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  1. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as “natural,” their ingredients aren’t necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your ...

  2. Kelp

    SciTech Connect

    North, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    The Marine Farm Project is a large collaborative R and D effort presently studying possibilities of growing seaweed in offshore waters, and jointly funded by the Gas Research Institute and the US DOE. This paper reports on the part of the program which Cal Tech are involved in that's related to production and nutrition of kelp. Among the topics covered are: the life cycle of giant kelp, Macrocystis; estimated yields; transplanting techniques; mooring of plants; and the upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water. (Refs. 19).

  3. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  4. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products. PMID:19826971

  5. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  6. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the

  7. Herbal Supplements and Hepatotoxicity: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Haslan, Haszianaliza; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit

    2015-10-01

    Herbal products have gained popularity over the past few decades. The reasons attributed to the rise in popularity are cheaper costs, easy availability, patient compliance and fewer side effects. However, liver toxicity following consumption of herbal remedies is on the increase. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of action of the herbal supplements on the liver. Occasionally, herbal supplements may also interact with conventional drugs. The present review focusses on a few herbs such as Aloe barbadensis, Atractylis gummifera, Centella asiatica, Mitragyna speciosa, Morinda citrifolia, Larea tridentata, Symphytum officinale, Teucrium chamaedrys and Xanthium strumarium, which are reported to cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Prior knowledge on hepatotoxicity caused by herbs may be beneficial for clinicians and medical practitioners. PMID:26669124

  8. Hepatotoxicity induced by herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Lucena, M Isabel

    2014-05-01

    Herbals and dietary supplements (HDS) can cause hepatotoxicity. Regulation of HDS varies across the globe. In the United States, it is defined by a law that is now two decades old. More recent regulatory approaches in Europe still do not require testing for premarket safety. The true incidence of hepatotoxicity from HDS is unknown. The presentation is most often with a hepatocellular enzyme pattern, and the outcomes can be severe, leading to transplantation in some circumstances. The diagnosis of hepatotoxicity due to HDS is made in the same way as for drugs. However, patients often must be coaxed into revealing a history of use. No causality assessment approach is perfectly suited for hepatotoxicity from HDS, but the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is most used. Future endeavors must focus on defining epidemiology, establishing an accepted nomenclature, and identifying culprit ingredients, predisposing host factors, and useful biomarkers for injury.

  9. Herbal supplements for health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Susan D; Curry, Kim; Yoon, Saun-Joo

    2016-10-20

    This three-part series is designed to provide clinicians with a working knowledge of using herbal supplements for health and disease states. Common herbal preparations used for health promotion or disease prevention will be featured in this part of the series.

  10. Pancreatitis in a woman taking an herbal supplement.

    PubMed

    Lesser, David; Hillesheim, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A healthy woman developed pancreatitis after starting a popular herbal supplement designed to boost female libido. Following cessation of the herbal supplement, her enzymes quickly normalized. The patient had no risk factors for pancreatitis and anatomic obstruction was later ruled out. The contents of the supplement and their history of side effects are reviewed. As several of the ingredients are estrogenic in nature, this may have contributed to the patient's reaction. Physicians should remember to take a careful history regarding the usage of supplements and alternative medicines. PMID:17269527

  11. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Melton, Genevieve B; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions.

  12. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  13. Authentication of Ginkgo biloba herbal dietary supplements using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P

    2014-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (known as ginkgo or maidenhair tree) is a phylogenetically isolated, charismatic, gymnosperm tree. Herbal dietary supplements, prepared from G. biloba leaves, are consumed to boost cognitive capacity via improved blood perfusion and mitochondrial function. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay was designed and validated for the authentication of G. biloba in herbal dietary supplements (n = 22; sensitivity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00; specificity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.64-1.00). This assay was further used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled ginkgo herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America: DNA amenable to PCR could not be extracted from three (7.5%) of the 40 supplements sampled, 31 of 37 (83.8%) assayable supplements contained identifiable G. biloba DNA, and six supplements (16.2%) contained fillers without any detectable G. biloba DNA. It is hoped that this assay will be used by supplement manufacturers to ensure that their supplements contain G. biloba.

  14. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... counter remedies. Over-the-counter refers to medicines, herbs, or supplements you can buy without a prescription. ... memory loss, and mood problems. Supplements with the herb Acacia rigidula labeled on the packaging often contain ...

  15. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Thomas W. A.; Borisenko, Alex V.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Background DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. Methods We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components. Results All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven–by NGS). NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components. Conclusion Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product

  16. Case of acute psychosis from herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Erica; Stoebner, Adam; Weatherill, Jay; Kutscher, Eric

    2008-05-01

    A recent study estimates that 15.2 percent of American adults use nonprescription dietary supplements for weight loss. Sale of ephedrine- and ephedrine-alkaloid-containing products was prohibited by the Food and Drug Administration in February 2004 after research demonstrated an increased risk of arrhythmia, mortality and hypertension following use of products containing these sympathomimetics. Subsequently, nutritional supplement manufacturers have turned to other products to promote weight loss. The following paper reports a case study of a 28-year-old woman with no prior psychiatric history who was hospitalized secondary to an acute psychotic episode. The patient reported starting several weight-loss and nutritional sports supplements approximately one week prior to admission. The relationship between the onset of psychosis and the initiation of the dietary supplements strongly suggests a correlation exists. Heightened consumer education regarding the contents of dietary supplements, along with their potential for causing adverse effects when used alone or in combination with other medications, is warranted. Patients who choose to take dietary supplements should be encouraged to inform their health care providers about the supplements they are taking.

  17. Herbal and dietary supplements for treatment of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Bloch, Richard M; Antonacci, Diana J

    2007-08-15

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine has increased over the past decade. A variety of studies have suggested that this use is greater in persons with symptoms or diagnoses of anxiety and depression. Data support the effectiveness of some popular herbal remedies and dietary supplements; in some of these products, particularly kava, the potential for benefit seems greater than that for harm with short-term use in patients with mild to moderate anxiety. Inositol has been found to have modest effects in patients with panic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Physicians should not encourage the use of St. John's wort, valerian, Sympathyl, or passionflower for the treatment of anxiety based on small or inconsistent effects in small studies. Although the evidence varies depending on the supplement and the anxiety disorder, physicians can collaborate with patients in developing dietary supplement strategies that minimize risks and maximize benefits. PMID:17853630

  18. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  19. Ulcerative colitis associated with the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajah, Vernon; Abdul, Quddus; Pardoe, Helen; Lunniss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old Iranian gentleman was admitted to hospital with severe bloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain. He had similar episodes in the past. On each occasion his symptoms developed following the consumption of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut Hardcore X. On this admission, a (CT) scan demonstrated bowel wall thickening and peri-colonic fat stranding in the sigmoid colon. On flexible sigmoidoscopy, a continuous length of congested mucosa with multiple small ulcers was seen extending up to the mid-transverse colon, in keeping with ulcerative colitis. Histological analysis of biopsies was taken at the time and confirmed this. He was started on steroids early during his admission but this only provided a transient clinical improvement. The addition of cyclosporine, which was later changed to azathioprine, did not improve his condition either. He therefore underwent an open subtotal colectomy with end ileostomy. He made a slow but steady recovery and was discharged 3 weeks later. PMID:23291814

  20. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation.

  1. Herbal materials used in dietary supplements: Comparison of luminescence methods for detection of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolin, E.; Boniglia, C.; Gargiulo, R.; Onori, S.

    2009-07-01

    In EU the treatment with ionising radiation is allowed for dried aromatic herbs, spices and seasonings, but not for herbal supplements and their ingredients. Nevertheless, controls carried out in EU at the product marketing stage, showed a large number of irradiated herbal supplements and herbal ingredients. Due to low sensitivity to radiation of this kind of products, the aim of this work was to test the efficacy of the luminescence-based methods in identifying irradiated herbal supplements. To this end, photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) and thermo-luminescence (TL) measurements were performed on 24 products, including 8 herbal raw materials (plants or parts of plants) and 16 herbal extracts. The PSL technique, provided intermediate results, with a low number of total counts near to the upper negative limit, for all irradiated herbal extracts, showing possible limits in the detection of these products, specially in view of their use in mixtures with non-irradiated components. The TL method, was successfully applied to all herbal materials; in the case of herbal extracts, however, particular attention at the mineral separation step was necessary.

  2. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Shouval, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) have been used for health-related purposes since more than 5000 years, and their application is firmly anchored in all societies worldwide. Over last decades, a remarkable renaissance in the use of HDS can be noticed in affluent societies for manifold reasons. HDS are forms of complementary and alternative medicines commonly used to prevent or treat diseases, or simply as a health tonic. Another growing indication for HDS is their alleged benefit for weight loss or to increase physical fitness. Access is easy via internet and mail-order pharmacies, and their turnover reaches billions of dollars in the USA and Europe alone. However, HDS are generally not categorized as drugs and thus less strictly regulated in most countries. As a result, scientific evidence proving their beneficial effects is mostly lacking, although some HDS may have purported benefits. However, the majority lacks such proof of value, and their use is predominantly based on belief and hope. In addition to missing scientific evidence supporting their use, HDS are typically prone to batch-to-batch variability in composition and concentration, contamination, and purposeful adulteration. Moreover, numerous examples of preparations emerged which have been linked to significant liver injury. These include single ingredients, such as kava, germander, and several Chinese herbals. Other HDS products associated with liver toxicity consist of multiple, often ill-defined ingredients, such as Hydroxycut and Herbalife. Affirmative diagnostic tests are not available, and the assessment of liver injury ascribed to HDS depends on a thorough and proactive medical history, careful exclusion of other causes, and a search for available reports on similar events linked to the intake of the suspected preparation or ingredients contained therein.

  3. Herbal products and other supplements: use by elderly veterans with depression and dementia and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Kales, Helen C; Blow, Frederic C; Welsh, Deborah E; Mellow, Alan M

    2004-03-01

    The use of herbal products and other "natural" supplements among the US population is on the rise. Limited data suggest that such use among the elderly may correlate with higher education levels as well as psychiatric symptoms. The authors examined herbal/supplement use among elderly veterans with depression and/or dementia (n = 82) and their primarily elderly caregivers (n = 56). Eighteen percent of subjects and 16% of caregivers used herbals/supplements. Seventy-five percent of subjects who used these products during the study period were also taking potentially interacting medications. Given the prior association of herbal/supplement use with higher education levels, a surprising number of elderly veterans with depression and/or dementia (the majority of whom had high school or less education) used these products. As evidenced by missing documentation in many physician notes, subjects may not have discussed their usage of herbals/supplements with their physicians. In light of the possibility of potentially harmful drug interactions, physicians who treat elderly patients should regularly inquire about the use of these products.

  4. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss sampled on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Venhuis, Bastiaan J; de Kaste, Dries; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Martena, Martijn J

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight loss properties. Herbal food supplements intended for weight loss (n = 50) were sampled from August 2004 to May 2013. An HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was used to screen for the presence of the APIs in herbal supplements. In 24 samples the APIs sibutramine, desmethylsibutramine (DMS), didesmethylsibutramine (DDMS), rimonabant, sildenafil and/or the laxative phenolphthalein were identified 41 times. The presence of these APIs was, however, not stated on the label. The potential pharmacological effects of the detected APIs were estimated using data from reported effective doses of approved drugs. Use of 20 of the 24 herbal food supplements may result in potential pharmacological effects. Furthermore, risk assessment of phenolphthalein, a suspected carcinogen and found to be present in 10 supplements, based on the margin of exposure (MOE) approach, resulted in MOE values of 96-30,000. MOE values lower than 10,000 (96-220) were calculated for the daily intake levels of four out of these 10 supplements in which phenolphthalein was found. However, taking into account that weight loss preparations may be used for only a few weeks or months rather than during a lifetime, MOE values may be two to three orders of magnitude higher. The current study shows that the use of food supplements with sibutramine, DMS, DDMS and/or phenolphthalein could result in pharmacological effects.

  5. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists. PMID:26958277

  6. Soliciting an Herbal Medicine and Supplement Use History at Hospice Admission

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Karen; Jackson, Steve; McPherson, Mary Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Reconciling medication use and performing drug utilization review on admission of a patient into hospice care are essential in order to safely prescribe medications and to prevent possible adverse drug events and drug–drug interactions. As part of this process, fully assessing herbal medicine and supplement use in hospice patients is crucial, as patients in hospice may be likely to use these medications and may be more vulnerable to their potential adverse effects. Objective Our purpose was to identify herbals, vitamins, and supplements that should be routinely assessed on every hospice admission because of their higher likelihood of use or higher risk of adverse effects or drug interactions. Methods Experts in the fields of palliative medicine, pharmacy, and alternative medicine were asked to complete a Web-based survey on 37 herbals, vitamins, supplements, and natural products, rating likelihood of use, potential for harm, and recommendation to include it on the final list on a scale of 1 to 5 (least to most likely to agree). Results Twenty experts participated in the survey. Using a cutoff of 3.75 for inclusion of a medication on the final list, 12 herbal medicines were identified that should be routinely and specifically assessed on hospice admission. Conclusions Although assessing all herbal medicine use is ideal, thorough detection of herbals may be challenging. The list of herbals and supplements identified by this survey could be a useful tool for medication reconciliation in hospice and could aid in identifying potentially harmful medication use at the end of life. PMID:20557233

  7. Composition of Lutein Ester Regioisomers in Marigold Flower, Dietary Supplement, and Herbal Tea.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Rabalski, Iwona

    2015-11-11

    Characterization of lutein and its esters in a health product is necessary for its efficacy. In the current study lutein ester regioisomers were quantified and identified in several dietary supplements and herbal teas in comparison with marigold flower, the commercial source of lutein. The products were extracted with three solvents and separated on a C30 column. The separated esters were identified/confirmed with LC-MS in APCI+ve mode with the use of synthetic lutein esters. The total content of lutein esters substantially varied among marigold flowers (167-5752 μg/g), supplements (88,000-110,700 μg/g), and herbal teas (12.4-91.3 μg/g). Lutein supplement had a lutein profile similar to that of marigold flower, whereas herbal tea showed an extremely different profile. Lutein dipalmitate was the dominant compound in supplements and marigold flowers followed by lutein 3'-O-myristate-3-O-palmitate and lutein 3'-O-palmitate-3-O-myristate. Lutein was the major compound in marigold herbal tea with small amounts of lutein mono- and diesters. Differences in the concentration and composition of lutein compounds among marigold products could indicate distinct product quality and lutein bioavailability. PMID:26496496

  8. Composition of Lutein Ester Regioisomers in Marigold Flower, Dietary Supplement, and Herbal Tea.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Rabalski, Iwona

    2015-11-11

    Characterization of lutein and its esters in a health product is necessary for its efficacy. In the current study lutein ester regioisomers were quantified and identified in several dietary supplements and herbal teas in comparison with marigold flower, the commercial source of lutein. The products were extracted with three solvents and separated on a C30 column. The separated esters were identified/confirmed with LC-MS in APCI+ve mode with the use of synthetic lutein esters. The total content of lutein esters substantially varied among marigold flowers (167-5752 μg/g), supplements (88,000-110,700 μg/g), and herbal teas (12.4-91.3 μg/g). Lutein supplement had a lutein profile similar to that of marigold flower, whereas herbal tea showed an extremely different profile. Lutein dipalmitate was the dominant compound in supplements and marigold flowers followed by lutein 3'-O-myristate-3-O-palmitate and lutein 3'-O-palmitate-3-O-myristate. Lutein was the major compound in marigold herbal tea with small amounts of lutein mono- and diesters. Differences in the concentration and composition of lutein compounds among marigold products could indicate distinct product quality and lutein bioavailability.

  9. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Elizabeth X; Navarro, Victor J

    2015-06-28

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury.

  10. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Elizabeth X.; Navarro, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury. PMID:26357638

  11. Determination of Oxalate Content in Herbal Remedies and Dietary Supplements Based on Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel; Blanco, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Lifestyle, especially diet, is a prominent risk factor that affects the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Urinary oxalate excretion is directly related to the amount of oral intake and intestinal absorption rate of oxalate. This work evaluated the possibility of increasing oxalate ingestion, which could lead to secondary hyperoxaluria, associated with the intake of herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts. A wide variety of 17 commercially available drugs and dietary supplements were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed remarkable differences in oxalate contents of the extracts. Total oxalate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 2.2 mg/g in solid samples and from 0.005 to 0.073 mg/mL in liquid samples. The selected herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts represent only a low risk for calcium oxalate stone formers, if the recommended daily dose is not exceeded.

  12. Identification of (antioxidative) plants in herbal pharmaceutical preparations and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, Eric; Custers, Deborah; De Beer, Jacques Omer

    2015-01-01

    The standard procedures for the identification, authentication, and quality control of medicinal plants and herbs are nowadays limited to pure herbal products. No guidelines or procedures, describing the detection or identification of a targeted plant or herb in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary supplements, can be found. In these products the targeted plant is often present together with other components of herbal or synthetic origin. This chapter describes a strategy for the fast development of a chromatographic fingerprint approach that allows the identification of a targeted plant in herbal preparations and dietary supplements. The strategy consists of a standard chromatographic gradient that is tested for the targeted plant with different extraction solvents and different mobile phases. From the results obtained, the optimal fingerprint is selected. Subsequently the samples are analyzed according to the selected methodological parameters, and the obtained fingerprints can be compared with the one obtained for the pure herbal product or a standard preparation. Calculation of the dissimilarity between these fingerprints will result in a probability of presence of the targeted plant. Optionally mass spectrometry can be used to improve specificity, to confirm identification, or to identify molecules with a potential medicinal or antioxidant activity. PMID:25323508

  13. Identification of (antioxidative) plants in herbal pharmaceutical preparations and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, Eric; Custers, Deborah; De Beer, Jacques Omer

    2015-01-01

    The standard procedures for the identification, authentication, and quality control of medicinal plants and herbs are nowadays limited to pure herbal products. No guidelines or procedures, describing the detection or identification of a targeted plant or herb in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary supplements, can be found. In these products the targeted plant is often present together with other components of herbal or synthetic origin. This chapter describes a strategy for the fast development of a chromatographic fingerprint approach that allows the identification of a targeted plant in herbal preparations and dietary supplements. The strategy consists of a standard chromatographic gradient that is tested for the targeted plant with different extraction solvents and different mobile phases. From the results obtained, the optimal fingerprint is selected. Subsequently the samples are analyzed according to the selected methodological parameters, and the obtained fingerprints can be compared with the one obtained for the pure herbal product or a standard preparation. Calculation of the dissimilarity between these fingerprints will result in a probability of presence of the targeted plant. Optionally mass spectrometry can be used to improve specificity, to confirm identification, or to identify molecules with a potential medicinal or antioxidant activity.

  14. DNA Barcoding for the Identification of Botanicals in Herbal Medicine and Dietary Supplements: Strengths and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Iffat; Gafner, Stefan; Techen, Natascha; Murch, Susan J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-09-01

    In the past decades, the use of traditional medicine has increased globally, leading to a booming herbal medicine and dietary supplement industry. The increased popularity of herbal products has led to a rise in demand for botanical raw materials. Accurate identification of medicinal herbs is a legal requirement in most countries and prerequisite for delivering a quality product that meets consumer expectations. Traditional identification methods include botanical taxonomy, macroscopic and microscopic examination, and chemical methods. Advances in the identification of biological species using DNA-based techniques have led to the development of a DNA marker-based platform for authentication of plant materials. DNA barcoding, in particular, has been proposed as a means to identify herbal ingredients and to detect adulteration. However, general barcoding techniques using universal primers have been shown to provide mixed results with regard to data accuracy. Further technological advances such as mini-barcodes, digital polymerase chain reaction, and next generation sequencing provide additional tools for the authentication of herbs, and may be successful in identifying processed ingredients used in finished herbal products. This review gives an overview on the strengths and limitations of DNA barcoding techniques for botanical ingredient identification. Based on the available information, we do not recommend the use of universal primers for DNA barcoding of processed plant material as a sole means of species identification, but suggest an approach combining DNA-based methods using genus- or species-specific primers, chemical analysis, and microscopic and macroscopic methods for the successful authentication of botanical ingredients used in the herbal dietary supplement industry. PMID:27392246

  15. DNA Barcoding for the Identification of Botanicals in Herbal Medicine and Dietary Supplements: Strengths and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Iffat; Gafner, Stefan; Techen, Natascha; Murch, Susan J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-09-01

    In the past decades, the use of traditional medicine has increased globally, leading to a booming herbal medicine and dietary supplement industry. The increased popularity of herbal products has led to a rise in demand for botanical raw materials. Accurate identification of medicinal herbs is a legal requirement in most countries and prerequisite for delivering a quality product that meets consumer expectations. Traditional identification methods include botanical taxonomy, macroscopic and microscopic examination, and chemical methods. Advances in the identification of biological species using DNA-based techniques have led to the development of a DNA marker-based platform for authentication of plant materials. DNA barcoding, in particular, has been proposed as a means to identify herbal ingredients and to detect adulteration. However, general barcoding techniques using universal primers have been shown to provide mixed results with regard to data accuracy. Further technological advances such as mini-barcodes, digital polymerase chain reaction, and next generation sequencing provide additional tools for the authentication of herbs, and may be successful in identifying processed ingredients used in finished herbal products. This review gives an overview on the strengths and limitations of DNA barcoding techniques for botanical ingredient identification. Based on the available information, we do not recommend the use of universal primers for DNA barcoding of processed plant material as a sole means of species identification, but suggest an approach combining DNA-based methods using genus- or species-specific primers, chemical analysis, and microscopic and macroscopic methods for the successful authentication of botanical ingredients used in the herbal dietary supplement industry.

  16. Occurrence of aflatoxins in milk thistle herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Tournas, V H; Sapp, C; Trucksess, M W

    2012-01-01

    Milk thistle (MT) dietary supplements are widely consumed due to their possible liver-health-promoting properties. As botanicals they can be contaminated with a variety of fungi and their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. The aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus has been previously isolated from these commodities. Currently, there is no published method for determining aflatoxins (AFs) in MT. Therefore, a liquid chromatography (LC) method validated for aflatoxin analysis in botanicals was evaluated and applied to MT. The method consisted of acetonitrile/water extraction, immunoaffinity column clean-up, LC separation, post-column photochemical reaction derivatisation and fluorescence detection. The average recoveries for AFs added to MT seeds, herb, oil-based liquid extract and alcohol-based liquid extract were 76% or higher. The mean relative standard deviation was <10%. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 µg kg(-1) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.03 µg kg(-1). The method was used to conduct a small survey. A total of 83 MT samples from the US market were analysed. AFs were detected in 19% of the samples with levels ranging from 0.04 to 2.0 µg kg(-1). Additionally, an aflatoxigenic A. flavus strain from ATTC and an A. parasiticus strain isolated from MT herb powder were found to produce high amounts of aflatoxins (11,200 and 49,100 µg kg(-1), respectively) when cultured in MT seed powder. This is the first study reporting on aflatoxin contamination of MT botanical supplements and identifying methodology for AF analysis of these commodities.

  17. Sildenafil and analogous phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in herbal food supplements sampled on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, N M; Venhuis, B J; de Kaste, D; Hoogenboom, L A P; Rietjens, I M C M; Martena, M J

    2013-01-01

    Herbal food supplements, claiming to enhance sexual potency, may contain deliberately added active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements on the Dutch market indeed contain APIs that inhibit phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil and analogous PDE-5 inhibitors. Herbal food supplements intended to enhance sexual potency (n = 71), and two soft drinks, were sampled from 2003 up to and including 2012. In 23 herbal supplements, nine different PDE-5 inhibitors were identified; in a few cases (n = 3), more than one inhibitor was indentified. The presence of these APIs was however not stated on the label. The concentrations of PDE-5 inhibitors per dose unit were analysed. Furthermore, the potential pharmacologically active properties of the detected PDE-5 inhibitors were estimated by using data from the scientific and patent literature regarding (1) in vitro PDE-5 activity, (2) reported effective doses of registered drugs with PDE-5 inhibitor activity and (3) similarity to other structural analogues. It was concluded that 18 of the 23 herbal food supplements, when used as recommended, would have significant pharmacological effects due to added APIs. Adequate use of existing regulation and control measures seems necessary to protect consumers against the adverse effects of these products.

  18. Sildenafil and analogous phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in herbal food supplements sampled on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, N M; Venhuis, B J; de Kaste, D; Hoogenboom, L A P; Rietjens, I M C M; Martena, M J

    2013-01-01

    Herbal food supplements, claiming to enhance sexual potency, may contain deliberately added active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements on the Dutch market indeed contain APIs that inhibit phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil and analogous PDE-5 inhibitors. Herbal food supplements intended to enhance sexual potency (n = 71), and two soft drinks, were sampled from 2003 up to and including 2012. In 23 herbal supplements, nine different PDE-5 inhibitors were identified; in a few cases (n = 3), more than one inhibitor was indentified. The presence of these APIs was however not stated on the label. The concentrations of PDE-5 inhibitors per dose unit were analysed. Furthermore, the potential pharmacologically active properties of the detected PDE-5 inhibitors were estimated by using data from the scientific and patent literature regarding (1) in vitro PDE-5 activity, (2) reported effective doses of registered drugs with PDE-5 inhibitor activity and (3) similarity to other structural analogues. It was concluded that 18 of the 23 herbal food supplements, when used as recommended, would have significant pharmacological effects due to added APIs. Adequate use of existing regulation and control measures seems necessary to protect consumers against the adverse effects of these products. PMID:24261938

  19. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Jayaram, C.; Jayapal, N.; Sondhi, N.; Kolte, A. P.; Senani, S.; Sridhar, M.; Dhali, A.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder) and prebiotic (inulin) as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline), ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI). The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig. PMID:26176779

  20. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Avigan, Mark I; Mozersky, Robert P; Seeff, Leonard B

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (US), the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized. PMID:26950122

  1. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Avigan, Mark I.; Mozersky, Robert P.; Seeff, Leonard B.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (US), the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized. PMID:26950122

  2. [Interactions between synthetic drugs used in treatment of selected central nervous system disorders and dietary supplements and herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The risk of interaction between dietary supplements, herbal drugs and synthetic drugs increases when patients are treated chronically, e.g. due to impairment of central nervous system (CNS)--depression, psychotic disorders, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. On the basis of scientific literature, there was shown that simultaneous intake of antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs and herbal drugs or dietary supplements containing: St. John's wort, valerian root, ginkgo biloba leaf, hops, and food ingredients: dietary fiber or folic acid, may lead to interactions. Dietary fiber supplementation should be applied carefully during treatment of Parkinson's disease and in case of Alzheimer disease treatment--supplements containing ginkgo biloba leaf can increase the risk of interaction. Knowledge of these interactions is essential in effective treatment of this illness. However this area of science should be verified constantly due to growing number of new products registered as a supplements--often with complex composition. PMID:23885542

  3. Assessment of health claims, content, and safety of herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Heidi P.; Pelgrom, Sylvia M.G.J.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; de Kaste, Dries; Verhagen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background European Regulation 1924/2006 states that all health claims made on foods need to be substantiated scientifically. Objective To apply the PASSCLAIM criteria for the scientific substantiation of health claims on foods to herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba. Evaluation of three selected claimed health effects for G. biloba (improvement of blood circulation, improvement of symptoms of old age, and improvement of memory) was achieved through review of publicly available scientific data. A total of 35 human intervention studies were evaluated. Commercially available products claimed to contain mainly G. biloba (N=29) were randomly sampled in the Netherlands and analyzed for their content on ginkgo extract. Also, a toxicological risk assessment was performed. Results The three selected health claims investigated could not be substantiated. This was mainly because of a lack of data from studies in healthy volunteers. In most studies results performed with a 24% standardized G. biloba extract were described. However, our chemical analysis showed that 25 of the 29 sampled products did not contain the required minimum 24% standardized extract. Moreover, in most preparations the content of substances typical for G. biloba did not conform to what was declared on the label. Since toxicity data for G. biloba are very limited, a safety limit could not be established. Conclusions Evidence is lacking for three health claims of herbal products with G. biloba. Neither safety nor efficacy can be guaranteed at the recommended daily dose. The multidisciplinary approach described in this paper provides good insight into issues that are relevant for the evaluation of health claims for herbal food supplements. PMID:20927202

  4. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Over the past several decades, complementary and alternative medications have increasingly become a part of everyday treatment. With the rising cost of prescription medications and their production of unwanted side effects, patients are exploring herbal and other natural remedies for the management and treatment of psychological conditions. Psychological disorders are one of the most frequent conditions seen by clinicians, and often require a long-term regimen of prescription medications. Approximately 6.8 million Americans suffer from generalized anxiety disorder. Many also suffer from the spectrum of behavioural and physical side effects that often accompany its treatment. It is not surprising that there is universal interest in finding effective natural anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) treatments with a lower risk of adverse effects or withdrawal. Methods An electronic and manual search was performed through MEDLINE/PubMed and EBSCO. Articles were not discriminated by date of publication. Available clinical studies published in English that used human participants and examined the anxiolytic potential of dietary and herbal supplements were included. Data were extracted and compiled into tables that included the study design, sample population, intervention, control, length of treatment, outcomes, direction of evidence, and reported adverse events. Results A total of 24 studies that investigated five different CAM monotherapies and eight different combination treatments and involved 2619 participants met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 21 randomized controlled trials and three open-label, uncontrolled observational studies. Most studies involved patients who had been diagnosed with either an anxiety disorder or depression (n = 1786). However, eight studies used healthy volunteers (n = 877) who had normal levels of anxiety, were undergoing surgery, tested at the upper limit of the normal range of a trait anxiety scale, had adverse

  5. CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM KELP AND COPPER SULFATE: INITIAL INVESTIGATIONS OF DIOXIN FORMATION IN MINERAL FEED SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and C...

  6. Kelp growth experiments

    SciTech Connect

    North, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    Harvest yields obtainable from giant kelp plants that are adequately fertilized were investigated. The following topics are discussed: desirable characteristics in a candidate macroalga, and giant kelp as a candidate macroalga for ocean farming. Nutrient requirements, field experiments, and approaches to acquiring yield data are reviewed. (MHR)

  7. Effects of selenium and zinc status in biological samples of hepatitis C patient after herbal and pharmaceutical supplements.

    PubMed

    Kolachi, Nida F; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Kazi, Naveed G; Mughal, Moeena A; Khan, Sumaira

    2013-05-01

    The use of natural remedies and pharmacological mineral supplements for liver disease treatment has a long history. In present study, the levels of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) were determined in biological samples (serum and whole blood) of female hepatitis C patients (n = 132), age ranged 30-45 years, before and after 30 days treatment with herbal/pharmaceutical supplements. For comparative study, 128 age-matched female subjects, residing in the same residential areas and have socioeconomic status, were selected as referents. The Se and Zn in supplements, blood, and sera were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. It was observed that Zn and Se in blood and serum samples of viral hepatitis C (HCV) patients were reduced in the range of 28.6-39 % and 24-36 %, respectively, as compared to those of referents. After herbal/pharmaceutical supplementations, 20.6-25.0 and 9.15-13.2 % of Zn and 10.6-12.1 and 19.6-21.4 % of Se were enhanced in sera and blood samples of HCV patients, respectively. The resulted data indicated that the levels of Se and Zn in addition to some biochemical parameters were improved in HCV patients after herbal/pharmaceutical supplementation. The effects of both supplements were not significantly different (p > 0.05).

  8. The Use of Herbal Medications and Dietary Supplements by People with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Shatkin, Jess P.; Hamilton, Alison B.; Unützer, Jürgen; Klap, Ruth; Young, Alexander S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between herbal medication and dietary supplement (HMDS) use and mental health characteristics. Data are drawn from a national household survey of the United States’ civilian, non-institutionalized population (N = 9,585). Psychiatric medication and HMDS use, psychiatric diagnoses and treatment needs, utilization and satisfaction were assessed. Compared to non-users, HMDS users were more likely to perceive themselves as having mental health needs, to have received mental health and primary care treatment, and to be dissatisfied with their overall healthcare. Psychiatric medication use was not related to HMDS use, and in multivariate analyses, HMDS use was associated with perceived mental health needs. Differences in use of specific HMDS between those with and without a psychiatric disorder were also examined. The use of HMDS warrants particular attention in persons with perceived mental health problems as these individuals may be turning to HMDS use for treatment of their symptoms. PMID:19688594

  9. Convenient TLC for the detection of a herbal ingredient in a food supplement.

    PubMed

    Carratù, Brunella; Boniglia, Concetta; Ciarrocchi, Marco; Gargiulo, Raffaella; Sanzini, Elisabetta

    2010-12-01

    This study describes a practical and suitable approach to solve a real problem: the analysis of polyherbal products for which some specifications addressing the composition are lacking (e.g. chemical components). It is reported that an analytical procedure to verify the possible presence in a botanical supplement of a plant is not authorised for use in Italy. No reference of chemical standards for the known components of the plant is commercially available. For this reason and because a rapid response was required, more selective chromatographic techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were excluded and thin layer chromatography was chosen for applying different experimental procedures. The original English label of the product, which is made by a leading US manufacturer and sold online by American and Italian distributors, lists the same herbal ingredients as the Italian label, but with an addition of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is not included in the list of plants admitted in supplements compiled by the Italian Ministry of Health. For greater certainty of the result, a high-performance thin layer chromatography method was then applied. On the basis of the results obtained, it was possible to confirm that E. longifolia Jack was not present in the product.

  10. Herbal Products and Dietary Supplements: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Use, Attitudes, and Knowledge Among the Lebanese Population.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Ghada; Ramadan, Wijdan; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    There has been a marked increase in use of herbal products and dietary supplements (HP/DS) in many developed and developing countries. However, data about consumption patterns and awareness about these products in the Lebanese population is scarce. The present study aimed to examine the determinants of HP/DS use in Lebanese adults, identify potential interactions and safety concerns and assess the knowledge and attitudes of consumers towards the efficacy and safety of these products. A face-to-face, 28-item survey was administered to Lebanese adults (n = 726) in community pharmacies across the country. Thirty-five percent of participants reported to be currently consuming at least one HP/DS including 23 % who were consuming vitamins and/or mineral supplements and 18 % consuming herbal products. Significant safety concerns were identified among consumers in the form of disease-supplement, drug-supplement as well as supplement-supplement interactions. Logistic multivariate regression analysis indicated that use of supplements was positively associated with the female gender and increasing age. The majority of respondents falsely believed that HP/DS pose no risk to the general population and that they must be safe to be sold in Lebanon. Moreover, most participants were consuming these products based on recommendations from friends or relatives rather than from healthcare professionals. Substantial misconceptions about HP/DS exist among Lebanese adults, indicating a need for consumers' education from professional and reliable sources on the efficacy and safety of such products.

  11. Mass spectrometric analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in products labeled as botanical dietary supplements or herbal remedies: a review.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-11-01

    The increased availability and use of botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies among consumers has been accompanied by an increased frequency of adulteration of these products with synthetic pharmaceuticals. Unscrupulous producers may add drugs and analogues of various classes, such as phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, weight loss, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory agents, or anabolic steroids, to develop or intensify biological effects of dietary supplements or herbal remedies. The presence of such adulterated products in the marketplace is a worldwide problem and their consumption poses health risks to consumers. Analytical methods that allow rapid and reliable testing of dietary supplements for the presence of synthetic drugs are needed to address such fraudulent practices. Mass spectrometry (MS) and hyphenated techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have become primary tools in this endeavor. The present review critically assesses the role and summarizes the applications of MS in the analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies. The uses of MS techniques in detection, confirmation, and quantification of known pharmaceutical adulterants as well as in screening for and structure elucidation of unexpected adulterants and novel designer drugs are discussed. PMID:25270866

  12. Herbal Supplement Extends Life Span Under Some Environmental Conditions and Boosts Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Villeponteau, Bryant; Matsagas, Kennedy; Nobles, Amber C.; Rizza, Cristina; Horwitz, Marc; Benford, Gregory; Mockett, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100) that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span. PMID:25879540

  13. Determination of total selenium in pharmaceutical and herbal supplements by hydride generation and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem G; Kolachi, Nida F; Afridi, Hassan I; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Shah, Faheem

    2014-01-01

    The total selenium (Se) was determined in herbal and pharmaceutical supplements used for liver diseases. The total Se contents were determined in different pharmaceutical and herbal supplements by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The accuracy of the techniques was evaluated by using certified reference material and the standard addition method. The recoveries of total Se were 99.4 and 99.0% for HGAAS and GFAAS, respectively. The precision of the techniques expressed as RSD were 2.34 and 4.54% for HGAAS and GFAAS measurements, respectively. The LOD values for HGAAS and GFAAS were 0.025 and 0.052 pglg, respectively. The concentrations of Se in pharmaceutical and herbal supplements were found in the range of 19.2-53.8 and 25.0-42.5 pg/g, respectively, corresponding to 35-76% and 45-76% of the total recommended dose of Se for adults.

  14. Determination of total selenium in pharmaceutical and herbal supplements by hydride generation and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem G; Kolachi, Nida F; Afridi, Hassan I; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Shah, Faheem

    2014-01-01

    The total selenium (Se) was determined in herbal and pharmaceutical supplements used for liver diseases. The total Se contents were determined in different pharmaceutical and herbal supplements by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The accuracy of the techniques was evaluated by using certified reference material and the standard addition method. The recoveries of total Se were 99.4 and 99.0% for HGAAS and GFAAS, respectively. The precision of the techniques expressed as RSD were 2.34 and 4.54% for HGAAS and GFAAS measurements, respectively. The LOD values for HGAAS and GFAAS were 0.025 and 0.052 pglg, respectively. The concentrations of Se in pharmaceutical and herbal supplements were found in the range of 19.2-53.8 and 25.0-42.5 pg/g, respectively, corresponding to 35-76% and 45-76% of the total recommended dose of Se for adults. PMID:25632445

  15. Effect of dietary herbal supplements on some physiological conditions of Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sevdan; Ergun, Sebahattin; Celik, Ekrem Sanver

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of dietary thyme Thymus vulgaris, rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis,and fenugreek Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on total liver fat levels and biometric indices of Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein) and isocaloric(21 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0% (control), or 1% of thyme, rosemary, or fenugreek. In a 45-d feeding trial, 12 fiberglass tanks (140 L) were each stocked with 17 fish (20.43 ± 0.03 g).Herbal supplemented diets significantly decreased the total liver fat, visceral fat index, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index,and increased the spleen–somatic index and bile–somatic index(P<0.05). In conclusion, the results indicated that a dietary level of1.0% for thyme, rosemary, or fenugreek could improve some of the physiological parameters of Sea Bass. Thus, this work provides anew perspective for the use of medicinal herbs that can be added to fish feed to improve the status of fish organs. Thyme, rosemary, and fenugreek contain a number of different active components, which possibly play an important role in improving these conditions, but the mechanism by which this is achieved needs further and more detailed study.

  16. Effect of dietary herbal supplements on some physiological conditions of Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sevdan; Ergun, Sebahattin; Celik, Ekrem Sanver

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of dietary thyme Thymus vulgaris, rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis,and fenugreek Trigonella foenum graecum as feed additives on total liver fat levels and biometric indices of Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein) and isocaloric(21 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0% (control), or 1% of thyme, rosemary, or fenugreek. In a 45-d feeding trial, 12 fiberglass tanks (140 L) were each stocked with 17 fish (20.43 ± 0.03 g).Herbal supplemented diets significantly decreased the total liver fat, visceral fat index, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index,and increased the spleen–somatic index and bile–somatic index(P<0.05). In conclusion, the results indicated that a dietary level of1.0% for thyme, rosemary, or fenugreek could improve some of the physiological parameters of Sea Bass. Thus, this work provides anew perspective for the use of medicinal herbs that can be added to fish feed to improve the status of fish organs. Thyme, rosemary, and fenugreek contain a number of different active components, which possibly play an important role in improving these conditions, but the mechanism by which this is achieved needs further and more detailed study. PMID:23914399

  17. Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Victor J.; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J.; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K. Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H.; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p < 0.001) during the study period. Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p < 0.05). Conclusions The proportion of liver injury cases attributed to HDS in DILIN has increased significantly. Liver injury from non-bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. PMID:25043597

  18. A Phase II Trial of a Combination Herbal Supplement for Men with Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dorff, Tanya B.; Groshen, Susan; Tsao-Wei, Denice D.; Xiong, Shigang; Gross, Mitchell E.; Vogelzang, Nicholas; Quinn, David I.; Pinski, Jacek K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Men with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer are typically observed or treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Non-hormonal, non-toxic treatments to slow the rise of PSA are desirable. We studied a combination herbal supplement, Prostate Health Cocktail (PHC), in prostate cancer cell lines and in a population of men with BCR. Methods PC3, LAPC3, and LNCaP cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of PHC suspension. Men previously treated for prostate cancer with surgery, radiation, or both with rising PSA but no radiographic metastases were treated with 3 capsules of PHC daily; the primary endpoint was 50% PSA decline. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were identified using parylene membrane filters. Results PHC showed a strong dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect in androgen-sensitive and independent cell lines in vitro and suppression of androgen receptor expression. 40 eligible patients were enrolled in the clinical trial. Median baseline PSA was 2.8 ng/mL (1.1-84.1) and 15 men (38%) had a PSA decline on study (1%-55% reduction) ; 25 (62%) had rising PSA on study. The median duration of PSA stability was 6.4 months. Two patients had grade 2/3 transaminitis; the only other grade 2 toxicities were hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia and flatulence. There were no significant changes in testosterone or dihydrotestosterone. CTCs were identified in 19 men (47%). Conclusion Although the primary endpoint was not met, Prostate Health Cocktail was well tolerated and was associated with PSA declines and stabilization in a significant number of patients. This is the first report of detecting CTCs in men with BCR prostate cancer. Randomized studies are needed to better define the effect of PHC in men with BCR. PMID:25245366

  19. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products. PMID:25920234

  20. Effects of androstenedione-herbal supplementation on serum sex hormone concentrations in 30- to 59-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Brown, G A; Vukovich, M D; Martini, E R; Kohut, M L; Franke, W D; Jackson, D A; King, D S

    2001-09-01

    The effectiveness of a nutritional supplement designed to enhance serum testosterone concentrations and prevent the formation of dihydrotestosterone and estrogens from the ingested androgens was investigated in healthy 30- to 59-year old men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume DION (300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg dehydroepiandrosterone, 540 mg saw palmetto, 300 mg indole-3-carbinol, 625 mg chrysin, and 750 mg Tribulus terrestris per day; n = 28) or placebo (n = 27) for 28 days. Serum free testosterone, total testosterone, androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and lipid concentrations were measured before and throughout the 4-week supplementation period. Serum concentrations of total testosterone and PSA were unchanged by supplementation. DION increased (p < 0.05) serum androstenedione (342%), free testosterone (38%), dihydrotestosterone (71%), and estradiol (103%) concentrations. Serum HDL-C concentrations were reduced by 5.0 mg/dL in DION (p < 0.05). Increases in serum free testosterone (r2 = 0.01), androstenedione (r2 = 0.01), dihydrotestosterone (r2 = 0.03), or estradiol (r2 = 0.07) concentrations in DION were not related to age. While the ingestion of androstenedione combined with herbal products increased serum free testosterone concentrations in older men, these herbal products did not prevent the conversion of ingested androstenedione to estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.

  1. Thyroid dysfunction following a kelp-containing marketed diet

    PubMed Central

    Di Matola, Tiziana; Zeppa, Pio; Gasperi, Maurizio; Vitale, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Complementary medications and herbal medicine for weight loss have become very popular. We report a case of thyroid dysfunction following the ingestion of a kelp-containing marketed diet in a 45-year-old woman with no previous thyroid disease. Signs of hyperthyroidism occurred shortly after a kelp-containing diet. Hyperthyroidism lasted 2 months and was followed by an overt hypothyroidism. The thyroid scintiscan exhibited an extremely low uptake and colour-Doppler ultrasonography revealed multiple small areas of pulsatile flow. After 3 months of levothyroxine substitutive therapy, normal thyroid function was recovered after levothyroxine discontinuation. This clinical history is compatible with a case of iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis followed by prolonged block of the sodium–iodide symporter activity as a consequence of excessive iodine consumption from kelp. Consumers of marketed diets containing kelp or other iodine-rich ingredients should be advised of the risk to develop a thyroid dysfunction also in the absence of underlying thyroid disease. PMID:25355748

  2. Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…

  3. Detection, identification and quantification by 1H NMR of adulterants in 150 herbal dietary supplements marketed for improving sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Gilard, Véronique; Balayssac, Stéphane; Tinaugus, Aurélie; Martins, Nathalie; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and fifty dietary supplements (DS) marketed to increase sexual performance were analyzed. All these formulations were claimed to contain only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for confirming the chemical structures. 61% of DS were adulterated with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) (27% with the PDE-5i medicines sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, and 34% with their structurally modified analogues). Among them, 64% contained only one PDE-5i and 36% mixtures of two, three and even four. The amounts of PDE-5i medicines were higher than the maximum recommended dose in 25% of DS tainted with these drugs. Additional 5.5% DS included other drugs for the treatment of sexual dysfunction (yohimbine, flibanserin, phentolamine, dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone). Some DS (2.5%) contained products (osthole, icariin) extracted from plants known to improve sexual performance. Only 31% of the samples could be considered as true herbal/natural products. A follow-up over time of several DS revealed that manufacturers make changes in the chemical composition of the formulations. Lack of quality or consistent manufacture (contamination possibly due to inadequate cleaning of the manufacturing chain, presence of impurities or degradation products, various compositions of a given DS with the same batch number, inadequate labelling) indicated poor manufacturing practices. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates the power of (1)H NMR spectroscopy as a first-line method for the detection of adulterated herbal/natural DS and the need for more effective quality control of purported herbal DS. PMID:25459948

  4. Hydroxycut hepatotoxicity: A case series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss supplements

    PubMed Central

    Dara, Lily; Hewett, Jennifer; Lim, Joseph Kartaik

    2008-01-01

    Dietary supplements represent an increasingly common source of drug-induced liver injury. Hydroxycut is a popular weight loss supplement which has previously been linked to hepatotoxicity, although the individual chemical components underlying liver injury remain poorly understood. We report two cases of acute hepatitis in the setting of Hydroxycut exposure and describe possible mechanisms of liver injury. We also comprehensively review and summarize the existing literature on commonly used weight loss supplements, and their individual components which have demonstrated potential for liver toxicity. An increased effort to screen for and educate patients and physicians about supplement-associated hepatotoxicity is warranted. PMID:19058338

  5. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  6. 21 CFR 172.365 - Kelp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Kelp. Kelp may be safely added to a food as a source of the essential mineral iodine, provided the... total amount of iodine in excess of 225 micrograms for foods labeled without reference to age...

