix-producing metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC). A core biopsy from a clinically malignant retroareolar mass showed mildly atypical polygonal cells with surrounding myxoid stroma. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of basal and luminal cytokeratins, but oestrogen receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and myoepithelial markers were negative. The excision specimen showed similar features, but in addition the stroma showed cartilage and bone. Also it was clear that the lesion was circumscribed and merged with a sclerosed papillary lesion consistent with what has been described as mammary PA. This lesion shows an overlap of morphology and immunophenotype with SG-PA and with MBC. The majority of mammary PAs have a benign behaviour, but local recurrence and development of carcinoma occur. We propose a new terminology of pleomorphic adenoma-like tumour of the breast to reflect the uncertain nature of these tumours and help guide management decisions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-29

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Tumour stroma-derived lipocalin-2 promotes breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ören, Bilge; Urosevic, Jelena; Mertens, Christina; Mora, Javier; Guiu, Marc; Gomis, Roger R; Weigert, Andreas; Schmid, Tobias; Grein, Stephan; Brüne, Bernhard; Jung, Michaela

    2016-07-01

    Tumour cell-secreted factors skew infiltrating immune cells towards a tumour-supporting phenotype, expressing pro-tumourigenic mediators. However, the influence of lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) on the metastatic cascade in the tumour micro-environment is still not clearly defined. Here, we explored the role of stroma-derived, especially macrophage-released, Lcn2 in breast cancer progression. Knockdown studies and neutralizing antibody approaches showed that Lcn2 contributes to the early events of metastasis in vitro. The release of Lcn2 from macrophages induced an epithelial-mesenchymal transition programme in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and enhanced local migration as well as invasion into the extracellular matrix, using a three-dimensioanl (3D) spheroid model. Moreover, a global Lcn2 deficiency attenuated breast cancer metastasis in both the MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model and a xenograft model inoculating MCF-7 cells pretreated with supernatants from wild-type and Lcn2-knockdown macrophages. To dissect the role of stroma-derived Lcn2, we employed an orthotopic mammary tumour mouse model. Implantation of wild-type PyMT tumour cells into Lcn2-deficient mice left primary mammary tumour formation unaltered, but specifically reduced tumour cell dissemination into the lung. We conclude that stroma-secreted Lcn2 promotes metastasis in vitro and in vivo, thereby contributing to tumour progression. Our study highlights the tumourigenic potential of stroma-released Lcn2 and suggests Lcn2 as a putative therapeutic target. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Towards a more realistic biomechanical modelling of breast malignant tumours.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Carolina; Schnabel, Julia A; Brady, Michael

    2012-02-07

    We develop a biomechanical model of an isolated stellate breast tumour under mammographic compression forces for a range of reported mechanical properties, both linear elastic and hyperelastic. We also introduce different volumes of increased density/stiffness around the tumour as well as a solid pressure effect. We show that each of these issues--well known to clinicians but ignored to date in models--has a non-negligible effect on stresses and strains/deformations.

  5. A Study of Neoadjuvant Paclitaxel in Combination With Bavituximab in Early- Stage Triple- Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-08

    Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms; Triple-Negative Breast Neoplasm; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Neoplasms; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

  6. Carboplatin and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IIIC Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-10

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  7. Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a consensus review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Benjamin Y; Acs, Geza; Apple, Sophia K; Badve, Sunil; Bleiweiss, Ira J; Brogi, Edi; Calvo, José P; Dabbs, David J; Ellis, Ian O; Eusebi, Vincenzo; Farshid, Gelareh; Fox, Stephen B; Ichihara, Shu; Lakhani, Sunil R; Rakha, Emad A; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Richardson, Andrea L; Sahin, Aysegul; Schmitt, Fernando C; Schnitt, Stuart J; Siziopikou, Kalliopi P; Soares, Fernando A; Tse, Gary M; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumours constitute an uncommon but complex group of mammary fibroepithelial lesions. Accurate and reproducible grading of these tumours has long been challenging, owing to the need to assess multiple stratified histological parameters, which may be weighted differently by individual pathologists. Distinction of benign phyllodes tumours from cellular fibroadenomas is fraught with difficulty, due to overlapping microscopic features. Similarly, separation of the malignant phyllodes tumour from spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma and primary breast sarcoma can be problematic. Phyllodes tumours are treated by surgical excision. However, there is no consensus on the definition of an appropriate surgical margin to ensure completeness of excision and reduction of recurrence risk. Interpretive subjectivity, overlapping histological diagnostic criteria, suboptimal correlation between histological classification and clinical behaviour and the lack of robust molecular predictors of outcome make further investigation of the pathogenesis of these fascinating tumours a matter of active research. This review consolidates the current understanding of their pathobiology and clinical behaviour, and includes proposals for a rational approach to the classification and management of phyllodes tumours. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a consensus review

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Benjamin Y; Acs, Geza; Apple, Sophia K; Badve, Sunil; Bleiweiss, Ira J; Brogi, Edi; Calvo, José P; Dabbs, David J; Ellis, Ian O; Eusebi, Vincenzo; Farshid, Gelareh; Fox, Stephen B; Ichihara, Shu; Lakhani, Sunil R; Rakha, Emad A; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Richardson, Andrea L; Sahin, Aysegul; Schmitt, Fernando C; Schnitt, Stuart J; Siziopikou, Kalliopi P; Soares, Fernando A; Tse, Gary M; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumours constitute an uncommon but complex group of mammary fibroepithelial lesions. Accurate and reproducible grading of these tumours has long been challenging, owing to the need to assess multiple stratified histological parameters, which may be weighted differently by individual pathologists. Distinction of benign phyllodes tumours from cellular fibroadenomas is fraught with difficulty, due to overlapping microscopic features. Similarly, separation of the malignant phyllodes tumour from spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma and primary breast sarcoma can be problematic. Phyllodes tumours are treated by surgical excision. However, there is no consensus on the definition of an appropriate surgical margin to ensure completeness of excision and reduction of recurrence risk. Interpretive subjectivity, overlapping histological diagnostic criteria, suboptimal correlation between histological classification and clinical behaviour and the lack of robust molecular predictors of outcome make further investigation of the pathogenesis of these fascinating tumours a matter of active research. This review consolidates the current understanding of their pathobiology and clinical behaviour, and includes proposals for a rational approach to the classification and management of phyllodes tumours. PMID:26768026

  9. Biomarkers characterization of circulating tumour cells in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence supports the view that the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) predicts outcomes of nonmetastatic breast cancer patients. CTCs differ genetically from the primary tumor and may contribute to variations in prognosis and response to therapy. As we start to understand more about the biology of CTCs, we can begin to address how best to treat this form of disease. Methods Ninety-eight nonmetastatic breast cancer patients were included in this study. CTCs were isolated by immunomagnetic techniques using magnetic beads labelled with a multi-CK-specific antibody (CK3-11D5) and CTC detection through immunocytochemical methods. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were evaluated by immunofluorescence experiments and HER2 and TOP2A by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We aimed to characterize this set of biomarkers in CTCs and correlate it with clinical-pathological characteristics. Results Baseline detection rate was 46.9% ≥ 1 CTC/30 ml threshold. CTC-positive cells were more frequent in HER2-negative tumors (p = 0.046). In patients younger than 50 years old, HER2-amplified and G1-G2 tumors had a higher possibility of being nondetectable CTCs. Heterogeneous expression of hormonal receptors (HRs) in samples from the same patients was found. Discordances between HR expression, HER2 and TOP2A status in CTCs and their primary tumor were found in the sequential blood samples. Less that 35% of patients switched their CTC status after receiving chemotherapy. EGFR-positive CTCs were associated with Luminal tumors (p = 0.03). Conclusions This is the largest exploratory CTC biomarker analysis in nonmetastatic BC patients. Our study suggests that CTC biomarkers profiles might be useful as a surrogate marker for therapeutic selection and monitoring since heterogeneity of the biomarker distribution in CTCs and the lack of correlation with the primary tumor biomarker status were found. Further

  10. Prognostic significance of tumour stroma ratio in inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Downey, Candice L; Thygesen, Helene H; Sharma, Nisha; Shaaban, Abeer M

    2015-01-01

    Tumour stroma ratio (TSR) is emerging as an important prognostic indicator in cancer. We have previously shown TSR to be prognostic in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Its role in inflammatory breast cancer, a rare but aggressive form of breast cancer, has not been identified. Here we aimed to determine the prognostic significance of TSR in a cohort of patients with inflammatory breast carcinoma. TSR was measured by point counting virtual H&E stained tissue sections in 45 inflammatory breast cancer cases. The whole tumour area was sampled. Optimum cut-offs to distinguish high and low TSR was determined by log-rank test. The relationship of TSR to overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed alongside multivariate analysis. The optimal cut-offs between high and low TSR were determined to be 31% for OS and 46% for DFS. There was no significant difference in OS (p = 0.53) nor DFS (p = 0.66) between high and low TSR groups. Multivariate analysis did not demonstrate any new trends, within the limits of a small data sample. A significant correlation was found between pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival (p = 0.008). There is no evidence that TSR has prognostic significance in inflammatory breast cancer. When compared with published data in non-inflammatory breast carcinoma, this supports the view that differences in stromal biology exist between tumour types and highlights the importance of considering this when interpreting the prognostic value of TSR. However, these findings must be interpreted in the light of the small sample size.

  11. The relationship between tumour budding, the tumour microenvironment and survival in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gujam, F J A; McMillan, D C; Mohammed, Z M A; Edwards, J; Going, J J

    2015-09-29

    Tumour budding has previously been reported to predict survival in several solid organ tumours, including breast; however, whether this is independent of other aspects of the tumour microenvironment is unknown. In the present study, the relationship between tumour budding, the tumour microenvironment and survival was examined in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. Patients presenting between 1995 and 1998 were studied (n=474). Using routine pathological sections, tumour budding was measured at the invasive margin and its association with clinicopathological characteristics and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was examined. Tumour budding was associated with several adverse pathological characteristics, including lymph node involvement, lymph vessel invasion (LVI), increased tumour stroma percentage (TSP) and weaker local inflammatory infiltrative. Tumour budding was associated with reduced CSS (hazard ratio (HR) 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-3.09, P=0.004), independent of nodal status, molecular subtypes, tumour necrosis, CD8+, CD138+, LVI, blood vessel invasion and TSP. Further, tumour budding was independently associated with reduced CSS in node-negative patients (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.16-5.92, P=0.020) and those who have low TSP (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.09-3.57, P=0.024) and high-grade local inflammatory infiltrative (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.35-5.36, P=0.014). Tumour budding was a significant predictor of survival in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer, independent of adverse pathological characteristics and components of tumour microenvironment. The present study further confirms the clinical utility of both tumour and host-based factors of tumour microenvironment.

  12. The relationship between tumour budding, the tumour microenvironment and survival in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gujam, F J A; McMillan, D C; Mohammed, Z M A; Edwards, J; Going, J J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumour budding has previously been reported to predict survival in several solid organ tumours, including breast; however, whether this is independent of other aspects of the tumour microenvironment is unknown. In the present study, the relationship between tumour budding, the tumour microenvironment and survival was examined in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. Methods: Patients presenting between 1995 and 1998 were studied (n=474). Using routine pathological sections, tumour budding was measured at the invasive margin and its association with clinicopathological characteristics and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was examined. Results: Tumour budding was associated with several adverse pathological characteristics, including lymph node involvement, lymph vessel invasion (LVI), increased tumour stroma percentage (TSP) and weaker local inflammatory infiltrative. Tumour budding was associated with reduced CSS (hazard ratio (HR) 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–3.09, P=0.004), independent of nodal status, molecular subtypes, tumour necrosis, CD8+, CD138+, LVI, blood vessel invasion and TSP. Further, tumour budding was independently associated with reduced CSS in node-negative patients (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.16–5.92, P=0.020) and those who have low TSP (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.09–3.57, P=0.024) and high-grade local inflammatory infiltrative (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.35–5.36, P=0.014). Conclusions: Tumour budding was a significant predictor of survival in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer, independent of adverse pathological characteristics and components of tumour microenvironment. The present study further confirms the clinical utility of both tumour and host-based factors of tumour microenvironment. PMID:26263482

  13. Increase in ezrin expression from benign to malignant breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Natter, Camilla; Steurer, Stefan; Walter, Ingrid; Thomas, Almut; Salama, Mohamed; Singer, Christian F

    2013-12-01

    Ezrin is known to be involved in intercellular interactions, and a shift from membrane-bound to cytoplasmatic protein expression has been associated with malignant potential. This association has primarily been demonstrated in cell lines and, as yet, little is known about the distribution of ezrin in primary benign and malignant breast tissues. We have, therefore, set out to investigate ezrin protein expression in a series of primary breast lesions. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect ezrin expression in 465 samples of normal breast tissues, benign breast tumours, pre-invasive breast lesions, breast cancer tissues and metastatic lymph nodes, and the protein expression patterns observed were correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Ezrin was detected in the cytoplasm of both benign and malignant breast tissues, but its expression was significantly higher in the malignant tissues (13 % vs 60 %, p < 0.0001; χ (2) test). We also detected a statistically significant higher ezrin expression in pre-invasive lesions compared to benign lesions (15 % vs 44 %, p = 0.04; χ (2) test). We did not find such a difference in ezrin expression between pre-invasive and invasive cancer samples, nor between invasive cancer samples and lymph node metastases. Within the group of invasive cancer samples, we found a significant correlation between ezrin expression and CK14 (rs:0.38, p < 0.007) and Her2 (rs:0.25, p < 0.002) expression. No such correlation was observed between ezrin expression and nodal status, grading, patient's age, hormone receptor status, and Ki67 or p53 expression. Taken together, we found that cytoplasmatic ezrin expression increases from benign to malignant breast tumour development. We hypothesize that the tissue architectural alterations that are associated with aberrant ezrin expression may point at pathophysiological mechanisms that may be instrumental for the design of novel therapies.

  14. Lymphoid tumours and breast cancer in ataxia telangiectasia; substantial protective effect of residual ATM kinase activity against childhood tumours

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, A; Srinivasan, V; Barone, G; Last, J I; Wootton, L L; Davies, E G; Verhagen, M M; Willemsen, M A; Weemaes, C M; Byrd, P J; Izatt, L; Easton, D F; Thompson, D J; Taylor, A M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Immunodeficiency in ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is less severe in patients expressing some mutant or normal ATM kinase activity. We, therefore, determined whether expression of residual ATM kinase activity also protected against tumour development in A-T. Methods: From a total of 296 consecutive genetically confirmed A-T patients from the British Isles and the Netherlands, we identified 66 patients who developed a malignant tumour; 47 lymphoid tumours and 19 non-lymphoid tumours were diagnosed. We determined their ATM mutations, and whether cells from these patients expressed any ATM with residual ATM kinase activity. Results: In childhood, total absence of ATM kinase activity was associated, almost exclusively, with development of lymphoid tumours. There was an overwhelming preponderance of tumours in patients <16 years without kinase activity compared with those with some residual activity, consistent with a substantial protective effect of residual ATM kinase activity against tumour development in childhood. In addition, the presence of eight breast cancers in A-T patients, a 30-fold increased risk, establishes breast cancer as part of the A-T phenotype. Conclusion: Overall, a spectrum of tumour types is associated with A-T, consistent with involvement of ATM in different mechanisms of tumour formation. Tumour type was influenced by ATM allelic heterogeneity, residual ATM kinase activity and age. PMID:21792198

  15. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging of breast cancer: association with histopathological features and subtypes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunju; Ko, Kyounglan; Kim, Daehong; Min, Changki; Kim, Sungheon G; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Boram

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the associations between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters and histopathological features and subtypes of breast cancer. Pre-operative MRI from 275 patients with unilateral breast cancer was analyzed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM parameters [tissue diffusion coefficient (Dt), perfusion fraction (fp) and pseudodiffusion coefficient] were obtained from cancer and normal tissue using diffusion-weighted imaging with b-values of 0, 30, 70, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 800 s mm(-2). We then compared the IVIM parameters of tumours with different histopathological features and subtypes. The ADC and Dt were lower and fp was higher in cancers than in normal tissues (p < 0.001). The Dt was lower in high Ki-67 cancer than in low Ki-67 cancer (p = 0.019), whereas ADC showed no significant difference (p = 0.309). Luminal B [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative] cancer showed lower ADC (p = 0.003) and Dt (p = 0.001) than other types. We found low tissue diffusivity in high Ki-67 cancer and luminal B (HER2-negative) cancer using IVIM imaging. Low tissue diffusivity is more clearly shown in high Ki-67 tumours and luminal B (HER2-negative) tumours with the IVIM model.

  16. Mucoadhesive Oral Wound Rinse in Preventing and Treating Stomatitis in Patients With ER- or PR-Positive Metastatic or Locally Recurrent Breast Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery Receiving Everolimus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Oral Complications; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  17. Patient-derived tumour xenografts for breast cancer drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Ankita S; Greenwood, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Despite remarkable advances in our understanding of the drivers of human malignancies, new targeted therapies often fail to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials. Indeed, the cost of bringing a new agent to market has risen substantially in the last several decades, in part fuelled by extensive reliance on preclinical models that fail to accurately reflect tumour heterogeneity. To halt unsustainable rates of attrition in the drug discovery process, we must develop a new generation of preclinical models capable of reflecting the heterogeneity of varying degrees of complexity found in human cancers. Patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDTX) models prevail as arguably the most powerful in this regard because they capture cancer’s heterogeneous nature. Herein, we review current breast cancer models and their use in the drug discovery process, before discussing best practices for developing a highly annotated cohort of PDTX models. We describe the importance of extensive multidimensional molecular and functional characterisation of models and combination drug–drug screens to identify complex biomarkers of drug resistance and response. We reflect on our own experiences and propose the use of a cost-effective intermediate pharmacogenomic platform (the PDTX-PDTC platform) for breast cancer drug and biomarker discovery. We discuss the limitations and unanswered questions of PDTX models; yet, still strongly envision that their use in basic and translational research will dramatically change our understanding of breast cancer biology and how to more effectively treat it. PMID:27702751

  18. The Er/Ki-67 Proportion in Breast Tumours - An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Rachna; Rai, M K

    2016-04-01

    Breast tumours are classified as benign, proliferative and invasive tumours. Estrogen hormone influences the proliferative activity and progression of the tumour. Estrogen Receptor (ER) status and proliferative index (Ki 67) are important histopathological factors in the development and prognosis of these tumours. The present study was aimed to evaluate the variations in ER and Ki-67 expression in three broad categories of breast lesions namely benign breast disease, proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease. ER% and Ki-67% was evaluated on the histopathological tissues of 15 patients each of benign, proliferative and invasive breast tumours. The ER+/ Ki-67± ratio was calculated and the variation of expression between the three categories was analyzed using student's t-test. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to correlate ER and Ki-67 positivity within each category. The mean ER+/Ki-67+ in benign, proliferative and invasive tumours was 0.81, 0.87 and 1.42 respectively. A statistically significant difference in ER+/Ki-67+ proportions was observed between proliferative breast disease category and malignant breast disease category and also between benign breast disease category and malignant breast disease category (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in benign breast disease category and proliferative breast disease category (p>0.05). A significant correlation was observed in proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease categories. However, no significant correlation was observed in benign breast disease category. ER+/Ki-67+ ratio is an important determinant of the invasive breast cancer and can be used to differentiate invasive cancers from benign and proliferative breast tumours.

  19. Tumour-adapted Reduction Mammoplasty – a New (Old) Breast Conserving Strategy: Review

    PubMed Central

    Eichbaum, M.; Dietrich, A.; Reinhard, J.; Steinwasser, R.; Eichbaum, C.

    2016-01-01

    Today over 70 % of patients treated for primary breast carcinoma in certified breast centres are managed with breast conserving surgery. The classical semicircular incision directly above the tumour, though in many cases easily carried out and associated with good cosmetic results, does have limitations. Unsatisfactory aesthetic results often occur when tumour location is unfavourable or when there is unfavourable tumour size relative to breast size. Distortion of the nipple, changes to breast shape and retraction of skin overlying surgical defects can occur. Tumour-adapted reduction mammoplasty/mastopexy or the “modified B technique” offer excellent chances of combining the oncological demands of breast surgery with satisfactory symmetrical cosmetic results. This article reviews a traditional, old operative technique that has been re-embraced in various new forms. PMID:26855438

  20. Breast carcinoma and phyllodes tumour: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sin, Eliza I-Lin; Wong, Chow Yin; Yong, Wei Sean; Ong, Kong Wee; Madhukumar, Preetha; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Thike, Aye Aye; Tan, Puay Hoon; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee

    2016-04-01

    Malignant transformation of the epithelial component of phyllodes tumours (PT) is rare and only reported in literature as sporadic cases of carcinoma associated with PTs. We report the clinicopathological characteristics of in situ and invasive carcinoma coexisting with PT in 10 patients treated in our institution over an 11-year period from 1992 to 2012. Ten patients with coexisting PT and in situ or invasive carcinoma were identified from our records. Six had carcinoma found within the PT. All were female with a median age of 47 (43-72) years. One patient had a history of PT in the same breast while another had a history of PT in the same breast as well as invasive ductal carcinoma in the contralateral breast. The rest did not have any risk factors of breast cancer. Five patients had a preoperative core needle biopsy performed with the report of a fibroepithelial lesion. The rest of the patients had surgery upfront for their breast masses. Two patients who had ER/PR positive invasive carcinoma received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Patients were followed up for a mean of 3.6 years (9 months-10 years) and all patients were alive and recurrence free. PT associated with carcinoma is rare, and we present a series of cases that add to the limited current literature. It is often difficult to detect the presence of the carcinomatous component preoperatively. Hence, close examination of resected PT specimens must be carried out to allow prompt detection of any associated carcinomas, however rare, such that adequate treatment can be given.

  1. Mesenchymal tumours of the breast and their mimics: a review with approach to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Alison L; Billings, Steven D; Rowe, J Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal tumours of the breast comprise a broad spectrum of entities that frequently pose diagnostic challenges to surgical pathologists. Metaplastic carcinoma and phyllodes tumour are site-specific mimics that account for the majority of tumours in the breast with a sarcomatoid appearance. Although uncommon, mammary tumours with fibroblastic, adipocytic or vascular differentiation may be encountered, spanning the spectrum from benign to malignant. Tumours with histiocytoid morphology are potential traps due to bland cytomorphology and resemblance to reactive processes. This comprehensive review provides a diagnostic approach to specific challenging mesenchymal tumours of the breast and their mimics, with a discussion on the salient morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features that allow accurate diagnosis and will help the pathologist avoid potential pitfalls. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Granular cell tumour of the breast: MRI findings and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Scaranelo, A M; Bukhanov, K; Crystal, P; Mulligan, A M; O'Malley, F P

    2007-12-01

    Granular cell tumours (GCTs) are uncommon, usually benign neoplasms that can mimic malignancy on breast imaging. GCTs can originate anywhere in the body but are most frequently found in the head and neck area, particularly in the oral cavity. When occurring in the breast, as occurs in 5-8% of all cases of GCT, the clinical presentation is similar to that of a primary breast carcinoma. We report a case of granular cell tumour of the breast presenting as a suspicious lesion on breast imaging, and review the MRI features of GCTs.

  3. Primary neuroendocrine tumour of the breast: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tato-Varela, Sara; Albalat-Fernández, Rosa; Pabón-Fernández, Sara; Zarco, Enrique Rodríguez; Calle-Marcos, Manolo La

    2015-01-01

    Primary neuroendocrine tumour of the breast is a rare entity that first appeared in the 2003 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of breast tumours. The data currently available on its prognosis are contradictory, although it seems clear that histological varieties such as small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma have a worse prognosis, due to their low degree of differentiation. The treatment of choice is surgery, and the indications for chemotherapy or radiotherapy do not differ greatly from those used for other breast tumours. It is crucial to underline the difficulty of establishing treatment protocols due to the low incidence of this histological type. PMID:26798407

  4. Epigenetic regulation of the ras effector/tumour suppressor RASSF2 in breast and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cooper, W N; Dickinson, R E; Dallol, A; Grigorieva, E V; Pavlova, T V; Hesson, L B; Bieche, I; Broggini, M; Maher, E R; Zabarovsky, E R; Clark, G J; Latif, F

    2008-03-13

    RASSF2 is a recently identified member of a class of novel tumour suppressor genes, all containing a ras-association domain. RASSF2 resides at 20p13, a region frequently lost in human cancers. In this report we investigated methylation status of the RASSF2 promoter CpG island in a series of breast, ovarian and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). RASSF2 was frequently methylated in breast tumour cell lines (65%, 13/20) and in primary breast tumours (38%, 15/40). RASSF2 expression could be switched back on in methylated breast tumour cell lines after treatment with 5'-aza-2'deoxycytidine. RASSF2 was also frequently methylated in NSCLC tumours (44%, (22/50). The small number of corresponding normal breast and lung tissue DNA samples analysed were unmethylated. We also did not detect RASSF2 methylation in ovarian tumours (0/17). Furthermore no mutations were found in the coding region of RASSF2 in these ovarian tumours. We identified a highly conserved putative bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and demonstrated that endogenous RASSF2 localized to the nucleus. Mutation of the putative NLS abolished the nuclear localization. RASSF2 suppressed breast tumour cell growth in vitro and in vivo, while the ability of NLS-mutant RASSF2 to suppress growth was much diminished. Hence we demonstrate that RASSF2 has a functional NLS that is important for its tumour suppressor gene function. Our data from this and a previous report indicate that RASSF2 is frequently methylated in colorectal, breast and NSCLC tumours. We have identified RASSF2 as a novel methylation marker for multiple malignancies and it has the potential to be developed into a valuable marker for screening several cancers in parallel using promoter hypermethylation profiles.

  5. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  6. Preoperative estimation of the pathological breast tumour size by physical examination, mammography and ultrasound: a prospective study on 105 invasive tumours.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Anne M; Kessels, Alfons G H; Beets, Geerard L; Rupa, Jan D; Koster, Dick; van Engelshoven, Jos M A; von Meyenfeldt, Maarten F

    2003-12-01

    The clinical breast tumour size can be assessed preoperatively by physical examination, mammography and ultrasound. At present it is not clear which modality correlates best with the histological invasive breast tumour size. This prospective study aims to determine the most accurate clinical method (physical examination, mammography or ultrasound) to predict the histological invasive tumour size preoperatively. Between October 1999 and August 2000, 96 women with 105 invasive malignant breast tumours were included in this study. All patients underwent excision and the tumour size was measured on histology. Tumour size was measured by all three modalities in 73 cases. Results were evaluated by calculating correlation coefficients. The examination modalities presenting the best estimation of the pathological tumour size were used in a stepwise linear regression analysis to construct a formula predicting the pathological tumour size from the result of the various diagnostic modalities. The correlation coefficient between ultrasound and pathological size (r=0.68) was significantly better than the correlations between physical examination and pathological size (r=0.42) and mammographic and pathological size (r=0.44). Physical examination overestimates and ultrasound underestimates breast tumour classification. The most accurate prediction formula was: Pathological tumour size (mm) equals sonographic tumour size (mm)+3 mm. When comparing physical examination, mammography and ultrasound for the prediction of the pathological size of a malignant breast tumour, ultrasound is the best predictor. The ensuing regression formula determines pathological size as tumour size by ultrasound+3 mm. However, with the wide 95% confidence interval of +/-11 mm, it remains difficult to predict the exact pathological size for an individual invasive breast tumour. A small deviation in millimetres of the tumour size could lead to a change in treatment and to another prognostic estimate.

  7. Specific-site methylation of tumour suppressor ANKRD11 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sue Ping; Wong, Nick C; Suetani, Rachel J; Ho, Kristen; Ng, Jane Lee; Neilsen, Paul M; Gill, Peter G; Kumar, Raman; Callen, David F

    2012-11-01

    ANKRD11 is a putative tumour suppressor gene in breast cancer, which has been shown in our laboratory to be a co-activator of p53. Our data suggest that down-regulation of ANKRD11 is associated with breast tumourigenesis. Breast cancer cell lines treated with DNA demethylating agents resulted in up-regulation of ANKRD11 expression suggesting that promoter DNA methylation may be responsible for its down-regulation. The transcriptional activity of a CpG-rich region 2kb upstream of the transcription initiation site of ANKRD11 was investigated using dual-luciferase reporter assays. The constructs carrying -661 to -571 bp promoter sequence showed significant transcriptional activity. Using the SEQUENOM Epityper Platform, the region between -770 and +399 bp was analysed in 25 breast tumours, four normal breast tissues and five normal blood samples. The region between -770 and -323 bp was shown to be frequently methylated in breast tumours. The methylation patterns of all analysed CpGs in this region were identical in the normal and tumour samples, except for a 19 bp region containing three CpG sites. These sites had significantly higher levels of methylation in tumours (40%) compared to normal samples (6%). Our findings support the role of ANKRD11 as a tumour suppressor gene and suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of three CpGs in a 19 bp region within the ANKRD11 promoter may be responsible for its down-regulation in breast cancer.

  8. Tumour prothymosin alpha content, a potential prognostic marker for primary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Magdalena, C; Dominguez, F; Loidi, L; Puente, J L

    2000-01-01

    In a previous report we suggested that the estimation of prothymosin α (PTA) levels in primary breast tumours might be used to identify breast cancer patients at high risk for distant metastasis (Dominguez F et al (1993) Eur J Cancer29A: 893–897). Here the role of tumour PTA levels as predictor was investigated with respect to both disease-free survival (DFS) and survival. Tumours were obtained from a series of 210 consecutive female patients with ductal carcinoma who underwent surgery at the Hospital Xeral de Galicia (Santiago de Compostela, Spain). Characteristics including PTA tumour levels, number of positive axillary nodes, patient's age at surgery and tumour histological grade were significantly associated with DFS and survival, as determined by univariate analysis. Patients with tumours with low or moderate PTA levels demonstrated a statistically decreased rate of tumour recurrence and a statistically significant increased overall survival in comparison with those whose tumours had high PTA levels. Patient's relative risk of dying was 2.1 times greater for tumours with high PTA levels than for those tumours with low or moderate PTA levels. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that tumour high PTA levels is associated with a worse outcome. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10682670

  9. Aurora-A amplification associated with BRCA2 mutation in breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Bodvarsdottir, Sigridur K; Hilmarsdottir, Holmfridur; Birgisdottir, Valgerdur; Steinarsdottir, Margret; Jonasson, Jon G; Eyfjord, Jorunn E

    2007-04-08

    Potential interaction of Aurora-A amplification and BRCA2 mutation was examined in breast tumours from BRCA2 999del5 mutation carriers (n=20) and non-carriers (n=41). Aurora-A amplification studied by FISH was significantly more common in breast tumours from BRCA2 mutation carriers (p=0.0005). Extensive Aurora-A amplification was also detected on metaphase chromosomes in three breast epithelial cell lines with the same BRCA2 mutation. In addition, significant association was found between Aurora-A amplification and TP53 mutations in non-BRCA2 mutation carrier tumours (p=0.007). These results suggest that breast tumours with mutations in BRCA2 or TP53 could be promising candidates for Aurora-A targeted treatment.

  10. Tumour-related factors and prognosis in breast cancer detected by screening.

    PubMed

    Olsson, A; Borgquist, S; Butt, S; Zackrisson, S; Landberg, G; Manjer, J

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer detected by screening has an unexplained prognostic advantage beyond stage shift compared with cancers detected clinically. The aim was to investigate biological factors in invasive breast cancer, with reference to mode of detection and rate of death from breast cancer. Histology, oestrogen receptor α and β, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2, cyclin D1, p27, Ki-67 and perinodal growth were analysed in 466 tumours from a prospective cohort, the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Using logistic regression, odds ratios were calculated to investigate the relationship between tumour characteristics and mode of detection. The same tumour factors were analysed in relation to standard prognostic features. Death from breast cancer was analysed using Cox regression with adjustments for standard tumour factors; differences following adjustment were analysed by means of Freedman statistics. None of the biological tumour characteristics varied with mode of detection of breast cancer. After adjustment for age, tumour size, axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI) and grade, women with cancer detected clinically had an increased risk of death from breast cancer (hazard ratio 2·48, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·34 to 4·59), corresponding to a 37·2 per cent difference compared with the unadjusted model. Additional adjustment for biological tumour factors studied caused only minor changes. None of the biological tumour markers investigated explained the improved prognosis in breast cancer detected by screening. None of the factors was related to ALNI, suggesting that other mechanisms may be responsible for tumour spread. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  12. Palliative systemic therapy and overall survival of 1,395 patients with advanced breast cancer - Results from the prospective German TMK cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fietz, Thomas; Tesch, Hans; Rauh, Jacqueline; Boller, Emil; Kruggel, Lisa; Jänicke, Martina; Marschner, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    Data on treatment and outcome of advanced breast cancer in routine practice are rare, especially concerning recurrent disease, but important to complement the results from clinical trials and to improve the standard of care. We present data on choice of systemic first-line treatment, number of treatment lines, and survival of patients treated by medical oncologists in Germany. 1395 patients recruited by 124 sites at start of first-line therapy into the ongoing, prospective German clinical cohort study TMK (Tumour Registry Breast Cancer) between February 2007 and October 2015 were analysed. The median OS was 33.8 months (95% CI 30.2-40.2) for HR-positive/HER2-negative, 38.2 months (95% CI 31.3-43.0) for HER2-positive and 16.8 months (95% CI 11.5-22.0) for triple negative breast cancer. Patients with triple negative tumours more often died before start of a third-line therapy than patients with HR-positive or HER2-positive tumours (44% vs. 25%). Use of taxane-based chemotherapies has increased since 2007, with 65% of all first-line chemotherapy-treatments containing taxanes in 2013-15 (60% HR-positive/HER2-negative, 75% HER2-positive, 56% triple negative). 52% of the patients with HR-positive/HER2-negative tumours received first-line endocrine therapy in 2013-15; when restricted to patients with only non-visceral metastases this percentage increased to 63%. To our knowledge, this is the first cohort study showing systemic first-line therapy for all subtypes of advanced breast cancer. Overall survival in the TMK is comparable to that reported by clinical trials despite the inclusion of older and comorbid patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreased NK-cell tumour immunosurveillance consequent to JAK inhibition enhances metastasis in breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Bottos, Alessia; Gotthardt, Dagmar; Gill, Jason W.; Gattelli, Albana; Frei, Anna; Tzankov, Alexandar; Sexl, Veronika; Wodnar-Filipowicz, Aleksandra; Hynes, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    The JAK/STAT pathway is an attractive target for breast cancer therapy due to its frequent activation, and clinical trials evaluating JAK inhibitors (JAKi) in advanced breast cancer are ongoing. Using patient biopsies and preclinical models of breast cancer, we demonstrate that the JAK/STAT pathway is active in metastasis. Unexpectedly, blocking the pathway with JAKi enhances the metastatic burden in experimental and orthotopic models of breast cancer metastasis. We demonstrate that this prometastatic effect is due to the immunosuppressive activity of JAKi with ensuing impairment of NK-cell-mediated anti-tumour immunity. Furthermore, we show that immunostimulation with IL-15 overcomes the enhancing effect of JAKi on metastasis formation. Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating the effect of targeted therapy on the tumour environment. The impact of JAKi on NK cells and the potential value of immunostimulators to overcome the weakened tumour immunosurveillance, are worthwhile considering in the clinical setting of breast cancer. PMID:27406745

  14. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression. PMID:21521500

  15. Periostin promotes immunosuppressive premetastatic niche formation to facilitate breast tumour metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Xiong, Shanshan; Mao, Yubin; Chen, Mimi; Ma, Xiaohong; Zhou, Xueliang; Ma, Zhenling; Liu, Fan; Huang, Zhengjie; Luo, Qi; Ouyang, Gaoliang

    2016-08-01

    Periostin (POSTN) is a limiting factor in the metastatic colonization of disseminated tumour cells. However, the role of POSTN in regulating the immunosuppressive function of immature myeloid cells in tumour metastasis has not been documented. Here, we demonstrate that POSTN promotes the pulmonary accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) during the early stage of breast tumour metastasis. Postn deletion decreases neutrophil and monocytic cell populations in the bone marrow of mice and suppresses the accumulation of MDSCs to premetastatic sites. We also found that POSTN-deficient MDSCs display reduced activation of ERK, AKT and STAT3 and that POSTN deficiency decreases the immunosuppressive functions of MDSCs during tumour progression. Moreover, the pro-metastatic role of POSTN is largely limited to ER-negative breast cancer patients. Lysyl oxidase contributes to POSTN-promoted premetastatic niche formation and tumour metastasis. Our findings indicate that POSTN is essential for immunosuppressive premetastatic niche formation in the lungs during breast tumour metastasis and is a potential target for the prevention and treatment of breast tumour metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The morphological spectrum of salivary gland type tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Foschini, Maria P; Morandi, Luca; Asioli, Sofia; Giove, Gianluca; Corradini, Angelo G; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2017-02-01

    Salivary gland like tumours of the breast constitute a wide spectrum of entities each one showing peculiar features and clinical behaviour. They can be subdivided as follows: (1) tumours showing pure myoepithelial cell differentiation, such as pure benign and malignant myoepitheliomas; (2) tumours with mixed epithelial and myoepithelial cell differentiation, such as pleomorphic adenoma, adenomyoepithelioma and adenoid cystic carcinoma; and (3) tumours with pure epithelial cell differentiation, such as acinic cell carcinoma, oncocytic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and polymorphous adenocarcinoma. These tumours share similar features with the salivary gland counterparts, but different clinical behaviour. Most salivary gland type tumours of the breast are negative for oestrogen and progesterone receptor and lack HER2 gene amplification, therefore they are classified as 'triple negative' tumours. Nevertheless, some of the malignant entities (such as classical adenoid cystic carcinoma) exhibit good behaviour and do not need any treatment in addition to local control. The aim of the present paper is to review the morphological and prognostic features of salivary gland like tumours of the breast, in order to highlight the correct clinical management. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prognostic impact of tumour-specific HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Borgquist, Signe; Jögi, Annika; Pontén, Fredrik; Rydén, Lisa; Brennan, Donal J; Jirström, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We have previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), in the mevalonate pathway is associated with more favourable tumour parameters in breast cancer. In the present study, we examined the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression in a large cohort of primary breast cancer patients with long-term follow up. Methods The expression of HMG-CoAR was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays with tumour specimens from 498 consecutive cases of breast cancer with a median follow-up of 128 months. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the rate of recurrence-free survival (RFS) and breast cancer specific survival (BCSS). Results In line with our previous findings, tumour-specific HMG-CoAR expression was associated with low grade (p < 0.001), small size (p = 0.007), oestrogen receptor (ER) positive (p = 0.01), low Ki-67 (p = 0.02) tumours. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS, even when adjusted for established prognostic factors (relative risk [RR] = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40 to 0.92; p = 0.02). In ER-negative tumours, however, there was a trend, that was not significantly significant, towards a shorter RFS in HMG-CoAR expressing tumours. Conclusions HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of a prolonged RFS in primary breast cancer. This may, however, not be true for ER-negative tumours. Further studies are needed to shed light on the value of HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially with respect to hormone receptor status. PMID:18808688

  18. A Study Evaluating INIPARIB in Combination With Chemotherapy to Treat Triple Negative Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative (ER-Negative) Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Negative (PR-Negative) Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Negative (HER2-Negative) Breast Cancer; Brain Metastases

  19. Short-term primary culture of epithelial cells derived from human breast tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, V.; Green, A. R.; Walton, D. S.; Kerin, M. J.; Fox, J. N.; Carleton, P. J.; Desai, S. B.; Atkin, S. L.

    1998-01-01

    As experimental models for breast cancer, most studies rely on established human breast cancer cell lines. However, many of these lines were established over 20 years ago, many from pleural effusions rather than the primary tumour, so the validity of using them as representative models is questionable. This paper describes our experiences, over a 3-year period, in establishing short-term epithelial-cell-enriched preparations from primary breast tumours based on differential centrifugation followed by culture in selective media. Epithelial cells were successfully cultured from 55% of samples, but culture success did not appear to be correlated with tumour histology, stage, grade or node status. Epithelial cell-enriched cultures were immunopositive for broad-spectrum cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). Positivity for keratin 19 confirmed that the cultures contained tumour-derived cells, which additionally showed significantly higher activity of the reductive pathway of the steroid-converting enzyme 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I. That the cultures contained tumour and not normal epithelial cells was further substantiated by the complete absence of the calmodulin-like gene NB-1 in tumour-derived cultures; this is only associated with normal breast epithelia. Eighty-five per cent of cultures established from oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumours expressed ER in vitro; this was functional in 66% of cultures, although ER-positive phenotype was gradually lost over time. In conclusion, epithelial cells can be isolated and maintained as short-term cultures from primary breast tumours irrespective of histopathological or clinical details, providing a model system with a greater biological and clinical relevance than breast cancer cell lines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:9836473

  20. Conductive thermal ablation of 4T1 murine breast carcinoma reduces severe hypoxia in surviving tumour.

    PubMed

    Przybyla, Beata D; Shafirstein, Gal; Koonce, Nathan A; Webber, Jessica S; Griffin, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify hypoxia changes in viable tumour volumes after thermal ablation of a murine breast carcinoma. Murine breast 4T1 tumours were grown in the rear leg of BALB/c mice to an average diameter of 10-12 mm. Tumours were treated with conductive interstitial thermal therapy (CITT) at a peak temperature of 80-90°C for 10 min. The animals were euthanised 72 h later, and the tumours were removed for immunohistochemical staining with pimonidazole - a marker of partial pressure of oxygen. The levels of pimonidazole staining intensity were used to quantify changes in hypoxia gradients in terms of strong, medium and weak positive pixel fractions. The pimonidazole staining ratio of viable control tumour tissue to viable tissue in tumours that were ablated was 0.7 for weak staining, 2.7 for medium staining and 8.0 (p < 0.03) for strong pimonidazole staining. This shift of pimonidazole staining toward lower intensity pixels in the remaining tumour indicates that tumour ablation with CITT may increase radiosensitivity of the remaining tumour tissue and presents a rationale for combination therapy.

  1. Targeting tumour-initiating cells to improve the cure rates for triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anna L; Reipas, Kristen; Maxwell, Christopher; Dunn, Sandra E

    2010-07-26

    Tumour recurrence is one of the biggest challenges in breast cancer management because it affects 25-30% of women with breast cancer and the tumours are often incurable. Women with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC--lacking expression of the oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and the receptor HER2/ERBB2) have the highest rates of early recurrence relative to other breast cancer subtypes. Early recurrence might be due to tumour-initiating cells (TICs), which are resistant to conventional therapies, can remain dormant and can subsequently give rise to secondary tumours. In breast cancer, TICs are identified by the cell-surface markers CD44+/CD24-/EpCAM+ and/or possess ALDH1 enzyme activity. This subpopulation has the ability to self-renew, grow as mammospheres and initiate tumour formation. Fuelling the problem of relapse is the fact that chemotherapy and radiation can induce or select for TICs; this was reported in preclinical models and more recently in women being treated for breast cancer. Thus, new therapeutic agents for TNBC are presently being sought to overcome this problem. Here we review the roles of receptor tyrosine kinases, signalling intermediates and transcription factors in sustaining the TIC subpopulation. Particular emphasis is placed on targeting these molecules in order to eliminate and/or prevent the induction of TICs and ultimately reduce the frequency of TNBC recurrence.

  2. Significance of the detection of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Everett, David J

    2004-01-01

    This issue of Journal of Applied Toxicology publishes the paper Concentrations of Parabens in Human Breast Tumours by Darbre et al. (2004), which reports that esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) can be detected in samples of tissue from human breast tumours. Breast tumour samples were supplied from 20 patients, in collaboration with the Edinburgh Breast Unit Research Group, and analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in underarm deodorants and antiperspirants and in a wide range of other consumer products. The parabens also have inherent oestrogenic and other hormone related activity (increased progesterone receptor gene expression). As oestrogen is a major aetiological factor in the growth and development of the majority of human breast cancers, it has been previously suggested by Darbre that parabens and other chemicals in underarm cosmetics may contribute to the rising incidence of breast cancer. The significance of the finding of parabens in tumour samples is discussed here in terms of 1). Darbre et al's study design, 2). what can be inferred from this type of data (and what can not, such as the cause of these tumours), 3). the toxicology of these compounds and 4). the limitations of the existing toxicology database and the need to consider data that is appropriate to human exposures. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Expression of pepsinogen C in human breast tumours and correlation with clinicopathologic parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Diez-Itza, I.; Merino, A. M.; Tolivia, J.; Vizoso, F.; Sánchez, L. M.; López-Otín, C.

    1993-01-01

    We have examined by immunohistochemistry the ability of breast carcinomas to produce pepsinogen C, an aspartyl proteinase usually involved in the digestion of proteins in the stomach. A total of 113 out of 245 breast tumours (46%) were positive for pepsinogen C immunostaining. There was a significant association between pepsinogen C and oestrogen receptors with proteinase levels higher (HSCORE) in oestrogen receptor positive tumours than in oestrogen receptor negative. There was also a significant association between pepsinogen C and histological grade, pepsinogen C levels being higher in well and moderately differentiated breast carcinomas than in poorly differentiated tumours. On the basis of these results, we suggest that pepsinogen C may be useful as a marker of good prognosis in breast cancer. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 PMID:8353054

  4. MicroRNA-based molecular classification of non-BRCA1/2 hereditary breast tumours

    PubMed Central

    Tanic, M; Andrés, E; M Rodriguez-Pinilla, S; Marquez-Rodas, I; Cebollero-Presmanes, M; Fernandez, V; Osorio, A; Benítez, J; Martinez-Delgado, B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hereditary breast cancer comprises 5–10% of all breast cancers. Mutations in two high-risk susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, along with rare intermediate-risk genes and common low-penetrance alleles identified, altogether explain no more than 45% of the high-risk breast cancer families, although the majority of cases are unaccounted for and are designated as BRCAX tumours. Micro RNAs have called great attention for classification of different cancer types and have been implicated in a range of important biological processes and are deregulated in cancer pathogenesis. Methods: Here we have performed an exploratory hypothesis-generating study of miRNA expression profiles in a large series of 66 primary hereditary breast tumours by microarray analysis. Results: Unsupervised clustering analysis of miRNA molecular profiles revealed distinct subgroups of BRCAX tumours, ‘normal-like' BRCAX-A, ‘proliferative' BRCAX-B, ‘BRCA1/2-like' BRCAX-C and ‘undefined' BRCAX-D subgroup. These findings introduce a new insight in the biology of hereditary breast cancer, defining specific BRCAX subgroups, which could help in the search for novel susceptibility pathways in hereditary breast cancer. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that BRCAX hereditary breast tumours can be sub-classified into four previously unknown homogenous groups characterised by specific miRNA expression signatures and histopathological features. PMID:24104964

  5. Inflammatory peroxidases promote breast cancer progression in mice via regulation of the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Leach, Damien A; Zinonos, Irene; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Licari, Giovanni; Liapis, Vasilios; Ingman, Wendy V; Anderson, Peter; DeNichilo, Mark O; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are heme-containing enzymes, well known for their antimicrobial activity, are released in high quantities by infiltrating immune cells in breast cancer. However, the functional importance of their presence within the tumour microenvironment is unclear. We have recently described a new role for peroxidases as key regulators of fibroblast and endothelial cell functionality. In the present study, we investigate for the first time, the ability of peroxidases to promote breast cancer development and progression. Using the 4T1 syngeneic murine orthotopic breast cancer model, we examined whether increased levels of peroxidases in developing mammary tumours influences primary tumour growth and metastasis. We showed that MPO and EPO stimulation increased mammary tumour growth and enhanced lung metastases, effects that were associated with reduced tumour necrosis, increased collagen deposition and neo-vascularisation within the primary tumour. In vitro, peroxidase treatment, robustly stimulated human mammary fibroblast migration and collagen type I and type VI secretion. Mechanistically, peroxidases induced the transcription of pro-tumorigenic and metastatic MMP1, MMP3 and COX-2 genes. Taken together, these findings identify peroxidases as key contributors to cancer progression by augmenting pro-tumorigenic collagen production and angiogenesis. Importantly, this identifies inflammatory peroxidases as therapeutic targets in breast cancer therapy.

  6. Ultrasound-guided microwave ablation: a promising tool in management of benign breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbin; Wang, Ruoxi; Liu, Xiaoan; Ling, Lijun; Liang, Mengdi; Li, Cuiying; Ma, Ge; Li, Li; Pan, Hong; Gong, Haiyan; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Shui

    2016-11-10

    Non-surgical treatments for benign breast tumours have clinical goals of stopping growth and/or reducing (removing) palpable tumours effect without leaving a surgical scar. The purpose of this non-randomised prospective clinical trial was to assess imaging and clinical outcomes of microwave ablation (MWA) in the treatment of benign breast tumours regardless of the distance from the tumour to the skin and chest wall. With approval of the institutional ethics committee and written informed consent, 39 patients with 44 core-biopsy-proved benign breast tumours 3.0 cm or less in diameter assessed by using ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) were prospectively recruited. US-guided MWA was performed under local anaesthesia. The patients were followed up with physical examination, ultrasound elastography and CEUS. The MWA procedure with a mean duration of 74.3 s ± 26.5 was well accepted and tolerated in 41 cases except for three cases. Of 41 tumours with follow-up data, 40 (97.5%; 95% confidence interval: 87.1%, 99.9%) showed complete ablation assessed by using CEUS. The mean volume of the ablated tumours decreased significantly (p = .005) during follow-up. The strain ratio 1-3 months after ablation was higher than that before ablation, and became low 6 months after ablation (p = .022). No epidermal burn was observed in all cases with a mean distance of 7.5 mm ±3.3 from the tumour to the skin. MWA is a safe and effective minimally invasive "patient-friendly" procedure with a very short duration for the treatment of benign breast tumours.

  7. Phylloides tumours of the breast: best practice for follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mylvaganam, Senthurun; Toro, Clare; Frank, Lucinda; Vestey, Sarah; Thrush, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Phylloides tumours are rare fibroepithelial breast tumours accounting for 1% of breast cancers. No UK guidance exists on the assessment, treatment and follow-up of these patients. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of the clinical core biopsy compared to the gold standard excision biopsy and determine the current follow-up practice and recurrence rate of phylloides tumours across two UK hospital trusts. Multicentre retrospective analysis of all cases of phylloides tumours over 6 years at Worcestershire Acute NHS Trust (WANHST) and Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Trust (GHNHST). 94 Patients included. Mean age 48 years. Mean clinical and radiological size of lesions 31.7 and 35.4 mm, respectively, preoperative core biopsy sensitivity was 87% for WANHST and 74% for GHNHST with a positive predictive value of 90 and 100%, respectively. 29 Different follow-up regimes were observed from the practice of the 10 surgeons observed following diagnosis and resection of tumours. The follow-up length ranged from discharge following one post-operative clinic attendance to 5-year clinical and/or radiological follow-up. 4 Benign and 2 malignant recurrent phylloides tumours were seen. All benign recurrences were local and found independently of follow-up. The earliest benign phylloides recurrence was at 6 years and the latest at 10 years. There is no standard follow-up of benign or malignant phylloides tumours. This study suggests that in the benign group, the risk of recurrence is small. We advocate no routine follow-up of benign phylloides tumours.

  8. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  9. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-30

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  10. New ASCO/CAP guideline recommendations for HER2 testing increase the proportion of reflex in situ hybridization tests and of HER2 positive breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Tchrakian, N; Flanagan, L; Harford, J; Gannon, J M; Quinn, C M

    2016-02-01

    Accurate determination of tumour human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) status is critical for optimal treatment of breast cancer. In October 2013, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) issued joint updated guideline recommendations for HER2 testing in breast cancer, with a revised algorithm for interpretation of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridisation (ISH) results. This study investigates the impact on HER2 IHC categorisation, implication for reflex ISH testing and potential for identification of false negative IHC. HER2 IHC preparations on 251 invasive breast tumours, originally reported according to 2007 guidelines, were re-scored using 2013 guidelines and the diagnostic categories compared. The results of ISH testing on a separate cohort of 32 breast tumours reported as HER2 IHC 2+ following the introduction of the 2013 guidelines, that would have been designated 1+ according to 2007, were reviewed. Application of 2013 guidelines resulted in a decrease in tumours classified as HER2 negative (83/251 vs 144/251) and a comparable increase in those classified as equivocal (2+) (139/251 vs 80/251). Relatively few tumours were re-classified as positive (29/251 vs 27/251). Furthermore, 3/32 breast cancer cases (HER2 IHC 2+ as per 2013 guidelines, 1+ using 2007 guidelines) were HER2 ISH positive. Application of the 2013 guidelines increases the HER2 IHC equivocal (2+) category and requirement for reflex ISH testing. The reduced threshold for ISH testing identifies some patients with HER2 positive breast cancer whose tumours would have been categorised as HER2 negative according to the 2007 guidelines.

  11. Cell-free circulating tumour DNA as a liquid biopsy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    De Mattos-Arruda, Leticia; Caldas, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in massively parallel sequencing and digital genomic techniques support the clinical validity of cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) as a 'liquid biopsy' in human cancer. In breast cancer, ctDNA detected in plasma can be used to non-invasively scan tumour genomes and quantify tumour burden. The applications for ctDNA in plasma include identifying actionable genomic alterations, monitoring treatment responses, unravelling therapeutic resistance, and potentially detecting disease progression before clinical and radiological confirmation. ctDNA may be used to characterise tumour heterogeneity and metastasis-specific mutations providing information to adapt the therapeutic management of patients. In this article, we review the current status of ctDNA as a 'liquid biopsy' in breast cancer.

  12. Exclusion of a major role for the PTEN tumour-suppressor gene in breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Freihoff, D; Kempe, A; Beste, B; Wappenschmidt, B; Kreyer, E; Hayashi, Y; Meindl, A; Krebs, D; Wiestler, O D; Deimling, A von; Schmutzler, R K

    1999-01-01

    PTEN is a novel tumour-suppressor gene located on chromosomal band 10q23.3. This region displays frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a variety of human neoplasms including breast carcinomas. The detection of PTEN mutations in Cowden disease and in breast carcinoma cell lines suggests that PTEN may be involved in mammary carcinogenesis. We here report a mutational analysis of tumour specimens from 103 primary breast carcinomas and constitutive DNA from 25 breast cancer families. The entire coding region of PTEN was screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing using intron-based primers. No germline mutations could be identified in the breast cancer families and only one sporadic carcinoma carried a PTEN mutation at one allele. In addition, all sporadic tumours were analysed for homozygous deletions by differential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for allelic loss using the microsatellite markers D10S215, D10S564 and D10S573. No homozygous deletions were detected and only 10 out of 94 informative tumours showed allelic loss in the PTEN region. These results suggest that PTEN does not play a major role in breast cancer formation. 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10070865

  13. Phyllodes tumours of the breast: retrospective analysis of a University Hospital's experience.

    PubMed

    Toh, Y F; Cheah, P L; Looi, L M; Teoh, K H; Tan, P H

    2016-04-01

    Taking cognizance of the purported variation of phyllodes tumours in Asians compared with Western populations, this study looked at phyllodes tumours of the breast diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre over an 8-year period with regards to patient profiles, tumour parameters, treatment offered and outcome. Sixty-four new cases of phyllodes tumour were diagnosed during the period, however only 30 (21 benign, 4 borderline and 5 malignant) finally qualified for entry into the study. These were followed-up for 4-102 months (average = 41.7 months). Thirteen cases (8 benign, 3 borderline, 2 malignant) were Chinese, 9 (all benign) Malay, 7 (4 benign, 1 borderline, 2 malignant) Indian and 1 (malignant) Indonesian. Prevalence of benign versus combined borderline and malignant phyllodes showed a marginally significant difference (p=0.049) between the Malays and Chinese. Patients' ages ranged from 21-70 years with a mean of 44.9 years with no significant difference in age between benign, borderline or malignant phyllodes tumours. Except for benign phyllodes tumours (mean size = 5.8 cm) being significantly smaller at presentation compared with borderline (mean size = 12.5 cm) and malignant (mean size = 15.8 cm) (p<0.05) tumours, history of previous pregnancy, breast feeding, hormonal contraception and tumour laterality did not differ between the three categories. Family history of breast cancer was noted in 2 cases of benign phyllodes. Local excision was performed in 17 benign, 2 borderline and 3 malignant tumours and mastectomy in 4 benign, 2 borderline and 2 malignant tumours. Surgical clearance was not properly recorded in 10 benign phyllodes tumours. Six benign and all 4 borderline and 5 malignant tumours had clearances of <10 mm. Two benign tumours recurred locally at 15 and 49 months after local excision, however information regarding surgical clearance was not available in both cases. One patient with a malignant tumour developed

  14. Relationship between oestrogen-receptor content and histological grade in human primary breast tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, P. V.; Davies, C. J.; Blamey, R. W.; Elston, C. W.; Johnson, J.; Griffiths, K.

    1978-01-01

    A series of 300 patients presenting consecutively with primary operable breast cancer has been studied. A significant correlation was found between oestrogen-receptor (ER) content and histological grade: the better-differentiated tumours rarely lacked receptor. This correlation was significant only in women defined as post-menopausal. Data on early recurrence of disease indicate a worse prognosis for women in whom primary tumours are ER-. PMID:743491

  15. Molecular profiles of BRCA1-mutated and matched sporadic breast tumours: relation with clinico-pathological features

    PubMed Central

    Berns, E M J J; Staveren, I L van; Verhoog, L; Ouweland, A M W van de; Gelder, M Meijer-van; Meijers-Heijboer, H; Portengen, H; Foekens, J A; Dorssers, L C J; Klijn, J G M

    2001-01-01

    About 5–10% of breast cancers are hereditary; a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease in which several susceptibility genes, including BRCA1, have been identified. While distinct tumour features can be used to estimate the likelihood that a breast tumour is caused by a BRCA1 germline mutation it is not yet possible to categorize a BRCA1 mutated tumour. The aim of the present study is to molecularly classify BRCA1 mutated breast cancers by resolving gene expression patterns of BRCA1 and matched sporadic surgical breast tumour specimens. The expression profiles of 6 frozen breast tumour tissues with a proven BRCA1 gene mutation were weighed against those from 12 patients without a known family history but who had similar clinico-pathological characteristics. In addition two fibroblast cultures, the breast cancer cell-line HCC1937 and its corresponding B-lymphoblastoid cell line (heterozygous for mutation BRCA1 5382insC) and an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line (A2780) were studied. Using a high density membrane based array for screening of RNA isolated from these samples and standard algorithms and software, we were able to distinguish subgroups of sporadic cases and a group consisting mainly of BRCA1-mutated breast tumours. Furthermore this pilot analysis revealed a gene cluster that differentially expressed genes related to cell substrate formation, adhesion, migration and cell organization in BRCA1-mutated tumours compared to sporadic breast tumours. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11506493

  16. Intra-Tumour Signalling Entropy Determines Clinical Outcome in Breast and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Severini, Simone; Caldas, Carlos; Teschendorff, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    The cancer stem cell hypothesis, that a small population of tumour cells are responsible for tumorigenesis and cancer progression, is becoming widely accepted and recent evidence has suggested a prognostic and predictive role for such cells. Intra-tumour heterogeneity, the diversity of the cancer cell population within the tumour of an individual patient, is related to cancer stem cells and is also considered a potential prognostic indicator in oncology. The measurement of cancer stem cell abundance and intra-tumour heterogeneity in a clinically relevant manner however, currently presents a challenge. Here we propose signalling entropy, a measure of signalling pathway promiscuity derived from a sample’s genome-wide gene expression profile, as an estimate of the stemness of a tumour sample. By considering over 500 mixtures of diverse cellular expression profiles, we reveal that signalling entropy also associates with intra-tumour heterogeneity. By analysing 3668 breast cancer and 1692 lung adenocarcinoma samples, we further demonstrate that signalling entropy correlates negatively with survival, outperforming leading clinical gene expression based prognostic tools. Signalling entropy is found to be a general prognostic measure, valid in different breast cancer clinical subgroups, as well as within stage I lung adenocarcinoma. We find that its prognostic power is driven by genes involved in cancer stem cells and treatment resistance. In summary, by approximating both stemness and intra-tumour heterogeneity, signalling entropy provides a powerful prognostic measure across different epithelial cancers. PMID:25793737

  17. α3 Chains of type V collagen regulate breast tumour growth via glypican-1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guorui; Ge, Gaoxiang; Izzi, Valerio; Greenspan, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    Pericellular α3(V) collagen can affect the functioning of cells, such as adipocytes and pancreatic β cells. Here we show that α3(V) chains are an abundant product of normal mammary gland basal cells, and that α3(V) ablation in a mouse mammary tumour model inhibits mammary tumour progression by reducing the proliferative potential of tumour cells. These effects are shown to be primarily cell autonomous, from loss of α3(V) chains normally produced by tumour cells, in which they affect growth by enhancing the ability of cell surface proteoglycan glypican-1 to act as a co-receptor for FGF2. Thus, a mechanism is presented for microenvironmental influence on tumour growth. α3(V) chains are produced in both basal-like and luminal human breast tumours, and its expression levels are tightly coupled with those of glypican-1 across breast cancer types. Evidence indicates α3(V) chains as potential targets for inhibiting tumour growth and as markers of oncogenic transformation. PMID:28102194

  18. Detection of circulating tumour cells in patients with breast or ovarian cancer by molecular cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H; Kleespies, C; Friedrich, J; Breidenbach, M; Kallenborn, A; Schöndorf, T; Kolhagen, H; Mallmann, P

    1999-01-01

    Detection of micrometastases in patients with solid tumours may aid the establishment of prognosis and development of new therapeutic approaches. This study was designed to investigate the presence and frequency of tumour cells in the peripheral blood (PB) of patients with breast or ovarian cancer by using a combination of magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Separated tumour cell and PB-samples from 48 patients (35 breast cancers, 12 ovarian tumours, one uterine sarcoma) were analysed for the presence of numerical aberrations of chromosomes 7, 12, 17 and 17 q11.2–q12. Twenty-five patients had primary disease and 23 had relapsed. The technique allows the detection of one tumour cell in 106 normal cells. Circulating tumour cells were detected in 35/48 cases (17 patients had relapsed and 13 primary carcinoma with lymph node or solid metastases) by the expression of anti-cytokeratin and the presence of numerical chromosomal abnormalities. PB-tumour cells of patients with a primary carcinoma and without solid metastases had a significantly lower percentage of chromosomal aberrations, especially for chromosome 12 (P = 0.035; P = 0.038) compared to those with relapsed disease and solid metastases. Detection and quantification of minimal residual disease may monitor the response to cytotoxic or hormonal therapy and may identify women at risk of relapse. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10584878

  19. Intra-tumour signalling entropy determines clinical outcome in breast and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Christopher R S; Severini, Simone; Caldas, Carlos; Teschendorff, Andrew E

    2015-03-01

    The cancer stem cell hypothesis, that a small population of tumour cells are responsible for tumorigenesis and cancer progression, is becoming widely accepted and recent evidence has suggested a prognostic and predictive role for such cells. Intra-tumour heterogeneity, the diversity of the cancer cell population within the tumour of an individual patient, is related to cancer stem cells and is also considered a potential prognostic indicator in oncology. The measurement of cancer stem cell abundance and intra-tumour heterogeneity in a clinically relevant manner however, currently presents a challenge. Here we propose signalling entropy, a measure of signalling pathway promiscuity derived from a sample's genome-wide gene expression profile, as an estimate of the stemness of a tumour sample. By considering over 500 mixtures of diverse cellular expression profiles, we reveal that signalling entropy also associates with intra-tumour heterogeneity. By analysing 3668 breast cancer and 1692 lung adenocarcinoma samples, we further demonstrate that signalling entropy correlates negatively with survival, outperforming leading clinical gene expression based prognostic tools. Signalling entropy is found to be a general prognostic measure, valid in different breast cancer clinical subgroups, as well as within stage I lung adenocarcinoma. We find that its prognostic power is driven by genes involved in cancer stem cells and treatment resistance. In summary, by approximating both stemness and intra-tumour heterogeneity, signalling entropy provides a powerful prognostic measure across different epithelial cancers.

  20. Inverse method for quantitative characterisation of breast tumours from surface temperature data.

    PubMed

    Hatwar, R; Herman, C

    2017-04-05

    We introduce a computational method to simultaneously estimate size, location and blood perfusion of the cancerous breast lesion from the surface temperature data. A 2D computational phantom of axisymmetric tumorous breast with six tissue layers, epidermis, papillary dermis, reticular dermis, fat, gland, muscle layer and spherical tumour was used to generate surface temperature distribution and thereby estimate tumour characteristics iteratively using an inverse algorithm based on Levenberg-Marquardt method. In addition to the steady state temperature data, we modified and expanded the inverse algorithm to include transient data that can be captured by dynamic infra-red imaging. Several test cases were considered for the transient analysis, where the depth, radii and blood perfusion of tumour were varied from 11 to 30 mm, 7 to 11 mm and 0.003 to 0.01 1/s, respectively. Similar steady state temperature profile for different tumours makes it impossible to simultaneously estimate blood perfusion, size and location of tumour using steady state data alone. This becomes possible when transient data are used along with steady state data. For the cases discussed here, the estimates have errors below 1% for tumours with depths less than 20 mm, but for deeper tumours (25 mm) errors can be more than 10%. Combination of transient data and steady state data makes it possible to simultaneously estimate tumour size, location and blood perfusion. Blood perfusion is an indicator of the growth rate of the tumour and therefore its evaluation can possibly lead to the assessment of tumour malignancy.

  1. Shear wave elastography of tumour growth in a human breast cancer model with pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Chamming's, Foucauld; Latorre-Ossa, H; Le Frère-Belda, M A; Fitoussi, V; Quibel, T; Assayag, F; Marangoni, E; Autret, G; Balvay, D; Pidial, L; Gennisson, J L; Tanter, M; Cuenod, C A; Clément, O; Fournier, L S

    2013-08-01

    To assess stiffness in a human breast cancer implanted in mice using shear wave elastography (SWE) during tumour growth and to correlate the results with pathology. Local ethics committee for animal research approval was obtained. A human invasive ductal carcinoma was implanted subcutaneously in 24 athymic nude female mice. Ultrasound was longitudinally performed in 22 tumours, every 1-2 weeks. Maximum diameter and mean stiffness were collected. Seven tumours were measured both in vivo and ex vivo. Tumours of different sizes were removed for pathological analysis on which the percentages of viable cellular tissue, fibrosis and necrosis were measured. A total of 63 SWE measurements were performed. Stiffness increased during tumour growth with an excellent correlation with size (r = 0.94, P < 0.0001). No differences were found between the values of stiffness in vivo and ex vivo (P = 0.81). There was a significant correlation between elasticity and fibrosis (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001), a negative correlation with necrosis (r = -0.76, p = 0.0004) but no significant correlation with cellular tissue (r = 0.40, p = 0.1). Fibrosis plays an important role in stiffness as measured by SWE, whereas necrosis is correlated with softness. • In a breast cancer model, ultrasound tumour stiffness is correlated with size. • Stiffness changes with tumour growth are correlated with pathological changes. • Stiffness is very well correlated with proportion of tumour fibrosis. • Stiffness is inversely correlated with proportion of tumour necrosis. • Tumour stiffness measurements are similar in vivo and ex vivo.

  2. CD44 targeting reduces tumour growth and prevents post-chemotherapy relapse of human breast cancers xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, E; Lecomte, N; Durand, L; de Pinieux, G; Decaudin, D; Chomienne, C; Smadja-Joffe, F; Poupon, M-F

    2009-01-01

    CD44 is a marker of tumour-initiating cells and is upregulated in invasive breast carcinoma; however, its role in the cancer progression is unknown. Here, we show that antibody-mediated CD44-targeting in human breast cancer xenografts (HBCx) significantly reduces tumour growth and that this effect is associated to induction of growth-inhibiting factors. Moreover, treatment with this antibody prevents tumour relapse after chemotherapy-induced remission in a basal-like HBCx. PMID:19240712

  3. Potentialities of steady-state and transient thermography in breast tumour depth detection: A numerical study.

    PubMed

    Amri, Amina; Pulko, Susan Helen; Wilkinson, Anthony James

    2016-01-01

    Breast thermography still has inherent limitations that prevent it from being fully accepted as a breast screening modality in medicine. The main challenges of breast thermography are to reduce false positive results and to increase the sensitivity of a thermogram. Further, it is still difficult to obtain information about tumour parameters such as metabolic heat, tumour depth and diameter from a thermogram. However, infrared technology and image processing have advanced significantly and recent clinical studies have shown increased sensitivity of thermography in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to study numerically the possibilities of extracting information about the tumour depth from steady state thermography and transient thermography after cold stress with no need to use any specific inversion technique. Both methods are based on the numerical solution of Pennes bioheat equation for a simple three-dimensional breast model. The effectiveness of two approaches used for depth detection from steady state thermography is assessed. The effect of breast density on the steady state thermal contrast has also been studied. The use of a cold stress test and the recording of transient contrasts during rewarming were found to be potentially suitable for tumour depth detection during the rewarming process. Sensitivity to parameters such as cold stress temperature and cooling time is investigated using the numerical model and simulation results reveal two prominent depth-related characteristic times which do not strongly depend on the temperature of the cold stress or on the cooling period.

  4. The relationship between total and phosphorylated STAT1 and STAT3 tumour cell expression, components of tumour microenvironment and survival in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gujam, Fadia J.A.; McMillan, Donald C.; Edwards, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between tumour cell expression of total and phosphorylated STAT1 (ph-STAT1) and STAT3 (ph-STAT-3), components of tumour microenvironment and survival in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of total and ph-STAT1, and STAT3 were performed on tissue microarray of 384 breast cancer specimens. Tumour cell expression of STAT1 and STAT3 at both cytoplasmic and nuclear locations were combined and identified as STAT1/STAT3 tumour cell expression. These results were related to cancer specific survival (CSS) and phenotypic features of the tumour and the host. High ph-STAT1 and ph-STAT3 tumour cell expression were associated with increased ER (both P≤0.001) and PR (both P <0.05), reduced tumour grade (P=0.015 and P<0.001 respectively) and necrosis (both P=0.001). Ph-STAT1 was associated with increased general inflammatory infiltrate (P=0.007) and ph-STAT3 was associated with lower CD4+ infiltration (P=0.024). In multivariate survival analysis, only high ph-STAT3 tumour cell expression was a predictor of improved CSS (P=0.010) independent of other tumour and host-based factors. STAT1 and STAT3 tumour cell expression appeared to be an important determinant of favourable outcome in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. The present results suggest that STAT1 and STAT3 may affect disease outcome through direct impact on tumour cells, counteracting aggressive tumour features, as well as interaction with the surrounding microenvironment. PMID:27769057

  5. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Vinorelbine Ditartrate in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-27

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA1; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA2; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  6. High incidence of loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 17p13 in breast tumours from BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Eiriksdottir, G; Barkardottir, R B; Agnarsson, B A; Johannesdottir, G; Olafsdottir, K; Egilsson, V; Ingvarsson, S

    1998-01-08

    Breast tumours from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are genetically instable and display specific patterns of chromosomal aberrations, suggestive of distinct genetic pathways in tumour progression. The frequency of abnormalities affecting chromosome 17p and the TP53 gene was determined in 27 breast tumours from 26 female patients carrying the Icelandic BRCA2 founder mutation (999del5). Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was detected in 23 of the 27 tumours (85%). The majority of tumours manifesting LOH had lost a large region on 17p, although a more restricted loss, including the TP53 locus was seen in a few tumours. Positive p53 immunostaining was observed in 18 of 26 tumours (69%). However, mutations in the TP53 gene were detected in only three tumours (11%), including a missense (codon 139) and a nonsense mutation (codon 306) in two tumours with moderate p53 expression and a frameshift deletion (codon 182) in a tumour with no detectable p53 expression. Positive p53 immunostaining, mainly weak, was observed in 16 of the 24 tumours (66%) without TP53 mutation. The high frequency of LOH at chromosome 17p13 suggests that one or more genes from this region are involved in the development of BRCA2-induced breast cancer. The frequent finding of weak overexpression of, presumably wild type p53 protein, suggests an alternative mechanism of TP53 involvement specific to these tumours.

  7. Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Du, Wanlu; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi; Shah, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of tumour cells and the close association of tumour cells with blood vessels in the brain thus mimicking the multi-foci metastases observed in the clinics. Next, we explored the ability of engineered adult stem cells to track metastatic deposits in this model and show that engineered stem cells either implanted or injected via circulation efficiently home to metastatic tumour deposits in the brain. Based on the recent findings that metastatic tumour cells adopt unique mechanisms of evading apoptosis to successfully colonize in the brain, we reasoned that TNF receptor superfamily member 10A/10B apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based pro-apoptotic therapies that induce death receptor signalling within the metastatic tumour cells might be a favourable therapeutic approach. We engineered stem cells to express a tumour selective, potent and secretable variant of a TRAIL, S-TRAIL, and show that these cells significantly suppressed metastatic tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice bearing metastatic breast tumours. Furthermore, the incorporation of pro-drug converting enzyme, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, into therapeutic S-TRAIL secreting stem cells allowed their eradication post-tumour treatment. These studies are the first of their kind that provide insight into targeting brain metastasis with stem-cell mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands and have important clinical implications. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on

  8. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and the emerging role of immunotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luen, Stephen J; Savas, Peter; Fox, Stephen B; Salgado, Roberto; Loi, Sherene

    2017-02-01

    Breast cancer has not previously been considered a highly immunogenic cancer. Observations of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in and around neoplastic cells in tumour samples, and associations with improved pathological complete response and clinical survival end points have changed our perspective on this. Lymphocytic infiltrates have long been observed in breast cancer; however, more recently, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected tissue samples from clinical trials has demonstrated the potential role of host immunosurveillance in influencing the biology of breast cancer. This association appears to be strongest in triple negative and HER2 positive breast cancer subtypes. Contrastingly, the association in luminal tumours is less clear, and is potentially limited by substantial tumoural heterogeneity. Several methodologies have been employed to quantify, and describe the composition of TILs, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The results of these analyses have been generally consistent, and valuable efforts are currently underway to standardise the evaluation of TILs toward a universal approach. More technical methods of TIL characterisation remain important in the research setting. The evaluation of TILs becomes increasingly relevant with the emerging role of immunotherapy in breast cancer. Early phase trials of checkpoint blockade show promising results; however, it is likely that some patients will require combination treatments to maximise therapeutic benefits. Equally, some patients may not derive any benefit from immunotherapies. This underscores the importance of the development of relevant predictive biomarkers. As a key representative of the immune interaction between host and tumour, lymphocytic infiltrates are ideally placed for continued research into the determinants of immunogenicity, and response to immunotherapeutic approaches. In this review, we will discuss the current methodologies of evaluation, and the clinical

  9. A positive role for PEA3 in HER2-mediated breast tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Myers, E; Hill, A D K; Kelly, G; McDermott, E W; O'Higgins, N J; Young, L S

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of HER2 is associated with an adverse prognosis in breast cancer. Despite this, the mechanism of its transcriptional regulation remains poorly understood. PEA3, a MAP kinase (MAPK)-activated member of the Ets transcription factor family has been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of HER2. The direction of its modulation remains controversial. We assessed relative levels of PEA3 expression and DNA binding in primary breast cultures derived from patient tumours (n=18) in the presence of an activated MAPK pathway using Western blotting and shift analysis. Expression of PEA3 in breast tumours from patients of known HER2 status (n=107) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In primary breast cancer cell cultures, growth factors induced interaction between PEA3 and its DNA response element. Upregulation of PEA3 expression in the presence of growth factors associated with HER2 positivity and axillary lymph node metastasis (P=0.034 and 0.049, respectively). PEA3 expression in breast cancer tissue associated with reduced disease-free survival (P<0.001), Grade III tumours (P<0.0001) and axillary lymph node metastasis (P=0.026). Co-expression of PEA3 and HER2 significantly associated with rate of recurrence compared to patients who expressed HER2 alone (P=0.0039). These data support a positive role for PEA3 in HER2-mediated oncogenesis in breast cancer. PMID:17060941

  10. Systematic analysis of tumour cell-extracellular matrix adhesion identifies independent prognostic factors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jocelyn P.; Natrajan, Rachael C.; Yuan, Yinyin; Tan, Aik-Choon; Huang, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Tumour cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are fundamental for discrete steps in breast cancer progression. In particular, cancer cell adhesion to ECM proteins present in the microenvironment is critical for accelerating tumour growth and facilitating metastatic spread. To assess the utility of tumour cell-ECM adhesion as a means for discovering prognostic factors in breast cancer survival, here we perform a systematic phenotypic screen and characterise the adhesion properties of a panel of human HER2 amplified breast cancer cell lines across six ECM proteins commonly deregulated in breast cancer. We determine a gene expression signature that defines a subset of cell lines displaying impaired adhesion to laminin. Cells with impaired laminin adhesion showed an enrichment in genes associated with cell motility and molecular pathways linked to cytokine signalling and inflammation. Evaluation of this gene set in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) cohort of 1,964 patients identifies the F12 and STC2 genes as independent prognostic factors for overall survival in breast cancer. Our study demonstrates the potential of in vitro cell adhesion screens as a novel approach for identifying prognostic factors for disease outcome. PMID:27556857

  11. Metaplastic breast carcinoma; melanocytic variant, a very rare tumour

    PubMed Central

    Nzegwu, Martin A.; Sule, Emmanuel; Uzoigwe, Joseph; Achi, Franklyn

    2015-01-01

    Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare heterogeneous malignancy, accounting for <1% of all invasive breast carcinomas, in which adenocarcinoma is found to coexist with an admixture of spindle, squamous, chondroid or bone-forming neoplastic cells. Melanocytic variant was first described by Ruffolo et al. in 1997. We report a case of MBC, melanocytic variant, in a 57-year-old Nigerian female who presented with a left breast mass 8 cm in diameter in the upper outer quadrant, hard and gradually increase in size to become painful. Breast examination showed gross asymmetry. Left breast was oedematous and shiny with extensive peau d'orange. No palpable axillary nodes were seen. Chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound scan showed no involvement. Breast biopsy revealed an invasive metaplastic ductal carcinoma with melanocytic differentiation. PMID:25666364

  12. [Assessment of current eating habits in women diagnosed with breast tumours and changes introduced after diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Alicja; Królikowska, Ewa; Sińska, Beata

    Intrroduction: Incorrect eating habits are a significant risk factor for breast tumours. An appropriate diet is a vital part in the treatment of such a disorder. The aim of the study was to assess current eating habits in women diagnosed with breast tumours and the changes introduced after diagnosis. The survey was conducted among 200 women aged 59±11.2 with a diagnosed breast tumour. An original survey questionnaire was used to assess the respondents' dietary habits. Questions pertained to the frequency of consumption of certain food groups, changes in diet since the moment of diagnosis and sources of knowledge about nutrition. A number of current incorrect eating habits became apparent (namely, low frequency of eating wholemeal products, legumes, fish, vegetables, fruit and high frequency of eating sweets), as well as many beneficial changes introduced after the diagnosis (more frequent consumption of wholemeal products, poultry, vegetables and fruit and lower frequency of consumption of red meat, meat preserves, sweets, sweetened drinks and alcohol), with no difference in age, education or time elapsed since the diagnosis. Less than one third of respondents have received nutrition advice after their diagnosis. In spite of the beneficial changes in dietary habits there is a need for widely available, reliable nutrition education amongst all women diagnosed with a breast tumour.

  13. HER2 expression identifies dynamic functional states within circulating breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Nicole Vincent; Bardia, Aditya; Wittner, Ben S; Benes, Cyril; Ligorio, Matteo; Zheng, Yu; Yu, Min; Sundaresan, Tilak K; Licausi, Joseph A; Desai, Rushil; O'Keefe, Ryan M; Ebright, Richard Y; Boukhali, Myriam; Sil, Srinjoy; Onozato, Maristela L; Iafrate, Anthony J; Kapur, Ravi; Sgroi, Dennis; Ting, David T; Toner, Mehmet; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Haas, Wilhelm; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A

    2016-09-01

    Circulating tumour cells in women with advanced oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer acquire a HER2-positive subpopulation after multiple courses of therapy. In contrast to HER2-amplified primary breast cancer, which is highly sensitive to HER2-targeted therapy, the clinical significance of acquired HER2 heterogeneity during the evolution of metastatic breast cancer is unknown. Here we analyse circulating tumour cells from 19 women with ER(+)/HER2(-) primary tumours, 84% of whom had acquired circulating tumour cells expressing HER2. Cultured circulating tumour cells maintain discrete HER2(+) and HER2(-) subpopulations: HER2(+) circulating tumour cells are more proliferative but not addicted to HER2, consistent with activation of multiple signalling pathways; HER2(-) circulating tumour cells show activation of Notch and DNA damage pathways, exhibiting resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy, but sensitivity to Notch inhibition. HER2(+) and HER2(-) circulating tumour cells interconvert spontaneously, with cells of one phenotype producing daughters of the opposite within four cell doublings. Although HER2(+) and HER2(-) circulating tumour cells have comparable tumour initiating potential, differential proliferation favours the HER2(+) state, while oxidative stress or cytotoxic chemotherapy enhances transition to the HER2(-) phenotype. Simultaneous treatment with paclitaxel and Notch inhibitors achieves sustained suppression of tumorigenesis in orthotopic circulating tumour cell-derived tumour models. Together, these results point to distinct yet interconverting phenotypes within patient-derived circulating tumour cells, contributing to progression of breast cancer and acquisition of drug resistance.

  14. Incidence and tumour stages of breast cancer in the region of Aachen, Germany.

    PubMed

    Seemayer, C A; Breuer, Elisabeth; Kroll, G; Markus-Sellhaus, S; Reineke, T H; Mittermayer, C

    2002-03-01

    We present epidemiological data of female breast cancer in the region of Aachen (Germany) including incidence and tumour stages for the period 1996-1997. Furthermore, we compare epidemiological data from Aachen with data from the directly neighbouring Dutch region South-Middle Limburg before and after the introduction of a national mammographic screening programme. The field study of breast cancer was undertaken at the Institute of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Aachen, supported by the Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), using data files from the Cancer Registry Aachen. The patient's consent to collect all data concerning her epidemiological and social situation as well as information on the outcome of disease was obtained in 83.4% of all cases. The remaining 16.6% of the cases without a patient's consent are based on histopathological reports. Only those patients are included who were documented as residing in the region of Aachen at the time of diagnosis. Tumour cases were counted according to International Agency for Research on Cancer rules and tumour stages are classified according to UICC guidelines. Incidence rates are calculated as crude value, adapted to the European and World Standard population (ESR, WSR), and the age specific incidence is presented in 5-year intervals. The cumulative risk is assessed for a certain life span by summarizing the age-specific incidences. The age-standardized breast cancer incidence rate in Aachen was 94 per 100 000 women in 1996 and 90 cases of invasive breast cancer per 100 000 women in 1997 according to the ESR. The cumulative risk of developing breast cancer in the life span ranging from 0 to 74 years is approximately 8%. The stage distribution of breast cancer reveals only 4% favourable carcinomata in situ, but 12% advanced T4 tumours. T1 and T2 tumour stages count for about 40% and T3 tumour stages about 4%. Incidence rates and the tumour stages of breast cancer in the region of

  15. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: correlation with tumour response.

    PubMed

    Preibsch, H; Wanner, L; Bahrs, S D; Wietek, B M; Siegmann-Luz, K C; Oberlecher, E; Hahn, M; Staebler, A; Nikolaou, K; Wiesinger, B

    2016-06-01

    To correlate the decrease in background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and tumour response measured with MRI in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). One hundred and forty-six MRI examinations of 73 patients with 80 biopsy-proven breast cancers who underwent breast MRI before and after NAC were retrospectively analysed. All images were reviewed by two blinded readers, who classified BPE into categories (BEC; 1 = minimal, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = marked) before and after NAC. Histopathological and morphological tumour responses were analysed and compared. The distribution of BEC 1/2/3/4 was 25/46/18/11 % before and 78/20/2/0 % after NAC. On average, BPE decreased by 0.87 BEC. Cohen's kappa showed substantial agreement (k = 0.73-0.77) before and moderate agreement (k = 0.43-0.60) after NAC and moderate agreement (k = 0.62-0.60) concerning the change in BEC. Correlating the change in BPE with tumour response, the average decrease in BEC was 1.3 in cases of complete remission, 0.83 in cases with partial response, 0.85 in cases with stable disease and 0.40 in cases with progressive disease. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the decrease in BEC and tumour response (r = -0.24, p = 0.03). BPE decreased by, on average, 0.87 BEC following NAC for breast cancer. The degree of BPE reduction seemed to correlate with tumour response. • BPE decreases by an average of 0.87 categories under neoadjuvant chemotherapy. • The reduction of BPE following neoadjuvant chemotherapy correlates with the tumour response. • The classification of the BPE shows good agreement among trained readers.

  16. Parameter estimation of breast tumour using dynamic neural network from thermal pattern.

    PubMed

    Saniei, Elham; Setayeshi, Saeed; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Navid, Mitra

    2016-11-01

    This article presents a new approach for estimating the depth, size, and metabolic heat generation rate of a tumour. For this purpose, the surface temperature distribution of a breast thermal image and the dynamic neural network was used. The research consisted of two steps: forward and inverse. For the forward section, a finite element model was created. The Pennes bio-heat equation was solved to find surface and depth temperature distributions. Data from the analysis, then, were used to train the dynamic neural network model (DNN). Results from the DNN training/testing confirmed those of the finite element model. For the inverse section, the trained neural network was applied to estimate the depth temperature distribution (tumour position) from the surface temperature profile, extracted from the thermal image. Finally, tumour parameters were obtained from the depth temperature distribution. Experimental findings (20 patients) were promising in terms of the model's potential for retrieving tumour parameters.

  17. Proliferating activity in the epithelial and stromal component of fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Barwijuk-Machała, M; Reszeć, J; Baltaziak, M; Musiatowicz, B; Cylwik, J

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was an evaluation of PCNA and Ki-67 expression in the epithelial and stromal component of fibroepithelial tumours (FT) of the breast in correlation with morphological parameters. A series of 11 fibroadenomas (FA), including 8 cases of the cellular type (FAC), 19 benign phyllodes tumours (PTLGM), 8 bordeline (PTBM) and 6 malignant phyllodes tumours were assessed, using immunohistochemistry. The expressions of Ki-67 and PCNA in the epithelial component were significantly higher in PTLGM, when compared with FA and PTBM. A significant increase of Ki-67 and PCNA stromal expressions was associated with the progression from PTLGM to PTHGM. Our results show that Ki-67 and PCNA may be useful in the evaluation of stromal proliferation in phyllodes tumours (PT), which play an integral part in the progression from PTLGM through PTBM to PTHGM.

  18. RA-XII inhibits tumour growth and metastasis in breast tumour-bearing mice via reducing cell adhesion and invasion and promoting matrix degradation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Hoi-Wing; Zhao, Si-Meng; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Tan, Ning-Hua; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells acquire invasive ability to degrade and adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) and migrate to adjacent tissues. This ultimately results metastasis. Hence, the present study investigated the in vitro effects of cyclopeptide glycoside, RA-XII on cell adhesion, invasion, proliferation and matrix degradation, and its underlying mechanism in murine breast tumour cells, 4T1. The effect of RA-XII on tumour growth and metastasis in 4T1-bearing mice was also investigated. Our results showed that RA-XII inhibited tumour cell adhesion to collagen, fibronectin and laminin, RA-XII also reduced the expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule, intracellular adhesion molecule and integrins, and integrin binding. In addition, RA-XII significantly inhibited breast tumour cell migration via interfering cofilin signaling and chemokine receptors. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and urokinase-type of plasminogen activator, and the expressions of ECM-associated proteinases were attenuated significantly by RA-XII. Furthermore, RA-XII induced G1 phase arrest and inhibited the expressions of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. RA-XII inhibited the expressions of molecules in PI3K/AKT, NF-kappaB, FAK/pSRC, MAPK and EGFR signaling. RA-XII was also shown to have anti-tumour, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activities in metastatic breast tumour-bearing mice. These findings strongly suggested that RA-XII is a potential anti-metastatic agent for breast cancer. PMID:26592552

  19. RA-XII inhibits tumour growth and metastasis in breast tumour-bearing mice via reducing cell adhesion and invasion and promoting matrix degradation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Hoi-Wing; Zhao, Si-Meng; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Tan, Ning-Hua; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2015-11-23

    Cancer cells acquire invasive ability to degrade and adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) and migrate to adjacent tissues. This ultimately results metastasis. Hence, the present study investigated the in vitro effects of cyclopeptide glycoside, RA-XII on cell adhesion, invasion, proliferation and matrix degradation, and its underlying mechanism in murine breast tumour cells, 4T1. The effect of RA-XII on tumour growth and metastasis in 4T1-bearing mice was also investigated. Our results showed that RA-XII inhibited tumour cell adhesion to collagen, fibronectin and laminin, RA-XII also reduced the expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule, intracellular adhesion molecule and integrins, and integrin binding. In addition, RA-XII significantly inhibited breast tumour cell migration via interfering cofilin signaling and chemokine receptors. The activities of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and urokinase-type of plasminogen activator, and the expressions of ECM-associated proteinases were attenuated significantly by RA-XII. Furthermore, RA-XII induced G1 phase arrest and inhibited the expressions of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. RA-XII inhibited the expressions of molecules in PI3K/AKT, NF-kappaB, FAK/pSRC, MAPK and EGFR signaling. RA-XII was also shown to have anti-tumour, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activities in metastatic breast tumour-bearing mice. These findings strongly suggested that RA-XII is a potential anti-metastatic agent for breast cancer.

  20. Oregano demonstrates distinct tumour-suppressive effects in the breast carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Kubatka, Peter; Kello, Martin; Kajo, Karol; Kruzliak, Peter; Výbohová, Desanka; Mojžiš, Ján; Adamkov, Marián; Fialová, Silvia; Veizerová, Lucia; Zulli, Anthony; Péč, Martin; Statelová, Dagmar; Grančai, Daniel; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-04-01

    There has been a considerable interest in the identification of natural plant foods for developing effective agents against cancer. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of oregano in the in vivo and in vitro breast cancer model were evaluated. Lyophilized oregano (ORE) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration. At autopsy, mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, in vitro evaluation in MCF-7 cells was carried out. Low-dose ORE suppressed tumour frequency by 55.5 %, tumour incidence by 44 %, and tumour volume by 44.5 % compared to control animals. Analysis of rat tumour cells showed Ki67, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase after low-dose ORE treatment. High-dose ORE lengthened tumour latency by 12.5 days; moreover, Bcl-2, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase in carcinoma cells were observed. Histopathological analysis revealed a decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas in both treated groups. In vitro studies showed that ORE decreased survival and proliferation of MCF-7 cells. In ORE-treated MCF-7 cells, an increase in cells expressing sub-G 0/G 1 DNA content and an increase in the percentage of annexin V/PI positive MCF-7 cells were observed. In vitro, both caspase-dependent and possible non-caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways were found. The deactivation of anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were observed in the ORE-treated MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a distinct tumour-suppressive effect of oregano in the breast cancer model.

  1. c-KIT and PDGFRA in breast phyllodes tumours: overexpression without mutations?

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, S; Silva, A O e; Milanezi, F; Ricardo, S; Leitão, D; Amendoeira, I; Schmitt, F C

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To study the immunoexpression and mutational status of c-KIT and PDGFRA in a series of benign and malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast. Material/methods: Nineteen phyllodes tumours (13 benign and six malignant) were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of c-KIT and PDGFRA. Direct sequencing of exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 of the c-KIT gene and exons 12 and 18 of PDGFRA was performed to check the mutational status of these two genes. Results: c-KIT expression was found in 12 of the 19 cases (six of the 13 benign cases and all six malignant ones) and PDGFRA expression was seen in two of the 19 cases (one benign and one malignant case); the 2415 C>T alteration in exon 17 of the c-KIT gene was found in two cases (both benign); the intronic insertion IVS17-50insT and the 2866 G>T alteration in the coding region of exon 18 of the PDGFRA gene were also found in two cases (one malignant and one benign). However, the activating mutations described for these genes in gastrointestinal stromal tumours were not present. Conclusion: c-KIT expression is a frequent finding in phyllodes tumours, particularly in malignant cases; however, no activating mutations similar to those described for gastrointestinal stromal tumours were found. The PDGFRA does not seem to be an alternative pathway to tumour development in phyllodes tumours because neither expression nor activating mutations were noteworthy. PMID:15452163

  2. c-KIT and PDGFRA in breast phyllodes tumours: overexpression without mutations?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, S; e Silva, A O; Milanezi, F; Ricardo, S; Leitão, D; Amendoeira, I; Schmitt, F C

    2004-10-01

    To study the immunoexpression and mutational status of c-KIT and PDGFRA in a series of benign and malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast. Nineteen phyllodes tumours (13 benign and six malignant) were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of c-KIT and PDGFRA. Direct sequencing of exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 of the c-KIT gene and exons 12 and 18 of PDGFRA was performed to check the mutational status of these two genes. c-KIT expression was found in 12 of the 19 cases (six of the 13 benign cases and all six malignant ones) and PDGFRA expression was seen in two of the 19 cases (one benign and one malignant case); the 2415 C>T alteration in exon 17 of the c-KIT gene was found in two cases (both benign); the intronic insertion IVS17-50insT and the 2866 G>T alteration in the coding region of exon 18 of the PDGFRA gene were also found in two cases (one malignant and one benign). However, the activating mutations described for these genes in gastrointestinal stromal tumours were not present. c-KIT expression is a frequent finding in phyllodes tumours, particularly in malignant cases; however, no activating mutations similar to those described for gastrointestinal stromal tumours were found. The PDGFRA does not seem to be an alternative pathway to tumour development in phyllodes tumours because neither expression nor activating mutations were noteworthy.