  7. Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin S

    2009-11-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for desired effects on memory, insomnia, mood and anxiety. This review focuses on supplements which have anxiolytic or mild relaxation properties and enhance mood. For example, Kava (Piper methysticum) is reported to have anaxiolytic actions and to reduce tension through skeletal muscle relaxation. Dried passion flower (genus Passiflora) is reported to reduce insomnia and hysteria. Skullcap (genus Scutellaria), hops (Humulus lupulus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root are all herbs reported as anaxiolytic calming agents. Further, extracts of Magnolia and Phellondendron bark are mild sedatives. Supplements such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), theanine, tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are reported to promote relaxation. In general, these supplements appear to act as GABA receptor agonists or to boost GABA levels, although Kava inhibits both norephinephrine uptake and sodium and potassium channels and 5-HTP may act through elevation of serotonin. While questions remain in the literature regarding the medicinal value of these supplements in treating mood and anxiety disorders, based on cellular and animal studies as well as human clinical trials the literature supports a role for these preparations as useful alternatives in the management of the stress and anxiety of everyday life. PMID:19865069

  8. Menorrhagia: A synopsis of management focusing on herbal and nutritional supplements, and chiropractic.

    PubMed Central

    Livdans-Forret, Anna B.; Harvey, Phyllis J.; Larkin-Thier, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction To make chiropractors more aware of menorrhagia and how they can serve a role in their patient’s care and education since women make up 60% of the population seeking chiropractic care. Method A review of the biomedical literature on menorrhagia was conducted. Items that were retrieved were synthesized and interpreted in order to give the best information to practicing chiropractors. Discussion Most of the information available relative to menorrhagia is medically oriented. Other treatment options can include: chiropractic, various types of herbs, and nutritional supplements. Conclusion Knowledge of medical treatment, nutritional supplements, along with chiropractic treatment options may be beneficial to doctors in their practice. PMID:18060009

  9. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined the effects of a proprietary herbal/botanical supplement (StemSport, Stemtech, San Clemente, CA.) suggested to increase circulating stem cells, decrease inflammation, and attenuate exercise induced muscle damage on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods Sixteen subjects (male = 7, female = 9; age 23.8 ± 10 years; height 171.9 ± 10 cm, mass 72.2 ± 15 kg) were randomized in a crossover, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to receive a placebo or StemSport supplement (6150 mg/day) for 14 days. DOMS was induced on day 7 for both placebo and active conditions in the non-dominant elbow flexor group with repeated eccentric repetitions. Muscle swelling (biceps girth), elbow flexor isometric strength (hand held dynamometer), muscle pain/tenderness (visual analog scale), range of motion (active elbow flexion and extension), and inflammation (hsCRP, IL6, and TNF-α) were measured at baseline and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h (1 week) post eccentric exercise. The crossover washout period was ≥14 days. Results No significant condition-by-time interactions between placebo and StemSport supplementation were observed with regard to measures of pain (p = 0.59), tenderness (p = 0.71), isometric strength (p = 0.32), elbow flexion (p = 0.45), muscle swelling (p = 0.90), or inflammation (p > 0.90). Decrements in elbow extension range of motion 48 h post-exercise were less after StemSport supplementation (Δ elbow extension 48 h post; StemSport, −2.0 deg; placebo, −10 deg; p = 0.003). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, StemSport supplementation does not improve outcome measures related to muscle recovery after acute upper-arm induced DOMS. PMID:24966805

  10. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  11. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  12. Availability of essential elements in nutrient supplements used as antidiabetic herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, R Paul; Reddy, A V R; Garg, A N

    2007-01-01

    Five brands of antidiabetic herbal formulations as tablets, Diabetex, Divya Madhu Nashini, Jambrushila, Diabeticin, and Madhumeh Nashini, from different pharmacies were analyzed for six minor (Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 20 trace (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, V, and Zn) elements by thermal neutron irradiation followed by high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Further Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Most elements vary in a narrow range by a factor of 2-4 while a few others vary in a wide range, e.g., Na (0.05-0.67 mg/g), Mn (26.7-250 microg/g), and V (0.26-2.50 microg/g). All the five brands contain K, Cl, Mg, P, and Ca as minor constituents along with mean trace amounts of Cr (2.11 +/- 0.67 microg/g), Cu (15.7 +/- 7.11 microg/g), Fe (459 +/- 171 microg/g), Mn (143 +/- 23 microg/g), Se (238 +/- 112 ng/g), and V (0.99 +/- 0.93 microg/g). Jambrushila is enriched in Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, Cu, Se, and Zn, essential nutrients responsible for curing diabetes. Dietary intake of Mn, Fe, and Cu are greater than 10% of the recommended dietary allowance, whereas that for Zn and Se is less than 2%. Mean contents of toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were found below permissible limits except in Jambrushila. Cr and Zn were inversely correlated with r = -0.81, whereas Rb and Cs exhibit linear correlation (r = 0.93) in five brands. C, H, N analysis showed C approximately 55%, H approximately 12%, and N approximately 2% with a total of approximately 70% organic matter. However, thermal decomposition studies at 700 degrees C suggest less than 5% nonvolatile metal oxides. Herbal formulations contain minor and trace elements in bioavailable forms that favorably influence glucose tolerance and possibly increase the body's ability to ameliorate development of diabetes. PMID:17916967

  13. Review of Various Herbal Supplements as Complementary Treatments for Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Godsey, Jessie; Grundmann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, nearly 44,000 people are diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer annually. The life expectancy for those who are diagnosed have a survival rate of 57% after five years. Among them, oral cancer can be classified as benign or malignant tumors and is diagnosed at several stages in the development: premalignant conditions, premalignant lesions, and malignant cancer. The early signs of oral cancer often go unnoticed by the individual and are often discovered during routine dental examinations. Early detection and treatment may help to increase patient survival rates. The most widely used treatments for oral cancer include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy-alone or in combination. Preclinical and clinical evidence for the use of green tea, raspberry, asparagus, and cannabis extracts is discussed in this review. Diet changes, supplementation with antioxidants, high-dose vitamin C therapy, and cannabinoid use have been suggested to decrease cancer cell replication and increase chance of remission. Early detection and lifestyle changes, including the use of dietary supplements in at-risk populations, are critical steps in preventing and successfully treating oral cancer. The main evidence for supplement use is currently in cancer prevention rather than treatment. Further research, determination, and mechanism of action for bioactive compounds such as epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate, through in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials need to be completed to support the use of natural products and their effectiveness in preventative care and supporting therapeutic approaches. PMID:26863913

  14. Restoration of the immune functions in aged mice by supplementation with a new herbal composition, HemoHIM.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a new herbal composition, HemoHIM, on immune functions was examined in aged mice, in which various immune responses had been impaired. The composition HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Supplementation to the aged mice with HemoHIM restored the proliferative response and cytokine production of splenocytes with a response to ConA. Also, HemoHIM recovered the NK cell activity which had been impaired in the aged mice. Meanwhile aging is known to reduce the Th1-like function, but not the Th2-like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance. HemoHIM restored the Th1/Th2 balance in the aged mice through enhanced IFN-gamma and IgG2a production, and conversely a reduced IL-4 and IgG1 production. It was found that one factor for the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the aged mice was a lower production of IL-12p70. However, HemoHIM restored the IL-12p70 production in the aged mice. These results suggested that HemoHIM was effective for the restoration of impaired immune functions of the aged mice and therefore could be a good recommendation for immune restoration in elderly humans. PMID:17705143

  15. Restoration of the immune functions in aged mice by supplementation with a new herbal composition, HemoHIM.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a new herbal composition, HemoHIM, on immune functions was examined in aged mice, in which various immune responses had been impaired. The composition HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Supplementation to the aged mice with HemoHIM restored the proliferative response and cytokine production of splenocytes with a response to ConA. Also, HemoHIM recovered the NK cell activity which had been impaired in the aged mice. Meanwhile aging is known to reduce the Th1-like function, but not the Th2-like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance. HemoHIM restored the Th1/Th2 balance in the aged mice through enhanced IFN-gamma and IgG2a production, and conversely a reduced IL-4 and IgG1 production. It was found that one factor for the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the aged mice was a lower production of IL-12p70. However, HemoHIM restored the IL-12p70 production in the aged mice. These results suggested that HemoHIM was effective for the restoration of impaired immune functions of the aged mice and therefore could be a good recommendation for immune restoration in elderly humans.

  16. A guide to herbal remedies

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects. Here are some examples: Kava is an herb used for anxiety, insomnia, symptoms of menopause, and ... about specific herbal supplements: NIH MedlinePlus database of herbs and supplements -- www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/ ...

  17. Methyl halide production associated with kelp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, Minoo N.; Manley, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    Methyl halides (MeX) are important trace constituents of the atmosphere because they, mostly MeCl, have a major impact on the atmospheric ozone layer. Also, MeCl may account for 5 pct. of the total Cl budget and MeI may have a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of iodine. High MeI concentrations were found in seawater from kelp beds and it has been suggested that MeI is produced by kelps and that MeI and MeBr along with numerous other halocarbons were released by non-kelp marine macroalgae. The objective was to determine if kelps (and other seaweeds) are sources of MeX and to assess their contribution to the estimated global source strength (EGSS) of MeX. Although the production of MeX appears to be associated with kelp, microbes involved with kelp degradation also produce MeX. Microbial MeX production may be of global significance. The microbial MeX production potential, assuming annual kelp production equals kelp degradation and 100 pct. conversion of kelp halides to MeX, is approx. 2 x the EGSS. This is not achieved but indicates that microbial production of MeX may be of global significance.

  18. Coupling frontal elution paper chromatography with desorption corona beam ionization mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of chlorphenamine in herbal medicines and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun-Qing; You, Jing-Qing; Zhang, Junsheng; Sun, Wenjian; Ding, Li; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2011-10-14

    We developed a convenient method by coupling frontal elution paper chromatography with desorption corona beam ionization mass spectrometry (DCBI-MS) for rapid determination of chlorphenamine added in herbal medicines or dietary supplements. In this method, the ethanol extract of the herbal products was spotted directly onto an isosceles triangular filter paper sheet, and then the paper sheet was developed under strong elution condition with the sample zone migrating at the solvent front. The analyte was finally condensed at the V-shaped tip which could then be placed under the visible plasma beam of DCBI for ionization. The overall procedure took less than 5 min. The frontal elution paper chromatography on a triangular plate used in this work improved the signal intensity of chlorphenamine by 30-fold due to the analyte condensing at the tip and the reduction of the background suppression. Furthermore, the paper sheet also functioned as a filter in the analysis of solid or powder samples, which can increase the analytical throughput by omitting the step of centrifugation. The proposed method in current study was successfully applied in the determination of chlorphenamine in herbal medicines. Chlorphenamine was detected in four of the twelve types of herbal medicines examined in this study. The limit of detection was 200 ng/mL (2.0 ng absolute) in full-scan positive-ion mode and the linear range was from 5.0 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL with satisfactory linear coefficient (R(2) (the square of the correlation coefficient)=0.895). Good reproducibility was achieved with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 15.0% and the recoveries of chlorphenamine ranged from 84.3 to 90.6%.

  19. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography with charged aerosol detection for universal quantitation of undeclared phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Poplawska, Magdalena; Blazewicz, Agata; Bukowinska, Kinga; Fijalek, Zbigniew

    2013-10-01

    Incidents of detecting novel analogues of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in illicit dietary supplements for erectile dysfunction are constantly reported. However, little is known about their content in a single dose, mainly due to the poor availability or inaccessibility of pure reference standards. This study presents a new strategy of quantitative analysis of unknown and recently identified compounds. Charged aerosol detector (CAD), described as "universal detector", combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system proved to be a useful tool for fast and simple quantitation of PDE-5 inhibitors' analogues in a complex herbal matrix without individual reference standards available. Universal calibration was employed for calculations. Two easily obtainable reference materials - sildenafil and tadalafil - were selected as universal standards and the content of analogues was estimated with respect to their response. The error of proposed indirect determination was found to be ± 3%, which is less than enough to obtain a reliable result of the content. The elaborated method was applied for quantitative analyses of PDE-5 inhibitors and 10 analogues detected in 22 illicit dietary supplements and two bulk powdered herbal materials. All target analogues were identified using time-of-flight mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. Obtained results indicate that the quantity of PDE-5 inhibitors in all tested samples is considered to be pharmacologically relevant. PMID:23850939

  20. Trophic versus structural effects of a marine foundation species, giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera).

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert J; Page, Henry M; Reed, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    Foundation species create milieus in which ecosystems evolve, altering species abundances and distribution often to a dramatic degree. Although much descriptive work supports their importance, there remains little definitive information on the mechanisms by which foundation species alter their environment. These mechanisms fall into two basic categories: provision of food or other materials, and modification of the physical environment. Here, we manipulated the abundance of a marine foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, in 40 × 40-m plots at Mohawk Reef off Santa Barbara, California and found that its biomass had a strong positive effect on the abundance of bottom-dwelling sessile invertebrates. We examined the carbon (C) stable isotope values of seven species of sessile invertebrates in the treatment plots to test the hypothesis that this positive effect resulted from a nutritional supplement of small suspended particles of kelp detritus, as many studies have posited. We found no evidence from stable isotope analyses to support the hypothesis that kelp detritus is an important food source for sessile suspension-feeding invertebrates. The isotope composition of invertebrates varied with species and season, but was not affected by kelp biomass, with the exception of two species: the tunicate Styela montereyensis, which exhibited a slight enrichment in C stable isotope composition with increasing kelp biomass, and the hydroid Aglaophenia sp., which showed the opposite effect. These results suggest that modification of the physical habitat, rather than nutritional subsidy by kelp detritus, likely accounts for increased abundance of sessile invertebrates within giant kelp forests. PMID:26358195

  1. Variability of Giant Kelp Forests in Southern California: Remote Assessment of Kelp Biomass and the Drivers of Kelp Forest Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavanaugh, Kyle Christopher

    Coastal ecosystems are structured by a complex interplay of forcing processes that operate across a variety of scales. However, it is often difficult to monitor these dynamic systems over large geographic areas and long time periods. Thus, there are significant gaps in our understanding of how the relative roles of important coastal ecosystem forcing processes vary in space and time. Here, I developed novel methods for estimating the biomass of giant kelp from satellite imagery, which allowed me to examine kelp biomass dynamics on spatial scales ranging from meters to 1000s of km and temporal scales ranging from months to decades. I combined this satellite biomass data with diver surveys of kelp biomass to describe the relationship between plot (40 m), forest (˜1 km), and regional (˜60 km) scale changes in kelp biomass along the Santa Barbara mainland coast. I then compared changes in kelp biomass across the entire Santa Barbara Channel with environmental and climatic data and found substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the controls of giant kelp biomass dynamics. Finally, I evaluated the relative roles of spatial metapopulation and local environmental controls on giant kelp extinction/colonization dynamics and resilience. Many coastal ecosystems are well studied at the local scale, but long-term, large-scale studies of these systems provide valuable insight into the spatial and temporal generality of local results.

  2. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  3. Prevalence of herbal and dietary supplement usage in Thai outpatients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few studies of the prevalence and patterns of herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) use in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), although many researchers and health professionals worldwide have raised concern about the potential effects of HDS on patients with renal insufficiency. A survey was conducted to determine: the prevalence and patterns of HDS use in Thai patients with CKD; the demographic factors related to HDS use; the reasons why Thai patients with CKD use HDS; respondent experiences of benefits and adverse effects from HDS; and the association between conventional medication adherence and HDS use. Methods This cross-sectional survey recruited patients with CKD attending two teaching hospitals in Thailand. Data were collected via an interview using a semi-structured interview schedule regarding demographics, HDS usage, reasons for HDS use, and respondent experiences of effects from HDS. Conventional medication adherence was measured using the Thai version of 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the prevalence and the patterns of HDS use. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to determine any associations between HDS use, demographics and conventional medication adherence. Results Four hundred and twenty-one eligible patients were recruited. The prevalence of HDS use in the previous 12 months was 45%. There were no demographic differences between HDS users and non-users, except former drinkers were less likely to use HDS, compared with non-drinkers (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.75). Those with a medium level of adherence to conventional medication were less likely to use HDS compared with those with a low level of adherence (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.87). Maintaining well-being was most common purpose for using HDS (36%). Nearly 18% used HDS, such as holy mushroom, river spiderwort and boesenbergia, to treat kidney disease. The top three most often reported reasons

  4. Nutritional content and a phase-I safety clinical trial of a herbal-nutritional supplement (IMUNITI) with putative immune-modulating properties.

    PubMed

    Matsabisa, M G; Sekhoacha, M P; Ibrahim, O; Moodley, P; Faber, M

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between HIV and AIDS and poor nutrition has been well established. Poor nutrition hastens the progression of HIV infection to AIDS. The rising pandemic of HIV and AIDS and high toxicity associated with anti-retroviral use are major factors that have compelled research to explore traditional herbal medicines as potential alternatives or supplements to anti-retroviral agents. A Phase I clinical trial was conducted on IMUNITI Wellness Pack, a herbal product with putative immune-modulating properties. The product is a combination of 7 herbal preparations, minerals, vitamins, and a specially formulated soya-maize meal porridge and a bottle of water purifier. The aim was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of IMUNITI, with a purpose of developing it for use in HIV-infected patients. The phase I study was conducted at the MRC clinic in Botha's hill and the study lasted 5 weeks from date of participant dosing. The study was a randomised blinded placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial conducted on 48 healthy males. The participants were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12. The 3 groups received different escalating doses of IMUNITI while the forth group received placebo tablets. Participants consumed IMUNITI daily for a period of 5 weeks. Assessments were done at baseline, week 1 and week 5 to determine the safety parameters in all participants. In this study, IMUNITI did not show any safety concerns. In all study participants, there were no significant changes above the upper limit of the reference ranges of the laboratory tests for full blood count, INR, renal and biochemical safety parameters. IMUNITI was well tolerated. Furthermore, the nutritional content analysis of IMUNITI showed that it is a high kilojoule, high protein content product which contains a mixture of sugars, vitamins, traces of calcium, phosphorus and minerals. PMID:23983351

  5. Nutritional content and a phase-I safety clinical trial of a herbal-nutritional supplement (IMUNITI) with putative immune-modulating properties.

    PubMed

    Matsabisa, M G; Sekhoacha, M P; Ibrahim, O; Moodley, P; Faber, M

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between HIV and AIDS and poor nutrition has been well established. Poor nutrition hastens the progression of HIV infection to AIDS. The rising pandemic of HIV and AIDS and high toxicity associated with anti-retroviral use are major factors that have compelled research to explore traditional herbal medicines as potential alternatives or supplements to anti-retroviral agents. A Phase I clinical trial was conducted on IMUNITI Wellness Pack, a herbal product with putative immune-modulating properties. The product is a combination of 7 herbal preparations, minerals, vitamins, and a specially formulated soya-maize meal porridge and a bottle of water purifier. The aim was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of IMUNITI, with a purpose of developing it for use in HIV-infected patients. The phase I study was conducted at the MRC clinic in Botha's hill and the study lasted 5 weeks from date of participant dosing. The study was a randomised blinded placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial conducted on 48 healthy males. The participants were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12. The 3 groups received different escalating doses of IMUNITI while the forth group received placebo tablets. Participants consumed IMUNITI daily for a period of 5 weeks. Assessments were done at baseline, week 1 and week 5 to determine the safety parameters in all participants. In this study, IMUNITI did not show any safety concerns. In all study participants, there were no significant changes above the upper limit of the reference ranges of the laboratory tests for full blood count, INR, renal and biochemical safety parameters. IMUNITI was well tolerated. Furthermore, the nutritional content analysis of IMUNITI showed that it is a high kilojoule, high protein content product which contains a mixture of sugars, vitamins, traces of calcium, phosphorus and minerals.

  6. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

  7. Application of a high resolution benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry for the rapid screening, confirmation and quantification of illegal adulterated phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in herbal medicines and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Guo, Changchuan; Gong, Liping; Li, Jun; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Jinling; Cui, Ping; Jiang, Shuyin; Zhao, Yanxia; Zeng, Su

    2014-05-30

    In this study, the applicability of high resolution quadrupole-Orbitrap (Q-Orbitrap) mass spectrometry for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of illegal adulterated phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5 inhibitors) in herbal medicines and dietary supplements was investigated. The mass spectrometer was operated in full MS scan/dd-MS(2) (data-dependent MS(2)) mode. The use of 70,000 FWHM mass resolution and narrow mass windows (5 ppm) could effectively improve the selectivity of the method, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio for the analytes. The response showed good linear relationship with the analytes' concentrations over wide ranges (e.g., 0.05-10 μg/g for sildenafil) with all the coefficient of determinations (r(2)) >0.9996. The detection limits (LODs) were in the range of 1.0-5.0 ng/g for different analytes. The recoveries ranged from 85.4% to 96.7%. The intra- and inter-day accuracies were in the range of -6.6 to 10.1%, while the intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 0.0039% to 13.2%. Among 68 batches of herbal medicines and 20 batches of dietary supplements (including 83 capsules, 3 pellets and 2 liquid) samples, sildenafil was detected in 8 dietary supplements, while noracetildenafil was detected in only one dietary supplement. The novel Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry has been proved to be a very promising and powerful tool for routine screening of illegal adulterate in herbal medicines and dietary supplements, ensuring food safety and public health. PMID:24377735

  8. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective when taken with St. John’s Wort, an herbal supplement. Depending on the medication involved, the results OMCvoeeurd- ... a prescrip- tion blood thinner), ginkgo biloba (an herbal supplement), aspirin and vita- min E (a supplement) can ...

  9. Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Wang, Ruxiang; Bassett, Susan H; Chen, Tao; Liu, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tambi, Mohd Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength. PMID:23754792

  10. Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Wang, Ruxiang; Bassett, Susan H; Chen, Tao; Liu, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tambi, Mohd Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength.

  11. Analysis of potential adulteration in herbal medicines and dietary supplements for the weight control by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cianchino, Valeria; Acosta, Gimena; Ortega, Claudia; Martínez, Luis D; Gomez, María R

    2008-06-01

    Four different phytopharmaceutical dosage forms for use in weight control programs were analyzed. Two different ground herbal blends and their correspondent infusions, a capsule and a tincture were investigated for the presence of compounds used as adulterants in these products. A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed and validated. The optimized experimental conditions were: BGE, sodium tetraborate buffer 20mM, pH 9.2, voltage applied 30kV, capillary temperature 25°C, injection sample at 0.5Psi during 5s. Ephedrine, norephedrine, caffeine and furosemide were baseline separated in less than 7min; the migration times were found to be 2.65, 2.90, 3.75 and 6.58min, respectively. The analysis showed in sample 3 concentrations of 0.45±0.03mgg(-1) (ephedrine), 0.33±0.02mgg(-1) (norephedrine), 1.09±0.41mgg(-1) (caffeine) and 0.80±0.17mgg(-1) (furosemide). Caffeine content in samples 1, 2 and 4 was 0.61±0.06mgg(-1), 15.66±1.05mgg(-1) and 2.27±0.13mgml(-1), respectively. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1-1000μgml(-1). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were determined as 0.42μgml(-1) and 1.40μgml(-1) (ephedrine), 0.47μgml(-1) and 1.40μgml(-1) (norephedrine), 0.12μgml(-1) and 0.48μgml(-1) (caffeine), 0.22μgml(-1) and 0.73μgml(-1) (furosemide). The common constituents of the samples did not interfere with the potential adulterants. Repeatability was better than 0.24% RSD for the retention time and 1.43% for the peak area. Intermediate precision was tested by changing the capillary, the day of operation and the operator, in all the cases the %RSD was better than 3.06.

  12. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    An herb is a plant or plant part used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are ... go through the testing that drugs do. Some herbs, such as comfrey and ephedra, can cause serious ...

  13. Proton NMR for detection, identification and quantification of adulterants in 160 herbal food supplements marketed for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Rabab; Assemat, Gaëtan; Martins, Nathalie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2016-05-30

    One hundred and sixty food supplements (FS) marketed for weight loss and mainly purchased on the Internet were analyzed. All the FS were claimed as 100% natural containing only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins and the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was never mentioned. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for supporting their identification. Among the 164 samples considered because capsules from 5 different blisters of the same FS were analyzed, 56% were tainted with six API. Forty three contained sibutramine as single adulterant (26%), 9 phenolphthalein (6%) and 23 a mixture of these API (14%) that were both withdrawn from the market several years ago because of toxicity concerns. Sildenafil was found in 12 samples, either as a single adulterant (n=5) or in combination with sibutramine (n=3), phenolphthalein (n=3) and both sibutramine and phenolphthalein (n=1). Fluoxetine was present in 4 formulations, alone (n=3) or in combination with sibutramine and orlistat (n=1). At last, lorcaserine was detected in one FS. The content of sibutramine per dosage unit was comprised between 0.1 and 22 mg and that of phenolphthalein between 0.05 and 56 mg. The study also highlights poor manufacturing practices as evidenced for instance by the variability of API in capsules from different blisters of the same box. This paper demonstrates the need for more effective quality control of weight loss FS and the efficiency of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the detection of tainted FS. PMID:26928212

  14. Proton NMR for detection, identification and quantification of adulterants in 160 herbal food supplements marketed for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Rabab; Assemat, Gaëtan; Martins, Nathalie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2016-05-30

    One hundred and sixty food supplements (FS) marketed for weight loss and mainly purchased on the Internet were analyzed. All the FS were claimed as 100% natural containing only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins and the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was never mentioned. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for supporting their identification. Among the 164 samples considered because capsules from 5 different blisters of the same FS were analyzed, 56% were tainted with six API. Forty three contained sibutramine as single adulterant (26%), 9 phenolphthalein (6%) and 23 a mixture of these API (14%) that were both withdrawn from the market several years ago because of toxicity concerns. Sildenafil was found in 12 samples, either as a single adulterant (n=5) or in combination with sibutramine (n=3), phenolphthalein (n=3) and both sibutramine and phenolphthalein (n=1). Fluoxetine was present in 4 formulations, alone (n=3) or in combination with sibutramine and orlistat (n=1). At last, lorcaserine was detected in one FS. The content of sibutramine per dosage unit was comprised between 0.1 and 22 mg and that of phenolphthalein between 0.05 and 56 mg. The study also highlights poor manufacturing practices as evidenced for instance by the variability of API in capsules from different blisters of the same box. This paper demonstrates the need for more effective quality control of weight loss FS and the efficiency of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the detection of tainted FS.

  15. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  16. Complex trophic interactions in kelp forest ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, J. A.; Danner, E.M.; Doak, D.F.; Konar, B.; Springer, A.M.; Steinberg, P.D.; Tinker, M. Tim; Williams, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The distributions and abundances of species and populations change almost continuously. Understanding the processes responsible is perhaps ecology’s most fundamental challenge. Kelp-forest ecosystems in southwest Alaska have undergone several phase shifts between alga- and herbivore-dominated states in recent decades. Overhunting and recovery of sea otters caused the earlier shifts. Studies focusing on these changes demonstrate the importance of top-down forcing processes, a variety of indirect food-web interactions associated with the otter-urchin-kelp trophic cascade, and the role of food-chain length in the coevolution of defense and resistance in plants and their herbivores. This system unexpectedly shifted back to an herbivore-dominated state during the 1990s, because of a sea-otter population collapse that apparently was driven by increased predation by killer whales. Reasons for this change remain uncertain but seem to be linked to the whole-sale collapse of marine mammals in the North Pacific Ocean and southern Bering Sea. We hypothesize that killer whales sequentially "fished down" pinniped and sea-otter populations after their earlier prey, the great whales, were decimated by commercial whaling. The dynamics of kelp forests in southwest Alaska thus appears to have been influenced by an ecological chain reaction that encompassed numerous species and large scales of space and time.

  17. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... not been able to prove that dietary or herbal supplements (including omega-3 supplements, cinnamon, and other herbs) ... of people with diabetes used some type of herbal therapy , while another study found that 31 percent used dietary supplements . Certain ethnic groups, such as Hispanics, Native Americans, ...

  18. Kelp meal (Ascophyllum nodosum) did not improve milk yield or mitigate heat stress but increased milk iodine in mid lactation organic Jersey cows during the grazing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kelp meal (KM) made from dry and ground Ascophyllum nodosum, a brown algae, is often used as a mineral supplement on northeastern organic dairy farms. Twenty (12 primiparous and 8 multiparous) organic Jersey cows with an initial BW of 410 kg (SD ± 39) and DIM of 135 (SD ± 52) were blocked by milk yi...

  19. Effects of Zoospore Aggregation and Substrate Rugosity on Kelp Recruitment Success.

    PubMed

    Muth, Arley F

    2012-12-01

    Successful kelp recruitment is important for kelp population persistence and associated kelp forest communities. The proximity of settled kelp zoospores is a known requirement for successful kelp recruitment and proximity can be increased as zoospores aggregate. Substrate rugosity can also be an important factor affecting macroalgal settlement and recruitment in wave-swept areas, and may affect kelp recruitment by aggregating zoospores. In this study, kelp zoospores were cultured at different levels of small-scale aggregation and kelp recruitment was quantified. Sporophyte production significantly increased as zoospores became more aggregated indicating that processes that aggregate kelp zoospores have the potential to enhance kelp recruitment. A 13-month field experiment demonstrated differential kelp recruitment onto settlement plates that mimicked surface rugosities of two common rock types within Stillwater Cove, Carmel Bay in central California (Carmelo Formation sandstone and Santa Lucia granodiorite). Significantly more kelp recruited to molds mimicking granodiorite over the yearlong study (granodiorite = 2.7 recruits ± SE 0.50, sandstone = 1.2 recruits ± SE 0.51). There was a significant difference in recruitment between seasons and this variability was due to the fact that spring had the highest average number of kelp recruits per mold. However, the interaction between substrate and season was not significant. This study emphasizes the importance of kelp zoospore aggregation on kelp recruitment and demonstrates that small-scale rugosity affects kelp recruitment.

  20. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  1. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  2. Targeted analysis of multiple pharmaceuticals, plant toxins and other secondary metabolites in herbal dietary supplements by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbital ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-01-31

    In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbital ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-orbitrap MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 96 pharmaceuticals, plant toxins, and other plant secondary metabolites in herbal dietary supplements. Target analytes were extracted from samples using the QuEChERS (quick easy cheap effective rugged safe) procedure. The instrument was operated in full MS-data dependent tandem mass spectrometry (full MS-dd-MS/MS) acquisition mode which enabled collection of quantitative high resolution (HR) full mass spectral data and confirmatory HR MS/MS data in a single run. The method provided excellent selectivity in both full MS and dd-MS/MS mode. Under optimized collision energy settings, product ion spectra containing both precursor and two or more product ions were obtained for most of the analytes. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for the method differed significantly for the examined matrices. LODs≤10μg kg(-1) and LOQs≤50μg kg(-1) were obtained for 48 to 81% of target compounds across five different matrices. With the exception of highly polar analytes, the optimized QuEChERS extraction procedure provided acceptable recoveries in the range 70%-120%. The precision of the method, characterized as the relative standard deviation (RSD, n=5), was ≤25% and ≤18% at spiking concentrations of 50μg kg(-1) and 500μg kg(-1), respectively. Because of variations in matrix effects in extracts of herbal dietary supplements that differed in composition, the method of standard additions and an approach based on dilution of matrix components followed by quantification using solvent standards were applied for quantification. The procedure was used to examine commercial dietary supplements for the 96 analytes of interest. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an integrated analysis and quantification of this wide range of compounds.

  3. Targeted analysis of multiple pharmaceuticals, plant toxins and other secondary metabolites in herbal dietary supplements by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbital ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-01-31

    In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbital ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-orbitrap MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 96 pharmaceuticals, plant toxins, and other plant secondary metabolites in herbal dietary supplements. Target analytes were extracted from samples using the QuEChERS (quick easy cheap effective rugged safe) procedure. The instrument was operated in full MS-data dependent tandem mass spectrometry (full MS-dd-MS/MS) acquisition mode which enabled collection of quantitative high resolution (HR) full mass spectral data and confirmatory HR MS/MS data in a single run. The method provided excellent selectivity in both full MS and dd-MS/MS mode. Under optimized collision energy settings, product ion spectra containing both precursor and two or more product ions were obtained for most of the analytes. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for the method differed significantly for the examined matrices. LODs≤10μg kg(-1) and LOQs≤50μg kg(-1) were obtained for 48 to 81% of target compounds across five different matrices. With the exception of highly polar analytes, the optimized QuEChERS extraction procedure provided acceptable recoveries in the range 70%-120%. The precision of the method, characterized as the relative standard deviation (RSD, n=5), was ≤25% and ≤18% at spiking concentrations of 50μg kg(-1) and 500μg kg(-1), respectively. Because of variations in matrix effects in extracts of herbal dietary supplements that differed in composition, the method of standard additions and an approach based on dilution of matrix components followed by quantification using solvent standards were applied for quantification. The procedure was used to examine commercial dietary supplements for the 96 analytes of interest. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an integrated analysis and quantification of this wide range of compounds

  4. Use of herbals as galactagogues.

    PubMed

    Zapantis, Antonia; Steinberg, Jennifer G; Schilit, Lea

    2012-04-01

    With a substantial number of women using herbal products to augment their milk production, this article will review available literature illustrating efficacy and adverse effects of using these products. Embase, PubMed, and EBSCO (all databases) were searched from inception to June 2011 using terms such as ‘‘galactagogue,’’ ‘‘galactogogue,’’ ‘‘herbal,’’ and ‘‘botanical’’ and the search was subsequently narrowed to specific herbals by name. Additional articles were obtained from article reference lists. Supplemental information was obtained with Natural Standard. All abstracts retrieved were evaluated for relevance and germane articles were included. Numerous lactation-stimulating herbals have been identified in the literature with varying degrees of evidence,mostly anecdotal. Use of torbangun, milk thistle, and fenugreek may correlate with increased milk supply. Evidence regarding adverse effects, pharmacodynamic properties, and pharmacokinetic effects remains scarce. Despite the fact that postpartum women may turn to herbal galactagogues, scant clinical evidence exists to justify their effectiveness. Further clinical trials are needed in order to substantiate these findings.

  5. Long distance kelp rafting impacts seaweed biogeography in the Northeast Pacific: the kelp conveyor hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Gary W

    2014-12-01

    Routine DNA barcoding of the Haida Gwaii seaweed flora revealed "endemic species" attributed initially to this region's past as a glacial refugium. However, subsequent barcode records from central California rapidly eroded this list leaving species characterized by disjunct distributions (DD) between California and Haida Gwaii. This observation prompted a more detailed look at species for California and British Columbia and revealed that 33 of 180 DNA-barcoded genetic groups in common between these regions (~18%) predominantly displayed DD between California and northern British Columbia. A previous discovery that a red abalone shell found in Haida Gwaii (far north of its range) had a float-bearing kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana) holdfast attached to it prompted a closer consideration of the COI-5P barcode data in support of a "kelp conveyor hypothesis." The hypothesis posits that there has been a net migration of Californian species to northern British Columbia the vector being species growing on substrata carried along with kelp rafts on the winter Davidson Current. PMID:26988778

  6. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on ... approved labels included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies ...

  7. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories.

  8. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories. PMID:27542428

  9. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    MedlinePlus

    ... study. These include glucosamine (for joint pain) and herbal supplements such as echinacea (immune health) and flaxseed oil ( ... be fine,” Coates says. “According to the FDA, supplement products most likely ... ingredients are herbal remedies promoted for weight loss and for sexual ...

  10. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  11. Herbal Medicines as Adjuvants for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

  12. Artificial structures influence fouling on habitat-forming kelps.

    PubMed

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M

    2012-01-01

    The addition of artificial structures along urbanised shorelines is a global phenomenon. Such modifications of habitats have important consequences to the abundance of fouling organisms on primary substrata, but the influence on fouling of habitat-formers living on these structures is poorly understood. Fouling of habitat-forming kelps Ecklonia radiata on pier-pilings was compared to that on rocky reefs at three locations in Sydney Harbour. Kelps on pilings supported different assemblages of bryozoans from those on reefs. The abundances of bryozoans on kelps, in particular of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, were significantly greater on pilings. Differences were consistent in time and space. This indicates that the addition of artificial structures also affects fouling on secondary biogenic substrata, altering biodiversity and potentially facilitating the introduction and dispersal of non-indigenous epibiota. Understanding the processes that cause these patterns is necessary to allow sensible predictions about ecological effects of built structures. PMID:22452393

  13. Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…

  14. Climate driven changes in subtidal kelp forest communities in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Voerman, Sofie E; Llera, Eva; Rico, José M

    2013-09-01

    Reconstructions suggest a massive decline of nearly 1400 ha of kelp forest in North Western Spain in 2007. In line with global rising temperatures, we hypothesized that Sea Surface Temperature (SST) surpassed a lethal threshold for kelp. We examined whether changes in SST correlated to the proposed decline in kelp forest. All investigated SST characteristics suggested to affect kelp abundance increased significantly during the past thirty years, reaching extreme values during the last decade. In addition over the past two decades, the landscape formerly dominated by both cold and warm temperate canopy forming and understory species changed to one dominated by warm temperate understory species, resulting in a loss of vertical community structure. Fisheries landing data of kelp associated species was used to support the suggested change in kelp abundance. Subsequent recovery of the kelp appears to be occurring in deeper waters.

  15. Milk thistle, a herbal supplement, decreases the activity of CYP3A4 and uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase in human hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Venkataramanan, R; Ramachandran, V; Komoroski, B J; Zhang, S; Schiff, P L; Strom, S C

    2000-11-01

    Milk thistle extract is one of the most commonly used nontraditional therapies, particularly in Germany. Milk thistle is known to contain a number of flavonolignans. We evaluated the effect of silymarin, on the activity of various hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocyte cultures. Treatment with silymarin (0.1 and 0.25 mM) significantly reduced the activity of CYP3A4 enzyme (by 50 and 100%, respectively) as determined by the formation of 6-beta-hydroxy testosterone and the activity of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A6/9) (by 65 and 100%, respectively) as measured by the formation of 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronide. Silymarin (0.5 mM) also significantly decreased mitochondrial respiration as determined by MTT reduction in human hepatocytes. These observations point to the potential of silymarin to impair hepatic metabolism of certain coadministered drugs in humans. Indiscriminate use of herbal products may lead to altered pharmacokinetics of certain drugs and may result in increased toxicity of certain drugs.

  16. Rope culture of the kelp Laminaria groenlandica in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.J.; Calvin, N.I.

    1981-02-01

    This paper is an account of rope culture of the brown seaweed or kelp, Laminaria groenlandica, in Alaska. It describes the placement of the ropes, time of first appearance of young L. groenlandica, size of the plants at various ages, and other life history features applicable to the use of rope for the culture of seaweeds in Alaska. (Refs. 3).

  17. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  18. Indirect effects of sea otters on rockfish (Sebastes spp.) in giant kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Markel, Russell W; Shurin, Jonathan B

    2015-11-01

    Sea otters are a classic example of a predator controlling ecosystem productivity through cascading effects on basal, habitat-forming kelp species. However, their indirect effects on other kelp-associated taxa like fishes are poorly understood. We examined the effects of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) reintroduction along the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada on giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) distributions and the trophic niches and growth of two common kelp forest fishes, black (Sebastes melanops) and copper (S. caurinus) rockfishes. We sampled 47 kelp forests, and found that red sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) were eliminated in the presence of otters, and that kelp forests were 3.7 times deeper and 18.8 times larger. Despite order-of-magnitude differences in kelp forest size, adult black and copper rockfishes contained less kelp-derived carbon in their tissues (as measured by stable isotopes of C and N) in regions with otters. Adults of both species had higher mean trophic positions in the presence of otters, indicating more frequent consumption of higher trophic level prey such as fishes. Smaller trophic niche space of rockfishes in the presence of otters indicated a higher degree of trophic specialization. Juvenile black rockfishes rapidly shifted to higher kelp-carbon contents, trophic positions, and body condition factors after settling in kelp forests. The relationships of growth to length, percentage of kelp carbon, and trophic position varied between the two regions, indicating that potential effects of kelp forest size on trophic ontogeny may also affect individual performance. Our results provide evidence that the indirect effects of otters on rockfishes arise largely through the creation of habitat for fishes and other prey rather than a direct trophic connection through invertebrates or other consumers of kelp productivity.

  19. Indirect effects of sea otters on rockfish (Sebastes spp.) in giant kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Markel, Russell W; Shurin, Jonathan B

    2015-11-01

    Sea otters are a classic example of a predator controlling ecosystem productivity through cascading effects on basal, habitat-forming kelp species. However, their indirect effects on other kelp-associated taxa like fishes are poorly understood. We examined the effects of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) reintroduction along the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada on giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) distributions and the trophic niches and growth of two common kelp forest fishes, black (Sebastes melanops) and copper (S. caurinus) rockfishes. We sampled 47 kelp forests, and found that red sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) were eliminated in the presence of otters, and that kelp forests were 3.7 times deeper and 18.8 times larger. Despite order-of-magnitude differences in kelp forest size, adult black and copper rockfishes contained less kelp-derived carbon in their tissues (as measured by stable isotopes of C and N) in regions with otters. Adults of both species had higher mean trophic positions in the presence of otters, indicating more frequent consumption of higher trophic level prey such as fishes. Smaller trophic niche space of rockfishes in the presence of otters indicated a higher degree of trophic specialization. Juvenile black rockfishes rapidly shifted to higher kelp-carbon contents, trophic positions, and body condition factors after settling in kelp forests. The relationships of growth to length, percentage of kelp carbon, and trophic position varied between the two regions, indicating that potential effects of kelp forest size on trophic ontogeny may also affect individual performance. Our results provide evidence that the indirect effects of otters on rockfishes arise largely through the creation of habitat for fishes and other prey rather than a direct trophic connection through invertebrates or other consumers of kelp productivity. PMID:27070008

  20. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Baby; Kumar, Gopal; Kalam, Nazia; Ansari, Shahid H

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life.

  1. Kelp, cobbles, and currents: biological reduction of coarse sediment entrainment stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masteller, C.; Finnegan, N. J.; Miller, I. M.; Warrick, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Kelp forests support diverse assemblages of organisms and grow along many rocky coastlines. Since the flow of water through kelp forests controls the transport and fate of nutrients in near shore environments, the hydrodynamics of kelp forests are well studied. In addition, a number of studies have observed transport of large grains attached to seaweed and/or kelp holdfasts. Such observations suggest that the biology colonizing the littoral zone may fundamentally influence coarse sediment transport processes. In this contribution, we set out to quantify the effect of kelp on near shore, current driven coarse sediment transport. By exploiting an existing model for kelp hydrodynamics, we build a physical model for incipient motion of a coarse grain coupled to a kelp frond under a unidirectional current. This model accounts for the additional buoyant, drag, and tensional forces transmitted from a kelp frond to the attached sediment. Application of the model demonstrates that the large surface area of kelp results in an increase in drag force, while the pull of the buoyant kelp frond reduces friction on the grain. Further, as the fluid flows over the kelp frond, it will 'go with the flow', stretching, and applying a tensional stress. Together, these effects significantly reduce the threshold stress for the initiation of motion. Thus kelp-assisted transport can occur at reduced fluid velocities where coarse sediment transport would otherwise be impossible. In addition, the results of this study provide an example of a system where biology must be explicitly accounted for in order to model coarse sediment transport accurately.

  2. Evaluation of the in vitro/in vivo potential of five berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) commonly used as herbal supplements to inhibit uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eu Jin; Park, Jung Bae; Yoon, Kee Dong; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated inhibitory potentials of popularly-consumed berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) as herbal supplements on UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 in vitro. We also investigated the potential herb-drug interaction via UGT1A1 inhibition by blueberry in vivo. We demonstrated that these berries had only weak inhibitory effects on the five UGTs. Bilberry and elderberry had no apparent inhibitions. Blueberry weakly inhibited UGT1A1 with an IC50 value of 62.4±4.40 μg/mL and a Ki value of 53.1 μg/mL. Blueberry also weakly inhibited UGT2B7 with an IC50 value of 147±11.1 μg/mL. In addition, cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A9 activity (IC50=458±49.7 μg/mL) and raspberry ketones weakly inhibited UGT2B7 activity (IC50=248±28.2 μg/mL). Among tested berries, blueberry showed the lowest IC50 value in the inhibition of UGT1A1 in vitro. However, the co-administration of blueberry had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, which was mainly eliminated via UGT1A1, in vivo. Our data suggests that these five berries are unlikely to cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism. These findings should enable an understanding of herb-drug interactions for the safe use of popularly-consumed berries.