  3. Gamma-secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, or Recurrent Triple Negative Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-28

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  4. Adipocytes promote malignant growth of breast tumours with monocarboxylate transporter 2 expression via β-hydroxybutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Chang, Po-Hao; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chen, Chi-Long; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chang, King-Jen; Shew, Jin-Yuh; Hu, Chun-Mei; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Adipocytes are the most abundant stromal partners in breast tissue. However, the crosstalk between breast cancer cells and adipocytes has been given less attention compared to cancer-associated fibroblasts. Here we find, through systematic screening, that primary mammary gland-derived adipocytes (MGDAs) promote growth of breast cancer cells that express monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) both in vitro and in vivo. We show that β-hydroxybutyrate is secreted by MGDAs and is required to enhance breast cancer cells malignancy in vitro. Consistently, β-hydroxybutyrate is sufficient to promote tumorigenesis of a mouse xenograft model of MCT2-expressing breast cancer cells. Mechanistically we observe that upon co-culturing with MGDAs or treatment with β-hydroxybutyrate, breast cancer cells expressing MCT2 increase the global histone H3K9 acetylation and upregulate several tumour-promoting genes. These results suggest that adipocytes promote malignancy of MCT2-expressing breast cancer via β-hydroxybutyrate potentially by inducing the epigenetic upregulation of tumour-promoting genes. PMID:28281525

  5. Heterogeneity of luminal breast cancer characterised by immunohistochemical expression of basal markers

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hyuna; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Blows, Fiona M; Ali, H Raza; Figueroa, Jonine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; McLean, Catriona; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Sironen, Reijo; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Hallberg, Emily; Olswold, Curtis; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Kraft, Peter; Tamimi, Rulla M; Eliassen, A Heather; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Easton, Douglas; Howat, William J; Coulson, Penny; Pharoah, Paul DP; Sherman, Mark E; Yang, Xiaohong R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Luminal A breast cancer defined as hormone receptor positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative is known to be heterogeneous. Previous study showed that luminal A tumours with the expression of basal markers ((cytokeratin (CK) 5 or CK5/6) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)) were associated with poorer prognosis compared with those that stained negative for basal markers. Prompted by this study, we assessed whether tumour characteristics and risk factors differed by basal marker status within luminal A tumours. Methods: We pooled 5040 luminal A cases defined by immunohistochemistry (4490 basal-negative ((CK5 (or CK5/6))− and EGFR−) and 550 basal-positive ((CK5 (or CK5/6+)) or EGFR+)) from eight studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Case–case comparison was performed using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Tumour characteristics and risk factors did not vary significantly by the expression of basal markers, although results suggested that basal-positive luminal tumours tended to be smaller and node negative, and were more common in women with a positive family history and lower body mass index. Conclusions: Most established breast cancer risk factors were similar in basal-positive and basal-negative luminal A tumours. The non-significant but suggestive differences in tumour features and family history warrant further investigations. PMID:26679376

  6. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-09

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  7. Identification of molecular determinants of primary and metastatic tumour re-initiation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jason B; Huh, Doowon; Noble, Lisa B; Tavazoie, Sohail F

    2015-05-01

    Through in vivo selection of multiple ER-negative human breast cancer populations for enhanced tumour-forming capacity, we have derived subpopulations that generate tumours more efficiently than their parental populations at low cell numbers. Tumorigenic-enriched subpopulations exhibited increased expression of LAMA4, FOXQ1 and NAP1L3—genes that are also expressed at greater levels by independently derived metastatic subpopulations. These genes promote metastatic efficiency. FOXQ1 promotes LAMA4 expression, and LAMA4 enhances clonal expansion following substratum detachment in vitro, tumour re-initiation in multiple organs, and disseminated metastatic cell proliferation and colonization. The promotion of cancer cell proliferation and tumour re-initiation by LAMA4 requires β1-integrin. Increased LAMA4 expression marks the transition of human pre-malignant breast lesions to malignant carcinomas, and tumoral LAMA4 overexpression predicts reduced relapse-free survival in ER-negative patients. Our findings reveal common features that govern primary and metastatic tumour re-initiation and identify a key molecular determinant of these processes.

  8. Great tumour burden in the axilla may influence lymphatic drainage in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbin; Zhao, Yansheng; Pan, Hong; Li, Qin; Li, Xiuqing; Chen, Lin; Zha, Xiaoming; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Cong; Liu, Xiaoan; Wang, Shui

    2016-06-01

    We investigated whether great tumour burden in the primary draining lymph node would lead to obstructed lymphatic flow in breast cancer patients. Breast cancer patients with false-negative sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were enrolled from January 2001 to March 2011, retrospectively. A further 45 breast cancer patients were recruited prospectively from December 2013 to November 2014. Carbon nanoparticles, a lymphatic tracer, were injected into the subareolar area 24 h before surgery, followed by axillary lymph node dissection. In the SLN cohort, among the 28 false-negative cases, >50 % showed great tumour burden in the axilla. In the carbon nanoparticles cohort, we found that cases with <3 nodes involved in the pathology had more lymph nodes stained by carbon nanoparticles than the subgroup with ≥3 involved nodes (P = 0.003). Nodes stained with carbon nanoparticles showed smaller tumour burdens compared with unstained nodes (P < 0.05). Furthermore, five cases showed metastatic nodes that were not stained with carbon nanoparticles, and all the lymph nodes that were free of metastasis were stained with carbon nanoparticles. Great tumour burden in the axilla might lead to lymphatic flow obstructions in clinical practice. Nevertheless, clinical trials are still needed to validate our findings.

  9. Signs analysis and clinical assessment: phase-contrast computed tomography of human breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wushuai; Wu, Mingshu; Shi, Hongli; Wang, Liting; Zhang, Lu; Luo, Shuqian

    2015-01-01

    To analyse the diagnostic signs present in slices of human breast tumour specimens using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging computed tomography (PCI-CT) for the first time and assess the feasibility of this technique for clinical applications. The ethics committee of our university and relevant clinical hospital approved this prospective study, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. PCI-CT of human breast tumour specimens with synchrotron radiation was performed at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). A total of 14 specimens of early-stage carcinomas and 8 specimens of adenomas were enrolled. Based on raw data reconstruction, the diagnostic signs present in the slices were analysed and correlated with histopathology. We proposed a criterion for clinical diagnosis according to the evaluated signs and the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) for reference. The criterion was then assessed by clinicians in a double-blind method. Finally, descriptive statistics were evaluated, depending on the assessment results. The 14 carcinoma specimens and 8 adenoma specimens were diagnosed as malignant and benign tumours, respectively. The total coincidence rate was 100%. Our study results demonstrate that the X-ray diagnostic signs observed in the specimen slices and the criterion used for clinical diagnosis were accurate and reliable. The criterion based on signs analysis can be used to differentiate early-stage benign or malignant tumours. As a promising imaging method, PCI-CT can serve as a possible and feasible supplement to BI-RADS in the future.

  10. Detection of Circulating Tumour Cells from Blood of Breast Cancer Patients via RT-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C.; Hutter, Stefan; Friese, Klaus; Jeschke, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is still the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Often death is not caused only by the primary tumour itself, but also by metastatic lesions. Today it is largely accepted, that these remote metastases arise out of cells, which detach from the primary tumour, enter circulation, settle down at secondary sites in the body and are called Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs). The occurrence of such minimal residual diseases in the blood of breast cancer patients is mostly linked to a worse prognosis for therapy outcome and overall survival. Due to their very low frequency, the detection of CTCs is, still a technical challenge. RT-qPCR as a highly sensitive method could be an approach for CTC-detection from peripheral blood of breast cancer patients. This assumption is based on the fact that CTCs are of epithelial origin and therefore express a different gene panel than surrounding blood cells. For the technical approach it is necessary to identify appropriate marker genes and to correlate their gene expression levels to the number of tumour cells within a sample in an in vitro approach. After that, samples from adjuvant and metastatic patients can be analysed. This approach may lead to new concepts in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24202442

  11. Benign phyllodes tumours of the breast: (Over) treatment of margins - A literature review.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, M; Barthelmes, L

    2017-07-01

    Phyllodes tumours form a small group of fibroepithelial breast lesions (2-3%). They are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. (1). Benign phyllodes tumours are the largest subgroup of phyllodes tumours (50-80%), (2) A margin of 1 cm has been suggested as standard of care for all groups of phyllodes tumours.(3-6) METHODS: We performed a literature review from January 2009 to April 2016 including the non-English literature. We compared studies taking a 1 mm margin, 10 mm margin and studies with focal margin involvement. We included 12 studies with overall 1702 patients. The range of therapeutic margins differed widely between studies. There is no consensus between studies what constitutes a clear or involved margin. There was a high percentage of margin involvement for benign phyllodes tumours (7.6-43.7%). Despite these inconsistencies, the recurrence rate after excision of benign phyllodes tumours was low in most studies (112 recurrences of 1052 benign phyllodes tumours - 11%; range 0-43%). There is no difference of the recurrence rate between studies aiming for a 10 mm margin (7.9%) compared to a 1 mm margin (5.7%) (p 0.124). The recurrence rate increases when there are tumour cells at the margin (12.9%) (p 0.006). There is no difference in recurrence rates between a 1 and a 10 mm margin. 1 mm is an acceptable margin for benign phyllodes tumours. The recurrence rate increases if there is focal margin involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  12. DNA methylation profiling of phyllodes and fibroadenoma tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Huang, Katie T; Dobrovic, Alexander; Yan, Max; Karim, Rooshdiya Z; Lee, C Soon; Lakhani, Sunil R; Fox, Stephen B

    2010-11-01

    Phyllodes tumours and cellular fibroadenomas are both fibroepithelial tumours of the breast. Phyllodes tumours, unlike fibroadenomas, have the ability to recur and metastasise. Although these lesions can be distinguished by their stromal cellularity, mitotic index, presence or absence of stromal overgrowth and cellular atypia, there is overlap and not infrequently a definitive diagnosis cannot be made, particularly on biopsy. We sought to evaluate whether DNA promoter methylation profiling using selected genes known to be methylated in cancer would allow us to learn more about the biology of these tumours, and whether it could identify methylation markers that could differentiate phyllodes tumours from fibroadenomas and/or distinguish phyllodes tumours of different grades. Methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) was used to screen promoter DNA methylation changes in 86 phyllodes tumours (15 benign, 28 borderline, 43 malignant) and 26 fibroadenomas. A panel of 11 genes (RASSF1A, TWIST1, APC, WIF1, MGMT, MAL, RARβ, CDKN2A, CDH1, TP73 and MLH1) was tested. Methylation status was correlated with histology and with clinicopathological parameters. Five of the gene promoters showed some methylation in a proportion of phyllodes tumours; RASSF1A, 45.3%; TWIST1, 10.7%; APC, 4.1%; WIF1, 2.9% and MGMT, 1.3%. Only two genes showed any methylation in fibroadenomas usually at background levels; RASSF1A, 53.8% and MGMT, 8.3%. No CDKN2A methylation was observed in either tumour type, contrary to previous reports. Overall, the methylation patterns differed little from that which might be seen in normal cells. However, significant levels of methylation of RASSF1A (24.4%) and TWIST1 (7.1%) was observed in some phyllodes tumours. Elevated RASSF1A and/or TWIST1 methylation was significantly associated with phyllodes tumours compared with fibroadenomas (P = 0.02), TWIST1 methylation correlated with increasing malignancy in phyllodes tumours (P < 0.001). In conclusion

  13. High incidence of interleukin 10 mRNA but not interleukin 2 mRNA detected in human breast tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Venetsanakos, E.; Beckman, I.; Bradley, J.; Skinner, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the presence of a lymphocytic infiltrate in solid cancers, the failure for tumour growth to be contained suggests an inadequate immune response to the tumour. Poor cytotoxicity exerted by tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) against tumour cells in vitro, combined with continued tumour growth in vivo, suggests deficiencies in TIL function or numbers. Various theories have been postulated to explain how tumour cells may escape immunosurveillance and control. One of the many hypotheses is the failure of production of cytokines, which are necessary for T cells to mediate their function. Thus, the expression of cytokine mRNA in human breast tumour sections was investigated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with cytokine-specific primers. A relatively consistent finding was detection of interleukin (IL) 10 mRNA among the tumours. No IL-2 and little IL-4 mRNA was detected in the tumours. IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA was detected in only one and two of the normal breast tissues respectively. IL-2, IL-4 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA was not detected in any of the normal breast tissues. The reduced function of TILs may be related to IL-10, which has known inhibitory effects on T-cell activation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9192989

  14. Tumour cell invasion into blood vessels is significantly related to breast cancer subtypes and decreased survival.

    PubMed

    Klingen, Tor A; Chen, Ying; Stefansson, Ingunn M; Knutsvik, Gøril; Collett, Karin; Abrahamsen, Anne L; Aase, Hildegunn; Aas, Hans; Aas, Turid; Wik, Elisabeth; Akslen, Lars A

    2017-04-01

    Vascular invasion in breast cancer is associated with increased risk of recurrence, metastases and death from disease. However, there are few studies discriminating between blood vessel invasion (BVI) and lymphatic vessel involvement (LVI). A population-based series of 282 breast cancers was examined (200 screen-detected and 82 interval patients) with respect to BVI and LVI in addition to basic features and molecular subtypes, using CD31 and D2-40 antibodies. This series is part of the prospective Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. The frequency of LVI and BVI was 25% and 15%, respectively. BVI was associated with HER2-positive and basal-like tumours, and several features of aggressive breast cancer, whereas LVI showed weaker associations. BVI was the strongest factor to predict interval cancer presentation. BVI showed significant associations with recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival in univariate and multivariate analyses, whereas LVI was not significant. Our findings indicate that BVI by tumour cells is strongly associated with aggressive tumour features including a basal-like phenotype, and BVI was an independent prognostic factor in contrast to what was found for LVI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Study of Serum Total PSA and Free PSA as an Oncological Marker in Breast Tumour.

    PubMed

    Jahir, Elteza Tahjiba; Devi, Runi; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhushan

    2017-03-01

    Breast Cancer (BC) cases are rising alarmingly all over the world and India is not an exception. This rising trend is due to an increased age at first child birth, decreased breast feeding, and the changing lifestyle mostly in urban India. With the advent of more sensitive methodologies and research works in this field, it has been suggested that Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer besides other established tumour markers. To study the molecular forms of PSA-total and free PSA in benign and malignant tumours and to analyse their association with the tumour burden. The present study was conducted in collaboration with Gauhati Medical College and Hospital and Dr B Borooah Cancer Institute, Guwahati, Assam, India. Women in the age group of 18-65 years with recently diagnosed tumour (benign/malignant) in the breast were included in the study. Women taking Oral Contraceptive Pill (OCP), hormone replacement therapy, with past/present history of gynaecological/other malignancy and chronic endocrine disease like diabetes, thyroid disorders were excluded. The case group comprised of 50 female subjects with newly diagnosed Benign Breast Disease (BBD) and 50 subjects with BC, while 50 age matched healthy females without any signs and symptoms of breast discomfort were included in the control group. Laboratory tests done were Serum Total PSA (TPSA), Free PSA (FPSA), Fasting Blood Glucose (FBS), serum urea, serum creatinine and fasting lipid profile. TPSA and FPSA was measured again in both the test groups after 10-14 days of surgery/therapy. A fall in postoperative value of total and free PSA in BC case group was noticed. In Grade I tumours the mean value of total PSA (1.813 ng/ml) and free PSA (1.149 ng/ml) were higher than those with Grade III tumours (TPSA-1.07 ng/ml and FPSA-1.002 ng/ml). Mean value of Fasting Blood Sugar (FBG), total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in BC case group was higher than the

  16. Tumour diploidy and survival in breast cancer patients with BRCA2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J; Olafsdottir, Gudridur H; Sigurdsson, Helgi; Johannsson, Oskar T; Bjorgvinsson, Einar; Alexiusdottir, Kristin; Stefansson, Olafur A; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Narod, Steven A; Eyfjord, Jorunn E; Jonasson, Jon G

    2013-07-01

    It is not well known to what extent carrying a BRCA2 mutation affects the survival of women with breast cancer and prognostic factors among BRCA2-positive women warrant investigation. Using a record linkage approach we compared the long-term survival in carriers and noncarriers of an inherited BRCA2 founder mutation (999del5), and sought to identify prognostic factors among the BRCA2 mutation-positive subset, including markers of genetic instability (aneuploidy) and mitotic activity (S-phase fraction). We established the genetic status of 2,967 Icelandic breast cancer patients (215 mutation carriers and 2,752 noncarriers) diagnosed from 1955 to 2004, representing 72 % of all cases diagnosed in the country during this period. Tumour ploidy and S-phase fraction were assessed on tumour cells by DNA flow cytometry. Prognostic factors were assessed blindly with respect to mutation status. Univariate and multivariate hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for breast cancer-specific survival by BRCA2 status, using Cox regression. After a median follow-up of 9.5 years, BRCA2 mutation carriers had a higher risk of death from breast cancer than noncarriers (HR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.24-2.16, p < 0.001). The risk increase was restricted to women with diploid tumours (HR 3.03, 95 % CI 1.91-4.79, p < 0.001). Among breast cancer patients with aneuploid tumours, survival of carriers was similar to that of noncarriers (HR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.41-1.41, p = 0.38). Increased tumour size and a positive nodal status predicted worse prognosis in all patients, whereas the highly correlated prognostic factors diploidy, low proliferative activity and a positive estrogen receptor status had reverse effects in mutation carriers and noncarriers. Breast cancer patients who carry the Icelandic founder BRCA2 mutation have inferior long-term survival than noncarriers, but the adverse prognosis is restricted to mutation carriers with diploid, slowly proliferating tumours.

  17. Tensor based multichannel reconstruction for breast tumours identification from DCE-MRIs

    PubMed Central

    Yin, X. -X.; Hadjiloucas, S.; Chen, J. -H.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, J. -L.; Su, M. -Y.

    2017-01-01

    A new methodology based on tensor algebra that uses a higher order singular value decomposition to perform three-dimensional voxel reconstruction from a series of temporal images obtained using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is proposed. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to robustly extract the spatial and temporal image features and simultaneously de-noise the datasets. Tumour segmentation on enhanced scaled (ES) images performed using a fuzzy C-means (FCM) cluster algorithm is compared with that achieved using the proposed tensorial framework. The proposed algorithm explores the correlations between spatial and temporal features in the tumours. The multi-channel reconstruction enables improved breast tumour identification through enhanced de-noising and improved intensity consistency. The reconstructed tumours have clear and continuous boundaries; furthermore the reconstruction shows better voxel clustering in tumour regions of interest. A more homogenous intensity distribution is also observed, enabling improved image contrast between tumours and background, especially in places where fatty tissue is imaged. The fidelity of reconstruction is further evaluated on the basis of five new qualitative metrics. Results confirm the superiority of the tensorial approach. The proposed reconstruction metrics should also find future applications in the assessment of other reconstruction algorithms. PMID:28282379

  18. MED12 is frequently mutated in breast phyllodes tumours: a study of 112 cases.

    PubMed

    Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Tan, Jing; Ong, Choon Kiat; Lim, Weng Khong; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; Lim, Jeffrey Chun Tatt; Thike, Aye Aye; Salahuddin, Syed Ahmed; Iqbal, Jabed; Busmanis, Inny; Chong, Angela Phek Yoon; Teh, Bin Tean; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2015-09-01

    To determine the frequency of MED12 mutations in a series of 112 breast phyllodes tumours, and to correlate the findings with clinicopathological parameters and survival outcomes. Phyllodes tumours from the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, were classified into benign, borderline and malignant categories. Genomic DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded phyllodes tumours was extracted, purified and subjected to ultra-deep-targeted amplicon sequencing across exon 2 of the MED12 gene. Sequencing was performed on the Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platform and bioinformatics analysis applied. Appropriate statistical analyses were carried out. There were 66 benign, 32 borderline and 14 malignant tumours, with 43 (65.1%), 21 (65.6%) and 6 (42.8%) disclosing MED12 mutations (missense, splice site, indel), respectively. For 97 cases with available follow-up, there were 10 (10.3%) recurrences. Patients with phyllodes tumours that harboured MED12 mutations experienced improved disease-free survivals, with higher recurrence likelihood in those without MED12 mutations (HR 9.99, 95% CIs 1.55 to 64.42, p=0.015). Similar to fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumours show a high frequency of MED12 mutations, affirming the close biological relationship between these fibroepithelial neoplasms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Modelling Circulating Tumour Cells for Personalised Survival Prediction in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers among women, and the main cause of death is the formation of metastases. The development of metastases is caused by cancer cells that migrate from the primary tumour site (the mammary duct) through the blood vessels and extravasating they initiate metastasis. Here, we propose a multi-compartment model which mimics the dynamics of tumoural cells in the mammary duct, in the circulatory system and in the bone. Through a branching process model, we describe the relation between the survival times and the four markers mainly involved in metastatic breast cancer (EPCAM, CD47, CD44 and MET). In particular, the model takes into account the gene expression profile of circulating tumour cells to predict personalised survival probability. We also include the administration of drugs as bisphosphonates, which reduce the formation of circulating tumour cells and their survival in the blood vessels, in order to analyse the dynamic changes induced by the therapy. We analyse the effects of circulating tumour cells on the progression of the disease providing a quantitative measure of the cell driver mutations needed for invading the bone tissue. Our model allows to design intervention scenarios that alter the patient-specific survival probability by modifying the populations of circulating tumour cells and it could be extended to other cancer metastasis dynamics. PMID:25978366

  20. The mammary ducts create a favourable microenvironment for xenografting of luminal and molecular apocrine breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Richard, Elodie; Grellety, Thomas; Velasco, Valerie; MacGrogan, Gaetan; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Iggo, Richard

    2016-11-01

    There is a paucity of models for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer because of the difficulty of establishing xenografts from these tumours. We show that this obstacle can be overcome by injecting human tumour cells directly into the mammary ducts of immunodeficient mice. Tumours from 31 patients were infected overnight with a lentiviral vector expressing tdTomato and injected through the nipple into the mammary ducts of NOD-SCID-IL2RG-/- mice. Tumours formed in the mice in 77% of cases after the first injection (6/8 luminal A, 15/20 luminal B, and 3/3 molecular apocrine). Four luminal A and one molecular apocrine graft were tested in secondary and tertiary grafts: all were successfully passaged in secondary and 4/5 in tertiary grafts. None of the samples engrafted when injected subcutaneously. The morphology, oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR), and Ki-67 profiles of the clinical samples were maintained in the tertiary grafts. We also show that the intraductal approach can be used to test the response to targeted therapy with fulvestrant and palbociclib, using a genetically defined ER+ model. We conclude that the mammary ducts create a microenvironment that is uniquely favourable to the survival and growth of tumours derived from mammary hormone-sensing cells. This approach opens the door to testing genomically targeted treatment of HR+ tumours in precision medicine programmes. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Frequent somatic loss of BRCA1 in breast tumours from BRCA2 germ-line mutation carriers and vice versa

    PubMed Central

    Staff, S; Isola, J J; Johannsson, O; Borg, Å; Tanner, M M

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumour suppressor genes the alleles of which have to be inactivated before tumour development occurs. Hereditary breast cancers linked to germ-line mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes almost invariably show allelic imbalance (AI) at the respective loci. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are believed to take part in a common pathway in maintenance of genomic integrity in cells. We carried out AI and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of BRCA2 in breast tumours from germ-line BRCA1 mutation carriers and vice versa. For comparison, 14 sporadic breast tumours were also studied. 8 of the 11 (73%) informative BRCA1 mutation tumours showed AI at the BRCA2 locus. 53% of these tumours showed a copy number loss of the BRCA2 gene by FISH. 5 of the 6 (83%) informative BRCA2 mutation tumours showed AI at the BRCA1 locus. Half of the tumours (4/8) showed a physical deletion of the BRCA1 gene by FISH. Combined allelic loss of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene was seen in 12 of the 17 (71%) informative hereditary tumours, whereas copy number losses of both BRCA genes was seen in only 4/14 (29%) sporadic control tumours studied by FISH. In conclusion, the high prevalence of AI at BRCA1 in BRCA2 mutation tumours and vice versa suggests that somatic events occurring at the other breast cancer susceptibility gene locus may be selected in the cancer development. The mechanism resulting in AI at these loci seems more complex than a physical deletion.   http://www.bjcancer.com © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11710835

  2. Ribociclib as First-Line Treatment for Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of interim results from a phase III trial testing ribociclib plus letrozole (Femara®) as a first-line treatment for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

  3. β-catenin/Wnt signalling pathway in fibromatosis, metaplastic carcinomas and phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Geyer, Felipe C; Lambros, Maryou B; Savage, Kay; Ellis, Ian O; Lee, Andrew H S; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-11-01

    Wnt signalling pathway is known to have a critical role in carcinogenesis and in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Upon Wnt activation, β-catenin is translocated from the membrane to the cytoplasm and nucleus, where it interacts with transcriptional activators. It has been suggested that various spindle cell lesions of the breast may harbour Wnt pathway activation. Given that β-catenin nuclear localization constitutes a good surrogate marker of Wnt canonical pathway activation, we have investigated the distribution of β-catenin in spindle cell lesions of the breast and whether it could be employed in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. A total of 52 metaplastic breast carcinomas, eight fibromatoses and 23 phyllodes tumours were retrieved from our institutions' archives. We performed immunohistochemistry using two anti-β-catenin antibodies. In all, three fibromatoses and 21 metaplastic breast carcinomas were subjected to CTNNB1 (β-catenin encoding gene) mutation analysis by direct gene sequencing. A good correlation between the two antibodies was observed (Spearman's r>0.82, P<0.001). All fibromatoses and 23% of metaplastic breast carcinomas expressed nuclear β-catenin. In fibromatosis, β-catenin was more often diffusely expressed, whereas in metaplastic breast carcinomas, expression was more frequently focal. Membranous β-catenin expression was significantly lower in spindle cell carcinomas than in other subtypes of metaplastic breast carcinomas. In phyllodes tumours, stromal cells of benign and malignant subtypes displayed nuclear β-catenin expression in 94 and 57% of cases, respectively. No CTNNB1 mutation was identified in any of the 21 metaplastic carcinomas analysed, whereas the mutations 45S>S/P and 41T>T/A were found in samples of fibromatosis. In conclusion, β-catenin nuclear expression is a common feature in fibromatoses and in the stromal component of phyllodes tumours, but may also be observed in metaplastic breast carcinomas.

  4. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Carboplatin Followed by Surgery and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage II-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-19

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  5. Surveillance of women with a personal history of breast cancer by tumour subtype.

    PubMed

    Benveniste, A P; Dryden, M J; Bedrosian, I; Morrow, P K; Bassett, R L; Yang, W

    2017-03-01

    To determine if the rate and timing of a second breast cancer event (SBCE) in women with a personal history of breast cancer varies by disease subtype or breast imaging method. A retrospective review was performed of women with a SBCE from January 2006 to December 2010 at a single institution. Data analysed included oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status of the primary and second breast cancers; mammographic and ultrasound (US) features from SBCE; and the time interval between both events. Of 207 patients diagnosed with a SBCE, the median age at first diagnosis was 50.6 years, range 24.8 to 80.2; at second diagnosis was 56.2 years, range 25.8 to 87.9. Eleven percent of SBCE were diagnosed >10 years after the primary cancer diagnosis. The median time between the first and second diagnosis for ER-positive patients was 2.7 years (range 0.7-17.4 years); and 1.9 years for ER-negative patients, (range 0.4-23.4 years; p<0.002). Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) had a shorter time between diagnoses than others (p=0.0003). At 3, 5, and 10 years, 85%, 92%, and 97% of ER-negative and 54%, 81%, and 95% of ER-positive tumours, respectively, had recurred. ER-negative tumours and TNBC were more likely to be visible at US. There may be a role for customised imaging surveillance of women with a personal history of breast cancer (PHBC) after 10 years. Further studies are necessary to determine if US may be valuable in the surveillance of patients with ER-negative and TNBC tumours. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brachytherapy boost to the tumour bed in high risk patients after limited surgery for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ulutin, H C; Ash, D; Dodwell, D

    2003-05-01

    The results of treatment for 174 patients at high risk of local recurrence, referred for radiotherapy after conservative surgery for early breast cancer, are evaluated. Microscopic margin involvement, extensive carcinoma in situ, and vascular/lymphatic invasion were the main risk factors for local recurrence. Whole-breast irradiation (40 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks) followed with a brachytherapy boost (Ir192 wire implant or PDR Ir192) of 25 Gy was applied. Median follow-up was 80 months. The actuarial 6-year overall survival rate was 91% and the within breast recurrence-free survival was 88%. The most common risk factor among those recurring within the breast was involved surgical margins (13 out of 17). Cosmesis was reported to be good or excellent in 79% of cases. In patients at high risk for local recurrence, tumour-bed boost with brachytherapy can provide satisfactory local control after limited surgery and external radiotherapy.

  7. BRCA2 carriers with male breast cancer show elevated tumour methylation.

    PubMed

    Deb, Siddhartha; Gorringe, Kylie L; Pang, Jia-Min B; Byrne, David J; Takano, Elena A; Investigators, kConFab; Dobrovic, Alexander; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-09-11

    Male breast cancer (MBC) represents a poorly characterised group of tumours, the management of which is largely based on practices established for female breast cancer. However, recent studies demonstrate biological and molecular differences likely to impact on tumour behaviour and therefore patient outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate methylation of a panel of commonly methylated breast cancer genes in familial MBCs. 60 tumours from 3 BRCA1 and 25 BRCA2 male mutation carriers and 32 males from BRCAX families were assessed for promoter methylation by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting in a panel of 10 genes (RASSF1A, TWIST1, APC, WIF1, MAL, RARβ, CDH1, RUNX3, FOXC1 and GSTP1). An average methylation index (AMI) was calculated for each case comprising the average of the methylation of the 10 genes tested as an indicator of overall tumour promoter region methylation. Promoter hypermethylation and AMI were correlated with BRCA carrier mutation status and clinicopathological parameters including tumour stage, grade, histological subtype and disease specific survival. Tumours arising in BRCA2 mutation carriers showed significantly higher methylation of candidate genes, than those arising in non-BRCA2 familial MBCs (average AMI 23.6 vs 16.6, p = 0.01, 45% of genes hypermethylated vs 34%, p < 0.01). RARβ methylation and AMI-high status were significantly associated with tumour size (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02 respectively), RUNX3 methylation with invasive carcinoma of no special type (94% vs 69%, p = 0.046) and RASSF1A methylation with coexistence of high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (33% vs 6%, p = 0.02). Cluster analysis showed MBCs arising in BRCA2 mutation carriers were characterised by RASSF1A, WIF1, RARβ and GTSP1 methylation (p = 0.02) whereas methylation in BRCAX tumours showed no clear clustering to particular genes. TWIST1 methylation (p = 0.001) and AMI (p = 0.01) were prognostic for disease specific survival. Increased

  8. Early prognosis of metastasis risk in inflammatory breast cancer by texture analysis of tumour microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Kolarevic, Daniela; Tomasevic, Zorica; Dzodic, Radan; Kanjer, Ksenija; Vukosavljevic, Dragica Nikolic; Radulovic, Marko

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive type of locally advanced breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of microscopic tumour histomorphology texture for prognosis of local and systemic recurrence at the time of initial IBC diagnosis. This retrospective study included a group of 52 patients selected on the basis of non-metastatic IBC diagnosis, stage IIIB. Gray-Level-Co-Occurrence-Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis was performed on digital images of primary tumour tissue sections stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Obtained values were categorized by use of both data- and outcome-based methods. All five acquired GLCM texture features significantly associated with metastasis outcome. By accuracies of 69-81% and AUCs of 0.71-0.81, prognostic performance of GLCM parameters exceeded that of standard major IBC clinical prognosticators such as tumour grade and response to induction chemotherapy. Furthermore, a composite score consisting of tumour grade, contrast and correlation as independent features resulted in further enhancement of prognostic performance by accuracy of 89%, discrimination efficiency by AUC of 0.93 and an outstanding hazard ratio of 71.6 (95%CI, 41.7-148.4). Internal validation was successfully performed by bootstrap and split-sample cross-validation, suggesting that the model is generalizable. This study indicates for the first time the potential use of primary breast tumour histology texture as a highly accurate, simple and cost-effective prognostic indicator of metastasis risk in IBC. Clinical relevance of the obtained results rests on the role of prognosis in decisions on induction chemotherapy and the resulting impact on quality of life and survival.

  9. Annexin A1 influences in breast cancer: Controversies on contributions to tumour, host and immunoediting processes.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yan; Johnstone, Cameron N; Stewart, Alastair G

    2017-05-01

    Annexin A1 is a multifunctional protein characterised by its actions in modulating the innate and adaptive immune response. Accumulating evidence of altered annexin A1 expression in many human tumours raises interest in its functional role in cancer biology. In breast cancer, altered annexin A1 expression levels suggest a potential influence on tumorigenic and metastatic processes. However, reports of conflicting results reveal a relationship that is much more complex than first conceptualised. In this review, we explore the diverse actions of annexin A1 on breast tumour cells and various host cell types, including stromal immune and structural cells, particularly in the context of cancer immunoediting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of tumour necrosis factor alpha and its receptors with thymidine phosphorylase expression in invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Leek, R. D.; Landers, R.; Fox, S. B.; Ng, F.; Harris, A. L.; Lewis, C. E.

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential requirement for tumour growth and metastasis and is regulated by a complex network of factors produced by both stromal cells and neoplastic cells within solid tumours. The cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP) are two factors known to promote tumour angiogenesis. We have demonstrated recently that high numbers of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are significantly associated with increased tumour angiogenesis and poor prognosis in invasive carcinoma of the breast. We have also shown that TAMs are a major source of TNF-alpha in invasive breast carcinomas, and that macrophage-like stromal cells as well as tumour cells synthesize TP in such tumours. However, little is known of the factors that regulate the production or activity of these factors in the tumour microenvironment. As TNF-alpha has been shown to up-regulate TP expression in tumour cells in vitro we performed an immunohistochemical study to investigate the possibility that TNF-alpha may be involved in the regulation of TP expression by malignant breast epithelial cells in vivo. To do this, we used a cocktail of non-neutralizing monoclonal anti-TNF-alpha antibodies to visualize both TNF-alpha-expressing macrophages and TNF-alpha bound to its receptors on tumour cells and endothelial cells in a series of 93 invasive carcinomas of the breast. A semiquantitative grading system was then used to compare these staining patterns with that for TP in the same biopsies. TNF-alpha immunoreactivity was also compared with various important tumour variables known to relate to outcome in this disease (microvessel density, node status, grade, stage, receptor status and macrophage infiltration), as well as relapse-free and overall survival data for these patients. Our data show significant positive correlations between TNF-alpha bound to its receptors on tumour cells and: (1) TP protein production by tumour cells, and (2) axillary lymph

  11. The association of subtypes of breast cancer with tumour characteristics and reproductive factors in 1326 Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Gabriel; Aranda-Moreno, Catalina; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In breast cancer, oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and HER2 (HER2/Neu) expression status are used to classify neoplasms into subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2/Neu type, and Basallike. The aim of the present study was to establish the molecular subtypes of breast cancers and their association with tumour characteristics and reproductive factors in Mexican women. Material and methods A total of 1326 biopsies of breast tumour tissues were analysed for ER, PR, and HER2/Neu by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Information regarding age, tumour characteristics, and node involvement profiles were collected. Results IHC established that the most common subtype of breast cancer was Luminal A (64.93%), followed by Basal-Like (13.88%), Luminal B (12.52%), and HER2/Neu (8.67%). T2-size tumours (> 2 cm but < 5 cm) were present in 47.59% of all patients. Univariate analysis showed that lymph node positivity (p = 0.009), stage (p = 0.013), and placement of the tumour (p = 0.001) were factors associated with breast cancer subtype. Conclusions Our data show that IHC is useful for distinguishing different subtypes of breast cancer and that Luminal A is the most common breast cancer subtype in the Mexican population. All subtypes were associated with unfavourable clinicopathological features, suggesting that late diagnosis is an important contributor to high mortality rates in the Mexican population. PMID:26843843

  12. A progesterone-receptor-positive huge retroperitoneal tumour mimics metastasis in a breast cancer patient: sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Z-J; Chu, C-H; Fan, H-L; Hsu, K-F; Hsu, G-C; Yu, C-P; Char, D-L; Yu, J-C

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare case of breast cancer concomitant with progesterone-receptor-positive renal cell carcinoma. A 48-year-old woman was diagnosed as having infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast and underwent modified radical mastectomy. A synchronous retroperitoneal tumour was detected by sonography of the abdomen in a routine cancer staging. Initially, the tumour was diagnosed as a synchronous retroperitoneal metastasis by needle biopsy; further tests revealed that it was progesterone receptor-positive. The retroperitoneal tumour showed poor response to full courses of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Subsequently, the patient underwent a radical operation that included nephrectomy. The final pathology confirmed a sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. The post-operative course was uneventful. The patient had no recurrence at the 1-year follow-up. In this report, accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment were discussed. An intra-abdominal tumour with progesterone receptor- (PR) positive features is usually considered to be metastatic in breast cancer patients. For breast cancer patients with a PR-positive retroperitoneal tumour, renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from a metastatic lesion of breast cancer, even if PR-expression is rare in renal cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PR-positive expression in breast cancer concomitant with renal carcinoma. In clinical settings, it is challenging for the surgeon to make an accurate diagnosis and to provide prompt treatment in such cases.

  13. Comparison between Real-Time Quantitative PCR Detection of HER2 mRNA Copy Number in Peripheral Blood and ELISA of Serum HER2 Protein for Determining HER2 Status in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Maria; Parrella, Paola; Copetti, Massimiliano; Barbano, Raffaela; Murgo, Roberto; Fazio, Vito Michele; Valori, Vanna Maria; Carella, Massimo; Garrubba, Maria; Santini, Stefano Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Background: The development of non-invasive procedure to determine HER2 status may represent a powerful method for monitoring disease progression and response to the treatment. Methods: Serum samples and RNA from peripheral blood were evaluated in 85 breast cancer patients (49 HER2 positive and 36 HER2 negative) and 22 healthy controls. HER2 mRNA levels were measured by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) and serum HER2 protein by immunoenzimatic assay (EIA). ROC curve analyses were used to determine the optimal cut off values. Results: A statistically significant difference was detected for both QPCR and EIA in HER2 positive patients as compared with both healthy controls and HER2 negative tumours. QPCR showed a 91% (CI95%: 84%–98%) specificity and a 78% (CI95%: 68%–88%) sensitivity for an optimal cut off value of 4.74. The optimal cut off value for EIA was 22 ng/ml yielding a 95% (CI95%: 90%–100%) specificity and a 59% (CI95%: 48%–70%) sensitivity. The QPCR assay was slightly less specific than EIA in discriminating HER2 positive breast cancers from HER2 negative tumours (78% CI95%: 69%–87% versus 86% CI95%: 79%–93%), but it was more sensitive (76% CI95%: 67%–85% versus 55% CI95%: 44%–66%). Conclusions: Our results indicate that QPCR performs better than EIA in the determination of HER2 status of breast cancer patients and could be useful in monitoring the disease during follow up. PMID:19478388

  14. Subtyping of Breast Cancer by Immunohistochemistry to Investigate a Relationship between Subtype and Short and Long Term Survival: A Collaborative Analysis of Data for 10,159 Cases from 12 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Wesseling, Jelle; Cheang, Maggie C.; Gelmon, Karen; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Blomqvist, Carl; Heikkilä, Päivi; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Akslen, Lars A.; Bégin, Louis R.; Foulkes, William D.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Cafourek, Vicky; Olson, Janet E.; Baglietto, Laura; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; McLean, Catriona A.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rakha, Emad; Green, Andrew R.; Ellis, Ian O.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Anderson, William F.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Provenzano, Elena; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Dunning, Alison M.; Humphreys, Manjeet; Easton, Douglas F.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Caldas, Carlos; Pharoah, Paul D.; Huntsman, David

    2010-01-01

    Background Immunohistochemical markers are often used to classify breast cancer into subtypes that are biologically distinct and behave differently. The aim of this study was to estimate mortality for patients with the major subtypes of breast cancer as classified using five immunohistochemical markers, to investigate patterns of mortality over time, and to test for heterogeneity by subtype. Methods and Findings We pooled data from more than 10,000 cases of invasive breast cancer from 12 studies that had collected information on hormone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, and at least one basal marker (cytokeratin [CK]5/6 or epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]) together with survival time data. Tumours were classified as luminal and nonluminal tumours according to hormone receptor expression. These two groups were further subdivided according to expression of HER2, and finally, the luminal and nonluminal HER2-negative tumours were categorised according to expression of basal markers. Changes in mortality rates over time differed by subtype. In women with luminal HER2-negative subtypes, mortality rates were constant over time, whereas mortality rates associated with the luminal HER2-positive and nonluminal subtypes tended to peak within 5 y of diagnosis and then decline over time. In the first 5 y after diagnosis the nonluminal tumours were associated with a poorer prognosis, but over longer follow-up times the prognosis was poorer in the luminal subtypes, with the worst prognosis at 15 y being in the luminal HER2-positive tumours. Basal marker expression distinguished the HER2-negative luminal and nonluminal tumours into different subtypes. These patterns were independent of any systemic adjuvant therapy. Conclusions The six subtypes of breast cancer defined by expression of five markers show distinct behaviours with important differences in short term and long term prognosis. Application of these markers in the clinical

  15. Prognostic value of tumour cell detection in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zach, O; Kasparu, H; Wagner, H; Krieger, O; Lutz, D

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of tumour cells in peripheral blood (pB) of breast cancer (BC) patients, pB samples from 143 patients with benign lesions of the breast and from 467 BC patients were tested via a nested RT-PCR assay for mammaglobin mRNA. No sample from patients with benign lesions of the breast was found to be mammaglobin positive in contrast to 5/310 (2%) BC patients with no evidence of disease (NED) and 46/157 (29%) patients with metastatic disease (MD). Two hundred and eighteen BC patients with NED were followed for at least 12 months. All five mammaglobin-positive BC patients relapsed 1-13 months after first examination of positive pB samples in contrast to 27/213 (13%) patients without detectable tumour cells in pB. Fifty-nine BC patients with MD were tested for mammaglobin expression in pB at the time of first diagnosis of MD; 20 of them (34%) were mammaglobin positive. Patients were followed for a median of 19 months (2-51 months). During this time, 19/59 (32%) died due to tumour progression. In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, BC patients with mammaglobin-negative pB samples at time of diagnosis of MD lived significantly longer than mammaglobin-positive patients (log-rank test: P = 0.0013). In addition, mammaglobin was an independent prognostic parameter and the difference reached significance in univariate as well as in multivariate analysis (P < 0.01). We conclude that the presence of tumour cells in pB of BC patients is of prognostic value.

  16. Expression of CD34 and bcl-2 in phyllodes tumours, fibroadenomas and spindle cell lesions of the breast.

    PubMed

    Moore, T; Lee, A H

    2001-01-01

    Strong expression of CD34 and bcl-2 has been described in solitary fibrous tumours. It has been proposed that these lesions arise from long-lived mesenchymal cells. We tested the hypothesis that spindle cell lesions of the breast arise from similar mesenchymal cells in the mammary stroma. Sections of phyllodes tumours (26), fibroadenomas (15), myofibroblastomas (two), pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia (five) and myoid hamartoma (one) were stained immunohistochemically for CD34 and bcl-2. Conventional mammary carcinoma is known to be CD34-negative: we therefore stained 11 spindle cell carcinomas and one adenosquamous carcinoma. The mammary stroma, particularly around lobules, stained for CD34. All the lesions (except the carcinomas) showed spindle cell staining for CD34. There was more staining in fibroadenomas than in phyllodes tumours (especially malignant tumours). The staining in phyllodes tumours was typically patchy. In some there was increased or decreased staining adjacent to the epithelium. There were occasional spindle cells positive for bcl-2 in the normal perilobular stroma. bcl-2 was frequently expressed in spindle cells in fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumours and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia, and rarely in the other lesions. The combined expression of CD34 and bcl-2 suggests that fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumours and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia may arise from long-lived bcl-2-positive mesenchymal cells in the breast in a manner similar to that proposed for solitary fibrous tumours. The absence of CD34 staining in spindle cell carcinomas is of potential diagnostic value in the distinction from malignant phyllodes tumours in difficult cases.

  17. Whole-genome profiling helps to classify phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Laé, Marick; La Rosa, Philippe; Mandel, Jonas; Reyal, Fabien; Hupé, Philippe; Terrier, Philippe; Couturier, Jérôme

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse a series of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours (PTs) of the breast by whole-genome profiling to identify genomic markers that could help to recognise potentially malignant tumours within borderline tumours. We evaluated the genetic imbalances of a series of 53 PTs (30 borderline, 23 malignant) using the Human CNV370 BeadChip microarray (Illumina), containing 370 000 SNP markers and correlate this alterations with clinicopathological features. Forty-five PTs (85%) showed chromosome copy number variations (CNVs). Twenty PTs (37%) showed five or more chromosomal imbalances (8/30 borderline (27%) and 12/23 malignant (52%)). The large-scale genetic changes associated with malignant were+7p (9/23), +1q (8/23), -10p (8/23), -13q14 (7/23), +8q (6/23) and +10q (6/23) and borderline were+1q (13/30), -13q14 (9/30), -6q (8/30) and -10p (8/30). Losses in 9p21.3, encompassing CDKN2A/B gene, were present in three tumours (malignant), whereas deletions of 13q, with a minimal region in 13q14.2 encompassing the RB1 gene, were found in 9/30 borderline and 7/28 malignant tumours. High-level amplifications were seen in eight tumours (seven malignant and one borderline): in 7p in three tumours (including EGFR in two), 7q31.2 (including TFEC and MET), 8q24.21 (including MYC) and 8q23.3 (including CSMD3) in one tumour each. Whole-genome profiling by SNP arrays in PTs leads to identify a high number of CNV, gains of 7p and 8q, losses of 13q and 10, losses in 9p21.3 (CDKN2A/B) and the presence of amplifications, especially involving EGFR, as markers of potentially malignant tumours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Role of CD10 Immunoexpression in Grading Phyllodes Tumour of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Khandeparkar, Siddhi Gaurish Sinai; Joshi, Avinash R; Kothikar, Vishakha; Nasare, Anuja; Patil, Sukhada; Niraspatil, Supriya; Dhande, Bhagyashree

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fibroepithelial tumours are a heterogeneous group of biphasic neoplasms consisting of a proliferation of both epithelial and stromal components. Fibroadenoma (FA) and Phyllodes Tumour (PT) constitute the major entities. It is crucial to distinguish benign from borderline PT (low grade malignant PT), because the former do not metastasize, have a lesser risk of local recurrence and initial local recurrences are histologically benign in almost all instances. Multiple Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers are being studied to find their utility in grading the PT accurately for planning proper treatment. Aim To study, the IHC expression of CD10 in the stromal cells of a series of PTs and FA, with the aim of determining whether the degree of CD10 expression in the stromal cells is related to the grade of the tumour. Materials and Methods Records of 28 cases of PT and 35 cases of FA received in the Department of Pathology in a tertiary care hospital were obtained. Histopathology reports and slides of all the cases were reviewed and clinical data such as age and histomorphological features such as tumour cellularity, stromal overgrowth, mitotic count and nuclear atypia were noted. Representative block of the tumour with maximum cellularity was subjected to CD10 staining. For FA and benign PT a technique of tissue microarray was used. For borderline and malignant PT, representative section was used. Stromal cell staining was assessed, using cytoplasmic staining of the breast myoepithelium as internal control. Results Present study included 35 cases of FA, 20 cases of benign PT, five cases of borderline PT and three cases of malignant PT. The mean age of the patients increased with the increasing tumour grade of PT and this was also observed for FA and benign PT. The mean age increased with increase in tumour grade of PT and was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean size did not increase with the increasing tumour grade of PT and was statistically

  19. The human tumour cloning assay in the management of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, C.; Jakesz, R.; Wrba, F.; Havelec, L.; Haas, O.; Spona, J.; Holzner, H.; Kolb, R.; Moser, K.