  3. Bacterial diversity in relation to secondary production and succession on surfaces of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Mia M; Sjøtun, Kjersti; Lanzén, Anders; Øvreås, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Kelp forests worldwide are known as hotspots for macroscopic biodiversity and primary production, yet very little is known about the biodiversity and roles of microorganisms in these ecosystems. Secondary production by heterotrophic bacteria associated to kelp is important in the food web as a link between kelp primary production and kelp forest consumers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacterial diversity and two important processes in this ecosystem; bacterial secondary production and primary succession on kelp surfaces. To address this, kelp, Laminaria hyperborea, from southwestern Norway was sampled at different geographical locations and during an annual cycle. Pyrosequencing (454-sequencing) of amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria was used to study bacterial diversity. Incorporation of tritiated thymidine was used as a measure of bacterial production. Our data show that bacterial diversity (richness and evenness) increases with the age of the kelp surface, which corresponds to the primary succession of its bacterial communities. Higher evenness of bacterial operational taxonomical units (OTUs) is linked to higher bacterial production. Owing to the dominance of a few abundant OTUs, kelp surface biofilm communities may be characterized as low-diversity habitats. This is the first detailed study of kelp-associated bacterial communities using high-throughput sequencing and it extends current knowledge on microbial community assembly and dynamics on living surfaces. PMID:22763650

  4. Effects of kelp forest removal on associated fish assemblages in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Visual surveys along subtidal belt transects were used to compare fish assemblages on an experimental and a control site before and after the removal of a canopy-forming kelp forest. The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C.A. Agardh was removed at the holdfast from approximately equals 1 ha of high relief structurally complex rock substratum. The abundance of seven species of fish, of which five were considered midwater species, significantly declined after the kelp was removed. Results indicate that the presence of a giant kelp forest may increase the abundance and species diversity of the fish assemblages over a high relief rocky reef in central California, U.S.A.

  5. Kelp forest size alters microbial community structure and function on Vancouver Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Clasen, J L; Shurin, J B

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitous and important components of marine ecosystems, yet the interaction between bacteria and higher trophic levels remain poorly understood. The trophic cascade involving sea otters, urchins, and kelp in the North Pacific is a classic case of altered ecosystem states; however, its impacts on microbial communities are unknown. We investigated the response of microbial communities to variation in kelp abundance between regions with and without sea otter populations along the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. We compared bacterial community structure and function between regions with large and small kelp forests, including an subset of the bacterial community that produces alginate lyase, which allows direct utilization of kelp carbon. The abundance and activity of alginate-lyase-producing bacteria were 3.2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively, in the region with large kelp forests, and declined rapidly with increasing distance from kelp. Total bacterial abundance was 2.7 times greater, and bacteria grew faster and experienced more zooplankton grazing and viral-mediated mortality in the presence of large kelp forests. These patterns suggest that larger kelp forests produce more detritus and dissolved organic matter, which stimulate microbial activity. Our results indicate that variation in kelp forest size alters the community structure and productivity of microbes and contributes to the growing evidence that top predators interact with microbes and ecosystem processes through a cascade of indirect effects. PMID:26236881

  6. Bacterial diversity in relation to secondary production and succession on surfaces of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Mia M; Sjøtun, Kjersti; Lanzén, Anders; Ovreås, Lise

    2012-12-01

    Kelp forests worldwide are known as hotspots for macroscopic biodiversity and primary production, yet very little is known about the biodiversity and roles of microorganisms in these ecosystems. Secondary production by heterotrophic bacteria associated to kelp is important in the food web as a link between kelp primary production and kelp forest consumers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bacterial diversity and two important processes in this ecosystem; bacterial secondary production and primary succession on kelp surfaces. To address this, kelp, Laminaria hyperborea, from southwestern Norway was sampled at different geographical locations and during an annual cycle. Pyrosequencing (454-sequencing) of amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria was used to study bacterial diversity. Incorporation of tritiated thymidine was used as a measure of bacterial production. Our data show that bacterial diversity (richness and evenness) increases with the age of the kelp surface, which corresponds to the primary succession of its bacterial communities. Higher evenness of bacterial operational taxonomical units (OTUs) is linked to higher bacterial production. Owing to the dominance of a few abundant OTUs, kelp surface biofilm communities may be characterized as low-diversity habitats. This is the first detailed study of kelp-associated bacterial communities using high-throughput sequencing and it extends current knowledge on microbial community assembly and dynamics on living surfaces.

  7. Effects of Two Herbal Extracts and Virginiamycin Supplementation on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microflora Population and Fatty Acid Composition in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Zulkifli, Idrus; Rahim, Nordiana Asyikin Abdul; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    The competency of garlic and pennywort to improve broiler chicken growth and influence intestinal microbial communities and fatty acid composition of breast meat were studied. Two hundred forty, “day-old” chicks were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups consisting of 6 replications of 10 chicks in each pen. The groups were assigned to receive treatment diets as follows: i) basal diet (control), ii) basal diet plus 0.5% garlic powder (GP), iii) basal diet plus 0.5% pennywort powder (PW) and iv) 0.002% virginiamycin (VM). Birds were killed at day 42 and intestinal samples were collected to assess for Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli. The pectoralis profundus from chicken breast samples was obtained from 10 birds from each treatment group on day 42 and frozen at −20°C for further analyses. Fatty acid profile of breast muscles was determined using gas liquid chromatography. Feed intake and weight gain of broilers fed with GP, PW, and VM were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to control. Feeding chicks GP, PW, and VM significantly reduced Escherichia coli count (p<0.05) while Lactobacillus spp count were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the gut when compared to control group on day 42. Supplemented diet containing pennywort increased the C18:3n-3 fatty acid composition of chickens’ breast muscle. Garlic and pennywort may be useful in modulating broiler guts as they control the enteropathogens that help to utilize feed efficiently. This subsequently enhances the growth performances of broiler chickens. PMID:25049964

  8. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-01

    Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT) is the fundamental characteristic of Chinese materia medica different from modern medicines. It reflects the herbal properties associated with efficacy and formed the early framework of four properties and five flavors in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. After the supplement and improvement of CHPT in the past thousands of years, it has developed a theory system including four properties, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (ascending, descending, floating and sinking) and toxicity. However, because of the influence of philosophy about yin-yang theory and five-phase theory and the difference of cognitive approach and historical background at different times, CHPT became complex. One of the complexity features was the multiple methods for determining herbal property, which might include the inference from herbal efficacy, the thought of Chinese Taoist School and witchcraft, the classification thinking according to manifestations, etc. Another complexity feature was the multiselection associations between herbal property and efficacy, which indicated that the same property could be inferred from different kinds of efficacy. This paper analyzed these complexity features and provided the importance of cognitive approaches and efficacy attributes corresponding to certain herbal property in the study of CHPT. PMID:23158937

  9. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective.

    PubMed

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps.

  10. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps. PMID:24198956

  11. Liver injury induced by herbal complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Seeff, Leonard B

    2013-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement use is common. Most marketed products consist of complex mixtures. Although they are perceived as safe, instances of hepatotoxicity attributable to these products underscore their potential for injury, but the exact component that is responsible for injury is difficult to discern. The lenient regulatory environment in the United States, which opens the possibility of adulteration and contamination, adds to the challenge of disease attribution. Although many different herbal and dietary supplements have been reported to cause liver injury, in the United States, products used for bodybuilding and weight loss are the most commonly implicated.

  12. Influence of suspended kelp culture on seabed sediment composition in Heini Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanxia; Huang, Haijun; Yan, Liwen; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-11-01

    Kelp aquaculture activities occupy large nearshore areas with significant effects on sediment properties, primarily caused by the influence of the suspended kelp on local hydrodynamics. Changes in sediment composition and grain-size distributions were investigated prior to and following the commencement of kelp aquaculture activities in Heini Bay in eastern China. Seabed sediment types and the particulate matter in suspension during the kelp seeding and harvesting periods, and in sediment cores, were analyzed. While suspended sediment in the kelp aquaculture area was up to 20% organic material, sediment organic content on the seabed remained at similar levels as areas lacking aquaculture. The composition of the seabed sediment in the kelp aquaculture area became finer-grained by the capture of fine particles. Within the kelp aquaculture area, the sediments are poorly sorted and positively skewed, whereas at the shoreward and seaward of the aquaculture area the sediments are relatively coarse-grained, well-sorted and nearly symmetrically distributed. Therefore, the kelp aquaculture activities not only increase the fine particulate fraction in the sediments within the aquaculture area, but also result in similar deposits seaward of it, indicating that seabed erosion and accretion is also controlled by the sediment source and the hydrodynamic conditions. The analysis of sediment cores showed that kelp culturing refines the sediment by preferentially capturing particles in the 38-40 μm size class, while having no effect on the <32 μm fractions, as evidenced by the positive skew of the surficial sediments. The captured particle size class became well mixed into the sediment, thereby changing the composition of the sediment in the uppermost layer of the core, indicating the existence of continuous and stable hydrodynamic conditions within the kelp aquaculture area. The same effect was observed in the seabed sediments seaward of the aquaculture area.

  13. Decline in Kelp in West Europe and Climate.

    PubMed

    Raybaud, Virginie; Beaugrand, Grégory; Goberville, Eric; Delebecq, Gaspard; Destombe, Christophe; Valero, Myriam; Davoult, Dominique; Morin, Pascal; Gevaert, François

    2013-01-01

    Kelp ecosystems form widespread underwater forests playing a major role in structuring the biodiversity at a regional scale. Some seaweeds such as Laminaria digitata are also economically important, being exploited for their alginate and iodine content. Although some studies have shown that kelp ecosystems are regressing and that multiple causes are likely to be at the origin of the disappearance of certain populations, the extent to which global climate change may play a role remains speculative. Here we show that many populations of L. digitata along European coasts are on the verge of local extinction due to a climate-caused increase in sea temperature. By modeling the spatial distribution of the seaweed, we evaluate the possible implications of global climate change for the geographical patterns of the species using temperature data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Projections of the future range of L. digitata throughout the 21st century show large shifts in the suitable habitat of the kelp and a northward retreat of the southern limit of its current geographic distribution from France to Danish coasts and the southern regions of the United Kingdom. However, these projections depend on the intensity of warming. A medium to high warming is expected to lead to the extirpation of the species as early as the first half of the 21st century and there is high confidence that regional extinction will spread northwards by the end of this century. These changes are likely to cause the decline of species whose life cycle is closely dependent upon L. digitata and lead to the establishment of new ecosystems with lower ecological and economic values.

  14. Evolutionary consequences of food chain length in kelp forest communities.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, P D; Estes, J A; Winter, F C

    1995-01-01

    Kelp forests are strongly influenced by macroinvertebrate grazing on fleshy macroalgae. In the North Pacific Ocean, sea otter predation on macroinvertebrates substantially reduces the intensity of herbivory on macroalgae. Temperate Australasia, in contrast, has no known predator of comparable influence. These ecological and biogeographic patterns led us to predict that (i) the intensity of herbivory should be greater in temperate Australasia than in the North Pacific Ocean; thus (ii) Australasian seaweeds have been under stronger selection to evolve chemical defenses and (iii) Australasian herbivores have been more strongly selected to tolerate these compounds. We tested these predictions first by measuring rates of algal tissue loss to herbivory at several locations in Australasian and North Pacific kelp forests. There were significant differences in grazing rates among sea otter-dominated locations in the North Pacific (0-2% day-1), Australasia (5-7% day-1), and a North Pacific location lacking sea otters (80% day-1). The expectations that chronically high rates of herbivory in Australasia have selected for high concentrations of defensive secondary metabolites (phlorotannins) in brown algae and increased tolerance of these defenses in the herbivores also were supported. Phlorotannin concentrations in kelps and fucoids from Australasia were, on average, 5-6 times higher than those in a comparable suite of North Pacific algae, confirming earlier findings. Furthermore, feeding rates of Australasian herbivores were largely unaffected by phlorotannins, regardless of the compounds' regional source. North Pacific herbivores, in contrast, were consistently deterred by phlorotannins from both Australasia and the North Pacific. These findings suggest that top-level consumers, acting through food chains of various lengths, can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of plantherbivore interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:11607573

  15. Decline in Kelp in West Europe and Climate

    PubMed Central

    Raybaud, Virginie; Beaugrand, Grégory; Goberville, Eric; Delebecq, Gaspard; Destombe, Christophe; Valero, Myriam; Davoult, Dominique; Morin, Pascal; Gevaert, François

    2013-01-01

    Kelp ecosystems form widespread underwater forests playing a major role in structuring the biodiversity at a regional scale. Some seaweeds such as Laminaria digitata are also economically important, being exploited for their alginate and iodine content. Although some studies have shown that kelp ecosystems are regressing and that multiple causes are likely to be at the origin of the disappearance of certain populations, the extent to which global climate change may play a role remains speculative. Here we show that many populations of L. digitata along European coasts are on the verge of local extinction due to a climate-caused increase in sea temperature. By modeling the spatial distribution of the seaweed, we evaluate the possible implications of global climate change for the geographical patterns of the species using temperature data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Projections of the future range of L. digitata throughout the 21st century show large shifts in the suitable habitat of the kelp and a northward retreat of the southern limit of its current geographic distribution from France to Danish coasts and the southern regions of the United Kingdom. However, these projections depend on the intensity of warming. A medium to high warming is expected to lead to the extirpation of the species as early as the first half of the 21st century and there is high confidence that regional extinction will spread northwards by the end of this century. These changes are likely to cause the decline of species whose life cycle is closely dependent upon L. digitata and lead to the establishment of new ecosystems with lower ecological and economic values. PMID:23840397

  16. Noise-Dependent Fish Distribution in Kelp Beds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuguang; Guo, Hongy; Wang, Zhenhua; Pan, Yingjie; Song, Jiakun

    2016-01-01

    The marine marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus is dependent on kelp beds and rocks for survival and reproduction. We found that sound production and hearing sensitivity in S. marmoratus are closely matched in the frequency domain. We also found that the juvenile rockfish prefers the habitat of the larger macroalgae Sargassum horueri rather than the habitat containing the smaller algae Ulva pertusa where the adult rockfish prefers to live. Our underwater noise recording data from these two habitats indicate that their spectra of the background noise have different values. The results suggest that the acoustic cues may be critical for pelagic larvae when selecting the preferential habitat in which to settle. PMID:26611095

  17. Bio-fuel extracted from kelp and its environmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H.

    2009-12-01

    Due to the emissions of carbon dioxide caused by excessive combustion of the fossil fuels, the deterioration of global environment is keeping worse. Nowadays, to find a new alternative bio-energy has become a global goal. Kelp is a large seaweed that contains rich carbohydrate, which distributed widely in coastal water. In this research, through microbial fermentation process, part of the carbohydrate in the kelp can be turned into ethanol. To control the temperature of 30-35, pH=6-7 and fermentation time for 6-7 days, the largest ethanol production rate is gotten. After the fermentation process, the remnant could be turned into methane through the secondary fermentation process under the temperature conditions of 40-45 and pH=6-7. There are the high concentrations of iodine and rich organic matter and minerals in the residues, which can be used to produce organic fertilizer of iodine by combined with low-grade diatomaceous earth. It is not only open up a new way of developing algae bio-energy, but also has profound environmental significance to zero emissions of carbon dioxide.

  18. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Williams, Stefan B; Babcock, Russell C; Barrett, Neville S; Johnson, Craig R; Jordan, Alan; Kendrick, Gary A; Pizarro, Oscar R; Smale, Dan A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km) and depths (15-60 m) across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth) and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves.

  19. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Williams, Stefan B; Babcock, Russell C; Barrett, Neville S; Johnson, Craig R; Jordan, Alan; Kendrick, Gary A; Pizarro, Oscar R; Smale, Dan A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km) and depths (15-60 m) across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth) and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves. PMID:25693066

  20. Large-Scale Geographic Variation in Distribution and Abundance of Australian Deep-Water Kelp Forests

    PubMed Central

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Williams, Stefan B.; Babcock, Russell C.; Barrett, Neville S.; Johnson, Craig R.; Jordan, Alan; Kendrick, Gary A.; Pizarro, Oscar R.; Smale, Dan A.; Steinberg, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) facility of Australia’s Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10–100 m to 100–1,000 km) and depths (15–60 m) across several regions ca 2–6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth) and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40–50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves. PMID:25693066

  1. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  2. Interactions between Transporters and Herbal Medicines/Drugs: A Focus on Hepatoprotective Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijie; Li, Quansheng; He, Xin; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines and drugs are available in the clinic as potent hepatoprotective agents for the treatment of commonly occurring liver diseases. Recently, herbal medicines such as silymarin and curcumin have gained more attention and popularity for the treatment of various liver diseases because of their safety and efficacy profiles. Some of them are related to transporters for drug disposition processes, therapeutic efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions. Currently, herbal medicines and diet supplements made from natural products are widely used in patients who are being treated with conventional prescription medicines, which are related to an increasing risk of herbal-drug interactions (HDIs) and/or drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The purpose of present review is to summarize the contemporary knowledge of transporter-mediated HDIs or DDIs for herbal medicines/drugs focusing on hepatoprotective compounds. Several herbal medicines/drugs are discussed in detail in this review.

  3. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  4. [Study on certified reference material of iodine in kelp].

    PubMed

    Lu, Longgen; Qian, Yaling; Lu, Xiujing

    2004-09-01

    Analytical reference material of iodine in kelp was designed and prepared for accurate analysis, monitor and evaluation of iodine in trade of farming, forestry, medicine and food hygiene can be used in technical training, technical assessing, monitoring, date arbitrating and analytic method verifying for professional supervisors. This reference material was certified by neutron activation, ICP-MS, PA, GC, IC, COL method. According to Gurbb's law to judge the date of each group, it was confirmed that all of six groups certified curde date were normal distribution by checking normality D. The arithmetic mean value of all data on certified reference material of low and moderate amount was 9.3 microg/g and 85.7 microg/g respectively and, standard deviation was 0.9 microg/g and 4.9 microg/g respectively.

  5. Kelp growth on an ocean farm in relation to fertilizing

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, V.A.; North, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Results of fertilizing experiments on the test farm supported previous evidence that low macronutrient supplies limit kelp growth in offshore surface water. Enhanced N contents of blade tissues from adult and juvenile plants and enhanced growth of juvenile plants indicates that artificially upwelled deep water could provide a suitable source of nutrients. However, measurement of harvestable production depends on our ability to prevent damage to plants by currents and abrasion, which would be edge effects on a large-scale ocean farm. Three adult Macrocystis plants have been held successfully on the test farm for one year by locating them away from major structural elements. At least ten times that many plants, suitably protected and fertilized with deep water, are necessary to accomplish the immediate goal of determining yield. The test farm is now being redesigned to meet these requirements.

  6. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  7. [Metabolomic approach to evaluating the effect of the mixed decoction of kelp and licorice on system metabolism of SD rats].

    PubMed

    Sun, Run-bin; Yu, Xiao-yi; Mao, Yong; Ge, Chun; Yang Na; A, Ji-ye; Tang, Yu-ping; Duan, Jin-ao; Ma, Zi-teng; Wu, Xu-tong; Zhu, Xuan-xuan; Wang, Guang-ji

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the single and mixed decoction of Thallus laminariae (kelp) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) on the metabolism and their difference. The mixed decoction of kelp and licorice and the single decoction were made and intragastrically administered to the SD rats. The effect on system metabolism, the toxicity of liver and kidney were assessed by GC-MS profiling of the endogenous molecules in serum, routine biochemical assays and histographic inspection of tissues from SD rats, separately. The mixed decoction of kelp and licorice induced more obvious pathological abnormalities in SD rats than a single decoction of kelp, while the extracts of licorice did not show any pathological change. Neither the mixed, nor the single decoction showed abnormal histopathology. After intragastric administration of extracts for 5 days, the mixed decoction induced a decrease of ALT (no significant change in the groups of single decoction) and an increase of BUN (so did the single decoction of kelp). Metabolomic profile of the molecules in serum revealed that the metabolic patterns were all obviously affected for the three groups, i.e., the mixed and single decoction of kelp and licorice. The rats given with the single decoction of kelp showed a similar pattern to that of the mixed decoction, indicating that the kelp primarily contributed the perturbation of metabolism for the mixed decoction. All three groups induced a decrease of branched chain amino acids, TCA cycle intermediates and glycolysis intermediates (e.g., pyruvic acid and lactic acid) and an increase of 3-hydroxybutyric acid. Kelp decoction showed stronger potential in reducing TCA cycle intermediates and glycolysis intermediates than the other two groups, while the levels of branched chain amino acids were the lowest after licorice extracts were given. These results suggested that the effect of the mixed decoction on metabolism was closely associated with both kelp and

  8. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident.

  9. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident. PMID:27072845

  10. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

  11. Synchrony in dynamics of giant kelp forests is driven by both local recruitment and regional environmental controls.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Kendall, Bruce E; Siegel, David A; Reed, Daniel C; Alberto, Filipe; Assis, Jorge

    2013-02-01

    Populations of many species display spatially synchronous fluctuations in abundance. Synchrony is most commonly attributed to three processes: factors that influence recruitment (e.g., dispersal, early survival), large-scale environmental variability, and spatially autocorrelated trophic interactions. However it is often difficult to link population synchrony to a specific dominant process, particularly when multiple synchronizing forces are operating. We utilized a new satellite-based data set of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) canopy biomass to examine population synchrony in southern California kelp forests on spatial scales ranging from 50 m to 300 km and temporal scales ranging from 1 to 11 years. We examined the relationship between synchrony and distance for adult kelp populations, kelp recruits, sea urchin abundance (a major grazer of kelp), and environmental variables known to influence kelp population dynamics. Population synchrony in giant kelp decreased with distance between populations: an initial rapid exponential decrease between 50 m and 1.3 km was followed by a second, large-scale decrease between distances of 1.3 km and 172 km. The 50-m to 1.3-km spatial scale corresponded to the scales of synchrony in the abundance of sea urchins and young kelp recruits, suggesting that local drivers of predation and recruitment influence small-scale synchrony in kelp populations. The spatial correlation patterns of environmental variables, particularly wave height, were similar to the synchrony-distance relationship of kelp populations from 1.3 km to 172 km, suggesting that regional environmental variability, i.e., the Moran effect, was the dominant process affecting synchrony at larger spatial scales. This two-step pattern in the relationship between kelp biomass synchrony and distance was apparent in each of the 11 years of our study. Our results highlight the potential for synthesizing approaches from both landscape and population ecology in order to

  12. Intersection of inflammation and herbal medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-12-01

    Herbal remedies and dietary supplements have become an important area of research and clinical practice in orthopaedics and rheumatology. Understanding the risks and benefits of using herbal medicines in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatic diseases, and musculoskeletal complaints is a key priority of physicians and their patients. This review discusses the latest advances in the use of herbal medicines for treating osteoarthritis (OA) by focusing on the most significant trends and developments. This paper sets the scene by providing a brief introduction to ethnopharmacology, Ayurvedic medicine, and nutrigenomics before discussing the scientific and mechanistic rationale for targeting inflammatory signalling pathways in OA by use of herbal medicines. Special attention is drawn to the conceptual and practical difficulties associated with translating data from in-vitro experiments to in-vivo studies. Issues relating to the low bioavailability of active ingredients in herbal medicines are discussed, as also is the need for large-scale, randomized clinical trials. PMID:22987043

  13. Modified Habitats Influence Kelp Epibiota via Direct and Indirect Effects

    PubMed Central

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Underwood, Antony J.; Coleman, Ross A.

    2011-01-01

    Addition of man-made structures alters abiotic and biotic characteristics of natural habitats, which can influence abundances of biota directly and/or indirectly, by altering the ecology of competitors or predators. Marine epibiota in modified habitats were used to test hypotheses to distinguish between direct and indirect processes. In Sydney Harbour, kelps on pier-pilings supported greater covers of bryozoans, particularly of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, than found on natural reefs. Pilings influenced these patterns and processes directly due to the provision of shade and indirectly by altering abundances of sea-urchins which, in turn, affected covers of bryozoans. Indirect effects were more important than direct effects. This indicates that artificial structures affect organisms living on secondary substrata in complex ways, altering the biodiversity and indirectly affecting abundances of epibiota. Understanding how these components of habitats affect ecological processes is necessary to allow sensible prediction of the effects of modifying habitats on the ecology of organisms. PMID:21755011

  14. A field investigation into the effects of a kelp forest (Macrocystis pyrifera) on coastal hydrodynamics and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosman, Johanna H.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Grover, Jamie

    2007-02-01

    Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp) forests form important habitats in temperate coastal regions. Hydrodynamics control the transport of nutrients, food particles, larvae and spores at scales ranging from boundary layers around individual blades to entire kelp forests. Our measurements include vertical profiles of current and temperature, and concurrent wave measurements, at a number of different locations in and around a kelp forest at Santa Cruz, California. We find that flow at the site is dominated by variations at diurnal and semidiurnal frequencies. A vertically sheared across-shore flow, consistent with flow driven by an across-shore density gradient, is thought to be important for exchange between the kelp forest and the surrounding coastal ocean. Within the kelp forest, currents are reduced by a factor that correlates with surface canopy coverage, higher frequency internal waves are damped, and onshore transport due to waves (Stokes drift) is estimated to be similar in magnitude to that due to currents. Richardson numbers within the kelp forest are higher than those outside the kelp forest and indicate that the water column within the kelp forest is usually stable to turbulence generation by mean velocity shear.

  15. Over-expression of putative transcriptional coactivator KELP interferes with Tomato mosaic virus cell-to-cell movement.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Ogata, Takuya; Deguchi, Masakazu; Nagai, Shoko; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Shigeki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Matsushita, Yasuhiko; Nyunoya, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) encodes a movement protein (MP) that is necessary for virus cell-to-cell movement. We have demonstrated previously that KELP, a putative transcriptional coactivator of Arabidopsis thaliana, and its orthologue from Brassica campestris can bind to ToMV MP in vitro. In this study, we examined the effects of the transient over-expression of KELP on ToMV infection and the intracellular localization of MP in Nicotiana benthamiana, an experimental host of the virus. In co-bombardment experiments, the over-expression of KELP inhibited virus cell-to-cell movement. The N-terminal half of KELP (KELPdC), which had been shown to bind to MP, was sufficient for inhibition. Furthermore, the over-expression of KELP and KELPdC, both of which were co-localized with ToMV MP, led to a reduction in the plasmodesmal association of MP. In the absence of MP expression, KELP was localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm by the localization signal in its N-terminal half. It was also shown that ToMV amplified normally in protoplasts prepared from leaf tissue that expressed KELP transiently. These results indicate that over-expressed KELP interacts with MP in vivo and exerts an inhibitory effect on MP function for virus cell-to-cell movement, but not on virus amplification in individual cells.

  16. Kelp forest monitoring. Channel Islands National Park (1991 annual report). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.; Kushner, D.; Avery, W.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes the 1991 progress of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project. Population dynamics of 68 indicator species of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent transect sites in 1991 by divers using SCUBA and surface-supply-air. Survey dives were conducted at seven other locations for comparisons and general information. In 1991, nine sites had healthy kelp forests. Five others had some kelp growing on or near the transect, but were dominated somewhat by sea urchins. White sea urchins were present in moderate to high numbers at four sites with declines at two sites and an increase at one. Juvenile fish recruitment was down in 1991; however, young-of-year rockfish were numerous at San Miguel Island and juvenile sheepland and garibaldi were common at Santa Barbra and Anacapa Islands. Abalone recruitment modules proved effective at concentrating juveniles of several species. This year was a poor recruitment year for abalone.

  17. Predicting spatial kelp abundance in shallow coastal waters using the acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, F.; Bartsch, I.; Hass, H. C.; Wölfl, A.-C.; Bürk, D.; Betzler, C.

    2014-04-01

    Kelp forests represent a major habitat type in coastal waters worldwide and their structure and distribution is predicted to change due to global warming. Despite their ecological and economical importance, there is still a lack of reliable spatial information on their abundance and distribution. In recent years, various hydroacoustic mapping techniques for sublittoral environments evolved. However, in turbid coastal waters, such as off the island of Helgoland (Germany, North Sea), the kelp vegetation is present in shallow water depths normally excluded from hydroacoustic surveys. In this study, single beam survey data consisting of the two seafloor parameters roughness and hardness were obtained with RoxAnn from water depth between 2 and 18 m. Our primary aim was to reliably detect the kelp forest habitat with different densities and distinguish it from other vegetated zones. Five habitat classes were identified using underwater-video and were applied for classification of acoustic signatures. Subsequently, spatial prediction maps were produced via two classification approaches: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and manual classification routine (MC). LDA was able to distinguish dense kelp forest from other habitats (i.e. mixed seaweed vegetation, sand, and barren bedrock), but no variances in kelp density. In contrast, MC also provided information on medium dense kelp distribution which is characterized by intermediate roughness and hardness values evoked by reduced kelp abundances. The prediction maps reach accordance levels of 62% (LDA) and 68% (MC). The presence of vegetation (kelp and mixed seaweed vegetation) was determined with higher prediction abilities of 75% (LDA) and 76% (MC). Since the different habitat classes reveal acoustic signatures that strongly overlap, the manual classification method was more appropriate for separating different kelp forest densities and low-lying vegetation. It became evident that the occurrence of kelp in this area is not

  18. Indirect food web interactions: Sea otters and kelp forest fishes in the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisewitz, S.E.; Estes, J.A.; Simenstad, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although trophic cascades - the effect of apex predators on progressively lower trophic level species through top-down forcing - have been demonstrated in diverse ecosystems, the broader potential influences of trophic cascades on other species and ecosystem processes are not well studied. We used the overexploitation, recovery and subsequent collapse of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in the Aleutian archipelago to explore if and how the abundance and diet of kelp forest fishes are influenced by a trophic cascade linking sea otters with sea urchins and fleshy macroalgae. We measured the abundance of sea urchins (biomass density), kelp (numerical density) and fish (Catch per unit effort) at four islands in the mid-1980s (when otters were abundant at two of the islands and rare at the two others) and in 2000 (after otters had become rare at all four islands). Our fish studies focused on rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus), the numerically dominant species in this region. In the mid-1980s, the two islands with high-density otter populations supported dense kelp forests, relatively few urchins, and abundant rock greenling whereas the opposite pattern (abundant urchins, sparse kelp forests, and relatively few rock greenling) occurred at islands where otters were rare. In the 2000, the abundances of urchins, kelp and greenling were grossly unchanged at islands where otters were initially rare but had shifted to the characteristic pattern of otter-free systems at islands where otters were initially abundant. Significant changes in greenling diet occurred between the mid-1980s and the 2000 although the reasons for these changes were difficult to assess because of strong island-specific effects. Whereas urchin-dominated communities supported more diverse fish assemblages than kelp-dominated communities, this was not a simple effect of the otter-induced trophic cascade because all islands supported more diverse fish assemblages in 2000 than in the mid-1980s

  19. [Herbal textural analysis on the Chinese drug xuancaogen].

    PubMed

    Zhang, T J

    1993-09-01

    The results of herbal textural research showed that the original plants of Xuancaogen in ancient times were Hemerocallis fulva, H. fulva var. kwanso, H. citrina, H. lilio-asphodelus and H. minor. The cause of confusion about Xuancao, Lilu and Lucong was discriminated. The erroneous scientific names of Beihuanghuacai and Shexiangcao in contemporary literature were corrected. A suggestion that H. aurentiaca be supplemented as an independent specise was raised. PMID:8011103

  20. Physical-biological coupling in spore dispersal of kelp forest macroalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylord, Brian; Reed, Daniel C.; Washburn, Libe; Raimondi, Peter T.

    2004-08-01

    The physical-biological linkages controlling the dispersal of spores produced by macroalgae that reside in kelp forests are complicated and laced with feedbacks. Here we discuss the fundamental elements of these interactions. Biological considerations include spore swimming and sinking speeds, their periods of viability in the plankton, and the height of spore release above the seafloor, which together determine the durations over which spores can be swept by horizontal currents before they contact the seafloor. Morphologies and material properties of canopy forming kelps may also influence the drag exerted on passing waters by the kelps, the plants' ability to persist in the face of rapid flows, and thereby the degree to which impinging currents are redirected around, or slowed within, kelp forests. Macroalgal life histories, and the size of spore sources as controlled by the dimensions of kelp forests and the density and fecundity of individuals within them, influence effective dispersal distances as well. Physical considerations encompass the mean speed, direction, and timescales of variability of currents relative to spore suspension times, the interaction of surface gravity waves with currents in producing turbulence in the benthic boundary layer, wind-driven surface mixing, water stratification, and shoreline bathymetry and substratum roughness, all of which can affect the interplay of vertical and horizontal transport of macroalgal spores. Intricate within-forest processes may induce attenuation of current speeds and consequent reductions in seabed shear, along with simultaneous production of small-scale turbulence in kelp wakes. Slower mean currents and smaller eddy scales in turn may attenuate vertical mixing within forests, thus extending spore suspension times. Further complexities likely arise due to changes in the relative rates of horizontal and vertical dispersion, modifications to the overall profiles of vertical mixing, and the creation of fine

  1. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Induced by Adulterated "Tiger King", a Chinese Herbal Medicine Containing Sildenafil.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Ran; Poperno, Alina; Stein, Gideon Y; Shapira, Barak; Fuchs, Shmuel; Berkovitz, Ronny; Hess, Zipora; Arieli, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    Detection of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogues in "100% natural" or "herbal" supplements have been described in numerous reports. However, few reports have been published in relation to actual harm caused by counterfeit erectile dysfunction herbal supplements. We describe a case of a 65-year old male admitted to a tertiary hospital with acute liver toxicity, possibly induced by adulterated "Chinese herbal" supplement "Tiger King" for sexual enhancement. Chemical analysis of the tablets discovered the presence of therapeutic doses of sildenafil with no other herbal components. Other medications were excluded as potential causes of the hepatic impairment. According to the Naranjo adverse drug reaction scale and the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) the probability of association of Hepatotoxicity with Sildenafil was "possible" and "probable" respectively (Naranjo score of 4, RUCAM score of 7). Within three days of admission, the patient's clinical status and liver function improved without any specific treatment. His liver function tests normalized 30 days post discharge. Further pharmacovigilance actions should be taken by regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical companies in order to determine the relation between sildenafil and hepatotoxicity. This case emphasizes the importance of raising public awareness on the potential dangers of "Tiger king" in particular, and other counterfeit medications or herbal supplements of unknown origin. PMID:26560492

  2. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  3. [Artichoke--herbal drug].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Adamska, Katarzyna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Woźniak, Anna; Wachowiak, Anna; Miechowicz, Izabela; Horoszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Nowak, Gerard; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the gland most vulnerable to the toxic effects of xenobiotics, as responsible for their metabolism. Significant impact on the functioning of this gland has a style of life: alcohol consumption, diet with high fats ingredients and prooxidative substances and synthetic drugs. Very improtant aspect in herbal medicaments is protective properties on parenchymal organ-damaging. Concomitant intake of plant extracts containing cytoprotective compounds, may increase the efficacy of treatment and reduce side effects. One of the plants of the hepatoprotective action is artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Artichoke with multiple therapeutic properties and practically no side effects is recommended not only in disorders of the liver, but also in the prevention of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia or dyspeptic disorders. PMID:23421105

  4. Connectivity of the Habitat-Forming Kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among Estuaries and Open Coast

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats. PMID:23717648

  5. Development of PCR‐Based Markers to Determine the Sex of Kelps

    PubMed Central

    Lipinska, Agnieszka P.; Ahmed, Sophia; Peters, Akira F.; Faugeron, Sylvain; Cock, J. Mark; Coelho, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex discriminating genetic markers are commonly used to facilitate breeding programs in economically and ecologically important animal and plant species. However, despite their considerable economic and ecological value, the development of sex markers for kelp species has been very limited. In this study, we used the recently described sequence of the sex determining region (SDR) of the brown algal model Ectocarpus to develop novel DNA-based sex-markers for three commercially relevant kelps: Laminaria digitata, Undaria pinnatifida and Macrocystis pyrifera. Markers were designed within nine protein coding genes of Ectocarpus male and female (U/V) sex chromosomes and tested on gametophytes of the three kelp species. Seven primer pairs corresponding to three loci in the Ectocarpus SDR amplified sex-specific bands in the three kelp species, yielding at least one male and one female marker for each species. Our work has generated the first male sex-specific markers for L. digitata and U. pinnatifida, as well as the first sex markers developed for the genus Macrocystis. The markers and methodology presented here will not only facilitate seaweed breeding programs but also represent useful tools for population and demography studies and provide a means to investigate the evolution of sex determination across this largely understudied eukaryotic group. PMID:26496392

  6. Kelp forest monitoring 1993 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, D.; Walder, R.; Gorodezky, L.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1993-06-01

    The 1993 results of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algea, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using Sea Data batheothermographs, and HOBOTEMP temperature loggers. Temperature loggers were installed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artifical recruitment modules at nine sites. In 1993, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocysts pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. The 13 sites with kelp forests consisted of 10 mature and three young kelp forests. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins. Sea urchins wasting syndrome appears to have caused mass mortality of purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus, at two Santa Barbara Island sites.

  7. Spatially variable synergistic effects of disturbance and additional nutrients on kelp recruitment and recovery.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Paul E; Keough, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the impact of multiple stressors on ecosystems is of pronounced importance, particularly when one or more of those stressors is anthropogenic. Here we investigated the role of physical disturbance and increased nutrients on reefs dominated by the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata. We combined experimental kelp canopy removals and additional nutrient at three different locations in a large embayment in temperate southeastern Australia. Over the following winter recruitment season, Ecklonia recruitment was unaffected by increased nutrients alone, but tripled at all sites where the canopy had been removed. At one site, the combination of disturbance and increased nutrients resulted in more than four times the recruitment of the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida. Six months after disturbance, the proliferation of the Undaria canopy in the canopy-removal and nutrient-addition treatment negatively influenced the recovery of the native kelp Ecklonia. Given the otherwise competitive dominance of adult Ecklonia, this provides a mechanism whereby Undaria could maintain open space for the following recruitment season. This interplay between disturbance, nutrients and the response of native and invasive species makes a compelling case for how a combination of factors can influence species dynamics.

  8. Kelp, cobbles, and currents: Biologic reduction of coarse grain entrainment stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masteller, Claire C; Finnegan, Noah J; Warrick, Jonathan; Miller, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Models quantifying the onset of sediment motion do not typically account for the effect of biotic processes because they are difficult to isolate and quantify in relation to physical processes. Here we investigate an example of the interaction of kelp (Order Laminariales) and coarse sediment transport in the coastal zone, where it is possible to directly quantify and test its effect. Kelp is ubiquitous along rocky coastlines and the impact on ecosystems has been well studied. We develop a physical model to explore the reduction in critical shear stress of large cobbles colonized by Nereocystis luetkeana, or bull kelp. Observations of coarse sediment motion at a site in the Strait of Juan de Fuca (northwest United States–Canada boundary channel) confirm the model prediction and show that kelp reduces the critical stress required for transport of a given grain size by as much as 92%, enabling annual coarse sediment transport rates comparable to those of fluvial systems. We demonstrate that biology is fundamental to the physical processes that shape the coastal zone in this setting.

  9. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

  10. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  11. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  12. Herbal Products and Your Anesthestic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biloba, Ginseng, Hoodia, Kava, St. John’s Wort, and Valerian. Herbal products are available as tablets, liquids, granules, ... with other medications that prolong effects of anesthesia. Valerian Increased sedative effects.

  13. Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Ashok D.B.; Devasagayam, Thomas P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years. PMID:18392106

  14. Chemical and biological assessment of Angelica herbal decoction: comparison of different preparations during historical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wendy Li; Zheng, Ken Yu-Zhong; Zhu, Kevin Yue; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Bi, Cathy Wen-Chuan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Du, Crystal Ying-Qing; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-08-15

    The commonly used Angelica herbal decoction today is Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), which is a dietary supplement in treating menopausal irregularity in women, i.e. to nourish "Qi" and to enrich "Blood". According to historical record, many herbal decoctions were also named DBT, but the most popular formulation of DBT was written in Jin dynasty (1247 AD) of China, which contained Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) with a weight ratio of 5:1. However, at least two other Angelica herbal decoctions recorded as DBT were prescribed in Song (1155 AD) and Qing dynasties (1687 AD). Although AR and ASR are still the major components in the DBT herbal decoctions, they are slightly varied in the herb composition. In order to reveal the efficiency of different Angelica herbal decoctions, the chemical and biological properties of three DBT herbal extracts were compared. Significantly, the highest amounts of AR-derived astragaloside III, astragaloside IV, calycosin and formononetin and ASR-derived ferulic acid were found in DBT described in 1247 AD: this preparation showed stronger activities in osteogenic, estrogenic and erythropoetic effects than the other two DBT. The current results supported the difference of three DBT in chemical and biological properties, which could be a result of different herbal combinations. For the first time, this study supports the popularity of DBT described in 1247 AD.

  15. Untargeted metabolomics: an emerging approach to determine the composition of herbal products

    PubMed Central

    Commisso, Mauro; Strazzer, Pamela; Toffali, Ketti; Stocchero, Matteo; Guzzo, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Natural remedies, such as those based on traditional Chinese medicines, have become more popular also in western countries over the last 10 years. The composition of these herbal products is largely unknown and difficult to determine. Moreover, since plants respond to their environment changing the metabolome, the composition of plant material can vary depending on the plant growth conditions. However, there is a growing need of a deeper knowledge on such natural remedies also in view of the growing number of reports of toxicity following the consumption of herbal supplements. Untargeted metabolomics is a useful approach for the simultaneous analysis of many compounds in herbal products. In particular, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can determine presence, amount and sometime structures of plant metabolites in complex herbal mixtures, with significant advantages over techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:24688688

  16. Active and passive migration in boring isopods Limnoria spp. (Crustacea, Peracarida) from kelp holdfasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Leonardo; Thiel, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Many boring isopods inhabit positively buoyant substrata (wood and algae), which float after detachment, permitting passive migration of inhabitants. Based on observations from previous studies, it was hypothesized that juvenile, subadult and male isopods migrate actively, and will rapidly abandon substrata after detachment. In contrast, reproductive females and small offspring were predicted to remain in floating substrata and thus have a high probability to disperse passively via rafting. In order to test this hypothesis, a colonization and an emigration experiment were conducted with giant kelp ( Macrocystis integrifolia), the holdfasts of which are inhabited by boring isopods from the genus Limnoria. A survey of benthic substrata in the kelp forest confirmed that limnoriids inhabited the holdfasts and did not occur in holdfast-free samples. Results of the colonization experiment showed that all life history stages of the boring isopods immigrated into young, largely uncolonized holdfasts, and after 16 weeks all holdfasts were densely colonized. In the emigration experiment, all life history stages of the isopods rapidly abandoned the detached holdfasts — already 5 min after detachment only few individuals remained in the floating holdfasts. After this initial rapid emigration of isopods, little changes in isopod abundance occurred during the following 24 h, and at the end of the experiment some individuals of all life history stages still remained in the holdfasts. These results indicate that all life history stages of Limnoria participate in both active migration and passive dispersal. It is discussed that storm-related dynamics within kelp forests may contribute to intense mixing of local populations of these burrow-dwelling isopods, and that most immigrants to young holdfasts probably are individuals emigrating from old holdfasts detached during storm events. The fact that some individuals of all life history stages and both sexes remain in floating

  17. Effects of kelp phenolic compounds on the feeding-associated mobility of the herbivore snail Tegula tridentata.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Tala, Fadia; Fernández, Miriam; Subida, Maria Dulce

    2015-12-01

    Tegula tridentata, is a common herbivore gastropod inhabiting the subtidal Lessonia trabeculata kelp forest, which tends to show higher densities after kelp harvesting. We investigated if harvested kelp beds may harbor higher densities of herbivore invertebrates, and the underlying mechanisms. Thus, we evaluated if the exudates of L. trabeculata change the seawater levels of soluble phenols, known to have a deterrent effect against the feeding behavior of some herbivore invertebrates. Finally we investigated whether the increase in T. tridentata densities in harvested kelp grounds could be related to a decrease in the seawater levels of soluble phenols. Our results showed that the density of invertebrate herbivores increased up to 32% in harvested kelp grounds. We provide the first estimate of the rate of phenolic exudation by L. trabeculata, and we demonstrate that T. tridentata changes its food dependent movement in the presence of exudates with synthetic phloroglucinol. We suggest that the recovery of harvested kelp ecosystems can be jeopardized by increased herbivory triggered by water-borne changes in the levels of herbivore deterrent compounds.

  18. Effects of kelp phenolic compounds on the feeding-associated mobility of the herbivore snail Tegula tridentata.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Tala, Fadia; Fernández, Miriam; Subida, Maria Dulce

    2015-12-01

    Tegula tridentata, is a common herbivore gastropod inhabiting the subtidal Lessonia trabeculata kelp forest, which tends to show higher densities after kelp harvesting. We investigated if harvested kelp beds may harbor higher densities of herbivore invertebrates, and the underlying mechanisms. Thus, we evaluated if the exudates of L. trabeculata change the seawater levels of soluble phenols, known to have a deterrent effect against the feeding behavior of some herbivore invertebrates. Finally we investigated whether the increase in T. tridentata densities in harvested kelp grounds could be related to a decrease in the seawater levels of soluble phenols. Our results showed that the density of invertebrate herbivores increased up to 32% in harvested kelp grounds. We provide the first estimate of the rate of phenolic exudation by L. trabeculata, and we demonstrate that T. tridentata changes its food dependent movement in the presence of exudates with synthetic phloroglucinol. We suggest that the recovery of harvested kelp ecosystems can be jeopardized by increased herbivory triggered by water-borne changes in the levels of herbivore deterrent compounds. PMID:25956816

  19. Quality of herbal medicines: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Wider, Barbara; Shang, Hongcai; Li, Xuemei; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of herbal medicines has risen worldwide. This increase in usage renders safety issues important. Many adverse events of herbal medicines can be attributed to the poor quality of the raw materials or the finished products. Different types of herbal medicines are associated with different problems. Quality issues of herbal medicines can be classified into two categories: external and internal. In this review, external issues including contamination (e.g. toxic metals, pesticides residues and microbes), adulteration and misidentification are detailed. Complexity and non-uniformity of the ingredients in herbal medicines are the internal issues affecting the quality of herbal medicines. Solutions to the raised problems are discussed. The rigorous implementation of Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) would undoubtedly reduce the risk of external issues. Through the use of modern analytical methods and pharmaceutical techniques, previously unsolved internal issues have become solvable. Standard herbal products can be manufactured from the standard herbal extracts.

  20. Herbal medicine in healthcare--an overview.

    PubMed

    Mosihuzzaman, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    It is generally accepted by all concerned that modern pharmaceuticals will remain out of reach of many people and 'health for all' may only be realized by the use of adequately assessed herbal products. Mankind has been using herbal medicine for healing right from the beginning of human civilization. With the advent of 'modern medicine' herbal products have been looked down upon, especially by western societies. Yet, in recent times, use of herbal medicine for heathcare has increased steadily all over the world. However, serious concerns are being realized regarding the safety, claimed efficacy and quality of herbal products used as herbal medicine, nutraceuticals, health food and cosmetics. Although herbal products are generally considered safe due to their age-old usage, significant side effects have been reported for many herbal products, including herbal medicine. Accidental contamination and intentional adulteration are considered as primary reasons for the side effects. The historical perspective and the philosophy of herbal medical practice along with its present status in the light of present day science have been reviewed and included in the present article. Assurance of safety by identification of contaminants and assessment of toxicity has been outlined. Assessment of claimed efficacy of herbal medicine is difficult due to its holistic approach. Practical ways of assessing efficacy of herbal medicine by adapting the methodologies used for modern pharmaceutical are described. The maintenance of standard of herbal medicine has been stressed and pragmatic approaches of assuring quality of herbal medicine by using modern tools of fingerprinting the chemical profile of herbal medicine are discussed. As much of the traditional herbal medical knowledge is scattered around the world at the family and community levels, and more so in the indigeneous people, the knowledge base is continuously being lost and so needs immediate documentation. Difficulties in

  1. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  2. Evidence of an evolutionary-developmental trade-off between drag avoidance and tolerance strategies in wave-swept intertidal kelps (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Starko, Samuel; Martone, Patrick T

    2016-02-01

    Kelps are a clade of morphologically diverse, ecologically important habitat-forming species. Many kelps live in wave-swept environments and are exposed to chronic flow-induced stress. In order to grow and survive in these harsh environments, kelps can streamline (reducing drag coefficient) to avoid drag or to increase attachment and breakage force to tolerate it. We aimed to quantify the drag tolerance and streamlining strategies of kelps from wave-swept intertidal habitats. We measured drag coefficient and tenacity of populations from eight kelp species over a wide range of sizes to determine whether kelps avoid dislodgement by reducing drag coefficient or by increasing tenacity as they grow, and whether these traits are traded off. We employed phylogenetic comparative methods to rule out potentially confounding effects of species' relatedness. There was a significant negative relationship between drag avoidance and tolerance strategies, even after incorporating phylogeny. Kelps that were more tenacious were less able to reduce drag, resulting in a continuum from "tolerators" to "streamliners," with some species demonstrating intermediate, mixed strategies. Drag and tenacity were correlated with geometric properties (i.e., second moment of area) of the stipe in large kelps. Results presented in this study suggest that kelps are either strong or streamlined, but not both. This continuum is consistent with avoidance and tolerance trade-offs that have been documented in many different biological systems and may have widespread implications for the evolution of large macroalgae, perhaps driving morphological diversity within this group.

  3. Evaluation of commercial herbal shampoos.

    PubMed

    Mainkar, A R; Jolly, C I

    2000-10-01

    Selecting the evaluation parameters of a shampoo is a challenging task, simply because of the multitude of both subjective and instrumental test methodologies available for this purpose. The present paper focuses on the evaluation of herbal shampoos using some of these parameters. Commonly used test protocols for foam test, detergency, etc. are discussed. The commercial herbal shampoos are evaluated on the basis of these tests. The results of these tests also give an idea about what standards should be met by a shampoo formulated in the laboratory to be comparable with the commercial shampoos.

  4. Kelp forest monitoring 1994 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, D.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1994-12-31

    The 1994 results of the Channel Islands Natonal Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrants, band transects, random point contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using temperature loggers deployed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artificial recruitment modules at ten sites. In 1994, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, Pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus francisanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins.

  5. Effects of fermented corni fructus and fermented kelp on growth performance, meat quality, and emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide from broiler chicken droppings.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Mun, H-S; Islam, M M; Yang, C-J

    2014-01-01

    1. Corni fructus is the fruit of Cornus officinalis, a dogwood species. This study was conducted to prepare fermented corni fructus preparation (FCFP) and fermented kelp (FK) from corni fructus and by-products of Laminaria japonica fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. 2. The effects of dietary FCFP and FK as replacer of oxytetracycline (OTC) on growth performance, meat composition, meat oxidative stability, and emissions of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from broiler chicken droppings were investigated. 3. A total of 140 d-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments including control, OTC (0.05 g/kg), FCFP (5 g/kg), and FK (5 g/kg). 4. Overall, inclusion of FCFP resulted in lower weight gain and feed intake during the overall experimental period. Broilers fed FCFP diets tended to have lower crude fat and higher crude ash content in the carcasses. 5. In the fresh state, the malondialdehyde (MDA) value of broiler meat was lower in the FK supplemented group. At one week, meat from broilers fed antibiotic and FK diets had lower MDA values, whereas at 2 weeks broiler meat from all dietary treatment groups had lower MDA values than the control. 6. Dietary supplementation with FK significantly reduced faecal NH3 emissions throughout the experimental period, whereas dietary OTC and FCFP supplementation increased NH3 emissions at 2 and 4 weeks. There were no significant effects of dietary treatments on H2S emissions throughout the experimental period, except during week one, when FCFP supplementation reduced the emission. 7. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 5 g/kg FK improved the oxidative stability of broiler meat and reduce faecal NH3 emissions without affecting growth performance. PMID:25204489

  6. Effects of fermented corni fructus and fermented kelp on growth performance, meat quality, and emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide from broiler chicken droppings.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Mun, H-S; Islam, M M; Yang, C-J

    2014-01-01

    1. Corni fructus is the fruit of Cornus officinalis, a dogwood species. This study was conducted to prepare fermented corni fructus preparation (FCFP) and fermented kelp (FK) from corni fructus and by-products of Laminaria japonica fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. 2. The effects of dietary FCFP and FK as replacer of oxytetracycline (OTC) on growth performance, meat composition, meat oxidative stability, and emissions of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from broiler chicken droppings were investigated. 3. A total of 140 d-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments including control, OTC (0.05 g/kg), FCFP (5 g/kg), and FK (5 g/kg). 4. Overall, inclusion of FCFP resulted in lower weight gain and feed intake during the overall experimental period. Broilers fed FCFP diets tended to have lower crude fat and higher crude ash content in the carcasses. 5. In the fresh state, the malondialdehyde (MDA) value of broiler meat was lower in the FK supplemented group. At one week, meat from broilers fed antibiotic and FK diets had lower MDA values, whereas at 2 weeks broiler meat from all dietary treatment groups had lower MDA values than the control. 6. Dietary supplementation with FK significantly reduced faecal NH3 emissions throughout the experimental period, whereas dietary OTC and FCFP supplementation increased NH3 emissions at 2 and 4 weeks. There were no significant effects of dietary treatments on H2S emissions throughout the experimental period, except during week one, when FCFP supplementation reduced the emission. 7. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 5 g/kg FK improved the oxidative stability of broiler meat and reduce faecal NH3 emissions without affecting growth performance.

  7. Micronutrients and kelp cultures: Evidence for cobalt and manganese deficiency in Southern California deep seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested that naturally occurring copper and zinc concentrations in deep seawater are toxic to marine organisms when the free ion forms are overabundant. The effects of micronutrients on the growth of gametophytes of the ecologically and commercially significant giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) were studied in defined media. The results indicate that toxic copper and zinc ion concentrations as well as cobalt and manganese deficiencies may be among the factors controlling the growth of marine organisms in nature. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  8. Long-term effects of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging on the kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus.

    PubMed

    Park, M O; Park, I-S

    2009-01-01

    The effects of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging on the growth and survival of kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus was examined over 1 year. The overall average mass gain for the 1 year period of the abdominal cavity tagged group was higher than the dorsal muscle tagged group. No significant differences were found in overall specific growth rate and food conversion between control and treatment groups.

  9. A kelp with integrity: Macrocystis pyrifera prioritises tissue maintenance in response to nitrogen fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Tiffany A; Hepburn, Christopher D

    2016-09-01

    Our understanding of the response of vascular, terrestrial plants to nitrogen (N) addition is advanced and provides the foundation for modern agriculture. In comparison, information on responses of marine macroalgae to increased nitrogen is far less developed. We investigated how in situ pulses of nitrate (NO3 (-)) affected the growth and N physiology of Macrocystis pyrifera by adding N using potassium nitrate dissolution blocks during a period of low seawater N concentration. Multiple parameters (e.g. growth, pigments, soluble NO3 (-)) were measured in distinct tissues throughout entire fronds (apical meristem, stipe, adult blade, mature blade, sporophyll, and holdfast). Unexpectedly, N fertilisation did not enhance elongation rates within the frond, but instead thickness (biomass per unit area) increased in adult blades. Increased blade thickness may have enhanced tissue integrity as fertilised kelp had lower rates of blade erosion. Tissue chemistry also responded to enrichment; pigmentation, soluble NO3 (-), and % N were higher throughout fertilised fronds. Labelled (15)N traced N uptake and translocation from N sources in the kelp canopy to sinks in the holdfast, 10 m below. This is the first evidence of long-distance (>1 m) transport of N in macroalgae. Patterns in physiological parameters suggest that M. pyrifera displays functional differentiation between canopy and basal tissues that may aid in nutrient-tolerance strategies, similar to those seen in higher plants and unlike those seen in more simple algae (i.e. non-kelps). This study highlights how little we know about N additions and N-use strategies within kelp compared to the wealth of literature available for higher plants. PMID:27170330

  10. A kelp with integrity: Macrocystis pyrifera prioritises tissue maintenance in response to nitrogen fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Tiffany A; Hepburn, Christopher D

    2016-09-01

    Our understanding of the response of vascular, terrestrial plants to nitrogen (N) addition is advanced and provides the foundation for modern agriculture. In comparison, information on responses of marine macroalgae to increased nitrogen is far less developed. We investigated how in situ pulses of nitrate (NO3 (-)) affected the growth and N physiology of Macrocystis pyrifera by adding N using potassium nitrate dissolution blocks during a period of low seawater N concentration. Multiple parameters (e.g. growth, pigments, soluble NO3 (-)) were measured in distinct tissues throughout entire fronds (apical meristem, stipe, adult blade, mature blade, sporophyll, and holdfast). Unexpectedly, N fertilisation did not enhance elongation rates within the frond, but instead thickness (biomass per unit area) increased in adult blades. Increased blade thickness may have enhanced tissue integrity as fertilised kelp had lower rates of blade erosion. Tissue chemistry also responded to enrichment; pigmentation, soluble NO3 (-), and % N were higher throughout fertilised fronds. Labelled (15)N traced N uptake and translocation from N sources in the kelp canopy to sinks in the holdfast, 10 m below. This is the first evidence of long-distance (>1 m) transport of N in macroalgae. Patterns in physiological parameters suggest that M. pyrifera displays functional differentiation between canopy and basal tissues that may aid in nutrient-tolerance strategies, similar to those seen in higher plants and unlike those seen in more simple algae (i.e. non-kelps). This study highlights how little we know about N additions and N-use strategies within kelp compared to the wealth of literature available for higher plants.

  11. Kelp forest monitoring 1992 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.; Kushner, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1992 results of the Channel Islands Natioanl Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random point contacts, fish and video transects, photogrammetric plots, size frequency measurements, artifical recruitment habitats, and species list surveys. Some batheothermograph data was collected. In 1992, nine sites and healthy kelp forests while seven were mostly barren. The seven barren sites consisted of one that was dominated by the aggregated red sea cucumber, Pachythyone rubra, one was barren with high sedimentation, one was domainated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and four sites were dominated by purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, three of which had signs of a developing kelp forest. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and a wasting syndrome was observed in sea urchins. Fish recruitment appeared to be late this year. Size frequency measurements were taken from artificial recruitment modules (previously named `abalone recruitment modules`) at six of the sites.

  12. Secondary production in a Laminaria hyperborea kelp forest and variation according to wave exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norderhaug, Kjell M.; Christie, Hartvig

    2011-11-01

    The secondary production of mobile invertebrate fauna in the Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Foslie kelp forest increases with wave exposure level. This faunal group has a key function in transferring kelp carbon to higher levels in the food web. By using a size-frequency method the calculated production was 68 (±18) g D.W. m -2 yr -1 (±S.E.) at low, 250 (±57) at medium and 308 (±64) at high exposure levels. The calculations included 30 macrofauna species, which accounted for 96% of the specimens registered, with Gastropods, amphipods and bivalves being the most abundant taxa. The calculated secondary production is high, but comparable to that previously reported from other macrophyte systems and was 3%, 8% and 8% of the total primary production at low, medium and high exposure levels, respectively. Our results indicate that large quantities of Laminaria kelp are exported from the system, although the production of sessile animals was not taken into account. The most important factor in determining faunal densities and secondary production was probably habitat size but at low exposure levels the percentage of egg-carrying crustacean females and juveniles were lower than at medium and high exposure levels, thereby indicating lower fitness for animals at low exposure stations.

  13. Kelp canopy facilitates understory algal assemblage via competitive release during early stages of secondary succession.

    PubMed

    Benes, Kylla M; Carpenter, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Kelps are conspicuous foundation species in marine ecosystems that alter the composition of understory algal assemblages. While this may be due to changes in the competitive interactions between algal species, how kelp canopies mediate propagule supply and establishment success of understory algae is not well known. In Southern California, USA, Eisenia arborea forms dense kelp canopies in shallow subtidal environments and is associated with an understory dominated by red algal species. In canopy-free areas, however, the algal assemblage is comprised of mostly brown algal species. We used a combination of mensurative and manipulative experiments to test whether Eisenia facilitates the understory assemblage by reducing competition between these different types of algae by changes in biotic interactions and/or recruitment. Our results show Eisenia facilitates a red algal assemblage via inhibition of brown algal settlement into the canopy zone, allowing recruitment to occur by vegetative means rather than establishment of new individuals. In the canopy-free zone, however, high settlement and recruitment rates suggest competitive interactions shape the community there. These results demonstrate that foundation species alter the distribution and abundance of associated organisms by affecting not only interspecific interactions but also propagule supply and recruitment limitation.

  14. The Impact of Climatological Variables on Kelp Canopy Area in the Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigner, K.; Bausell, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Kelp canopy area (KCA), a proxy for kelp forest health, has important implications for small and large-scale processes pertaining to fisheries, near shore currents, and marine ecosystems. As part of the NASA Airborne Science Research Program (SARP), this study examines the impact of ocean chemistry and climatological variables on KCA in the Santa Barbara Channel through time series analysis. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), and upwelling indices as well as sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, nitrate, and chlorophyll-a concentrations taken within the Santa Barbara channel (1990-2014) were acquired from the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation (CalCOFI), and Di Lorenzo's NPGO websites. These data were then averaged for winter (November-January) and summer (May-August) seasons and compared to KCA measurements derived from Landsat images via unsupervised classification. Regression, cumulative sum tests, and cross-correlation coefficients revealed a two year lag between KCA and the NPGO, indicating the presence of an additional factor driving both variables. Further analyses suggests that the NPO may be this driving factor, as indicated by the correlation (lag 0) with KCA. Comparing relationships between kelp and other variables over various time periods supports the acceleration of the NPGO and other variables in more recent years. Exploring relationships between KCA, NPGO, and NPO may provide insight into potential impacts of climate change on coastal marine ecosystems.

  15. Unconventional anaerobic digester designs for improving methane yields from sea kelp

    SciTech Connect

    Fannin, K F; Srivastava, V J; Chynoweth, D P

    1982-01-01

    Studies were performed as part of an ongoing comprehensive research program to develop and optimize the anaerobic digestion process for producing methane from sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Laboratory-scale studies focused on digester design and operating techniques applicable toward the goal of increasing methane yields and production rates over those observed in previous studies using conventional stirred tank reactors (STR). Two unconventional anaerobic digesters, an upflow solids reactor and a baffle flow reactor, were used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of kelp; both digesters permit solids retention times that are longer than the hydraulic retention times. The performance of the unconventional digesters was compared with that of the STR on the basis of methane yield and process stability. These studies demonstrated that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp variability, the methane yield in both unconventional digesters exceeded 70% of the theoretical yield and was substantialy higher than that of the STR. Utilization of simple digester designs that promoted long solids retention times improved the anaerobic digester performance significantly over that observed in conventional anaerobic digestion processes.

  16. Host specificity and growth of kelp gametophytes symbiotic with filamentous red algae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Charlene B.; Garbary, David J.; Kim, Kwang Young; Chiasson, David M.

    2004-02-01

    Kelp gametophytes were previously observed in nature living endophytically in red algal cell walls. Here we examine the interactions of two kelp species and six red algae in culture. Gametophytes of Nereocystis luetkeana (Mertens) Postels et Ruprecht became endophytic in the cell walls of Griffithsia pacifica Kylin and Antithamnion defectum Kylin, and grew epiphytically in high abundance on G. japonica Okamura and Aglaothamnion oosumiense Itono. Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville from the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia became endophytic in Aglaothamnion oosumiense, Antithamnion defectum, Callithamnion sp., G. japonica, G. pacifica, and Pleonosporium abysicola Gardner, all from the Pacific Ocean. Some cultures were treated with phloroglucinol before infection to thicken the cell walls. The endophytic gametophytes were smaller and grew more slowly than gametophytes epiphytic on the same host. N. luetkeana failed to become endophytic in some of the potential hosts, and this may reflect host specificity, or culture artifacts. This work improves our understanding of the process of infection of red algae by kelp gametophytes, and broadens our knowledge of host specificity in endophytic symbioses.

  17. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  18. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment.

  19. Wave disturbance overwhelms top-down and bottom-up control of primary production in California kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Reed, Daniel C; Rassweiler, Andrew; Carr, Mark H; Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Malone, Daniel P; Siegel, David A

    2011-11-01

    We took advantage of regional differences in environmental forcing and consumer abundance to examine the relative importance of nutrient availability (bottom-up), grazing pressure (top-down), and storm waves (disturbance) in determining the standing biomass and net primary production (NPP) of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in central and southern California. Using a nine-year data set collected from 17 sites we show that, despite high densities of sea urchin grazers and prolonged periods of low nutrient availability in southern California, NPP by giant kelp was twice that of central California where nutrient concentrations were consistently high and sea urchins were nearly absent due to predation by sea otters. Waves associated with winter storms were consistently higher in central California, and the loss of kelp biomass to winter wave disturbance was on average twice that of southern California. These observations suggest that the more intense wave disturbance in central California limited NPP by giant kelp under otherwise favorable conditions. Regional patterns of interannual variation in NPP were similar to those of wave disturbance in that year-to-year variation in disturbance and NPP were both greater in southern California. Our findings provide strong evidence that regional differences in wave disturbance overwhelmed those of nutrient supply and grazing intensity to determine NPP by giant kelp. The important role of disturbance in controlling NPP revealed by our study is likely not unique to giant kelp forests, as vegetation dynamics in many systems are dominated by post-disturbance succession with climax communities being relatively uncommon. The effects of disturbance frequency may be easier to detect in giant kelp because it is fast growing and relatively short lived, with cycles of disturbance and recovery occurring on time scales of years. Much longer data sets (decades to centuries) will likely be needed to properly evaluate the role of

  20. Importance of kelp-derived organic carbon to the scallop Chlamys farreri in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Gao, Fei; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Bivalves and seaweeds are important cleaners that are widely used in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems. A beneficial relationship between seaweed and bivalve in the seaweed-based IMTA system has been confirmed, but the trophic importance of seaweed-derived particulate organic materials to the co-cultured bivalve is still unclear. We evaluated the trophic importance of the kelp Saccharina japonica to the co-cultured scallop Chlamys farreri in a typical IMTA farm in Sungo Bay (Weihai, North China). The dynamics of detritus carbon in the water were monitored during the culturing period. The proportion of kelp-derived organic matter in the diet of the co-cultured scallop was assessed via the stable carbon isotope method. Results showed that the detritus carbon in the water ranged from 75.52 to 265.19 μg/L, which was 25.6% to 73.8% of total particulate organic carbon (TPOC) during the study period. The amount of detritus carbon and its proportion in the TPOC changed throughout the culture cycle of the kelp. Stable carbon isotope analysis showed that the cultured scallop obtained 14.1% to 42.8% of its tissue carbon from the kelp, and that the percentages were closely correlated with the proportion of detritus carbon in the water ( F =0.993, P= 0.003). Evaluation showed that for 17 000 tons (wet weight) of annual scallop production, the kelp contributed about 139.3 tons of carbon (535.8 tons of dry mass). This confirms that cultured kelp plays a similar trophic role in IMTA systems as it does in a natural kelp bed. It is a major contributor to the detritus pool and supplies a vital food source to filter-feeding scallops in the IMTA system, especially during winter and early spring when phytoplankton are scarce.

  1. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  2. The Hypoglycemic Effect of the Kelp on Diabetes Mellitus Model Induced by Alloxan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Long, Shao-Hua; Yu, Zhu-Qin; Shuai, Li; Guo, Yun-Liang; Duan, De-Lin; Xu, Xin-Ying; Li, Xiao-Dan

    2012-01-01

    Hypoglycemic effects and the use of kelp in diabetes mellitus (DM) model rats induced by alloxan were investigated. Sixty healthy male rats were used to establish DM models by injecting alloxan intraperitoneally. Kelp powder was added to the general forage for the rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) were determined by an automatic blood glucose device. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was applied to determine the serum levels of insulin. The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by thiobarbituric acid assay and nitric oxide (NO) by nitrate reductase assay. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined by xanthinoxidase assay and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) by chemical colorimetry. The shape and structure of islet cells were observed with Hematine-Eosin staining, and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in islet cells were detected by immunohistochemical assay. The results showed that the serum levels of insulin after treatment with kelp powder increased significantly compared to those in the DM-model group, while the FBG in the medium-high dose treated groups decreased significantly compared to those in the DM-model group (P < 0.05). The levels of MDA and NO in the kelp powder groups were lower than those in the DM-model group, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were higher than those in the DM-model group, of which a significant difference existed between the medium-high dose treated groups and the DM-model group (P < 0.05). The shape and structure of islet cells improved with the up-expressing SOD and down-expressing iNOS in the medium-high dose treated groups compared to those in the DM-model group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the medium and high dose treated groups, all above indexes (P > 0.05). It is suggested that kelp might aid recovery of the the islet cell secreting function and reduce the level of FBG by an antioxidant

  3. Environmental controls on spatial patterns in the long-term persistence of giant kelp in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Mary Alida; Cavanaugh, Kyle C.; Bell, Tom W.; Raimondi, Peter T.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Drake, Patrick T.; Erikson, Li H.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2016-01-01

    As marine management is moving towards the practice of protecting static areas, it is 44 important to make sure protected areas capture and protect persistent populations. Rocky reefs in 45 many temperate areas worldwide serve as habitat for canopy forming macroalgae and these 46 structure forming species of kelps (order Laminariales) often serve as important habitat for a great 47 diversity of species. Macrocystis pyrifera is the most common canopy forming kelp species found 48 along the coast of California but the distribution and abundance of M. pyrifera varies in space and 49 time. The purpose of this study is to determine what environmental parameters are correlated with 50 the spatial and temporal persistence of M. pyrifera along the central coast of California and how 51 well those environmental parameters can be used to predict areas where M. pyrifera is more likely 52 to persist. Nine environmental variables considered in this study included depth of the seafloor, 53 structure of the rocky reef, proportion of rocky reef, size of kelp patch, biomass of kelp within a 54 patch, distance from the edge of a kelp patch, sea surface temperature, wave orbital velocities, and 55 population connectivity of individual kelp patches. Using a generalized linear mixed effects model 56 (GLMM), the persistence of M. pyrifera was significantly associated with seven of the nine 57 variables considered: depth, complexity of the rocky reef, proportion of rock, patch biomass, 58 distance from the edge of a patch, population connectivity, and wave-orbital velocities. These 59 seven environmental variables were then used to predict the persistence of kelp across the central 60 coast and these predictions were compared to a reserved dataset of M. pyrifera persistence, which 61 was not used in the creation of the GLMM. The environmental variables were shown to accurately 62 predict the persistence of M. pyrifera within the central coast of California (r = 0.71, P<0.001). 63 Because

  4. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  5. Community structure of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from two sympatric gull species: kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) and Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan) in Talcahuano, Chile.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, D; Corvalan, F; Barrientos, C; Doussang, D; Mathieu, C; Nilsson, L; Casanueva, M E; Palma, R L

    2011-01-01

    A total of 1,177 lice of four species were collected from 124 kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) and 137 lice of the same four species from 60 Franklin's gulls (Larus pipixcan). The louse Saemundssonia lari (O Fabricius) (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) was the most numerous on both gull species, with infestation rates of 4.9 on kelp gulls and 1.8 on Franklin's gulls. The second most abundant louse was Quadraceps punctatus (Burmeister), with a high infestation rate but low prevalence on kelp gulls; those parameters were much lower among lice from Franklin's gulls. The composition and community structure of the lice were similar on both host species, but not their infestation rates. In addition, the feather mite Zachvatkinia larica Mironov (Acari: Avenzoariidae) is recorded from kelp gulls and Franklin's gulls for the first time, while the gamasid mite Larinyssus sp. is recorded from kelp gulls, also for the first time. The population parameters of all species of ectoparasites are discussed.

  6. Perioperative analgesia and the effects of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Abe, Andrew; Kaye, Alan David; Gritsenko, Karina; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Adam Marc

    2014-06-01

    With over 50,000 dietary supplements available, resurgence in consumer interest over the past few decades has resulted in an explosion of use of these agents worldwide. Disillusionment with current medications and belief in "natural medicines" has resulted in a multibillion dollar industry. Active ingredients in a number of herbs are being tested for therapeutic potential, and some are efficacious, so herbal medicines cannot be dismissed. The prevalence of herbology is further encouraged by a relatively relaxed policy of the FDA regarding these compounds, which they consider foods. As herbal products are included in the "supplement" category, there is no existing protocol for standardization of these products. There are numerous examples of herbals that can adversely affect patient recovery and outcomes in anesthesia. The prudent anesthesia provider will make sure to obtain correct information as to accurate herbal usage of each patient and attempt to discontinue these products two to three weeks prior to the delivery of an anesthetic. Postoperative analgesia, bleeding, and level of sedation can be negatively impacted related to herbal products and herbal-drug interactions. Over 90 herbal products are associated with bleeding and this can be a specific problem intraoperatively or when considering placement of a regional anesthetic for postoperative pain management. PMID:24993438

  7. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  8. A reappraisal of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah; Da-Costa-Rocha, Ines; Lawrence, M Jayne; Cable, Colin; Heinrich, Michael

    Complementary and alternative medicine is increasingly popular, and encompasses a number of systems and therapies based on diverse theories and practices, such as homoeopathy, traditional herbalism, reiki, ayurvedic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. While many are based on metaphysical concepts for which there is no sound evidence, for herbal medicines there is a rational, scientific basis and increasing clinical evidence. This article suggests herbal medicines should no longer be considered part of CAM, but instead sit alongside conventional medicines. PMID:23155905

  9. Effects of sporophyll storage on giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Agardh) bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Gully, J.R.; Bottomley, J.P.; Baird, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Agardh) is a US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)-approved west coast marine species for chronic toxicity monitoring and compliance in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The protocol allows field-collected sporophylls to be stored for up to 24 h at 9 to 12 C prior to use. However, the effects of sporophyll storage on the bioassay results have not been fully investigated, particularly with kelp collected from beds south of Point Conception, CA, USA. Therefore, 13 matched-pair reference toxicant bioassays using fresh and stored sporophylls collected from a subtidal kelp bed near Laguna Beach, CA, USA, were performed and compared. The results indicate that a lower percentage of spores germinate and the germ tube lengths are reduced when stored sporophylls are used. The intratest precision of the germination endpoint decreased as evidenced by significant increases in the percent minimum significant difference (%MSD) statistic. The intertest precision also decreased in the germination endpoint as demonstrated by significant increases in the coefficient of variation (CV) values at four effect levels. Conversely, a significant reduction in the CVs was observed in the germ tube length data, possibly as a consequence of the decrease in germ tube length associated with storage. Finally, significant decreases in mean effect concentrations in the germination endpoint in tests using stored sporophylls indicated that storage increased the sensitivity of the spores to the toxic effects of CuCl{sub 2}. The toxicological sensitivity and intratest precision of the germ tube length endpoint were not significantly affected by storage of the sporophylls. The effects of sporophyll storage resulted in a high frequency of invalid tests, lower statistical power, less effective quality assurance standards, and apparent bias in the observed toxicity of CuCl{sub 2}.

  10. The importance of progressive senescence in the biomass dynam of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Gabriel E; Rassweiler, Andrew; Reed, Daniel C; Holbrook, Sally J

    2013-08-01

    Temporal variation in primary producer biomass has profound effects on the structure and function of the surrounding ecological community. The giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) exhibits strong intra-annual variation in biomass density, which is better explained by the demographic rates of fronds than by those of whole plants. To better understand the processes controlling the dynamics of giant kelp fronds we collected monthly time-series data of frond initiation and survival. These data were used to determine how frond loss and frond initiation rates were predicted by factors thought to affect the growth and survival of Macrocystis, including external environmental factors (i.e., wave height, day length, temperature, nutrient concentration, and neighborhood density) and intrinsic biological characteristics (i.e., frond age, plant size, and nutritional status). Our results revealed that frond dynamics were better explained by intrinsic biological processes rather than external environmental factors. A metric of frond age structure that incorporated progressive senescence was the best predictor of frond loss rate, accounting for 58% of the explained variation in frond loss. A similar analysis revealed that frond age structure was also the single best predictor of frond initiation rate, accounting for 46% of the explained variation. To further examine the importance of senescence in biomass dynamics, we used frond age-dependent mortality and frond initiation rates to predict biomass in subsequent months and found that the model explained 73% of the observed variation in biomass at our sites. Vegetation dynamics of many species including giant kelp are often considered largely in the context of external controls on resource availability and physical disturbance. Our results indicate that investigations of the processes controlling vegetation dynamics may benefit greatly from the inclusion of intrinsic biological factors such as age-dependent mortality and growth, which

  11. Trophic cascades induced by lobster fishing are not ubiquitous in southern California kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Carla M; Lenihan, Hunter S; Grant, Laura E; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and

  12. Trophic Cascades Induced by Lobster Fishing Are Not Ubiquitous in Southern California Kelp Forests

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Carla M.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Grant, Laura E.; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and

  13. Trophic cascades induced by lobster fishing are not ubiquitous in southern California kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Carla M; Lenihan, Hunter S; Grant, Laura E; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and

  14. Photosynthetic response of Arctic kelp zoospores exposed to radiation and thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Roleda, Michael Y

    2009-09-01

    Zoospores of Arctic kelp species, Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima were exposed to different temperature (2 degrees C to 19 degrees C) and radiation (photosynthetically active radiation (PAR=P), PAR+UV-A (PA), and PAR+UV-A+UV-B (PAB)) conditions in the laboratory. Species-specific responses to the combined effect of light and temperature stress showed sensitivity in the order S. latissima>L. digitata>A. esculenta. The optimum temperature range for photosynthesis in different Arctic kelp species' zoospores was between 7-13 degrees C, temperatures higher than in the natural environment. Short-term response to increasing temperature was non-lethal while moderate temperature increase had an ameliorating effect on the overall biological effect of UVR; where the lowest photoinhibition was observed at 13 degrees C under PAB and higher photosynthetic recovery was observed in UVR-pre-exposed zoospores at 7-13 degrees C compared to 2 degrees C. Above the temperature optima, continued cultivation under high temperature had a negative impact on the recovery of photoinhibition. The higher capacity for non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in A. esculenta and L. digitata helped to regulate and protect photosynthesis under light and temperature stress compared to S. latissima. The investigated Arctic kelp species may be able to locally survive under the influence of UVR at a certain range of temperature increase but the southernmost distribution range of the species may shift to higher latitudes; although natural selection may result in genotypes adapted to stressful environment. PMID:19707618

  15. Photosynthetic use of inorganic carbon in deep-water kelps from the Strait of Gibraltar.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, María Jesús; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Fernández, José Antonio; Flores-Moya, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms of inorganic carbon assimilation were investigated in the four deep-water kelps inhabiting sea bottoms at the Strait of Gibraltar; these species are distributed at different depths (Saccorhiza polysiches at shallower waters, followed by Laminaria ochroleuca, then Phyllariopsis brevipes and, at the deepest bottoms, Phyllariopsis purpurascens). To elucidate the capacity to use HCO3(-) as a source of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis in the kelps, different experimental approaches were used. Specifically, we measured the irradiance-saturated gross photosynthetic rate versus pH at a constant dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration of 2 mM, the irradiance-saturated apparent photosynthesis (APS) rate versus DIC, the total and the extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CAext), the observed and the theoretical photosynthetic rates supported by the spontaneous dehydration of HCO3(-) to CO2, and the δ(13)C signature in tissues of the algae. While S. polyschides and L. ochroleuca showed photosynthetic activity at pH 9.5 (around 1.0 µmol O2 m(-2) s(-1)), the activity was close to zero in both species of Phyllariopsis. The APS versus DIC was almost saturated for the DIC values of natural seawater (2 mM) in S. polyschides and L. ochroleuca, but the relationship was linear in P. brevipes and P. purpurascens. The four species showed total and CAext activities but the inhibition of the CAext originated the observed photosynthetic rates at pH 8.0 to be similar to the theoretical rates that could be supported by the spontaneous dehydration of HCO3(-). The isotopic (13)C signatures ranged from -17.40 ± 1.81 to -21.11 ± 1.73 ‰ in the four species. Additionally, the δ(13)C signature was also measured in the deep-water Laminaria rodriguezii growing at 60-80 m, showing even a more negative value of -26.49 ± 1.25 ‰. All these results suggest that the four kelps can use HCO3(-) as external carbon source for photosynthesis mainly by the action of external CAext, but

  16. Enhancement of Eriobotrya japonica extracts on non-specific immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus against Vibrio carchariae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Sang; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Jang, Ik-Soo; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of Eriobotrya japonica extracts at 0%, 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% doses supplementation with feed on non-specific immune response, hematological and biochemical profile, and disease resistance against Vibrio carchariae in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The white blood cell (WBC) significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% diets on weeks 1 and 2 when compared to the control. However, the glucose always decreased from the control except on week 2 against pathogen. The serum total protein, albumin, and globulin significantly increased at week 2 but they did not changed significantly at weeks 1 and 4. The superoxide anion, lymphokines production index, and phogocytosis did not significantly increased in any diet on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced in 1.0% and 2.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 4 against V. carchariae when compared to control. All diets significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity, and haemolytic complement activity from weeks 1-4 as compared to control. The serum agglutinating antibody titre did not significantly enhance on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced on weeks 2 and 4. Fish fed with 1.0% and 2.0% doses diets was found lower mortality than 0.1% diet. Thus, this study suggested that 1.0% and 2.0% doses supplementation diets could be advocated to enhance the immune response and production disease from V. carchariae in E. bruneus.

  17. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines : a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness at several levels of the need to develop pharmacovigilance practices for herbal medicines. The current model of pharmacovigilance and its associated tools have been developed in relation to synthetic drugs, and applying these methods to monitoring the safety of herbal medicines presents unique challenges in addition to those described for conventional medicines. Several problems relate to the ways in which herbal medicines are named, perceived, sourced, and utilised. Other important challenges arise from the current regulatory framework for herbal medicines in the UK. In the UK at present, the Committee on Safety of Medicines/Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency's (CSM/MHRA) 'yellow card' scheme for adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting is the main method of monitoring the safety of herbal medicines. Despite recent initiatives to stimulate reporting of suspected ADRs associated with herbal medicines, such as extending the scheme to unlicensed herbal products, and including community pharmacists as recognised reporters, numbers of herbal ADR reports received by the CSM/MHRA remain relatively low. Under-reporting, an inevitable and important limitation of spontaneous reporting schemes, is likely to be significant for herbal medicines, since users typically do not seek professional advice about their use of such products, or report if they experience adverse effects. The herbal sector in the UK has initiated various spontaneous reporting schemes, based on the yellow card scheme, but targeted mainly at herbal-medicine practitioners. It is important that these schemes have a link with the CSM/MHRA so that potential signals are not missed. Several other tools used in pharmacovigilance of conventional medicines, such as prescription-event monitoring, and the use of computerised health-record databases, currently are of no use for evaluating the safety of herbal and other non-prescription medicines. Proposed European Union

  18. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety

    PubMed Central

    Ekor, Martins

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

  19. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, "advertisement/public relations" was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, "low manpower/seeking business partners" were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers.

  20. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, “advertisement/public relations” was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, “low manpower/seeking business partners” were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers. PMID:26199635

  1. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, "advertisement/public relations" was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, "low manpower/seeking business partners" were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers. PMID:26199635

  2. Perioperative Use of Herbal, Complementary, and Over the Counter Medicines in Plastic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Declan; Oakey, Steve; Ramakrishnan, Venkat

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Over the last 50 years, there has been a surge of interest by both the public and medical practitioners in therapies and disciplines that are not considered part of mainstream medical care. The title given to these is complementary and alternative medicine. Of all these branches, our interest is the increasing use of herbal medicines, traditional medicines (such as Chinese or Indian), homeopathy and “dietary supplements,” and the influence they may have on our practice. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and reasons for use of complementary and alternative medicines, the current regulations, and proposed policy changes affecting the licensing of these products. In addition, we highlight some of the problems that have been experienced with herbal and traditional medicines. Methods: A prospective analysis of herbal and over the counter medicines used by elective plastic surgery patients. Results: Of 100 elective plastic surgery patients undergoing procedures at St Andrew's Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery, 44% of patients were taking a dietary supplement, herbal, or homeopathic remedy. In none of the patients was this documented in the notes by either the surgeon or anesthetist. Conclusions: We recommend that clear documentation of the use of nonprescribed medicines becomes part of standard practice and, furthermore, that patients stop all such medications 2 weeks prior to surgery until the efficacy, interactions, and safety profiles are clearly established. PMID:21625528

  3. Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Estes, James A; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F

    2016-01-26

    The late Pleistocene extinction of so many large-bodied vertebrates has been variously attributed to two general causes: rapid climate change and the effects of humans as they spread from the Old World to previously uninhabited continents and islands. Many large-bodied vertebrates, especially large apex predators, maintain their associated ecosystems through top-down forcing processes, especially trophic cascades, and megaherbivores also exert an array of strong indirect effects on their communities. Thus, a third possibility for at least some of the Pleistocene extinctions is that they occurred through habitat changes resulting from the loss of these other keystone species. Here we explore the plausibility of this mechanism, using information on sea otters, kelp forests, and the recent extinction of Steller's sea cows from the Commander Islands. Large numbers of sea cows occurred in the Commander Islands at the time of their discovery by Europeans in 1741. Although extinction of these last remaining sea cows during early years of the Pacific maritime fur trade is widely thought to be a consequence of direct human overkill, we show that it is also a probable consequence of the loss of sea otters and the co-occurring loss of kelp, even if not a single sea cow had been killed directly by humans. This example supports the hypothesis that the directly caused extinctions of a few large vertebrates in the late Pleistocene may have resulted in the coextinction of numerous other species.

  4. The paradox of inverted biomass pyramids in kelp forest fish communities.

    PubMed

    Trebilco, Rowan; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Anderson, Sean C; Salomon, Anne K

    2016-06-29

    Theory predicts that bottom-heavy biomass pyramids or 'stacks' should predominate in real-world communities if trophic-level increases with body size (mean predator-to-prey mass ratio (PPMR) more than 1). However, recent research suggests that inverted biomass pyramids (IBPs) characterize relatively pristine reef fish communities. Here, we estimated the slope of a kelp forest fish community biomass spectrum from underwater visual surveys. The observed biomass spectrum slope is strongly positive, reflecting an IBP. This is incongruous with theory because this steep positive slope would only be expected if trophic position decreased with increasing body size (consumer-to-resource mass ratio, less than 1). We then used δ(15)N signatures of fish muscle tissue to quantify the relationship between trophic position and body size and instead detected strong evidence for the opposite, with PPMR ≈ 1650 (50% credible interval 280-12 000). The natural history of kelp forest reef fishes suggests that this paradox could arise from energetic subsidies in the form of movement of mobile consumers across habitats, and from seasonally pulsed production inputs at small body sizes. There were four to five times more biomass at large body sizes (1-2 kg) than would be expected in a closed steady-state community providing a measure of the magnitude of subsidies. PMID:27335422

  5. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift.

    PubMed

    Ling, S D; Johnson, C R; Frusher, S D; Ridgway, K R

    2009-12-29

    A key consideration in assessing impacts of climate change is the possibility of synergistic effects with other human-induced stressors. In the ocean realm, climate change and overfishing pose two of the greatest challenges to the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. In eastern Tasmania, temperate coastal waters are warming at approximately four times the global ocean warming average, representing the fastest rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere. This has driven range extension of the ecologically important long-spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii), which has now commenced catastrophic overgrazing of productive Tasmanian kelp beds leading to loss of biodiversity and important rocky reef ecosystem services. Coincident with the overgrazing is heavy fishing of reef-based predators including the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. By conducting experiments inside and outside Marine Protected Areas we show that fishing, by removing large predatory lobsters, has reduced the resilience of kelp beds against the climate-driven threat of the sea urchin and thus increased risk of catastrophic shift to widespread sea urchin barrens. This shows that interactions between multiple human-induced stressors can exacerbate nonlinear responses of ecosystems to climate change and limit the adaptive capacity of these systems. Management actions focused on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shift in ecosystems are particularly urgent in the face of ongoing warming and unprecedented levels of predator removal from the world's oceans. PMID:20018706

  6. Evolutionary consequences of microhabitat: population-genetic structuring in kelp- vs. rock-associated chitons.

    PubMed

    Nikula, R; Spencer, H G; Waters, J M

    2011-12-01

    Rafting has long been invoked as a key marine dispersal mechanism, but biologists have thus far produced little genetic evidence to support this hypothesis. We hypothesize that coastal species associated with buoyant seaweeds should experience enhanced population connectivity owing to rafting. In particular, invertebrates strongly associated with the buoyant bull-kelp Durvillaea antarctica might be expected to have lower levels of population-genetic differentiation than taxa mainly exploiting nonbuoyant substrates. We undertook a comparative genetic study of two codistributed, congeneric chiton species, assessing population connectivity at scales of 61-516 km, using ≥ 186 polymorphic AFLP loci per species. Consistent with predictions, population-genetic differentiation was weaker in the kelp-associated Sypharochiton sinclairi than in the rock-associated S. pelliserpentis. Additionally, while we found a significant positive correlation between genetic and oceanographic distances in both chiton species, the correlation was stronger in S. pelliserpentis (R(2) = 0.28) than in S. sinclairi (R(2) = 0.18). These data support the hypothesis that epifaunal taxa can experience enhanced population-genetic connectivity as a result of their rafting ability.

  7. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift

    PubMed Central

    Ling, S. D.; Johnson, C. R.; Frusher, S. D.; Ridgway, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    A key consideration in assessing impacts of climate change is the possibility of synergistic effects with other human-induced stressors. In the ocean realm, climate change and overfishing pose two of the greatest challenges to the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. In eastern Tasmania, temperate coastal waters are warming at approximately four times the global ocean warming average, representing the fastest rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere. This has driven range extension of the ecologically important long-spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii), which has now commenced catastrophic overgrazing of productive Tasmanian kelp beds leading to loss of biodiversity and important rocky reef ecosystem services. Coincident with the overgrazing is heavy fishing of reef-based predators including the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. By conducting experiments inside and outside Marine Protected Areas we show that fishing, by removing large predatory lobsters, has reduced the resilience of kelp beds against the climate-driven threat of the sea urchin and thus increased risk of catastrophic shift to widespread sea urchin barrens. This shows that interactions between multiple human-induced stressors can exacerbate nonlinear responses of ecosystems to climate change and limit the adaptive capacity of these systems. Management actions focused on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shift in ecosystems are particularly urgent in the face of ongoing warming and unprecedented levels of predator removal from the world's oceans. PMID:20018706

  8. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift.

    PubMed

    Ling, S D; Johnson, C R; Frusher, S D; Ridgway, K R

    2009-12-29

    A key consideration in assessing impacts of climate change is the possibility of synergistic effects with other human-induced stressors. In the ocean realm, climate change and overfishing pose two of the greatest challenges to the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. In eastern Tasmania, temperate coastal waters are warming at approximately four times the global ocean warming average, representing the fastest rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere. This has driven range extension of the ecologically important long-spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii), which has now commenced catastrophic overgrazing of productive Tasmanian kelp beds leading to loss of biodiversity and important rocky reef ecosystem services. Coincident with the overgrazing is heavy fishing of reef-based predators including the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. By conducting experiments inside and outside Marine Protected Areas we show that fishing, by removing large predatory lobsters, has reduced the resilience of kelp beds against the climate-driven threat of the sea urchin and thus increased risk of catastrophic shift to widespread sea urchin barrens. This shows that interactions between multiple human-induced stressors can exacerbate nonlinear responses of ecosystems to climate change and limit the adaptive capacity of these systems. Management actions focused on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shift in ecosystems are particularly urgent in the face of ongoing warming and unprecedented levels of predator removal from the world's oceans.