    1985-01-01

    A tumour cloning system was used to cultivate breast cancer specimens. Fifty-six percent of 87 samples were adequate for evaluation, showing clonal growth in about one third (35%). Effusions yielded significantly better growth than solid specimens, the median colony numbers being 64 and 18 respectively. An attempt was made to examine whether there was any association between parameters accepted as prognostic factors for breast cancer and clonal growth in vitro. No correlation was found between preoperative tumour burden, histopathologic grading, menopausal status or overall survival and clonal growth in vitro, whereas we observed an inverse trend between progesterone receptor content of the tumours and their growth potential (P less than 0.01). In those few cases where in vitro and in vivo data could be compared, a high accuracy of the predicted sensitivities was found with respect to chemotherapy, but not in relation to hormonal treatment. A statistically significant higher overall chemosensitivity was associated with the absence of oestrogen receptors (P less than 0.01). PMID:4027163

  20. Mutational evolution in a lobular breast tumour profiled at single nucleotide resolution.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sohrab P; Morin, Ryan D; Khattra, Jaswinder; Prentice, Leah; Pugh, Trevor; Burleigh, Angela; Delaney, Allen; Gelmon, Karen; Guliany, Ryan; Senz, Janine; Steidl, Christian; Holt, Robert A; Jones, Steven; Sun, Mark; Leung, Gillian; Moore, Richard; Severson, Tesa; Taylor, Greg A; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Tse, Kane; Turashvili, Gulisa; Varhol, Richard; Warren, René L; Watson, Peter; Zhao, Yongjun; Caldas, Carlos; Huntsman, David; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A; Aparicio, Samuel

    2009-10-08

    Recent advances in next generation sequencing have made it possible to precisely characterize all somatic coding mutations that occur during the development and progression of individual cancers. Here we used these approaches to sequence the genomes (>43-fold coverage) and transcriptomes of an oestrogen-receptor-alpha-positive metastatic lobular breast cancer at depth. We found 32 somatic non-synonymous coding mutations present in the metastasis, and measured the frequency of these somatic mutations in DNA from the primary tumour of the same patient, which arose 9 years earlier. Five of the 32 mutations (in ABCB11, HAUS3, SLC24A4, SNX4 and PALB2) were prevalent in the DNA of the primary tumour removed at diagnosis 9 years earlier, six (in KIF1C, USP28, MYH8, MORC1, KIAA1468 and RNASEH2A) were present at lower frequencies (1-13%), 19 were not detected in the primary tumour, and two were undetermined. The combined analysis of genome and transcriptome data revealed two new RNA-editing events that recode the amino acid sequence of SRP9 and COG3. Taken together, our data show that single nucleotide mutational heterogeneity can be a property of low or intermediate grade primary breast cancers and that significant evolution can occur with disease progression.

  1. EMT cells increase breast cancer metastasis via paracrine GLI activation in neighbouring tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Neelakantan, Deepika; Zhou, Hengbo; Oliphant, Michael U. J.; Zhang, Xiaomei; Simon, Lukas M.; Henke, David M.; Shaw, Chad A.; Wu, Meng-Fen; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; White, Lisa D.; Lewis, Michael T.; Ford, Heide L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent fate-mapping studies concluded that EMT is not required for metastasis of carcinomas. Here we challenge this conclusion by showing that these studies failed to account for possible crosstalk between EMT and non-EMT cells that promotes dissemination of non-EMT cells. In breast cancer models, EMT cells induce increased metastasis of weakly metastatic, non-EMT tumour cells in a paracrine manner, in part by non-cell autonomous activation of the GLI transcription factor. Treatment with GANT61, a GLI1/2 inhibitor, but not with IPI 926, a Smoothened inhibitor, blocks this effect and inhibits growth in PDX models. In human breast tumours, the EMT-transcription factors strongly correlate with activated Hedgehog/GLI signalling but not with the Hh ligands. Our findings indicate that EMT contributes to metastasis via non-cell autonomous effects that activate the Hh pathway. Although all Hh inhibitors may act against tumours with canonical Hh/GLI signalling, only GLI inhibitors would act against non-canonical EMT-induced GLI activation. PMID:28604738

  2. EMT cells increase breast cancer metastasis via paracrine GLI activation in neighbouring tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, Deepika; Zhou, Hengbo; Oliphant, Michael U J; Zhang, Xiaomei; Simon, Lukas M; Henke, David M; Shaw, Chad A; Wu, Meng-Fen; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; White, Lisa D; Lewis, Michael T; Ford, Heide L

    2017-06-12

    Recent fate-mapping studies concluded that EMT is not required for metastasis of carcinomas. Here we challenge this conclusion by showing that these studies failed to account for possible crosstalk between EMT and non-EMT cells that promotes dissemination of non-EMT cells. In breast cancer models, EMT cells induce increased metastasis of weakly metastatic, non-EMT tumour cells in a paracrine manner, in part by non-cell autonomous activation of the GLI transcription factor. Treatment with GANT61, a GLI1/2 inhibitor, but not with IPI 926, a Smoothened inhibitor, blocks this effect and inhibits growth in PDX models. In human breast tumours, the EMT-transcription factors strongly correlate with activated Hedgehog/GLI signalling but not with the Hh ligands. Our findings indicate that EMT contributes to metastasis via non-cell autonomous effects that activate the Hh pathway. Although all Hh inhibitors may act against tumours with canonical Hh/GLI signalling, only GLI inhibitors would act against non-canonical EMT-induced GLI activation.

  3. Benign mixed tumour of the breast and breast skin, two cases with diagnostic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Kelten, Canan; Boyaci, Ceren; Trabulus, Didem Can; Sirin, Seher

    2015-06-29

    We present two cases of pleomorphic adenoma, one that developed in the breast parenchyma and the other in the breast skin, with their histopathological differential diagnosis. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Effects of different preprocessing algorithms on the prognostic value of breast tumour microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Kolarević, D; Vujasinović, T; Kanjer, K; Milovanović, J; Todorović-Raković, N; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, D; Radulovic, M

    2017-09-21

    The purpose of this study was to improve the prognostic value of tumour histopathology image analysis methodology by image preprocessing. Key image qualities were modified including contrast, sharpness and brightness. The texture information was subsequently extracted from images of haematoxylin/eosin-stained tumour tissue sections by GLCM, monofractal and multifractal algorithms without any analytical limitation to predefined structures. Images were derived from patient groups with invasive breast carcinoma (BC, 93 patients) and inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC, 51 patients). The prognostic performance was indeed significantly enhanced by preprocessing with the average AUCs of individual texture features improving from 0.68 ± 0.05 for original to 0.78 ± 0.01 for preprocessed images in the BC group and 0.75 ± 0.01 to 0.80 ± 0.02 in the IBC group. Image preprocessing also improved the prognostic independence of texture features as indicated by multivariate analysis. Surprisingly, the tonal histogram compression by the nonnormalisation preprocessing has prognostically outperformed the tested contrast normalisation algorithms. Generally, features without prognostic value showed higher susceptibility to prognostic enhancement by preprocessing whereas IDM texture feature was exceptionally susceptible. The obtained results are suggestive of the existence of distinct texture prognostic clues in the two examined types of breast cancer. The obtained enhancement of prognostic performance is essential for the anticipated clinical use of this method as a simple and cost-effective prognosticator of cancer outcome. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Joint modelling of longitudinal CEA tumour marker progression and survival data on breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Ana; Sousa, Inês; Castro, Luis

    2017-06-01

    This work proposes the use of Biostatistics methods to study breast cancer in patients of Braga's Hospital Senology Unit, located in Portugal. The primary motivation is to contribute to the understanding of the progression of breast cancer, within the Portuguese population, using a more complex statistical model assumptions than the traditional analysis that take into account a possible existence of a serial correlation structure within a same subject observations. We aim to infer which risk factors aect the survival of Braga's Hospital patients, diagnosed with breast tumour. Whilst analysing risk factors that aect a tumour markers used on the surveillance of disease progression the Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). As survival and longitudinal processes may be associated, it is important to model these two processes together. Hence, a joint modelling of these two processes to infer on the association of these was conducted. A data set of 540 patients, along with 50 variables, was collected from medical records of the Hospital. A joint model approach was used to analyse these data. Two dierent joint models were applied to the same data set, with dierent parameterizations which give dierent interpretations to model parameters. These were used by convenience as the ones implemented in R software. Results from the two models were compared. Results from joint models, showed that the longitudinal CEA values were signicantly associated with the survival probability of these patients. A comparison between parameter estimates obtained in this analysis and previous independent survival[4] and longitudinal analysis[5][6], lead us to conclude that independent analysis brings up bias parameter estimates. Hence, an assumption of association between the two processes in a joint model of breast cancer data is necessary. Results indicate that the longitudinal progression of CEA is signicantly associated with the probability of survival of these patients. Hence, an assumption of

  6. Thermal analysis of a three-dimensional breast model with embedded tumour using the transmission line matrix (TLM) method.

    PubMed

    Amri, A; Saidane, A; Pulko, S

    2011-02-01

    Breast thermography is a non-invasive tool for early detection of breast cancer. It was subject for many years to some controversial issues regarding its efficiency. Advances in infrared camera technology and progress in image processing systems had brought thermal breast imaging back as a valid tool for mammography. Numerical modelling of heat transfer within a woman breast is being an attractive tool that may reveal the conditions under which tumours can be detected in a thermogram. The aim of this work is to use the transmission line matrix (TLM) to model a regular three-dimensional breast with embedded tumour and analyse sensitivity parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    PubMed

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  8. Fruit peel polyphenols demonstrate substantial anti-tumour effects in the model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kubatka, Peter; Kapinová, Andrea; Kello, Martin; Kruzliak, Peter; Kajo, Karol; Výbohová, Desanka; Mahmood, Silvia; Murin, Radovan; Viera, Tischlerová; Mojžiš, Ján; Zulli, Anthony; Péč, Martin; Adamkov, Marián; Kassayová, Monika; Bojková, Bianka; Stollárová, Nadežda; Dobrota, Dušan

    2016-04-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with cancer; thus, it is proposed that an extract of phytochemicals as present in whole fruits, vegetables, or grains may have anti-carcinogenic properties. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of fruit peel polyphenols (Flavin7) in the chemoprevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats were evaluated. Lyophilized substance of Flavin7 (F7) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration, and mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, apoptosis and proliferation after F7 treatment in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were performed. High-dose F7 suppressed tumour frequency by 58 % (P < 0.001), tumour incidence by 24 % (P < 0.05), and lengthened latency by 8 days (P > 0.05) in comparison with the control rats, whereas lower dose of F7 was less effective. Histopathological analysis of tumours showed significant decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas after high-dose F7 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat carcinoma cells in vivo found a significant increase in caspase-3 expression and significant decrease in Bcl-2, Ki67, and VEGFR-2 expression in the high-dose group. Both doses demonstrated significant positive effects on plasma lipid metabolism in rats. F7 significantly decreased survival of MCF-7 cells in vitro in MTT assay by dose- and time-dependent manner compared to control. F7 prevented cell cycle progression by significant enrichment in G1 cell populations. Incubation with F7 showed significant increase in the percentage of annexin V-/PI-positive MCF-7 cells and DNA fragmentation. Our results reveal a substantial tumour-suppressive effect of F7 in the breast cancer model. We propose that the effects of phytochemicals present in this fruit extract are

  9. Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE); a rare association with phyllodes tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, R N; Phaujdar, Sibaji; Banerjee, Siwalik; Siddhanta, Sattik; De, Dibyendu; Bhattachary, Kuntal; Pal, Hare Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare entity mainly found in elderly males. It is characterized by pitting edema mainly of dorsum of both hands giving a "boxing glove hand" appearance; rarely involving feet also, acute in onset, negative rheumatoid factor and a good response to low dose corticosteroid therapy. Clinically it almost resembles a case of polymyalgia rheumatica, late onset rheumatoid arthritis or other seronegative spondyloarthropathy.Though there are multiple underlying factors causing this rare entity but it has very close associations with many malignancies.So far its association with solid tumours and hematological malignancies has been reported. Phyllodes tumour of breast shows wide spectrum of activity from a benign condition to a locally aggressive and sometimes metastatic tumour.One fourth of the cases recur after definitive treatment.Our case represent an unusual association with recurrent phyllodes tumour of breast with RS3PE.

  10. Prostate-specific antigen and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 are co-expressed in androgen receptor-positive breast tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, R. E.; Clements, J. A.; Birrell, S. N.; Tilley, W. D.

    1998-01-01

    Androgens regulate breast cancer cell proliferation via androgen receptor (AR)-mediated mechanisms. To investigate further the androgen-responsiveness of human breast tumours, we examined the immunohistochemical expression of the AR and two androgen-regulated proteins, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), in 72 primary breast tumours. AR immunoreactivity was present in the nuclei of breast tumour cells and was correlated with oestrogen receptor (ER; P < 0.05) and progesterone receptor (PR; P < 0.01) status. PSA and GCDFP-15 immunoreactivity was present in the cytoplasm of tumour cells but not the adjacent stromal cells. AR-positive cells were present in 85% (61/72) of breast tumours, and 98% (43/44) of PSA-positive and 92% (44/48) of GCDFP-15-positive tumours were also positive for AR. Positive immunoreactivity for both PSA and GCDFP-15 in breast tumours was highly dependent on AR status (odds ratios of 24.0 and 4.5 respectively), but unrelated to age, ER and PR status and axillary lymph node involvement. PSA immunoreactivity was more frequently observed in moderate and well-differentiated tumours and was significantly (P < 0.001) associated with GCDFP-15 immunoreactivity. In conclusion, PSA and GCDFP-15 immunoreactivity was dependent on the presence of AR, but not ER or PR in primary breast tumours. Images Figure 1 PMID:9703283

  11. Genomic profiling of mitochondrion-rich breast carcinoma: chromosomal changes may be relevant for mitochondria accumulation and tumour biology.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Felipe C; de Biase, Dario; Lambros, Maryou B K; Ragazzi, Moira; Lopez-Garcia, Maria A; Natrajan, Rachael; Mackay, Alan; Kurelac, Ivana; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Ashworth, Alan; Eusebi, Vincenzo; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Tallini, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    Oncocytic carcinomas are composed of mitochondrion-rich cells. Though recognised by the WHO classification as a histological special type of breast cancer, their status as a discrete pathological entity remains a matter of contention. Given that oncocytic tumours of other anatomical sites display distinct clinico-pathological and molecular features, we sought to define the molecular genetic features of mitochondrion-rich breast tumours and to compare them with a series of histological grade- and oestrogen receptor status-matched invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type. Seventeen mitochondrion-rich breast carcinomas, including nine bona fide oncocytic carcinomas, were profiled with antibodies against oestrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors, HER2, Ki67, GCDFP-15, chromogranin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 14, CD68 and mitochondria antigen. These tumours were microdissected and DNA extracted from samples with >70% of tumour cells. Fourteen cases yielded DNA of sufficient quality/quantity and were subjected to high-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridisation analysis. The genomic profiles were compared to those of 28 grade- and oestrogen receptor status-matched invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type. Oncocytic and other mitochondrion-rich tumours did not differ significantly between themselves. As a group, mitochondrion-rich carcinomas were immunophenotypically heterogenous. Recurrent copy number changes were similar to those described in unselected breast cancers. However, unsupervised and supervised analysis identified a subset of mitochondrion-rich cancers, which often displayed gains of 11q13.1-q13.2 and 19p13. Changes in the latter two chromosomal regions have been shown to be associated with oncocytic tumours of the kidney and thyroid, respectively, and host several nuclear genes with specific mitochondrial function. Our results indicate that in a way akin to oncocytic tumours of other anatomical sites

  12. Spontaneous Perforation as a First Presentation of Ileal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) with Synchronous Breast Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma M, Bir Kumar; Barad, Arun Kumar; Padu, Kemba; Singh K, Sridartha; Singh Th, Sudhir Chandra

    2014-05-01

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST's) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Majority of the GISTs are asymptomatic and often diagnosis is incidental. Synchronous second malignancies have been reported in patients with GIST. We report a case of 50-year-old female presenting with features of hollow viscous perforation, found to have ileal GIST with perforations along with a synchronous breast sarcoma. GIST with spontaneous perforation as its first clinical manifestation is rare. Synchronous occurrence of an ileal GIST with a breast sarcoma is unique and deserves reporting. This case report highlights the varied nature of clinical presentation of the GIST and also stresses on the importance of extensive search for the synchronous second malignancies in the extra abdominal sites as well.

  13. Identification of circulating tumour cells in early stage breast cancer patients using multi marker immunobead RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Michael P; Stephenson, Sally-Anne; Pittman, Kenneth B; Walsh, David CA; Henderson, Michael A; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The ability to screen blood of early stage operable breast cancer patients for circulating tumour cells is of potential importance for identifying patients at risk of developing distant relapse. We present the results of a study of the efficacy of the immunobead RT-PCR method in identifying patients with circulating tumour cells. Results Immunomagnetic enrichment of circulating tumour cells followed by RT-PCR (immunobead RT-PCR) with a panel of five epithelial specific markers (ELF3, EPHB4, EGFR, MGB1 and TACSTD1) was used to screen for circulating tumour cells in the peripheral blood of 56 breast cancer patients. Twenty patients were positive for two or more RT-PCR markers, including seven patients who were node negative by conventional techniques. Significant increases in the frequency of marker positivity was seen in lymph node positive patients, in patients with high grade tumours and in patients with lymphovascular invasion. A strong trend towards improved disease free survival was seen for marker negative patients although it did not reach significance (p = 0.08). Conclusion Multi-marker immunobead RT-PCR analysis of peripheral blood is a robust assay that is capable of detecting circulating tumour cells in early stage breast cancer patients. PMID:19500345

  14. The role of the tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate in predicting recurrence and survival in patients with primary operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Zahra M A; Going, James J; Edwards, Joanne; McMillan, Donald C

    2012-12-01

    Although the first studies highlighting the importance of the tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate were reported more than 80 years ago, the prognostic value of this response in breast cancer is still controversial. With the realisation of the importance of the inflammatory response in determining tumour progression there has been renewed interest in establishing the relationship between the type, density and location of inflammatory cell infiltrate and survival in patients with primary operable breast cancer. The aim was to undertake a systematic review of the literature examining the evidence for the role of the tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate in predicting recurrence and survival in patients with primary operable breast cancer. A systematic review of published papers up to September 2011 was undertaken according to a pre-defined protocol (Fig. 1). A total of 66 independent studies (34,086 patients) were identified. It can be concluded from the review that despite the large number of studies and considerable effort over an extended period, the relationship between different aspects of tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate and outcome in primary operable breast cancer remains unclear. This is in large part due to the absence of methodological validation, underpowered studies (small sample size and sample subtype heterogeneity, insufficient follow-up) and the absence of validation datasets. Therefore, although there are tantalising examples of the potential of the tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate to improve risk stratification patients with operable breast cancer (personalised care), this has not yet been realised. Future studies with standardised methodology, large and homogenous groups, sufficient follow-up and validation datasets should be undertaken to unlock the potential of the tumour inflammatory infiltrate to predict outcome in patients with primary operable breast cancer.

  15. Stromal keratin expression in phyllodes tumours of the breast: a comparison with other spindle cell breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yifoong; Thike, Aye Aye; Cheok, Poh Yian; Yong-Zheng Chong, Luke; Man-Kit Tse, Gary; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2012-04-01

    To determine the frequency, pattern and distribution of stromal keratin expression in phyllodes tumours if any, which may impact diagnostic approaches. The clinicopathological features of 109 phyllodes tumours comprising 70 (64.2%) benign, 30 (27.5%) borderline and nine (8.3%) malignant grades were evaluated, and the immunohistochemical expression of a keratin panel (MNF116, 34βE12, CK7, CK14, AE1/3, Cam5.2), p63 and CD34 in their stromal component was assessed. There was focal and patchy cytoplasmic keratin staining in 1-5% of stromal cells in 13 (11.9%), 24 (22%), 31 (28.4%), 2 (1.8%), 9 (8.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases for MNF116, 34βE12, CK7, CK14, AE1/3, Cam5.2, respectively. CD34 was expressed in 79 (72.5%) cases. There was no stromal staining for p63. Stromal MNF116, 34βE12 and Cam5.2 reactivity was significantly associated with phyllodes tumour grade (p=0.027, p=0.034, p=0.009 respectively), while MNF116 stromal staining was observed in tumours with increasing cellularity (p=0.036), necrosis (p=0.015) and cystic change (p=0.048). Contrary to common understanding, these findings confirm that stromal cells in phyllodes tumours can sometimes express keratins, albeit focal and in a patchy distribution. In comparison, fibromatosis and dermatofibrosarcoma were uniformly negative for the same keratin panel, while spindle cell components of eight metaplastic carcinomas expressed at least two or more keratins in a wider distribution of up to 90% of positively stained spindle cells. All eight spindle cell sarcomas were negative for keratins. The use of keratins as an adjunctive immunohistochemical diagnostic tool in the differential work-up of spindle cell tumours of the breast has to be interpreted with caution especially on limited core biopsy material.

  16. Improved contrast deep optoacoustic imaging using displacement-compensated averaging: breast tumour phantom studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, M.; Preisser, S.; Kitz, M.; Ferrara, D.; Senegas, S.; Schweizer, D.; Frenz, M.

    2011-09-01

    For real-time optoacoustic (OA) imaging of the human body, a linear array transducer and reflection mode optical irradiation is usually preferred. Such a setup, however, results in significant image background, which prevents imaging structures at the ultimate depth determined by the light distribution and the signal noise level. Therefore, we previously proposed a method for image background reduction, based on displacement-compensated averaging (DCA) of image series obtained when the tissue sample under investigation is gradually deformed. OA signals and background signals are differently affected by the deformation and can thus be distinguished. The proposed method is now experimentally applied to image artificial tumours embedded inside breast phantoms. OA images are acquired alternately with pulse-echo images using a combined OA/echo-ultrasound device. Tissue deformation is accessed via speckle tracking in pulse echo images, and used to compensate in the OA images for the local tissue displacement. In that way, OA sources are highly correlated between subsequent images, while background is decorrelated and can therefore be reduced by averaging. We show that image contrast in breast phantoms is strongly improved and detectability of embedded tumours significantly increased, using the DCA method.

  17. Flaxseed cotyledon fraction reduces tumour growth and sensitises tamoxifen treatment of human breast cancer xenograft (MCF-7) in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianmin; Saggar, Jasdeep K; Corey, Paul; Thompson, Lilian U

    2011-02-01

    Dietary flaxseed (FS) inhibited the growth of human breast tumours and enhanced the effectiveness of tamoxifen (TAM) in athymic mice with low oestradiol (E2) levels. The present study determined whether the n-3 fatty acid-rich cotyledon fraction of FS (FC), alone or in combination with TAM, has a similar effect and thus can substitute for FS. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, ovariectomised mice with established oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumours (MCF-7) were treated as follows: groups 1 and 2 were fed the basal diet (BD, control) and FC diet (82 g FC/kg), respectively. Groups 3 and 4 with TAM implants (5 mg) were fed the BD and FC diet, respectively. At 8 weeks post-treatment, mice were euthanised, and tumours were analysed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. BD, FC and FC/TAM groups significantly decreased tumour area, but the TAM group did not. Tumour regression in the FC/TAM group was greater compared to the TAM group. FC lowered cell proliferation but had no effect on apoptosis; the opposite was observed with TAM. FC suppressed mRNA expressions of pS2 and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and protein expressions of ERα, phosphospecific ERα, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), phosphospecific HER2 (pHER2) and amplified in breast 1 (AIB1), while TAM up-regulated mRNA expressions of Bcl2, progesterone receptor and IGF-1R and protein expression of pHER2, and down-regulated ERβ mRNA. FC modulated the effect of TAM on tumour growth biomarkers. In conclusion, FC reduced the growth of ER+ human breast tumours at low circulating E2, alone and combined with TAM, in part through modulation of ER- and growth factor-mediated signalling pathways; it may substitute for FS in increasing the effectiveness of TAM.

  18. Regulation of cytochrome P450 gene expression in human colon and breast tumour xenografts.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G.; Harrison, D. J.; East, N.; Rae, F.; Wolf, H.; Wolf, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    It is extremely difficult to identify the factors which regulate the expression of drug-metabolising enzymes in man. To address this problem, we have developed a model involving the use of human tumours grown as xenografts in immune deficient mice. Mice bearing human colon or breast tumours as xenografts were challenged with a range of compounds, known from animal studies to be inducers of cytochrome P450s from a variety of gene families. Almost all of the compounds tested could induce human tumour P450 expression, measured either by Western blot or immunohistochemical analysis. Indeed, the levels of P450s from several distinct gene families or subfamilies including CYP2A, CYP2B, CYP2C, CYP3A and CYP4A were induced. Of particular interest was the profound induction of human P450s by 1,4 bis 2-(3,5dichloro-pyridyloxybenzene)(TCPOBOP), a compound which exhibits a marked species specificity in its ability to induce P450 expression in experimental animals. Induction of a human CYP2B protein by this compound was confirmed by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridisation for mRNA, indicating that induction occurred at the level of transcription. These studies have a variety of implications: they provide a method for approaching the previously intractable problem of how environmental, hormonal and metabolic factors regulate human P450 genes and other genes involved in drug metabolism; they demonstrate that human tumours express P450s constitutively and that the levels of these proteins can be modulated by exogenous agents. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8318421

  19. Evaluation of tumour markers as differential diagnostic tool in patients with suspicion of liver metastases from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liska, Vaclav; Holubec, Lubos; Treska, Vladislav; Vrzalova, Jindra; Skalicky, Tomas; Sutnar, Alan; Kormunda, Stanislav; Bruha, Jan; Vycital, Ondrej; Finek, Jindrich; Pesta, Martin; Pecen, Ladislav; Topolcan, Ondrej

    2011-04-01

    The liver is the site of breast cancer metastasis in 50% of patients with advanced disease. Tumour markers have been demonstrated as being useful in follow-up of patients with breast cancer, in early detection of recurrence of breast cancer after radical surgical treatments, and in assessing oncologic therapy effect, but no study has been carried out on their usefullness in distinguishing benign liver lesions from breast cancer metastases. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the importance of tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen CA19-9 (CA19-9), thymidine kinase (TK), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) in differential diagnosis between benign liver lesions and liver metastases of breast cancer. The study includes 3 groups: 22 patients with liver metastases of breast cancer; 39 patients with benign liver lesions (hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, liver cyst, hepatocellular adenoma); and 21 patients without any liver disease or lesion that were operated on for benign extrahepatic diseases (groin hernia, varices of lower limbs) as a control group. The serum levels of tumour markers were assessed by means of immunoanalytical methods. Preoperative serum levels of CYFRA 21-1, TPA, TPS and CEA were significantly higher in patients with liver metastases of breast cancer in contrast to healthy controls and patients with benign liver lesions (p-value<0.05). Serum levels of CA19-9 and TK were higher in patients with malignancy in comparison with benign liver disease and healthy controls but these differences were not statistically significant. Tumour markers CEA, CYFRA 21-1, TPA and TPS can be recommended as a good tool for differential diagnosis between liver metastases of breast cancer and benign liver lesions.

  20. Recent developments in the histological diagnosis of spindle cell carcinoma, fibromatosis and phyllodes tumour of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lee, A H S

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in the diagnosis of these three unusual tumours of the breast. Spindle cell carcinoma needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of many mammary spindle cell lesions: it is important to be aware of the wide range of appearances, including the recently described fibromatosis-like variant. Immunohistochemistry using a broad panel of cytokeratin antibodies is needed to exclude spindle cell carcinoma; there is frequent expression of basal cytokeratins and p63. CD34 is often expressed by the stroma of phyllodes tumours, but does not appear to be expressed by spindle cell carcinoma or fibromatosis. Nuclear beta-catenin is found in about 80% of fibromatoses, but can also be seen in spindle cell carcinomas and phyllodes tumours. Two recent studies have described features useful in the distinction of phyllodes tumour and fibroadenoma on core biopsy, including increased cellularity, mitoses and overgrowth of the stroma, adipose tissue in the stroma and fragmentation of the biopsy specimen. Periductal stromal tumour is a recently described biphasic tumour composed of spindle cells around open tubules or ducts (but no leaf-like architecture) with frequent CD34 expression. The overlap of morphology with phyllodes tumour suggests that it may be best regarded as a variant of phyllodes tumour.

  1. Phyllodes tumours of the breast: radiological presentation, management and follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, J; O'Donoghue, Y; McCormack, E; D'Arcy, C; O'Keeffe, S A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Phyllodes tumours (PTs) are rare neoplasms accounting for <1% of breast lesions. With increased breast awareness and screening programmes, smaller PTs are being detected. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical, radiological and pathological presentation of PTs and to evaluate the role of imaging follow-up, for which there are no specific guidelines. Methods: A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with PT in a symptomatic unit between January 2006 and March 2013 was carried out. Patients were identified using breast care and electronic patient record databases. Results: 53 patients with 54 lesions were diagnosed as having a PT. The median age was 27.5, 35.0 and 38.5 years for benign, borderline and malignant PT, respectively. Borderline and malignant PTs were larger than benign PTs, with mean sizes of 33 and 42 mm compared with 29 mm. 38% of PTs were labelled by the reporting radiologist as fibroadenomas, including two borderline PTs and one malignant PT. In 24% of cases, the radiologist raised the possibility of PT in the report. 17 patients (40%) developed a new fibroepithelial breast lesion during follow-up of which 4 were recurrent PTs. Conclusion: Despite adequate surgical management, the development of further fibroepithelial lesions in the ipsilateral breast is common. 3-year clinical surveillance, with the addition of 6-monthly ultrasound is advised for females with initial borderline or malignant PT histology. Advances in knowledge: We propose a follow-up protocol with ultrasound based on the grade of the PT diagnosed for 3 years to detect recurrence. PMID:25270608

  2. Differential expression of immunohistochemical markers in primary lung and breast cancers enriched for triple-negative tumours.

    PubMed

    Provenzano, Elena; Byrne, David J; Russell, Prudence A; Wright, Gavin M; Generali, Daniele; Fox, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    In breast cancer patients presenting with a lung lesion, the distinction between lung and breast origin is clinically important. Lung and breast cancers are both CK7(+) /CK20(-) , so additional immunohistochemical markers are needed. We examined the expression of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), p63 and Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) in a series of tissue microarrays comprising 266 non-small-cell lung cancers and 837 primary breast cancers enriched for triple-negative tumours (TNBC). Staining for ER, PR, TTF-1 and GCDFP-15 was present in 63%, 49%, 0% and 25% of breast and 6%, 9%, 59% and 1% of lung cancers, respectively. Strong staining for p63 was present in 63 (97%) lung squamous cell carcinomas and only eight (9%) TNBC. WT1 nuclear staining was rare; however, cytoplasmic staining was identified in 49 (40%) TNBC and 10 (5%) lung cancers. Cluster analysis segregated TNBC from lung cancers with TTF-1 and/or p63 staining favouring lung origin, and GCDFP-15 or WT1 staining favouring breast origin. Cancers negative for all four markers (17%) were 60% breast and 40% lung origin. An immunohistochemical panel incorporating ER, TTF-1, GCDFP-15, p63 and WT1 can help to distinguish lung cancer from metastatic breast cancer, including TNBC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Gene expression-based classifications of fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Maria; Peg, Vicente; Galván, Patricia; Tres, Alejandro; Cortés, Javier; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Rubio, Isabel T; Prat, Aleix

    2015-06-01

    Fibroepithelial tumors (FTs) of the breast are a heterogeneous group of lesions ranging from fibroadenomas (FAD) to phyllodes tumors (PT) (benign, borderline, malignant). Further understanding of their molecular features and classification might be of clinical value. In this study, we analysed the expression of 105 breast cancer-related genes, including the 50 genes of the PAM50 intrinsic subtype predictor and 12 genes of the Claudin-low subtype predictor, in a panel of 75 FTs (34 FADs, 5 juvenile FADs, 20 benign PTs, 5 borderline PTs and 11 malignant PTs) with clinical follow-up. In addition, we compared the expression profiles of FTs with those of 14 normal breast tissues and 49 primary invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs). Our results revealed that the levels of expression of all breast cancer-related genes can discriminate the various groups of FTs, together with normal breast tissues and IDCs (False Discovery Rate < 5%). Among FTs, the levels expression of proliferation-related genes (e.g. CCNB1 and MKI67) and mesenchymal/epithelial-related (e.g. CLDN3 and EPCAM) genes were found to be most discriminative. As expected, FADs showed the highest and lowest expression of epithelial- and proliferation-related genes, respectively, whereas malignant PTs showed the opposite expression pattern. Interestingly, the overall profile of benign PTs was found more similar to FADs and normal breast tissues than the rest of tumours, including juvenile FADs. Within the dataset of IDCs and normal breast tissues, the vast majority of FADs, juvenile FADs, benign PTs and borderline PTs were identified as Normal-like by intrinsic breast cancer subtyping, whereas 7 (63.6%) and 3 (27.3%) malignant PTs were identified as Claudin-low and Basal-like, respectively. Finally, we observed that the previously described PAM50 risk of relapse prognostic score better predicted outcome in FTs than the morphological classification, even within PTs-only. Our results suggest that classification of FTs

  4. Serum tumour markers as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in Libyan breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Elfagieh, Mohamed; Abdalla, Fathi; Gliwan, Asma; Boder, Jamela; Nichols, Wafa; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset

    2012-12-01

    Results from studies on efficacy of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 15.3 (CA 15.3) and thymidine kinase (TK1) as diagnostic and prognostic tools for primary breast cancer (BC) have presented conflicting results, and usefulness of these markers for clinical use in BC remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate potential of concentration of the sera CEA, CA15.3 and TK1 peptides' use as markers in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast lesions of Libyan patients. Serum tumour markers were studied in 20 healthy subjects, 30 patient with benign lesion diseases and 50 patients with histologically confirmed BC diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Misurata, Libya during the period 2005-2009. The concentrations of the BC patients' cutoff points used for diagnostic and prognostic sensitivity were 8.82 ng/ml, 35.57 U/ml and 32.57 U/mg/protein for CEA, CA15.3 and TK1, respectively. Increased CEA (>8.82 ng/ml), CA 15.3 (>35.57 U/ml) and TK1 (>32.57 U/mg/protein) concentrations were found in 62 %, 70 % and 78 % of the BC patients, respectively. For all three tumour markers, increased concentrations correlated increased tumour size and nodal involvement. Significantly higher serum TK1 levels were found in patients with advanced disease (p < 0.0001) and TK1 levels also correlated with disease-specific survival (DSS, p < 0.07). The combined data set of the three markers' data from three markers increased the diagnostic sensitivity to 90 %. The serum marker analysis for CEA, CA 15.3, and S-TK1 concentrations is shown to be a useful tool for identification of malignant cases in our BC population and for the prognostic evaluation of patients with primary BC. Increased concentrations of the markers were also observed to be higher in patients with advanced tumours and indicative of the development of distant metastasis.

  5. Characterisation of amplification patterns and target genes at chromosome 11q13 in CCND1-amplified sporadic and familial breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Holm, Karolina; Staaf, Johan; Jönsson, Göran; Vallon-Christersson, Johan; Gunnarsson, Haukur; Arason, Adalgeir; Magnusson, Linda; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Hegardt, Cecilia; Ringnér, Markus; Borg, Ake

    2012-06-01

    Amplification of chromosomal region 11q13, containing the cell cycle regulatory gene CCND1, is frequently found in breast cancer and other malignancies. It is associated with the favourable oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumour phenotype, but also with poor prognosis and treatment failure. 11q13 spans almost 14 Mb and contains more than 200 genes and is affected by various patterns of copy number gains, suggesting complex mechanisms and selective pressure during tumour progression. In this study, we used 32 k tiling BAC array CGH to analyse 94 CCND1-amplified breast tumours from sporadic, hereditary, and familial breast cancers to fine map chromosome 11q13. A set containing 281 CCND1-non-amplified breast tumours was used for comparisons. We used gene expression data to further validate the functional effect of gene amplification. We identified six core regions covering 11q13.1-q14.1 that were amplified in different combinations. The major core contained CCND1, whereas two cores were found proximal of CCND1 and three distal. The majority of the CCND1-amplified tumours were ER-positive and classified as luminal B. Furthermore, we found that CCND1 amplification is associated with a more aggressive phenotype within histological grade 2 tumours and luminal A subtype tumours. Amplification was equally prevalent in familial and sporadic tumours, but strikingly rare in BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated tumours. We conclude that 11q13 includes many potential target genes in addition to CCND1.

  6. Highlights in breast cancer from ASCO 2016

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    A critical review of the highlights in breast cancer research from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting 2016, held in June 2016 in Chicago, is presented in this podcast. Considering the most interesting and practice-changing studies reported at the meeting, in the advanced breast cancer setting several important confirmatory studies on the use of CDK inhibitors, and studies on using data on oestrogen receptor mutations to guide choices of endocrine therapy are discussed. The PHEREXA trial, in which a combination trastuzumab and pertuzumab was studied in the advanced setting is also considered. In the early breast cancer setting, the KRISTINE and ADAPT studies evaluated the potential of dual blockade in HER2-positive tumours. In HER2-negative early breast cancer several trials are also discussed with respect to types of adjuvant chemotherapy. The results of the MA.17R trial, which considered extending the duration of adjuvant endocrine therapy, are also discussed. The potential role of immunotherapy in breast cancer therapy is briefly mentioned. PMID:27900208

  7. The genomic and transcriptomic architecture of 2,000 breast tumours reveals novel subgroups.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Christina; Shah, Sohrab P; Chin, Suet-Feung; Turashvili, Gulisa; Rueda, Oscar M; Dunning, Mark J; Speed, Doug; Lynch, Andy G; Samarajiwa, Shamith; Yuan, Yinyin; Gräf, Stefan; Ha, Gavin; Haffari, Gholamreza; Bashashati, Ali; Russell, Roslin; McKinney, Steven; Langerød, Anita; Green, Andrew; Provenzano, Elena; Wishart, Gordon; Pinder, Sarah; Watson, Peter; Markowetz, Florian; Murphy, Leigh; Ellis, Ian; Purushotham, Arnie; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brenton, James D; Tavaré, Simon; Caldas, Carlos; Aparicio, Samuel

    2012-04-18

    The elucidation of breast cancer subgroups and their molecular drivers requires integrated views of the genome and transcriptome from representative numbers of patients. We present an integrated analysis of copy number and gene expression in a discovery and validation set of 997 and 995 primary breast tumours, respectively, with long-term clinical follow-up. Inherited variants (copy number variants and single nucleotide polymorphisms) and acquired somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) were associated with expression in ~40% of genes, with the landscape dominated by cis- and trans-acting CNAs. By delineating expression outlier genes driven in cis by CNAs, we identified putative cancer genes, including deletions in PPP2R2A, MTAP and MAP2K4. Unsupervised analysis of paired DNA–RNA profiles revealed novel subgroups with distinct clinical outcomes, which reproduced in the validation cohort. These include a high-risk, oestrogen-receptor-positive 11q13/14 cis-acting subgroup and a favourable prognosis subgroup devoid of CNAs. Trans-acting aberration hotspots were found to modulate subgroup-specific gene networks, including a TCR deletion-mediated adaptive immune response in the ‘CNA-devoid’ subgroup and a basal-specific chromosome 5 deletion-associated mitotic network. Our results provide a novel molecular stratification of the breast cancer population, derived from the impact of somatic CNAs on the transcriptome.

  8. Breast carcinoma progression and tumour vascular markers related to apoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bilecova-Rabajdova, Miroslava; Urban, Peter; Gregova, Kristina; Varga, Jan; Fialkovicová, Viera; Kruzliak, Peter; Marekova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, the cancer research had tried to identify and characterize new biochemical and molecular pathways in which the inhibition induces prosurvival mechanisms. Our work describes the expression of two different members of apoptotic regulatory pathway and their relationship with a progression of breast carcinoma. We compared expression of genes related to apoptosis (DR6 and Gpm6B) in the blood of patients suffering from stage I of breast cancer in different grades (I-IV), with healthy controls. After isolation of mRNA, transcription of mRNA into the cDNA was performed. The quantification of gene expression changes in DR6 and Gpm6B was detected by RT-PCR method. Analysis at the protein level was performed by the Western blot. In statistical analysis of Dr6 mRNA level changes we detected significant increase starting in Grading 1 (G1) and reached maximal level in G3.This expression on mRNA levels was similar to protein levels, which copy rising tendency with maximal value in G3. The results of Gpm6B were significantly lower. This result showed that antiapoptotic signalling during neovascularization is increased significantly. It would be advisable in the future to study the influence of cytostatic treatment on the expression of genes related to apoptotic pathways and their relationship with progression of breast cancer tumours.

  9. An Approach to Breast Cancer Immunotherapy: The Apoptotic Activity of Recombinant Anti-Interleukin-6 Monoclonal Antibodies in Intact Tumour Microenvironment of Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abou-Shousha, S; Moaaz, M; Sheta, M; Motawea, M A

    2016-06-01

    Current work is one of our comprehensive preclinical studies, a new approach to breast cancer (BC) immunotherapy through induction of tumour cell apoptosis. Tumour growth is not just a result of uncontrolled cell proliferation but also of reduced apoptosis. High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with metastatic BC and correlated with poor survival as it promotes growth of tumour-initiating cells during early tumorigenesis protecting these cells from apoptosis. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the potential of anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies to suppress IL-6 proliferative/anti-apoptotic activities in intact tumour microenvironment of BC. Fresh sterile tumour and normal breast tissue specimens were taken from 50 female Egyptian patients with BC undergoing radical mastectomy. A unique tissue culture system designed to provide cells of each intact tumour/normal tissue sample with its proper microenvironment either supplemented or not with anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies. To evaluate the apoptotic activity of anti-IL-6 as a novel candidate for BC treatment strategy, we compared its effects with those obtained using tumour necrosis-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL as an established apoptotic agent. Our results revealed that levels of either anti-IL-6- or TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the tumour or normal tissue cultures were significantly higher than those in their corresponding untreated ones (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences have been found between apoptosis levels induced by anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies and those induced by TRAIL. Recombinant anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies could represent a novel effective element of immunotherapeutic treatment strategy for BC. The selectivity and anti-apoptotic potential of anti-IL-6 is highly hopeful in IL-6- abundant BC tumour microenvironment.

  10. Phyllodes tumours of the breast: the role of CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor and β-catenin in histological grading and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Ho, Soo Keng; Thike, Aye Aye; Cheok, Poh Yian; Tse, Gary M-K; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2013-09-01

    The grading and prognostication of breast phyllodes tumours remain challenging, and the value of biological markers continues to be elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and β-catenin in a series of 185 breast phyllodes tumours comprising 120 benign, 48 borderline and 17 malignant lesions. Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays of phyllodes tumours was performed. CD34, VEGF and β-catenin in stromal cells were expressed, respectively, in: 38.3%, 29.2% and 27.5% of benign phyllodes tumours; 33.3%, 58.3% and 54.2% of borderline phyllodes tumours; and 5.9%, 64.7% and 76.5% of malignant phyllodes tumours; these associations with histological grade were statistically significant. There was a statistically significant inverse association of CD34 stromal expression with adverse histological features, and a positive correlation of VEGF and cytoplasmic β-catenin stromal staining with unfavourable microscopic parameters. At a median follow-up duration of 42 months, 11 women suffered recurrences, with three succumbing from phyllodes tumour. Patients whose tumours expressed VEGF had poorer overall survival (P = 0.033), and there was a trend for worse overall survival in patients with tumour β-catenin cytoplasmic expression. CD34, VEGF and β-catenin play biological roles in breast phyllodes tumours, and may provide insights into tumour progression, with differential expression accompanying higher grades. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Deletion of the amino acid transporter Slc6a14 suppresses tumour growth in spontaneous mouse models of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Babu, Ellappan; Bhutia, Yangzom D; Ramachandran, Sabarish; Gnanaprakasam, Jaya P; Prasad, Puttur D; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2015-07-01

    SLC6A14 mediates Na(+)/Cl(-)-coupled concentrative uptake of a broad-spectrum of amino acids. It is expressed at low levels in many tissues but up-regulated in certain cancers. Pharmacological blockade of SLC6A14 causes amino acid starvation in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cells and suppresses their proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we interrogated the role of this transporter in breast cancer by deleting Slc6a14 in mice and monitoring the consequences of this deletion in models of spontaneous breast cancer (Polyoma middle T oncogene-transgenic mouse and mouse mammary tumour virus promoter-Neu-transgenic mouse). Slc6a14-knockout mice are viable, fertile and phenotypically normal. The plasma amino acids were similar in wild-type and knockout mice and there were no major compensatory changes in the expression of other amino acid transporter mRNAs. There was also no change in mammary gland development in the knockout mouse. However, when crossed with PyMT-Tg mice or MMTV/Neu (mouse mammary tumour virus promoter-Neu)-Tg mice, the development and progression of breast cancer were markedly decreased on Slc6a14(-/-) background. Analysis of transcriptomes in tumour tissues from wild-type mice and Slc6a14-null mice indicated no compensatory changes in the expression of any other amino acid transporter mRNA. However, the tumours from the null mice showed evidence of amino acid starvation, decreased mTOR signalling and decreased cell proliferation. These studies demonstrate that SLC6A14 is critical for the maintenance of amino acid nutrition and optimal mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling in ER+ breast cancer and that the transporter is a potential target for development of a novel class of anti-cancer drugs targeting amino acid nutrition in tumour cells.

  12. Fc receptor-bearing peripheral blood mononuclear cells in breast cancer patients: a possible marker of tumour burden and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, J; McPherson, T A

    1981-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence was used to identify and quantitate peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells possessing high avidity Fc receptors in 105 patients upon referral to the breast cancer clinic at the Cross Cancer Institute. The cell detected was shown to be a non-adherent PBM, probably belonging to the T or null cell population. The mean percentage +/- 2 standard deviations of PBM-positive cells in 75 patients with no disease or benign breast disease was 5.3 +/- ;6.7, and this was significantly (P less than 0.001) less than the percentage found for 31 patients with breast cancer. The percentage of PBM-positive cells correlated directly with tumour burden in patient with small (less than or equal to 5 cm) tumours without regional node or extranodal metastases (5/13 had greater than or equal to 12% positive PBM) and in those with small tumours plus regional node metastases, but without extranodal metastases (8/10 had greater than or equal to 12% positive PBM). This correlation was less, however, in patients with large tumours (greater than 5 cm), and in those with extranodal metastases (4/8 had greater than or equal to 12% positive PBM), and in patients tested postoperatively (1/13 had greater than or equal to 12% positive PBM) even though 6!13 had regional node metastases at the time of surgery. Thus, this relatively simple assay, which can be done on peripheral blood samples, may turn out to be useful in patients with breast cancer as a prognostic marker insofar as it may be an indirect indicator of tumour burden preoperatively. If so, it may lead to a more aggressive postoperative adjuvant therapy approach to the subpopulation of node-negative PBM-positive breast cancer patients than is currently used for node-negative patients. PMID:7035033

  13. Neoadjuvant endocrine treatment in early breast cancer: An overlooked alternative?

    PubMed

    van Dam, P A; van Dam, V C N; Altintas, S; Papadimitriou, K; Rolfo, C; Trinh, X B

    2016-03-01

    During the last decade neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) has moved from being reserved for elderly and frail non-chemotherapy candidates to a primary systemic modality in selected patients with hormone sensitive breast cancer. Neoadjuvant hormonal treatment in patients with hormone receptor positive, HER-2 negative early breast cancer is proven to be an effective and safe option; it is associated with a higher rate of breast conserving surgery (BCS), may reduce the need for adjuvant chemotherapy and enables a delay of surgery for medical or practical reasons. Clinical responses range from 13% to 100% with at least 3 months of NET. Methods of assessing response should include MRI of the breast, particularly in lobular tumours. In studies comparing tamoxifen with aromatase inhibitors (AI), AI proved to be superior in terms of tumour response and rates of BCS. Change in Ki67 is accepted as a validated endpoint for comparing endocrine neoadjuvant agents. Levels of Ki67 during treatment are more closely related to long-term prognosis than pretreatment Ki67. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy provides a unique opportunity for studies of endocrine responsiveness and the development of new experimental drugs combined with systemic hormonal treatment.

  14. miR-10b*, a master inhibitor of the cell cycle, is down-regulated in human breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Canu, Valeria; Mori, Federica; Antoniani, Barbara; Di Benedetto, Anna; Santoro, Raffaela; Germoni, Sabrina; De Angelis, Fernanda; Cambria, Anna; Avraham, Roi; Grasso, Giuseppe; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Deregulated proliferation is a hallmark of cancer cells. Here, we show that microRNA-10b* is a master regulator of breast cancer cell proliferation and is downregulated in tumoural samples versus matched peritumoural counterparts. Two canonical CpG islands (5 kb) upstream from the precursor sequence are hypermethylated in the analysed breast cancer tissues. Ectopic delivery of synthetic microRNA-10b* in breast cancer cell lines or into xenograft mouse breast tumours inhibits cell proliferation and impairs tumour growth in vivo, respectively. We identified and validated in vitro and in vivo three novel target mRNAs of miR-10b* (BUB1, PLK1 and CCNA2), which play a remarkable role in cell cycle regulation and whose high expression in breast cancer patients is associated with reduced disease-free survival, relapse-free survival and metastasis-free survival when compared to patients with low expression. This also suggests that restoration of microRNA-10b* expression might have therapeutic promise.

  15. miR-10b*, a master inhibitor of the cell cycle, is down-regulated in human breast tumours

    PubMed Central

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Canu, Valeria; Mori, Federica; Antoniani, Barbara; Di Benedetto, Anna; Santoro, Raffaela; Germoni, Sabrina; De Angelis, Fernanda; Cambria, Anna; Avraham, Roi; Grasso, Giuseppe; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Deregulated proliferation is a hallmark of cancer cells. Here, we show that microRNA-10b* is a master regulator of breast cancer cell proliferation and is downregulated in tumoural samples versus matched peritumoural counterparts. Two canonical CpG islands (5 kb) upstream from the precursor sequence are hypermethylated in the analysed breast cancer tissues. Ectopic delivery of synthetic microRNA-10b* in breast cancer cell lines or into xenograft mouse breast tumours inhibits cell proliferation and impairs tumour growth in vivo, respectively. We identified and validated in vitro and in vivo three novel target mRNAs of miR-10b* (BUB1, PLK1 and CCNA2), which play a remarkable role in cell cycle regulation and whose high expression in breast cancer patients is associated with reduced disease-free survival, relapse-free survival and metastasis-free survival when compared to patients with low expression. This also suggests that restoration of microRNA-10b* expression might have therapeutic promise. PMID:23125021

  16. Chemokine CXCL13 is overexpressed in the tumour tissue and in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Panse, J; Friedrichs, K; Marx, A; Hildebrandt, Y; Luetkens, T; Bartels, K; Horn, C; Stahl, T; Cao, Y; Milde-Langosch, K; Niendorf, A; Kröger, N; Wenzel, S; Leuwer, R; Bokemeyer, C; Hegewisch-Becker, S; Atanackovic, D

    2008-01-01

    The abilities of chemokines in orchestrating cellular migration are utilised by different (patho-)biological networks including malignancies. However, except for CXCR4/CXCL12, little is known about the relation between tumour-related chemokine expression and the development and progression of solid tumours like breast cancer. In this study, microarray analyses revealed the overexpression of chemokine CXCL13 in breast cancer specimens. This finding was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in a larger set of samples (n=34) and cell lines, and was validated on the protein level performing Western blot, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. Levels of CXCR5, the receptor for CXCL13, were low in malignant and healthy breast tissues, and surface expression was not detected in vitro. However, we observed a strong (P=0.0004) correlation between the expressions of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in breast cancer tissues, indicating a biologically relevant role of CXCR5 in vivo. Finally, we detected significantly elevated serum concentrations of CXCL13 in patients with metastatic disease (n=54) as compared with controls (n=44) and disease-free patients (n=48). In conclusion, CXCL13 is overexpressed within breast cancer tissues, and increased serum levels of this cytokine can be found in breast cancer patients with metastatic disease pointing to a role of CXCL13 in the progression of breast cancer, suggesting that CXCL13 might serve as a useful therapeutic target and/or diagnostic marker in this malignancy. PMID:18781150

  17. Objective measurement of therapeutic response in breast cancer using tumour markers.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J. F.; Pearson, D.; Price, M. R.; Selby, C.; Blamey, R. W.; Howell, A.

    1991-01-01

    In 65 patients with systemic breast cancer, a biochemical response index using three tumour markers in combination, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), allowed objective biochemical assessment of response to endocrine therapy. Changes in these three markers at 2, 4 and 6 months showed a highly significant correlation with UICC assessed response at 6 months. At 4 months, changes in these three markers resulted in a selectivity of 93%, with a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 82%. Survival of groups of patients assessed biochemically or by UICC criteria for non-progression or progression showed no significant difference. The advantage of the biochemical assessment are that it is objective and reproducible. The assessment gives similar information to the UICC assessment but can be carried out earlier. Changes in the three markers appears to reflect the dynamics of change in tumour mass in response to systemic therapy in contrast to the UICC criteria which reflect structural change. PMID:1911226

  18. Targeting multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways with a resorcinol derivative leads to inhibition of advanced stages of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Ryuichi; Kawamura, Rumi; Singer, Eric; Pakdel, Arash; Sarma, Pranamee; Judkins, Jonathon; Elwakeel, Eiman; Dayal, Sonali; Martinez-Martinez, Esther; Amere, Mukkanti; Gujjar, Ramesh; Mahadevan, Anu; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; McAllister, Sean D

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) can both reduce cancer progression, each through distinct anti-tumour pathways. Our goal was to discover a compound that could efficiently target both cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways. Experimental Approach To measure breast cancer cell proliferation/viability and invasion, MTT and Boyden chamber assays were used. Modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis was measured using dichlorodihydrofluorescein and annexin/propidium iodide, respectively, in combination with cell flow cytometry. Changes in protein levels were evaluated using Western analysis. Orthotopic and i.v. mouse models of breast cancer metastasis were used to test the activity of cannabinoids in vivo. Key Results CBD reduced breast cancer metastasis in advanced stages of the disease as the direct result of down-regulating the transcriptional regulator Id1. However, this was associated with moderate increases in survival. We therefore screened for analogues that could co-target cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways (CBD- and THC-associated) and discovered the compound O-1663. This analogue inhibited Id1, produced a marked stimulation of ROS, up-regulated autophagy and induced apoptosis. Of all the compounds tested, it was the most potent at inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in culture and metastasis in vivo. Conclusions and Implications O-1663 prolonged survival in advanced stages of breast cancer metastasis. Developing compounds that can simultaneously target multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways efficiently may provide a novel approach for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. PMID:24910342

  19. Targeting multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways with a resorcinol derivative leads to inhibition of advanced stages of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Murase, Ryuichi; Kawamura, Rumi; Singer, Eric; Pakdel, Arash; Sarma, Pranamee; Judkins, Jonathon; Elwakeel, Eiman; Dayal, Sonali; Martinez-Martinez, Esther; Amere, Mukkanti; Gujjar, Ramesh; Mahadevan, Anu; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; McAllister, Sean D

    2014-10-01

    The psychoactive cannabinoid Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) can both reduce cancer progression, each through distinct anti-tumour pathways. Our goal was to discover a compound that could efficiently target both cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways. To measure breast cancer cell proliferation/viability and invasion, MTT and Boyden chamber assays were used. Modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis was measured using dichlorodihydrofluorescein and annexin/propidium iodide, respectively, in combination with cell flow cytometry. Changes in protein levels were evaluated using Western analysis. Orthotopic and i.v. mouse models of breast cancer metastasis were used to test the activity of cannabinoids in vivo. CBD reduced breast cancer metastasis in advanced stages of the disease as the direct result of down-regulating the transcriptional regulator Id1. However, this was associated with moderate increases in survival. We therefore screened for analogues that could co-target cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways (CBD- and THC-associated) and discovered the compound O-1663. This analogue inhibited Id1, produced a marked stimulation of ROS, up-regulated autophagy and induced apoptosis. Of all the compounds tested, it was the most potent at inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in culture and metastasis in vivo. O-1663 prolonged survival in advanced stages of breast cancer metastasis. Developing compounds that can simultaneously target multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways efficiently may provide a novel approach for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. The administration of milk fermented by the probiotic Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 exerts an immunomodulatory effect against a breast tumour in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Félix; Carino, Silvia; Perdigón, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    Antitumour activity is one of the health-promoting effects attributed to probiotics specially analysed from preclinical models, mostly murine. Here, the effect of milk fermented by the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei CRL 431, on a murine breast cancer model was analysed. Mice were fed with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei or unfermented milk before and after tumour injection. Rate of tumour development, cytokines in serum, IgA, CD4, CD8, F4/80 and cytokines positive cells in mammary glands were determined. Microvasculature in the tumour tissues was monitored. The effect of fermented milk administration after tumour injection was also evaluated. It was observed that probiotic administration delayed or blocked tumour development. This effect was associated to modulation of the immune response triggered by the tumour. The area occupied by blood vessels decreased in the tumours from mice given fermented milk which agrees with their small tumours, and fewer side effects. Finally, it was observed that probiotic administration after tumour detection was also beneficial to delay the tumour growth. In conclusion, we showed in this study the potential of milk fermented by the probiotic Lactobacillus casei CRL431 to stimulate the immune response against this breast tumour, avoiding or delaying its growth when it was preventively administrated and also when the administration started after tumour cells injection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasound is at least as good as magnetic resonance imaging in predicting tumour size post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vriens, Birgit E P J; de Vries, Bart; Lobbes, Marc B I; van Gastel, Saskia M; van den Berkmortel, Franchette W P J; Smilde, Tineke J; van Warmerdam, Laurence J C; de Boer, Maaike; van Spronsen, Dick Johan; Smidt, Marjolein L; Peer, Petronella G M; Aarts, Maureen J; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of clinical imaging of the primary breast tumour post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) related to the post-neoadjuvant histological tumour size (gold standard) and whether this varies with breast cancer subtype. In this study, results of both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) were reported. Patients with invasive breast cancer were enrolled in the INTENS study between 2006 and 2009. We included 182 patients, of whom data were available for post-NAC MRI (n=155), US (n=123), and histopathological tumour size. MRI estimated residual tumour size with <10-mm discordance in 54% of patients, overestimated size in 28% and underestimated size in 18% of patients. With US, this was 63%, 20% and 17%, respectively. The negative predictive value in hormone receptor-positive tumours for both MRI and US was low, 26% and 33%, respectively. The median deviation in clinical tumour size as percentage of pathological tumour was 63% (P25=26, P75=100) and 49% (P25=22, P75=100) for MRI and US, respectively (P=0.06). In this study, US was at least as good as breast MRI in providing information on residual tumour size post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, both modalities suffered from a substantial percentage of over- and underestimation of tumour size and in addition both showed a low negative predictive value of pathologic complete remission (Gov nr: NCT00314977). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Samira; Hojati, Zohreh; Tabatabaeian, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    The overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a proto-oncogene, affects progression, treatment, and diagnosis of many adenocarcinomas. C-myc has been shown to be a downstream target of EpCAM and is also one of the most important proto-oncogenes routinely overexpressed in breast cancer. However, cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes has not been investigated in breast cancer tissues, particularly in Iranian population. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast cancer tissues using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) followed by analyses of the association between the outcomes. In this study, 122 fresh tissues, including 104 malignant and 18 benign samples, were disrupted by mortar and pestle, and then the RNA was isolated from the samples and converted to cDNA. The relative expression levels of EpCAM and c-myc genes were measured by 2(-ΔΔCt) method using RT-qPCR. EpCAM protein level was also assessed in 66 cases using Western blot technique. Using RT-qPCR method, our results showed that EpCAM was overexpressed in 48% of malignant and 11.1% of benign samples. Evaluating EpCAM protein overexpression in a portion of samples depicted the fully concordance rate between Western blot and RT-qPCR techniques. C-myc expression was first evaluated by RT-qPCR method, showing the overexpression rate of 39% and 28% in malignant and benign samples, respectively. These data were also quite concordant with the clinically available immunohistochemistry reports of the same samples studied in this study. Importantly, overexpression of EpCAM and c-myc was significantly associated and showed an agreement of 57.3%. This study demonstrated the cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc in breast tumours collected from breast cancer patients of the Iranian population. EpCAM and c-myc positive cases were significantly associated with reduced and enhanced risk of ER/PR positivity

  3. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

    PubMed Central

    Villiger, Martin; Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Quirk, Bryden C.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Bouma, Brett E.; Sampson, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying tumour margins during breast-conserving surgeries is a persistent challenge. We have previously developed miniature needle probes that could enable intraoperative volume imaging with optical coherence tomography. In many situations, however, scattering contrast alone is insufficient to clearly identify and delineate malignant regions. Additional polarization-sensitive measurements provide the means to assess birefringence, which is elevated in oriented collagen fibres and may offer an intrinsic biomarker to differentiate tumour from benign tissue. Here, we performed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography through miniature imaging needles and developed an algorithm to efficiently reconstruct images of the depth-resolved tissue birefringence free of artefacts. First ex vivo imaging of breast tumour samples revealed excellent contrast between lowly birefringent malignant regions, and stromal tissue, which is rich in oriented collagen and exhibits higher birefringence, as confirmed with co-located histology. The ability to clearly differentiate between tumour and uninvolved stroma based on intrinsic contrast could prove decisive for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins. PMID:27364229

  4. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villiger, Martin; Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Quirk, Bryden C.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Bouma, Brett E.; Sampson, David D.

    2016-07-01

    Identifying tumour margins during breast-conserving surgeries is a persistent challenge. We have previously developed miniature needle probes that could enable intraoperative volume imaging with optical coherence tomography. In many situations, however, scattering contrast alone is insufficient to clearly identify and delineate malignant regions. Additional polarization-sensitive measurements provide the means to assess birefringence, which is elevated in oriented collagen fibres and may offer an intrinsic biomarker to differentiate tumour from benign tissue. Here, we performed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography through miniature imaging needles and developed an algorithm to efficiently reconstruct images of the depth-resolved tissue birefringence free of artefacts. First ex vivo imaging of breast tumour samples revealed excellent contrast between lowly birefringent malignant regions, and stromal tissue, which is rich in oriented collagen and exhibits higher birefringence, as confirmed with co-located histology. The ability to clearly differentiate between tumour and uninvolved stroma based on intrinsic contrast could prove decisive for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins.

  5. Concentration and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin of 50 breast tumours determined by time-domain optical mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Moesta, K. Thomas; Mucke, Jörg; Möller, Michael; Stroszczynski, Christian; Stößel, Jana; Wassermann, Bernhard; Schlag, Peter M.; Rinneberg, Herbert

    2004-04-01

    Using a dual-wavelength (670 nm, 785 nm) time-domain scanning instrument we have recorded optical mammograms of 93 patients suspected of having breast cancer which was subsequently assessed histologically. Among 65 histologically confirmed carcinomas, 54 were detectable in at least one of two optical mammograms recorded of each tumour-bearing breast in craniocaudal and mediolateral projection. Optical mammograms were based on photon counts in selected time windows of measured distributions of times of flight of photons. Optical properties of 50 carcinomas investigated at both wavelengths were derived by modelling the breast as partially homogeneous infinite slab with an embedded spherical inhomogeneity representing the tumour and by calculating the diffraction of photon density waves. In selected cases, additional information about the location of the tumour along the compression direction was used that was obtained from scans at selected offsets between source and detector optical fibres. A correlation plot of haemoglobin concentration and blood oxygen saturation of tumours and healthy tissue shows good separation between both kinds of tissue. The majority of carcinomas exhibited increased total haemoglobin concentration compared to healthy tissue.

  6. Modification of the Wise pattern breast reduction for oncological mammaplasty of upper outer and upper inner quadrant breast tumours: a technical note and case series.

    PubMed

    Cutress, R I; Simoes, T; Gill, J; Hurren, J S

    2013-02-01

    The upper outer quadrant of the breast is the most common site for the incidence of breast cancer, and the upper inner quadrant the most cosmetically sensitive area. If an oncoplastic approach is considered however, these quadrants do not fall within the classical Wise pattern for oncological mammoplasty. We use a simple modification of the Wise pattern that facilitates oncological mammoplasty of tumours in these quadrants without the need for secondary or extended pedicles. In planning this modification excision of skin overlying the tumour is usually also possible. The modification of the Wise pattern technique that we use is described as a technical note, and a case series of 11 patients who underwent this procedure is presented. To date there have been no recurrences. This is a simple cosmetically acceptable modification of the Wise pattern breast reduction for oncological mammoplasty. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aberrant cytoplasmic expression of the p16 protein in breast cancer is associated with accelerated tumour proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Emig, R.; Magener, A.; Ehemann, V.; Meyer, A.; Stilgenbauer, F.; Volkmann, M.; Wallwiener, D.; Sinn, H. P.

    1998-01-01

    The p16 protein plays an important role in the transition of cells into the G1 phase of the cell cycle. We have studied the prevalence of p16 protein expression in breast carcinomas in a prospective series of 368 invasive and 52 non-invasive malignancies, as well as in 88 locally recurring tumours and three tumour cell lines. p16 protein expression was evaluated immunohistochemically on paraffin sections using monoclonal and polyclonal anti-p16 antibodies, and by immunoblotting of tumour cell suspensions. Tumour cell lines were also subjected to polymerase chain reaction-single strand polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis and direct DNA sequencing. The results were compared with established prognostic parameters, DNA flow cytometry and p53 protein expression. In 33 (9%) invasive and two (4%) intraductal carcinomas, a cytoplasmic accumulation of the p16 protein was seen. These cases were characterized by poor histological grade of differentiation, loss of of oestrogen receptors and progesterone receptors and frequent overexpression of the p53 protein. In addition, breast carcinomas with aberrant p16 expression demonstrated a high proliferative activity, with median S-phase fractions 74% higher than in the control group and the median Ki67 fractions elevated to 75%. A genetic alteration of the p16 gene was not detectable in three analysed cell lines with cytoplasmic p16 expression applying PCR-SSCP and direct DNA sequencing. These results indicate that cytoplasmic accumulation of the p16 protein identifies a subset of highly malignant breast carcinomas with accelerated tumour proliferation and other unfavourable parameters in breast cancer. The described protein accumulation is apparently not caused by an alteration of the p16 gene. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:9862580

  8. Prognostic significance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition proteins Twist and Foxc2 in phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeffrey Chun Tatt; Koh, Valerie Cui Yun; Tan, Jane Sie Yong; Tan, Wai Jin; Thike, Aye Aye; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important process during embryonic development, is reportedly exploited during tumour progression. Deregulation of EMT-related molecules has been shown in many malignancies, including breast carcinoma. We aim to investigate the clinical relevance and prognostic significance of EMT proteins, Twist and Foxc2, in breast phyllodes tumours (PTs). The study cohort comprised 271 PTs diagnosed from 2003 to 2010. Of these, 188 (69.4 %) were benign, 60 (22.1 %) borderline, and 23 (8.5 %) malignant. Immunohistochemistry for Twist and Foxc2 was performed on tissue microarray sections. Percentage of tumour cells stained was evaluated and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcome. Twist and Foxc2 stromal nuclear expression was associated with tumour grade (P = 0.038 and 0.012). Foxc2 stromal nuclear expression was positively correlated with epithelial expression (P < 0.001), tumour relapse, and metastasis (P = 0.037). Furthermore, stromal nuclear immunoreactivity of Twist and Foxc2 was interrelated (P < 0.001). Tumours expressing Foxc2 and those co-expressing both Twist and Foxc2 revealed a shorter time to recurrence (P < 0.001 and 0.001) and death (P = 0.044 and 0.015). Twist and Foxc2 stromal expression in PTs was significantly correlated with tumour grade and worse histological features. In addition, expression of Foxc2 and co-expression of Twist and Foxc2 in the stroma of PTs contributed to poorer prognosis. Clinical relevance of EMT-related molecules may be worthy of further investigation in PTs.

  9. Automatic prediction of tumour malignancy in breast cancer with fractal dimension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer today in women. The main avenue of diagnosis is through manual examination of histopathology tissue slides. Such a process is often subjective and error-ridden, suffering from both inter- and intraobserver variability. Our objective is to develop an automatic algorithm for analysing histopathology slides free of human subjectivity. Here, we calculate the fractal dimension of images of numerous breast cancer slides, at magnifications of 40×, 100×, 200× and 400×. Using machine learning, specifically, the support vector machine (SVM) method, the F1 score for classification accuracy of the 40× slides was found to be 0.979. Multiclass classification on the 40× slides yielded an accuracy of 0.556. A reduction of the size and scope of the SVM training set gave an average F1 score of 0.964. Taken together, these results show great promise in the use of fractal dimension to predict tumour malignancy. PMID:28083100

  10. Epstein-Barr Virus, Human Papillomavirus and Mouse Mammary Tumour Virus as Multiple Viruses in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Wendy K.; Heng, Benjamin; Delprado, Warick; Iacopetta, Barry; Whitaker, Noel J.; Lawson, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation is to determine if Epstein Barr virus (EBV), high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), and mouse mammary tumour viruses (MMTV) co-exist in some breast cancers. Materials and Methods All the specimens were from women residing in Australia. For investigations based on standard PCR, we used fresh frozen DNA extracts from 50 unselected invasive breast cancers. For normal breast specimens, we used DNA extracts from epithelial cells from milk donated by 40 lactating women. For investigations based on in situ PCR we used 27 unselected archival formalin fixed breast cancer specimens and 18 unselected archival formalin fixed normal breast specimens from women who had breast reduction surgery. Thirteen of these fixed breast cancer specimens were ductal carcinoma in situ (dcis) and 14 were predominantly invasive ductal carcinomas (idc). Results EBV sequences were identified in 68%, high risk HPV sequences in 50%, and MMTV sequences in 78% of DNA extracted from 50 invasive breast cancer specimens. These same viruses were identified in selected normal and breast cancer specimens by in situ PCR. Sequences from more than one viral type were identified in 72% of the same breast cancer specimens. Normal controls showed these viruses were also present in epithelial cells in human milk – EBV (35%), HPV, 20%) and MMTV (32%) of 40 milk samples from normal lactating women, with multiple viruses being identified in 13% of the same milk samples. Conclusions We conclude that (i) EBV, HPV and MMTV gene sequences are present and co-exist in many human breast cancers, (ii) the presence of these viruses in breast cancer is associated with young age of diagnosis and possibly an increased grade of breast cancer. PMID:23183846

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of homeoproteins Six1 and Pax3 in breast phyllodes tumours correlates with histological grade and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wai Jin; Thike, Aye Aye; Bay, Boon Huat; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Homeoproteins are transcription factors which critically regulate developmental processes. Deregulated expression of homeoproteins is observed in several malignancies, such as breast cancer and rhabdomyosarcoma, and contributes to malignant progression. We aimed to investigate the expression and prognostic importance of Six1 and Pax3 homeoproteins in phyllodes tumours - a group of uncommon biphasic tumours comprising both epithelial and stromal components. A total of 272 cases diagnosed from January 2003 to December 2010 were included in this study - 189 (69.5%) benign, 60 (22.1%) borderline and 23 (8.4%) malignant tumours. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarray sections using antibodies against Six1 and Pax3. Staining H-score was assessed in epithelium and stroma separately, and correlated with tumour grade, clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Tumour grade was associated positively with stromal cytoplasmic expression (P < 0.001; P = 0.011) but correlated negatively with epithelial nuclear expression (P = 0.013; P = 0.007) of both Six1 and Pax3. High stromal cytoplasmic expression of Six1 was associated with metastasis (P = 0.044) and shorter time to recurrence (P = 0.056). Pax3 stromal cytoplasmic expression was associated with poorer overall survival (P = 0.033). Six1 and Pax3 expression is correlated with tumour grade, unfavourable clinicopathological parameters and poorer clinical outcome, suggesting that both proteins may play a role in malignant progression. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M.; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F.; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification. PMID:27808249

  13. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-11-03

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification.

  14. Tumour bed delineation for partial breast/breast boost radiotherapy: what is the optimal number of implanted markers?

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anna Nm; Jena, Rajesh; Harris, Emma J; Evans, Phil M; Crowley, Clare; Gregory, Deborah L; Coles, Charlotte E

    2013-02-01

    International consensus has not been reached regarding the optimal number of implanted tumour bed (TB) markers for partial breast/breast boost radiotherapy target volume delineation. Four common methods are: insertion of 6 clips (4 radial, 1 deep and 1 superficial), 5 clips (4 radial and 1 deep), 1 clip at the chest wall, and no clips. We compared TB volumes delineated using 6, 5, 1 and 0 clips in women who have undergone wide-local excision (WLE) of breast cancer (BC) with full-thickness closure of the excision cavity, in order to determine the additional margin required for breast boost or partial breast irradiation (PBI) when fewer than 6 clips are used. Ten patients with invasive ductal BC who had undergone WLE followed by implantation of six fiducial markers (titanium clips) each underwent CT imaging for radiotherapy planning purposes. Retrospective processing of the DICOM image datasets was performed to remove markers and associated imaging artefacts, using an in-house software algorithm. Four observers outlined TB volumes on four different datasets for each case: (1) all markers present (CT6M); (2) the superficial marker removed (CT(5M)); (3) all but the chest wall marker removed (CTCW); (4) all markers removed (CT(0M)). For each observer, the additional margin required around each of TB(0M), TBCW, and TB(5M) in order to encompass TB(6M) was calculated. The conformity level index (CLI) and differences in centre-of-mass (COM) between observers were quantified for CT(0M), CTCW, CT(5M), CT(6M). The overall median additional margins required to encompass TB(6M) were 8mm (range 0-28 mm) for TB(0M), 5mm (range 1-13 mm) for TBCW, and 2mm (range 0-7 mm) for TB(5M). CLI were higher for TB volumes delineated using CT(6M) (0.31) CT(5M) (0.32) than for CTCW (0.19) and CT(0M) (0.15). In women who have undergone WLE of breast cancer with full-thickness closure of the excision cavity and who are proceeding to PBI or breast boost RT, target volume delineation based on 0 or

  15. Myoepithelial and epithelial-myoepithelial, mesenchymal and fibroepithelial breast lesions: updates from the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Breast 2012.

    PubMed

    Tan, Puay Hoon; Ellis, Ian O

    2013-06-01

    In the 4th edition of the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Breast, myoepithelial lesions are retitled myoepithelial and epithelial-myoepithelial lesions in order to better reflect the dual participation of luminal and myoepithelial compartments in some key entities. Malignant myoepithelioma, described as a section within the chapter on myoepithelial lesions in the 3rd edition, is recognised in the 4th edition as part of metaplastic carcinoma. Adenomyoepithelioma with malignancy is categorised in terms of the cellular component undergoing malignant transformation. The list of antibodies that can be used for identifying myoepithelial cells is updated. Among mesenchymal lesions, new additions are nodular fasciitis and atypical vascular lesions, while the haemangiopericytoma is removed. The 3rd edition stated that pathological prediction of behaviour of phyllodes tumours is difficult in the individual case. In the 4th edition, some progress has been made in prioritisation and weighting of histological parameters that can potentially estimate probability of recurrence. The WHO Working Group advocates leaning towards a diagnosis of fibroadenoma in cases where there is histological uncertainty in distinction from a benign phyllodes tumour, or adopting the neutral term 'benign fibroepithelial neoplasm', as the clinical behaviour of fibroadenoma overlaps with that of benign phyllodes tumour. The 3rd edition terminology of 'periductal stromal sarcoma' is revised to 'periductal stromal tumour', akin to the widespread consensus to avoid the use of the term 'cystosarcoma' in the context of phyllodes tumours.

  16. A comparison of in vivo and in vitro 31P NMR spectra from human breast tumours: variations in phospholipid metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T. A.; Glaholm, J.; Leach, M. O.; Machin, L.; Collins, D. J.; Payne, G. S.; McCready, V. R.

    1991-01-01

    An in vivo 31P NMR spectrum was obtained from each of four human breast tumours. The phosphomonoester and phosphodiester region of each spectrum consisted of a broad peak. Chemical extracts from samples of each of the tumours obtained at resection were examined on a high field strength NMR system. The phosphomonoester region in the spectrum from each extract resolved into three peaks consisting of phosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine and a nucleoside monophosphate. The phosphodiester region resolved into two components, glycerophosphorylcholine and glycerophosphorylethanolamine. Comparing the in vivo and in vitro data from each tumour showed that the contribution of phosphodiester was much lower in the in vitro spectra. We believe this to be a consequence of phospholipid, which would not appear in the aqueous extract, contributing to the phosphodiester peak in vivo. PMID:2021535

  17. 2005 Galloway Memorial Lecture: Breast phyllodes tumours--morphology and beyond.

    PubMed

    Tan, P H

    2005-12-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive role of morphology in a series of breast phyllodes tumours (PTs) in Asian women, and to determine the utility of immunohistochemical expression of p53 and CD117 in the stromal component. Breast PTs, diagnosed between January 1992 and December 2002 at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, were classified into benign, borderline and malignant categories. Surgical margins were evaluated as complete or diffusely involved. Patient follow-up was obtained from casenotes and the Singapore Cancer Registry. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed using the 2-mm punch on the Beecher arrayer. p53 and CD117 immunohistochemistry was applied on 4-microm sections cut from TMA blocks. Immunostaining intensity was graded as 0, 1+, 2+ or 3+, for nil, weak, moderate and strong reactivity. The proportion of stromal cells decorated was assessed. Statistical analysis utilised the software SPSS for windows 11.5. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method, while multivariate analysis was accomplished using the stepwise Cox proportional hazards model. A P value of <0.05 was considered a significant result. For verification of protein expression results, a pure stromal population derived from laser capture microdissection was subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine p53 and CD117 mRNA upregulation. Three hundred thirty-five women diagnosed with PT were aged 16 to 69 years (median, 42 years). Tumour size ranged from 0.9 to 25 cm (median, 4 cm). Histologic classification revealed 250 (74.6%) benign, 54 (16.1%) borderline and 31 (9.3%) malignant PTs. Surgical margins were focally involved in 186 (55.5%) cases, diffusely affected in 9 (2.9%) cases and complete in 139 (41.5%) cases. Stromal cells positively stained ranged from 1% to 80% (mean, 15%; median, 5%) for p53, and 1% to 25% for CD117 (mean, 8%; median, 3%). p53 and CD117 staining was associated with PT grade (P = 0.004, P <0

  18. Tumour Necrosis Factor-α Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Metastasis in Patients with Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Hui; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Li-Sheng; Huang, Yong; Guo, Jun; Li, Jie; Sun, Xin-Ping; Chang, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Zhe-Hai; Zhai, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is critical in the regulation of inflammation and tumour progression. TNF-α-308G > A is associated with constitutively elevated TNF-α expression. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between TNF-α-308G > A and breast cancer (BC) risk by subtype and the connection between genotypes and clinical features of BC. A total of 768 patients and 565 controls were enrolled in this study, and genotypes were detected using the TaqMan assay. No effect on susceptibility for any BC subtype was found for the TNF-α-308 polymorphism in our study or in the pooled meta-analysis. This polymorphism was shown to be associated with age at menarche in all BC and in progesterone receptor-negative BC. Interestingly, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with TNF-α-308A had an increased risk of distant tumour metastasis (OR = 3.80, 95% CI: 1.31–11.02, P = 0.009). Multi-regression analysis showed that TNF-α-308A was also a risk factor for distant tumour metastasis after adjustment for tumour size and lymph node metastasis status (OR = 6.26, 95% CI: 1.88–20.87, P = 0.003). These findings indicate that TNF-α might play a distinct role in the progression of TNBC, especially in distant tumour metastasis of TNBC. PMID:26165253

  19. Highlights from the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2015

    PubMed Central

    Jassem, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A critical review on the practice changing studies presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held December 2015, is presented in this podcast. A number of areas, including neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment, treatment of metastatic disease and the emergence of new biomarkers are addressed. Trials discussed include the WSG-ADAPT HER2+/HR+ phase II trial, which assessed 12-weeks of neoadjuvant TDM1 with or without endocrine therapy versus trastuzumab+endocrine therapy in HER2-positive hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer, the CREATE-X study, which assessed adjuvant capecitabine in patients with HER2-negative pathologic residual invasive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the TH3RESA study, which investigated trastuzumab emtansine use in patients with previously treated HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Further, studies on new promising biomarkers such as the prognostic value of circulating tumour cells in follow up of early breast cancer patients after adjuvant chemotherapy are highlighted. Overall, the present podcast represents a comprehensive overview on some of the most important studies presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. PMID:27843589

  20. Breast Cancer Update 2014 – Focus on the Patient and the Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Maass, N.; Schütz, F.; Fasching, P. A.; Fehm, T.; Janni, W.; Kümmel, S.; Kolberg, H.-C.; Lüftner, D.; Wallwiener, M.; Lux, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    The therapy for patients with breast cancer has developed markedly in the past ten years. Our understanding of the molecular biology of tumours and the characteristics of the patients has shaped the recent advances. In this review we present the latest knowledge about the therapy for breast cancer. There are new tests and options not only in the field of anti-HER2 therapy but also in the management of triple negative and hormone receptor-positive patients. Comprehension of prognosis and therapeutic response to chemotherapies is little by little helping to define patient groups who will not respond to chemotherapy or who do not need treatment because their prognosis is extremely good. In the field of anti-HER2 therapy, work is continuing on the development of drugs suitable for and able to overcome trastuzumab resistance. For hormone receptor-positive cancers, we now have a better understanding of which therapy groups will benefit from which anti-endocrine drugs, and which will be able to overcome a possible resistance (treatment of the PI3K pathways, inhibition of the cell cycle). Molecular tests are still being evaluated with regard to the clinical situations in which they may have the greatest relevance for therapeutic decision-making; however, evidence is also increasing as to the fields in which good predictions for the prognosis can be obtained. On the whole, more work is needed to promote our understanding of the new developments in diagnostics and therapy and to involve both physicians and patients equally in the procedures. PMID:25797960

  1. Tumour-Associated Autoantibodies as Diagnostic Biomarkers for Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Shi, J; Wang, P; Song, C; Wang, K; Zhang, J; Ye, H

    2016-06-01

    Tumour-associated autoantibodies may be promising biomarkers that could facilitate breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and improve patient outcomes. This review aims to identify the tumour-associated autoantibodies with the greatest diagnostic potential. Systematic searches were conducted using PubMed and Web of Science. The most studied tumour-associated autoantibody was included in a meta-analysis, and its clinical value was determined using Fagan's nomogram. The analysis included 84 studies regarding tumour-associated autoantibodies with the diagnostic value. Anti-p53 antibody was the most frequently studied autoantibody, followed by autoantibodies against MUC1, HER2 and cyclin B1. Although individual tumour-associated autoantibodies showed low diagnostic sensitivity, combinations of autoantibodies offered relatively high sensitivity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was the most common detection method, and nucleic acid programmable protein microarrays appeared preferable to common protein microarrays. As the most commonly studied autoantibody, anti-p53 antibody was included in a meta-analysis. When it had been detected using ELISA and cut-off values were defined as the mean +2 or 3 standard deviations, the summary area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the presence of BC was 0.78. Fagan's nomogram showed post-test probabilities of 32% and 6% for positive and negative results, respectively. Mammography might be supplemented by the use of tumour-associated autoantibodies as biomarkers for BC diagnosis in younger women with increased risks of BC. Even though several studies have investigated the diagnostic use of tumour-associated autoantibodies as biomarkers for BC detection, a high-quality prospective study is needed to validate their diagnostic value in practice. © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  2. Weibull regression with Bayesian variable selection to identify prognostic tumour markers of breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, P J; Raza Ali, H; Blows, F M; Provenzano, E; Pharoah, P D; Caldas, C; Richardson, S

    2017-02-01

    As data-rich medical datasets are becoming routinely collected, there is a growing demand for regression methodology that facilitates variable selection over a large number of predictors. Bayesian variable selection algorithms offer an attractive solution, whereby a sparsity inducing prior allows inclusion of sets of predictors simultaneously, leading to adjusted effect estimates and inference of which covariates are most important. We present a new implementation of Bayesian variable selection, based on a Reversible Jump MCMC algorithm, for survival analysis under the Weibull regression model. A realistic simulation study is presented comparing against an alternative LASSO-based variable selection strategy in datasets of up to 20,000 covariates. Across half the scenarios, our new method achieved identical sensitivity and specificity to the LASSO strategy, and a marginal improvement otherwise. Runtimes were comparable for both approaches, taking approximately a day for 20,000 covariates. Subsequently, we present a real data application in which 119 protein-based markers are explored for association with breast cancer survival in a case cohort of 2287 patients with oestrogen receptor-positive disease. Evidence was found for three independent prognostic tumour markers of survival, one of which is novel. Our new approach demonstrated the best specificity.

  3. Phase I trial of the androgen receptor modulator CR1447 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Martin; Thuerlimann, Beat; Riniker, Salome; Weder, Patrik; von Moos, Roger; Pagani, Olivia; Bigler, Martin; Rothgiesser, Karin M; Pilop, Christiane; Hawle, Hanne; Brauchli, Peter; Tapia, Coya; Schoenfeld, Wolfgang; Sessa, Cristiana

    2017-08-16

    CR 1447 (4-hydroxytestosterone, 4-OHT) binds to the androgen receptor and has antiproliferative activity in both ER-positive and ER-negative/AR-positive breast cancer cells in pre-clinical studies. The objective of this first-in man trial was to evaluate safety and to determine the dose of CR1447, administered as an ointment, for Phase II. Escalating doses (100, 200, 400 mg) of CR1447 were administered topically on a daily basis to patients with ER-positive/AR-positive/HER2-negative advanced breast cancer pretreated with several lines of therapy. 14 patients have been treated for a total of 42 cycles. Two patients, one at dose level 100 mg and one at dose level 200 mg, showed early tumour progression and were replaced. Related adverse events were all ≤ grade 2 and included fatigue, bone and joint pain, stiffness, dry skin and mouth, nausea, sweating, urinary tract infection, rash, headache and distress. No drug-related dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) were seen. Two patients (17%) achieved stable disease at 3 months. Pharmacokinetic analysis confirmed dose-dependent transdermal uptake of CR1447. 4-OH-androstenedione (4-OHA), a key metabolite of 4-OHT, was undetectable in most of the plasma samples. Urine metabolites of 4-OHT and 4-OHA indicate high exposure of 4-OHT after topical administration. Estradiol serum concentrations did not increase, confirming preclinical data that CR1447 is not converted to estrogens in vivo. In conclusion, CR1447 administered transdermally as an ointment is well tolerated and appears to have single-agent activity in heavily pretreated ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer patients. The recommended phase II dose is 400 mg/day.

  4. PD-L1 protein expression in breast cancer is rare, enriched in basal-like tumours and associated with infiltrating lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ali, H R; Glont, S-E; Blows, F M; Provenzano, E; Dawson, S-J; Liu, B; Hiller, L; Dunn, J; Poole, C J; Bowden, S; Earl, H M; Pharoah, P D P; Caldas, C

    2015-07-01

    Expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in solid tumours has been shown to predict whether patients are likely to respond to anti-PD-L1 therapies. To estimate the therapeutic potential of PD-L1 inhibition in breast cancer, we evaluated the prevalence and significance of PD-L1 protein expression in a large collection of breast tumours. Correlations between CD274 (PD-L1) copy number, transcript and protein levels were evaluated in tumours from 418 patients recruited to the METABRIC genomic study. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PD-L1 protein in breast tumours in tissue microarrays from 5763 patients recruited to the SEARCH population-based study (N = 4079) and the NEAT randomised, controlled trial (N = 1684). PD-L1 protein data was available for 3916 of the possible 5763 tumours from the SEARCH and NEAT studies. PD-L1 expression by immune cells was observed in 6% (235/3916) of tumours and expression by tumour cells was observed in just 1.7% (66/3916). PD-L1 was most frequently expressed in basal-like tumours. This was observed both where tumours were subtyped by combined copy number and expression profiling [39% (17/44) of IntClust 10 i.e. basal-like tumours were PD-L1 immune cell positive; P < 0.001] and where a surrogate IHC-based classifier was used [19% (56/302) of basal-like tumours were PD-L1 immune cell positive; P < 0.001]. Moreover, CD274 (PD-L1) amplification was observed in five tumours of which four were IntClust 10. Expression of PD-L1 by either tumour cells or infiltrating immune cells was positively correlated with infiltration by both cytotoxic and regulatory T cells (P < 0.001). There was a nominally significant association between PD-L1 and improved disease-specific survival (hazard ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.26-1.07; P = 0.08) in ER-negative disease. Expression of PD-L1 is rare in breast cancer, markedly enriched in basal-like tumours and is correlated with infiltrating lymphocytes. PD-L1 inhibition may benefit the 19% of

  5. Genetic model of multi-step breast carcinogenesis involving the epithelium and stroma: clues to tumour-microenvironment interactions.

    PubMed

    Kurose, K; Hoshaw-Woodard, S; Adeyinka, A; Lemeshow, S; Watson, P H; Eng, C

    2001-09-01

    Although numerous studies have reported that high frequencies of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at various chromosomal arms have been identified in breast cancer, differential LOH in the neoplastic epithelial and surrounding stromal compartments has not been well examined. Using laser capture microdissection, which enables separation of neoplastic epithelium from surrounding stroma, we microdissected each compartment of 41 sporadic invasive adenocarcinomas of the breast. Frequent LOH was identified in both neoplastic epithelial and/or stromal compartments, ranging from 25 to 69% in the neoplastic epithelial cells, and from 17 to 61% in the surrounding stromal cells, respectively. The great majority of markers showed a higher frequency of LOH in the neoplastic epithelial compartment than in the stroma, suggesting that LOH in neoplastic epithelial cells might precede LOH in surrounding stromal cells. Furthermore, we sought to examine pair-wise associations of particular genetic alterations in either epithelial or stromal compartments. Seventeen pairs of markers showed statistically significant associations. We also propose a genetic model of multi-step carcinogenesis for the breast involving the epithelial and stromal compartments and note that genetic alterations occur in the epithelial compartments as the earlier steps followed by LOH in the stromal compartments. Our study strongly suggests that interactions between breast epithelial and stromal compartments might play a critical role in breast carcinogenesis and several genetic alterations in both epithelial and stromal compartments are required for breast tumour growth and progression.

  6. The clinical value of HER-2 overexpression and PIK3CA mutations in the older breast cancer population: a FOCUS study analysis.

    PubMed

    Engels, Charla C; Kiderlen, Mandy; Bastiaannet, Esther; van Eijk, Ronald; Mooyaart, Antien; Smit, Vincent T H B M; de Craen, Anton J M; Kuppen, Peter J K; Kroep, Judith R; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Liefers, Gerrit Jan

    2016-04-01

    Studies to confirm the effect of acknowledged prognostic markers in older breast cancer patients are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of HER-2 overexpression and PIK3CA mutations in older breast cancer patients. Female breast cancer patients aged 65 years or older, diagnosed between 1997 and 2004 in a geographical region in The Netherlands, with an invasive, non-metastatic tumour and tumour material available, were included in the study. The primary endpoint was relapse-free period and secondary endpoint was relative survival. Determinants were immunochemical HER-2 scores (0/1+, 2+ or 3+) and PIK3CA as a binary measure. Overall, 1698 patients were included, and 103 had a HER-2 score of 3+. HER-2 overexpression was associated with a higher recurrence risk (5 years recurrence risk 34 % vs. 12 %, adjusted p = 0.005), and a worse relative survival (10 years relative survival 48 % vs. 84 % for HER-2 negative; p = 0.004). PIK3CA mutations had no significant prognostic effect. We showed, in older breast cancer patients, that HER-2 overexpression was significantly associated with a worse outcome, but PIK3CA mutations had no prognostic effect. These results imply that older patients with HER-2 overexpressing breast cancer might benefit from additional targeted anti-HER-2 therapy.