  9. Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller’s sea cow

    PubMed Central

    Estes, James A.; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    The late Pleistocene extinction of so many large-bodied vertebrates has been variously attributed to two general causes: rapid climate change and the effects of humans as they spread from the Old World to previously uninhabited continents and islands. Many large-bodied vertebrates, especially large apex predators, maintain their associated ecosystems through top-down forcing processes, especially trophic cascades, and megaherbivores also exert an array of strong indirect effects on their communities. Thus, a third possibility for at least some of the Pleistocene extinctions is that they occurred through habitat changes resulting from the loss of these other keystone species. Here we explore the plausibility of this mechanism, using information on sea otters, kelp forests, and the recent extinction of Steller's sea cows from the Commander Islands. Large numbers of sea cows occurred in the Commander Islands at the time of their discovery by Europeans in 1741. Although extinction of these last remaining sea cows during early years of the Pacific maritime fur trade is widely thought to be a consequence of direct human overkill, we show that it is also a probable consequence of the loss of sea otters and the co-occurring loss of kelp, even if not a single sea cow had been killed directly by humans. This example supports the hypothesis that the directly caused extinctions of a few large vertebrates in the late Pleistocene may have resulted in the coextinction of numerous other species. PMID:26504217

  10. Evolutionary consequences of microhabitat: population-genetic structuring in kelp- vs. rock-associated chitons.

    PubMed

    Nikula, R; Spencer, H G; Waters, J M

    2011-12-01

    Rafting has long been invoked as a key marine dispersal mechanism, but biologists have thus far produced little genetic evidence to support this hypothesis. We hypothesize that coastal species associated with buoyant seaweeds should experience enhanced population connectivity owing to rafting. In particular, invertebrates strongly associated with the buoyant bull-kelp Durvillaea antarctica might be expected to have lower levels of population-genetic differentiation than taxa mainly exploiting nonbuoyant substrates. We undertook a comparative genetic study of two codistributed, congeneric chiton species, assessing population connectivity at scales of 61-516 km, using ≥ 186 polymorphic AFLP loci per species. Consistent with predictions, population-genetic differentiation was weaker in the kelp-associated Sypharochiton sinclairi than in the rock-associated S. pelliserpentis. Additionally, while we found a significant positive correlation between genetic and oceanographic distances in both chiton species, the correlation was stronger in S. pelliserpentis (R(2) = 0.28) than in S. sinclairi (R(2) = 0.18). These data support the hypothesis that epifaunal taxa can experience enhanced population-genetic connectivity as a result of their rafting ability. PMID:22026515

  11. Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Estes, James A; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F

    2016-01-26

    The late Pleistocene extinction of so many large-bodied vertebrates has been variously attributed to two general causes: rapid climate change and the effects of humans as they spread from the Old World to previously uninhabited continents and islands. Many large-bodied vertebrates, especially large apex predators, maintain their associated ecosystems through top-down forcing processes, especially trophic cascades, and megaherbivores also exert an array of strong indirect effects on their communities. Thus, a third possibility for at least some of the Pleistocene extinctions is that they occurred through habitat changes resulting from the loss of these other keystone species. Here we explore the plausibility of this mechanism, using information on sea otters, kelp forests, and the recent extinction of Steller's sea cows from the Commander Islands. Large numbers of sea cows occurred in the Commander Islands at the time of their discovery by Europeans in 1741. Although extinction of these last remaining sea cows during early years of the Pacific maritime fur trade is widely thought to be a consequence of direct human overkill, we show that it is also a probable consequence of the loss of sea otters and the co-occurring loss of kelp, even if not a single sea cow had been killed directly by humans. This example supports the hypothesis that the directly caused extinctions of a few large vertebrates in the late Pleistocene may have resulted in the coextinction of numerous other species. PMID:26504217

  12. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  13. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  14. DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ichim, Mihael C; Newmaster, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products. PMID:26076652

  15. Seasonal sea ice cover as principal driver of spatial and temporal variation in depth extension and annual production of kelp in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria; Olesen, Birgit; Sejr, Mikael K; Christensen, Peter Bondo; Rodrigues, João; Renaud, Paul E; Balsby, Thorsten JS; Rysgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    We studied the depth distribution and production of kelp along the Greenland coast spanning Arctic to sub-Arctic conditions from 78 °N to 64 °N. This covers a wide range of sea ice conditions and water temperatures, with those presently realized in the south likely to move northwards in a warmer future. Kelp forests occurred along the entire latitudinal range, and their depth extension and production increased southwards presumably in response to longer annual ice-free periods and higher water temperature. The depth limit of 10% kelp cover was 9–14 m at the northernmost sites (77–78 °N) with only 94–133 ice-free days per year, but extended to depths of 21–33 m further south (73 °N–64 °N) where >160 days per year were ice-free, and annual production of Saccharina longicruris and S. latissima, measured as the size of the annual blade, ranged up to sevenfold among sites. The duration of the open-water period, which integrates light and temperature conditions on an annual basis, was the best predictor (relative to summer water temperature) of kelp production along the latitude gradient, explaining up to 92% of the variation in depth extension and 80% of the variation in kelp production. In a decadal time series from a high Arctic site (74 °N), inter-annual variation in sea ice cover also explained a major part (up to 47%) of the variation in kelp production. Both spatial and temporal data sets thereby support the prediction that northern kelps will play a larger role in the coastal marine ecosystem in a warmer future as the length of the open-water period increases. As kelps increase carbon-flow and habitat diversity, an expansion of kelp forests may exert cascading effects on the coastal Arctic ecosystem.

  16. Nutritional supplements: fact vs. fiction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W A; Landry, G L

    1998-10-01

    An athlete may think that if a small amount of a chemical helps his or her performance, more will work better. The most appealing supplements are those that claim to help build muscle, improve endurance, and reduce body fat. Widespread acceptance of herbal of "natural" alternatives to mainstream medicine (especially nutritional supplements) is increasing, and the market is largely unregulated. The authors summarize the facts and fiction surrounding the use of popular products that may be found at the pharmacy and health food store that are being used in the locker rooms of high schools, colleges, and gyms in the U.S. They urge clinicians to stress the value of a well balanced diet to their active adolescent patients and not to encourage supplement use. PMID:9928464

  17. Probiotics and herbal mixtures enhance the growth, blood constituents, and nonspecific immune response in Paralichthys olivaceus against Streptococcus parauberis.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-08-01

    The present study was reported the effect of probiotics and herbals mixture supplementation diet on growth, blood constituents, and nonspecific immune response in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus against Streptococcus parauberis on weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 50 μl of PBS (phosphate buffer saline) containing S. parauberis (2.1 × 10⁷ CFU ml⁻¹). The initial weight did not significantly increased in supplementation diet group from 1 to 4 weeks, whereas it was significantly increased from weeks 6 to 12 as compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) activities significantly increased from weeks 4 to 12 in infected fish fed with supplementation diet compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. However, the total protein (TP) and glucose (GLU) levels were significantly increased in infected fish fed with supplementation diet after 6 weeks. The phagocytic, respiratory burst, complement, and lysozyme activities significantly enhanced in infected fish fed with supplementation diet from weeks 4 to 12 as compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. These results suggested that different probiotics and herbals mixture supplementation diet enhanced the growth, blood biochemical constituents, and nonspecific immunity in olive flounder against S. parauberis.

  18. Probiotics and herbal mixtures enhance the growth, blood constituents, and nonspecific immune response in Paralichthys olivaceus against Streptococcus parauberis.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-08-01

    The present study was reported the effect of probiotics and herbals mixture supplementation diet on growth, blood constituents, and nonspecific immune response in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus against Streptococcus parauberis on weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 50 μl of PBS (phosphate buffer saline) containing S. parauberis (2.1 × 10⁷ CFU ml⁻¹). The initial weight did not significantly increased in supplementation diet group from 1 to 4 weeks, whereas it was significantly increased from weeks 6 to 12 as compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) activities significantly increased from weeks 4 to 12 in infected fish fed with supplementation diet compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. However, the total protein (TP) and glucose (GLU) levels were significantly increased in infected fish fed with supplementation diet after 6 weeks. The phagocytic, respiratory burst, complement, and lysozyme activities significantly enhanced in infected fish fed with supplementation diet from weeks 4 to 12 as compared to fish fed without supplementation diet. These results suggested that different probiotics and herbals mixture supplementation diet enhanced the growth, blood biochemical constituents, and nonspecific immunity in olive flounder against S. parauberis. PMID:21669289

  19. Global herbal medicine: a critique.

    PubMed

    Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue

    2003-04-01

    Herbal medicine finds itself at a crossroads. If it continues to become mainstreamed in a commodity-driven health industry, its focus will change from craft-based tradition to globalized industry. On the other hand, if the fundamental importance of tradition to indigenous and nonindigenous medicine is respected, ecologic and cultural issues arise. Central here are the issues associated with control of both land and culture. Many indigenous cultures and their local ecologies are currently threatened by globalization. Historically, successful large corporations have neither respected the environment nor easily acknowledged indigenous claims to land and intellectual property, so no easy resolution of these conflicts seems likely. Our case study of Mapuche medicine allows us to explore the social and cultural conflicts that many practising herbalists experience. We argue that because of the basic contradictions involved, the protection of cultures and ecologies that underpin the discipline must be made a clear priority. We argue that local cultural traditions are clearly at odds with a globalizing herbal industry.

  20. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  1. Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  2. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

    1999-01-15

    Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available.

  3. Herbal medicines--what do clinicians know?

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    In 1986, DTB published an article called Herbal medicines - safe and effective?, which discussed some of the issues around the availability, safety and efficacy of such treatments.1 We highlighted how the failure of orthodox medicines to cure, and anxiety about their potentially serious unwanted effects, had led some people to turn to herbal medicines for treatment for chronic and disabling conditions often in the belief, that natural medicines must be intrinsically safe. The article concluded by discussing the potential problems associated with herbal medicines and the role that doctors should play in asking about patients' use of such products. Revisiting these themes, here we present an overview of the results of an online survey conducted among DTB readers to explore four key issues: What do healthcare professionals know about herbal medicines? What challenges (if any) does patients' use of herbal medicines raise for healthcare professionals? What awareness do healthcare professionals have about the regulatory arrangements for herbal medicines? What sources of information (if any) do healthcare professionals use to inform themselves about herbal medicines? PMID:20392781

  4. Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomić, Sinisa

    2009-12-01

    Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework. PMID:20061249

  5. Cinnamomum cassia Bark in Two Herbal Formulas Increases Life Span in Caenorhabditis elegans via Insulin Signaling and Stress Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Young-Beob; Dosanjh, Laura; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Shim, Bum Sang; Luo, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models. Methods and Principal Findings In this study, two commonly used traditional herbal formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDB) and Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) were evaluated using a survival assay and oxidative stress biomarkers in a well-established C. elegans model of aging. HLXL is an eleven herb formula modified from a top-selling traditional herbal formula for the treatment of arthritic joint pain. SQDB consists of ten herbs often used for fatigue and energy, particularly in the aged. We demonstrate here that SQDB significantly extend life span in a C. elegans model of aging. Among all individual herbs tested, two herbs Cinnamomum cassia bark (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Cinnamomi Cortex, CIN) and Panax ginseng root (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Ginseng Radix, GS) significantly extended life span in C. elegans. CIN in both SQDB and HLXL formula extended life span via modulation of multiple longevity assurance genes, including genes involved in insulin signaling and stress response pathways. All the life-span-extending herbs (SQDB, CIN and GS) also attenuated levels of H2O2 and enhanced small heat shock protein expression. Furthermore, the life span-extending herbs significantly delayed human amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human Aβ. Conclusion/Significance These results validate an invertebrate model for rapid, systematic evaluation of commonly used Chinese herbal formulations and may provide insight for designing future evidence-based herbal therapy(s). PMID:20179756

  6. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. PMID:24032710

  7. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model.

  8. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Valdivia, Nelson; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2015-01-01

    There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S), the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape. PMID:26360294

  9. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Moisés A.; Valdivia, Nelson; Broitman, Bernardo R.

    2015-01-01

    There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S), the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape. PMID:26360294

  10. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  11. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning. PMID:21951331

  12. Camphor: an herbal medicine causing grand mal seizures.

    PubMed

    MacKinney, Theodore G; Soti, Kamal Raj; Shrestha, Poojan; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is usually used in the USA to repel insects, but it is widely used in other countries as an herb. We report the case of a 52-year-old previously healthy Nepali man who ingested approximately 10 g of pure camphor with therapeutic intention. He developed grand mal seizures, and was evaluated in an emergency room. He failed to recall the camphor ingestion initially, and was treated with phenytoin for new-onset idiopathic seizures. Examining physicians only later found out about his camphor ingestion. Finding the cause of new-onset seizures is often challenging for emergency room physicians, internists and neurologists. In addition to other well-reported causes of secondary seizures, herbal medications and supplements must also be explored. PMID:26065546

  13. The biogeography of kelps (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae): a global analysis with new insights from recent advances in molecular phylogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, John J.

    2010-12-01

    Despite their ecological and economic importance, no summary of kelp global biogeography has been produced for almost two decades. The circumscription of the order Laminariales and familial and generic relationships in the group have changed considerably recently, in the light of molecular data. A global summary and geographical analysis of kelp species and their distributions (112 species in 33 genera) is presented. These data are analysed and discussed from the perspective of the new consensus of relationships within the group, and likely evolutionary events. The putative ancestors of the kelps occur and are overwhelmingly most diverse, in the cooler waters of northern Japan. The biogeographical evidence suggests three main lines of subsequent evolution: (a) a diversification producing the four ‘derived’ families Alariaceae, Costariceae, Laminariaceae, and Lessoniaceae and most extant genera in the temperate northern Pacific, probably during the Miocene. (b) The evolution of an Arctic flora which invaded the North Atlantic following the opening of the Bering Strait ca. 5.5 Ma. (c) At least four separate crossings, by different genera, of tropical regions from Northern to Southern Hemisphere (and one in the opposite direction). The recorded impacts of man on these distributions have thus far been minimal, with the notable exceptions of Undaria pinnatifida and species of Saccharina (grown in aquaculture systems for human food). Most genera are monospecific, with many confined to either the western or eastern temperate North Pacific, whereas the distribution of the most species-rich genera ( Alaria, Laminaria, Saccharina) includes the Arctic, and they are widespread in the North Atlantic. This rapid species-level evolution is hypothesised to have been promoted by the relatively recent invasion of the Atlantic by these taxa. The crossing of the tropics has occurred in warm-temperate species some of which occur and are sometimes abundant, in deeper water in today

  14. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  15. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  16. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future.

  17. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving reuptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068

  18. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving reuptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine.

  19. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving re-uptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068

  20. Dietary Supplements and Alternative Therapies for Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Philip J

    2015-11-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) continues to grow in North America. The most recent National Health Interview Survey found that in 2012, 33.2 percent of respondents reported usage of some form of CAM in the previous 12 months. A survey of adult patients in a U.S. dental school clinic found that 24 percent reported the use of herbal supplements. Dietary supplements and alternative therapies are often used for pain management. PMID:26798883

  1. Quantifying Temporal and Spatial Variability of Nearshore Processes Around a Nearshore Kelp Forest Rocky Reef with the Kelp Forest Array Cabled Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squibb, M. E.; Monismith, S. G.; Woodson, C. B.; Dunckley, J. F.; Martone, R. G.; Litvin, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Oceanographic data from the Kelp Forest Array (KFA) cabled observatory is used to determine the frequency, intensity, duration and seasonal variation of low-pH and low-DO events, and relate them to temperature and density variability associated with internal waves and upwelling. We employ standard time series analyses to determine the frequency distributions of variance in pH, DO, and T and coherence analysis to identify frequency dependent co-variability among the three variables. Statistical analysis is used to identify the probability of a hypoxic event of given strength (e.g., DO < 4.5 mg/l17) lasting for a given duration and compare this between habitats. Joint probability distribution functions of low-DO are computed from the data in the same way. This approach can be used to identify the likelihood of extreme events with respect to specific DO thresholds of physiological relevance for species of interest in MPAs. The time scales and vertical structure of velocities, temperature, and dissolved oxygen associated with low-DO events are also analyzed to determine the dominant transport mechanisms for these events and how they are tied to internal shoaling waves prevalent in the southern part of Monterey Bay. The structure and evolution of shoaling internal "bores" are also shown to substantially alter the background nearshore dynamics with their arrival and relaxation. Our work in 2015 is contextualized by multi-year data sets from the three previous years which contain observations of both upwelling and non-upwelling periods.

  2. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  3. Free-living and particle-associated prokaryote metabolism in giant kelp forests: Implications for carbon flux in a sub-Antarctic coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, Mathilde; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Froneman, Pierre W.

    2012-06-01

    Extensive beds of large subtidal kelps are characteristic of many temperate and subpolar coastlines. They provide habitats for a wide range of other species and are sites of high primary production that generate large quantities of water-borne particles and dissolved organic compounds that support distinctive communities of prokaryotes. We measured prokaryotic metabolism along transects from the shore to the outside of three giant kelp forests (Macrocystis pyrifera) located in the shelf waters of the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean). Abundance, heterotrophic production (PHP), respiration rates (R-ETS) and growth efficiencies (PGE) were investigated within the particle-associated (PA) and the free-living (FL) communities. Temperature, salinity and inorganic nutrient concentrations indicated distinct hydrological differences among the kelp forests that were related to different levels of freshwater input through island run-off. In contrast, detritus and particulate organic matter concentrations showed a common pattern, decreasing from the near-shore to offshore at all sampling sites, suggesting the retention of organically enriched water masses inshore of the kelp forests. While FL and PA abundances did not differ significantly along transects, FL and PA-PHP and PGE all varied significantly across the kelp forests, following the same pattern across each forest. PA-PGE was significantly higher than FL-PGE in the near-shore waters and farther offshore, while FL-PGE was higher or equal to PA-PGE inside the kelp. This shift can be interpreted in terms of gradients in both the age and origins of organic material across the kelp forests. Higher PA-PGE implies that a larger fraction of organic carbon on colonized particles is converted into prokaryotic biomass and so becomes available to higher trophic levels inshore and offshore of M. pyrifera forests than inside the kelp bed. In contrast, low PA-PGE suggests that a large quantity of carbon passes through the PA

  4. Adverse Effects of Common Drugs: Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Felix, Todd Matthew; Karpa, Kelly Dowhower; Lewis, Peter R

    2015-09-01

    Dietary supplement-induced adverse effects often resolve quickly after discontinuation of the offending product, especially in younger patients. The potential for unwanted outcomes can be amplified in elderly patients or those taking multiple prescription drugs, especially where interactions exist with drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Attributing injury or illness to a specific supplement can be challenging, especially in light of multi-ingredient products, product variability, and variability in reporting, as well as the vast underreporting of adverse drug reactions. Clinicians prescribing a new drug or evaluating a patient with a new symptom complex should inquire about use of herbal and dietary supplements as part of a comprehensive evaluation. Clinicians should report suspected supplement-related adverse effects to the local or state health department, as well as the Food and Drug Administration's MedWatch program (available at https://www.safetyreporting.hhs.gov). Clinicians should consider discussing suspected adverse effects involving drugs, herbal products, or dietary supplements with their community- and hospital-based pharmacists, and explore patient management options with medical or clinical toxicology subspecialists.

  5. Effects of experimental overgrowth on survival and change in the turf assemblage of a giant kelp forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Meslow, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae were the prevalent cover among sessile organisms that paved or grew near the substratum, and also the most commonly overgrown species in a giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C.A. Agardh forest located off San Nicolas Island, California. Giant kelp was the largest and most conspicuous species that overgrew large patches of the substrata; overgrowth among turf organisms also appeared common. To determine the effects of giant kelp holdfasts on crustose coralline algae and other turf organisms,'artificial holdfasts' were placed on 0.125-m2 plots for 5, 8 and 12 months. In these treatments, 50?57% of the crustose coralline algae survived. Because these algae also recruited while covered, the total cover (survivorship plus recruitment) differed by only 7?26% from that sampled at the start of the study. The decline of these algae in control plots was similar to that in the treatment plots mostly because of overgrowth by sessile invertebrates. Bryozoans increased markedly on the control plots, whereas 0?12% survived in the treatment plots. Bryozoans and sponges also recruited under the artificial holdfasts. Some arborescent turf algae survived in the 5- and 8-month treatments; articulated coralline algae survived better than did foliose algae. High survival recruitment of crustose coralline algae while overgrown contributed to their prevalence in benthic communities.

  6. In situ microscopy reveals reversible cell wall swelling in kelp sieve tubes: one mechanism for turgor generation and flow control?

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Jan; Tepler Drobnitch, Sarah; Peters, Winfried S; Knoblauch, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Kelps, brown algae (Phaeophyceae) of the order Laminariales, possess sieve tubes for the symplasmic long-distance transport of photoassimilates that are evolutionarily unrelated but structurally similar to the tubes in the phloem of vascular plants. We visualized sieve tube structure and wound responses in fully functional, intact Bull Kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana [K. Mertens] Postels & Ruprecht 1840). In injured tubes, apparent slime plugs formed but were unlikely to cause sieve tube occlusion as they assembled at the downstream side of sieve plates. Cell walls expanded massively in the radial direction, reducing the volume of the wounded sieve elements by up to 90%. Ultrastructural examination showed that a layer of the immediate cell wall characterized by circumferential cellulose fibrils was responsible for swelling and suggested that alginates, abundant gelatinous polymers of the cell wall matrix, were involved. Wall swelling was rapid, reversible and depended on intracellular pressure, as demonstrated by pressure-injection of silicon oil. Our results revive the concept of turgor generation and buffering by swelling cell walls, which had fallen into oblivion over the last century. Because sieve tube transport is pressure-driven and controlled physically by tube diameter, a regulatory role of wall swelling in photoassimilate distribution is implied in kelps.

  7. In situ microscopy reveals reversible cell wall swelling in kelp sieve tubes: one mechanism for turgor generation and flow control?

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Jan; Tepler Drobnitch, Sarah; Peters, Winfried S; Knoblauch, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Kelps, brown algae (Phaeophyceae) of the order Laminariales, possess sieve tubes for the symplasmic long-distance transport of photoassimilates that are evolutionarily unrelated but structurally similar to the tubes in the phloem of vascular plants. We visualized sieve tube structure and wound responses in fully functional, intact Bull Kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana [K. Mertens] Postels & Ruprecht 1840). In injured tubes, apparent slime plugs formed but were unlikely to cause sieve tube occlusion as they assembled at the downstream side of sieve plates. Cell walls expanded massively in the radial direction, reducing the volume of the wounded sieve elements by up to 90%. Ultrastructural examination showed that a layer of the immediate cell wall characterized by circumferential cellulose fibrils was responsible for swelling and suggested that alginates, abundant gelatinous polymers of the cell wall matrix, were involved. Wall swelling was rapid, reversible and depended on intracellular pressure, as demonstrated by pressure-injection of silicon oil. Our results revive the concept of turgor generation and buffering by swelling cell walls, which had fallen into oblivion over the last century. Because sieve tube transport is pressure-driven and controlled physically by tube diameter, a regulatory role of wall swelling in photoassimilate distribution is implied in kelps. PMID:26991892

  8. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated.

  9. Drug interactions in African herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Werner; Steenkamp, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Herbal usage remains popular as an alternative or complementary form of treatment, especially in Africa. However, the misconception that herbal remedies are safe due to their "natural" origins jeopardizes human safety, as many different interactions can occur with concomitant use with other pharmaceuticals on top of potential inherent toxicity. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly polymorphic, and pose a problem for pharmaceutical drug tailoring to meet an individual's specific metabolic activity. The influence of herbal remedies further complicates this. The plants included in this review have been mainly researched for determining their effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein drug transporters. Usage of herbal remedies, such as Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens and Harpagophytum procumbensis popular in Africa. The literature suggests that there is a potential for drug-herb interactions, which could occur through alterations in metabolism and transportation of drugs. Research has primarily been conducted in vitro, whereas in vivo data are lacking. Research concerning the effect of African herbals on drug metabolism should also be approached, as specific plants are especially popular in conjunction with certain treatments. Although these interactions can be beneficial, the harm they pose is just as great. PMID:21756221

  10. Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases: it ranges from traditional and popular medicines of every country to the use of standardized and tritated herbal extracts. Generally cultural rootedness enduring and widespread use in a Traditional Medical System may indicate safety, but not efficacy of treatments, especially in herbal medicine where tradition is almost completely based on remedies containing active principles at very low and ultra low concentrations, or relying on magical-energetic principles. In the age of globalization and of the so-called ‘plate world’, assessing the ‘transferability’ of treatments between different cultures is not a relevant goal for clinical research, while are the assessment of efficacy and safety that should be based on the regular patterns of mainstream clinical medicine. The other black box of herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of extracts. Herbal derived remedies need a powerful and deep assessment of their pharmacological qualities and safety that actually can be realized by new biologic technologies like pharmacogenomic, metabolomic and microarray methology. Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely also on the tradition or supposed millenarian beliefs; explanatory and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered complementary in the acquisition of reliable data both for health caregiver and patients. PMID:18227931

  11. Contemporary habitat discontinuity and historic glacial ice drive genetic divergence in Chilean kelp

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background South America's western coastline, extending in a near-straight line across some 35 latitudinal degrees, presents an elegant setting for assessing both contemporary and historic influences on cladogenesis in the marine environment. Southern bull-kelp (Durvillaea antarctica) has a broad distribution along much of the Chilean coast. This species represents an ideal model taxon for studies of coastal marine connectivity and of palaeoclimatic effects, as it grows only on exposed rocky coasts and is absent from beaches and ice-affected shores. We expected that, along the central Chilean coast, D. antarctica would show considerable phylogeographic structure as a consequence of the isolating effects of distance and habitat discontinuities. In contrast, we hypothesised that further south - throughout the region affected by the Patagonian Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) - D. antarctica would show relatively little genetic structure, reflecting postglacial recolonisation. Results Mitochondrial (COI) and chloroplast (rbcL) DNA analyses of D. antarctica from 24 Chilean localities (164 individuals) revealed two deeply divergent (4.5 - 6.1% for COI, 1.4% for rbcL) clades from the centre and south of the country, with contrasting levels and patterns of genetic structure. Among populations from central Chile (32° - 44°S), substantial phylogeographic structure was evident across small spatial scales, and a significant isolation-by-distance effect was observed. Genetic disjunctions in this region appear to correspond to the presence of long beaches. In contrast to the genetic structure found among central Chilean populations, samples from the southern Chilean Patagonian region (49° - 56°S) were genetically homogeneous and identical to a haplotype recently found throughout the subantarctic region. Conclusions Southern (Patagonian) Chile has been recolonised by D. antarctica relatively recently, probably since the LGM. The inferred trans-oceanic ancestry of

  12. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  13. Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Alan Keith

    2008-01-01

    Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100

  14. Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    (1) Functional dyspepsia is extremely common, yet few if any treatments have been shown to be effective. This review examines the potential benefits and risks of using herbal products in treating symptoms of dyspepsia. (2) About forty plants have been approved in France in the composition of products traditionally used for dyspepsia. (3) The clinical efficacy of most of these plants has not been assessed. Some essential oils can cause severe adverse effects, including seizures. Herbal teas appear to be safe when used appropriately. (4) A few randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that peppermint essential oil is effective in reducing abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea in patients with "irritable bowel syndrome". Peppermint tea, containing essential oil, has no known adverse effects. (5) There is no sound reason to discourage patients from using herbal teas made from plants such as lemon balm, German chamomile or star anise. PMID:18630390

  15. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    PubMed

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used.

  16. The direct effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.

    2010-01-01

    Predictions about the ecological consequences of oceanic uptake of CO2 have been preoccupied with the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, particularly those critical to the formation of habitats (e.g. coral reefs) or their maintenance (e.g. grazing echinoderms). This focus overlooks the direct effects of CO2 on non-calcareous taxa, particularly those that play critical roles in ecosystem shifts. We used two experiments to investigate whether increased CO2 could exacerbate kelp loss by facilitating non-calcareous algae that, we hypothesized, (i) inhibit the recovery of kelp forests on an urbanized coast, and (ii) form more extensive covers and greater biomass under moderate future CO2 and associated temperature increases. Our experimental removal of turfs from a phase-shifted system (i.e. kelp- to turf-dominated) revealed that the number of kelp recruits increased, thereby indicating that turfs can inhibit kelp recruitment. Future CO2 and temperature interacted synergistically to have a positive effect on the abundance of algal turfs, whereby they had twice the biomass and occupied over four times more available space than under current conditions. We suggest that the current preoccupation with the negative effects of ocean acidification on marine calcifiers overlooks potentially profound effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms. PMID:20053651

  17. Toxicities by herbal medicines with emphasis to traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Efferth, Thomas; Kaina, Bernd

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that three quarters of the world population rely on herbal and traditional medicine as a basis for primary health care. Therefore, it is one of the most important and challenging tasks for scientists working in drug research to investigate the efficacy of herbal medicine, to dissect favorable from adverse effects, to identify active principles in medicinal plants and to ban poisonous plants or contaminations from herbal mixtures. In the present review, some problems are critically discussed. Botanical misidentification or mislabeling of plant material can play a role for toxic reactions in humans. Some plant descriptions in traditional herbal medicine (e.g. traditional Chinese medicine) have changed over time, which may lead to unintended intoxication by using wrong plants. A problem is also the contamination of herbals with microorganisms, fungal toxins such as aflatoxin, with pesticides and heavy metals. Unprofessional processing, which differs from safe traditional preparation represents another potential source for herbal poisoning. Unwanted effects of herbal products may also develop by the interaction of herbs with conventional drugs upon concomitant intake. The art of herbal medicine is to dissect pharmacologically and therapeutically valuable herbal drugs from harmful and toxic ones and to develop combinations of medicinal plants as safe and efficient herbal remedies. Standardization and strict control measures are necessary to monitor sustainable high quality of herbal products and to exclude contaminations that badly affect patients consuming herbal medicine.

  18. Herbal medicine in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2011-02-01

    Herbal medicines are popular, self-prescribed treatments for rheumatic conditions. A recent US survey suggested that approximately 90% of arthritic patients use alternative therapies such as herbal medicines. This article provides a brief overview of the evidence on herbal medicines for 4 common rheumatic conditions: back pain, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of metabolic function in the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, across depth and season.

    PubMed

    Konotchick, Talina; Dupont, Christopher L; Valas, Ruben E; Badger, Jonathan H; Allen, Andrew E

    2013-04-01

    To increase knowledge of transcript diversity for the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, and assess gene expression across naturally occurring depth gradients in light, temperature and nutrients, we sequenced four cDNA libraries created from blades collected at the sea surface and at 18 m depth during the winter and summer. Comparative genomics cluster analyses revealed novel gene families (clusters) in existing brown alga expressed sequence tag data compared with other related algal groups, a pattern also seen with the addition of M. pyrifera sequences. Assembly of 228 Mbp of sequence generated c. 9000 isotigs and c. 12,000 open reading frames. Annotations were assigned using families of hidden Markov models for c. 11% of open reading frames; M. pyrifera had highest similarity to other members of the Phaeophyceae, namely Ectocarpus siliculosus and Laminaria digitata. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of transcript targets verified depth-related differences in gene expression; stress response and light-harvesting transcripts, especially members of the LI818 (also known as LHCSR) family, showed high expression in the surface compared with 18 m depth, while some nitrogen acquisition transcripts (e.g. nitrite reductase) were upregulated at depth compared with the surface, supporting a conceptual biological model of depth-dependent physiology. PMID:23488966

  20. Oligoguluronates Elicit an Oxidative Burst in the Brown Algal Kelp Laminaria digitata1

    PubMed Central

    Küpper, Frithjof Christian; Kloareg, Bernard; Guern, Jean; Potin, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    Oligomeric degradation products of alginate elicited a respiratory and oxidative burst in the sporophytes of the kelp Laminaria digitata. The generation of activated oxygen species (AOS), O2−, and H2O2 was detected at the single cell level, using nitroblue tetrazolium precipitation and a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe, respectively. The oxidative burst involved diphenyleneiodonium-sensitive AOS-generating machinery and its amplitude depended on the type of tissue. After a first elicitation plants were desensitized for about 3 h. The activity of alginate oligosaccharides was dose dependent, saturating around 40 μm. It was also structure-dependent, with homopolymeric blocks of α-1,4-l-guluronic acid, i.e. the functional analogs of oligogalacturonic blocks in pectins, being the most active signals. The perception of oligoguluronate signals resulted in a strong efflux of potassium. Pharmacological dissection of the early events preceding the emission of AOS indicated that the transduction chain of oligoguluronate signals in L. digitata is likely to feature protein kinases, phospholipase A2, as well as K+, Ca2+, and anion channels. PMID:11154336

  1. A multi-decade time series of kelp forest community structure at San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kenner, Michael C.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.; Cowen, Robert K.; Harrold, Christopher; Novak, Mark; Rassweiler, Andrew; Reed, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    San Nicolas Island is surrounded by broad areas of shallow subtidal habitat, characterized by dynamic kelp forest communities that undergo dramatic and abrupt shifts in community composition. Although these reefs are fished, the physical isolation of the island means that they receive less impact from human activities than most reefs in Southern California, making San Nicolas an ideal place to evaluate alternative theories about the dynamics of these communities. Here we present monitoring data from seven sampling stations surrounding the island, including data on fish, invertebrate, and algal abundance. These data are unusual among subtidal monitoring data sets in that they combine relatively frequent sampling (twice per year) with an exceptionally long time series (since 1980). Other outstanding qualities of the data set are the high taxonomic resolution captured and the monitoring of permanent quadrats and swaths where the history of the community structure at specific locations has been recorded through time. Finally, the data span a period that includes two of the strongest ENSO events on record, a major shift in the Pacific decadal oscillation, and the reintroduction of sea otters to the island in 1987 after at least 150 years of absence. These events provide opportunities to evaluate the effects of bottom-up forcing, top-down control, and physical disturbance on shallow rocky reef communities.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of metabolic function in the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, across depth and season

    PubMed Central

    Konotchick, Talina; Dupont, Christopher L; Valas, Ruben E; Badger, Jonathan H; Allen, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    To increase knowledge of transcript diversity for the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, and assess gene expression across naturally occurring depth gradients in light, temperature and nutrients, we sequenced four cDNA libraries created from blades collected at the sea surface and at 18 m depth during the winter and summer. Comparative genomics cluster analyses revealed novel gene families (clusters) in existing brown alga expressed sequence tag data compared with other related algal groups, a pattern also seen with the addition of M. pyrifera sequences. Assembly of 228 Mbp of sequence generated c. 9000 isotigs and c. 12 000 open reading frames. Annotations were assigned using families of hidden Markov models for c. 11% of open reading frames; M. pyrifera had highest similarity to other members of the Phaeophyceae, namely Ectocarpus siliculosus and Laminaria digitata. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of transcript targets verified depth-related differences in gene expression; stress response and light-harvesting transcripts, especially members of the LI818 (also known as LHCSR) family, showed high expression in the surface compared with 18 m depth, while some nitrogen acquisition transcripts (e.g. nitrite reductase) were upregulated at depth compared with the surface, supporting a conceptual biological model of depth-dependent physiology. PMID:23488966

  3. Effect of kelp waste extracts on the growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiyan; He, Meilin; Jiang, Jie; Zou, Shanmei; Yang, Weinan; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Jie; Wang, Changhai

    2016-02-01

    Kelp waste extracts (KWE) contained massive soluble sugars, amino acids and various mineral elements. To probe the effects of KWE on microalgal physiological and biochemical responses, the cultures were carried out under the different dilutions. The results showed that 8.0% KWE increased the biomass productivities and total lipid contents of Chlorella strains dramatically, which were 1.83-31.86 times and 20.78-25.91% higher than that of the control. Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Spirulina maxima presented a better growth performance in 1.0% and 4.0% treatment respectively, while their lipid accumulation were not enhanced. In Chlorella-Arc, Chlorella sorokiniana and P. tricornutum, the contents of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids could be increased, and polyunsaturated fatty acids could be decreased under the conditions of high concentration of KWE (6.0-8.0%). Briefly, KWE facilitated to enhance the biomass productivity and lipid content of Chlorella strains, also improved the fatty acid compositions for biodiesel production. PMID:26638137

  4. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: the detritivore community and species interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    The fauna associated with sea-bed accumulations of decomposing Laminaria saccharina has been studied by year-round SCUBA diving at two sites in the Clyde Sea area. Seasonal changes in density of 64 species are reported. In the autumn, large quantities of kelp are detached by storms. This weed carries with it to the sea bed a large part of its normal fauna. Additional species settle onto the weed from the plankton whilst others migrate onto it from the surrounding sea bed. Peak densities of associated species were recorded in autumn. Litter bag experiments in situ showed that, except during the summer, weed is lost from sea-bed accumulations at a faster rate when macrofaunal animals are excluded. The macrofauna therefore inhibits decomposition. The relative importance of interactive cropping by three macrodetritivores, Psammechinus miliaris (Echinodermata), Platynereis dumerilii (Polychaeta) and Gammarus locusta (Amphipoda) was studied by in situ containment of different species combinations. The presence of Gammarus with Psammechinus resulted in less weed being lost than when Psammechinus was isolated. This is because Gammarus selectively crops rotting weed, retarding frond disintegration by microbes. Platynereis retards microbial colonization of frond tissues ruptured during its feeding by repeated cropping of the same region. Weed would decompose very rapidly were it not for macrofaunal cropping. Macroalgal decay thus differs profoundly from that of vascular plants.

  5. The mixed mating system of the sea palm kelp Postelsia palmaeformis: few costs to selfing

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Allison K.; Pfister, Catherine A.; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Naturally isolated populations have conflicting selection pressures for successful reproduction and inbreeding avoidance. These species with limited seasonal reproductive opportunities may use selfing as a means of reproductive assurance. We quantified the frequency of selfing and the fitness consequences for inbred versus outcrossed progeny of an annual kelp, the sea palm (Postelsia palmaeformis). Using experimentally established populations and microsatellite markers to assess the extent of selfing in progeny from six founding parents, we found the frequency of selfing was higher than expected in every population, and few fitness costs were detected in selfed offspring. Despite a decline in heterozygosity of 30 per cent in the first generation of selfing, self-fertilization did not affect individual size or reproduction, and correlated only with a marginally significant decline in survival. Our results suggest both that purging of deleterious recessive alleles may have already occurred and that selfing may be key to reproductive assurance in this species with limited dispersal. Postelsia has an alteration of a free-living diploid and haploid stage, where the haploid stage may provide increased efficiency for purging the genetic load. This life history is shared by many seaweeds and may thus be an important component of mating system evolution in the sea. PMID:20961896

  6. Five Supplements and Multiple Psychotic Symptoms: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michelle K; Darvishzadeh, Ayeh; Maler, Neal A; Bota, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements, including vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes, have become increasingly more common and are used by approximately half of the US population. About three-fourths of supplements are obtained with no prescription from a physician, which raises medical concerns regarding safety as these products do not require US Food and Drug Administration approval. Common reasons for taking dietary supplements include improved mood, improved mental function, depression relief, anxiety reduction, and treatment of simple and migraine headaches. The use of herbs for medicinal purposes has a long-standing history among many cultures. We present the case of a 43-year-old man, who was taking dietary supplements, with a 6-month history of psychotic symptoms that increasingly caused impairment in functioning and eventually led to involuntary hospitalization. The published data with regard to supplements causing psychosis, herb-to-herb interaction, and reliability of herbal supplement manufacturers are discussed.

  7. Five Supplements and Multiple Psychotic Symptoms: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michelle K.; Darvishzadeh, Ayeh; Maler, Neal A.; Bota, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements, including vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes, have become increasingly more common and are used by approximately half of the US population. About three-fourths of supplements are obtained with no prescription from a physician, which raises medical concerns regarding safety as these products do not require US Food and Drug Administration approval. Common reasons for taking dietary supplements include improved mood, improved mental function, depression relief, anxiety reduction, and treatment of simple and migraine headaches. The use of herbs for medicinal purposes has a long-standing history among many cultures. We present the case of a 43-year-old man, who was taking dietary supplements, with a 6-month history of psychotic symptoms that increasingly caused impairment in functioning and eventually led to involuntary hospitalization. The published data with regard to supplements causing psychosis, herb-to-herb interaction, and reliability of herbal supplement manufacturers are discussed. PMID:27247830

  8. Dietary Supplement Polypharmacy: An Unrecognized Public Health Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Gryzlak, Brian M.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Wallace, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive and inappropriate use of medications, or ‘polypharmacy’, has been recognized as a public health problem. In addition, there is growing use of dietary supplements in the United States; however, little is known about the patterns of supplement use. Recent reports in the literature of cases of excessive or inappropriate use of herbal dietary supplements leading to the term ‘polyherbacy’. The clinical vignettes described in this article highlight the need for further research on the nature and extent of multiple and inappropriate dietary supplement use or ‘dietary supplement polypharmacy’. Clinical interviewing and population surveys both address this issue in complementary ways, and provide a further understanding of dietary supplement use patterns. PMID:18955288

  9. Five Supplements and Multiple Psychotic Symptoms: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michelle K; Darvishzadeh, Ayeh; Maler, Neal A; Bota, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements, including vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes, have become increasingly more common and are used by approximately half of the US population. About three-fourths of supplements are obtained with no prescription from a physician, which raises medical concerns regarding safety as these products do not require US Food and Drug Administration approval. Common reasons for taking dietary supplements include improved mood, improved mental function, depression relief, anxiety reduction, and treatment of simple and migraine headaches. The use of herbs for medicinal purposes has a long-standing history among many cultures. We present the case of a 43-year-old man, who was taking dietary supplements, with a 6-month history of psychotic symptoms that increasingly caused impairment in functioning and eventually led to involuntary hospitalization. The published data with regard to supplements causing psychosis, herb-to-herb interaction, and reliability of herbal supplement manufacturers are discussed. PMID:27247830

  10. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  11. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe.

  12. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  13. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  14. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  15. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  16. [Pain management with herbal antirheumatic drugs].

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, Sigrun; Pollak, S

    2002-01-01

    Herbal antirheumatics are indicated in painful inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic diseases. Their mechanism of action is broader than that of synthetic antirheumatics. Particular preparations from Devils's Claw with 50 to 100 mg of harpagoside in the daily dosage as well as a particular willow bark extract with 120 to 240 mg salicin in the daily dosage proved efficacy in a number of clinical studies including confirmatory ones. Exploratory studies indicate that these herbal antirheumatics were not inferior to the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib when treating acute exacerbations of chronic low back pain. For the proprietary nettle root extract IDS23 promising in vitro/in vivo results indicate an anti-inflammatory effect, however there are only 2 open uncontrolled clinical studies available and the proof of efficacy is still missing. Safety data in order to recommend use during pregnancy and lactation are only available for the herbal combination product Phytodolor prepared from aspen, ash and goldenrod. In principle, blackcurrent leaf with not less than 1.5% flavonoids may be an appropriate antirheumatic. Likewise, the seed oils of blackcurrent, evening primrose and borage offering at least 1 to 3 g gammalinolenic acid/day are recommendable. In case superiority versus placebo has been established, proprietary herbal antirheumatics should be administered before the conventional analgesics due to the lower incidence of adverse events. PMID:12017748

  17. Online sources of herbal product information.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions. PMID:24290486

  18. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers.

  19. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  20. HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)

    PubMed Central

    Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

  1. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses. PMID:23922450

  2. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs.