  7. Tumour but not stromal expression of β3 integrin is essential, and is required early, for spontaneous dissemination of bone-metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rachel Zoe; Micocci, Kelli Cristina; Natoli, Anthony; Redvers, Richard Paul; Paquet-Fifield, Sophie; Martin, Ana Carolina Baptista Moreno; Denoyer, Delphine; Ling, Xiawei; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Tomasin, Rebeka; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa; Anderson, Robin Lesley; Pouliot, Normand

    2015-04-01

    Although many preclinical studies have implicated β3 integrin receptors (αvβ3 and αIIbβ3) in cancer progression, β3 inhibitors have shown only modest efficacy in patients with advanced solid tumours. The limited efficacy of β3 inhibitors in patients could arise from our incomplete understanding of the precise function of β3 integrin and, consequently, inappropriate clinical application. Data from animal studies are conflicting and indicate heterogeneity with respect to the relative contributions of β3-expressing tumour and stromal cell populations in different cancers. Here we aimed to clarify the function and relative contributions to metastasis of tumour versus stromal β3 integrin in clinically relevant models of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis, with particular emphasis on bone metastasis. We show that stable down-regulation of tumour β3 integrin dramatically impairs spontaneous (but not experimental) metastasis to bone and lung without affecting primary tumour growth in the mammary gland. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to subcutaneous tumours, orthotopic tumour vascularity, growth and spontaneous metastasis were not altered in mice null for β3 integrin. Tumour β3 integrin promoted migration, protease expression and trans-endothelial migration in vitro and increased vascular dissemination in vivo, but was not necessary for bone colonization in experimental metastasis assays. We conclude that tumour, rather than stromal, β3 expression is essential and is required early for efficient spontaneous breast cancer metastasis to bone and soft tissues. Accordingly, differential gene expression analysis in cohorts of breast cancer patients showed a strong association between high β3 expression, early metastasis and shorter disease-free survival in patients with oestrogen receptor-negative tumours. We propose that β3 inhibitors may be more efficacious if used in a neoadjuvant setting, rather than after metastases are established. Copyright © 2014

  8. P14ARF is down-regulated during tumour progression and predicts the clinical outcome in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wazir, Umar; Jiang, Wen G; Yasaei, Hemad; Linne, Hanna; Newbold, Robert F; Mokbel, Kefah

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the mRNA expression for p14 and p16 in a cohort of women with breast cancer. Breast cancer specimens (N= 127) and normal tissue (N=23) specimens were studied. Transcript levels were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and were correlated with clinicopathological data collected over 10 years. Higher p14 mRNA transcript levels were associated with non-cancerous background tissue specimens (median copy numbers: 103 vs. 4, p=0.0095), with better overall and disease-free survival, and in TNM2 stage tumours (TNM2 vs. TNM1, 27.2 vs. 3.5, p=0.049; TNM1/TNM2 vs. TNM3/4, 26 vs. 2, p=0.009). There was no significant relationship between p16 levels and clinicopathological parameters. A correlation between p14 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) levels was observed (r=0.406, p=0.00005). p14 expression seems to increase initially in early breast cancer and decrease with further tumour progression. p14 may be induced to counteract immortalisation and hTERT surge.

  9. MRI fused with prone FDG PET/CT improves the primary tumour staging of patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Velloso, Maria J; Ribelles, Maria J; Rodriguez, Macarena; Fernandez-Montero, Alejandro; Sancho, Lidia; Prieto, Elena; Santisteban, Marta; Rodriguez-Spiteri, Natalia; Idoate, Miguel A; Martinez-Regueira, Fernando; Elizalde, Arlette; Pina, Luis J

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fused with prone 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in primary tumour staging of patients with breast cancer. This retrospective study evaluated 45 women with 49 pathologically proven breast carcinomas. MRI and prone PET-CT scans with time-of-flight and point-spread-function reconstruction were performed with the same dedicated breast coil. The studies were assessed by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician, and evaluation of fused images was made by consensus. The final diagnosis was based on pathology (90 lesions) or follow-up ≥ 24 months (17 lesions). The study assessed 72 malignant and 35 benign lesions with a median size of 1.8 cm (range 0.3-8.4 cm): 31 focal, nine multifocal and nine multicentric cases. In lesion-by-lesion analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 97%, 80%, 91% and 93% for MRI, 96%, 71%, 87%, and 89% for prone PET, and 97%. 94%, 97% and 94% for MRI fused with PET. Areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.953, 0.850, and 0.983, respectively (p < 0.01). MRI fused with FDG-PET is more accurate than FDG-PET in primary tumour staging of breast cancer patients and increases the specificity of MRI. • FDG PET-CT may improve the specificity of MRI in breast cancer staging. • MRI fused with prone 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET-CT has better overall diagnostic performance than MRI. • The clinical role of fused PET-MRI has not yet been established.

  10. A fuzzy gene expression-based computational approach improves breast cancer prognostication

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Early gene expression studies classified breast tumors into at least three clinically relevant subtypes. Although most current gene signatures are prognostic for estrogen receptor (ER) positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative breast cancers, few are informative for ER negative/HER2 negative and HER2 positive subtypes. Here we present Gene Expression Prognostic Index Using Subtypes (GENIUS), a fuzzy approach for prognostication that takes into account the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancer. In systematic evaluations, GENIUS significantly outperformed current gene signatures and clinical indices in the global population of patients. PMID:20156340

  11. Towards intra-operative diagnosis of tumours during breast conserving surgery by selective-sampling Raman micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Kenny; Zaabar, Fazliyana; Rakha, Emad; Ellis, Ian; Koloydenko, Alexey; Notingher, Ioan

    2014-10-01

    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is increasingly employed for the treatment of early stage breast cancer. One of the key challenges in BCS is to ensure complete removal of the tumour while conserving as much healthy tissue as possible. In this study we have investigated the potential of Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) for automated intra-operative evaluation of tumour excision. First, a multivariate classification model based on Raman spectra of normal and malignant breast tissue samples was built and achieved diagnosis of mammary ductal carcinoma (DC) with 95.6% sensitivity and 96.2% specificity (5-fold cross-validation). The tumour regions were discriminated from the healthy tissue structures based on increased concentration of nucleic acids and reduced concentration of collagen and fat. The multivariate classification model was then applied to sections from fresh tissue of new patients to produce diagnosis images for DC. The diagnosis images obtained by raster scanning RMS were in agreement with the conventional histopathology diagnosis but were limited to long data acquisition times (typically 10 000 spectra mm-2, which is equivalent to ~5 h mm-2). Selective-sampling based on integrated auto-fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopy was used to reduce the number of Raman spectra to ~20 spectra mm-2, which is equivalent to an acquisition time of ~15 min for 5 × 5 mm2 tissue samples. This study suggests that selective-sampling Raman microscopy has the potential to provide a rapid and objective intra-operative method to detect mammary carcinoma in tissue and assess resection margins.

  12. Liposomal Nanoparticles Carrying anti-IL6R Antibody to the Tumour Microenvironment Inhibit Metastasis in Two Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunlei; Chen, Yanan; Gao, Wenjuan; Chang, Antao; Ye, Yujie; Shen, Wenzhi; Luo, Yunping; Yang, Shengyong; Sun, Peiqing; Xiang, Rong; Li, Na

    2017-01-01

    Tumour microenvironment (TME) contributes significantly towards potentiating the stemness and metastasis properties of cancer cells. IL6-Stat3 is one of the important cell signaling pathways in mediating the communication between tumour and immune cells. Here, we have systematically developed a novel anti-CD44 antibody-mediated liposomal nanoparticle delivery system loaded with anti-IL6R antibody, which could specifically target the TME of CD44+ breast cancer cells in different mouse models for triple negative and luminal breast cancer. This nanoparticle had an enhanced and specific tumour targeting efficacy with dramatic anti-tumour metastasis effects in syngeneic BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 cells as was in the syngeneic MMTV-PyMT mice. It inhibited IL6R-Stat3 signaling and moderated the TME, characterized by the reduced expression of genes encoding Stat3, Sox2, VEGFA, MMP-9 and CD206 in the breast tissues. Furthermore, this nanoparticle reduced the subgroups of Sox2+ and CD206+ cells in the lung metastatic foci, demonstrating its inhibitory effect on the lung metastatic niche for breast cancer stem cells. Taken together, the CD44 targeted liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating anti-IL6R antibody achieved a significant effect to inhibit the metastasis of breast cancer in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer mouse models. Our results shed light on the application of nanoparticle mediated cancer immune-therapy through targeting TME. PMID:28255366

  13. Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Aktepe, Fatma; Sarsenov, Dauren; Özmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Secretory carcinoma is a very rare subtype of breast carcinoma. These tumors are generally associated with a favorable prognosis, although having triple-negative phenotype (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) negative and c-erbB2 (HER2) negative). In this presentation, a rare secretory carcinoma of the breast in a woman aged 24 years is discussed and the literature is reviewed. PMID:28331758

  14. Predictive and prognostic impact of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Vicent, Carmen; Guerrero, Angel; Gavilá, Joaquin; Gozalbo, Francisco; Hernández, Abraham; Sandiego, Sergio; Algarra, Maria Asunción; Calatrava, Ana; Guillem-Porta, Vicente; Ruiz-Simón, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    In locally and locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) only induces a pCR in 30-35% of patients. Clinical and pathological factors are not enough to distinguish the patients who have no chance of a pCR or not. The tumour microenvironment is critical for cancer and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Moreover, the NAC scenario is the perfect setting to study possible changes in TIL levels. Using our prospective maintained breast cancer (BC) database, we identified 164 TNBC patients treated with NAC between 1998 and 2015 with enough samples of diagnostic biopsy and after surgery. Evaluation of TILs before and after NAC followed a standardised methodology for visual assessment on haematoxylin-eosin sections and the amounts of TILs were quantitated in deciles. We categorised lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer cutoff according to a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. We categorised LPBC as involving > 40% lymphocytic infiltration tumour stroma. The primary end point was predictive value of TILs to NAC, and the secondary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). DFS was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the groups were compared with a long-rank test. Univariate and multivariate Cox models were used to generate hazard ratios for determining associations between variables such as TIL after NAC and DFS. A total of 164 TNBC patients were treated with NAC and surgery. The main patients' characteristics are listed in Table 1. We identify different pathological complete response to anthracycline and taxane-based NAC; LPBC subgroup 51 from 58 patients (88%) pCR versus non- lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC) subgroup 10 from 106 (9%) pCR, p = 0.001. At a median follow-up of 78 months, LPBC was associated with better DFS; the three-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for DFS were 2% and 30 % for patients with LPBC and non-LPBC, respectively, p = 0.01. Univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed TIL to

  15. Chemotherapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer – An Anachronism in the Era of Personalised and Targeted Oncological Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Schneeweiss, A.; Ruckhäberle, E.; Huober, J.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the findings of modern molecular biology, breast cancer is nowadays considered to be a heterogeneous disease. This leads to the objective of an individualised, more patient-oriented therapy. A series of target molecules for this purpose has already been identified. The principle of targeted oncological therapy was realised decades ago with the introduction of endocrine therapy for patients with hormone receptor-positive tumours. The modern therapy for HER2-positive tumours is a further example for the translation of targeted therapy into clinical routine. For patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer, to date two targeted drugs, bevacizumab and everolimus, are available for routine clinical use. Many other substances are still undergoing clinical development. However, validated predictive markers to aid in therapeutic decision-making and therapy control are still lacking. Chemotherapy constitutes an effective palliative therapy with proven efficacy for the patients. In this process strategies have also been realised for a targeted therapy against tumour cells with the help of chemotherapeutic agents such as, for example, the intracellular activation of the prodrug capecitabine or the active albumin-mediated transport of nab-paclitaxel which leads to higher peri- and intratumoural enrichments. The continuing unchanged relevance of chemotherapy is often underestimated in the current discussions and will be comprehensively evaluated in this review. PMID:26166838

  16. Upregulation of miRNA-155 promotes tumour angiogenesis by targeting VHL and is associated with poor prognosis and triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, W; He, L; Richards, EJ; Challa, S; Xu, C-X; Permuth-Wey, J; Lancaster, JM; Coppola, D; Sellers, TA; Djeu, JY; Cheng, JQ

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is frequently up-regulated in various types of human cancer; however, its role in cancer angiogenesis remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the role of miR-155 in angiogenesis through targeting von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor (VHL) in breast cancer. Ectopic expression of miR-155 induced whereas knockdown of miR-155 inhibited HUVEC network formation, proliferation, invasion, and migration. Furthermore, mammary fat pad xenotransplantation of ectopically expressed miR-155 resulted in extensive angiogenesis, proliferation, tumour necrosis, and recruitment of pro-inflammatory cells such as tumour associated macrophages. Expression of VHL abrogated these miR-155 effects. Moreover, miR-155 expression inversely correlates with VHL expression level and is associated with late stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis as well as triple-negative tumour in breast cancer. These findings indicate that miR-155 plays a pivotal role in tumour angiogenesis by downregulation of VHL, and provide a basis for miR-155-expressing tumours to embody an aggressive malignant phenotype, and therefore, miR-155 is an important therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:23353819

  17. Analysis of and prognostic information from disseminated tumour cells in bone marrow in primary breast cancer: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow of patients with breast cancer have been identified as an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with non-metastatic disease. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the presence and prognostic value of DTCs in the bone marrow of female patients with primary breast cancer. Methods Between 1999 and 2003, bone marrow aspirates were obtained from patients at the time of surgery for primary invasive breast cancer. DTCs in bone marrow were identified using monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratins for detection of epithelial cells. The detection of DTCs was related to clinical follow-up with distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and breast cancer-specific survival as endpoints. Bone marrow aspirates from adult healthy bone marrow donors were analysed separately. Results DTCs were analysed in 401 patients, and cytokeratin-positive cells were found in 152 of these (38%). An immunofluorescence (IF) staining procedure was used in 327 patients, and immunocytochemistry (IC) was performed in 74 patients. The IF-based method resulted in 40% DTC-positive cases, whereas 30% were positive using IC (p = 0.11). The presence of DTCs in bone marrow was not significantly related to patient or tumour characteristics. The presence of DTCs was not a prognostic factor for DDFS (IF: hazards ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–2.2; p = 0.60; IC: HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.09–8.1; p = 0.88). Significant prognostic factors were lymph node metastases, oestrogen receptor positivity, Nottingham histological grade, and tumour size using Cox univariate analysis. The analyses were positive for epithelial cells in bone marrow from adult healthy donors in 19 (25%) samples. Conclusions The detection of DTCs in bone marrow in primary breast cancer was previously shown to be a predictor of poor prognosis. We were not able to confirm these results in a prospective cohort including unselected patients

  18. Treatment and pattern of bone metastases in 1094 patients with advanced breast cancer - Results from the prospective German Tumour Registry Breast Cancer cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jan; Fietz, Thomas; Köhler, Andreas; Petersen, Volker; Tesch, Hans; Spring, Lisa; Fleitz, Annette; Jänicke, Martina; Marschner, Norbert

    2017-07-01

    A high proportion of patients with breast cancer develop bone metastases, yet data on routine treatment with bone-targeted agents (BTA) are rare. We report real-life outcome data of patients with breast cancer metastasised to the bone treated by office-based oncologists in Germany. The ongoing, prospective, multicentre, population-based cohort study Tumour Registry Breast Cancer (TMK) was started in 2007 in 140 centres across Germany. This interim analysis of 1094 patients with bone metastases revealed differences among the tumour subtypes: at start of first-line therapy, 36% of the patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive and only 20% of the patients with HR-negative tumours presented with bone-only metastasis. The majority of patients with bone metastases (89%, n = 976) received BTA therapy. In 2014-2015, 37% of the patients received the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid and 36% the antibody denosumab. Median duration of BTA therapy was 20 months (interquartile range 31.5 months), starting a median of 3 weeks after diagnosis of bone metastases, and ending a median of 7 weeks before death. The median overall survival (OS) also varied among the types of metastasis at start of first-line therapy ranging from 54 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 37.6-70.8), 38 months (95% CI 29.4-44.2) to 28 months (95% CI 24.2-31.0) for patients with bone-only metastases, non-visceral with or without bone metastases and visceral with or without bone metastases respectively. We show that choice and duration of BTA therapies are in conformity with guidelines applicable in Germany. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of data on incidence, metastatic pattern, treatment and survival of patients with bone metastases in routine practice. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of tumour bed boost integration on acute and late toxicity in patients with breast cancer: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Daniel George; Bale, Rebecca; Jones, Claire; Fitzgerald, Emma; Khor, Richard; Knight, Kellie; Wasiak, Jason

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to summarise the evidence from studies investigating the integration of tumour bed boosts into whole breast irradiation for patients with Stage 0-III breast cancer, with a focus on its impact on acute and late toxicities. A comprehensive systematic electronic search through the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed databases from January 2000 to January 2015 was conducted. Studies were considered eligible if they investigated the efficacy of hypo- or normofractionated whole breast irradiation with the inclusion of a daily concurrent boost. The primary outcomes of interest were the degree of observed acute and late toxicity following radiotherapy treatment. Methodological quality assessment was performed on all included studies using either the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale or a previously published investigator-derived quality instrument. The search identified 35 articles, of which 17 satisfied our eligibility criteria. Thirteen and eleven studies reported on acute and late toxicities respectively. Grade 3 acute skin toxicity ranged from 1 to 7% whilst moderate to severe fibrosis and telangiectasia were both limited to 9%. Reported toxicity profiles were comparable to historical data at similar time-points. Studies investigating the delivery of concurrent boosts with whole breast radiotherapy courses report safe short to medium-term toxicity profiles and cosmesis rates. Whilst the quality of evidence and length of follow-up supporting these findings is low, sufficient evidence has been generated to consider concurrent boost techniques as an alternative to conventional sequential techniques.

  20. ERCC1 and telomere status in breast tumours treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and their association with patient prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Gay‐Bellile, Mathilde; Romero, Pierre; Cayre, Anne; Véronèse, Lauren; Privat, Maud; Singh, Shalini; Combes, Patricia; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Abrial, Catherine; Bignon, Yves‐Jean; Vago, Philippe; Penault‐Llorca, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dysfunctional telomeres and DNA damage repair (DDR) play important roles in cancer progression. Studies have reported correlations between these factors and tumour aggressiveness and clinical outcome in breast cancer. We studied the characteristics of telomeres and expression of ERCC1, a protein involved in a number of DNA repair pathways and in telomere homeostasis, to assess their prognostic value, alone or in combination, in 90 residual breast tumours after treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). ERCC1 status was investigated at different molecular levels (protein and gene expression and gene copy‐number variations) by immunohistochemistry, qRT‐PCR and quantitative multiplex fluorescent‐PCR (QMF‐PCR). A comprehensive analysis of telomere characteristics was performed using qPCR for telomere length and qRT‐PCR for telomerase (hTERT), tankyrase 1 (TNKS) and shelterin complex (TRF1, TRF2, POT1, TPP1, RAP1 and TIN2) gene expression. Short telomeres, high hTERT and TNKS expression and low ERCC1 protein expression were independently associated with worse survival outcome. Interestingly, ERCC1 gains and losses correlated with worse disease‐free (p = 0.026) and overall (p = 0.043) survival as compared to survival of patients with normal gene copy‐numbers. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of all ERCC1 and telomere parameters identified four subgroups with distinct prognosis. In particular, a cluster combining low ERCC1, ERCC1 gene alterations, dysfunctional telomeres and high hTERT and a cluster with high TNKS and shelterin expression correlated with poor disease‐free (HR= 5.41, p= 0.0044) and overall survival (HR= 6.01, p= 0.0023) irrespective of tumour stage and grade. This comprehensive study demonstrates that telomere dysfunction and DDR can contribute synergistically to tumour progression and chemoresistance. These parameters are predictors of clinical outcome in breast cancer patients treated with NCT and could be useful

  1. The Huntington disease protein accelerates breast tumour development and metastasis through ErbB2/HER2 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Moreira Sousa, Cristovão; McGuire, John Russel; Thion, Morgane Sonia; Gentien, David; de la Grange, Pierre; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Durr, Alexandra; Humbert, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In Huntington disease (HD), polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein causes specific neuronal death. The consequences of the presence of mutant huntingtin in other tissues are less well understood. Here we propose that mutant huntingtin influences breast cancer progression. Indeed, we show that mammary tumours appear earlier in mouse breast cancer models expressing mutant huntingtin as compared to control mice expressing wild-type huntingtin. Tumours bearing mutant huntingtin have a modified gene expression pattern that reflects enhanced aggressiveness with the overexpression of genes favouring invasion and metastasis. In agreement, mutant huntingtin accelerates epithelial to mesenchymal transition and enhances cell motility and invasion. Also, lung metastasis is higher in HD conditions than in control mice. Finally, we report that in HD, the dynamin dependent endocytosis of the ErbB2/HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase is reduced. This leads to its accumulation and to subsequent increases in cell motility and proliferation. Our study may thus have important implications for both cancer and HD. PMID:23300147

  2. Tumour cell membrane laminin expression is associated with basal-like phenotype and poor survival in Nigerian breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Agboola, A O J; Ebili, H O; Iyawe, V O; Banjo, A A F; Salami, B S; Rakha, E A; Nolan, C; Ellis, I O; Green, A R

    2016-08-01

    Laminin is a glycoprotein with diverse functions in carcinogenesis including cell proliferation, invasion, metastases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In breast cancer (BC) laminin expression is speculated to be associated with unfavourable clinicopathological and molecular characteristics. We hypothesize that laminin expression would contributed to the aggressive nature of basal like and triple negative BC phenotype observed in Black women. The expression of laminin was determined in a well-characterised Nigerian cohort of 255 BC using tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Laminin expression was compared with clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Laminin was expressed in 146 (57.3%) cases and significantly correlated with younger age at diagnosis (p=0.005), premenopausal status (p=0.003), expression of EGFR (p=0.002), ID4 and MTA1, basal cytokeratin 5/6, p53, and triple negative tumours (all p<0.001). In addition, there was an inverse association of laminin expression with E-cadherin (p=0.03), ER and PgR (all p<0.001) and a trend with BRCA1 (p=0.05). Univariate survival analysis showed tumours positive for laminin had significantly poorer breast cancer specific survival (BCSS, p=0.009) and disease free interval (p=0.03), but not associated in Cox multivariate analysis. This study demonstrates that laminin expression may have important roles in the aggressive nature observed in the basal-like and triple negative molecular subtype of Nigerian BC women.

  3. Multicellular Tumour Spheroid as a model for evaluation of [18F]FDG as biomarker for breast cancer treatment monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Monazzam, Azita; Razifar, Pasha; Simonsson, Martin; Qvarnström, Fredrik; Josephsson, Raymond; Blomqvist, Carl; Långström, Bengt; Bergström, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Background In order to explore a pre-clinical method to evaluate if [18F]FDG is valid for monitoring early response, we investigated the uptake of FDG in Multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) without and with treatment with five routinely used chemotherapy agents in breast cancer. Methods The response to each anticancer treatment was evaluated by measurement of the [18F]FDG uptake and viable volume of the MTSs after 2 and 3 days of treatment. Results The effect of Paclitaxel and Docetaxel on [18F]FDG uptake per viable volume was more evident in BT474 (up to 55% decrease) than in MCF-7 (up to 25% decrease). Doxorubicin reduced the [18F]FDG uptake per viable volume more noticeable in MCF-7 (25%) than in BT474 MTSs. Tamoxifen reduced the [18F]FDG uptake per viable volume only in MCF-7 at the highest dose of 1 μM. No effect of Imatinib was observed. Conclusion MTS was shown to be appropriate to investigate the potential of FDG-PET for early breast cancer treatment monitoring; the treatment effect can be observed before any tumour size changes occur. The combination of PET radiotracers and image analysis in MTS provides a good model to evaluate the relationship between tumour volume and the uptake of metabolic tracer before and after chemotherapy. This feature could be used for screening and selecting PET-tracers for early assessment of treatment response. In addition, this new method gives a possibility to assess quickly, and in vitro, a good preclinical profile of existing and newly developed anti-cancer drugs. PMID:16556298

  4. RO4929097 and Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy or Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Metastases From Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-22

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. Prognostic factors and survival according to tumour subtype in women presenting with breast cancer brain metastases at initial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Leone, José Pablo; Leone, Julieta; Zwenger, Ariel Osvaldo; Iturbe, Julián; Leone, Bernardo Amadeo; Vallejo, Carlos Teodoro

    2017-03-01

    The presence of brain metastases at the time of initial breast cancer diagnosis (BMIBCD) is uncommon. Hence, the prognostic assessment and management of these patients is very challenging. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of tumour subtype compared with other prognostic factors in the survival of patients with BMIBCD. We evaluated women with BMIBCD, reported to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program from 2010 to 2013. Patients with other primary malignancy were excluded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the effects of each variable on overall survival (OS). We included 740 patients. Median OS for the whole population was 10 months, and 20.7% of patients were alive at 36 months. Tumour subtype distribution was: 46.6% hormone receptor (HR)+/HER2-, 17% HR+/HER2+, 14.1% HR-/HER2+ and 22.3% triple-negative. Univariate analysis showed that the presence of liver metastases, lung metastases and triple-negative patients (median OS 6 months) had worse prognosis. The HR+/HER2+ subtype had the longest OS with a median of 22 months. In multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio 1.8), lobular histology (hazard ratio 2.08), triple-negative subtype (hazard ratio 2.25), liver metastases (hazard ratio 1.6) and unmarried patients (hazard ratio 1.39) had significantly shorter OS. Although the prognosis of patients with BMIBCD is generally poor, 20.7% were still alive 3 years after the diagnosis. There were substantial differences in OS according to tumour subtype. In addition to tumour subtype, other independent predictors of OS are age at diagnosis, marital status, histology and liver metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MYC functions are specific in biological subtypes of breast cancer and confers resistance to endocrine therapy in luminal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andrew R; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Agarwal, Devika; Elsheikh, Somaia; Nolan, Christopher C; Diez-Rodriguez, Maria; Macmillan, R Douglas; Ball, Graham R; Caldas, Carlos; Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A

    2016-01-01

    Background: MYC is amplified in approximately 15% of breast cancers (BCs) and is associated with poor outcome. c-MYC protein is multi-faceted and participates in many aspects of cellular function and is linked with therapeutic response in BCs. We hypothesised that the functional role of c-MYC differs between molecular subtypes of BCs. Methods: We therefore investigated the correlation between c-MYC protein expression and other proteins involved in different cellular functions together with clinicopathological parameters, patients' outcome and treatments in a large early-stage molecularly characterised series of primary invasive BCs (n=1106) using immunuohistochemistry. The METABRIC BC cohort (n=1980) was evaluated for MYC mRNA expression and a systems biology approach utilised to identify genes associated with MYC in the different BC molecular subtypes. Results: High MYC and c-MYC expression was significantly associated with poor prognostic factors, including grade and basal-like BCs. In luminal A tumours, c-MYC was associated with ATM (P=0.005), Cyclin B1 (P=0.002), PIK3CA (P=0.009) and Ki67 (P<0.001). In contrast, in basal-like tumours, c-MYC showed positive association with Cyclin E (P=0.003) and p16 (P=0.042) expression only. c-MYC was an independent predictor of a shorter distant metastases-free survival in luminal A LN+ tumours treated with endocrine therapy (ET; P=0.013). In luminal tumours treated with ET, MYC mRNA expression was associated with BC-specific survival (P=0.001). In ER-positive tumours, MYC was associated with expression of translational genes while in ER-negative tumours it was associated with upregulation of glucose metabolism genes. Conclusions: c-MYC function is associated with specific molecular subtypes of BCs and its overexpression confers resistance to ET. The diverse mechanisms of c-MYC function in the different molecular classes of BCs warrants further investigation particularly as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26954716

  7. Impact of family history of breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, risk of second cancer and survival among men with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bouchardy, Christine; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gerald; Schubert, Hyma; Chappuis, Pierre; Vlastos, Georges; Benhamou, Simone

    2013-11-12

    Male breast cancer patients have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer, but whether this risk differs according to the family history of breast or ovarian cancers remains to be elucidated. We aimed to determine the effect of a positive family history among men diagnosed with breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, second cancer occurrence and overall survival. We included 46 patients with known information on the family history of breast or ovarian cancer recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1970 and 2009. We compared patients with and without a family history with chi-square of heterogeneity, risk of second cancer with standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), and overall survival by Kaplan-Meier methods. Approximately 20% of men with breast cancer had a positive family history. No differences were observed between men with and without familial risk except that patients with increased risk were more likely to receive radiotherapy and hormone therapy when compared with patients without familial risk. This more complete therapy is likely to be explained by the heightened awareness of cancer treatment among breast cancer patients with affected family members. Six men developed a second cancer. SIRs for second cancer were not significantly increased among patients with or without familial risk (1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-6.97 and 1.04, 95% CI 0.28-2.66, respectively). Overall survival was not significantly different between the two groups. Prognosis was similar among patients with or without familial risk. Our results are however based on small numbers and larger registry-based cohorts of males with precise data on familial risk are still warranted.

  8. Synthetic lethality of PARP and NAMPT inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bajrami, Ilirjana; Kigozi, Asha; Van Weverwijk, Antoinette; Brough, Rachel; Frankum, Jessica; Lord, Christopher J; Ashworth, Alan

    2012-01-01

    PARP inhibitors have been proposed as a potential targeted therapy for patients with triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-negative) breast cancers. However, it is as yet unclear as to whether single agent or combination therapy using PARP inhibitors would be most beneficial. To better understand the mechanisms that determine the response to PARP inhibitors, we investigated whether enzymes involved in metabolism of the PARP substrate, β-NAD+, might alter the response to a clinical PARP inhibitor. Using an olaparib sensitization screen in a triple-negative (TN) breast cancer model, we identified nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) as a non-redundant modifier of olaparib response. NAMPT is a rate-limiting enzyme involved in the generation of the PARP substrate β-NAD+ and the suppression of β-NAD+ levels by NAMPT inhibition most likely explains these observations. Importantly, the combination of a NAMPT small molecule inhibitor, FK866, with olaparib inhibited TN breast tumour growth in vivo to a greater extent than either single agent alone suggesting that assessing NAMPT/PARP inhibitor combinations for the treatment of TN breast cancer may be warranted. PMID:22933245

  9. Consensus Analysis of Whole Transcriptome Profiles from Two Breast Cancer Patient Cohorts Reveals Long Non-Coding RNAs Associated with Intrinsic Subtype and the Tumour Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Bradford, James R; Cox, Angela; Bernard, Philip; Camp, Nicola J

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulators of cellular processes and diseases such as cancer; however, their functions remain poorly characterised. Several studies have demonstrated that lncRNAs are typically disease and tumour subtype specific, particularly in breast cancer where lncRNA expression alone is sufficient to discriminate samples based on hormone status and molecular intrinsic subtype. However, little attempt has been made to assess the reproducibility of lncRNA signatures across more than one dataset. In this work, we derive consensus lncRNA signatures indicative of breast cancer subtype based on two clinical RNA-Seq datasets: the Utah Breast Cancer Study and The Cancer Genome Atlas, through integration of differential expression and hypothesis-free clustering analyses. The most consistent signature is associated with breast cancers of the basal-like subtype, leading us to generate a putative set of six lncRNA basal-like breast cancer markers, at least two of which may have a role in cis-regulation of known poor prognosis markers. Through in silico functional characterization of individual signatures and integration of expression data from pre-clinical cancer models, we discover that discordance between signatures derived from different clinical cohorts can arise from the strong influence of non-cancerous cells in tumour samples. As a consequence, we identify nine lncRNAs putatively associated with breast cancer associated fibroblasts, or the immune response. Overall, our study establishes the confounding effects of tumour purity on lncRNA signature derivation, and generates several novel hypotheses on the role of lncRNAs in basal-like breast cancers and the tumour microenvironment.

  10. Consensus Analysis of Whole Transcriptome Profiles from Two Breast Cancer Patient Cohorts Reveals Long Non-Coding RNAs Associated with Intrinsic Subtype and the Tumour Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Angela; Bernard, Philip; Camp, Nicola J.

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulators of cellular processes and diseases such as cancer; however, their functions remain poorly characterised. Several studies have demonstrated that lncRNAs are typically disease and tumour subtype specific, particularly in breast cancer where lncRNA expression alone is sufficient to discriminate samples based on hormone status and molecular intrinsic subtype. However, little attempt has been made to assess the reproducibility of lncRNA signatures across more than one dataset. In this work, we derive consensus lncRNA signatures indicative of breast cancer subtype based on two clinical RNA-Seq datasets: the Utah Breast Cancer Study and The Cancer Genome Atlas, through integration of differential expression and hypothesis-free clustering analyses. The most consistent signature is associated with breast cancers of the basal-like subtype, leading us to generate a putative set of six lncRNA basal-like breast cancer markers, at least two of which may have a role in cis-regulation of known poor prognosis markers. Through in silico functional characterization of individual signatures and integration of expression data from pre-clinical cancer models, we discover that discordance between signatures derived from different clinical cohorts can arise from the strong influence of non-cancerous cells in tumour samples. As a consequence, we identify nine lncRNAs putatively associated with breast cancer associated fibroblasts, or the immune response. Overall, our study establishes the confounding effects of tumour purity on lncRNA signature derivation, and generates several novel hypotheses on the role of lncRNAs in basal-like breast cancers and the tumour microenvironment. PMID:27685983

  11. Breast tumour initiating cell fate is regulated by microenvironmental cues from an extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sharmistha; Lo, Pang-Kuo; Duan, Xinrui; Chen, Hexin; Wang, Qian

    2012-08-01

    Cancer stem cells, also known as tumour-initiating cells (TICs), are identified as highly tumorigenic population within tumours and hypothesized to be main regulators in tumour growth, metastasis and relapse. Evidence also suggests that a tumour microenvironment plays a critical role in the development and progression of cancer, by constantly modulating cell-matrix interactions. Scientists have tried to characterize and identify the TIC population but the actual combination of extracellular components in deciphering the fate of TICs has not been explored. The basic unanswered question is the phenotypic stability of this TIC population in a tissue extracellular matrix setting. The in vivo complexity makes it difficult to identify parameters in a diverse milieu that affect TICs behaviour. Herein we studied how the TIC population would respond when subjected to a unique microenvironment composed of different extracellular proteins. The TIC-enriched population isolated from a Her2/neu-induced mouse mammary tumour was cultured on collagen, fibronectin and laminin coated substrates for one to two weeks. Our observations indicate that a laminin substrate can maintain the majority of the self-renewing and tumorigenic TIC population, whereas collagen induced a more differentiated phenotype of the cells. Also interestingly, fibronectin substrates dictated an invasive phenotype of TICs as evidenced from the EMT-related gene expression pattern. The results of this study signify that the microenvironmental cues play a considerable role in tumour relapse and progression by altering the cancer stem cell behaviour and thus this knowledge could be used to design novel cancer therapeutics.

  12. An autopsy case of acute cor pulmonale and paradoxical systemic embolism due to tumour cell microemboli in a patient with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Uga, Sayuri; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Matsukage, Sho-ichi; Hamada, Mareomi

    2012-09-30

    A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe respiratory distress. Diagnostic imaging studies suggested the existence of inexplicable cor pulmonale. Although we immediately sought the aetiology of her severe condition, she died suddenly on the fourth day after admission. Postmortem autopsy revealed tumour cell microemboli in the small pulmonary arteries. In addition, tumour cell embolisation identical to that in primary breast cancer cells was also observed in microvessels in systemic multiple organs, such as the liver, brain, kidneys, spleen, uterus, bone marrow and adrenal glands-with simultaneous findings of peripheral infarction. Systemic tumour cell embolism mediated through the patent foramen ovale superimposed on pulmonary tumour cell emboli (PTCE) is considered to be the mechanism underlying inexplicable cor pulmonale. The rapid aggravation of her condition terminated in death.

  13. Prognostic factors for tumour response and skin damage to combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia in superficial recurrent breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, C E; Kjellén, E; Nilsson, P; Weber, L; Hill, S

    1995-01-01

    Prognostic factors for complete tumour response and acute skin damage to combined hyperthermia and radiotherapy were analysed in material of patients with breast cancer, recurrent in previously irradiated areas. Radiotherapy was given daily to a total absorbed dose of 30.0 Gy in 2 weeks or 34.5 Gy in 3 weeks. The first radiotherapy schedule was combined with heat twice weekly, a total of four heat treatments (schedule A). The second radiotherapy schedule was combined with heat either once or twice a week resulting in a total of three (schedule B) or six (schedule C) heat treatments. Heat was induced with microwaves (2450, 915 or 434 MHz) via external applicators and always given after the radiotherapy fraction. The complete response (CR) rate in evaluable patients was 71% (49/69). There was no significant difference in CR rate between the three different hyperthermia schedules. The CR rates were 74% (14/19), 65% (15/23) and 74% (20/27) for schedules A, B and C respectively. The only factor predicting CR, evaluated both uni- and multivariately, was the CRE-value for the present radiotherapy dose (p = 0.02). If only tumours treated with 915 MHz were taken into account, however, then the highest minimum temperature at a given heat session predicted complete response (p = 0.03). This was true also in a multivariate analysis of this subgroup of tumours. A Kaplan-Meier analysis (log rank test) showed no significant difference in duration of CR between the different treatment schedules. Cox's proportional hazards method revealed three significant factors: tumour size (negatively correlated, p = 0.007), the time interval between the diagnosis of the primary tumour and the present treatment (p = 0.02) and the average temperature (0.03). Maximum acute skin reactions in the treatment field were scored according to an ordinal scale of 0-8, modified after WHO 1979. Twenty-six treatment areas (32%) expressed more severe skin damage (score > or = 5) in terms of desquamation with

  14. Use of Finite Difference Time Domain Simulations and Debye Theory for Modelling the Terahertz Reflection Response of Normal and Tumour Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma; Wallace, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capabilities of Debye theory combined with Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods to simulate the terahertz (THz) response of breast tissues. Being able to accurately model breast tissues in the THz regime would facilitate the understanding of image contrast parameters used in THz imaging of breast cancer. As a test case, the model was first validated using liquid water and simulated reflection pulses were compared to experimental measured pulses with very good agreement (p = 1.00). The responses of normal and cancerous breast tissues were simulated with Debye properties and the correlation with measured data was still high for tumour (p = 0.98) and less so for normal breast (p = 0.82). Sections of the time domain pulses showed clear differences that were also evident in the comparison of pulse parameter values. These deviations may arise from the presence of adipose and other inhomogeneities in the breast tissue that are not accounted for when using the Debye model. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the power of the model for simulating THz reflection imaging; however, for biological tissues extra Debye terms or a more detailed theory may be required to link THz image contrast to physiological composition and structural changes of breast tissue associated with differences between normal and tumour tissues. PMID:25010734

  15. Obesity and the outcome of young breast cancer patients in the UK: the POSH study.

    PubMed

    Copson, E R; Cutress, R I; Maishman, T; Eccles, B K; Gerty, S; Stanton, L; Altman, D G; Durcan, L; Wong, C; Simmonds, P D; Jones, L; Eccles, D M

    2015-01-01

    Obese breast cancer patients have a poorer prognosis than non-obese patients. We examined data from a large prospective cohort study to explore the associations of obesity with tumour pathology, treatment and outcome in young British breast cancer patients receiving modern oncological treatments. A total of 2956 patients aged ≤40 at breast cancer diagnosis were recruited from 126 UK hospitals from 2001 to 2007. Height and weight were measured at registration. Tumour pathology and treatment details were collected. Follow-up data were collected at 6, 12 months, and annually. A total of 2843 eligible patients (96.2%) had a body mass index (BMI) recorded: 1526 (53.7%) were under/healthy-weight (U/H, BMI <25 kg/m(2)), 784 (27.6%) were overweight (ov, BMI ≥25 to <30), and 533 (18.7%) were obese (ob, BMI ≥30). The median tumour size was significantly higher in obese and overweight patients than U/H patients (Ob 26 mm versus U/H 20 mm, P < 0.001; Ov 24 mm versus U/H 20 mm, P < 0.001). Obese and overweight patients had significantly more grade 3 tumours (63.9% versus 59.0%, P = 0.048; Ov 63.6% versus U/H 59.0% P = 0.034) and node-positive tumours (Ob 54.6% versus U/H 49.0%, P = 0.027; Ov 54.2% versus U/H 49%, P = 0.019) than U/H patients. Obese patients had more ER/PR/HER2-negative tumours than healthy-weight patients (25.0% versus 18.3%, P = 0.001). Eight-year overall survival (OS) and distant disease-free interval (DDFI) were significantly lower in obese patients than healthy-weight patients [OS: hazard ratio (HR) 1.65, P < 0.001; DDFI: HR 1.44, P < 0.001]. Multivariable analyses adjusting for tumour grade, size, nodal, and HER2 status indicated that obesity was a significant independent predictor of OS and DDFI in patients with ER-positive disease. Young obese breast cancer patients present with adverse tumour characteristics. Despite adjustment for this, obesity still independently predicts DDFI and OS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on

  16. Oncologic safety of breast conserving surgery after tumour downsizing by neoadjuvant therapy: a retrospective single centre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fitzal, F; Riedl, O; Mittlböck, M; Dubsky, P; Bartsch, R; Steger, G; Jakesz, R; Gnant, M

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse local recurrence rates in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCT) comparing mastecomized (MX) patients with those undergoing breast conserving therapy (BCT). Patients undergoing breast cancer surgery after nCT (3xCMF or 3-6xED) between 1995 and 2007 at our department were retrospectively analysed. The median follow up was 60 months for 308 patients. Patients who were downsized from MX to BCT with partial or complete response (n = 104) had a similar local recurrence free survival (LRFS) compared to patients who did not experience successful downsizing (n = 67) and finally undergoing MX (LRFS MX-BCT 81% vs. MX-MX 91%; P = 0.79). Uni- and multivariate analyses demonstrated that BCT itself was not an independent prognostic factor for a worse LRFS (P = 0.07 and 0.14). After no pathologic change or progressive disease the risk of local recurrence was increased in patients undergoing BCT (MX-BCT; n = 6 LRFS 66%) compared with MX (n = 44; LRFS 90%; P = 0.04). Overall survival in general was better for the BCT group (n = 197) compared with MX group (n = 111) regardless of clinical response (92% vs. 72%; P < 0.0001). Breast conservation, nodal negativity and low or medium grade histology were prognostic factors for an improved OS (P = 0.02, 0.01, 0.004). In conclusion, our study suggests that BCT is oncologically safe after tumour downsizing by nCT in patients primarily scheduled for mastectomy. These patients, however, should not be treated with breast conservation in the absence of any proven response after nCT.

  17. Wide-field optical coherence elastography for intraoperative assessment of tumour margins in breast cancer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Wes M.; Chin, Lixin; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2016-03-01

    Incomplete excision of tumour margins is a major issue in breast-conserving surgery. Currently 20 - 60% of cases require a second surgical procedure required as a result of cancer recurrence. A number of techniques have been proposed to assess margin status, including frozen section analysis and imprint cytology. However, the recurrence rate after using these techniques remains very high. Over the last several years, our group has been developing optical coherence elastography (OCE) as a tool for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins in breast cancer. We have reported a feasibility study on 65 ex vivo samples from patients undergoing mastectomy or wide local excision demonstrates the potential of OCE in differentiating benign from malignant tissue. In this study, malignant tissue was readily distinguished from surrounding relative tissue by a distinctive heterogeneous pattern in micro-elastograms. To date the largest field of view for a micro-elastogram is 20 x 20mm, however, lumpectomy samples are typically ~50 x 50 x 30mm. For OCE to progress as a useful clinical tool, elastograms must be acquired over larger areas to allow a greater portion of the surface area of lumpectomies to be assessed. Here, we propose a wide-field OCE scanner that utilizes a piezoelectric transducer with an internal diameter of 65mm. In this approach partially overlapped elastograms are stitched together forming a mosaic with overall dimensions of 50 x 50mm in a total acquisition time of 15 - 30 minutes. We present results using this approach on both tissue-mimicking phantoms and tissue, and discuss prospects for shorter acquisitions times.

  18. Pre-diagnostic smoking behaviour and poorer prognosis in a German breast cancer patient cohort - Differential effects by tumour subtype, NAT2 status, BMI and alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Seibold, Petra; Vrieling, Alina; Heinz, Judith; Obi, Nadia; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-08-01

    Inconsistent associations of smoking and breast cancer-specific mortality might be explained by subgroups of patients with different susceptibility to harmful effects of smoking. We used a prospective cohort of 3340 postmenopausal breast cancer patients aged 50-74 and diagnosed with invasive tumours 2001-2005 in Germany, with a median follow-up time of 6 years. The effect of pre-diagnostic smoking behaviour on mortality outcomes and risk of recurrence was investigated using delayed entry Cox regression analysis. Differential effects according to N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) status, BMI, alcohol consumption, and tumour subtypes were assessed. Overall, smoking at time of breast cancer diagnosis versus never/former smoking was non-significantly associated with increased breast cancer-specific mortality and risk of recurrence (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.93-1.64, and HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.95-1.75, respectively). Associations were consistently stronger in NAT2 slow than in fast acetylators for all mortality outcomes. Breast cancer-specific mortality was significantly increased in smokers with NAT2 slow acetylating status (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.13-2.79) but not in those with fast acetylating status (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.60-1.98; Pheterogeneity=0.19). Smoking was associated with significantly poorer outcomes for triple negative and luminal A-like tumours (e.g. all-cause mortality: HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.02-3.65, and HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.40-3.10, respectively). Risk of recurrence was significantly increased for women with HER2 positive tumours (HR 3.64, 95% CI 1.22-10.8). There was significant heterogeneity by BMI for non-breast cancer-specific mortality (<25 kg/m(2): HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.52-4.15 vs. ≥25 kg/m(2): HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.38-2.36; Pheterogeneity=0.04). The harmful effects of smoking may be particularly relevant for certain subgroups of breast cancer patients. This may include patients with NAT2 slow acetylation status or with tumour subtypes other than luminal B, such as luminal A tumours who

  19. CA27.29 as a tumour marker for risk evaluation and therapy monitoring in primary breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rack, Brigitte; Jückstock, Julia; Trapp, Elisabeth; Weissenbacher, Tobias; Alunni-Fabbroni, Marianna; Schramm, Amelie; Widschwendter, Peter; Lato, Krisztian; Zwingers, Thomas; Lorenz, Ralf; Tesch, Hans; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Fasching, Peter; Mahner, Sven; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lichtenegger, Werner; Janni, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Several trials showed that tumour markers are associated with an impaired prognosis for breast cancer. Whether earlier treatment can improve the course of the disease remains controversial. The SUCCESS Trial compares FEC (500/100/500)-docetaxel (100) vs. FEC (500/100/500)-docetaxel/gemcitabine (75/2000) as well as 2 vs. 5 years of zoledronate in high-risk primary breast cancer patients. In 2669 patients, CA27.29 was measured before and after chemotherapy with the ST AIA-PACK CA27.29 reagent for the AIA-600II automated enzyme immunoassay (Tosoh Bioscience, Belgium). Values above 31 U/ml were considered positive. Of the patients, 7.6 % (n = 202, mean 19, range 3-410) and 19.1 % (n = 511, mean 21, range 3-331) had elevated marker levels before and after chemotherapy, respectively. Of the patients, 4.9 and 78 % showed elevated and low CA27.29, respectively, at both time points. After treatment, 35 % of the pre-therapy positive patients were negative, and 15 % of the initially negative patients became positive. The correlation between both time points was significant (p < 0.0001). No correlations among nodal status, grading, hormonal status, HER2 status and CA27.29 levels were found. However, tumour size (p = 0.02), older age (p < 0.001) and post-menopausal status (p = 0.006) were significantly associated with higher CA27.29 levels. Before treatment, the prevalence of elevated CA27.29 was equally distributed between both treatment arms, whereas after chemotherapy, 13.7 % of the patients in the FEC-doc arm showed an increased level vs. 25.4 % of the patients in the FEC-doc/gemcitabine arm (p < 0.0001). However, we could not show a significant association between the G-CSF application (yes vs. no) and CA27.29 status before/after chemotherapy (p = 0.75). These results indicate a close relationship between CA27.29 levels and tumour mass. Increased values after the completion of chemotherapy might be attributed to treatment effects and should be

  20. Chromosome imbalance at the 3p14 region in human breast tumours: high frequency in patients with inherited predisposition due to BRCA2.

    PubMed

    Bergthorsson, J T; Johannsdottir, J; Jonasdottir, A; Eiriksdottir, G; Egilsson, V; Ingvarsson, S; Barkardottir, R B; Arason, A

    1998-01-01

    Our previous studies have indicated that genetic aberrations in the 3p14 region are more frequent in malignant tumours from hereditary breast cancer patients than sporadic breast cancers. The main purpose of this study was to test if BRCA2 susceptibility alleles contribute to imbalance in the 3p14 region. We mapped allelic imbalance at 3p14 in tumours from Icelandic sisters affected with breast cancer using a set of 10 microsatellite markers (tel-D3S1295-D3S1234-D3S1300-D3S1600-D3S1233+ ++-D3S1217-D3S1261-D3S1296-D3S1210- D3S1284-cen). The patients were of known carrier status with respect to the 999del5 mutation in BRCA2 which is the most common cause of hereditary breast cancer in Iceland. Of 103 patients, 32 in the group were mutation carriers. A high degree of imbalance was observed in tumours from BRCA2 mutation carriers, ranging from 44 to 88% for individual markers. This was significantly higher than the percentage of imbalance in tumours from non-carriers, where the frequency ranged from 25 to 43%. In both groups, we noted elevated 3p14 imbalance in patients with bilateral disease. Allelic imbalance was most commonly observed near the marker D3S1210 (3p14.1-p12) and the FHIT gene (3p21.1-p14.2) for both groups. We conclude that genomic aberrations in 3p14 are especially frequent in tumours with BRCA2 gene defects, and suggest that this is caused by regional loss of chromosome stability rather than selection.

  1. A Clinicopathological Study of Benign Phyllodes Tumour of Breast with Emphasis on Unusual Features

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Benign Phyllodes Tumours (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that resemble fibroadenoma. But unlike fibroadenoma, benign PT can recur and both stromal & epithelial components can progress to malignancy. Contrary to earlier belief that benign PT is a stromal neoplasm and possibly arises from fibroadenoma, more recent molecular studies have suggested that both stroma and epithelium can become neoplastic. Sometimes, benign PT can occur synchronously with fibroadenoma. Here histomorphologic analysis of eleven cases of benign PT are presented including some unusual features. Materials and Methods Eleven cases of benign PT diagnosed between Dec 2014 and Jan 2016 in the Department of Pathology were studied. The demographic and clinicopathological features were analysed. Results The most common age group affected was 20-30 years (range: 13-45). Clinical features included pain, lump and bleeding from nipple. The tumour size varied from 2.5-18 cm in diameter. H&E stained sections showed secondary changes (haemorrhage, myxoid, change, cystic degeneration), epithelial hyperplasia (8), squamous & columnar metaplasia (1), benign tubular adenoma like areas (1), Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) (1), Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) (1), Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH) (1), histologic infarction (2), tumour necrosis (1) and synchronous fibroadenoma (1). Unusual histologic features included atypical ductal hyperplasia, DCIS, IDC, synchronous fibroadenoma and tubular adenoma like areas arising within benign PT. Conclusion This study shows a spectrum of hyperplastic, metaplastic, dysplastic, benign, in-situ-malignancy and even invasive ductal malignancy occurring in benign PT. Therefore adequate and extensive sampling is recommended for accurate diagnosis. PMID:27630851

  2. Sentinel lymph nodes with isolated tumour cells and micrometastases in breast cancer: clinical relevance and prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Salahuddin; Thike, Aye Aye; Iqbal, Jabed; Yong, Wei Sean; Tan, Benita; Madhukumar, Preetha; Ong, Kong Wee; Ho, Gay Hui; Wong, Chow Yin; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2014-03-01

    We performed a retrospective review to determine the prognostic significance of isolated tumour cells (ITCs) and micrometastases to the sentinel lymph nodes of patients with breast cancer. A total of 1044 patients with a diagnosis of invasive carcinoma of the breast who underwent surgical treatment including the sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure from July 2004 to October 2009 were included in the study. In 710 (68%) patients, no metastasis was seen to the sentinel lymph nodes. ITCs were detected in 22 (2.1%) patients, micrometastasis in 52 (5.0%) and macrometastases in 260 (24.9%). With a median follow-up of 28.8 months, disease recurrence was seen in 38 (3.6%) patients and 15 (1.5%) patients died of disease. No disease recurrence or deaths were recorded in women with ITCs in sentinel lymph nodes. In the micrometastasis group, 2 patients suffered disease recurrence and both died of disease. We conclude that ITCs in the sentinel lymph nodes did not adversely impact disease free and overall survivals. Although only 2 recurrences with subsequent death occurred in the micrometastasis group, it may suggest a propensity for presence of micrometastases to augur a worse outcome, and justifies continued segregation of ITCs from micrometastasis.

  3. Breast cancer under 40 years of age: increasing number and worse prognosis.

    PubMed

    Dobi, Ágnes; Kelemen, Gyöngyi; Kaizer, László; Weiczner, Roland; Thurzó, László; Kahán, Zsuzsanna

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer at a relatively young age with a poor prognosis is currently exhibiting an increasing incidence. In a retrospective cohort analysis of early breast cancer cases after surgery from our institutional patient registry, 141 patients aged ≤ 40 years constituted the younger group, with 300 randomly selected patients aged >40 years as controls. A significant and steady increase was found in the relative number of younger cases during the years 2004-2009. The histological type and grade and the lymph node status of the cancers differed significantly between the two groups, with more aggressive biological behaviour, a more advanced stage and a worse prognosis in the younger group. Half of the cancers in the younger cohort were ER-negative, while two-thirds in the control group were ER-positive. Comparatively more tumours were PR-positive and HER2-negative in the control group than in the younger group. The rates of triple-negative cases were 25% and 13% in the younger age and the control group, respectively (p = 0.026). Significantly higher mastectomy and axillary block dissection rates were observed in the younger age group, and more chemotherapy was administered than in the control group. Our findings demonstrate the significance of breast cancer in cases aged <40 years, and draw attention to the need for appropriate care in these cases.

  4. WT1 expression in breast cancer disrupts the epithelial/mesenchymal balance of tumour cells and correlates with the metabolic response to docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    Artibani, Mara; Sims, Andrew H.; Slight, Joan; Aitken, Stuart; Thornburn, Anna; Muir, Morwenna; Brunton, Valerie G.; Del-Pozo, Jorge; Morrison, Linda R.; Katz, Elad; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Hohenstein, Peter

    2017-01-01

    WT1 is a transcription factor which regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal balance during embryonic development and, if mutated, can lead to the formation of Wilms’ tumour, the most common paediatric kidney cancer. Its expression has also been reported in several adult tumour types, including breast cancer, and usually correlates with poor outcome. However, published data is inconsistent and the role of WT1 in this malignancy remains unclear. Here we provide a complete study of WT1 expression across different breast cancer subtypes as well as isoform specific expression analysis. Using in vitro cell lines, clinical samples and publicly available gene expression datasets, we demonstrate that WT1 plays a role in regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal balance of breast cancer cells and that WT1-expressing tumours are mainly associated with a mesenchymal phenotype. WT1 gene expression also correlates with CYP3A4 levels and is associated with poorer response to taxane treatment. Our work is the first to demonstrate that the known association between WT1 expression in breast cancer and poor prognosis is potentially due to cancer-related epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and poor chemotherapy response. PMID:28345629

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging of breast tumours at 3 Tesla and 7 Tesla: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Gruber, S; Minarikova, L; Pinker, K; Zaric, O; Chmelik, M; Strasser, B; Baltzer, P; Helbich, T; Trattnig, S; Bogner, W

    2016-05-01

    To compare bilateral diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) at 3 T and 7 T in the same breast tumour patients. Twenty-eight patients were included in this IRB-approved study (mean age 56 ± 16 years). Before contrast-enhanced imaging, bilateral DWI with b = 0 and 850 s/mm(2) was performed in 2:56 min (3 T) and 3:48 min (7 T), using readout-segmented echo planar imaging (rs-EPI) with a 1.4 × 1.4 mm(2) (3 T)/0.9 × 0.9 mm(2) (7 T) in-plane resolution. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were assessed. Twenty-eight lesions were detected (18 malignant, 10 benign). CNR and SNR were comparable at both field strengths (p > 0.3). Mean ADC values at 7 T were 4-22% lower than at 3 T (p ≤ 0.03). An ADC threshold of 1.275 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s resulted in a diagnostic specificity of 90% at both field strengths. The sensitivity was 94% and 100% at 3 T and 7 T, respectively. 7-T DWI of the breast can be performed with 2.4-fold higher spatial resolution than 3 T, without significant differences in SNR if compared to 3 T. • 7 T provides a 2.4-fold higher resolution in breast DWI than 3 T • 7 T DWI has a high diagnostic accuracy comparable to that at 3 T • At 7 T malignant lesions had 22 % lower ADC than at 3 T (p < 0.001).

  6. Predictive diagnosis of the risk of breast cancer recurrence after surgery by single-particle quantum dot imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gonda, Kohsuke; Miyashita, Minoru; Higuchi, Hideo; Tada, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Tomonobu M.; Watanabe, Mika; Ishida, Takanori; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    In breast cancer, the prognosis of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive patients (20–25%) has been dramatically improved by the clinical application of the anti-HER2 antibody drugs trastuzumab and pertuzumab. However, the clinical outcomes of HER2-negative cases with a poor prognosis have not improved, and novel therapeutic antibody drugs or diagnostic molecular markers of prognosis are urgently needed. Here, we targeted protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) as a new biomarker for HER2-negative patients. The developed anti-PAR1 antibody inhibited PAR1 activation by matrix metalloprotease 1 and thereby prevented cancer-cell migration and invasion. To estimate PAR1 expression levels in HER2-negative patient tissues using the antibody, user-friendly immunohistochemistry with fluorescence nanoparticles or quantum dots (QDs) was developed. Previously, immunohistochemistry with QDs was affected by tissue autofluorescence, making quantitative measurement extremely difficult. We significantly improved the quantitative sensitivity of immunohistochemistry with QDs by using an autofluorescence-subtracted image and single-QD imaging. The immunohistochemistry showed that PAR1 expression was strongly correlated with relapse-free survival time in HER2-negative breast cancer patients. Therefore, the developed anti-PAR1 antibody is a strong candidate for use as an anticancer drug and a prognostic biomarker for HER2-negative patients. PMID:26392299

  7. Initial Fludeoxyglucose (18F) Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) Imaging of Breast Cancer – Correlations with the Primary Tumour and Locoregional Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Sevin; Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Ayaz, Ümit Yaşar; Dilli, Alper

    2017-01-01

    Summary Backround We aimed to evaluate initial PET/CT features of primary tumour and locoregional metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) in breast cancer and to look for potential relationships between several parameters from PET/CT. Material/Methods Twenty-three women (mean age; 48.66±12.23 years) with a diagnosis of primary invasive ductal carcinoma were included. They underwent PET/CT imaging for the initial tumour staging and had no evidence of distant metastates. Patients were divided into two groups. The LABC (locally advanced breast cancer) group included 17 patients with ipsilateral axillary lymph node (LN) metastases. The Non-LABC group consisted of six patients without LN metastases. PET/CT parameters including tumour size, axillary LN size, SUVmax of ipsilateral axillary LNs (SUVmax-LN), SUVmax of primary tumour (SUVmax-T) and NT ratios (SUVmax-LN/SUVmax-T) were compared between the groups. Correlations between the above-mentioned PET/CT parameters in the LABC group as well as the correlation between tumour size and SUVmax-T within each group were evaluated statistically. Results The mean values of the initial PET/CT parameters in the LABC group were significantly higher than those of the non-LABC group (p<0.05). The correlation between tumour size and SUVmax-T value within both LABC and non-LABC groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). In the LABC group, the correlations between the size and SUVmax-LN values of metastatic axillary LNs, between tumour size and metastatic axillary LN size, between SUVmax-T values and metastatic axillary LN size, between SUVmax-T and SUVmax-LN values, and between tumour size and SUVmax-LN values were all significant (p<0.05). Conclusions We found significant correlations between PET/CT parameters of the primary tumour and those of metastatic axillary LNs. Patients with LN metastases had relatively larger primary tumours and higher SUVmax values. PMID:28105247

  8. Reproductive variables and risk of breast malignant and benign tumours in Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Yanhua, Che; Geater, Alan; You, Jing; Li, Li; Shaoqiang, Zhou; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Sriplung, Hutcha

    2012-01-01

    To compare reproductive factor influence on patients with pathological diagnosed malignant and benign tumor in the Breast Department, The First Peoples' Hospital of Kunming in Yunnan province, China. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted on 263 breast cancer (BC) cases and 457 non-breast cancer controls from 2009 to 2011. The cases and controls information on demographics, medical history, and reproductive characteristics variables were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and routine medical records. Histology of breast cancer tissue and benign breast lesion were documented by pathology reports. Since some variables in data analysis had zero count in at least one category, binomial-response GLM using the bias-reduction method was applied to estimate OR's and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). To adjust for age and menopause status, a compound variable comprising age and menopausal status was retained in the statistical models. multivariate model analysis revealed significant independent positive associations of BC with short menstrual cycle, old age at first live birth, never breastfeeding, history of oral contraception experience, increased number of abortion, postmenopausal status, and nulliparity. Categorised by age and menopausal status, perimenopausal women had about 3-fold and postmenopausal women had more than 5-fold increased risk of BC compared to premenopausal women. This study has confirmed the significant association of BC and estrogen related risk factors of breast cancer including longer menstrual cycle, older age of first live birth, never breastfeeding, nulliparity, and number of abortions more than one. The findings suggest that female hormonal factors, especially the trend of menopause status play a significant role in the development of BC in Yunnan women.

  9. Not all secondary bone tumours are secondaries. Concurrent metastatic breast carcinoma and chondrosarcoma of the femur.

    PubMed

    Nath, Preethy; Sankey, Elizabeth; Murray, Elisabeth; Kurup, Harish

    2015-04-09

    We present a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the breast in a patient who sustained a pathological fracture of the distal femur. Histology of the distal femur lesion excised at the time of endoprosthetic replacement confirmed this to be a primary chondrosarcoma. We have reviewed the literature and identified previously documented cases of concurrent breast carcinoma and chondrosarcoma of bone. A high index of suspicion is warranted and the diagnosis must be first confirmed before rushing to internal fixation (therapeutic or prophylactic) assuming them to be secondary bone lesions from the known primary cancer even in patients with multiple metastases.

  10. Ablative techniques for the treatment of benign and malignant breast tumours.

    PubMed

    Peek, Mirjam C L; Douek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Minimally invasive techniques like high intensity focused ultrasound, radiofrequency ablation, cryo-ablation, laser ablation and microwave ablation have been used to treat both breast fibroadenomata and breast cancer as an alternative to surgical excision, potentially reducing the complications, improving cosmesis and reducing hospital stay. This review describes the most common minimally invasive techniques available, their history and some of the studies performed with these techniques in both benign and malignant lesions. In addition we described some of the difficulties of using these minimally invasive techniques such as optimization of anaesthesia, imaging and immobilisation in order to increase the complete histopathological ablation rates.

  11. Role of HER2 mutations in refractory metastatic breast cancers: targeted sequencing results in patients with refractory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeon Hee; Shin, Hyun-Tae; Jung, Hae Hyun; Choi, Yoon-La; Ahn, TaeJin; Park, Kyunghee; Lee, Aeri; Do, In-Gu; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Park, Woong-Yang; Im, Young-Hyuck

    2015-10-13

    In women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), introduction of the anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) directed therapies including trastuzumab, pertuzumab, lapatinib, and/or trastuzumab-DM1 has markedly improved overall survival. However, not all cases of HER2-positive breast tumours derive similar benefit from HER2-directed therapy, and a significant number of patients experience disease progression because of primary or acquired resistance to anti-HER2-directed therapies. We integrated genomic and clinicopathological analyses in a cohort of patients with refractory breast cancer to anti-HER2 therapies to identify the molecular basis for clinical heterogeneity. To study the molecular basis underlying refractory MBC, we obtained 36 MBC tumours tissues and used next-generation sequencing to investigate the mutational and transcriptional profiles of 83 genes. We focused on HER2 mutational sites and HER2 pathways to identify the roles of HER2 mutations and the HER2 pathway in the refractoriness to anti-HER2 therapies. Analysis using massively parallel sequencing platform, CancerSCAN™, revealed that HER2 mutations were found in six of 36 patients (16.7%). One patient was ER (estrogen receptor)-positive and HER2-negative and the other five HER2 mutated patients were HER2-positive and HR (hormone receptor)-negative. Most importantly, four of these five patients did not show any durable clinical response to HER2-directed therapies. The HER2 pathway score obtained through transcriptional analyses identified that Growth Receptor Biding protein 2 (GRB2) was the most significantly down regulated gene in the HER2 mutated samples. Detection of HER2 mutations using higher deep DNA sequencing may identify a predictive biomarker of resistance to HER2-directed therapy. Functional validation is warranted.

  12. Too much, too soon? Patients and health professionals' views concerning the impact of genetic testing at the time of breast cancer diagnosis in women under the age of 40.

    PubMed

    Ardern-Jones, A; Kenen, R; Eeles, R

    2005-07-01

    Recent research suggests that women who develop breast cancer between the ages of 30-34 may have specific tumour characteristics: Those with high grade, oestrogen receptor negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) negative tumours have between a 10% and 27% chance of being a BRCA1 gene carrier. Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer and cancer of the ovary. Furthermore, recent research indicates that prophylactic mastectomy and/or oophorectomy offer a significant risk reduction in the development of breast/ovarian cancer. In the near future, women in the UK may be offered the choice of a genetic test close to the time of diagnosis. This timing not only provides additional dimensions to treatment decisions, but has psycho-social and familial implications as well. This exploratory study investigates, first, whether or not women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 40 would want to be offered information about genetic testing close to the time of their diagnosis. Then secondly, it explores whether the health care professionals treating them support this idea. Third, it highlights the reasons for the women and the health professionals perspectives and concerns. We held focus groups of 13 women who had their only, or first, breast cancer under the age of 40 and who were subsequently identified as BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, asking them how they felt about this timing. We also interviewed 17 health care professionals involved in various aspect of breast cancer care and cancer genetics. The majority of former breast cancer women and professionals believed that there was already emotional overload in coping with the cancer diagnosis and decisions regarding existing cancer treatment options and that offering genetic testing would add too much additional stress. Some members of both groups, however, thought that offering genetic testing around the time of breast cancer diagnosis would be

  13. Fractal analysis for assessing tumour grade in microscopic images of breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambasco, Mauro; Costello, Meghan; Newcomb, Chris; Magliocco, Anthony M.

    2007-03-01

    In 2006, breast cancer is expected to continue as the leading form of cancer diagnosed in women, and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in this group. A method that has proven useful for guiding the choice of treatment strategy is the assessment of histological tumor grade. The grading is based upon the mitosis count, nuclear pleomorphism, and tubular formation, and is known to be subject to inter-observer variability. Since cancer grade is one of the most significant predictors of prognosis, errors in grading can affect patient management and outcome. Hence, there is a need to develop a breast cancer-grading tool that is minimally operator dependent to reduce variability associated with the current grading system, and thereby reduce uncertainty that may impact patient outcome. In this work, we explored the potential of a computer-based approach using fractal analysis as a quantitative measure of cancer grade for breast specimens. More specifically, we developed and optimized computational tools to compute the fractal dimension of low- versus high-grade breast sections and found them to be significantly different, 1.3+/-0.10 versus 1.49+/-0.10, respectively (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, p<0.001). These results indicate that fractal dimension (a measure of morphologic complexity) may be a useful tool for demarcating low- versus high-grade cancer specimens, and has potential as an objective measure of breast cancer grade. Such prognostic value could provide more sensitive and specific information that would reduce inter-observer variability by aiding the pathologist in grading cancers.

  14. A class of extracellular vesicles from breast cancer cells activates VEGF receptors and tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qiyu; Zhang, Chengliang; Lum, David; Druso, Joseph E.; Blank, Bryant; Wilson, Kristin F.; Welm, Alana; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-classical secretory vesicles, collectively referred to as extracellular vesicles (EVs), have been implicated in different aspects of cancer cell survival and metastasis. Here, we describe how a specific class of EVs, called microvesicles (MVs), activates VEGF receptors and tumour angiogenesis through a unique 90 kDa form of VEGF (VEGF90K). We show that VEGF90K is generated by the crosslinking of VEGF165, catalysed by the enzyme tissue transglutaminase, and associates with MVs through its interaction with the chaperone Hsp90. We further demonstrate that MV-associated VEGF90K has a weakened affinity for Bevacizumab, causing Bevacizumab to be ineffective in blocking MV-dependent VEGF receptor activation. However, treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor releases VEGF90K from MVs, restoring the sensitivity of VEGF90K to Bevacizumab. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which cancer cell-derived MVs influence the tumour microenvironment and highlight the importance of recognizing their unique properties when considering drug treatment strategies. PMID:28205552

  15. Programmed death ligand 1 expression in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and improved outcome.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Rhiannon K; Selinger, Christina I; Vilain, Ricardo; Madore, Jason; Wilmott, James S; Harvey, Kate; Holliday, Anne; Cooper, Caroline L; Robbins, Elizabeth; Gillett, David; Kennedy, Catherine W; Gluch, Laurence; Carmalt, Hugh; Mak, Cindy; Warrier, Sanjay; Gee, Harriet E; Chan, Charles; McLean, Anna; Walker, Emily; McNeil, Catriona M; Beith, Jane M; Swarbrick, Alexander; Scolyer, Richard A; O'Toole, Sandra A

    2016-07-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients generally have a poor outcome; there is a pressing need to identify more effective therapeutic strategies. Clinical trials targeting programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD1/PDL1) in melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer have reported high response rates, and tumoral PDL1 expression has been suggested as a potential biomarker to enrich for patient response to these treatments. There are only very limited data to date reporting the expression of PDL1 in TNBC. PDL1 immunohistochemistry was performed on 161 primary TNBCs and assessed in the tumour as well as immune cells in the stromal compartment. PDL1 expression was very common in TNBC, expressed in the tumour cell membrane (64%), cytoplasm (80%) and stromal (93%) cellular compartments. Cytoplasmic tumoral expression of PDL1 was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer-specific death [hazard ratio (HR) 0.45, P = 0.035] while stromal PDL1 expression was associated with a lower rate of deaths from all causes (HR 0.305, P = 0.0042). Membranous expression of PDL1 was not associated with outcome. While both PDL1 expression and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes were associated with a better outcome, only lymphovascular invasion and high tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes were independently prognostic for breast cancer-specific death. While PDL1 expression is frequent in TNBC, it was not independently prognostic. There were differences in outcome depending on the cellular compartment of PDL1 expression. These data provide further impetus for investigating the utility of immune checkpoint therapies in TNBC, given the clinical significance of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PDL1 expression in this cohort. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The sodium channel β1 subunit mediates outgrowth of neurite-like processes on breast cancer cells and promotes tumour growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michaela; Millican-Slater, Rebecca; Forrest, Lorna C; Brackenbury, William J

    2014-11-15

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) are heteromeric proteins composed of pore-forming α subunits and smaller β subunits. The β subunits are multifunctional channel modulators and are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). β1, encoded by SCN1B, is best characterized in the central nervous system (CNS), where it plays a critical role in regulating electrical excitability, neurite outgrowth and migration during development. β1 is also expressed in breast cancer (BCa) cell lines, where it regulates adhesion and migration in vitro. In the present study, we found that SCN1B mRNA/β1 protein were up-regulated in BCa specimens, compared with normal breast tissue. β1 upregulation substantially increased tumour growth and metastasis in a xenograft model of BCa. β1 over-expression also increased vascularization and reduced apoptosis in the primary tumours, and β1 over-expressing tumour cells had an elongate morphology. In vitro, β1 potentiated outgrowth of processes from BCa cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, via trans-homophilic adhesion. β1-mediated process outgrowth in BCa cells required the presence and activity of fyn kinase, and Na(+) current, thus replicating the mechanism by which β1 regulates neurite outgrowth in CNS neurons. We conclude that when present in breast tumours, β1 enhances pathological growth and cellular dissemination. This study is the first demonstration of a functional role for β1 in tumour growth and metastasis in vivo. We propose that β1 warrants further study as a potential biomarker and targeting β1-mediated adhesion interactions may have value as a novel anti-cancer therapy.

  17. A monograph proposing the use of canine mammary tumours as a model for the study of hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes in humans.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Katie; Merner, Nancy D

    2017-05-01

    Canines are excellent models for cancer studies due to their similar physiology and genomic sequence to humans, companion status and limited intra-breed heterogeneity. Due to their affliction to mammary cancers, canines can serve as powerful genetic models of hereditary breast cancers. Variants within known human breast cancer susceptibility genes only explain a fraction of familial cases. Thus, further discovery is necessary but such efforts have been thwarted by genetic heterogeneity. Reducing heterogeneity is key, and studying isolated human populations have helped in the endeavour. An alternative is to study dog pedigrees, since artificial selection has resulted in extreme homogeneity. Identifying the genetic predisposition to canine mammary tumours can translate to human discoveries - a strategy currently underutilized. To explore this potential, we reviewed published canine mammary tumour genetic studies and proposed benefits of next generation sequencing canine cohorts to facilitate moving beyond incremental advances.

  18. Inhibition of bone resorption, rather than direct cytotoxicity, mediates the anti-tumour actions of ibandronate and osteoprotegerin in a murine model of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Zhou, Hong; Brennan, Karen; Blair, Julie M; Modzelewski, James R K; Seibel, Markus J; Dunstan, Colin R

    2007-02-01

    Inhibition of bone resorption either by bisphosphonate (BP) treatment or by blocking RANKL signalling with osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been shown to reduce tumour burden in bone and inhibit bone destruction in murine xenograft models of breast cancer. However, whether the anti-tumour effect of OPG or BP in bone is mediated by inhibition of bone resorption or by direct effects on tumour cells is uncertain. The current study is designed to investigate anti-tumour effects of OPG and ibandronate (IBN), dosed alone or in combination, on tumour growth to determine if there is experimental support for combination treatments and to provide evidence for the presence of direct anti-tumour effects. To this aim, 10 microl (5 x 10(6) cells/ml) of the bone-seeking MDA-MB-231 (Tx-SA) cell line was injected intra-tibially into nude mice. After 10 days, when the tumours were evident radiologically, mice were treated with vehicle, OPG (1 mg/kg/day), ibandronate (IBN) (160 microg/kg/day) or IBN and OPG at the same doses (IBN+OPG) for a week, and the effects of each treatment on lytic lesions, tumour cell growth, cell apoptosis and proliferation were measured by radiography, immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry. Compared to vehicle controls, in vivo treatment with OPG, IBN, or IBN+OPG, each prevented the expansion of osteolytic bone lesions (increase in lytic lesion area day 10 to day 17: OPG -3.2%, IBN 6.6%, IBN+OPG 3.6%, Vehicle 232.5%; p<0.01). Treatment with OPG, IBN or IBN+OPG each produced similar reductions in tumour area relative to vehicle-treated mice (OPG 52%, IBN 54%, IBNp and OPG 48%, p<0.01 vs. vehicle) OPG and IBN alone and in combination each produced a similar increase in cancer cell apoptosis (OPG 330%, IBN 342%, IBN and OPG 347%, p<0.01 vs. vehicle) and a decrease in cancer cell proliferation (OPG 59%, IBN 62%, IBN and OPG 58%, p<0.05 vs. vehicle). Our findings indicate that (i) combined treatment with OPG and a bisphosphonate is not significantly more effective

  19. Prognostic significance of loss of heterozygosity at loci on chromosome 17p13.3-ter in sporadic breast cancer is evidence for a putative tumour suppressor gene

    PubMed Central

    Liscia, D S; Morizio, R; Venesio, T; Palenzona, C; Donadio, M; Callahan, R

    1999-01-01

    Several studies indicate that the short arm of chromosome 17 is one of the most frequently altered regions in sporadic breast carcinomas (45–60%). In the present report the 17p13.3-ter locus in tumour DNA of breast cancer patients, along with their matching normal lymphocyte DNA, have been mapped with four markers (D17S5, D17S379, ABR and D17S34), spanning nearly 3 cM of the telomer. Sixty-five of 143 heterozygous tumours had lost at least one of the markers at the minimum region of loss (45%). High levels of loss of these distal markers on 17p13.3 are independent of TP53 mutations and are associated with tumour cell proliferation. A follow-up period of over 7 years demonstrates that loss of these markers correlates both with disease-free (P = 0.004) and overall survival (P = 0.007). In addition we show that for disease-free survival the prognostic power of this genetic alteration is second only to axillary lymph node involvement (3.1 vs 6.3 relative risk), and is a better predictor than the mutational status of TP53 (1.6 relative risk). Our results are further evidence of the presence, within the region, of at least a second tumour suppressor gene distal to TP53, that might be targeted by deletions. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10360661

  20. Biochemical signatures of in vitro radiation response in human lung, breast and prostate tumour cells observed with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Q.; Jirasek, A.; Lum, J. J.; Brolo, A. G.

    2011-11-01

    This work applies noninvasive single-cell Raman spectroscopy (RS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze and correlate radiation-induced biochemical changes in a panel of human tumour cell lines that vary by tissue of origin, p53 status and intrinsic radiosensitivity. Six human tumour cell lines, derived from prostate (DU145, PC3 and LNCaP), breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and lung (H460), were irradiated in vitro with single fractions (15, 30 or 50 Gy) of 6 MV photons. Remaining live cells were harvested for RS analysis at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-irradiation, along with unirradiated controls. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 cells per sample utilizing a 785 nm excitation laser. All spectra (200 per cell line) were individually post-processed using established methods and the total data set for each cell line was analyzed with PCA using standard algorithms. One radiation-induced PCA component was detected for each cell line by identification of statistically significant changes in the PCA score distributions for irradiated samples, as compared to unirradiated samples, in the first 24-72 h post-irradiation. These RS response signatures arise from radiation-induced changes in cellular concentrations of aromatic amino acids, conformational protein structures and certain nucleic acid and lipid functional groups. Correlation analysis between the radiation-induced PCA components separates the cell lines into three distinct RS response categories: R1 (H460 and MCF7), R2 (MDA-MB-231 and PC3) and R3 (DU145 and LNCaP). These RS categories partially segregate according to radiosensitivity, as the R1 and R2 cell lines are radioresistant (SF2 > 0.6) and the R3 cell lines are radiosensitive (SF2 < 0.5). The R1 and R2 cell lines further segregate according to p53 gene status, corroborated by cell cycle analysis post-irradiation. Potential radiation-induced biochemical response mechanisms underlying our RS observations are proposed, such as (1) the regulated

  1. MicroRNA profiling of the pubertal mouse mammary gland identifies miR-184 as a candidate breast tumour suppressor gene.

    PubMed

    Phua, Yu Wei; Nguyen, Akira; Roden, Daniel L; Elsworth, Benjamin; Deng, Niantao; Nikolic, Iva; Yang, Jessica; Mcfarland, Andrea; Russell, Roslin; Kaplan, Warren; Cowley, Mark J; Nair, Radhika; Zotenko, Elena; O'Toole, Sandra; Tan, Shi-Xiong; James, David E; Clark, Susan J; Kouros-Mehr, Hosein; Swarbrick, Alexander

    2015-06-13

    The study of mammalian development has offered many insights into the molecular aetiology of cancer. We previously used analysis of mammary morphogenesis to discover a critical role for GATA-3 in mammary developmental and carcinogenesis. In recent years an important role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in a myriad of cellular processes in development and in oncogenesis has emerged. microRNA profiling was conducted on stromal and epithelial cellular subsets microdissected from the pubertal mouse mammary gland. miR-184 was reactivated by transient or stable overexpression in breast cancer cell lines and examined using a series of in vitro (proliferation, tumour-sphere and protein synthesis) assays. Orthotopic xenografts of breast cancer cells were used to assess the effect of miR-184 on tumourigenesis as well as distant metastasis. Interactions between miR-184 and its putative targets were assessed by quantitative PCR, microarray, bioinformatics and 3' untranslated region Luciferase reporter assay. The methylation status of primary patient samples was determined by MBD-Cap sequencing. Lastly, the clinical prognostic significance of miR-184 putative targets was assessed using publicly available datasets. A large number of microRNA were restricted in their expression to specific tissue subsets. MicroRNA-184 (miR-184) was exclusively expressed in epithelial cells and markedly upregulated during differentiation of the proliferative, invasive cells of the pubertal terminal end bud (TEB) into ductal epithelial cells in vivo. miR-184 expression was silenced in mouse tumour models compared to non-transformed epithelium and in a majority of breast cancer cell line models. Ectopic reactivation of miR-184 inhibited the proliferation and self-renewal of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines in vitro and delayed primary tumour formation and reduced metastatic burden in vivo. Gene expression studies uncovered multi-factorial regulation of genes in the AKT/mTORC1 pathway by mi

  2. Effect of Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Estrogen Metabolic Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Marwa; Shouman, Samia; El-Merzebany, Mahmoud; Kilic, Gokhan; Veenstra, Timothy; Saeed, Muhammad; Wagih, Mohamed; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion; Patel, Deepa; Salama, Salama

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been linked to breast cancer development. Estrogen metabolic pathway is also involved in breast carcinogenesis and DNA adducts formation. In this study we investigated the effect of TNF-α on the estrogen metabolic pathway in MCF-7, a breast cancer cell line. Capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for analysis of estrogen metabolites and estrogen-DNA adducts levels respectively. Reporter gene assay, Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to assess the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes and enzymes. TNF-α significantly increased the total EM and decreased the estrone (E1) / 17-β estradiol (E2) ratio. Moreover, it altered the expression of genes and enzymes involved in E2 activation and deactivation pathways e.g. Cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1), Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). In addition, there were increased levels of some catechol estrogens e.g. 4-hydroxy-estrone (4-OHE1) and 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) with decreased levels of methylated catechols e.g. 2-methoxy estradiol (2-MeOE2). DNA adducts especially 4-OHE1-[2]-1-N3 Adenine was significantly increased. TNF-α directs the estrogen metabolism into more hormonally active and carcinogenic products in MCF-7. This may implicate a new possible explanation for inflammation associated breast cancer. PMID:22866165

  3. Optimised nuclear medicine method for tumour marking and sentinel node detection in occult primary breast lesions.

    PubMed

    De Cicco, C; Trifirò, G; Intra, M; Marotta, G; Ciprian, A; Frasson, A; Prisco, G; Luini, A; Viale, G; Paganelli, G

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel node (SN) biopsy in occult breast lesions with different radiopharmaceuticals and to establish the optimal lymphoscintigraphic method to detect both occult lesions and SNs (SNOLL: sentinel node and occult lesion localisation). Two hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients suspected to have clinically occult breast carcinoma were enrolled in the study. In addition to the radioguided occult lesion localisation (ROLL) procedure, using macroaggregates of technetium-99m labelled human serum albumin (MAA) injected directly into the lesion, lymphoscintigraphy was performed with nanocolloids (NC) injected in a peritumoral (group I) or a subdermal site (group II). In group III, a sole injection of NC was done into the lesion in order to perform both ROLL and SNOLL. Overall, axillary SNs were identified in 205 of the 227 patients (90.3%). In 12/62 (19.4%) patients of group I and 9/79 (11.4%) patients of group III, radioactive nodes were not visualised, whereas SNs were successfully localised in 85 of 86 patients of group II ( P<0.001). Pathological findings revealed breast carcinoma in 148/227 patients (65.2%) and benign lesions in 79 (34.8%). A total of 131 axillary SNs were removed in 118 patients with breast carcinoma; intraoperative examination of the SNs revealed metastatic involvement in 16 out of 96 cases of invasive carcinoma (16.7%). It is concluded that the combination of the ROLL procedure with direct injection of MAA into the lesion and lymphoscintigraphy performed with subdermal injection of radiocolloids represents the method of choice for accurate localisation of both non-palpable lesions and SNs.

  4. Glucocorticoid resistance of migration and gene expression in a daughter MDA-MB-231 breast tumour cell line selected for high metastatic potential

    PubMed Central

    Fietz, Ebony R.; Keenan, Christine R.; López-Campos, Guillermo; Tu, Yan; Johnstone, Cameron N.; Harris, Trudi; Stewart, Alastair G.

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting despite a lack of understanding of their direct effect on cancer progression. Recent studies suggest that glucocorticoids inhibit cancer cell migration. However, this action has not been investigated in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumour cells, although activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is associated with a worse prognosis in ER-negative breast cancers. In this study we have explored the effect of glucocorticoids on the migration of the ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast tumour cell line and the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231-HM.LNm5 cell line that was generated through in vivo cycling. We show for the first time that glucocorticoids inhibit 2- and 3-dimensional migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Selection of cells for high metastatic potential resulted in a less migratory cell phenotype that was resistant to regulation by glucocorticoids and showed decreased GR receptor expression. The emergence of glucocorticoid resistance during metastatic selection may partly explain the apparent disparity between the clinical and in vitro evidence regarding the actions of glucocorticoids in cancer. These findings highlight the highly plastic nature of tumour cells, and underscore the need to more fully understand the direct effect of glucocorticoid treatment on different stages of metastatic progression. PMID:28262792

  5. Even With Very Small Breast Tumors, Studies Find HER2 Status Matters | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Two retrospective studies have found that women with HER2-positive breast tumors (that is, tumors that produce too much of the HER2 protein) that are 1 centimeter or smaller had a higher risk of their disease returning within 5 years than women with similarly small HER2-negative tumors. |

  6. Refining Post-Surgical Therapy for Women with Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, women with HER2-negative, HR-positive breast cancer and 1-3 positive lymph nodes with recurrence scores of 25 or lower will be randomized to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy before starting endocrine therapy or to begin endocrine therapy.

  7. Real-time RT-PCR systems for CTC detection from blood samples of breast cancer and gynaecological tumour patients (Review).

    PubMed

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-04-01

    Cells, which detach from a primary epithelial tumour and migrate through lymphatic vessels and blood stream are called 'circulating tumour cells'. These cells are considered to be the main root of remote metastasis and are correlated to a worse prognosis concerning progression-free and overall survival of the patients. Therefore, the detection of the minimal residual disease is of great importance regarding therapeutic decisions. Many different detection strategies are already available, but only one method, the CellSearch® system, reached FDA approval. The present review focusses on the detection of circulating tumour cells by means of real-time PCR, a highly sensitive method based on differences in gene expression between normal and malignant cells. Strategies for an enrichment of tumour cells are mentioned, as well as a large panel of potential marker genes. Drawbacks and advantages of the technique are elucidated, whereas, the greatest advantage might be, that by selection of appropriate marker genes, also tumour cells, which have already undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition can be detected. Finally, the application of real-time PCR in different gynaecological malignancies is described, with breast cancer being the most studied cancer entity.

  8. RUNX2 correlates with subtype-specific breast cancer in a human tissue microarray, and ectopic expression of Runx2 perturbs differentiation in the mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Laura; Ferrari, Nicola; Terry, Anne; Bell, Margaret; Mohammed, Zahra M; Orange, Clare; Jenkins, Alma; Muller, William J; Gusterson, Barry A; Neil, James C; Edwards, Joanne; Morris, Joanna S; Cameron, Ewan R; Blyth, Karen

    2014-05-01

    RUNX2, a master regulator of osteogenesis, is oncogenic in the lymphoid lineage; however, little is known about its role in epithelial cancers. Upregulation of RUNX2 in cell lines correlates with increased invasiveness and the capacity to form osteolytic disease in models of breast and prostate cancer. However, most studies have analysed the effects of this gene in a limited number of cell lines and its role in primary breast cancer has not been resolved. Using a human tumour tissue microarray, we show that high RUNX2 expression is significantly associated with oestrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)/HER2-negative breast cancers and that patients with high RUNX2 expression have a poorer survival rate than those with negative or low expression. We confirm RUNX2 as a gene that has a potentially important functional role in triple-negative breast cancer. To investigate the role of this gene in breast cancer, we made a transgenic model in which Runx2 is specifically expressed in murine mammary epithelium under the control of the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) promoter. We show that ectopic Runx2 perturbs normal development in pubertal and lactating animals, delaying ductal elongation and inhibiting lobular alveolar differentiation. We also show that the Runx2 transgene elicits age-related, pre-neoplastic changes in the mammary epithelium of older transgenic animals, suggesting that elevated RUNX2 expression renders such tissue more susceptible to oncogenic changes and providing further evidence that this gene might have an important, context-dependent role in breast cancer.

  9. Breast carcinoma in women under the age of 50: Relationship between p53 immunostaining, tumour grade, and axillary lymph node status.

    PubMed

    Pratap, R; Shousha, S

    1998-05-01

    There is evidence to suggest that breast carcinoma in young women behaves in a more aggressive manner than in older women. As positive immunostaining for p53 has also been associated with increased tumour aggressiveness, this study was aimed at finding out whether patients under the age of 50 years have a higher prevalence of p53 positivity in their tumours. The inter-relationships between age, p53, tumour grade, and axillary lymph node status were also investigated. Two hundred and twenty nine invasive carcinomas were studied. One hundred and eight patients were under the age of 50, and 121 were at or above that age. The specific p53 monoclonal antibody DO7 and the avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase technique were used. Fifty seven tumours (25 %) showed variable degrees of p53 positivity. The incidence of positivity was slightly higher in women under the age of 50 as compared with those at or above that age (29% (31/108) vs. 21% (26/121), respectively), but the difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). On the other hand, in invasive ductal carcinoma (191 cases), p53 positivity was significantly related to high tumour grade (7% in grade I [1/14], 19% in grade II [20/105], and 43% in grade III [31/72]; p < 0.0001 [I-II vs III]). p53 positivity was also significantly related to the presence of extensive (more than three) axillary lymph node metastases (p53 positivity being 22% in node negative tumours [40/178], 18% in tumours with three or less positive nodes [6/33], and 61% in tumours with more than 3 positive nodes [11/18]; p = 0.0033 [second vs third group]). Both features were also significantly more common in the younger age group. The results suggest that the slightly higher incidence of p53 positivity seen in tumours from younger patients, is probably related to the significantly higher incidence of grade III tumours in these patients.

  10. Combination of microdissection and microarray analysis to identify gene expression changes between differentially located tumour cells in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gang; Reynolds, Louise; Crnogorac-Jurcevic, Tatjana; Gillett, Cheryl E; Dublin, Edwin A; Marshall, John F; Barnes, Diana; D'Arrigo, Corrado; Van Trappen, Philippe O; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Hart, Ian R

    2003-06-12

    Comparison of gene expression changes between cancer cells at the periphery and in the centre of breast cancers was performed using a combination of microdissection and microarray analysis. Cancer cells from the two areas were pooled separately from five patients with ductal carcinoma in situ and separately from five patients with frankly invasive cancer. Limited total RNA, 100-200 ng, from this microdissected tissue required use of the Atlas SMART trade mark Probe Amplification Kit to synthesize and amplify cDNA and make (33)P-labelled probes. Probes were then hybridized to Atlas Human Cancer 1.2 Arrays containing 1176 known genes. Triplicate analysis revealed that 22 genes changed their expression levels in the periphery relative to the central region: 15 upregulated and seven downregulated (arbitrary threshold of 1.5-fold or greater). Differences in RNA levels were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR for two of the genes and by changes in protein levels, detected by immunohistochemistry, for a couple of representative gene products. Thus, changes in gene expression associated with variation in microanatomical location of neoplastic cells can be detected within even small developing tumour masses.

  11. St Gallen molecular subtypes in primary breast cancer and matched lymph node metastases - aspects on distribution and prognosis for patients with luminal A tumours: results from a prospective randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The St Gallen surrogate molecular subtype definitions classify the oestrogen (ER) positive breast cancer into the luminal A and luminal B subtypes according to proliferation rate and/or expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with differences in prognosis and chemo-responsiveness. Primary tumours and lymph node metastases might represent different malignant clones, but in the clinical setting only the biomarker profile of the primary tumour is used for selection of adjuvant systemic treatment. The present study aimed to classify primary breast tumours and matched lymph node metastases into luminal A, luminal B, HER2-positive and triple-negative subtypes and compare the distributions. Methods Eighty-five patients with available tumour tissue from both locations were classified. The distribution of molecular subtypes in primary tumours and corresponding lymph node metastases were compared, and related to 5-year distant disease-free survival (DDFS). Results The St Gallen molecular subtypes were discordant between primary tumours and matched lymph node metastases in 11% of the patients (p = 0.06). The luminal A subtype in the primary tumour shifted to a subtype with a worse prognostic profile in the lymph node metastases in 7 of 45 cases (16%) whereas no shift in the opposite direction was observed (0/38) (p = 0.02). All subtypes had an increased hazard for developing distant metastasis during the first 5 years after diagnosis in both primary breast tumours and matched lymph node metastases, compared with the luminal A subtype. Conclusion The classification according to the St Gallen molecular subtypes in primary tumours and matched lymph node metastases, implicates a shift to a more aggressive subtype in synchronous lymph node metastases compared to the primary breast tumour. The selection of systemic adjuvant therapy might benefit from taking the molecular subtypes in the metastatic node into account. PMID:24274821

  12. C-erbB-2 onco-protein expression in breast cancer: relationship to tumour characteristics and short-term survival in Universiti Kebansaan Malaysia Medical Centre.