    PubMed

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses. PMID:23922450

  3. The Influence of Physical Factors on Kelp and Sea Urchin Distribution in Previously and Still Grazed Areas in the NE Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla W.; Bekkby, Trine; Gundersen, Hege; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus; Hjermann, Dag Ø.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) in the NE Atlantic are highly related to physical factors and to temporal changes in temperature. On a large scale, we identified borders for kelp recovery and sea urchin persistence along the north-south gradient. Sea urchin persistence was also related to the coast-ocean gradient. The southern border corresponds to summer temperatures exceeding about 10°C, a threshold value known to be critical for sea urchin recruitment and development. The outer border along the coast-ocean gradient is related to temperature, wave exposure and salinity. On a finer scale, kelp recovery occurs mainly at ridges in outer, wave exposed, saline and warm areas whereas sea urchins still dominate in inner, shallow and cold areas, particularly in areas with optimal current speed for sea urchin foraging. In contrast to other studies in Europe, we here show a positive influence of climate change to presence of a long-lived climax canopy-forming kelp. The extent of the coast-ocean gradient varies within the study area, and is especially wide in the southern part where the presence of islands and skerries increases the area of the shallow coastal zone. This creates a large area with intermediate physical conditions for the two species and a mosaic of kelp and sea urchin dominated patches. The statistical models (GAM and BRT) show high performance and indicate recovery of kelp in 45–60% of the study area. The study shows the value of combining a traditional (GAM) and a more complex (BRT) modeling approach to gain insight into complex spatial patterns of species or habitats. The results, methods and approaches are of general ecological relevance regardless of ecosystems and species, although they are particularly relevant for understanding and exploring the corresponding changes between algae and grazers in different coastal areas. PMID:24949954

  4. The influence of physical factors on kelp and sea urchin distribution in previously and still grazed areas in the NE Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla W; Bekkby, Trine; Gundersen, Hege; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus; Hjermann, Dag Ø

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) in the NE Atlantic are highly related to physical factors and to temporal changes in temperature. On a large scale, we identified borders for kelp recovery and sea urchin persistence along the north-south gradient. Sea urchin persistence was also related to the coast-ocean gradient. The southern border corresponds to summer temperatures exceeding about 10°C, a threshold value known to be critical for sea urchin recruitment and development. The outer border along the coast-ocean gradient is related to temperature, wave exposure and salinity. On a finer scale, kelp recovery occurs mainly at ridges in outer, wave exposed, saline and warm areas whereas sea urchins still dominate in inner, shallow and cold areas, particularly in areas with optimal current speed for sea urchin foraging. In contrast to other studies in Europe, we here show a positive influence of climate change to presence of a long-lived climax canopy-forming kelp. The extent of the coast-ocean gradient varies within the study area, and is especially wide in the southern part where the presence of islands and skerries increases the area of the shallow coastal zone. This creates a large area with intermediate physical conditions for the two species and a mosaic of kelp and sea urchin dominated patches. The statistical models (GAM and BRT) show high performance and indicate recovery of kelp in 45-60% of the study area. The study shows the value of combining a traditional (GAM) and a more complex (BRT) modeling approach to gain insight into complex spatial patterns of species or habitats. The results, methods and approaches are of general ecological relevance regardless of ecosystems and species, although they are particularly relevant for understanding and exploring the corresponding changes between algae and grazers in different coastal areas. PMID:24949954

  5. Exploitation and recovery of a sea urchin predator has implications for the resilience of southern California kelp forests

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Scott L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Size-structured predator–prey interactions can be altered by the history of exploitation, if that exploitation is itself size-selective. For example, selective harvesting of larger sized predators can release prey populations in cases where only large individuals are capable of consuming a particular prey species. In this study, we examined how the history of exploitation and recovery (inside marine reserves and due to fisheries management) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has affected size-structured interactions with sea urchin prey in southern California. We show that fishing changes size structure by reducing sizes and alters life histories of sheephead, while management measures that lessen or remove fishing impacts (e.g. marine reserves, effort restrictions) reverse these effects and result in increases in density, size and biomass. We show that predation on sea urchins is size-dependent, such that the diet of larger sheephead is composed of more and larger sized urchins than the diet of smaller fish. These results have implications for kelp forest resilience, because urchins can overgraze kelp in the absence of top-down control. From surveys in a network of marine reserves, we report negative relationships between the abundance of sheephead and urchins and the abundance of urchins and fleshy macroalgae (including giant kelp), indicating the potential for cascading indirect positive effects of top predators on the abundance of primary producers. Management measures such as increased minimum size limits and marine reserves may serve to restore historical trophic roles of key predators and thereby enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems. PMID:25500572

  6. The role of attached kelp (seaweed) fronds in lowering threshold of coarse gravel entrainment in tidal flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, Paul

    2014-05-01

    There is a long history of reports of attached kelp (seaweed) fronds aiding entrainment of coarse sediment by flotation. In the intertidal zone of the Severn Estuary (UK) cobbles were observed to overpass fine gravel plane-beds and pebble-gravel dunes in those instances where seaweed fronds were attached. However, overpassing clasts without attached fronds were rare. Flume experiments were conducted to measure the reduction in velocity and shear stresses required for initial motion when fronds were attached. A range of factors influence entrainment including the ratio of seaweed weight:clast weight and length:width ratio of the seaweed frond. Reynolds stresses for entrainment, and the critical velocity for entrainment were reduced by around a factor of two for attached fronds in contrast to stones without fronds. Reductions in the critical velocity were associated with an increase in the values of drag coefficients for clasts with attached fronds; the majority of the drag being associated with the frond widths rather than the frond lengths. The significance of this study is manifold with respect to deposition of outsized clasts in the modern marine environment and in the geological record. The reduced entrainment values explain the presence of large clasts in near-shore and off-shore environments where measured velocities otherwise are not competent. In addition, when clasts are deposited and buried by sediment the seaweed fronds decay and so the role of kelp is not immediately evident. Thus in the geological marine sedimentary record buried outsized clasts may be related to kelp transport in some instances.

  7. Exploitation and recovery of a sea urchin predator has implications for the resilience of southern California kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Scott L; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2015-01-22

    Size-structured predator-prey interactions can be altered by the history of exploitation, if that exploitation is itself size-selective. For example, selective harvesting of larger sized predators can release prey populations in cases where only large individuals are capable of consuming a particular prey species. In this study, we examined how the history of exploitation and recovery (inside marine reserves and due to fisheries management) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has affected size-structured interactions with sea urchin prey in southern California. We show that fishing changes size structure by reducing sizes and alters life histories of sheephead, while management measures that lessen or remove fishing impacts (e.g. marine reserves, effort restrictions) reverse these effects and result in increases in density, size and biomass. We show that predation on sea urchins is size-dependent, such that the diet of larger sheephead is composed of more and larger sized urchins than the diet of smaller fish. These results have implications for kelp forest resilience, because urchins can overgraze kelp in the absence of top-down control. From surveys in a network of marine reserves, we report negative relationships between the abundance of sheephead and urchins and the abundance of urchins and fleshy macroalgae (including giant kelp), indicating the potential for cascading indirect positive effects of top predators on the abundance of primary producers. Management measures such as increased minimum size limits and marine reserves may serve to restore historical trophic roles of key predators and thereby enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems.

  8. Management of Pacific herring closed pound spawn-on-kelp fisheries to optimize fish health and product quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.; Marty, G.D.; Johnson, J.; Kocan, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Use of high densities of newly recruited Pacific herring Clupea pallasi for the closed-pound spawn-on-kelp (PPSOK) fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was associated with increased gamete retention, decreased product quality, and increased prevalence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) relative to the confinement of older cohorts at lower densities. To maximize product quality and reduce the potential for disease outbreaks, three management alternatives are proposed for the PPSOK fishery: (1) establish minimum pound volumes per permit holder; (2) prohibit PPSOK fisheries during years predominated by newly recruited cohorts; and (3) develop effective open-pounding techniques.

  9. Description of Maritrema formicae sp. nov. (Digenea, Microphallidae) parasitic in the kelp gull, Larus dominicanus, from the Patagonian coast, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Julia I; Gilardoni, Carmen; Cremonte, Florencia

    2012-06-01

    Maritrema formicae sp. nov. is described from the Patagonian coast, Argentina, based on adults obtained from the kelp gull, Larus dominicanus. The new species fits with the "eroliae complex" and can be distinguished from other related species mainly in shape and size of body, shape, size, and pattern of distribution of cirrus spines, uterus extension, number and size of eggs, vitellarium in a complete ring in all specimens, and its Neotropical distribution. The new species is sympatric with another species of the genus, Maritrema madrynense, which was recorded in the same host and locality. PMID:22807050

  10. Essiac? and Flor-Essence? herbal tonics stimulate the in vitro growth of human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K S; Montgomery, J L; McLimans, B; Latham, E R; Shattuck, D L; Klotz, D M; Bennett, L M

    2005-10-07

    People diagnosed with cancer often self-administer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) to supplement their conventional treatments, improve health, or prevent recurrence. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics are commercially available complex mixtures of herbal extracts sold as dietary supplements and used by cancer patients based on anecdotal evidence that they can treat or prevent disease. In this study, we evaluated Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} for their effects on the growth of human tumor cells in culture. The effect of Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics on cell proliferation was tested in MCF-7, MDA-MB-436, MDA-MB-231, and T47D cancer cells isolated from human breast tumors. Estrogen receptor (ER) dependent activation of a luciferase reporter construct was tested in MCF-7 cells. Specific binding to the ER was tested using an ICI 182,780 competition assay. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics at 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% stimulated cell proliferation relative to untreated controls and activated ER dependent luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells. A 10{sup -7} M concentration of ICI 870,780 inhibited the induction of ER dependent luciferase activity by Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, but did not affect cell proliferation. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics can stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells through ER mediated as well as ER independent mechanisms of action. Cancer patients and health care providers can use this information to make informed decisions about the use of these CAMs.

  11. Annual and Spatial Variation of the Kelp Forest Fish Assemblage at San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowen, R.J.; Bodkin, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The kelp forest fishes of San Nicolas Island, California were studied from 1981-1986 to examine the causes of among-site and among-year variation in the fish assemblages. Fish counts and seven physical and biological variables were recorded at six sites around the island every spring and fall. Over the study period, a total of 45 fish species from 18 families were recorded, though members of nive families dominated at all sites. Among-site variation was considereable with two sites on the south side of the island having two to four times as many non-schooling fishes as the other four sites. Three variables, based on stepwise multiple regression techniques, were important predictors of site-specific fish abundance: 1) vertical relief; 2) sand cover and 3) understory algal cover. The total number of fishes varied interannually by a factor of three. Due to recruitment occuring each spring, there was a strong seasonal component to the variation in fish abundance. The extent of seasonal and interannual variaton of fish abundance is an indication of the variable nature of recruitment to this area. Over the 6 yr period, there were three distinct groupings of fish assemblages correspondong to pre- (Fall 1981 - Fall 1982), during spring (Spring 1983 - Spring 1984) and post El Nino (Fall 1984 - Fall 1986) sampling dates. During El Nino sampling period, there was considerable recruitment of southern affinity fish species, increasing both the abundance and diversity of the fish assemblages. Large-scale oceanographic processes, coupled with site-specific features of the reef habitat, produce a moderately diverse, though relatively abundant fish fauna at San Nicolas Island.

  12. Temperature effects on gametophyte life-history traits and geographic distribution of two cryptic kelp species.

    PubMed

    Oppliger, L Valeria; Correa, Juan A; Engelen, Aschwin H; Tellier, Florence; Vieira, Vasco; Faugeron, Sylvain; Valero, Myriam; Gomez, Gonzalo; Destombe, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    A major determinant of the geographic distribution of a species is expected to be its physiological response to changing abiotic variables over its range. The range of a species often corresponds to the geographic extent of temperature regimes the organism can physiologically tolerate. Many species have very distinct life history stages that may exhibit different responses to environmental factors. In this study we emphasized the critical role of the haploid microscopic stage (gametophyte) of the life cycle to explain the difference of edge distribution of two related kelp species. Lessonia nigrescens was recently identified as two cryptic species occurring in parapatry along the Chilean coast: one located north and the other south of a biogeographic boundary at latitude 29-30°S. Six life history traits from microscopic stages were identified and estimated under five treatments of temperature in eight locations distributed along the Chilean coast in order to (1) estimate the role of temperature in the present distribution of the two cryptic L. nigrescens species, (2) compare marginal populations to central populations of the two cryptic species. In addition, we created a periodic matrix model to estimate the population growth rate (λ) at the five temperature treatments. Differential tolerance to temperature was demonstrated between the two species, with the gametophytes of the Northern species being more tolerant to higher temperatures than gametophytes from the south. Second, the two species exhibited different life history strategies with a shorter haploid phase in the Northern species contrasted with considerable vegetative growth in the Southern species haploid stage. These results provide strong ecological evidence for the differentiation process of the two cryptic species and show local adaptation of the life cycle at the range limits of the distribution. Ecological and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Temperature Effects on Gametophyte Life-History Traits and Geographic Distribution of Two Cryptic Kelp Species

    PubMed Central

    Oppliger, L. Valeria; Correa, Juan A.; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Tellier, Florence; Vieira, Vasco; Faugeron, Sylvain; Valero, Myriam; Gomez, Gonzalo; Destombe, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    A major determinant of the geographic distribution of a species is expected to be its physiological response to changing abiotic variables over its range. The range of a species often corresponds to the geographic extent of temperature regimes the organism can physiologically tolerate. Many species have very distinct life history stages that may exhibit different responses to environmental factors. In this study we emphasized the critical role of the haploid microscopic stage (gametophyte) of the life cycle to explain the difference of edge distribution of two related kelp species. Lessonia nigrescens was recently identified as two cryptic species occurring in parapatry along the Chilean coast: one located north and the other south of a biogeographic boundary at latitude 29–30°S. Six life history traits from microscopic stages were identified and estimated under five treatments of temperature in eight locations distributed along the Chilean coast in order to (1) estimate the role of temperature in the present distribution of the two cryptic L. nigrescens species, (2) compare marginal populations to central populations of the two cryptic species. In addition, we created a periodic matrix model to estimate the population growth rate (λ) at the five temperature treatments. Differential tolerance to temperature was demonstrated between the two species, with the gametophytes of the Northern species being more tolerant to higher temperatures than gametophytes from the south. Second, the two species exhibited different life history strategies with a shorter haploid phase in the Northern species contrasted with considerable vegetative growth in the Southern species haploid stage. These results provide strong ecological evidence for the differentiation process of the two cryptic species and show local adaptation of the life cycle at the range limits of the distribution. Ecological and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22723987

  14. Assessing vertebrate biodiversity in a kelp forest ecosystem using environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Port, Jesse A; O'Donnell, James L; Romero-Maraccini, Ofelia C; Leary, Paul R; Litvin, Steven Y; Nickols, Kerry J; Yamahara, Kevan M; Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Preserving biodiversity is a global challenge requiring data on species' distribution and abundance over large geographic and temporal scales. However, traditional methods to survey mobile species' distribution and abundance in marine environments are often inefficient, environmentally destructive, or resource-intensive. Metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) offers a new means to assess biodiversity and on much larger scales, but adoption of this approach for surveying whole animal communities in large, dynamic aquatic systems has been slowed by significant unknowns surrounding error rates of detection and relevant spatial resolution of eDNA surveys. Here, we report the results of a 2.5 km eDNA transect surveying the vertebrate fauna present along a gradation of diverse marine habitats associated with a kelp forest ecosystem. Using PCR primers that target the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of marine fishes and mammals, we generated eDNA sequence data and compared it to simultaneous visual dive surveys. We find spatial concordance between individual species' eDNA and visual survey trends, and that eDNA is able to distinguish vertebrate community assemblages from habitats separated by as little as ~60 m. eDNA reliably detected vertebrates with low false-negative error rates (1/12 taxa) when compared to the surveys, and revealed cryptic species known to occupy the habitats but overlooked by visual methods. This study also presents an explicit accounting of false negatives and positives in metabarcoding data, which illustrate the influence of gene marker selection, replication, contamination, biases impacting eDNA count data and ecology of target species on eDNA detection rates in an open ecosystem.

  15. Alternative community structures in a kelp-urchin community: A qualitative modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Shifts in interaction patterns within a community may result from periodic disturbances and climate. The question arises as to the extent and significance of these shifting patterns. Using a novel approach to link qualitative mathematical models and field data, namely using the inverse matrix to identify the community matrix, we reconstructed community networks from kelp forests off the Oregon Coast. We simulated all ecologically plausible interactions among community members, selected the models whose outcomes match field observations, and identified highly frequent links to characterize the community network from a particular site. We tested all possible biologically reasonable community networks through qualitative simulations, selected those that matched patterns observed in the field, and further reduced the set of possibilities by retaining those that were stable. We found that a community can be represented by a set of alternative structures, or scenarios. From 11,943,936 simulated models, 0.23% matched the field observations; moreover, only 0.006%, or 748 models, were highly reliable in their predictions and met conditions for stability. Predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory relationships were consistently found in most of the 748 models. These highly frequent connections were useful to characterize the community network in the study site. We suggest that alternative networks provide the community with a buffer to disturbance, allowing it to continuously reorganize to adapt to a variable environment. This is possible due to the fluctuating capacities of foraging species to consume alternate resources. This suggestion is sustained by our results, which indicate that none of the models that matched field observations were fully connected. This plasticity may contribute to the persistence of these communities. We propose that qualitative simulations represent a powerful technique to raise new hypotheses concerning community dynamics and to

  16. Verification of imported food upon import for radiation processing: Dried herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, and spices by PSL and TL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniglia, C.; Aureli, P.; Bortolin, E.; Onori, S.

    2009-07-01

    The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.

  17. Effects of Herbal vX on libido and sexual activity in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Waynberg, J; Brewer, S

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of an alternative to chemical medication in the treatment of sexual dysfunction in healthy women. The efficacy of a unique herbal formulation of Muira puama and Ginkgo biloba (Herbal vX) was assessed in 202 healthy women complaining of low sex drive. Various aspects of their sex life were rated before and after 1 month of treatment. Responses to self-assessment questionnaires showed significantly higher average total scores from baseline in 65% of the sample after taking the supplement. Statistically significant improvements occurred in frequency of sexual desires, sexual intercourse, and sexual fantasies, as well as in satisfaction with sex life, intensity of sexual desires, excitement of fantasies, ability to reach orgasm, and intensity of orgasm. Reported compliance and tolerability were good. These initial findings support the strong anecdotal evidence for the benefits of Herbal vX on the female sex drive. A double-blind study is planned to further research these results. PMID:11186145

  18. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA-ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  19. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322

  20. Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333

  1. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  2. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases. Do not take supplements instead of your ... Partners Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy ...

  3. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  4. Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yellapu, Radha K; Mittal, Vivek; Grewal, Priya; Fiel, Mariaisabel; Schiano, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, nonconventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful.

  5. Opinion paper food supplements: the European regulation and its application in France. Thoughts on safety of food supplements.

    PubMed

    Maixent, J M

    2012-06-30

    The first definition of food supplements in France was established by decree 96-307 of April 10th 1996. In 2002, the European Community adopted a regulation for food supplements (European Directive 2002/46/CE June 10th). This was an important event in the regulation of food supplements. The European regulation was adopted in France, with some modifications, by decree 2006-352 of March 20th 2006. The European Regulation on food supplements is more defined than those for any other food types and is exemplary. The Regulation on addition of vitamins and minerals to food differs from the regulation on the addition of other substances such as amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibers, carbohydrates, various plant, and herbal extracts. While the Regulation includes vitamins and minerals to the positive list of supplements, other substances are included in the negative list of supplements. According to the Regulation, substances added to food supplements must have a nutritional or physiological effect. The increased use of food supplements led to the creation of a department specialized in the safety of food supplement. The safety of food supplements is a permanent concern for sanitary authorities. These authorities have recently combined scientific methodological approaches and a collective expertise to implement and monitor simple and useful rules that insure consumer's safety. Safety laws aim to protect the consumers of food supplements.

  6. Limited effects of a keystone species: Trends of sea otters and kelp forests at the Semichi Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Sea otters are well known as a keystone species because of their ability to transform sea urchin-dominated communities into kelp-dominated communities by preying on sea urchins and thus reducing the intensity of herbivory. After being locally extinct for more than a century, sea otters re-colonized the Semichi Islands in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska in the early 1990s. Here, otter populations increased to about 400 individuals by 1994, but rapidly declined to about 100 by 1997. Roughly 7 yr after initial otter re-colonization, there were only marginal changes in sea urchin biomass, mean maximum test size, and kelp density. These small changes may be the first steps in the cascading effects on community structure typically found with the invasion of a keystone species. However, no wholesale change in community structure occurred following re-colonization and growth of the sea otter population. Instead, this study describes a transition state and identifies factors such as keystone species density and residence time that can be important in dictating the degree to which otter effects are manifested.

  7. Production of bromoform and dibromomethane by Giant Kelp: Factors affecting release and comparison to anthropogenic bromine sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, K.D.; North, W.J.; Lidstrom, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp), a dominant macroalgal species in southern California, produced 171 ng per g fresh wt (gfwt) per day of CHBr3 and 48 ng gfwt-1 d-1 of CH2Br2 during laboratory incubations of whole blades. Comparable rates were measured during in situ incubations of intact fronds. Release of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 by M. pyrifera was affected by light and algal photosynthetic activity, suggesting that environmental factors influencing kelp physiology can affect halomethane release to the atmosphere. Data from H2O2 additions suggest that brominated methane production during darkness is limited by bromide oxidant supply. A bromine budget constructed for a region of southern California indicated that bromine emitted from the use of CH3Br as a fumigant (1 x 108 g Br yr-1) dominates macroalgal sources (3 x 106 g Br yr-1). Global projections, however, suggest that combined emissions of marine algae (including microalgae) contribute substantial amounts of bromine to the global cycle, perhaps on the same order of magnitude as anthropogenic sources.

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Torres-González, Liliana; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco; Alarcón-Galván, Gabriela; Zapata-Chavira, Homero; de Jesús Sotelo-Gallegos, Ma.; Nadjedja Torres-Esquivel, Cipactli; Sánchez-Fresno, Ethel; Cantú-Sepúlveda, Daniel; González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Bernal-Ramirez, Judith; E. Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective: Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results: The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin). None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4-treated group as compared with the CCl4-only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4- and Legalon+CCL4-treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4-treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion: Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect. PMID:23900881

  9. Herbal treatment of the urinary system diseases based on 16(th) and 17(th) century herbals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-02-01

    The medicinal use of herbs is a principal achievement of human ingenuity. The most renowned doctors of antiquity: Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder and Galen mentioned herbs in their works. The first printed herbal was published in Mainz in 1485. Outstanding scientists e.g. Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, Leonard Fuchs and Andreo Mattiola published herbals in the 16th century. Polish doctors also contributed to the development of herbal treatment. The first work: Of Herbs and their Potency by Stefan Falimirz, published in 1534, triggered other publications in the 16th century, the age of herbals. In 1542, Hieronymus Spiczynski published a herbal: Of Local and Overseas Herbs and their Potency. Then, in 1568, Marcin Siennik published his: Herbal, which is the Description of Local and Overseas Herbs, their Potency and Application. In 1595, Marcin of Urzedow published: The Polish Herbal, the Books of Herbs. Completed in mid-16th century, it was only published 22 years after his death. The last work discussed is Herbal Known in Latin as published in 1613 by Simon Syrenius a graduate of Ingolstadt and Padua universities and lecturer at the Academy of Krakow. The work was Europes most complete elaboration on herbal treatment. The herbs described in the herbals worked as diuretics, demulcents, analgesics, relaxants and preventives of kidney stones. Published in Polish, they are still to be found in Poland. All the works presented herein are held by the Library of the Seminary of Wloclawek, and the Ossolinski National Institute in Wroclaw. PMID:26913886

  10. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  11. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  12. Collective poisoning with hallucinogenous herbal tea.

    PubMed

    Balíková, Marie

    2002-08-14

    An incident wherein more than 30 people were poisoned with a herbal infusion during a meditation session is described. The clinical features observed were hallucinations, aggression, agitation, amnesia, mydriasis, dry skin, tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypotension, collapse, coma and respiratory depression. All patients recovered, although mechanical ventilation was required in some instances. A portion of the herbal infusion was found to contain atropine (hyoscyamine), scopolamine (hyoscine), harmine, and other alkaloids. The estimated ingested doses (free bases) were atropine 4 mg, harmine 27 mg, and scopolamine 78 mg. The mean concentrations in 21 serum samples obtained approximately 6h after ingestion of the infusion were atropine 5 ng/ml, harmine 8 ng/ml, and scopolamine 13 ng/ml.

  13. Integrative physicians and an herbal cancer "cure".

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Rosenberg, Shoshana Keren; Samuels, Noah

    2016-08-01

    Oncologists are frequently asked about herbal remedies claiming to "cure" cancer, or at least delay its progression. While complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) should be aimed primarily at improving quality-of-life (QOL) related concerns, "wonder cures" are part of an alternative health belief model providing hope for a "miracle" where conventional treatment has failed. We describe a physician with extensive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) undergoing chemotherapy, with significant toxicities and impaired daily function. He had come for an integrative physician (IP) consultation, provided by a medical doctor dually trained in CIM and supportive cancer care, taking place in a conventional supportive cancer care service. We describe the IP consultation in general and regarding an herbal remedy which was being promoted as a "cure" for cancer. The subsequent patient-tailored CIM treatment process, in which patients receive evidence-based guidance on treatments which address QOL-related concerns, are presented. PMID:27652207

  14. Uranium concentrations in South African herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Vanessa; Stewart, Michael J; Chimuka, Luke; Cukrowska, Ewa

    2005-12-01

    South Africa contains some of the world's largest mineral deposits, which include uranium. Uranium is mined as a by-product of gold production. The uranium content of the surface soil and groundwater in South Africa has been measured and shows marked variation, depending on location. Herbal remedies are collected by traditional healers from many sites, some of which may be contaminated. Thirty herbal remedies were analyzed using a sensitive adsorptive stripping voltammetry method. Eight samples had levels below the limit of detection, but in five the levels were greatly elevated, showing concentrations above 40,000 ppb. The mean uranium concentration of the remainder of the specimens was of the order of 15,000 ppb. We have attempted to put these data into context by comparison with other studies of absorption of uranium by the oral route.

  15. Integrative physicians and an herbal cancer "cure".

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Rosenberg, Shoshana Keren; Samuels, Noah

    2016-08-01

    Oncologists are frequently asked about herbal remedies claiming to "cure" cancer, or at least delay its progression. While complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) should be aimed primarily at improving quality-of-life (QOL) related concerns, "wonder cures" are part of an alternative health belief model providing hope for a "miracle" where conventional treatment has failed. We describe a physician with extensive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) undergoing chemotherapy, with significant toxicities and impaired daily function. He had come for an integrative physician (IP) consultation, provided by a medical doctor dually trained in CIM and supportive cancer care, taking place in a conventional supportive cancer care service. We describe the IP consultation in general and regarding an herbal remedy which was being promoted as a "cure" for cancer. The subsequent patient-tailored CIM treatment process, in which patients receive evidence-based guidance on treatments which address QOL-related concerns, are presented.

  16. Effect of dietary inclusion of a herbal extract mixture and different oils on pig performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowska, Ewa; Świątkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grela, Eugeniusz R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a herbal extract mixture on pig performance and meat quality. The experiment was performed on 60 fatteners (60±0.5-112±2.0kg). Group I (control) was fed with standard feed; groups II and III received the same feed supplemented with 150mg BHT or 500mg of a herbal extract mixture (sage, nettle, lemon balm and coneflower) per kg of feed, respectively. In each group, half of the animals received 4% rapeseed oil, the other half soybean oil. The herbal extracts had no effect on animal performance but significantly improved meat oxidative stability, lowered cholesterol and TI index and increased PUFA content in meat. Slight differences between animals fed with rapeseed or soybean oils were observed. Gilt meat had significantly better (P≤0.01) AI, TI, and h/H indices than barrow meat. It was concluded that herbal extracts have a beneficial effect on pork health-promoting properties due to changes in lipid fraction. PMID:26047978

  17. Effect of dietary inclusion of a herbal extract mixture and different oils on pig performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowska, Ewa; Świątkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grela, Eugeniusz R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a herbal extract mixture on pig performance and meat quality. The experiment was performed on 60 fatteners (60±0.5-112±2.0kg). Group I (control) was fed with standard feed; groups II and III received the same feed supplemented with 150mg BHT or 500mg of a herbal extract mixture (sage, nettle, lemon balm and coneflower) per kg of feed, respectively. In each group, half of the animals received 4% rapeseed oil, the other half soybean oil. The herbal extracts had no effect on animal performance but significantly improved meat oxidative stability, lowered cholesterol and TI index and increased PUFA content in meat. Slight differences between animals fed with rapeseed or soybean oils were observed. Gilt meat had significantly better (P≤0.01) AI, TI, and h/H indices than barrow meat. It was concluded that herbal extracts have a beneficial effect on pork health-promoting properties due to changes in lipid fraction.

  18. The quest for a herbal contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, R R

    1993-01-01

    An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a

  19. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  20. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  1. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    PubMed

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used. PMID:24934061

  2. Light Energy Distribution in the Brown Alga Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp) 1

    PubMed Central

    Fork, David C.; Herbert, Stephen K.; Malkin, Shmuel

    1991-01-01

    The brown alga Macrocystis pyrifera (giant kelp) was studied by a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy at 77 kelvin, room temperature modulated fluorimetry, and photoacoustic techniques to determine how light energy is partitioned between photosystems I and II in states 1 and 2. Preillumination with farred light induced the high fluorescence state (state 1) as determined by fluorescence emission spectra measured at 77K and preillumination with green light produced a low fluorescence state (state 2). Upon transition from state 1 to state 2, there was an almost parallel decrease of all of the fluorescence bands at 693, 705, and 750 nanometers and not the expected decrease of fluorescence of photosystem II and increase of fluorescence in photosystem I. The momentary level of room temperature fluorescence (fluorescence in the steady state, Fs), as well as the fluorescence levels corresponding to all closed (Fm) or all open (Fo) reaction-center states were measured following the kinetics of the transition between states 1 and 2. Calculation of the distribution of light 2 (540 nanometers) between the two photosystems was done assuming both the `separate package' and `spill-over' models. Unlike green plants, red algae, and cyanobacteria, the changes here of the light distribution were rather small in Macrocystis so that there was approximately an even distribution of the photosystem II light at 540 nanometers to photosystem I and photosystem II in both states 1 and 2. Photoacoustic measurements confirmed the conclusions reached as a result of fluorescence measurements, i.e. an almost equal distribution of light-2 quanta to both photosystems in each state. This conclusion was reached by analyzing the enhancement phenomenon by light 2 of the energy storage measured in far red light. The effect of light 1 in decreasing the energy storage measured in light 2 is also consistent with this conclusion. The photoacoustic experiments showed that there was a significant energy

  3. Challenges and patenting strategies for Chinese herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications. PMID:20637103

  4. Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

  5. The safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical and herbal caffeine and ephedrine use as a weight loss agent.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L

    2001-08-01

    Since passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the sale of herbal dietary supplements containing caffeine and ephedrine for weight loss has become widespread in the United States. Reports of adverse events associated with the use of these non-prescription supplements have raised concerns in the United States regulatory community. Restricting the use of these products is now being considered. Such restriction should be based upon controlled clinical trials. This review of the literature in Medline relative to the use of caffeine and ephedrine in the treatment of obesity concludes that caffeine and ephedrine are effective in causing weight loss. Caffeine and ephedrine give equivalent weight loss to Diethylpropion and superior weight loss compared to dexfenfluramine. Caffeine and ephedrine have a long history of safe, non-prescription use. The adverse events accompanying acute dosing are mild and transient. Adverse events with caffeine and ephedrine reach and remain at placebo levels after 4-12 weeks of continuous treatment, but data from randomized trials up to 6 months only are available. Obesity is chronic, requires chronic treatment, its incidence is increasing and it has few effective treatments. The benefits of caffeine and ephedrine in treating obesity appear to outweigh the small associated risks. Restriction of dietary herbal supplements containing caffeine and ephedrine, often with other ingredients, should be based on controlled clinical trials of these products.

  6. Investigation of targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese medicines and selected herbal teas sourced in Ireland using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  7. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  8. Legal requirements for the quality of herbal substances and herbal preparations for the manufacturing of herbal medicinal products in the European union.

    PubMed

    Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important. This is, for instance, underlined by the recent introduction of a simplified procedure in the Member States of the EU allowing the registration of herbal medicinal products which fulfill the criteria of a traditional herbal medicinal product, i.e., sufficient evidence of its medicinal use throughout a period of at least 30 years for products in the EU and at least 15 years within the EU and 15 years elsewhere for products outside the EU. With regard to the manufacturing of these products and their quality, applications of traditional herbal medicinal products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorization. The quality of herbal substances as well as herbal preparations will be determined by the availability of modern science-based public monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia and their equivalents developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The standards put forward in these monographs must allow us not only to define the quality of these products, but also to eliminate dangerous counterfeit, substandard, adulterated and contaminated (traditional) herbal medicinal products. The usefulness of these monographs to implement the criteria on quality and specifications put forward for these products in the different guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is discussed. PMID:19204891

  9. Glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-07-18

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future.

  10. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... specialist. The doc will be able to offer alternatives to supplements based on your body and sport. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: January 2015 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Sports Center Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A ...

  11. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety

  12. Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

  13. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

  14. Anticoccidial effects of herbal extracts on Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens: in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Hasan; Firouzi, Sobhan; Nili, Hasan; Razavi, Mostafa; Asadi, Seyedeh Leili; Daneshi, Sajad

    2016-06-01

    Safe alternative anticoccidial drug to chemical feed additives are herbal extracts, because they don't results to tissue residue and drug resistance. In order to evaluate the effects of herbal extracts to control avian coccidiosis, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into nine equal groups, as follows: (1) Biarum bovei (2) Nectaroscordum tripedale( 3) Dorema aucheri (4) Cichorium intybus (5) Prangos ferulaceae (6) diclazuril (7) Artemisia absinthium (8) infected control (9) uninfected control (each contains two groups). Administration of herbal extracts and supplementation of diclazuril was began 2 days before challenge and lasted for the duration of the experiment. The chicks of all the groups except uninfected control group were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts (3 × 10(3) oocysts of Eimeria tenella) on the day 22 of age. The criteria employed were: body weight, feed conversion ratio, blood in feces, survival rate, lesion scoring, number of oocyst output per gram feces and histopathological changes. For histopathological evaluation, on day 12 post inoculation three birds from each group were randomly selected and humanly sacrificed. N. tripedale and diclazuril revealed better results in terms of growth performance, lesion score, extent of bloody diarrhea and oocyst count as compared to other herbal extracts. The increase in the severity of lesions was observed in groups of D. aucheri, A. absinthium, B. bovei, P. ferulaceae, C. intybus, diclazuril and N. tripedale, respectively. In conclusion, the current study showed that herbal extracts were effective in control of coccidiosis caused by the E. tenella infection. PMID:27413312

  15. Anticoccidial effects of herbal extracts on Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens: in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Hasan; Firouzi, Sobhan; Nili, Hasan; Razavi, Mostafa; Asadi, Seyedeh Leili; Daneshi, Sajad

    2016-06-01

    Safe alternative anticoccidial drug to chemical feed additives are herbal extracts, because they don't results to tissue residue and drug resistance. In order to evaluate the effects of herbal extracts to control avian coccidiosis, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into nine equal groups, as follows: (1) Biarum bovei (2) Nectaroscordum tripedale( 3) Dorema aucheri (4) Cichorium intybus (5) Prangos ferulaceae (6) diclazuril (7) Artemisia absinthium (8) infected control (9) uninfected control (each contains two groups). Administration of herbal extracts and supplementation of diclazuril was began 2 days before challenge and lasted for the duration of the experiment. The chicks of all the groups except uninfected control group were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts (3 × 10(3) oocysts of Eimeria tenella) on the day 22 of age. The criteria employed were: body weight, feed conversion ratio, blood in feces, survival rate, lesion scoring, number of oocyst output per gram feces and histopathological changes. For histopathological evaluation, on day 12 post inoculation three birds from each group were randomly selected and humanly sacrificed. N. tripedale and diclazuril revealed better results in terms of growth performance, lesion score, extent of bloody diarrhea and oocyst count as compared to other herbal extracts. The increase in the severity of lesions was observed in groups of D. aucheri, A. absinthium, B. bovei, P. ferulaceae, C. intybus, diclazuril and N. tripedale, respectively. In conclusion, the current study showed that herbal extracts were effective in control of coccidiosis caused by the E. tenella infection.

  16. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality.

  17. Herbs and supplements in dialysis patients: panacea or poison?

    PubMed

    Dahl, N V

    2001-01-01

    The safety of herbal remedies and supplement use is of particular concern in patients with renal disease, and reliable information is not always easy to find. Predialysis patients may be drawn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) because they believe it can help prevent the progression of their renal disease. The purpose of this series of articles on alternative medicine for nephrologists is to address concerns and issues specific to CAM use in dialysis patients and to provide a guide to reliable sources of information. This introductory article emphasizes safety issues with a focus primarily on herbal medicine. Lack of regulation means that patients may not actually be taking what they think they are. Independent laboratory analyses have shown a lack of stated label ingredients and many instances of supplements and traditional remedies being contaminated with pesticides, poisonous plants, heavy metals, or conventional drugs. While certain supplements are always unsafe (carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, glandular extracts), others are specifically contraindicated in renal disease. Supplement use may be especially hazardous in renal disease because of unpredictable pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, negative effects on kidney function, nephrotoxicity, hemodynamic alterations, unpredictable effects on blood pressure or blood glucose, or potentiation of electrolyte abnormalities. There are no data on potential dialyzability of either active compounds, or their potentially active or toxic metabolites. Many supplements contain metal ions and other minerals. Transplant recipients are also at risk from potential unpredictable effects on immune function. Recommendations and information resources are listed. PMID:11422925

  18. Diagnosis of public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Ely Eduardo Saranz; Bandeira, Mary Anne Medeiros; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes

    2011-07-01

    The present study is aimed to diagnose the current public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil by means of in loco visits to 10 programs selected by means of questionnaires sent to 124 municipalities that count on herbal medicine services. The main purpose of the implementation of program programs is related to the development of medicinal herbs. 70% of them are intended for the production of herbal medicines and 50% are aimed to ensure the access of the population to medicinal plants and or herbal medicines. The initiative of the implementation of these programs was related to the managers (60%). The difficulties in this implementation were due to the lack of funding (100%) of the programs. In 60% of the programs, the physicians did not adhere to herbal medicine services due to the lack of knowledge of the subject. Training courses were proposed (80%) to increase the adhesion of prescribers to the system. Some municipalities use information obtained from patients to assess the therapeutic efficiency of medicinal plants and herbal medicines. Of the programs underway, cultivation of medicinal plants was observed in 90% and 78% of them adopt quality control. In most programs, this control is not performed in accordance with the legal requirements. The programs focused on medicinal plants and herbal medicines implemented in Brazil face some chronic problems of infrastructure, management, operational capacity and self-sustainability, which can be directly related to the absence of a national policy on medicinal plants and herbal medicines.

  19. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  20. Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: usage and perceived benefits.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, and the reasons for their consumption, with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. Semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) were conducted among 78 adolescents aged 11-18 years from a co-educational government high school. Participants reported consuming sports drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, energy drinks, herbal supplements, guarana, creatine, high protein milk supplements, and coenzyme Q10. Reasons for supplement use included perceived short-term health benefits, prevention of illness, improved immunity, parental supply of supplements, taste, energy boost, better sports performance and to rectify a poor diet. Results suggest that some adolescents consume nutritional supplements, sports drinks and energy drinks for their perceived physiological benefits, and that they may not be aware of any potential risks. Health educators should be aware that adolescents seek specific health benefits from nutritional supplements and drinks, which may be better achieved through appropriate consumption of a nutritious diet. Health education programmes should incorporate the perceptions, aspirations and motivations of young people into the planning of interventions and activities in order to make them most relevant and effective.

  1. The practitioner's perspective: introduction to Ayurvedic herbalism.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh

    2007-01-01

    Ayurveda, the indigenous holistic healing system of India, is a holistic approach to health and lifestyle management that incorporates diet, exercise, life activity routines, psychotherapeutic practices, massage and botanical medicine. Ayurveda focuses on prevention, applying techniques of self-care to restore health balance quickly and effectively. Ayurveda is one of the four large, long-practiced ethnic herbal medicine systems with large extant literatures (along with Western, Chinese and Unani). It affords valuable clinical insights in its own right. Acquiring a basis in Ayurveda will enhance access to south Asian herbs and indigenous medicinal preparations. PMID:18928138

  2. The practitioner's perspective: introduction to Ayurvedic herbalism.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh

    2007-01-01

    Ayurveda, the indigenous holistic healing system of India, is a holistic approach to health and lifestyle management that incorporates diet, exercise, life activity routines, psychotherapeutic practices, massage and botanical medicine. Ayurveda focuses on prevention, applying techniques of self-care to restore health balance quickly and effectively. Ayurveda is one of the four large, long-practiced ethnic herbal medicine systems with large extant literatures (along with Western, Chinese and Unani). It affords valuable clinical insights in its own right. Acquiring a basis in Ayurveda will enhance access to south Asian herbs and indigenous medicinal preparations.

  3. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  4. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  5. [Entrapment of herbal extracts in biodegradable microcapsules].

    PubMed

    Borodina, T N; Rumsh, L D; Kunizhev, S M; Sukhorukov, G B; Vorozhtsov, G N; Fel'dman, B M; Rusanova, A V; Vasil'eva, T V; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A

    2007-01-01

    The microcapsules with entrapped herbal water-soluble extracts Plantago major and Calendula officinalis L. (HE) were prepared by LbL-adsorption of carrageenan and modificated chitosan onto CaCO3 microparticles with their subsequent dissolving after the treatment of EDTA. Entrapment of HE was performed by adsorption and co-precipitation techniques. The co-precipitation provided better entrapment of HE compared to adsorption. In vitro release kinetics in an artificial gastric juice (AGJ) was studied. The HE release was shown to accelerate gastric ulcer treatment in a rat model.

  6. Contrasting genetic diversity patterns in two sister kelp species co-distributed along the coast of Brittany, France.

    PubMed

    Robuchon, Marine; Le Gall, Line; Mauger, Stéphane; Valero, Myriam

    2014-06-01

    We investigated patterns of genetic structure in two sister kelp species to explore how distribution width along the shore, zonation, latitudinal distribution and historical factors contribute to contrasting patterns of genetic diversity. We implemented a hierarchical sampling scheme to compare patterns of genetic diversity and structure in these two kelp species co-distributed along the coasts of Brittany (France) using a total of 12 microsatellites, nine for Laminaria hyperborea and 11 for Laminaria digitata, of which eight amplified in both species. The genetic diversity and connectivity of L. hyperborea populations were greater than those of L. digitata populations in accordance with the larger cross-shore distribution width along the coast and the greater depth occupied by L. hyperborea populations in contrast to L. digitata populations. In addition, marginal populations showed reduced genetic diversity and connectivity, which erased isolation-by-distance patterns in both species. As L. digitata encounters its southern range limit in southern Brittany (SBr) while L. hyperborea extends down to mid-Portugal, it was possible to distinguish the effect of habitat continuity from range edge effects. We found that L. digitata did not harbour high regional diversity at its southern edge, as expected in a typical rear edge, suggesting that refuges from the last glacial maximum for L. digitata were probably not located in SBr, but most likely further north. For both species, the highest levels of genetic diversity were found in the Iroise Sea and Morlaix Bay, the two regions in which they are being currently harvested. Preserving genetic diversity of these two foundation species in these areas should, thus, be a priority for the management of this resource in Brittany.

  7. Potential Health Risk of Herbal Distillates and Decoctions Consumption in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Tavakoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of 26 elements in 16 different herbal distillates and 5 herbal decoctions, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental content of five raw herbal materials used for making decoctions and seven distilled and boiled residues were also evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that herbal products display a wide range of elemental concentrations. Compared with world health regulations, the concentrations of the elements in herbal distillates and decoctions did not exceed the recommended limits. The analysis of herbal extracts did not show a significant transfer of toxic elements during decoction preparation. Comparison of elemental content among fresh herbal material and herbal distillate and decoction of the same herb showed that, besides the elemental abundance of herbal organs, the ionic potential of elements also play an important role in elemental content of herbal products. Based on the results of the research, it seems that most health benefits attributed to herbal products (especially herbal distillates) are more related to their organic compounds rather than elemental composition. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were used to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual and combined metals via daily consumption of 100 ml of herbal distillates and 250 ml of herbal decoctions. Both HQs and HI through consumption of herbal distillates and herbal decoctions (except Valerian) were below 1. Apparently, daily consumption of herbal distillates and decoctions at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to a normal adult. PMID:25778835

  8. Potential Health Risk of Herbal Distillates and Decoctions Consumption in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Tavakoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of 26 elements in 16 different herbal distillates and 5 herbal decoctions, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental content of five raw herbal materials used for making decoctions and seven distilled and boiled residues were also evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that herbal products display a wide range of elemental concentrations. Compared with world health regulations, the concentrations of the elements in herbal distillates and decoctions did not exceed the recommended limits. The analysis of herbal extracts did not show a significant transfer of toxic elements during decoction preparation. Comparison of elemental content among fresh herbal material and herbal distillate and decoction of the same herb showed that, besides the elemental abundance of herbal organs, the ionic potential of elements also play an important role in elemental content of herbal products. Based on the results of the research, it seems that most health benefits attributed to herbal products (especially herbal distillates) are more related to their organic compounds rather than elemental composition. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were used to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual and combined metals via daily consumption of 100 ml of herbal distillates and 250 ml of herbal decoctions. Both HQs and HI through consumption of herbal distillates and herbal decoctions (except Valerian) were below 1. Apparently, daily consumption of herbal distillates and decoctions at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to a normal adult.

  9. Herbal drugs against cardiovascular disease: traditional medicine and modern development.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingjun; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Na; Sun, Miao; Lv, Juanxiu; Xu, Zhice

    2015-09-01

    Herbal products have been used as conventional medicines for thousands of years, particularly in Eastern countries. Thousands of clinical and experimental investigations have focused on the effects and mechanisms-of-action of herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Considering the history of clinical practice and the great potentials of herb medicine and/or its ingredients, a review on this topic would be helpful. This article discusses possible effects of herbal remedies in the prevention and treatment of CVDs. Crucially, we also summarize some underlying pharmacological mechanisms for herb products in cardiovascular regulations, which might provide interesting information for further understanding the effects of herbal medicines, and boost the prospect of new herbal products against CVDs.

  10. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice. PMID:26613625

  11. Herbal drugs against cardiovascular disease: traditional medicine and modern development.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingjun; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Na; Sun, Miao; Lv, Juanxiu; Xu, Zhice

    2015-09-01

    Herbal products have been used as conventional medicines for thousands of years, particularly in Eastern countries. Thousands of clinical and experimental investigations have focused on the effects and mechanisms-of-action of herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Considering the history of clinical practice and the great potentials of herb medicine and/or its ingredients, a review on this topic would be helpful. This article discusses possible effects of herbal remedies in the prevention and treatment of CVDs. Crucially, we also summarize some underlying pharmacological mechanisms for herb products in cardiovascular regulations, which might provide interesting information for further understanding the effects of herbal medicines, and boost the prospect of new herbal products against CVDs. PMID:25956424

  12. Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

  13. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice.

  14. Acute liver failure caused by ‘fat burners’ and dietary supplements: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Radha Krishna, Y; Mittal, V; Grewal, P; Fiel, MI; Schiano, T

    2011-01-01

    Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, non-conventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

  15. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species. PMID:16619353

  16. Hair Growth: Focus on Herbal Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, Vinod K

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview on plants identified to possess hair growth activity in various ethno-botanical studies and surveys of tradition medicinal plants. It also highlights the developments in hair rejuvenation strategies from 1926 till-date and reviews the potential of herbal drugs as safer and effective alternatives. There are various causes for hair loss and the phenomenon is still not fully understood. The treatments offered include both natural or synthetic products to treat the condition of hair loss (alopecia), nonetheless natural products are continuously gaining popularity mainly due to their fewer side effects and better formulation strategies for natural product extracts. Plants have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times as reported in Ayurveda, Chinese and Unani systems of medicine. This review covers information about different herbs and herbal formulation that are believed to be able to reduce the rate of hair loss and at the same time stimulate new hair growth. A focus is placed on their mechanism of action and the review also covers various isolated phytoconstituents possessing hair growth promoting effect. PMID:26058803

  17. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years.

  18. Herbal treatment for osteoporosis: a current review.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ping-Chung; Siu, Wing-Sum

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is an aging problem. The declining bone mineral density (BMD) enhances the chances of fractures during minor falls. Effective pharmaceuticals are available for a rapid improvement of BMD. However, hormonal treatment gives serious complications, and bisphosphonates may lead to odd fractures of long bones, resulting from excessive rigidity of the cortical components. Many medicinal herbs used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, known as kidney tonics, have been tested for their effects on bone metabolism in the laboratory and clinically. Three of these, viz. Herba epimedii (, Yín Yáng Huò), Fructus ligustri lucidi (, Nǚ Zhēn Zi), and Fructus psoraleae (, Bǔ Gǔ Zhī) were chosen to form a herbal formula, ELP. ELP was tested on in vitro platforms and was shown to have both osteoblastic and anti- osteoclastic action. ELP tested on ovariectomized rats also showed BMD protection. ELP was then put on a placebo- controlled randomized clinical trial. BMD protection was obvious among those women with the onset of menopause beyond 10 years (P < 0.05). A general protective trend was observed among all women under trial (P > 0.05). Although a thorough literature review on the herbal treatment effects did not give convincing answers to the use of Chinese herbs in osteoporosis, our study supports more research and trials in this area, while we are looking for safe and effective agents to keep the bone metabolism in a balanced state. PMID:24716161

  19. A decades-long investigation of acute metabolism-based hepatotoxicity by herbal constituents: a case study of pennyroyal oil.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Perry; Khojasteh, S Cyrus

    2015-02-01

    Herbal supplements are often regarded as "natural", and are, therefore, considered by many to be safer than pharmaceuticals; however, the adverse effects of these supplements are under-reported in many cases. Many herbal supplements, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids, kava, chaparral and germander, are known to induce liver injury, which, in general, is one of the main toxicity liabilities observed in the clinic and accounts for about half of total liver failures. One example is the hepatotoxicity of pennyroyal oil, which is ingested as an abortifacient, among other uses. For three decades, the late Professor Sidney Nelson contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of toxicity of pennyroyal and broadened our understanding of chemical toxicology. Here we present the studies and review the findings on acute hepatotoxicity of pennyroyal oil. These studies involved the isolation and characterization of pennyroyal components, determination of the appropriate animal models, identification of the structural requirement for toxicity and determination of the target enzymes and the enzymes involved in the process of bioactivation. Studies with stable isotope labeled pennyroyal metabolites, pulegone and menthofuran, furthered our understanding of the role of cytochrome P450 in the oxidation of these compounds. This review presents the investigational tools used in the study of pennyroyal oil, allowing the reader to not only appreciate these methods but also utilize them to tackle and better understand metabolism-based toxicity in their own projects.

  20. [Suggestions to strengthen quality management of herbal decoction pieces--based on production chain of herbal decoction pieces].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Nie, Qing; Chen, Jing

    2015-08-01

    With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent. The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it's also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important. The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances. The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an "integration" mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise. PMID:26790314

  1. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  2. Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Stickel, F; Schuppan, D

    2007-04-01

    Herbal drugs have become increasingly popular and their use is widespread. Licensing regulations and pharmacovigilance regarding herbal products are still incomplete and clearcut proof of their efficacy in liver diseases is sparse. Nevertheless, a number of herbals show promising activity including silymarin for antifibrotic treatment, phyllantus amarus in chronic hepatitis B, glycyrrhizin to treat chronic viral hepatitis, and a number of herbal combinations from China and Japan that deserve testing in appropriate studies. Apart from therapeutic properties, reports are accumulating about liver injury after the intake of herbals, including those advertised for liver diseases. Acute and/or chronic liver damage occurred after ingestion of some Chinese herbs, herbals that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, germander, greater celandine, kava, atractylis gummifera, callilepsis laureola, senna alkaloids, chaparral and many others. Since the evidence supporting the use of botanicals to treat chronic liver diseases is insufficient and only few of them are well standardised and free of potential serious side effects, most of these medications are not recommended outside clinical trials. Particularly with regard to the latter, adequately powered randomised-controlled clinical trials with well-selected end points are needed to assess the role of herbal therapy for liver diseases. PMID:17331820

  3. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E.; Revill, Andrew T.; Hurd, Catriona L.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world’s oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  4. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata.

    PubMed

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L; Johnson, Craig R

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  5. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata.

    PubMed

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L; Johnson, Craig R

    2016-05-27

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata.

  6. Chemical Adulterants in Herbal Medicinal Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Calahan, Jacob; Howard, Dylan; Almalki, Ahmad J; Gupta, Mahabir P; Calderón, Angela I

    2016-04-01

    Many herbal medicinal products have been found to contain synthetic prescription drugs as chemical adulterants. This has become evident by the number of toxicity cases and adverse reactions reported in which casualties were reported via analytical techniques that detected the presence of chemical adulterants in them, which could be responsible for their toxicity. The adulteration of herbal medicinal products with synthetic drugs continues to be a serious problem for regulatory agencies. This review provides up to date information on cases of toxicity, major chemical adulterants in herbal medicinal products, and current analytical techniques used for their detection. PMID:27054916

  7. [Toxic hepatitis due to the use of Ruta herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Rabaev, Elena; Zeller, Lior; Biton, Amnon; Barski, Leonid

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, the use of herbal medicine by the general population is increasing. There are many known side effects resulting from these treatments. Despite the known side effects, physicians tend to neglect the anamnesis details regarding this issue and research budgets of these drugs are relatively low compared with conventional medicine, thus causing a lack of updated information. In this case report, we present an example of toxic hepatitis due to use of Ruta herbal medicine, an unfamiliar side effect of the common herbal medicine Ruta.

  8. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  9. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  10. [Potential interactions between drugs and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Farghali, Hassan; Kameníková, Ludmila; Hodis, Jiří; Kutinová Canová, Nikolina

    2014-01-01

    Purified active plant constituents were isolated and assessed for their pharmacological activities that constitute a basis of modern drug development. The situation with herbal supplements is different because the extract or dried herb or mixture of herbs contains several substances beside the beneficial one(s) that might produce drug interaction with the conventional medicine(s). Most patients are misinformed and believe that anything "natural" must be safe. This article is focusing on plant-based substances referred as dietary supplements (DS). Examples of reported drug interactions and contraindications associated with DS with two case studies are presented. As supplements are typically not prescribed, many doctors seem to have no interest in drug-DS interactions since a typical medical history of the patients does not include any questions about self-prescribed remedies of this nature. Rather, patients are left alone when they are tempted to try this or that DS and tend to rely on advice from friends, or on material they read on internet. A better quality control, compliance, public awareness and healthcare professionals vigilance for potential interactions are needed. It is of utmost importance to appreciate the impact of supplements on different stages of pharmacokinetics, especially on drug absorption and metabolism.

  11. "One-shot" analysis of PDE-5 inhibitors and analogues in counterfeit herbal natural products using an LC-DAD-QTOF system.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Claudio; Pivato, Antonio; Bogialli, Sara; Pastore, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    A highly selective and robust method for simultaneous screening and confirmation of target and non-target phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor analogues within a single chromatographic run in counterfeit herbal products was developed. The protocol, based on an easy and rapid extraction with a water/acetonitrile 1 % formic acid solution, followed by sonication and centrifugation, exploits an LC-diode array detector-quadrupole-time-of-flight (DAD-QTOF) system. The extraction method was optimized both at high concentrations and at trace levels. These two situations are typically encountered in pharmaceutical formulations and herbal food supplements. Carryover effects, never reported before and occurring mainly for vardenafil, were overcome using a polymer-based column. An in-house validation was carried out using five blanks of different bulk matrices spiked with seven standard analytes, namely yohimbine, sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil, homosildenafil, pseudovardenafil and hydroxyhomovardenafil. Reliable quantitation was possible using a conventional standard solution for all the pharmaceutical and herbal samples considered, as matrix effects were eliminated. Accuracy ranged from 80.9 to 108.1 % with overall relative standard deviation (RSD) <11 % (N = 15), measured at 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/g. Limits of detection (LODs) obtained ensured the determination of cross contaminations at nanogram per gram levels. A database with 82 PDE-5 inhibitor analogues was implemented for automatic non-target analysis. Among the 26 samples of dietary supplements and herbal remedies bulk marketed for erectile dysfunctions, three samples were found to be contaminated with both registered and unregistered synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors, i.e. yohimbine, sildenafil, dimethylsildenafil and thiodimethylsildenafil or thiomethisosildenafil. The occurrence of such contaminations, both at trace levels and at pharmaceutical dosage, indicates the illicit use of synthetic PDE-5 analogues

  12. "One-shot" analysis of PDE-5 inhibitors and analogues in counterfeit herbal natural products using an LC-DAD-QTOF system.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Claudio; Pivato, Antonio; Bogialli, Sara; Pastore, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    A highly selective and robust method for simultaneous screening and confirmation of target and non-target phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor analogues within a single chromatographic run in counterfeit herbal products was developed. The protocol, based on an easy and rapid extraction with a water/acetonitrile 1 % formic acid solution, followed by sonication and centrifugation, exploits an LC-diode array detector-quadrupole-time-of-flight (DAD-QTOF) system. The extraction method was optimized both at high concentrations and at trace levels. These two situations are typically encountered in pharmaceutical formulations and herbal food supplements. Carryover effects, never reported before and occurring mainly for vardenafil, were overcome using a polymer-based column. An in-house validation was carried out using five blanks of different bulk matrices spiked with seven standard analytes, namely yohimbine, sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil, homosildenafil, pseudovardenafil and hydroxyhomovardenafil. Reliable quantitation was possible using a conventional standard solution for all the pharmaceutical and herbal samples considered, as matrix effects were eliminated. Accuracy ranged from 80.9 to 108.1 % with overall relative standard deviation (RSD) <11 % (N = 15), measured at 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/g. Limits of detection (LODs) obtained ensured the determination of cross contaminations at nanogram per gram levels. A database with 82 PDE-5 inhibitor analogues was implemented for automatic non-target analysis. Among the 26 samples of dietary supplements and herbal remedies bulk marketed for erectile dysfunctions, three samples were found to be contaminated with both registered and unregistered synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors, i.e. yohimbine, sildenafil, dimethylsildenafil and thiodimethylsildenafil or thiomethisosildenafil. The occurrence of such contaminations, both at trace levels and at pharmaceutical dosage, indicates the illicit use of synthetic PDE-5 analogues

  13. [Exploration on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guoqing

    2010-03-01

    For exploration on the academic thought on processing of Chinese herbal medicine the basic theory and methods, textual research of the scientific of Zhang Zhongiing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was summarized, and the historical significance on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was analyzed. Regarded Zhang Zhongjing is the ancestor of processing of Chinese herbal medicine to lay the theoretical foundation on processing of Chinese herbal medicine for later.

  14. Mediators of inflammation-induced bone damage in arthritis and their control by herbal products.

    PubMed

    Nanjundaiah, Siddaraju M; Astry, Brian; Moudgil, Kamal D

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints leading to bone and cartilage damage. Untreated inflammatory arthritis can result in severe deformities and disability. The use of anti-inflammatory agents and biologics has been the mainstay of treatment of RA. However, the prolonged use of such agents may lead to severe adverse reactions. In addition, many of these drugs are quite expensive. These limitations have necessitated the search for newer therapeutic agents for RA. Natural plant products offer a promising resource for potential antiarthritic agents. We describe here the cellular and soluble mediators of inflammation-induced bone damage (osteoimmunology) in arthritis. We also elaborate upon various herbal products that possess antiarthritic activity, particularly mentioning the specific target molecules. As the use of natural product supplements by RA patients is increasing, this paper presents timely and useful information about the mechanism of action of promising herbal products that can inhibit the progression of inflammation and bone damage in the course of arthritis. PMID:23476694

  15. Mediators of Inflammation-Induced Bone Damage in Arthritis and Their Control by Herbal Products

    PubMed Central

    Nanjundaiah, Siddaraju M.; Astry, Brian; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints leading to bone and cartilage damage. Untreated inflammatory arthritis can result in severe deformities and disability. The use of anti-inflammatory agents and biologics has been the mainstay of treatment of RA. However, the prolonged use of such agents may lead to severe adverse reactions. In addition, many of these drugs are quite expensive. These limitations have necessitated the search for newer therapeutic agents for RA. Natural plant products offer a promising resource for potential antiarthritic agents. We describe here the cellular and soluble mediators of inflammation-induced bone damage (osteoimmunology) in arthritis. We also elaborate upon various herbal products that possess antiarthritic activity, particularly mentioning the specific target molecules. As the use of natural product supplements by RA patients is increasing, this paper presents timely and useful information about the mechanism of action of promising herbal products that can inhibit the progression of inflammation and bone damage in the course of arthritis. PMID:23476694

  16. Impact of herbal medicines on physical impairment.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, C; Black, A; Müller-Ladner, U; Chrubasik, S

    2008-06-01

    The usefulness of recording physical impairment during intervention studies in chronic low back patients has been questioned. A re-analysis of all of our studies investigating aqueous extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens and a proprietary ethanolic Salix extract for chronic non-specific low back pain revealed that the "physical impairment" component of the Arhus low back pain index changed very little during treatment despite appreciable changes in the other two components, "pain" and "disability", over time. For comparison, we also extracted data from the literature on the topical use of capsaicin, which showed the same thing. There may be little to lose from omitting the time-consuming assessments of "physical impairment" in studies of the (primarily analgesic) effectiveness of herbal preparations. PMID:17964131

  17. Autism: Pathophysiology and Promising Herbal Remedies.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies.

  18. Immunostimulatory Lipid Nanoparticles from Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Tal H.; Takaoka, Anna; de la Rica, Roberto; Matsui, Hiroshi; Smeureanu, Gabriela; Drain, Charles M.; Kawamura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Reproducibility is an important issue in biological characterization of drug candidates and natural products. It is not uncommon to encounter cases in which supposedly the same sample exhibits very different biological activities. During our characterization of macrophage-stimulatory lipids from herbal medicine, it was found that the potency of these lipids could vary substantially from experiment to experiment. Further analysis of this reproducibility issue led to the discovery of solvent-dependent nanoparticle formation by these lipids. While larger nanoparticles (approximately 100 nm) of these lipids showed modest macrophage-stimulatory activity, smaller nanoparticles (<10 nm) of the same lipids exhibited substantially higher potency. Thus, the study revealed an unexpected link between nanoparticle formation and macrophage-stimulatory activity of plant lipids. Although nanoparticles have been extensively studied in the context of vehicles for drug delivery, our finding indicates that drugs themselves can form nanoassemblies, and their biological properties may be altered by the way they assemble. PMID:24495243

  19. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Ghasemian, Mona; Owlia, Sina; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil's claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle. PMID:27247570

  20. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Mona; Owlia, Sina; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil's claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle. PMID:27247570

  1. Inhibitory effect of six herbal extracts on CYP2C8 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Albassam, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Eslam F; Frye, Reginald F

    2015-05-01

    1. Herbal supplements widely used in the US were screened for the potential to inhibit CYP2C8 activity in human liver microsomes. The herbal extracts screened were garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto, valerian, black cohosh and cranberry. N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) and hydroxypioglitazone metabolite formation were used as indices of CYP2C8 activity. 2. All herbal extracts showed inhibition of CYP2C8 activity for at least one of three concentrations tested. A volume per dose index (VDI) was calculated to determine the volume in which a dose should be diluted to obtain IC50 equivalent concentration. Cranberry and saw palmetto had a VDI value > 5.0 l per dose unit, suggesting a potential for interaction. 3. Inhibition curves were constructed and the IC50 (mean ± SE) values were 24.7 ± 2.7 μg/ml for cranberry and 15.4 ± 1.7 μg/ml for saw palmetto. 4. The results suggest a potential for cranberry or saw palmetto extracts to inhibit CYP2C8 activity. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate the significance of this interaction. PMID:25430798

  2. In Vitro Effects of Concomitant Use of Herbal Preparations on Cytochrome P450s Involved in Clozapine Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tian, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herbal supplements are increasingly used in psychiatric practice. Our epidemiological study has identified several herbal preparations associated with adverse outcomes of antipsychotic therapy. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of four herbal preparations-Radix Rehmanniae (RR), Fructus Schisandrae (FS), Radix Bupleuri (RB) and Fructus Gardeniae (FG)-on cytochrome P450s (CYPs) involved in the metabolism of clozapine in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes (rCYPs). N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide, two major metabolites of clozapine, were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). FG, RR and RB showed negligible inhibitory effects in both in vitro systems, with estimated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) and apparent inhibitory constant values (Ki) greater than 1 mg/mL (raw material), suggesting that minimal metabolic interaction occurs when these preparations are used concomitantly with clozapine. The FS extract affected CYP activity with varying potency; its effect on CYP 3A4-catalyzed clozapine oxidation was relatively strong (Ki: 0.11 mg/mL). Overall, the weak-to-moderate inhibitory effect of FS on in vitro clozapine metabolism indicated its potential role in herb-drug interaction in practice. PMID:27164071

  3. A vitamin, mineral, herb dietary supplement effect on blood glucose in uncontrolled type II diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    González, Michael J; Ricart, Carlos M; Miranda-Massari, Jorge

    2004-06-01

    We tested a dietary supplement formulated with a synergistic combination of vitamins, minerals, herbals in a group of 15 patients with uncontrolled diabetes type II. The supplement was given for 30 days. Fasting blood glucose was measured prior to the supplementation and at the end of the 30 days treatment period. Blood glucose was significantly reduced in all patients with no adverse effects. This orthomolecular correction of faulty glucose metabolism with a combination of nontoxic, safe and fairly inexpensive nutraceuticals needs to be further substantiated. Nervertheless the idea of correcting metabolism with micronutrients is a new concept of genetic nutritioneering that seems appealing and cost effective. PMID:15377060

  4. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  5. Vitamin and Supplement Use in the Old Order Amish: Gender-specific prevalence and associations with use

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert M.; Reed, Anna W.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Miller, Michael; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the form of vitamin and supplement use is increasingly prevalent in the United States. The interplay between CAM use and use of conventional medications is not well studied. We examined this issue in the Old Order Amish (OOA), a population lacking several factors known to influence supplement use, whose culture and barriers to conventional medications may result in high rates of supplement use. Objective We characterized the patterns of supplement use in the OOA, including the extent to which CAM use aggregates in families, and assessed whether higher use of supplements is associated with lower medication use. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of conventional medications and supplements in 2,372 adult Amish from the Lancaster County, PA area. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Supplements were subcategorized as herbal versus vitamin/mineral supplements. Results Seventy-seven percent of all Amish adults reported current supplement use, whereas 22% reported medication use. Women used supplements more often and used more supplements than men, and familial aggregation of supplement use was stronger in family pairs involving women. Supplement use was associated with lower medication use after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and self-reported histories of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.00, p=0.047). This association was driven primarily by use of herbal supplements (adjusted OR 0.94, 05% CI 0.89 to 0.99, p=0.025) as vitamin/mineral supplements were not associated with different use of medication (adjusted OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.09, p=0.8). In analyses limited to cardiovascular medications and cardiovascular supplements in participants with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes, supplement use was not associated with conventional medication use. Conclusions The Old Order Amish take dietary supplements much more frequently than they

  6. Macrofaunal succession in sediments around kelp and wood falls in the deep NE Pacific and community overlap with other reducing habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardino, Angelo F.; Smith, Craig R.; Baco, Amy; Altamira, Iris; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.

    2010-05-01

    Sunken parcels of macroalgae and wood provide important oases of organic enrichment at the deep-sea floor, yet sediment community structure and succession around these habitat islands are poorly evaluated. We experimentally implanted 100-kg kelp falls and 200 kg wood falls at 1670 m depth in the Santa Cruz Basin to investigate (1) macrofaunal succession and (2) species overlap with nearby whale-fall and cold-seep communities over time scales of 0.25-5.5 yr. The abundance of infaunal macrobenthos was highly elevated after 0.25 and 0.5 yr near kelp parcels with decreased macrofaunal diversity and evenness within 0.5 m of the falls. Apparently opportunistic species (e.g., two new species of cumaceans) and sulfide tolerant microbial grazers (dorvilleid polychaetes) abounded after 0.25-0.5 yr. At wood falls, opportunistic cumaceans become abundant after 0.5 yr, but sulfide tolerant species only became abundant after 1.8-5.5 yr, in accordance with the much slower buildup of porewater sulfides at wood parcels compared with kelp falls. Species diversity decreased significantly over time in sediments adjacent to the wood parcels, most likely due to stress resulting from intense organic loading of nearby sediments (up to 20-30% organic carbon). Dorvilleid and ampharetid polychaetes were among the top-ranked fauna at wood parcels after 3.0-5.5 yr. Sediments around kelp and wood parcels provided low-intensity reducing conditions that sustain a limited chemoautrotrophically-based fauna. As a result, macrobenthic species overlap among kelp, wood, and other chemosynthetic habitats in the deep NE Pacific are primarily restricted to apparently sulfide tolerant species such as dorvilleid polychaetes, opportunistic cumaceans, and juvenile stages of chemosymbiont containing vesicomyid bivalves. We conclude that organically enriched sediments around wood falls may provide important habitat islands for the persistence and evolution of species dependent on organic- and sulfide

  7. Acute liver injury associated with the use of herbal preparations containing glucosamine: three case studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aileen; Dillon, John

    2009-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines is becoming increasingly popular in Western society. As a result the number of reported adverse reactions is increasing. Glucosamine is a herbal remedy commonly used to ease joint pain in osteoarthritis, and only two previous reports of hepatotoxicity have been published in the scientific literature. The present report describes three patients who developed acute liver injury following exposure to glucosamine; one patient made a complete recovery on cessation of ingestion, the second developed chronic hepatitis and the third died following progression to fulminant hepatic failure. A diagnosis of glucosamine-induced hepatotoxicity was made based on the temporal relationship between onset of liver injury and glucosamine ingestion, exclusion of all other potential aetiologies and, in the two surviving cases, improvement in condition on withdrawal of the supplement. PMID:21887162

  8. Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

    PubMed

    Assis, Jorge; Lucas, Ana Vaz; Bárbara, Ignacio; Serrão, Ester Álvares

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change is shifting species distributions worldwide. At rear edges (warmer, low latitude range margins), the consequences of small variations in environmental conditions can be magnified, producing large negative effects on species ranges. A major outcome of shifts in distributions that only recently received attention is the potential to reduce the levels of intra-specific diversity and consequently the global evolutionary and adaptive capacity of species to face novel disturbances. This is particularly important for low dispersal marine species, such as kelps, that generally retain high and unique genetic diversity at rear ranges resulting from long-term persistence, while ranges shifts during climatic glacial/interglacial cycles. Using ecological niche modelling, we (1) infer the major environmental forces shaping the distribution of a cold-temperate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie, and we (2) predict the effect of past climate changes in shaping regions of long-term persistence (i.e., climatic refugia), where this species might hypothetically harbour higher genetic diversity given the absence of bottlenecks and local extinctions over the long term. We further (3) assessed the consequences of future climate for the fate of L. hyperborea using different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). Results show NW Iberia, SW Ireland and W English Channel, Faroe Islands and S Iceland, as regions where L. hyperborea may have persisted during past climate extremes until present day. All predictions for the future showed expansions to northern territories coupled with the significant loss of suitable habitats at low latitude range margins, where long-term persistence was inferred (e.g., NW Iberia). This pattern was particularly evident in the most agressive scenario of climate change (RCP 8.5), likely driving major biodiversity loss, changes in ecosystem functioning and the impoverishment of the global gene pool of L

  9. Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

    PubMed

    Assis, Jorge; Lucas, Ana Vaz; Bárbara, Ignacio; Serrão, Ester Álvares

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change is shifting species distributions worldwide. At rear edges (warmer, low latitude range margins), the consequences of small variations in environmental conditions can be magnified, producing large negative effects on species ranges. A major outcome of shifts in distributions that only recently received attention is the potential to reduce the levels of intra-specific diversity and consequently the global evolutionary and adaptive capacity of species to face novel disturbances. This is particularly important for low dispersal marine species, such as kelps, that generally retain high and unique genetic diversity at rear ranges resulting from long-term persistence, while ranges shifts during climatic glacial/interglacial cycles. Using ecological niche modelling, we (1) infer the major environmental forces shaping the distribution of a cold-temperate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie, and we (2) predict the effect of past climate changes in shaping regions of long-term persistence (i.e., climatic refugia), where this species might hypothetically harbour higher genetic diversity given the absence of bottlenecks and local extinctions over the long term. We further (3) assessed the consequences of future climate for the fate of L. hyperborea using different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). Results show NW Iberia, SW Ireland and W English Channel, Faroe Islands and S Iceland, as regions where L. hyperborea may have persisted during past climate extremes until present day. All predictions for the future showed expansions to northern territories coupled with the significant loss of suitable habitats at low latitude range margins, where long-term persistence was inferred (e.g., NW Iberia). This pattern was particularly evident in the most agressive scenario of climate change (RCP 8.5), likely driving major biodiversity loss, changes in ecosystem functioning and the impoverishment of the global gene pool of L

  10. Use of herbal remedies among patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Roozbeh, Jamshid; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence, types, and associated factors for the use of herbal remedies in hemodialysis patients. Two hundred participants were selected by stratified sampling and were systematically interviewed. One hundred and twenty-six patients (63%) had used herbal remedies some time since their initiation of dialysis treatment. The users of herbal remedies had a significantly older age than nonusers, but no other significant differences were observed. The most prevalent complaints that led to herbal remedies use were gastroenterological complaints, flushing, and excessive thirst. Cichorium intybus, Borage officinalis, Mentha longifolia, and Matricaria recutita were the most prevalently used herbs in our patients. More study should be done on safety and efficacy of these herbs for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24241097

  11. International monitoring of adverse health effects associated with herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Farah, M H; Edwards, R; Lindquist, M; Leon, C; Shaw, D

    2000-03-01

    Herbal medicines are used in health care around the world and may increase in importance. There is much uncertainty, however, with regard to their composition, efficacy and safety. There is substantial evidence that herbal medicines can cause serious adverse reactions, but more data are needed as regard their nature, frequency and preventability. In this respect the Uppsala Monitoring Centre of the World Health Organization can play a crucial role. Better reporting of adverse reactions to herbal medicines is needed, in particular with regard to the precise identity and composition of these products. A consistent use by producers, regulators and reporters of the international Latin binomial nomenclature and the use of the new Herbal Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification are recommended. Copyright (c) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:19025809

  12. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice.

  13. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice. PMID:15745254

  14. POTENTIAL OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN MODERN MEDICAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hakim Mohammed

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses in this paper the potentialities of Herbal medicine in modern therapy. Also he throws some light on the importance of natural drugs which bring about cure without generation side-effects. PMID:22557447

  15. [Advance in herbal medicine applied to intracanal antisepsis].

    PubMed

    Zhongpeng, Yang; Ling, Zou

    2014-12-01

    Intracanal antisepsis acts as one of the fundamental steps in root canal therapy. Intracanal medication is very common among the multitudinous root canal disinfection methods so far. However, as the most frequently-used intracanal medication, calcium hydroxide exists some problems, such as insufficient antimicrobial power and antibiogram. Thus exploring new root canal disinfectant is necessary. Herbal medicine is gaining favor for its wide varieties, broad efficacy and affordable prices. The current researches revealed that many kinds of herbs or compound herbal preparations possess good ability of antimicrobial and other properties that superior to those of traditional root canal disinfectants. However, herbal medicine itself and the studies have shortcomings. This paper will provide a review of various herbal alternatives that are being studied of late years.

  16. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata. PMID:26130940

  17. Inappropriate usage of dietary supplements in patients by miscommunication with physicians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-11-26

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements.

  18. Inappropriate Usage of Dietary Supplements in Patients by Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements. PMID:25431879

  19. [Use of herbal medicine for cancer treatment-related toxicities].

    PubMed

    Samuels, Noah; Morag, Ofir; Maimon, Yair

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment-related toxicities often require dose reductions and delays. Herbal medicine use is prevalent among cancer patients. Though evidence is lacking regarding benefits in treatment outcomes and immunity, a large body of evidence supports the use of herbals for reducing treatment-induced toxicities. We present three cases where herbal medicine provided relief from side effects of anti-cancer treatment, enabling the completion of treatment protocols. In the first case, a 79 year-old female patient with metastatic breast cancer developed flushing and excessive sweating from Tamoxifen treatment. Herbal medicine reduced symptoms significantly, enabling the continuation of treatment with partial disease resolution. In the second case, a 69 year-old male with esophageal cancer terminated treatment on the adjuvant treatment protocol because of severe nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, peripheral neuropathy and fatigue. Herbal medicine reduced symptom severity and chemotherapy was reinstituted. In the third case, a 58 year-old female patient with advanced metastatic colon cancer was referred by her oncologist for treatment with herbal medicine for alleviation of fatigue and weakness, flushing and palpitations, mouth ulcers and dyspnea. Despite significant symptom reduction, with completion of treatment regimens, her disease progressed and she subsequently succumbed to the disease. In summary, the above cases illustrate potential benefits of herbal medicine in the reduction of cancer treatment-related symptoms, enabling patients to complete their anti-cancer treatment regimen. Further research examining the efficacy and safety of herbal compounds is needed, in light of potential toxicity and negative interactions with conventional treatment.

  20. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to

  1. Multi-approach mapping to help spatial planning and management of the kelp species L. digitata and L. hyperborea: Case study of the Molène Archipelago, Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajjouk, Touria; Rochette, Sébastien; Laurans, Martial; Ehrhold, Axel; Hamdi, Anouar; Le Niliot, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    The Molène Archipelago in Brittany (France) hosts one of the largest kelp forests in Europe. Beyond their recognized ecological importance as an essential habitat and food for a variety of marine species, kelp also contributes towards regional economies by means of the alginate industry. Thousands of tons of kelp are collected each year for the needs of the chemical and food industries. Kelp harvesting in Brittany mainly concerns two species, Laminaria digitata (59,000 t) and Laminaria hyperborea (24,000 t), that, together, represent approximately 95% of the national landings. Estimating the available standing stock and its distribution is a clear need for providing appropriate and sustainable management measures. Prior to estimating the spatial distribution of biomasses, we produced a detailed seabed topography map with accurate hard substrate delineation thanks to surveys and appropriate processing of airborne optical and acoustic imaging. Habitat suitability models of presence-absence and biomass were then developed for each species by relating in situ observations from underwater video and sampling to the many biotic and abiotic factors that may govern kelp species distribution. Our statistical approach combining generalized additive models (GAM) in a delta approach also provided spatial uncertainty associated with each prediction to help management decisions. This study confirmed that the adopted strategy, based on an integrated approach, enhanced knowledge on kelp biomass distributions in the Molène Archipelago and provided a promising direct link between research and management. Indeed, the high resolution topography and hard substrate maps produced for the study greatly improved knowledge on the sea bottom of the area. This was also of major importance for an accurate mapping of kelp distribution. The quality of the habitat suitability models was verified with fishing effort data (RECOPESCA program) and confirmed by local managers and kelp harvesters

  2. Rhabdomyolysis in response to weight-loss herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Mansi, Ishak A; Huang, Jian

    2004-06-01

    The authors report rhabdomyolysis following the ingestion of weight-loss herbal medicine in an otherwise healthy 54-year-old woman. Three hours after ingestion of the herbal medicine, the patient suffered chest pain that continued for 2 hours and resolved gradually. Laboratory investigation showed the presence of rhabdomyolysis with peak serum creatine kinase (CK) of 1028 IU/L, which gradually decreased and normalized after the herbal medicine was discontinued. The pharmacological effects of the active ingredients of the herbal medicine, ma huang (ephedrine), guarana (active alkaloid caffeine), chitosan, Gymnena sylvestre, Garcinia cambogia (50% hydroxycitric acid), and chromium, are discussed, and similar case reports are reviewed. The elevation of CK in this case is of concern, as it may denote that muscle breakdown may be one of the mechanisms of weight loss in these herbal remedies. Further studies are needed to investigate their effects on muscle bulk or CK. Physicians should be aware of the potential side effects of many herbal medicines. It may be advisable to measure serum CK enzyme for patients who admit using weight-loss herbs. PMID:15201651

  3. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the "Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae" and the "Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances." These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice.

  4. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  5. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the “Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae” and the “Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances.” These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  6. A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilin; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Leon, Christine

    2014-11-15

    Numerous adverse reactions have arisen following the use of inaccurately identified medicinal plant ingredients, resulting in conditions such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning. This problem has prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding, a technique aiming at detecting species-specific differences in a short region of DNA, provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. This review summarizes recent key advances in the DNA barcoding of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution towards safe and efficacious herbal medicines.

  7. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W. Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  8. Elemental and structural analysis of silicon forms in herbal drugs using silicon-29 MAS NMR and WD-XRF spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Pajchel, L; Nykiel, P; Kolodziejski, W

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study concentration of silicon and its structural forms present in herbal drugs. Equisetum arvense and Urtica dioica L. from teapot bags, dietary supplements (tablets and capsules) containing those herbs, dry extract obtained from a teapot bag of E. arvense, and samples of the latter herb harvested in wild habitat over four months were studied using wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WD-XRF) and high-resolution solid-state (29)Si NMR. The highest concentration of Si, ca. 27mg/g, was found in the herbal material from the teapot bags containing E. arvense. The Si content in natural E. arvense (whole plants) increased from May to August by ca. 7mg/g, reaching value 26mg/g. Three different silicon forms were detected in the studied herbal samples: Si(OSi)4 (Q(4)), Si(OH)(OSi)3 (Q(3)) and Si(OH)2(OSi)2 (Q(2)). Those sites were populated in E. arvense in the following order: Q(4)≫Q(3)>Q(2). A dramatic, ca. 50-fold decrease of the Si concentration during the infusion process was observed. The infusion process and the subsequent drying procedure augmented population of the Q(4) sites at the cost of the Q(2) sites. The WD-XRF and (29)Si NMR methods occurred useful and complementary in the study of herbal materials.

  9. Comparative effects of oil dispersants to the early life stages of topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera)

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M.M.; George, S.; Jacobson, S.; Lee, I.; Tjeerdema, R.S. ); Sowby, M.L. )

    1994-04-01

    The acute effects of two oilspill dispersants were compared using the early life stages of two common nearshore marine organisms: the topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a common fish in bays and estuaries, and the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), a canopy-forming brown alga. Testing was done under closed, flow-through conditions, with spiked dispersant concentrations measured in real time using UV spectrophotometry. Both dispersants were composed of complex mixtures of anionic and non-ionic surfactants and solvents. Median-effect concentration data showed Atherinops tests to be more sensitive to both dispersants than Macrocystis tests, with values ranging from 48.2 to 72.9 ppm (LC50) and 73.0 to 79.4 ppm (IC50), respectively, for Nokomis[reg sign] 3, and from 43.7 to 45.8 ppm (LC50) and 73.0 to 95.9 ppm (IC50), respectively, for Slik-A-Way. Comparison of the present data with those previously compiled for the same products with two other species, the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and a mysid (Holmesimysis costata), showed fairly consistent interspecific patterns among three of the four species; Holmesimysis tests were seen to be least sensitive to Nokomis 3 and second most sensitive to Slik-A-Way. In addition, Slik-A-Way was more toxic to all species except Macrocystis.

  10. In vivo speciation studies and antioxidant properties of bromine in Laminaria digitata reinforce the significance of iodine accumulation for kelps.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Frithjof C; Carpenter, Lucy J; Leblanc, Catherine; Toyama, Chiaki; Uchida, Yuka; Maskrey, Benjamin H; Robinson, Joanne; Verhaeghe, Elodie F; Malin, Gill; Luther, George W; Kroneck, Peter M H; Kloareg, Bernard; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Megson, Ian L; Potin, Philippe; Feiters, Martin C

    2013-07-01

    The metabolism of bromine in marine brown algae remains poorly understood. This contrasts with the recent finding that the accumulation of iodide in the brown alga Laminaria serves the provision of an inorganic antioxidant - the first case documented from a living system. The aim of this study was to use an interdisciplinary array of techniques to study the chemical speciation, transformation, and function of bromine in Laminaria and to investigate the link between bromine and iodine metabolism, in particular in the antioxidant context. First, bromine and iodine levels in different Laminaria tissues were compared by inductively coupled plasma MS. Using in vivo X-ray absorption spectroscopy, it was found that, similarly to iodine, bromine is predominantly present in this alga in the form of bromide, albeit at lower concentrations, and that it shows similar behaviour upon oxidative stress. However, from a thermodynamic and kinetic standpoint, supported by in vitro and reconstituted in vivo assays, bromide is less suitable than iodide as an antioxidant against most reactive oxygen species except superoxide, possibly explaining why kelps prefer to accumulate iodide. This constitutes the first-ever study exploring the potential antioxidant function of bromide in a living system and other potential physiological roles. Given the tissue-specific differences observed in the content and speciation of bromine, it is concluded that the bromide uptake mechanism is different from the vanadium iodoperoxidase-mediated uptake of iodide in L. digitata and that its function is likely to be complementary to the iodide antioxidant system for detoxifying superoxide.

  11. Improving seedless kelp (Saccharina japonica) during its domestication by hybridizing gametophytes and seedling-raising from sporophytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Qu, Shancun; Liang, Guangjin; Sun, Juan; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Cuiju; Cao, Zengmei; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinhua; Yu, Shenhui; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Xia; Luo, Shiju; Song, Shaofeng; Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-01-01

    Dongfang no.7 (Saccharina japonica) was bred and maintained by hybridizing gametophytes, self-crossing the best individuals, selecting the best self-crossing line and seedling-raising from yearly reconstructed sporophytes. It increased the air dry yield by 43.2% in average over 2 widely farmed controls. Dongfang no.7 was seedling-raised from bulked sporophytes reconstructed from its representative gametophyte clones. Such strategy ensured it against variety contamination due to possible cross fertilization and occasional mixing and inbred depletion due to self-crossing number-limited sporophytes year after year. It derived from an intraspecific hybrid through 4 rounds of self-crossing and selection and retained a certain degree of genetic heterozygosity, thus being immune to inbred depletion due to purification of unknown detrimental alleles. Most importantly, it can be farmed in currently available system as the seedlings for large scale culture can be raised from reconstructed Dongfang no.7 sporophytes. Breeding and maintaining Dongfang no.7 provided a model that other varieties of kelp (S. japonica) and brown algae may follow during their domestication. PMID:26887644

  12. In situ ATR-IR spectroscopic and electron microscopic analyses of settlement secretions of Undaria pinnatifida kelp spores

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, L.; Easingwood, R.; Barker, M. F.; McQuillan, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about the settlement of marine organisms on substrates is important for the development of environmentally benign new methods for control of marine biofouling. The adhesion to substrates by spores of Undaria pinnatifida, a kelp species that is invasive to several countries, was studied by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies (SEM/TEM) as well as by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The IR spectra showed that adhesive secretion began approximately 15 min after initial settlement and that the adhesive bulk material contained protein and anionic polysaccharides. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis of the adhesive identified sulphur and phosphorus as well as calcium and magnesium ions, which facilitate the gelation of the anionic polysaccharides in the sea water. The adhesive may be secreted from Golgi bodies in the spore, which were imaged by TEM of spore thin sections. Additionally, an in situ settlement study on TiO2 particle film by ATR-IR spectroscopy revealed the presence of phosphorylated moieties directly binding the substrate. The presence of anionic groups dominating the adhesive suggests that inhibition of spore adhesion will be favoured by negatively charged surfaces. PMID:20685693

  13. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ. PMID:24023584

  14. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  15. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD

  16. Antifertility effect of Jamu (traditional herbal medicine).

    PubMed

    Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie; Embun Naim

    1983-12-01

    Rahwana and Kursani, 2 brands of jamu, a traditional Malay herbal medicine, were investigated for antifertility properties in rats and mice. The findings suggest that jamu has an antifertility effect in both these rodents. This effect appears to be dose dependent and in addition the stage at which it was fed also appears to be crucial for the effect to manifest. Rahwana is effective when fed on day 4 of gestation. However jamu Kursani does not appear to be dose dependent and is effective when fed on days 1 and 4 of gestation. Jamu Rahwana does not alter the LH or estrogen levels in rats. Therefore, the induction of the antifertility effect is suggested to be by means other than hormonal. It is felt that jamu either inhibits the implantation of the zygote or causes resorption of the fetus. Whether any antifertility effect exists in women using jamu remain to be clarified. The mechanism of action, its reliability and effectiveness as a contraceptive, the side effects, if any, pharmacology of the active ingredient and other relevant investigations need to be carried out before it can be recommended for human use. The study does indicate that jamu has potential as an antifertility agent and could be effectively used in fertility regulation. PMID:12313336

  17. Phytotoxicity of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Deepika

    2011-08-01

    This work demonstrates the phytotoxicity screening of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry waste (HPIW) using seed bioassay method. The composted industrial waste should be tested at lab scale prior to recommendation for land application. HPIW was mixed with soil to produce four treatments: T(1) (1:1), T(2) (1:2), T(3) (1:3), and T(4) (1:0) for toxicity screening using Pisum sativum seeds. After 72 h relative seed germination (RSG), relative root growth (RRG) and germination index (GI) were recorded. Seedlings were observed for further plant growth and tissue biochemistry (chlorophyll, soluble sugar, starch, carotenoid, and protein) estimation. RSG, RRG, and GI values were better in T(1) and T(2) than others. GI was in the ranges of 36.62 % (T(4)) to 170.38 % (T(2)). The seedling growth and biochemical parameters were better in seedling obtained from potting media containing low proportion of HPIW (i.e., T(1) and T(2)). Results clearly suggested that composted HPIW may be utilized effectively for crop production after dilution under sustainable farming system program.

  18. Chinese Herbal Medicine-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Peng, Jing-Hua; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and the associated adverse reactions has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians. Reports have shown that several types of CHM can cause liver injury, with increasing numbers of cases reported every year. The difficulty in characterizing CHM-induced liver injury stems from clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The clinical manifestations are varied, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the majority. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale is currently the most commonly used method for assessing causality in cases of medicine-induced liver injury with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity. However, the pathogenesis of CHM-induced liver injury is not well understood. The classic view encompasses a contribution from “toxic metabolites” that either elicit an immune response or directly affect cellular biochemical processes or functions. In addition, poor quality and inappropriate clinical use of CHMs contribute to safety concerns. To ensure the safe use of CHMs and decrease the number of hepatotoxic cases, clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies should share responsibility by regulating clinical use, strengthening basic toxicology research and establishing a strict quality control system. PMID:26355537

  19. Prevalence of dietary supplement use in patients with proven or suspected cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bin, Yu Sun; Kiat, Hosen

    2011-01-01

    Systematic search of bibliographic databases was conducted to describe the prevalence of dietary supplement use in cardiac patients. Included for review were studies that investigated supplement use in people with cardiovascular risk factors or proven cardiovascular disease. Databases searched were Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Meditext, H&S and IPA. Over five hundred articles were retrieved and twenty studies met the criteria for this review. Dietary supplements were taken by a median 36% (interquartile range: 26-42%) of cardiac patients; 36% (IQR 18-43%) reported taking a vitamin/mineral supplement and 12% (IQR 7-21%) used herbal supplements. Many users indicated that supplements were taken specifically for heart health and 16-64% of users reported using supplements alongside prescription medications. However 39-95% of treating physicians were unaware of patients' supplement use. Dietary supplement use in patients with cardiovascular disease appears common, as does the concurrent use of supplements with prescription medicines. This information is often not communicated to doctors and treating physicians may need to be more proactive in asking about supplement use.

  20. Evaluation of quality control strategies in Scutellaria herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Susanne P; Doolan, Paul J; Andrews, Clare E; Reid, Raymond G

    2011-04-01

    The statutory regulation of herbal medicines is under review within the United Kingdom (UK) and by 2011 all herbal medicines will require either a Product Licence or a Traditional Herbal Registration. The species Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal extracts in Eastern and Western medicines. The bioactivity of this herbal medicine is due to the radical scavenging activities of the flavone components of which there are more than 60. This research has characterised 5 key flavones in 18 extracts of Scutellaria using a combination of HPLC with DAD and MS detection. Employing an internal standard approach, the validated HPLC method afforded good sensitivity and excellent assay precision. Assays for the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenol determinations enabled determination of the antioxidant coefficient (PAC) of each Scutellaria extract. The potential usefulness of employing multivariate statistical analysis using a combination of the key parameters collected namely, FRAP activity, total phenol content, levels of 5 flavone biomarkers and the PAC as a means of quality evaluation of the Scutellaria herbal extracts was investigated. The PAC value was predicted by soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) as being the most discriminatory parameter and applying this ranking the herbal extracts were grouped into 3 clusters. The second most influential parameter in determining the clustering of the samples was the level of baicalin in each extract. It is proposed that the PAC value alone or in combination with a chromatographic fingerprint of key biomarkers [e.g. baicalin or (baicalin+baicalein)] may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of S. baicalensis.