    PubMed

    Sharifah, N A; Lee, B R; Clarence-Ko, C H; Tan, G C; Shiran, M S; Naqiyah, I; Rohaizak, M; Fuad, I; Tamil, A M

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer affecting females in Malaysia, contributing 31% of all newly diagnosed cases amongst Malaysian women. The present retrospective cohort study evaluated the relationship between cerbB- 2 onco-protein overexpression with various tumour characteristics and survival rate of breast cancer patients treated at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) between 1996-2000. CerbB- 2 oncoprotein overexpression was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tumors showing 2+ positivity were verified by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). One hundred and seventy two patients were eligible for the study with a short-term follow-up (median) of 5.1 years. C-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression correlated with lymph node positivity, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negativity. Univariate analyses showed shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with cerbB- 2 oncoprotein overexpression, Malay ethnicity, higher tumour grade, lymph node positivity, ER and PR negativity. In a subgroup of patients with c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression, a shorter OS was observed in those with lymph node positivity, ER and PR negativity. In multivariate prognostic analysis, lymph node status, ER status and tumour grading were the strongest independent prognostic factors for both OS and DFS. However, c-erbB-2 status was not a significantly independent prognostic factor, even in subsets with lymph node positive or negative group. C-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression correlated well with lymph node status, ER and PR. Shorter OS and DFS were significantly observed in patients with c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression. Lymph node status, ER status and tumour grading were the only three independent prognostic factors for OS and DFS in this study. Although c-erbB-2 expression is obviously important from a biological standpoint, multivariate analysis showed that it is not an independent prognostic

  13. A randomised controlled phase II trial of pre-operative celecoxib treatment reveals anti-tumour transcriptional response in primary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently over-expressed in primary breast cancer. In transgenic breast cancer models, over-expression of COX-2 leads to tumour formation while COX-2 inhibition exerts anti-tumour effects in breast cancer cell lines. To further determine the effect of COX-2 inhibition in primary breast cancer, we aimed to identify transcriptional changes in breast cancer tissues of patients treated with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Methods In a single-centre double-blind phase II study, thirty-seven breast cancer patients were randomised to receive either pre-operative celecoxib (400 mg) twice daily for two to three weeks (n = 22) or a placebo according to the same schedule (n = 15). Gene expression in fresh-frozen pre-surgical biopsies (before treatment) and surgical excision specimens (after treatment) was profiled by using Affymetrix arrays. Differentially expressed genes and altered pathways were bioinformatically identified. Expression of selected genes was validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemical protein expression analyses of the proliferation marker Ki-67, the apoptosis marker cleaved caspase-3 and the neo-angiogenesis marker CD34 served to evaluate biological response. Results We identified 972 and 586 significantly up- and down-regulated genes, respectively, in celecoxib-treated specimens. Significant expression changes in six out of eight genes could be validated by qPCR. Pathway analyses revealed over-representation of deregulated genes in the networks of proliferation, cell cycle, extracellular matrix biology, and inflammatory immune response. The Ki-67 mean change relative to baseline was -29.1% (P = 0.019) and -8.2% (P = 0.384) in the treatment and control arm, respectively. Between treatment groups, the change in Ki-67 was statistically significant (P = 0.029). Cleaved caspase-3 and CD34 expression were not significantly different between the celecoxib-treated and placebo-treated groups

  14. Associations of epithelial c-kit expression in phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Tawasil, John; Go, Edna May L; Tsang, Julia Y S; Ni, Yun-Bi; Ko, Chun-Wai; Tse, Gary M

    2015-10-01

    Mammary phyllodes tumours (PT) are rare biphasic neoplasms but have important clinical significance. Both epithelial and stromal components participate in PT development. Despite a number of studies on stromal c-kit in PT, little is known about the role of its epithelial expression. To further evaluate the stromal and epithelial expression of c-kit in a cohort of patients with PT. Expression of c-kit in both epithelial and stromal components was examined and correlated with histological features in PT. Stromal c-kit expression was associated positively with stromal cellularity (median expression=10.0, 30.0 and 50.0 from mild to severe cellularity; p=0.019). Conversely, a significant negative trend between epithelial c-kit expression with stromal pleomorphism (median expression=55.0, 30.0 and 2.5 from mild to severe pleomorphism; p=0.043) and mitosis (median expression=70.0 and 20.0 for low and high mitosis respectively; p=0.003); and a trend of negative correlation with increased PT grade was found. Despite these reverse associations, epithelial and stromal c-kit expressions were positively correlated with each other. Notably, the correlation of stromal c-kit expression with malignant histological features appeared to be stronger in cases with low epithelial c-kit expression but not in those with high epithelial c-kit expression. This study demonstrated the association of epithelial c-kit expression with stromal histological features and stromal c-kit. Interestingly, epithelial c-kit expression affected the strength of the correlation of stromal c-kit with these histological features. These findings provide further evidence of the interaction between the epithelial and stromal components in PT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Selective sentinel node biopsy after intratumour administration of radiotracer in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in relation to the level of tumour response.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Expósito, R; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Burgués, O; Casáns-Tormo, I; Bermejo-de Las Heras, B; Julve-Parreño, A; Caballero-Garate, A

    Our objective was to analyse the accuracy of the sentinel node biopsy, taking into consideration the scintigraphy detection rate after the intratumoural administration of the radiopharmaceutical in patients with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The study included 60 patients with a diagnosis of invasive breast carcinoma, stage T1-T3, who received treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and were subsequently subjected to breast surgery and sentinel node biopsy after intra-tumour administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Scintigraphic detection of some sentinel node was achieved in 55/60 patients (91.6%). When those cases that received a second injection of the radiopharmaceutical, performed peri-areolarly due to a lack of tracer migration, were excluded, the detection rate dropped to 70% (42/60). When the detection of sentinel node, or its absence, was compared in those 42 patients, no differences were found with age, laterality-location of the lesion, size pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy, histological grade, or immunohistochemical profile. There were significant differences when comparing the groups according to the degree of pathological tumour response, both with the Miller-Payne system (non-detection 44.4%-detection 16.7%, p = 0.003) as well as the residual cancer burden (72.2%-28.6%, p<0.01). The scintigraphic detection of the sentinel node after intratumoural administration of the radiopharmaceutical in patients with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy was below the optimal value, and sometimes a further, peri-areolar, injection was necessary, probably in relation to an alteration in the lymphatic drainage pathways. There was a significant inverse relationship between the detection of the sentinel node and level of pathological tumour response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Na (+)/H (+)exchange in the tumour microenvironment: does NHE1 drive breast cancer carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Amith, Schammim R; Fong, Sunny; Baksh, Shairaz; Fliegel, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Ionic messengers signal several critical events in carcinogenesis, including metastasis, the leading cause of patient mortality. The aberrant metabolic, proliferative and anti-apoptotic nature of neoplastic cells can be traced to the abnormal expression of their ion transporters and related signalling networks. In this manuscript, we discuss Na(+)/H(+)flux, as mediated by the sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1), a major ion transporter involved in tumourigenesis. Allosteric activation of NHE1 by external stimuli is controlled by phosphorylation of key amino acids on its cytosolic C-terminal tail, which also acts as a signal scaffold for its regulation by intracellular protein and lipid binding partners. In breast cancer cells, pH homeostasis and proton dynamics are disrupted early in transformation. This constitutively activates NHE1, causing a reversal of the plasma membrane pH gradient, resulting in a more alkaline intracellular pH and a more acidic extracellular pH. NHE1-mediated cellular alkalinization potentiates cytoskeletal remodelling, mobilizing cells for directed migration. Concomitant redistribution of NHE1 to invadopodia, where increased proton extrusion promotes proteolytic digestion of the extracellular matrix, primes cells for invasion into the bloodstream. NHE1 hyperactivity therefore heralds an important stage in cancer cell development, critically facilitating the acquisition of the invasive phenotype necessary for metastasis to occur. The potential for targeting NHE1 in the development of novel chemotherapeutic applications is explored.

  17. The novel desmopressin analogue [V4Q5]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis, tumour growth and metastases in vasopressin type 2 receptor-expressing breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    GARONA, JUAN; PIFANO, MARINA; ORLANDO, ULISES D.; PASTRIAN, MARIA B.; IANNUCCI, NANCY B.; ORTEGA, HUGO H.; PODESTA, ERNESTO J.; GOMEZ, DANIEL E.; RIPOLL, GISELLE V.; ALONSO, DANIEL F.

    2015-01-01

    Desmopressin (dDAVP) is a safe haemostatic agent with previously reported antitumour activity. It acts as a selective agonist for the V2 vasopressin membrane receptor (V2r) present on tumour cells and microvasculature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the novel peptide derivative [V4Q5]dDAVP in V2r-expressing preclinical mouse models of breast cancer. We assessed antitumour effects of [V4Q5]dDAVP using human MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells, as well as the highly metastatic mouse F3II cell line. Effect on in vitro cancer cell growth was evaluated by cell proliferation and clonogenic assays. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by flow cytometry. In order to study the effect of intravenously administered [V4Q5]dDAVP on tumour growth and angiogenesis, breast cancer xenografts were generated in athymic mice. F3II cells were injected into syngeneic mice to evaluate the effect of [V4Q5]dDAVP on spontaneous and experimental metastatic spread. In vitro cytostatic effects of [V4Q5]dDAVP against breast cancer cells were greater than those of dDAVP, and associated with V2r-activated signal transduction and partial cell cycle arrest. In MDA-MB-231 xenografts, [V4Q5]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice a week) reduced tumour growth and angiogenesis. Treatment of F3II mammary tumour-bearing immunocompetent mice resulted in complete inhibition of metastatic progression. [V4Q5]dDAVP also displayed greater antimetastatic efficacy than dDAVP on experimental lung colonisation by F3II cells. The novel analogue was well tolerated in preliminary acute toxicology studies, at doses ≥300-fold above that required for anti-angiogenic/antimetastatic effects. Our data establish the preclinical activity of [V4Q5]dDAVP in aggressive breast cancer, providing the rationale for further clinical trials. PMID:25846632

  18. Triple negative breast cancer: a study from the point of view of basal CK5/6 and HER-1.

    PubMed

    Pintens, S; Neven, P; Drijkoningen, M; Van Belle, V; Moerman, P; Christiaens, M-R; Smeets, A; Wildiers, H; Vanden Bempt, I

    2009-07-01

    Basal-like breast tumours, as defined by microarrays, carry a poor prognosis and therapeutic options are limited to date. Often, these tumours are defined as oestrogen receptor (ER) negative/progesterone receptor (PR) negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) negative (triple negative) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), but a more complete definition should include expression of basal cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK14 or CK17) and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER-1). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent CK5/6 and HER-1 characterise the group of triple negative breast cancers. Expression of CK5/6 and HER-1 was studied by IHC in 25 triple negative breast carcinomas and 32 grade-matched, non-triple-negative controls. All 57 cases were further subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridisation to investigate HER-1 gene copy number. CK5/6 and HER-1 expression was most frequent in triple negative tumours: 22 out of 25 cases (88.0%) expressed at least one of these markers (60.0% CK5/6 positive and 52.0% HER-1 positive). In the control group, CK5/6 and HER-1 expression was found in ER-negative but not in ER-positive tumours (ER negative/PR negative/HER-2 positive tumours: 20.0% CK5/6 positive and 46.7% HER-1 positive). HER-1 gene amplification was found in five cases only: four triple negative (16.0%) and one ER-negative control (ER negative/PR negative/HER-2 positive, 6.7%). Of interest, all five HER-1 amplified cases showed a remarkably homogeneous HER-1 expression pattern. Expression of CK5/6 and HER-1 is frequent in ER-negative breast cancers, in triple negative and in non-triple negative tumours. In a minority of cases, HER-1 overexpression may be caused by HER-1 gene amplification. Further studies are needed to investigate whether such cases might benefit from anti-HER-1 therapy.

  19. Circulating tumour cells are linked to plasma D-dimer levels in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mego, Michal; Zuo, Zhuang; Gao, Hui; Cohen, Evan N; Giordano, Antonio; Tin, Sanda; Anfossi, Simone; Jackson, Summer; Woodward, Wendy; Ueno, Naoto T; Valero, Vicente; Alvarez, Ricardo H; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Khoury, Joseph D; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Reuben, James M

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Elevated plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen levels are also risk factors for VTE. Furthermore, in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), the presence of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) is a risk factor for VTE. The relationship between CTCs and D-dimer is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether CTCs correlate with plasma D-dimer level, fibrinogen level, and risk of VTE in MBC. This prospective study included 47 MBC patients treated from July 2009 through December 2010 at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. CTCs in peripheral blood were detected and enumerated using the CellSearch system. D-dimer and fibrinogen were measured in plasma at the time of CTC detection. Thirty-three patients (70 %) had ≥ 1 CTC, and 22 patients (47 %) had ≥ 5 CTCs. Patients with ≥ 1 CTC or ≥ 5 CTCs had significantly higher mean plasma D-dimer levels (µg/mL) than patients with no CTCs and < 5 CTCs (2.48 and 3.31 vs 0.80 and 0.84, respectively; p=0.006 for cut-off ≥ 1 CTC and p=0.003 for cut-off ≥ 5 CTCs). In multivariate analysis, presence of CTCs and number of metastases were positively associated with plasma D-dimer level. CTCs were not associated with plasma fibrinogen level. At median follow-up of 13.5 months, three of 33 patients (9 %) with ≥ 1 CTC had VTE, vs no patients with undetectable CTCs. In conclusion, the presence of CTCs was associated with higher levels of plasma D-dimer in MBC patients. This study further confirms an association between CTCs and risk of VTE.

  20. Matrix metalloproteinases are involved in both type I (apoptosis) and type II (autophagy) cell death induced by sodium phenylacetate in MDA-MB-231 breast tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Sébastien; Berard, Madeleine; Kellaf, Sabine; Peyri, Nicole; Fauvel-Lafève, Françoise; Legrand, Chantal; He, Lu; Crépin, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The effects of sodium phenylacetate (NaPa), an antitumoral molecule, on cell death and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities and synthesis were investigated in two metastatic breast tumour cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, cultured on three-dimensional type I collagen gels (3-D cultures). In both cell lines, NaPa inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptotic cell death as measured by TUNEL assay, with an IC(30) of 20 mM and 10 mM for MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells, respectively. In MDA-MB-231 cells, NaPa also induced (i) an autophagic process evidenced by the appearance of autophagic vacuoles and an increased phosphatase acid activity, (ii) the formation of pseudopodia and (iii) an increase in MMP-1 and MMP-9 secretion without affecting MT1-MMP. In NaPa-treated MDA-MB-435 cells, no autophagic vacuoles were formed but F-actin depolymerisation was observed. MMP-1, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP levels were strongly enhanced in these cells but MMPs were not secreted and accumulated intracellularly. When breast cancer cells were treated with NaPa in the presence of an MMP inhibitor (GM6001), apoptotic cell death decreased and the induction of autophagic vacuoles in MDA-MB-231 cells was inhibited. Taken together, these data suggest that MMPs are involved in the autophagic cell death and/or apoptosis of breast tumour cells.

  1. Macrophage-tumour cell interactions: identification of MUC1 on breast cancer cells as a potential counter-receptor for the macrophage-restricted receptor, sialoadhesin.

    PubMed

    Nath, D; Hartnell, A; Happerfield, L; Miles, D W; Burchell, J; Taylor-Papadimitriou, J; Crocker, P R

    1999-10-01

    In many carcinomas, infiltrating macrophages are commonly found closely associated with tumour cells but little is known concerning the nature or significance of adhesion molecules involved in these cellular interactions. Here we demonstrate in primary human breast cancers that sialoadhesin (Sn), a macrophage-restricted adhesion molecule, is frequently expressed on infiltrating cells that often make close contact with breast carcinoma cells. To determine whether Sn could act as a specific receptor for ligands on breast cancer cell lines, binding assays were performed with a recombinant form of the protein fused to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) (Sn-Fc). Sn-Fc was found to bind specifically and in a sialic acid-dependent manner to the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47.D and BT-20 both in solid- and solution-phase binding assays. To investigate the nature of the sialoglycoproteins recognized by Sn on breast cancer cells, MCF-7 cells were labelled with [6-3H]glucosamine. Following precipitation with Sn-Fc, a major band of approximately 240000 MW was revealed, which was shown in reprecipitation and Western blotting experiments to be the epithelial mucin, MUC1.

  2. Prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis in (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans in locally advanced breast cancer staging.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; García García-Esquinas, M; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Rodríguez Rey, C; Román-Santamaría, J M; Moreno, F; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    To determine whether metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are able to predict recurrence risk in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. Retrospective study of LABC patients who undertook neoadjuvant, local and adjuvant treatment and follow up. A (18)F-FDG PET/CT study for initial staging was performed analysing in this study different metabolic parameters (MTV, TLG, SUVmax and SUVmed) both in the primary tumour (T) as well as in axillary nodes (N) and whole-body (WB). Forty females were included between January 2010-2011; follow up until January 2015 was completed. The average follow-up was 46 months. Twenty percent presented recurrence: local disease (n=2) and distant metastasis (n=6); 3 patients died (38% of the patients which recurred and 7.5% from the total). SUVmax, MTV and TLG, in T, N and WB, were higher in those patients with recurrence. The MTV and TLG parameters in the tumour (T) were related to the recurrence rate (P=.020 and P=.028, respectively); whereas SUVmax in the lymph nodes (N) was significantly related (P=.008) to the recurrence rate. The best cut-off points to predict recurrence where: MTV T ≥19.3cm(3), TLG T≥74.4g and SUVmax N≥13.8, being 10-12 times more likely to recidivate when these thresholds where exceeded. Tumour grade was the only clinical-pathological variable which was related to recurrence probability (p=.035). In this study of LABC patients the metabolic parameters which have a better relationship with recurrence rate are: MTV and TLG in the primary tumour, SUVmax in the regional lymph node disease and whole-body PET data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  3. Reducing chemotherapy use in clinically high-risk, genomically low-risk pN0 and pN1 early breast cancer patients: five-year data from the prospective, randomised phase 3 West German Study Group (WSG) PlanB trial.

    PubMed

    Nitz, Ulrike; Gluz, Oleg; Christgen, Matthias; Kates, Ronald E; Clemens, Michael; Malter, Wolfram; Nuding, Benno; Aktas, Bahriye; Kuemmel, Sherko; Reimer, Toralf; Stefek, Andrea; Lorenz-Salehi, Fatemeh; Krabisch, Petra; Just, Marianne; Augustin, Doris; Liedtke, Cornelia; Chao, Calvin; Shak, Steven; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Kreipe, Hans H; Harbeck, Nadia

    2017-06-29

    The prospective phase 3 PlanB trial used the Oncotype DX(®) Recurrence Score(®) (RS) to define a genomically low-risk subset of clinically high-risk pN0-1 early breast cancer (EBC) patients for treatment with adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) alone. Here, we report five-year data evaluating the prognostic value of RS, Ki-67, and other traditional clinicopathological parameters. A central tumour bank was prospectively established within PlanB. Following an early amendment, hormone receptor (HR)+ , pN0-1 RS ≤ 11 patients were recommended to omit chemotherapy. Patients with RS ≥ 12, pN2-3, or HR-negative/HER2-negative disease were randomised to anthracycline-containing or anthracycline-free chemotherapy. Primary endpoint: disease-free survival (DFS). PlanB Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01049425. From 2009 to 2011, PlanB enrolled 3198 patients (central tumour bank, n = 3073) with the median age of 56 years, 41.1% pN+, and 32.5% grade 3 EBC. Chemotherapy was omitted in 348/404 (86.1%) eligible RS ≤ 11 patients. After 55 months of median follow-up, five-year DFS in ET-treated RS ≤ 11 patients was 94% (in both pN0 and pN1) versus 94% (RS 12-25) and 84% (RS > 25) in chemotherapy-treated patients (p < 0.001); five-year overall survival (OS) was 99 versus 97% and 93%, respectively (p < 0.001). Nodal status, central/local grade, tumour size, continuous Ki-67, progesterone receptor (PR), IHC4, and RS were univariate prognostic factors for DFS. In a multivariate analysis including all univariate prognostic markers, only pN2-3, central and local grade 3, tumour size >2 cm, and RS, but not IHC4 or Ki-67 were independent adverse factors. If RS was excluded, IHC4 or both Ki-67 and PR entered the model. The impact of RS was particularly pronounced in patients with intermediate Ki-67 (>10%, <40%) tumours. The excellent five-year outcomes in clinically high-risk, genomically low-risk (RS ≤ 11) pN0-1 patients without adjuvant chemotherapy support

  4. Methodological issues in estimating survival in patients with multiple primary cancers: an application to women with breast cancer as a first tumour

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Stefano; Ricceri, Fulvio; Terracini, Lea; Zanetti, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Background Comparing survival of patients with a single tumour and patients with multiple primaries poses different methodological problems. In population based studies, where we cannot rely on detailed clinical information, the issue is disentangling the share of survival probability from the first and second cancer, and their compounded effect. We examined three hypotheses: A) the survival probability since the first tumour does not change with the occurrence of a second tumour; B) the probability of surviving a tumour does not change with the presence of a previous primary; C) the probabilities of surviving two subsequent primary tumours are independent (additivity hypothesis on mortality rates). Methods We studied the survival probabilities modelling mortality rates according to hypotheses A), B) and C). Mortality rates were calculated using Aalen-Johansen estimators which allowed to discount for the lag-time survival before developing a second tumour. We applied this approach to a cohort of 436 women with breast cancer (BC) and a subsequent tumour in the resident population of Turin, Italy, between 1985 and 2002. Results We presented our results in term of a Standardised Mortality Ratio calculated (SMRAJ) after 10 years of follow-up. For hypothesis A we observed a significant excess mortality of 2.21 (95% C.I. 1.94 – 2.45). Concerning hypothesis B we found a not significant SMRAJ of 0.98 (95% C.I. 0.87 – 1.10). The additivity hypothesis (C) was not confirmed as it overestimated the risk of death, in fact SMRsAJ were all below 1: 0.75 (95% C.I. 0.66 – 0.84) for BC and all subsequent cancers, 0.72 (95% C.I. 0.55 – 0.94) for BC and colon-rectum cancer, 0.76 (95% C.I. 0.48 – 1.14) for BC and corpus uteri cancer (not significant). Conclusion This method proved to be useful in disentangling the effect of different subsequent cancers on mortality. In our application it shows a worse long-term mortality for women with two cancers than that with BC only

  5. MED12 exon 2 mutation as a highly sensitive and specific marker in distinguishing phyllodes tumours from other spindle neoplasms of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lien, Huang-Chun; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Wen; Jeng, Yung-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Spindle neoplasms of the breast (SNB) primarily include metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC), phyllodes tumour (PT), fibromatosis and primary nonspecific sarcoma (PNS). Mutations in MED12 exon 2 have been reported in PTs. Because spindle tumour components are shared by SNB, we assessed the diagnostic use of MED12 exon 2 mutation in SNB. We investigated MED12 exon 2 mutations in a total of 91 samples of SNB, including 49 PT cases that have been previously analysed. Mutations were identified using direct sequencing. MED12 exon 2 mutation was absent in all cases of MBC, fibromatosis and PNS, in contrast to the 71.4% positivity in PTs. MED12 mutations were identified in four of six previously diagnosed monophasic sarcomatous MCB cases, however, these four cases were revised as malignant PT based on additional bcl-2 staining, albeit very focal. Consistence in the MED12 mutational status between a paired core biopsy and a surgical specimen was observed in all 20 tested PT cases. In conclusion, we demonstrated the restriction of MED12 exon 2 mutation to PTs (73.6%, 39/53) and its absence in other SNB. MED12 exon 2 mutational analysis can be included in the differential diagnosis between PT and other SNB, especially with limited specimen where diagnostic clues are not evident.

  6. High Intratumoral Stromal Content Defines Reactive Breast Cancer as a Low-risk Breast Cancer Subtype.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Jennifer B; Shahmoradgoli, Maria; Liu, Wenbin; Ju, Zhenlin; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Perou, Charles M; Sahin, Aysegul A; Welm, Alana; Oesterreich, Steffi; Sikora, Matthew J; Brown, Robert E; Mills, Gordon B

    2016-10-15

    The current study evaluated associative effects of breast cancer cells with the tumor microenvironment and its influence on tumor behavior. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and matched protein lysates were evaluated from two independent breast cancer patient datasets (TCGA and MD Anderson). Reverse-phase protein arrays (RPPA) were utilized to create a proteomics signature to define breast tumor subtypes. Expression patterns of cell lines and normal breast tissues were utilized to determine markers that were differentially expressed in stroma and cancer cells. Protein localization and stromal contents were evaluated for matched cases by imaging. A subtype of breast cancers designated "Reactive," previously identified by RPPA that was not predicted by mRNA profiling, was extensively characterized. These tumors were primarily estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human EGF receptor (HER)2-negative, low-risk cancers as determined by enrichment of low-grade nuclei, lobular or tubular histopathology, and the luminal A subtype by PAM50. Reactive breast cancers contained high numbers of stromal cells and the highest extracellular matrix content typically without infiltration of immune cells. For ER-positive/HER2-negative cancers, the Reactive classification predicted favorable clinical outcomes in the TCGA cohort (HR, 0.36; P < 0.05). A protein stromal signature in breast cancers is associated with a highly differentiated phenotype. The stromal compartment content and proteins are an extended phenotype not predicted by mRNA expression that could be utilized to subclassify ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 22(20); 5068-78. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. A population study of mutations and LOH at breast cancer gene loci in tumours from sister pairs: two recurrent mutations seem to account for all BRCA1/BRCA2 linked breast cancer in Iceland.

    PubMed Central

    Arason, A; Jonasdottir, A; Barkardottir, R B; Bergthorsson, J T; Teare, M D; Easton, D F; Egilsson, V

    1998-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer in high risk families is believed to result from a mutation in either of two genes named BRCA1 and BRCA2. A germline defect in either gene is usually followed by chromosomal deletion of the normal allele in the tumour. In Iceland two recurrent mutations have been identified, 999del5 BRCA2 and G5193A BRCA1. In this study, randomly selected pairs of sisters diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 60 years or younger were analysed to evaluate the proportion of breast cancer resulting from BRCA1 and BRCA2. Genotypes and allele loss in tumour tissue from 42 sister pairs were compared using markers within and around the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Eleven sister pairs were highly suggestive of BRCA2 linkage, and no obvious BRCA1 linkage was seen. Screening for the G5193A BRCA1 and 999del5 BRCA2 mutations showed the 999del5 mutation in the 11 BRCA2 suggestive pairs plus three pairs less indicative of linkage, and the G5193A BRCA1 mutation in one pair. When known mutation carriers are removed from the group, no indication of further linkage to BRCA1 or BRCA2 is seen. The results of our studies suggest that a large proportion of familial breast cancer in Iceland is the result of the 999del5 BRCA2 mutation, and it is unlikely that BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations other than 999del5 and G5193A play a significant role in hereditary breast cancer in Iceland. Furthermore it can be concluded that most families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 linkage are easily identified by studying LOH around the defective gene in as few as two affected relatives. PMID:9643283

  8. A population study of mutations and LOH at breast cancer gene loci in tumours from sister pairs: two recurrent mutations seem to account for all BRCA1/BRCA2 linked breast cancer in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Arason, A; Jonasdottir, A; Barkardottir, R B; Bergthorsson, J T; Teare, M D; Easton, D F; Egilsson, V

    1998-06-01

    The majority of breast cancer in high risk families is believed to result from a mutation in either of two genes named BRCA1 and BRCA2. A germline defect in either gene is usually followed by chromosomal deletion of the normal allele in the tumour. In Iceland two recurrent mutations have been identified, 999del5 BRCA2 and G5193A BRCA1. In this study, randomly selected pairs of sisters diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 60 years or younger were analysed to evaluate the proportion of breast cancer resulting from BRCA1 and BRCA2. Genotypes and allele loss in tumour tissue from 42 sister pairs were compared using markers within and around the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Eleven sister pairs were highly suggestive of BRCA2 linkage, and no obvious BRCA1 linkage was seen. Screening for the G5193A BRCA1 and 999del5 BRCA2 mutations showed the 999del5 mutation in the 11 BRCA2 suggestive pairs plus three pairs less indicative of linkage, and the G5193A BRCA1 mutation in one pair. When known mutation carriers are removed from the group, no indication of further linkage to BRCA1 or BRCA2 is seen. The results of our studies suggest that a large proportion of familial breast cancer in Iceland is the result of the 999del5 BRCA2 mutation, and it is unlikely that BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations other than 999del5 and G5193A play a significant role in hereditary breast cancer in Iceland. Furthermore it can be concluded that most families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 linkage are easily identified by studying LOH around the defective gene in as few as two affected relatives.

  9. CD3+, CD4+ & CD8+ tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are predictors of favourable survival outcome in infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Ankita Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Konwar, Rituraj; Makker, Annu; Negi, M.P.S.; Goel, Madhu Mati

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) represent the host immune response against cancer cells associated with good or bad prognosis in different tumour types. This study was undertaken to evaluate the significance of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ TILs in breast cancer tissues in relation to clinico-pathological variables and survival outcome. Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed with antibodies against CD3, CD4 and CD8 antigens on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 150 breast cancer patients. Intratumoural and stromal TIL counting was performed semiquantitatively. Results: The higher CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ intratumoural and stromal counts showed independent and direct association with good prognosis. The prognostic predictor value of intratumoural counts was higher than stromal counts. The independent associations of intratumoural and stromal counts became more prominent when adjusted with stage and grade, respectively. Among intratumoural counts, the high (++/+++) CD4+ count (OR=3.85, 95% CI=3.28-16.71, P<0.001) showed the highest survival followed by CD3+ (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.76-8.30, P=0.001) and CD8+ (OR=2.58, 95% CI=1.55-5.86, P=0.001) the least when compared to respective low (+) counts. In contrast, among stromal counts, the high CD8+ count (OR=3.13, 95% CI=2.20-9.57, P<0.001) showed the highest survival followed by CD4+ (OR=3.02, 95% CI=2.07-8.89, P<0.001) and CD3+ (OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.53-6.73, P=0.002) the least. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggest that intratumoural CD4+ and stromal CD8+ counts by immunohistochemistry may serve as an independent prognosticator for favourable outcome in breast cancer. PMID:25366203

  10. Markers of breast cancer stromal fibroblasts in the primary tumour site associated with lymph node metastasis: a systematic review including our case series

    PubMed Central

    Folgueira, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Koike; Maistro, Simone; Katayama, Maria Lucia Hirata; Roela, Rosimeire Aparecida; Mundim, Fiorita Gonzales Lopes; Nanogaki, Suely; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Brentani, M. Mitzi

    2013-01-01

    CAFs (cancer-associated fibroblasts), the most abundant cell type in breast cancer stroma, produce a plethora of chemokines, growth factors and ECM (extracellular matrix) proteins, that may contribute to dissemination and metastasis. Axillary nodes are the first metastatic site in breast cancer; however, to the present date, there is no consensus of which specific proteins, synthesized by CAFs, might be related with lymph node involvement. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of CAF biomarkers associated with the presence of regional metastasis. PubMed was searched using the words: ‘breast cancer’ and ‘lymph node’ and fibroblast or stroma or microenvironment. After exclusions, eight studies evaluating biomarkers immunoexpression in CAFs and lymph node status were selected. Biomarkers evaluated in these studies may be divided in two groups, according to their ontology: extracellular matrix components [MMP13 (matrix metalloproteinase 13), TIMP2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2), THBS1 (thrombospondin 1), LGALS1 (lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1)] and response to wounding [PDPN (podoplanin), PLAU (plasminogen activator, urokinase), PLAUR (plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor), CAV1 (caveolin 1), THBS1, LGALS1]. A positive expression of MMP13 and LGALS1 in CAFs was associated with enhanced OR (odds ratio) for regional metastasis. Contrariwise, CAV1 positive staining of fibroblasts was associated with decreased OR for nodal involvement. Expression of MMP13, PDPN and CAV1 was further tested in a new series of 65 samples of invasive ductal breast carcinomas by immunohistochemistry and no association between biomarkers expression in CAFs and nodal status was found. It was suggested that breast cancer subtypes may differentially affect CAFs behaviour. It would be interesting to evaluate the prognostic significance of these biomarkers in CAFs from different tumour types. PMID:24229053

  11. Exercise-induced changes in tumour LDH-B and MCT1 expression are modulated by oestrogen-related receptor alpha in breast cancer-bearing BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Aveseh, Malihe; Nikooie, Rohollah; Aminaie, Mohsen

    2015-06-15

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) play important roles in sustaining the glycolytic phenotype seen in cancer. Endurance training improves aerobic capacity; however, whether endurance training alters the metabolic phenotype of a solid tumour, from the perspective of lactate metabolism, is yet to be proven. This study showed that endurance training decreases expression of the MCT1 basigin (CD147) and LDH-A , and also increases LDH-B expression in solid tumours and attenuates tumour lactate metabolism. Similar results for MCT1 and LDH-B were found with inhibition of the oestrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα). The training effects were not additive to the ERRα effects on MCT1 and LDH-B expression in the tumour, which indicated that exercise-induced alterations in MCT1 and LDH-B expression were modulated by ERRα. These results suggest that endurance training could be a useful tool in cancer therapy, especially in basal-like and luminal-like breast carcinomas. Several factors, including overexpression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), promote an aerobic lactate production that allows some cancer cells to sustain higher proliferation rates in hostile environments outside the cell. To elucidate the effect of endurance training on the metabolic phenotype of solid tumours, we focused on the tumour expression of LDH-A, LDH-B, MCT1, MCT4, oestrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) and LDH isozymes in control (C), trained (T), control+XCT790 (CX) and trained+XCT790 (TX) mice. First, we found that the metabolically altered tumours from the trained animals exhibited lower values for lactate concentration than the control group. The decreased lactate concentration was associated with a shift in the tumour LDH isozyme profile towards LDH-1. These exercise-induced changes were also associated with decreases in the expression of the tumour MCT1, ERRα and CD147 in the trained animals. Secondly, the

  12. MicroRNA-211-5p suppresses tumour cell proliferation, invasion, migration and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer by directly targeting SETBP1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Zhou-Jing; Yi, Zhan-Bo; Li, Jian-Jun

    2017-06-27

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15-20% of all breast cancer in women globally. This subtype often has early and high recurrence rates, resulting in poor survival, partially due to lack of targeted therapies. To date, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying TNBC progression are unclear. Given the crucial role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer metastasis, we aimed to analyse the expression and function of a metastasis-associated miRNA named miR-211-5p in TNBC. MiRNA array analysis was performed to search for metastasis-associated miRNAs in TNBC. The miR-211-5p expression in tumour tissues, adjacent non-tumourous breast tissues of TNBC patients and cell lines were evaluated by real-time PCR. The protein expression levels were analysed by western blot, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation. Luciferase reporter assays were employed to validate the target of miR-211-5p. The effect of miR-211-5p on TNBC progression was investigated in vitro and in vivo. MiR-211-5p was significantly downregulated in TNBC, and its expression level was associated with overall survival in TNBC. The expression of miR-211-5p suppressed TNBC cell proliferation, invasion, migration and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, SETBP1 was identified as a target of miR-211-5p. Through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, SETBP1 was shown to significantly affect colony and cell number in vitro. Enforced expression of miR-211-5p inhibited the expression of SETBP1 significantly and the restoration of SETBP1 expression reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-211-5p on TNBC cell proliferation and metastasis. These findings collectively demonstrate a tumour suppressor role of miR-211-5p in TNBC progression by targeting SETBP1, suggesting that miR-211-5p could serve as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for TNBC.

  13. The Subclonal Architecture of Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results from a Prospective Community-Based Rapid Autopsy Program “CASCADE”

    PubMed Central

    Flensburg, Christoffer; Alsop, Kathryn; Mansour, Mariam; Francis, Prudence A.; Thorne, Heather A.; Silva, Maria Joao; Kanu, Nnennaya; Dietzen, Michelle; Bowtell, David D.; Speed, Terence P.; Swanton, Charles; Loi, Sherene

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the cancer genome is seen as a key step in improving outcomes for cancer patients. Genomic assays are emerging as a possible avenue to personalised medicine in breast cancer. However, evolution of the cancer genome during the natural history of breast cancer is largely unknown, as is the profile of disease at death. We sought to study in detail these aspects of advanced breast cancers that have resulted in lethal disease. Methods and Findings Three patients with oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer and one patient with triple negative breast cancer underwent rapid autopsy as part of an institutional prospective community-based rapid autopsy program (CASCADE). Cases represented a range of management problems in breast cancer, including late relapse after early stage disease, de novo metastatic disease, discordant disease response, and disease refractory to treatment. Between 5 and 12 metastatic sites were collected at autopsy together with available primary tumours and longitudinal metastatic biopsies taken during life. Samples underwent paired tumour-normal whole exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Subclonal architectures were inferred by jointly analysing all samples from each patient. Mutations were validated using high depth amplicon sequencing. Between cases, there were significant differences in mutational burden, driver mutations, mutational processes, and copy number variation. Within each case, we found dramatic heterogeneity in subclonal structure from primary to metastatic disease and between metastatic sites, such that no single lesion captured the breadth of disease. Metastatic cross-seeding was found in each case, and treatment drove subclonal diversification. Subclones displayed parallel evolution of treatment resistance in some cases and apparent augmentation of key oncogenic drivers as an alternative resistance mechanism. We

  14. Phage display biopanning identifies the translation initiation and elongation factors (IF1α-3 and eIF-3) as components of Hsp70-peptide complexes in breast tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Siebke, Christina; James, Tharappel C; Cummins, Robert; O'Grady, Tony; Kay, Elaine; Bond, Ursula

    2012-03-01

    The heat shock protein, HSP70, is over-expressed in many tumours and acts at the crossroads of key intracellular processes in its role as a molecular chaperone. HSP70 associates with a vast array of peptides, some of which are antigenic and can mount adaptive immune responses against the tumour from which they are derived. The pool of peptides associated with HSP70 represents a unique barcode of protein metabolism in tumour cells. With a view to identifying unique protein targets that may be developed as tumour biomarkers, we used purified HSP70 and its associated peptide pool (HSP70-peptide complexes, HSP70-PCs) from different human breast tumour cell lines as targets for phage display biopanning. Our results show that HSP70-PCs from each cell line interact with unique sets of peptides within the phage display library. One of the peptides, termed IST, enriched in the biopanning process, was used in a 'pull-down' assay to identify the original protein from which the HSP70-associated peptides may have been derived. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF-3), a member of the elongation factor EF1α family, and the HSP GRP78, were pulled down by the IST peptide. All of these proteins are known to be up-regulated in cancer cells. Immunohistochemical staining of tumour tissue microarrays showed that the peptide co-localised with HSP70 in breast tumour tissue. The data indicate that the reservoir of peptides associated with HSP70 can act as a unique indicator of cellular protein activity and a novel source of potential tumour biomarkers.

  15. Complete regression of breast tumour with a single dose of docetaxel-entrapped core-cross-linked polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qizhi; Rijcken, Cristianne J; Bansal, Ruchi; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert; Prakash, Jai

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with chemotherapy such as docetaxel (DTX) is associated with significant toxicity and tumour recurrence. In this study, we developed DTX-entrapped core-cross-linked polymeric micelles (DTX-CCL-PMs, 66 nm size) by covalently conjugating DTX to CCL-PMs via a hydrolysable ester bond. The covalent conjugation allowed for sustained release of DTX under physiological conditions in vitro. In vivo, DTX-CCL-PMs demonstrated superior therapeutic efficacy in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumour xenografts as compared to the marketed formulation of DTX (Taxotere(®)). Strikingly, a single intravenous injection of DTX-CCL-PMs enabled complete regression of both small (∼150 mm(3)) and established (∼550 mm(3)) tumours, leading to 100% survival of the animals. These remarkable antitumour effects of DTX-CCL-PMs are attributed to its enhanced tumour accumulation and anti-stromal activity. Furthermore, DTX-CCL-PMs exhibited superior tolerability in healthy rats as compared to Taxotere. These preclinical data strongly support clinical translation of this novel nanomedicinal product for the treatment of cancer.

  16. Gallic acid indanone and mangiferin xanthone are strong determinants of immunosuppressive anti-tumour effects of Mangifera indica L. bark in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    García-Rivera, Dagmar; Delgado, René; Bougarne, Nadia; Haegeman, Guy; Berghe, Wim Vanden

    2011-06-01

    Vimang is a standardized extract derived from Mango bark (Mangifera Indica L.), commonly used as anti-inflammatory phytomedicine, which has recently been used to complement cancer therapies in cancer patients. We have further investigated potential anti-tumour effects of glucosylxanthone mangiferin and indanone gallic acid, which are both present in Vimang extract. We observed significant anti-tumour effects of both Vimang constituents in the highly aggressive and metastatic breast cancer cell type MDA-MB231. At the molecular level, mangiferin and gallic acid both inhibit classical NFκB activation by IKKα/β kinases, which results in impaired IκB degradation, NFκB translocation and NFκB/DNA binding. In contrast to the xanthone mangiferin, gallic acid further inhibits additional NFκB pathways involved in cancer cell survival and therapy resistance, such as MEK1, JNK1/2, MSK1, and p90RSK. This results in combinatorial inhibition of NFκB activity by gallic acid, which results in potent inhibition of NFκB target genes involved in inflammation, metastasis, anti-apoptosis and angiogenesis, such as IL-6, IL-8, COX2, CXCR4, XIAP, bcl2, VEGF. The cumulative NFκB inhibition by gallic acid, but not mangiferin, is also reflected at the level of cell survival, which reveals significant tumour cytotoxic effects in MDA-MB231 cells. Altogether, we identify gallic acid, besides mangiferin, as an essential anti-cancer component in Vimang extract, which demonstrates multifocal inhibition of NFκB activity in the cancer-inflammation network.

  17. Prognostic significance of centromere 17 copy number gain in breast cancer depends on breast cancer subtype.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyuongyul; Jang, Min Hye; Chung, Yul Ri; Lee, Yangkyu; Kang, Eunyoung; Kim, Sung-Won; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, In Ah; Park, So Yeon

    2017-03-01

    Increased copy number of chromosome enumeration probe (CEP) targeting centromere 17 is frequently encountered during HER2 in situ hybridization (ISH) in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicopathologic significance of CEP17 copy number gain in a relatively large series of breast cancer patients. We analyzed 945 cases of invasive breast cancers whose HER2 fluorescence ISH reports were available from 2004 to 2011 at a single institution and evaluated the association of CEP17 copy number gain with clinicopathologic features of tumors and patient survival. We detected 186 (19.7%) cases of CEP17 copy number gain (CEP17≥3.0) among 945 invasive breast cancers. In survival analysis, CEP17 copy number gain was not associated with disease-free survival of the patients in the whole group. Nonetheless, it was found to be an independent adverse prognostic factor in the HER2-negative group but not in the HER2-positive group. In further subgroup analyses, CEP17 copy number gain was revealed as an independent poor prognostic factor in HER2-negative and hormone receptor-positive breast cancers, and it was associated with aggressive histologic variables including high T stage, high histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, p53 overexpression, and high Ki-67 proliferative index. In conclusion, we found that elevated CEP17 count can serve as a prognostic marker in luminal/HER2-negative subtype of invasive breast cancer. We advocate the use of the dual-colored fluorescence ISH using CEP17 rather than the single-colored one because it gives additional valuable information on CEP17 copy number alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A randomized controlled trial comparing primary tumour resection plus systemic therapy with systemic therapy alone in metastatic breast cancer (PRIM-BC): Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG1017.

    PubMed

    Shien, Tadahiko; Nakamura, Kenichi; Shibata, Taro; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Aogi, Kenjiro; Fujisawa, Tomomi; Masuda, Norikazu; Inoue, Kenichi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Iwata, Hiroji

    2012-10-01

    This trial is being conducted to confirm the superiority, in terms of overall survival, of primary tumour resection plus systemic therapy to systemic therapy alone in patients with Stage IV breast cancer who are not refractory to primary systemic therapy. The inclusion criteria for the study are as follows: untreated patients with histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer with one or more measurable metastatic lesions diagnosed by radiological examination. All patients receive primary systemic therapy according to the estrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 status of the primary breast cancer after the first registration. After 3 months, the patients without disease progression are randomized to the primary tumour resection plus systemic therapy arm or the systemic therapy alone arm. The primary endpoint is the overall survival, and the secondary endpoints are proportion of patients without tumour progression at the metastatic sites, yearly local recurrence-free survival, proportion of local ulcer/local bleeding, yearly primary tumour resection-free survival, adverse events of chemotherapy, operative morbidity and serious adverse events. The patient recruitment was commenced in May 2011. Enrolment of 410 patients for randomization is planned over a 5 year recruitment period. We hereby report the details of the study.

  19. Exercise-induced changes in tumour LDH-B and MCT1 expression are modulated by oestrogen-related receptor alpha in breast cancer-bearing BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Aveseh, Malihe; Nikooie, Rohollah; Aminaie, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Several factors, including overexpression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), promote an aerobic lactate production that allows some cancer cells to sustain higher proliferation rates in hostile environments outside the cell. To elucidate the effect of endurance training on the metabolic phenotype of solid tumours, we focused on the tumour expression of LDH-A, LDH-B, MCT1, MCT4, oestrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) and LDH isozymes in control (C), trained (T), control+XCT790 (CX) and trained+XCT790 (TX) mice. First, we found that the metabolically altered tumours from the trained animals exhibited lower values for lactate concentration than the control group. The decreased lactate concentration was associated with a shift in the tumour LDH isozyme profile towards LDH-1. These exercise-induced changes were also associated with decreases in the expression of the tumour MCT1, ERRα and CD147 in the trained animals. Secondly, the inhibition of ERRα by treatment of MC4-L2 human breast cancer cells with XCT790 (inverse agonist ligand of ERRα) before injection into the animals not only increased LDH-B expression in the tumour, but also decreased MCT1 expression in the CX group in comparison to the C group. The effects of ERRα inhibition were not additive to the training effects on the expressions of MCT1 and LDH-B in the solid tumours. In conclusion, our results suggest that exercise-induced suppression of ERRα expression modulates alterations in solid tumour expression of LDH-B and MCT1 and contributes towards the prevention of tumour development. PMID:25907793

  20. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumour subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumour. Methods We used genotype data on up to 11,421 BRCA1 and 7,080 BRCA2 carriers, of whom 4,310 had been affected with breast cancer and had information on either ER or PR status of the tumour, to assess the associations of 12 loci with breast cancer tumour characteristics. Associations were evaluated using a retrospective cohort approach. Results The results suggested stronger associations with ER-positive breast cancer than ER-negative for 11 loci in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2981582 (FGFR2) exhibited the biggest difference based on ER status (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for ER-positive = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.56 vs HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.98 for ER-negative, P-heterogeneity = 6.5 × 10-6). In contrast, SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1 near ESR1 was primarily associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In BRCA2 carriers, SNPs in FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, SLC4A7/NEK10, 5p12, 2q35, and 1p11.2 were significantly associated with ER-positive but not ER-negative disease. Similar results were observed when differentiating breast cancer cases by PR status. Conclusions The associations of the 12 SNPs with risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers differ by ER-positive or ER-negative breast cancer status. The apparent differences in SNP associations between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, and non-carriers, may be explicable by differences in the prevalence of tumour subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models

  1. Inhibition of Wnt signalling and breast tumour growth by the multi-purpose drug suramin through suppression of heterotrimeric G proteins and Wnt endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Koval, Alexey; Ahmed, Kamal; Katanaev, Vladimir L

    2016-02-15

    Overactivation of the Wnt signalling pathway underlies oncogenic transformation and proliferation in many cancers, including the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the deadliest form of tumour in the breast, taking about a quarter of a million lives annually worldwide. No clinically approved targeted therapies attacking Wnt signalling currently exist. Repositioning of approved drugs is a promising approach in drug discovery. In the present study we show that a multi-purpose drug suramin inhibits Wnt signalling and proliferation of TNBC cells in vitro and in mouse models, inhibiting a component in the upper levels of the pathway. Through a set of investigations we identify heterotrimeric G proteins and regulation of Wnt endocytosis as the likely target of suramin in this pathway. G protein-dependent endocytosis of plasma membrane-located com