  1. Evaluation of quality control strategies in Scutellaria herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Susanne P; Doolan, Paul J; Andrews, Clare E; Reid, Raymond G

    2011-04-01

    The statutory regulation of herbal medicines is under review within the United Kingdom (UK) and by 2011 all herbal medicines will require either a Product Licence or a Traditional Herbal Registration. The species Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal extracts in Eastern and Western medicines. The bioactivity of this herbal medicine is due to the radical scavenging activities of the flavone components of which there are more than 60. This research has characterised 5 key flavones in 18 extracts of Scutellaria using a combination of HPLC with DAD and MS detection. Employing an internal standard approach, the validated HPLC method afforded good sensitivity and excellent assay precision. Assays for the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenol determinations enabled determination of the antioxidant coefficient (PAC) of each Scutellaria extract. The potential usefulness of employing multivariate statistical analysis using a combination of the key parameters collected namely, FRAP activity, total phenol content, levels of 5 flavone biomarkers and the PAC as a means of quality evaluation of the Scutellaria herbal extracts was investigated. The PAC value was predicted by soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) as being the most discriminatory parameter and applying this ranking the herbal extracts were grouped into 3 clusters. The second most influential parameter in determining the clustering of the samples was the level of baicalin in each extract. It is proposed that the PAC value alone or in combination with a chromatographic fingerprint of key biomarkers [e.g. baicalin or (baicalin+baicalein)] may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of S. baicalensis. PMID:21163602

  2. Investigation of iodine deficient state and iodine supplementation in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities on long-term total enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takako; Kamasaki, Hotaka; Yoto, Yuko; Honjo, Takashi; Tsugawa, Satoshi; Hotsubo, Tomoyuki; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Iodine concentrations of enteral nutrition (EN) formulae available in Japan are very low and long-term total EN (TEN) might result in hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency (HID). Our aim of this study was to determine the degree of iodine deficiency (ID) and need for iodine supplementation (IS) in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) on long-term TEN. Thyroid function including urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was monitored, and powdered kelp was provided as a source of iodine supplement. Thirty-five SMID on TEN participated in our study. UIC less than 100 μg /L, representing ID, were detected in 97 % of them. Their TSH ranged from 0.5 to 90 μIU/mL. IS using powdered kelp raised their UIC to the normal range. Thyroid function also recovered in the five hypothyroidism cases, which were diagnosed as HID, was also detected. In Japan, there must be many cases with ID associated with long term TEN. We also discuss the regulation of thyroid function in the iodine deficient state. PMID:22673532

  3. Changes in sea urchins and kelp following a reduction in sea otter density as a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, T.A.; Bodkin, J.L.; Jewett, S.C.; Monson, D.H.; Jung, D.

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between sea otters Enhydra lutris, sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and kelp were investigated following the reduction in sea otter density in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. At northern Knight Island, a heavily oiled portion of the sound, sea otter abundance was reduced by a minimum of 50% by the oil spill, and from 1995 through 1998 remained at an estimated 66% lower than in 1973. Where sea otter densities were reduced, there were proportionally more large sea urchins. However, except in some widely scattered aggregations, both density and biomass of sea urchins were similar in an area of reduced sea otter density compared with an area where sea otters remained about 10 times more abundant. Furthermore, there was no change in kelp abundance in the area of reduced sea otter density. This is in contrast to greatly increased biomass of sea urchins and greatly reduced kelp density observed following an approximate 90% decline in sea otter abundance in the western Aleutian Islands. The variation in community response to a reduction in sea otters may be related to the magnitude of the reduction and the non-linear response by sea urchins to changes in predator abundance. The number of surviving sea otters may have been high enough to suppress sea urchin populations in Prince William Sound, but not in the Aleutians. Alternatively, differences in response may have been due to differences in the frequency or magnitude of sea urchin recruitment. Densities of small sea urchins were much higher in the Aleutian system even prior to the reduction in sea otters, suggesting a higher rate of recruitment.

  4. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  5. Does herbal medicine reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Rino, Yasushi; Yukawa, Norio; Yamamoto, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may therefore suppress the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, treatment with a single-tablet regimen containing ledipasvir and sofosbuvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who did not respond to prior interferon-based treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C are expected to receive this treatment worldwide. However, many patients have hepatitis-like fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. A strategy to prevent the development of HCC in this subgroup of patients is urgently required. Whether herbal medicines can suppress the development of HCC remains to be established. However, herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may inhibit the development of HCC. Clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the prevention and treatment of HCC are therefore warranted. The current lack of knowledge and of educational programs is a barrier to increasing the use of potentially effective herbal medicines and performing prospective clinical trials. PMID:26457019

  6. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  7. A review of herbal medicines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Stana Kleinschek, Karin; Smrke, Dragica M; Kreft, Samo

    2015-07-01

    Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the perception that herbs cause minimal unwanted side effects. More recently, scientists increasingly rely on modern scientific methods and evidence-based medicine to prove efficacy of herbal medicines and focus on better understanding of mechanisms of their action. However, information concerning quantitative human health benefits of herbal medicines is still rare or dispersed, limiting their proper valuation. Preparations from traditional medicinal plants are often used for wound healing purposes covering a broad area of different skin-related diseases. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement, and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. Here we report on 22 plants used as wound healing agents in traditional medicine around the world. The aim of this review is therefore to review herbal medicines, which pose great potential for effective treatment of minor wounds. PMID:25808157

  8. PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect on human diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenshu; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-09-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulate a broad range of genes involved in drug metabolism and transport. A variety of naturally occurring compounds present in herbal medicines were identified as ligands of PXR and CAR. Recently, accumulative evidences have revealed the PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect against multiple human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cholestatic liver disease, and jaundice. The current review summarized the recent progress in identifying the expanding libraries of herbal medicine as ligands for PXR and CAR. Moreover, the potential for herbal medicines as promising therapeutic agents which were mainly regulated through PXR/CAR signaling pathways was also discussed. The discovery of herbal medicines as modulators of PXR and CAR, and their PXR- and CAR-mediated effect on human diseases will provide a basis for rational drug design, and eventually be explored as a novel therapeutic approach against human diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.

  9. Use of herbal therapies among midlife Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, S N; Shaver, J L; Peragallo, N; Fox, P; Chávez, N

    2001-09-01

    The cultural traditions of Mexican women living in the United States make it likely that some women promote their health and manage their symptoms using various herbal therapies, yet we know little about this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare midlife Mexican women living in the U.S. who were or were not using herbal therapies with regard to the extent of their acculturation, beliefs about herbs, and factors associated with their utilization of health services. A convenience sample of 30 Mexican women between the ages of 40 and 56 years completed face-to-face interviews in either English or Spanish. Nearly half reported using herbal therapies. With the exception of positive beliefs about herbs, we found few differences between herbal users and nonusers on acculturation or access to, and satisfaction with, health services. Although acculturation did not appear to influence whether the women used herbal therapies, it did relate to the types of herbs selected. Women most commonly reported using herbs popular in traditional Mexican culture, including manzanilla (chamomile), savila (aloe vera), ajo (garlic), uña de gato (cat's claw), and yerba buena (spearmint). PMID:12141849

  10. A review of herbal medicines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Stana Kleinschek, Karin; Smrke, Dragica M; Kreft, Samo

    2015-07-01

    Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the perception that herbs cause minimal unwanted side effects. More recently, scientists increasingly rely on modern scientific methods and evidence-based medicine to prove efficacy of herbal medicines and focus on better understanding of mechanisms of their action. However, information concerning quantitative human health benefits of herbal medicines is still rare or dispersed, limiting their proper valuation. Preparations from traditional medicinal plants are often used for wound healing purposes covering a broad area of different skin-related diseases. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement, and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. Here we report on 22 plants used as wound healing agents in traditional medicine around the world. The aim of this review is therefore to review herbal medicines, which pose great potential for effective treatment of minor wounds.

  11. Does herbal medicine reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Rino, Yasushi; Yukawa, Norio; Yamamoto, Naoto

    2015-10-01

    Many herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may therefore suppress the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, treatment with a single-tablet regimen containing ledipasvir and sofosbuvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who did not respond to prior interferon-based treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C are expected to receive this treatment worldwide. However, many patients have hepatitis-like fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. A strategy to prevent the development of HCC in this subgroup of patients is urgently required. Whether herbal medicines can suppress the development of HCC remains to be established. However, herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may inhibit the development of HCC. Clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the prevention and treatment of HCC are therefore warranted. The current lack of knowledge and of educational programs is a barrier to increasing the use of potentially effective herbal medicines and performing prospective clinical trials.

  12. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant products are used orally for treating osteoarthritis. Although their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in full detail, interactions with common inflammatory mediators provide a rationale for using them to treat osteoarthritic complaints. Objectives To update a previous Cochrane review to assess the benefits and harms of oral medicinal plant products in treating osteoarthritis. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to 29 August 2013, unrestricted by language, and the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of orally consumed herbal interventions compared with placebo or active controls in people with osteoarthritis were included. Herbal interventions included any plant preparation but excluded homeopathy or aromatherapy products, or any preparation of synthetic origin. Data collection and analysis Two authors used standard methods for trial selection and data extraction, and assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach for major outcomes (pain, function, radiographic joint changes, quality of life, withdrawals due to adverse events, total adverse events, and serious adverse events). Main results Forty-nine randomised controlled studies (33 interventions, 5980 participants) were included. Seventeen studies of confirmatory design (sample and effect sizes pre-specified) were mostly at moderate risk of bias. The remaining 32 studies of exploratory design were at higher risk of bias. Due to differing interventions, meta-analyses were restricted to Boswellia serrata (monoherbal) and avocado-soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) (two herb combination) products. Five studies of three different extracts from Boswellia serrata were included. High-quality evidence from two studies (85 participants) indicated that 90 days treatment with 100

  13. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant products are used orally for treating osteoarthritis. Although their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in full detail, interactions with common inflammatory mediators provide a rationale for using them to treat osteoarthritic complaints. Objectives To update a previous Cochrane review to assess the benefits and harms of oral medicinal plant products in treating osteoarthritis. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to 29 August 2013, unrestricted by language, and the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of orally consumed herbal interventions compared with placebo or active controls in people with osteoarthritis were included. Herbal interventions included any plant preparation but excluded homeopathy or aromatherapy products, or any preparation of synthetic origin. Data collection and analysis Two authors used standard methods for trial selection and data extraction, and assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach for major outcomes (pain, function, radiographic joint changes, quality of life, withdrawals due to adverse events, total adverse events, and serious adverse events). Main results Forty-nine randomised controlled studies (33 interventions, 5980 participants) were included. Seventeen studies of confirmatory design (sample and effect sizes pre-specified) were mostly at moderate risk of bias. The remaining 32 studies of exploratory design were at higher risk of bias. Due to differing interventions, meta-analyses were restricted to Boswellia serrata (monoherbal) and avocado-soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) (two herb combination) products. Five studies of three different extracts from Boswellia serrata were included. High-quality evidence from two studies (85 participants) indicated that 90 days treatment with 100

  14. Chinese Herbal Products for Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hung, I-Ling; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Wang, Lin-Yi; Hsu, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Tseng, Ying-Jung; Kuo, Chun-En; Hu, Wen-Long; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been described in ancient medicine systems as treatments for various stroke-associated ailments. This study is aimed to investigate the prescription patterns and combinations of CHPs for ischemic stroke in Taiwan. Prescriptions of CHPs for ischemic stroke were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Every prescription with a leading diagnosis of ischemic stroke made during 2000-2010 was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied to the pattern of co-prescriptions. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess demographic and risk factors that are correlated with CHP use. The dataset of inpatient claims data contained information on 15,896 subjects who experienced ischemic stroke from 2000 to 2010. There was an average of 5.82 CHPs in a single prescription for subjects with ischemic stroke. Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) (40.32%) was by far the most frequently prescribed formula CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two-formula-CHP was BYHWT with Shu-jin-huo-xue-tang (SJHXT) (4.40%). Dan Shen (16.50%) was the most commonly used single CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two single CHPs was Shi Chang Pua with Yuan Zhi (4.79%). We found that BYHWT and Dan Shen were the most frequently prescribed formula and single CHP for ischemic stroke, respectively. These results provide information about individualized therapy and may contribute to further pharmacologic experiments and clinical trials. PMID:26477801

  15. Short- and long-term acclimation patterns of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) along a depth gradient.

    PubMed

    Koch, Kristina; Thiel, Martin; Hagen, Wilhelm; Graeve, Martin; Gómez, Iván; Jofre, David; Hofmann, Laurie C; Tala, Fadia; Bischof, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, is exposed to highly variable irradiance and temperature regimes across its geographic and vertical depth gradients. The objective of this study was to extend our understanding of algal acclimation strategies on different temporal scales to those varying abiotic conditions at various water depths. Different acclimation strategies to various water depths (0.2 and 4 m) between different sampling times (Jan/Feb and Aug/Sept 2012; long-term acclimation) and more rapid adjustments to different depths (0.2, 2 and 4 m; short-term acclimation) during 14 d of transplantation were found. Adjustments of variable Chl a fluorescence, pigment composition (Chl c, fucoxanthin), and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments were responsible for the development of different physiological states with respect to various solar radiation and temperature climates. Interestingly, the results indicated that phlorotannins are important during long-term acclimation while antioxidants have a crucial role during short-term acclimation. Furthermore, the results suggested that modifications in total lipids and fatty acid compositions apparently also might play a role in depth acclimation. In Aug/Sept (austral winter), M. pyrifera responded to the transplantation from 4 m to 0.2 m depth with a rise in the degree of saturation and a switch from shorter- to longer-chain fatty acids. These changes seem to be essential for the readjustment of thylakoid membranes and might, thus, facilitate efficient photosynthesis under changing irradiances and temperatures. Further experiments are needed to disentangle the relative contribution of solar radiation, temperature and also other abiotic parameters in the observed physiological changes.

  16. Effects of ocean acidification on the photosynthetic performance, carbonic anhydrase activity and growth of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Pamela A; Roleda, Michael Y; Hurd, Catriona L

    2015-06-01

    Under ocean acidification (OA), the 200 % increase in CO2(aq) and the reduction of pH by 0.3-0.4 units are predicted to affect the carbon physiology and growth of macroalgae. Here we examined how the physiology of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera is affected by elevated pCO2/low pH. Growth and photosynthetic rates, external and internal carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, HCO3 (-) versus CO2 use were determined over a 7-day incubation at ambient pCO2 400 µatm/pH 8.00 and a future OA treatment of pCO2 1200 µatm/pH 7.59. Neither the photosynthetic nor growth rates were changed by elevated CO2 supply in the OA treatment. These results were explained by the greater use of HCO3 (-) compared to CO2 as an inorganic carbon (Ci) source to support photosynthesis. Macrocystis is a mixed HCO3 (-) and CO2 user that exhibits two effective mechanisms for HCO3 (-) utilization; as predicted for species that possess carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs), photosynthesis was not substantially affected by elevated pCO2. The internal CA activity was also unaffected by OA, and it remained high and active throughout the experiment; this suggests that HCO3 (-) uptake via an anion exchange protein was not affected by OA. Our results suggest that photosynthetic Ci uptake and growth of Macrocystis will not be affected by elevated pCO2/low pH predicted for the future, but the combined effects with other environmental factors like temperature and nutrient availability could change the physiological response of Macrocystis to OA. Therefore, further studies will be important to elucidate how this species might respond to the global environmental change predicted for the ocean.

  17. In vivo speciation studies and antioxidant properties of bromine in Laminaria digitata reinforce the significance of iodine accumulation for kelps

    PubMed Central

    Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Leblanc, Catherine; Toyama, Chiaki; Uchida, Yuka; Maskrey, Benjamin H.; Robinson, Joanne; Verhaeghe, Elodie F.; Malin, Gill; Luther, George W.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Kloareg, Bernard; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Megson, Ian L.; Potin, Philippe; Feiters, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism of bromine in marine brown algae remains poorly understood. This contrasts with the recent finding that the accumulation of iodide in the brown alga Laminaria serves the provision of an inorganic antioxidant – the first case documented from a living system. The aim of this study was to use an interdisciplinary array of techniques to study the chemical speciation, transformation, and function of bromine in Laminaria and to investigate the link between bromine and iodine metabolism, in particular in the antioxidant context. First, bromine and iodine levels in different Laminaria tissues were compared by inductively coupled plasma MS. Using in vivo X-ray absorption spectroscopy, it was found that, similarly to iodine, bromine is predominantly present in this alga in the form of bromide, albeit at lower concentrations, and that it shows similar behaviour upon oxidative stress. However, from a thermodynamic and kinetic standpoint, supported by in vitro and reconstituted in vivo assays, bromide is less suitable than iodide as an antioxidant against most reactive oxygen species except superoxide, possibly explaining why kelps prefer to accumulate iodide. This constitutes the first-ever study exploring the potential antioxidant function of bromide in a living system and other potential physiological roles. Given the tissue-specific differences observed in the content and speciation of bromine, it is concluded that the bromide uptake mechanism is different from the vanadium iodoperoxidase-mediated uptake of iodide in L. digitata and that its function is likely to be complementary to the iodide antioxidant system for detoxifying superoxide. PMID:23606364

  18. Effects of seven antifouling compounds on photosynthesis and inorganic carbon use in sugar kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Axelsson, Lennart; Blanck, Hans

    2012-10-01

    Macroalgae depend on carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to maintain a high photosynthetic activity under conditions of low carbon dioxide (CO(2)) availability. Because such conditions are prevalent in marine environments, CCMs are important for upholding the macroalgal primary productivity in coastal zones. This study evaluated the effects of seven antifouling compounds-chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, diuron, irgarol, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione (ZnTP)-on the photosynthesis and CCM of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima (L.)). Concentration-response curves of these toxicants were established using inhibition of carbon incorporation, whereas their effects over time and their inhibition of the CCM were studied using inhibition of O(2) evolution. We demonstrate that exposure to all compounds except ZnTP (< 1000 nM) resulted in toxicity to photosynthesis of S. latissima. However, carbon incorporation and O(2) evolution differed in their ability to detect toxicity from some of the compounds. Diuron, irgarol, DCOIT, tolylfluanid, and, to some extent, dichlofluanid inhibited carbon incorporation. Chlorothalonil did not inhibit carbon incorporation but clearly inhibited oxygen (O(2)) evolution. Photosynthesis showed only little recovery during the 2-h postexposure period. Inhibition of photosynthesis even increased after the end of exposure to chlorothalonil and tolylfluanid. Through changes in pH of the medium, toxic effects on the CCM could be studied isolated from photosynthesis effects. The CCM of S. latissima was inhibited by chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, and tolylfluanid. Such inhibition of the CCM, or the absence thereof, deepens the understanding the mechanism of action of the studied compounds. PMID:22743627

  19. Environmental Influences on Kelp Performance across the Reproductive Period: An Ecological Trade-Off between Gametophyte Survival and Growth?

    PubMed Central

    Mohring, Margaret B.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Wernberg, Thomas; Rule, Michael J.; Vanderklift, Mathew A.

    2013-01-01

    Most kelps (order Laminariales) exhibit distinct temporal patterns in zoospore production, gametogenesis and gametophyte reproduction. Natural fluctuations in ambient environmental conditions influence the intrinsic characteristics of gametes, which define their ability to tolerate varied conditions. The aim of this work was to document seasonal patterns in reproduction and gametophyte growth and survival of Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh in south-western Australia. These results were related to patterns in local environmental conditions in an attempt to ascertain which factors explain variation throughout the season. E. radiata was fertile (produced zoospores) for three and a half months over summer and autumn. Every two weeks during this time, gametophytes were grown in a range of temperatures (16–22°C) in the laboratory. Zoospore densities were highly variable among sample periods; however, zoospores released early in the season produced gametophytes which had greater rates of growth and survival, and these rates declined towards the end of the reproductive season. Growth rates of gametophytes were positively related to day length, with the fastest growing recruits released when the days were longest. Gametophytes consistently survived best in the lowest temperature (16°C), yet exhibited optimum growth in higher culture temperatures (20–22°C). These results suggest that E. radiata releases gametes when conditions are favourable for growth, and E. radiata gametophytes are tolerant of the range of temperatures observed at this location. E. radiata releases the healthiest gametophytes when day length and temperature conditions are optimal for better germination, growth, and sporophyte production, perhaps as a mechanism to help compete against other species for space and other resources. PMID:23755217

  20. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: the polychaete Platynereis dumerilii (Audouin and Milne-Edwards) (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.

    1985-02-01

    Platynereis dumerilii is found in large numbers in parchment-like tubes attached to sublittoral accumulations of detached maroalgae (principally Laminaria saccharina) in Kames Bay, Isle of Cumbrae and Lochranza, Isle of Arran. Its rôle in weed decomposition has been examined by comparing its responses (behavioural choice, growth rates, absorption efficiencies of both carbon and protein, gut retention times and rate of faecal output) to fresh and rotting weed. Worms grew significantly on either diet, with older individuals gaining more weight than small individuals. Animals of a standard size (derived from measurements of maximum bite size) feeding on fresh weed, however, grew significantly faster than those feeding on rotting weed. The former had a significantly higher protein absorption efficiency which was linearly related to protein content of ingested weed. This was not so on rotting weed. Organic carbon absorption efficiencies did not differ significantly between the two groups, neither did gut retention times nor rates of faecal output. Given a choice, Platynereis chooses to build its tube, and to feed, on fresh kelp—a strategem which ensures both maximum scope for occupancy before fronds decay and a superabundance of preferred food. Platynereis feeds around its tube entrance, recropping small areas for 2-3 days, prior to switching to another area nearby. Ciliate population densities on Platynereis faeces are much lower than on either homogenized or intact weed, associated with their lower, nutritional value (at first). Platynereis bubes act to bind kelp fronds together stabilizing the faecal input to infaunal detritivores. Platynereis is an example of a detritivore which exploits the detrital substratum directly.

  1. Short- and long-term acclimation patterns of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) along a depth gradient.

    PubMed

    Koch, Kristina; Thiel, Martin; Hagen, Wilhelm; Graeve, Martin; Gómez, Iván; Jofre, David; Hofmann, Laurie C; Tala, Fadia; Bischof, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, is exposed to highly variable irradiance and temperature regimes across its geographic and vertical depth gradients. The objective of this study was to extend our understanding of algal acclimation strategies on different temporal scales to those varying abiotic conditions at various water depths. Different acclimation strategies to various water depths (0.2 and 4 m) between different sampling times (Jan/Feb and Aug/Sept 2012; long-term acclimation) and more rapid adjustments to different depths (0.2, 2 and 4 m; short-term acclimation) during 14 d of transplantation were found. Adjustments of variable Chl a fluorescence, pigment composition (Chl c, fucoxanthin), and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments were responsible for the development of different physiological states with respect to various solar radiation and temperature climates. Interestingly, the results indicated that phlorotannins are important during long-term acclimation while antioxidants have a crucial role during short-term acclimation. Furthermore, the results suggested that modifications in total lipids and fatty acid compositions apparently also might play a role in depth acclimation. In Aug/Sept (austral winter), M. pyrifera responded to the transplantation from 4 m to 0.2 m depth with a rise in the degree of saturation and a switch from shorter- to longer-chain fatty acids. These changes seem to be essential for the readjustment of thylakoid membranes and might, thus, facilitate efficient photosynthesis under changing irradiances and temperatures. Further experiments are needed to disentangle the relative contribution of solar radiation, temperature and also other abiotic parameters in the observed physiological changes. PMID:27037591

  2. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514

  3. [Herbal remedies in depression--state of the art].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have seen development of research and an increased interest in the psychopharmacology of natural remedies. More than 20 herbal remedies have been identified that may potentially be applied in medicine as antidepressive, anxiety relieving or sleep-inducing agents. Patients often prefer to take herbal remedies and often take them on their own, without consulting a physician. The aim of the study is to present the state of the art concerning the use of natural remedies in the treatment of depression. Following a literature review, 7 herbal remedies for which preclinical and clinical trials suggest their antidepressive influence have been identified: hypericum, lavender, borage, roseroot, chamomile, saffron and ginseng. For two of these, i.e. hypericum and saffron extracts, antidepressive effect in subjects with mild or moderate depression has been confirmed in controlled randomized clinical trials. PMID:24946435

  4. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  5. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies. PMID:21948222

  6. [Herbal remedies in depression--state of the art].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have seen development of research and an increased interest in the psychopharmacology of natural remedies. More than 20 herbal remedies have been identified that may potentially be applied in medicine as antidepressive, anxiety relieving or sleep-inducing agents. Patients often prefer to take herbal remedies and often take them on their own, without consulting a physician. The aim of the study is to present the state of the art concerning the use of natural remedies in the treatment of depression. Following a literature review, 7 herbal remedies for which preclinical and clinical trials suggest their antidepressive influence have been identified: hypericum, lavender, borage, roseroot, chamomile, saffron and ginseng. For two of these, i.e. hypericum and saffron extracts, antidepressive effect in subjects with mild or moderate depression has been confirmed in controlled randomized clinical trials.

  7. The effect of clove-based herbal mouthwash on radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: a single-blind randomized preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Moonkyoo; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Yoon, Seong Woo; Kim, Jinsung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clove-based herbal mouthwash in ameliorating radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods Fourteen patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and randomized to either an experimental group or a control group. The patients of the experimental group swished their mouths with a clove-based herbal mouthwash during radiotherapy (RT), while the patients of the control group swished with clear water. The primary end point of this study was incidence of radiation-induced oral mucositis. The secondary end points were time to onset of radiation-induced oral mucositis, duration of radiation-induced oral mucositis, incidence of supplemental nutrition through feeding tube, maximum pain score, body weight loss, incidence of RT interruption, and duration of RT interruption. Results The use of clove-based herbal mouthwash shortened the duration of grade ≥2 mucositis (24.3 days vs 37.1 days, P=0.044) and reduced body weight loss during RT (3.1% vs 7.4%, P=0.023) compared with clear water. The use of clove-based herbal mouthwash also reduced the incidence of grade 3 mucositis (28.6% vs 57.1%), supplemental nutrition (0% vs 28.6%), and RT interruption (14.3% vs 28.6%), and reduced the duration of grade 3 mucositis (5.1 days vs 17.7 days) and RT interruption (1 days vs 8.5 days). In addition, clove-based herbal mouthwash delayed the time to onset of mucositis (26.6 days vs 24.5 days) and reduced the maximum pain score (4.1 vs 4.9). However, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Although we could not find significant differences in some end points, this single-blind randomized study showed that a clove-based herbal mouthwash can have a potentially beneficial effect on minimizing or preventing radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. To confirm the results of our study, well-designed randomized studies with large

  8. A systematic review on the herbal extract Tribulus terrestris and the roots of its putative aphrodisiac and performance enhancing effect.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ahmed; Naughton, Declan P; Petroczi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a dicotyledonous herbal plant of the Zygophyllaceae family. In ancient medicine, extracts of the aerial parts and fruits have been used for its diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties. Today, TT is widely used by athletes and bodybuilders based on the belief, fueled by claims in marketing information, that it can enhance testosterone concentrations. To assess TT's effect on testosterone levels in human and animals, an electronic literature search out using seven databases and the patent database up to August 2013 was carried out. Randomized control trials, which included healthy human subjects ingesting TT as sole or combined supplement, along with animal studies with TT as a sole treatment across a number of species were included. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including one patent application. The results showed that trials varied in duration, dosage and supplementation with TT as sole or combined treatment, rendering meta-analysis impossible. A limited number of animal studies displayed a significant increase in serum testosterone levels after TT administration, but this effect was only noted in humans when TT was part of a combined supplement administration. Literature available for the effectiveness of TT on enhancing testosterone concentrations is limited. Evidence to date suggests that TT is ineffective for increasing testosterone levels in humans, thus marketing claims are unsubstantiated. The nitric oxide release effect of TT may offer a plausible explanation for the observed physiological responses to TT supplementation, independent of the testosterone level.

  9. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and γ-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504

  10. Herbal Medicines Induced Anticholinergic Poisoning in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2016-03-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to report the incidence and causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning in Hong Kong during 1989-2012 and to emphasize the importance of pharmacovigilance, investigations and preventive measures. Relevant papers, official figures and unpublished data were obtained from Medline search, the Department of Health and the Drug and Poisons Information Bureau. In the New Territories East (where ~20% of the Hong Kong population lived), the incidence of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning during 1989-1993 was 0.09 per 100,000 population. There were no confirmed cases during 1994-1996. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence during 2000-June 2005 was 0.03 per 100,000 population. Contamination of Rhizoma Atractylodis (50%) and erroneous substitution (42%) were the main causes. The incidence during 2008-2012 was 0.06 per 100,000 population. Contamination of non-toxic herbs (50%) and erroneous substitution (41%) were the main causes. In Hong Kong, contamination of non-toxic herbs by tropane alkaloids and substitution of Flos Campsis by toxic Flos Daturae Metelis were the predominant causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning. Systematic studies along the supply chain are necessary to identify the likely sources of contamination. If erroneous substitution of Flos Campsis by Flos Daturae Metelis could be prevented, 40% of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning would not have occurred. Regular inspection of the retailer, continuing education for the staff in the herbal trade and repeated publicity measures will also be required. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines should help determine the incidence and causes of adverse reactions and monitor the effectiveness of preventive measures. PMID:26999208

  11. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and γ-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies.

  12. Oral treatment with herbal formula B401 alleviates penile toxicity in aging mice with manganism.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Ching-Lung; Wang, Sheue-Er; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Wu, Chung-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the roles of nitric oxide synthase activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile toxicity of aging mice associated with excess manganese (Mn) treatment and to investigate the effect of oral treatment with the herbal formula B401 in this respect. ICR strain mice were divided into two groups: the vehicle (sham group) and the B401 (50 mg/kg) group. The mice were orally treated for 5 days; then a high single dose of MnCl2 (100 mg/kg) was given by intraperitoneal injection to the mice. One day after MnCl2 treatment, corpora cavernosal tissues of both Mn-treated mice and their controls were simultaneously sampled to examine their immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) production, levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), expression levels of factors governing angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2,4-hydroxynonenal), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha), apoptosis (B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2], Bcl-2-associated X protein [Bax], cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase [c-PARP], cytochrome C, caspase-12, and caspase-3) were evaluated in penile corpus cavernosum of the mice. We found that penile toxicity in the mice was enhanced under excess Mn treatment through reduction of NOS activity and increase in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the penile cavernous tissue. Furthermore, the penile toxicity in mice with manganism was alleviated by oral B401 treatment through enhancement of both nitric oxide synthesis and angiogenesis, with simultaneous reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile corpus cavernosum. We suggest that the herbal formula B401 may serve as a potential dietotherapeutic supplement for penile toxicity or dysfunction in aging males.

  13. Oral treatment with herbal formula B401 alleviates penile toxicity in aging mice with manganism

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Ching-Lung; Wang, Sheue-Er; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Wu, Chung-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the roles of nitric oxide synthase activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile toxicity of aging mice associated with excess manganese (Mn) treatment and to investigate the effect of oral treatment with the herbal formula B401 in this respect. ICR strain mice were divided into two groups: the vehicle (sham group) and the B401 (50 mg/kg) group. The mice were orally treated for 5 days; then a high single dose of MnCl2 (100 mg/kg) was given by intraperitoneal injection to the mice. One day after MnCl2 treatment, corpora cavernosal tissues of both Mn-treated mice and their controls were simultaneously sampled to examine their immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) production, levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), expression levels of factors governing angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2,4-hydroxynonenal), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha), apoptosis (B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2], Bcl-2-associated X protein [Bax], cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase [c-PARP], cytochrome C, caspase-12, and caspase-3) were evaluated in penile corpus cavernosum of the mice. We found that penile toxicity in the mice was enhanced under excess Mn treatment through reduction of NOS activity and increase in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the penile cavernous tissue. Furthermore, the penile toxicity in mice with manganism was alleviated by oral B401 treatment through enhancement of both nitric oxide synthesis and angiogenesis, with simultaneous reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile corpus cavernosum. We suggest that the herbal formula B401 may serve as a potential dietotherapeutic supplement for penile toxicity or dysfunction in aging males. PMID:26064043

  14. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain if they follow the directions on the product label. But taking too much can lead to liver ... pain if they follow the directions on the product label. But taking too much can lead to liver ...

  15. Herbal supplement attenuation of cardiac fibrosis in rats with CCl₄-induced liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiao-Chuan; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Yueh-Min; Chen, Ray-Jade; Lin, James A; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Kuo, Yu-Chun; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2014-02-28

    Previously we found carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) induced cirrhosis associated cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether further CCl₄ treatment would induce cardiac cell fibrosis. The cardiac tissues were analyzed by H&E. histological staining, Trichrome Masson staining and Western blotting. The results showed that the CCl₄-treated-only group exhibits more trichrome staining, meaning that more fibrosis is present. Moreover, CCl₄ could further induce cardiac-fibrosis via TGF-β-p-Smad2/3-CTGF pathway. However, our data showed that the CCl₄- indcued cardiac abnormalities were attenuated by Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE) and silymarin co- treatments. In conclusion, our results indicated that the OGE and silymarin may be a potential traditional herb for the protection of cardiac tissues from the CCl4 induced cirrhosis associated cardiac fibrosis through modulating the TGF-β signaling pathway.

  16. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

  17. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrient recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Online DRI tool Daily Value (DV) tables For more advice on buying dietary supplements: Office of Dietary Supplements Frequently Asked Questions: Which brand(s) ...

  18. Pyrazolopyrimidines in 'all-natural' products for erectile dysfunction treatment: the unreliable quality of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Schramek, Nicholas; Wollein, Uwe; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A herbal food supplement advertised as a potency pill was screened for the presence of PDE5 inhibitors. The resulting signals were characterised by UV, LC-MS in ESI-negative mode, and NMR spectroscopy using 1D and 2D experiments. Several substances were identified, bearing the basic chemical structure of sildenafil, but were not supposed to exhibit PDE5 inhibition. These compounds may be process-related impurities or by-products of different reaction steps in the synthesis of PDE5 analogues. As they were found to be present in different capsules at different concentrations, this is an example of the unreliable quality of dietary supplements. PMID:25517174

  19. Pyrazolopyrimidines in 'all-natural' products for erectile dysfunction treatment: the unreliable quality of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Schramek, Nicholas; Wollein, Uwe; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A herbal food supplement advertised as a potency pill was screened for the presence of PDE5 inhibitors. The resulting signals were characterised by UV, LC-MS in ESI-negative mode, and NMR spectroscopy using 1D and 2D experiments. Several substances were identified, bearing the basic chemical structure of sildenafil, but were not supposed to exhibit PDE5 inhibition. These compounds may be process-related impurities or by-products of different reaction steps in the synthesis of PDE5 analogues. As they were found to be present in different capsules at different concentrations, this is an example of the unreliable quality of dietary supplements.

  20. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD

  1. Frequency and Perceptions of Herbal Medicine use Among Hmong Americans: a Cross Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.

  2. Arsenic poisoning from anti-asthmatic herbal preparations.

    PubMed

    Tay, C H; Seah, C S

    1975-09-13

    Arsenic poisoning, a disease of the past, was recently found in 74 patients in Singapore over a 15-month period. Most victims (70%) had a chronic form of poisoning and 64% of the cases were caused by a local anti-asthmatic herbal preparation containing 12,000 ppm of inorganic arsenic sulphide. The other patients were poisoned by six other brands of herbal preparations used for the treatment of asthma and a variety of other illnesses. Subsequent investigations revealed another 22 other brands of Chinese herbal preparations containing high concentrations of inorganic arsenic ranging from 25 to 107,000 ppm, of which most were imported. Nearly 40% of the patients had taken the medicine for less than six months, but the others had a longer history of exposure ranging from one to 15 years. Systemic involvement was confined mainly to the skin (91%), nervous system (51%), gastrointestinal system (23%) and blood (23%). Malignancy of the skin was present in six patients, and of the visceral samples, toxicological confirmation was found in half of the cases investigated. There was no correlation between the clinical status of the patients and their tissue arsenic content. The importance of arsenic poisoning by herbal preparations is discussed, as there are no known reports of their association.

  3. Anti-hygroscopic effect of dextrans in herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Tong, Henry H Y; Wong, Sammas Y S; Law, Marcus W L; Chu, Kevin K W; Chow, Albert H L

    2008-11-01

    Equilibrium moisture sorptions of two dried aqueous herbal extracts and their mixtures with dextrans of various molecular weights were investigated as a function of relative humidity at ambient temperature, and the data were analyzed by both the Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equations. Glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of the samples were measured by differential scanning calorimetry, and their dependence on the moisture contents of the extracts was analyzed by the linear, Fox and expanded Gordon-Taylor mathematical models. All dextran-extract mixtures exhibited single T(g) values, indicating that they existed as single homogeneous phases. The BET equation was found adequate for description of the moisture sorption isotherms for all samples. The dextrans appeared to reduce the hygroscopicity of the herbal extracts solely by a dilution effect. The observed increase in T(g) and accompanying decrease in tackiness of the herbal extracts in the presence of dextrans may be explained by the ability of dextrans to restrict the molecular mobility of simple sugars and to counteract the plasticizing effect of water in the extracts. The expanded Gordon-Taylor equation has proved useful in predicting the T(g) of hygroscopic amorphous herbal mixtures. PMID:18706495

  4. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  5. Anti-hygroscopic effect of dextrans in herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Tong, Henry H Y; Wong, Sammas Y S; Law, Marcus W L; Chu, Kevin K W; Chow, Albert H L

    2008-11-01

    Equilibrium moisture sorptions of two dried aqueous herbal extracts and their mixtures with dextrans of various molecular weights were investigated as a function of relative humidity at ambient temperature, and the data were analyzed by both the Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equations. Glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of the samples were measured by differential scanning calorimetry, and their dependence on the moisture contents of the extracts was analyzed by the linear, Fox and expanded Gordon-Taylor mathematical models. All dextran-extract mixtures exhibited single T(g) values, indicating that they existed as single homogeneous phases. The BET equation was found adequate for description of the moisture sorption isotherms for all samples. The dextrans appeared to reduce the hygroscopicity of the herbal extracts solely by a dilution effect. The observed increase in T(g) and accompanying decrease in tackiness of the herbal extracts in the presence of dextrans may be explained by the ability of dextrans to restrict the molecular mobility of simple sugars and to counteract the plasticizing effect of water in the extracts. The expanded Gordon-Taylor equation has proved useful in predicting the T(g) of hygroscopic amorphous herbal mixtures.

  6. IN PURSUIT OF NEW HERBAL SOURCES FOR INDIAN MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajan, V. V.; Balachandran, Indu

    1987-01-01

    Due to destruction of forest wealth and natural flora the sources of herbal medicine are becoming increasingly rare. So, it is high time to discover alternative sources of such drugs among plant species that are already available in large numbers. As a first installment of the series the medicinal properties of a few members of the family Phytolaccaceae are discussed here. PMID:22557586

  7. Antimicrobial effect of herbal dentifrices: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, J.; Ananthalakshmi, R.; Jeeva, J. Sathiya; Jeddy, Nadeem; Dhakshininamoorthy, Subhashini; Muthu Meenakshi, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was taken up to compare the antimicrobial effect of few herbal dentifrices against cariogenic organism such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: This study was an in vitro model using the well method of microbial culture. Colgate total was used as the positive control and distilled water as the negative control. Dentifrices were prepared in 1:1 dilution using sterile distilled water. The standard strains were inoculated and incubated for 4 h. They were then lawn cultured. Wells were made using a standard template, and the dentifrices were placed in these wells Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In case of S. mutans, the maximum antimicrobial effect among the six dentifrices was shown by Babool followed by Colgate Herbal. For L. acidophilus, the antimicrobial zone exhibited by all the six dentifrices were similar to the positive control. Conclusions: Babool and Colgate Herbal have more inhibitory effect against S. mutans than the other dentifrices of the group. Dabur Red, Colgate Herbal, and Himalaya are efficient against L. acidophilus. PMID:26538932

  8. Herbal Remedies: The Design of a New Course in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouzi, Samir A.

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmacy course developed at Northeast Louisiana University School of Pharmacy trains pharmacy students in use of herbs as self-selected over-the-counter products. Emphases are on use of herbal preparations by the general public as alternative therapies, safety and efficacy of herbs and other phytomedicinals, and the pharmacist's role in…

  9. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361

  10. Radical scavenging potentials of single and combinatorial herbal formulations in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ogbuji, Agomuo C.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are involved in deleterious/beneficial biological processes. The present study sought to investigate the capacity of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of Acanthus montanus, Emilia coccinea, Hibiscus rosasinensis, and Asystasia gangetica to act as superoxide radicals (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (HP), nitric oxide radical (NOR), hydroxyl radical (HR), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical antagonists using in vitro models. The herbal extracts were single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), triple herbal formulations (THfs), and a quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The phytochemical composition and radical scavenging capacity index (SCI) of the herbal formulations were measured using standard methods. The flavonoids were the most abundant phytochemicals present in the herbal extracts. The SCI50 defined the concentration (μg/mL) of herbal formulation required to scavenge 50% of the investigated radicals. The SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf SCI50 against the radicals followed the order HR > SOR > DPPH radical > HP > NOR. Although the various herbal formulations exhibited ambivalent antioxidant activities in terms of their radical scavenging capabilities, a broad survey of the results of the present study showed that combinatorial herbal formulations (DHfs, THfs, and QHf) appeared to exhibit lower radical scavenging capacities than those of the SHfs in vitro. PMID:27114938

  11. Radical scavenging potentials of single and combinatorial herbal formulations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ojiako, Okey A; Chikezie, Paul C; Ogbuji, Agomuo C

    2016-04-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are involved in deleterious/beneficial biological processes. The present study sought to investigate the capacity of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of Acanthus montanus, Emilia coccinea, Hibiscus rosasinensis, and Asystasia gangetica to act as superoxide radicals (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (HP), nitric oxide radical (NOR), hydroxyl radical (HR), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical antagonists using in vitro models. The herbal extracts were single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), triple herbal formulations (THfs), and a quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The phytochemical composition and radical scavenging capacity index (SCI) of the herbal formulations were measured using standard methods. The flavonoids were the most abundant phytochemicals present in the herbal extracts. The SCI50 defined the concentration (μg/mL) of herbal formulation required to scavenge 50% of the investigated radicals. The SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf SCI50 against the radicals followed the order HR > SOR > DPPH radical > HP > NOR. Although the various herbal formulations exhibited ambivalent antioxidant activities in terms of their radical scavenging capabilities, a broad survey of the results of the present study showed that combinatorial herbal formulations (DHfs, THfs, and QHf) appeared to exhibit lower radical scavenging capacities than those of the SHfs in vitro. PMID:27114938

  12. Ethnobotanical survey of cooling herbal drinks from southern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Liáng chá (“cooling tea”, “herbal tea” or “cool tisane” in Chinese) are herbal drinks widely produced in southern China and consumed by billions of people worldwide to prevent and treat internal heat as well as a range of associated health conditions. Globalization and renewed interest in botanical remedies has attracted growing attention in cooling herbal drinks by industry, scientists and consumers. However, there is a knowledge gap on the plant species used and commercialized for cooling herbal drinks in southern China and their associated ethnobotanical use, habitat and conservation status. This is the first study to document plant species used and commercialized as liáng chá in southern China’s Lingnan region and associated ethnomedical function, preparation methods, habitat and conservation status. Methods Three hundred market surveys were conducted between 2010-2012 in the largest herbal drink producing region of China to record plants used for liáng chá and to document knowledge on their medicinal function, habitat and conservation status. Product samples and voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Results All informants harvest and cultivate plants for preparing herbal drinks for their medicinal, cultural and economic values. A total of 222 ethnotaxa corresponded to 238 botanical taxa (species, varieties or subspecies) belonging to 86 families and 209 genera were recorded as liáng chá to treat health conditions in the study area. Recorded remedies consisted of one or several plant species to treat conditions classified into 27 major health conditions with clearing internal heat being the most common medicinal function. The habitat types of plants documented for use as liáng chá include 112 wild harvested species, 51 species that are either wild harvested or cultivated, 57 cultivated species, and 2 naturalized species. According to China’s Red List and CITES on conservation status, one of these

  13. Efficacy of an herbal formulation LI10903F containing Dolichos biflorus and Piper betle extracts on weight management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A novel herbal formulation LI10903F, alternatively known as LOWAT was developed based on its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI10903F were evaluated in an eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 50 human subjects with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2 (clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN37381706). Participants were randomly assigned to either a placebo or LI10903F group. Subjects in the LI10903F group received 300 mg of herbal formulation thrice daily, while subjects in the placebo group received 300 mg of placebo capsules thrice daily. All subjects were provided a standard diet (2,000 kcal daily) and participated in a moderate exercise of 30 min walk for five days a week. Additionally, the safety of this herbal formulation was evaluated by a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies in animals and cellular models. Results After eight weeks of supplementation, statistically significant net reductions in body weight (2.49 kg; p=0.00005) and BMI (0.96 kg/m2; p=0.00004) were observed in the LI10903F group versus placebo group. Additionally, significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration (p=0.0076) and significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration (p=0.0066) were found in LI10903F group compared to placebo group. Adverse events were mild and were equally distributed between the two groups. Interestingly, LI10903F showed broad spectrum safety in a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Conclusions Results from the current research suggest that LI10903F or LOWAT is well-tolerated, safe and effective for weight management. PMID:23270333

  14. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: a review.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects.

  15. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin;