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Sample records for herbal tonics stimulate

  1. Essiac? and Flor-Essence? herbal tonics stimulate the in vitro growth of human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K S; Montgomery, J L; McLimans, B; Latham, E R; Shattuck, D L; Klotz, D M; Bennett, L M

    2005-10-07

    People diagnosed with cancer often self-administer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) to supplement their conventional treatments, improve health, or prevent recurrence. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics are commercially available complex mixtures of herbal extracts sold as dietary supplements and used by cancer patients based on anecdotal evidence that they can treat or prevent disease. In this study, we evaluated Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} for their effects on the growth of human tumor cells in culture. The effect of Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics on cell proliferation was tested in MCF-7, MDA-MB-436, MDA-MB-231, and T47D cancer cells isolated from human breast tumors. Estrogen receptor (ER) dependent activation of a luciferase reporter construct was tested in MCF-7 cells. Specific binding to the ER was tested using an ICI 182,780 competition assay. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics at 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% stimulated cell proliferation relative to untreated controls and activated ER dependent luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells. A 10{sup -7} M concentration of ICI 870,780 inhibited the induction of ER dependent luciferase activity by Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, but did not affect cell proliferation. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics can stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells through ER mediated as well as ER independent mechanisms of action. Cancer patients and health care providers can use this information to make informed decisions about the use of these CAMs.

  2. Flor-Essence? Herbal Tonic Promotes Mammary Tumor Development in Sprague Dawley Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, L; Montgomery, J; Steinberg, S; Kulp, K

    2004-01-28

    Background: Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer often self-administer complementary and alternative medicines to augment their conventional treatments, improve health, or prevent recurrence. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} Tonic is a complex mixture of herbal extracts used by cancer patients because of anecdotal evidence that it can treat or prevent disease. Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were given water or exposed to 3% or 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign} beginning at one day of age. Mammary tumors were induced with a single oral 40 mg/kg/bw dose of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene at 50 days of age and sacrificed at 23 weeks. Rats were maintained on AIN-76A diet. Results: Control rats had palpable mammary tumor incidence of 51.0% at 19 weeks of age compared to 65.0% and 59.4% for the 3% and 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign} groups respectively. Overall, no significant difference in time until first palpable tumor was detected among any of the groups. At necropsy, mammary tumor incidence was 82.5% for controls compared to 90.0% and 97.3% for rats consuming 3% and 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign}, respectively. Mean mammary tumor multiplicity ({+-}SES) for the controls was 2.8 ({+-} 0.5) and statistically different from the 3% or 6% Flor- Essence{reg_sign} groups with 5.2 ({+-} 0.7), and 4.8 ({+-} 0.6), respectively (p{<=}0.01). As expected, the majority of isolated tumors were diagnosed as adenocarcinomas. Conclusions: Flor-Essence{reg_sign} can promote mammary tumor development in the Sprague Dawley rat model. This observation is contrary to widely available anecdotal evidence as well as the desire of the consumer that this commercially available herbal tonic will suppress and/or inhibit tumor growth.

  3. Inhibition of midbrain-evoked tonic and rhythmic motor activity by cutaneous stimulation in decerebrate cats.

    PubMed

    Beyaert, C A; Haouzi, P; Marchal, F

    2003-03-01

    The effect of mechanical and electrical stimulation of cervical cutaneous afferents was analysed on both the centrally induced tonic and rhythmic activities in hindlimb antagonist muscle nerves of 16 decerebrate paralysed cats. Electrical stimulation of dorsal midbrain evoked in the nerve to the tibialis anterior muscle (TAn) either rhythmic discharges (n=14), associated with tonic discharges in ten cats, or only tonic discharges (n=4). Centrally induced activity in the ipsilateral nerve to gastrocnemius medialis (GMn) occurred in fewer cats (n=12) and displayed similar patterns as in TAn. Manual traction of the scruff of the neck reduced the TAn tonic and rhythmic discharges (n=6) by 73% (P<0.05) and 71% (P<0.05), respectively, and reduced only the tonic component of GMn discharges (by 41%, n=3). Electrical stimulation (impulses 0.1-0.5 ms, 50 Hz) of cervical nerves belonging to C5 or C6 dermatomes, the intensity (0.4-4 mA) of which induced minimal inhibition of both TAn and GMn discharges, reduced significantly the tonic component of TAn discharges (by 39%, n=4). At higher intensities of electrical cervical nerve stimulation (2-6 mA) inducing maximal inhibitory effect, both tonic and rhythmic activities in TAn and GMn were both significantly reduced by, respectively, 81% and 94% in TAn (n=7), and by 49% and 43% in GMn (n=7). Electrical cervical nerve stimulation consistently reduced the isolated tonic discharge in TAn by 66% (n=4, P<0.05) and in GMn by 23% (n=3) when present. Thus the tonic component was more sensitive to inhibition than the rhythmic component of hindlimb muscle nerve activity.

  4. Burst and Tonic Spinal Cord Stimulation Differentially Activate GABAergic Mechanisms to Attenuate Pain in a Rat Model of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Nathan D; Weisshaar, Christine L; Smith, Jenell R; Zeeman, Martha E; Goodman-Keiser, Melanie D; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2015-06-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is widely used to treat neuropathic pain. Burst SCS, an alternative mode of stimulation, reduces neuropathic pain without paresthesia. However, the effects and mechanisms of burst SCS have not been compared to conventional tonic SCS in controlled investigations. This study compares the attenuation of spinal neuronal activity and tactile allodynia, and the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling during burst or tonic SCS in a rat model of cervical radiculopathy. The effects of burst and tonic SCS were compared by recording neuronal firing before and after each mode of stimulation at day 7 following a painful cervical nerve root compression. Neuronal firing was also recorded before and after burst and tonic SCS in the presence of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP35348. Burst and tonic SCS both reduce neuronal firing. The effect of tonic SCS, but not burst SCS, is blocked by CGP35348. In a separate study, spinal cord stimulators were implanted to deliver burst or tonic SCS beginning on day 4 after painful nerve root compression; allodynia and serum GABA concentration were measured through day 14. Burst and tonic SCS both reduce allodynia. Tonic SCS attenuates injury-induced decreases in serum GABA, but GABA remains decreased from baseline during burst SCS. Together, these studies suggest that burst SCS does not act via spinal GABAergic mechanisms, despite its attenuation of spinal hyperexcitability and allodynia similar to that of tonic SCS; understanding other potential spinal inhibitory mechanisms may lead to enhanced analgesia during burst stimulation.

  5. Modality-specific facilitation and adaptation to painful tonic stimulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Polianskis, Romanas; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of stimulus modality on adaptation or facilitation of pain during tonic cold and tourniquet pressure stimulation. Experimental set-up for the cold stimulation consisted of a thermo-tank with water, cooled to 3 degrees C, circulation pump, electronic thermometer and an electronic 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Experimental set-up for the tonic pressure stimulation consisted of a pneumatic tourniquet cuff, a computer-controlled air compressor, and an electronic VAS. The first experiment assessed temporal profiles of pain intensity and skin temperature during immersion of the non-dominant hand and lower arm into cold water for 3 min or until the pain tolerance limit was reached. The second experiment assessed temporal profile of cuff pain intensity during constant compressions for 10 min beginning at pain intensities of 2, 4, and 6 cm on the VAS ("VAS 2", "VAS 4" and "VAS 6" sessions). Subjects enduring cold stimulation for less than 3 min were defined as non-adapting to cold and vice versa. The intensity of cold pain in non-adapting subjects increased significantly faster than in adapting subjects and reached significantly higher magnitude. The course of pain intensity during constant compression, estimated by a linear regression line, was increasing or decreasing, representing facilitation or adaptation of pain, respectively. The typical profile of adaptation consisted of an "overshoot" in pain intensity, followed by a decrease in pain intensity. There was significant correlation in VAS slopes between sessions separated by 2-5 days, suggesting consistent pattern in pain responses to tonic pressure stimulation. Adaptation or facilitation rates and the overshoot magnitude were dependent on the initial pain intensity (2, 4, or 6 cm on the VAS). The facilitation rate was highest and the adaptation rate was lowest during the "VAS 2" session, while the facilitation rate was lowest and the adaptation rate was highest during the "VAS 6

  6. Tonic eye movements induced by bilateral and unilateral galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno

    2013-01-01

    Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) stimulates primary vestibular afferents innervating the semicircular canals (SCCs) and otoliths found in the inner ear of humans and other mammals, including guinea pigs. To determine which pathways contribute to eye movements generated by this artificial vestibular stimulation in guinea pigs, low current intensities of GVS were passed either bilaterally between the tensor-tympani muscles of the two ears (up to 30 μA) or unilaterally between one tensor-tympani electrode and an indifferent on the back of the neck (up to 60 μA). Both forms of GVS were found to selectively generate tonic eye movements without nystagmus, characteristic of the otolith-ocular reflex; the axis of eye rotation did not align with any semicircular canal plane, but was oriented close to the expected axis of eye rotation that would occur in response to the net stimulation of otolith afferents. The induced eye rotation was predominantly vertical with a smaller horizontal deviation and very little torsion. Consistent with the results of previous human studies, the tonic eye movements were found to exhibit bilateral gain enhancement, whereby bilateral GVS generated twice the amplitude of eye rotation as unilateral anodal or cathodal stimulation alone. Eye movement responses to unilateral GVS were symmetrical in amplitude during equivalent intensities of anodal and cathodal stimulation, consistent with the known responses of more regularly and intermediately discharging primary vestibular afferents to GVS. These results together suggest that more regularly discharging otolith-ocular projections may mediate the tonic changes in eye position induced during maintained, low-intensity GVS in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stimulating effect of Japanese herbal (kampo) medicine, hochuekkito on upper respiratory mucosal immune system.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, H; Nagai, T; Munakata, K; Nonaka, K; Hanawa, T; Kim, S J; Yamada, H

    2006-12-01

    Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41) and Juzentaihoto (Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese, TJ-48) are well-known Kampo formulas used as tonic. Although these medicines have separately been applied to the patients clinically depending on their symptoms, the differences of the pharmacological activities for these medicines have not been fully understood. TJ-48 and TJ-41 were compared for their effects on antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal immune system in vivo. Oral administration of TJ-41 (100 mg kg(-1) per day) to early aged BALB/c mice, which were nasally sensitized with influenza hemagglutinin vaccine, significantly enhanced influenza virus-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers in nasal cavity and sera, respectively. However, oral administration of TJ-48 (100 mg kg(-1) per day) failed to show the enhancing activity. TJ-41 increased not only influenza virus-specific IgA antibody titer but also total IgA antibody titer in nasal cavity. The stimulating activity of TJ-41 disappeared after treatment with methotrexate. The present study strongly suggests that TJ-41 can stimulate the mucosal immune system of upper respiratory tract, and results in enhancement of antigen-specific antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal and systemic immune systems.

  8. Stimulating Effect of Japanese Herbal (Kampo) Medicine, Hochuekkito on Upper Respiratory Mucosal Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Kiyohara, H.; Nagai, T.; Munakata, K.; Nonaka, K.; Hanawa, T.; Kim, S. J.; Yamada, H.

    2006-01-01

    Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41) and Juzentaihoto (Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese, TJ-48) are well-known Kampo formulas used as tonic. Although these medicines have separately been applied to the patients clinically depending on their symptoms, the differences of the pharmacological activities for these medicines have not been fully understood. TJ-48 and TJ-41 were compared for their effects on antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal immune system in vivo. Oral administration of TJ-41 (100 mg kg−1 per day) to early aged BALB/c mice, which were nasally sensitized with influenza hemagglutinin vaccine, significantly enhanced influenza virus-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers in nasal cavity and sera, respectively. However, oral administration of TJ-48 (100 mg kg−1 per day) failed to show the enhancing activity. TJ-41 increased not only influenza virus-specific IgA antibody titer but also total IgA antibody titer in nasal cavity. The stimulating activity of TJ-41 disappeared after treatment with methotrexate. The present study strongly suggests that TJ-41 can stimulate the mucosal immune system of upper respiratory tract, and results in enhancement of antigen-specific antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal and systemic immune systems. PMID:17173109

  9. Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on motor cortex excitability upon release of tonic muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kenichi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Higashi, Toshio

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurophysiological triggers underlying muscle relaxation from the contracted state, and to examine the mechanisms involved in this process and their subsequent modification by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to produce motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in 23 healthy participants, wherein motor cortex excitability was examined at the onset of voluntary muscle relaxation following a period of voluntary tonic muscle contraction. In addition, the effects of afferent input on motor cortex excitability, as produced by NMES during muscle contraction, were examined. In particular, two NMES intensities were used for analysis: 1.2 times the sensory threshold and 1.2 times the motor threshold (MT). Participants were directed to execute constant wrist extensions and to release muscle contraction in response to an auditory "GO" signal. MEPs were recorded from the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles, and TMS was applied at three different time intervals (30, 60, and 90 ms) after the "GO" signal. Motor cortex excitability was greater during voluntary ECR and FCR relaxation using high-intensity NMES, and relaxation time was decreased. Each parameter differed significantly between 30 and 60 ms. Moreover, in both muscles, SICI was larger in the presence than in the absence of NMES. Therefore, the present findings suggest that terminating a muscle contraction triggers transient neurophysiological mechanisms that facilitate the NMES-induced modulation of cortical motor excitability in the period prior to muscle relaxation. High-intensity NMES might facilitate motor cortical excitability as a function of increased inhibitory intracortical activity, and therefore serve as a transient trigger for the relaxation of prime mover muscles in a therapeutic context.

  10. Modulation of an inhibitory reflex in single motor units in human masseter by tonic painful stimulation.

    PubMed

    Svensson, P; McMillan, A S; Graven-Nielsen, T; Wang, K; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    1999-12-01

    Perioral electrical stimuli cause inhibitory reflex responses in single motor-units (SMU) and surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings from voluntary contracted human jaw-closing muscles. Tonic experimental masseter pain has recently been shown to reduce the inhibitory reflex response in surface EMG recordings but the effect on SMU activity has not been described. In this study, motor-unit action potentials were recorded with wire electrodes inserted into the left masseter in eleven subjects. The subjects kept the SMU firing rate around 10 Hz by feedback. Ninety-nine electrical stimuli were applied sequentially to the left mental nerve with increasing stimulus delays in steps of 1 ms after the preceding motor unit action potential. The inhibitory reflex in SMU was recorded before, during and after infusion of hypertonic saline (5%) into the ipsilateral masseter muscle. Spike train data were used to calculate (1) the mean pre- and post-stimulus inter-spike-intervals (ISI) in all of the 99 trials, (2) cumulative changes in firing probability, and (3) estimation of the compound inhibitory post-synaptic potential (IPSP) in the masseter motoneuron. Tonic masseter pain did not change pre-stimulus SMU firing characteristics but the mean ISI for the first post-stimulus discharge (158.2+/-9.2 ms) was significantly decreased compared to the pre-pain (175.8+/-11.3 ms, P<0.05) and post-pain conditions (172. 6+/-11.6 ms, P<0.05). The post-stimulus firing probability was significantly increased and the relative amplitude of the estimated IPSP significantly decreased during tonic masseter pain compared to pre-pain and post-pain conditions. In conclusion, this study indicates that tonic masseter pain has a net excitatory effect on the inhibitory jaw-reflexes, which could be mediated by presynaptic mechanisms on the involved motoneurons.

  11. Asian herbals and aphrodisiacs used for managing ED

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In the East, many herbal tonics and preparations are used to assist the aging male improve his sexual drive or ability to perform penetrative sex by increasing sexual stimulation, erectile, ejaculatory, orgasmic and other responses for sexual function and satisfaction. The herbs and tonics act as or as “pick-me-ups” and energizing tonics which help the tired and fatigued male and those with sexual asthenia. The myths and realities concerning Tongkat Ali, sea horse, cobra meat and blood, animal penises and testicles amongst many other herbs and portions for oral intake or local application used by traditional “medical” practitioners and village doctors will be discussed. PMID:28540223

  12. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Merritt, Sharon L.; Peterson, Sara Davia; Block, Keith I.; Gochenour, Tom

    2000-06-01

    World-wide use of herbal medicines is increasing, following regulatory and manufacturing developments. Herbs are attractive alternative medications to many patients with sleep disorders, who may be averse to using conventional drugs. We review here the most common herbal stimulants and sedatives. Caffeine, in herbal teas, black tea, coffee, soft drinks and pharmaceuticals, is used widely to control sleepiness, but more research is needed on its use in sleep disorders. Ephedra, and its constituent ephedrine, are used in both stimulant and weight loss preparations, sometimes with caffeine; safety concerns have arisen with this practice. Yohimbe is another herb used in stimulant and body-building preparations which has safety concerns. Asian and Siberian ginseng have been traditionally used for fatigue, and have some supportive experimental evidence for this use. Herbal sedatives also have some evidence for efficacy; the observations that certain plant flavonoid compounds bind to benzodiazepine receptors adds interest to their use. Valerian and kava have received the most research attention; both have decreased sleep onset time and promoted deeper sleep in small studies, and kava also shows anxiolytic effects. German chamomile, lavender, hops, lemon balm and passionflower are reputed to be mild sedatives but need much more experimental examination.

  13. Tonic or Phasic Stimulation of Dopaminergic Projections to Prefrontal Cortex Causes Mice to Maintain or Deviate from Previously Learned Behavioral Strategies.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, Ian T; Patel, Tosha; Wadia, Varun; Lee, Anthony T; Liptak, Alayna T; Bender, Kevin J; Sohal, Vikaas S

    2017-08-30

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) encode reward prediction errors and can drive reinforcement learning through their projections to striatum, but much less is known about their projections to prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we studied these projections and observed phasic VTA-PFC fiber photometry signals after the delivery of rewards. Next, we studied how optogenetic stimulation of these projections affects behavior using conditioned place preference and a task in which mice learn associations between cues and food rewards and then use those associations to make choices. Neither phasic nor tonic stimulation of dopaminergic VTA-PFC projections elicited place preference. Furthermore, substituting phasic VTA-PFC stimulation for food rewards was not sufficient to reinforce new cue-reward associations nor maintain previously learned ones. However, the same patterns of stimulation that failed to reinforce place preference or cue-reward associations were able to modify behavior in other ways. First, continuous tonic stimulation maintained previously learned cue-reward associations even after they ceased being valid. Second, delivering phasic stimulation either continuously or after choices not previously associated with reward induced mice to make choices that deviated from previously learned associations. In summary, despite the fact that dopaminergic VTA-PFC projections exhibit phasic increases in activity that are time locked to the delivery of rewards, phasic activation of these projections does not necessarily reinforce specific actions. Rather, dopaminergic VTA-PFC activity can control whether mice maintain or deviate from previously learned cue-reward associations.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dopaminergic inputs from ventral tegmental area (VTA) to striatum encode reward prediction errors and reinforce specific actions; however, it is currently unknown whether dopaminergic inputs to prefrontal cortex (PFC) play similar or distinct roles. Here, we used

  14. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    PubMed

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially

  15. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bell's Palsy Prostate Cancer: Herbal Supplements What are herbal supplements? Products made from botanicals, or plants, that are ... the use of herbal supplements. The FDA and herbal supplements The FDA considers herbal supplements foods, not drugs. ...

  16. Herbal medicine "sho-saiko-to" induces in vitro granulocyte colony-stimulating factor production on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashiki, M; Asakawa, M; Kayaba, Y; Kosaka, Y; Nishimura, A

    1992-01-01

    The herbal medicine "Sho-saiko-to (Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang)" has been used in China for about 3000 years for the treatment of pyretic diseases. This medicine is now available as one of the prescribing drugs approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan, and has also been widely used for patients with chronic viral liver disease as one of biological response modifiers in the field of Japan's Western Medicine. However, its mode of action has not been fully described. In the present in vitro study, we added "Sho-saiko-to" (TJ-9, Tsumura, Tokyo) to the culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from healthy volunteers, and observed a dose-dependent increase in the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The same experiment was conducted using other herbal medicines "Dai-saiko-to" (TJ-8) and "Saiko-keishi-to" (TJ-10) which showed similar effects, or "Sho-seiryu-to" (TJ-19) which consists of very different compounds and shows different efficacy. The increases of G-CSF production were similar when "Sho-saiko-to" (TJ-9) or one of the 2 reference drugs (TJ-8 and 10) was added, whereas the increase when the control drug "Sho-seiryu-to" (TJ-19) was added, was quite small. This result shows that G-CSF induction is not a common effect of herbal medicines, but a specific effect of TJ-8, 9, and 10. Among these 3 drugs the increase produced by "Sho-saiko-to" was the largest. Based on this result, we conclude that administration of "Sho-saiko-to" may be useful not only for the treatment of chronic liver disease, but also for malignant diseases and acute infectious diseases where G-CSF is efficacious.

  17. [Exploration of quality control of inorganic elements in Chinese herbal medicines for stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-feng; Fan, Mei-mei; Wang, Guan-min; Tu, Long-fei; Wang, Cheng

    2007-12-01

    Researches have shown the close relationships between inorganic elements and curative efficiencies of various Chinese herbal medicines. Yet, in studies of chemical composition and quality control of Chinese herbal medicines for stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints, inorganic substances are often overlooked. In order to improve and reestablish the standard of quality control of Chinese herbal medicines, the authors attempted a method that would incorporate the composition of inorganic elements as part of the quality control. In the present study, the authors used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to measure the contents of fifteen inorganic elements, namely, Cu, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, V, Mn, Zn, Na, Cr, Cd, and Hg, in several Chinese herbal medicines, including Da Huo Luo Wan. The authors then discussed the relationship between these inorganic elements and curative efficiencies of these Chinese herbal medicines. By comparing the levels of inorganic elements found in Da Huo Luo Wan with those found in other Chinese herbal medicines used in the study, it was revealed that trace elements, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn, contribute to the curative efficiency of Da Huo Luo Wan. The authors' results showed that the amounts of trace elements Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn found in Chinese herbal medicine Da Huo Luo Wan are related to the following curative effects of Da Huo Luo Wan: relieving rheumatism, rectifying breathing and alleviating phlegm, stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints. The measurement and analysis of inorganic elements in Da Huo Luo Wan will also provide evidences and references for the fingerprint establishment of Da Huo Luo Wan in the future.

  18. Ethyl glucuronide identified in commercial hair tonics.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Torsten; Schröfel, Stefanie; Stemmerich, Karsten

    2013-09-10

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair is considered as a specific marker of ethanol consumption. Prompted by a report of positive EtG hair testings due to hair treatment with an EtG containing hair lotion, commercially available herbal hair tonics from supermarkets, drug-stores, and health food stores were analyzed for the presence of EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS). LC-MS/MS (QTRAP 5500 mass spectrometer) was done in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), enhanced product ion (EPI) and MS(3) mode. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.05 mg/L for EtG and the cut-off for the detection of EtS 0.01 mg/L. Altogether 11 hair tonics from 8 manufacturers were tested, with 1 product in 3 different lots. EtG ranged between 0.07 and 1.06 mg/L (7 products from 4 manufacturers) and was almost identical in the 3 lots of 1 product (1.01-1.06 mg/L). EtS was found in 3 out of the 11 hair tonics. EtG is quite frequently present in commercially available herbal hair tonics. Using EtG in hair as a marker of alcohol (ab)use, one has to consider external sources of EtG and has to assess the use of hair care products, esp. if the patient denies any ethanol intake. Whether EtS is a more reliable alcohol (ab)use marker, as sometimes discussed, should be critically assessed against the background of its broad use in large amounts in industrial chemistry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. To strengthen and refresh: herbal therapy in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Van Esterik, P

    1988-01-01

    Throughout Southeast Asia herbal tonic drinks are a long established part of the health adaptation system of both rural and urban households. A recent study on infant feeding practices in urban poor households revealed a differential use of postpartum herbal tonics in Bangkok, Thailand and Semarang, Indonesia. This paper explores the cultural meaning of this difference between comparable groups of mothers, focussing on the colonial and neocolonial development of the medical systems, the transmission of knowledge about herbal therapies, and how the tonics fit into the food-drug classification system in both countries.

  20. Hochuekkito, a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal) Medicine, and its Polysaccharide Portion Stimulate G-CSF Secretion from Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Moriya, Michiyo; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Haruki

    2010-09-01

    Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicines are taken orally due to which the gastric mucosal immune system may act as one of the major targets for the expression of pharmacological activity. The inner surface of the intestinal tract possesses a large area of mucosal membranes, and the intestinal epithelial cells sit at the interface between a lumen and a lymphocyte-rich lamina propria. The cross talk that occurs between these compartments serves to maintain intestinal homeostasis, and the cytokine network plays an important role in the cross talk. In this study, the effect of Hochuekkito (HET), one of Kampo medicines, on cytokine secretion of intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. When murine normal colonic epithelial cell-line MCE301 cells were stimulated with HET, the contents of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the conditioned medium were significantly increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. The enhanced G-CSF gene transcription in MCE301 cells by the stimulation of HET was observed by RT-PCR. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET was also observed in C3H/HeJ mice-derived primary cultured colonic epithelial cells. When the HET was fractionated, only the polysaccharide fraction (F-5) enhanced the G-CSF secretion of MCE301 cells, and the activity of F-5 lost after the treatment of periodate that can degrade the carbohydrate moiety. These results suggest that HET enhances secretion of G-CSF from colonic epithelial cells and the polysaccharide is one of the active ingredients of HET. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET may partly contribute to the clinically observed various pharmacological activities of HET including immunomodulating activity.

  1. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae Young; Gupta, Biki; Park, Hyoung Geun; Son, Miwon; Jun, Joon-Ho; Yong, Chul Soon

    2017-01-01

    The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05), and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD) significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p < 0.05). MXD (3%) and DA-5512 (1%, 5%) significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs) versus the controls (each p < 0.05). The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p < 0.05). In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss. PMID:28539964

  2. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jae Young; Gupta, Biki; Park, Hyoung Geun; Son, Miwon; Jun, Joon-Ho; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Jong Oh

    2017-01-01

    The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05), and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD) significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p < 0.05). MXD (3%) and DA-5512 (1%, 5%) significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs) versus the controls (each p < 0.05). The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p < 0.05). In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  3. The Korean herbal formulation Yukmijihwangtang stimulates longitudinal bone growth in animal models.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Min; Lee, Sun Haeng; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Ji Hong; Chang, Gyu Tae; Kim, Hocheol; Lee, Jin Yong

    2017-05-02

    Yukmijihwangtang (YJT) is a traditional Korean medicine that has been used to treat kidney-yin deficiency symptoms such as dizziness and tinnitus. In addition, because it is also thought to nourish kidney-yin, it has been used to treat short stature from congenital deficiency. This study evaluated the effects of YJT on longitudinal bone growth in rats. Female adolescent rats were randomly assigned to groups that received distilled water (per os [p.o.] twice a day; control), recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH; 20 μg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.] once a day), or two different doses of YJT (100 or 300 mg/kg, p.o. twice a day). In each group, treatment was maintained for 4 days. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg) to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 2 - 4. Tetracycline hydrochloride (20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to form fluorescent bands on the growth plates on day 3 for measuring the longitudinal bone growth rate. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the growth plate was identified using immunohistochemistry. There was a significant increase in the rate of bone growth in the 300 mg/kg YJT group (523.8 ± 23.7 μm/day; P < 0.05) compared to the control group (498.0 ± 23.8 μm/day), while the 100 mg/kg YJT group exhibited a non-significant increase. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the chondrocytes of the rhGH-treated group exhibited a significant increase (103.8 ± 34.2 cells/mm(2)) compared to that of the control group (70.3 ± 19.7 cells/mm(2)), while the 300 mg/kg YJT group had a non-significant increase. Additionally, IGF-1 and BMP-2 were highly expressed in the growth plate in the 300 mg/kg YJT and rhGH groups. YJT increased the longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating chondrocyte proliferation with increasing increments of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expression. Based on these findings, YJT may be a

  4. Relaxation - Induced by Vibroacoustic Stimulation via a Body Monochord and via Relaxation Music - Is Associated with a Decrease in Tonic Electrodermal Activity and an Increase of the Salivary Cortisol Level in Patients with Psychosomatic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Hubertus; Fendel, Uta; Buße, Petra; Rose, Matthias; Bösel, Rainer; Klapp, Burghard F

    2017-01-01

    Vibroacoustic stimulation by a Body Monochord can induce relaxation states of various emotional valence. The skin conductance level (SCL) of the tonic electrodermal activity is an indicator of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system and thus an indicator of the relaxation response. Salivary cortisol is considered to be a stress indicator of the HPA-axis. The effects of the treatment with a Body Monochord and listening to relaxation music (randomized chronological presentation) on SCL and salivary cortisol in relation to the emotional valence of the experience were examined in patients with psychosomatic disorders (N = 42). Salivary cortisol samples were collected immediately before and after the expositions. Subjective experience was measured via self-rating scales. Overall, both the exposure to the Body Monochord as well as the exposure to the relaxation music induced an improvement of patients' mood and caused a highly significant reduction of SCL. A more emotionally positive experience of relaxation correlated with a slightly stronger reduction of the SCL. Both treatment conditions caused a slight increase in salivary cortisol, which was significant after exposure to the first treatment. The increase of salivary cortisol during a relaxation state is contrary to previous findings. It is possible that the relaxation state was experienced as an emotional challenge, due to inner images and uncommon sensations that might have occurred.

  5. Relaxation – Induced by Vibroacoustic Stimulation via a Body Monochord and via Relaxation Music – Is Associated with a Decrease in Tonic Electrodermal Activity and an Increase of the Salivary Cortisol Level in Patients with Psychosomatic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Hubertus; Fendel, Uta; Buße, Petra; Rose, Matthias; Bösel, Rainer; Klapp, Burghard F.

    2017-01-01

    Vibroacoustic stimulation by a Body Monochord can induce relaxation states of various emotional valence. The skin conductance level (SCL) of the tonic electrodermal activity is an indicator of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system and thus an indicator of the relaxation response. Salivary cortisol is considered to be a stress indicator of the HPA-axis. The effects of the treatment with a Body Monochord and listening to relaxation music (randomized chronological presentation) on SCL and salivary cortisol in relation to the emotional valence of the experience were examined in patients with psychosomatic disorders (N = 42). Salivary cortisol samples were collected immediately before and after the expositions. Subjective experience was measured via self-rating scales. Overall, both the exposure to the Body Monochord as well as the exposure to the relaxation music induced an improvement of patients’ mood and caused a highly significant reduction of SCL. A more emotionally positive experience of relaxation correlated with a slightly stronger reduction of the SCL. Both treatment conditions caused a slight increase in salivary cortisol, which was significant after exposure to the first treatment. The increase of salivary cortisol during a relaxation state is contrary to previous findings. It is possible that the relaxation state was experienced as an emotional challenge, due to inner images and uncommon sensations that might have occurred. PMID:28114399

  6. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  7. [Tonic pupil caused by ischemia].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, H

    1989-01-01

    Tonic pupil is usually an idiopathic condition. In some cases, the cause of the ciliary ganglion lesion leading to tonic pupils is obvious. Rarely ischemia causes a lesion of the ciliary ganglion or the short ciliary nerves due to the good blood supply of the ciliary ganglion. Only two cases of tonic pupils in the course of giant cell arteritis are mentioned in the literature, but tonic pupils are probably much more common with this disease. Five cases are demonstrated here. All had associated ischemic optic neuropathy, and stagnation of the blood flow in the supratrochlear artery could be demonstrated in two cases by Doppler sonography. Tonic pupils may also occur when an oclusion of the internal carotid artery resolves, probably because of transient stasis of the orbital blood flow. In another case, tonic pupils were associated with choroidal ischemia (proved by video fluorescent angiography) of unknown origin. The diagnosis of tonic pupils was made by pharmacological testing for cholinergic hypersensitivity with 0.1% pilocarpine.

  8. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  9. Herbal medicines for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of pain and disability. In the UK, up to 8.5 million people are affected by joint pain that may be attributed to the condition. Non-surgical treatment options include lifestyle measures (e.g. exercise); local therapy involving heat or cold; manual therapy; transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS); topical capsaicin; simple analgesics; NSAIDs; opioids; and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Studies have reported widespread use of complementary and alternative therapies such as herbal medicines by patients with arthritis. Here we review the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines for symptoms of osteoarthritis.

  10. Clinical toxicology study of an herbal medicinal extract of Paullinia cupana, Trichilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides and Zingiber officinale (Catuama) in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Celso H; Moraes, Maria Elizabete A; Moraes, Manoel O; Bezerra, Fernando A F; Abib, Eduardo; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, a herbal medicinal extract named Catuama containing a mixture of Paullinia cupana (guarana; Sapindaceae), Trichilia catigua (catuaba; Meliaceae), Ptychopetalum olacoides (muirapuama; Olacaceae) and Zingiber officinale (ginger; Zingiberaceae) is used as a body stimulant, energetic, tonic and aphrodisiac. The present study investigated the chronic administration of 25 mL Catuama twice a day during 28 days for any toxic effect on healthy human volunteers of both sexes. No severe adverse reactions or haematological and biochemical changes were reported. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. TONIC INFLUENCE OF NEOCORTEX ON HIPPOCAMPAL SEIZURES.

    PubMed

    Saralidze, E; Khuchua, L; Kobaidze, I

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between different brain structures could be crucial to predicting seizure occurrence, threshold and spread. Moreover, the sleep-wake cycle and electrical activity of brain structures in different phases of sleep could significantly affect the pattern and extent of seizure spread, and therefore the characteristics of epileptic activity. In this animal model using 15 Wistar rats, we show that the duration of hippocampal seizures, induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus, is significantly increased during slow sleep. Moreover, decreasing the electrical activity of the neocortex by cooling of the cortical surface or induction of cortical spreading depression also caused an increase in hippocampal seizure duration. Conversely, warming the cortical surface triggered a remission in spreading depression, in turn restoring the duration of epileptic episodes. Our data suggest that the neocortex probably exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on hippocampal seizures. Thus, cortico-hippocampal interaction could be an important component in the manifestation and generalization of limbic seizures.

  12. The myth of brain tonics.

    PubMed

    Kabra, S G

    1993-04-01

    In India, vitamin tonics are promoted and sold as a means to improve the intelligence of children. 3 research studies in the UK have attempted to evaluate the influence of vitamin intake on nonverbal and verbal intelligence. The University of Dundee study by Dr. D. Benton and Dr. G. Roberts in 1988 followed 12-13 year old children who received vitamin supplementation for 8 months and compared the group with a matched group of 30 children who received placebos and a 3rd group who received nothing. The results of pretest and posttest scores showed improvement in nonverbal intelligence (solving problems not requiring vocabulary or information) among the group receiving vitamin and mineral supplementation. Another group of researchers from King College, London, evaluated intelligence scores of 11-12 year old children receiving vitamin and mineral supplementation and found no improvement in scores. This study did not exactly replicate the Benton study. A 3rd group of researchers from the University of Dundee did replicate the Benton and Roberts' study and found supplementation did not improve either verbal or nonverbal scores. Children are used in these research projects because nonverbal intelligence reaches its peak maximum by 18-21 years of age. Verbal intelligence continues to grow throughout life. In India, there is an emphasis in schools on development of verbal intelligence. Manufacturers of "brain tonics" claim that tonics improve children's performance in examinations. Not only are the research findings debatable, but there are other considerations that do not support use of supplementation to increase reasoning performance. The tonics, which contain an excess of vitamins in the daily requirement, are excreted in the urine rather than being stored in the body. Vitamins are also costly and are available to only 30% of the India's population. Production of vitamins such as B-12, B-1, or B-2 are in excess of the amount required if there were vitamin deficiencies

  13. A herbal formula consisting of Rosae Multiflorae Fructus and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos inhibits inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Brian Chi-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Qing; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Tse, Kai-Wing; Cao, Hui-Hui; Su, Tao; Shu, Xin; Wu, Zheng-zhi; Yu, Zhi-ling

    2014-05-14

    A herbal formula (RL) consisting of Rosae Multiflorae Fructus (Yingshi) and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua) has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory disorders. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory mode and mechanism of action of the ethanol extract of RL so as to provide a pharmacological basis for the use of RL in treating inflammatory diseases. RL consisting of Yingshi and Jinyinhua (in 5:3 ratio) was extracted using absolute ethanol. We investigated its effects on nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RL could decrease the secretion of NO, IL-6 and TNF-α into the culture medium and the cellular protein levels of iNOS and COX-2, which were associated with the reduction of the phosphorylation/activation of JNK and p38, and the inhibition of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. The present study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of RL on the inflammatory mediators regulated by the NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, providing a pharmacological basis for RL in the control of inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy and safety of the Chinese herbal medicine shuganjieyu with and without adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for geriatric depression: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    XIE, Minmin; JIANG, Wenhai; YANG, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmacological treatment of geriatric depression is often ineffective because patients cannot tolerate adequate doses of antidepressant medications. Aim Examine the efficacy and safety of shuganjieyu – the first Chinese herbal medicine approved for the treatment of depression by China’s drug regulatory agency -- with and without adjunctive treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of geriatric depression. Methods Sixty-five inpatients 60 or older who met ICD-10 criteria for depression were randomly assigned to an experimental group (shuganjieyu + rTMS) (n=36) or a control group (shuganjieyu + sham rTMS)(n=29). All participants received 4 capsules of shuganjieyu daily for 6 weeks. rTMS (or sham rTMS) was administered 20 minutes daily, five days a week for 4 weeks. Blinded raters used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale to assess clinical efficacy and safety at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after starting treatment. Over the six-week trial, there was only one dropout from the experimental group and two dropouts from the control group. Results None of the patients had serious side effects, but 40% in the experimental group and 50% in the control group experienced minor side effects that all resolved spontaneously. Both groups showed substantial stepwise improvement in depressive symptoms over the 6 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA found no differences between the two groups. After 6 weeks, 97% of the experimental group had experienced a 25% or greater drop in the level of depression, but only 20% had experience a 50% or greater drop in the level of depression; the corresponding values in the control group were 96% and 19%. There were some minor, non-significant differences in the onset of the treatment effect between the different types of depressive symptoms, but by the second week of treatment all five HAMD-17 subscale scores had improved significantly

  15. Cerebellar brain inhibition in the target and surround muscles during voluntary tonic activation

    PubMed Central

    Panyakaew, Pattamon; Cho, Hyun Joo; Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Popa, Traian; Wu, Tianxia; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Motor surround inhibition is the neural mechanism that selectively favors the contraction of target muscles and inhibits nearby muscles to prevent unwanted movements. This inhibition was previously reported at the onset of a movement, but not during a tonic contraction. Cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) is reduced in active muscles during tonic activation; however, it has not been studied in the surround muscles. CBI was evaluated in the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) as the target muscle, and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) as surround muscles during rest and tonic activation of FDI in fourteen subjects. Cerebellar stimulation was performed under MRI-guided neuronavigation targeting lobule VIII of the cerebellar hemisphere. Stimulus intensities for cerebellar stimulation were based on the resting motor cortex threshold (RMT) and adjusted for the depth difference between the cerebellar and motor cortices. We used 90% to 120% of adjusted RMT as the conditioning stimulus intensity during rest. The intensity that generated the best CBI at rest in the FDI was selected for use during tonic activation. During selective tonic activation of FDI, CBI was significantly reduced only for FDI but not for the surround muscles. Unconditioned MEP sizes were increased in all muscles during FDI tonic activation compared to rest, despite background EMG activity increasing only for the FDI. Our study suggests that the cerebellum may play an important role in selective tonic finger movement by reducing its inhibition in the motor cortex only for the relevant agonist muscle. PMID:26900871

  16. The relation between tonicity and impulse-evoked transmitter release in the frog

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Hiroshi; Narita, Kazuhiko; van der Kloot, William

    1982-01-01

    1. The increase in miniature end-plate potential (m.e.p.p.) frequency in response to tetanic stimulation of the motor nerve at frog neuromuscular junctions in Ca2+-free, Mg2+ EGTA-containing (0 Ca2+—Mg2+ EGTA) solutions of varying tonicity has been studied. The response to stimulation is markedly increased in hypertonic solutions and is decreased in hypotonic solutions. Under these conditions changes in tonicity have comparable effects on stimulated and spontaneous quantal release. 2. The tonicity was raised by adding sucrose, NaCl or glycine to the extracellular solution. The effects of the addition depended primarily on the increase in osmolarity of the solution, not on the chemical species producing it. 3. The tonicity was decreased by lowering [NaCl]o. The hypotonic solution decreased the response to tetanic stimulation. When the tonicity of the solution with the low [NaCl]o was restored to normal by adding sucrose, the response was restored to its usual level. These results suggest that in 0 Ca2+—Mg2+ EGTA solutions stimulation does not enhance the probability of quantal release by raising [Na+]i. 4. Repeated bouts of tetanic stimulation produced almost identical responses. In some instances the frequency continued to rise after the end of the tetanic stimulation, as reported by Erulkar & Rahamimoff (1978). This suggests that the stimulation of the nerve leads to the elevation within the terminal of a substance that in turn liberates an activator for quantal release. 5. The Q10 for the increase in probability of quantal release is as high as 7. High Q10 values have also been reported for spontaneous m.e.p.p. frequencies. Tonicity and temperature appear to affect spontaneous and stimulated quantal release similarly. PMID:6286938

  17. Indices of serum tonicity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rohrscheib, Mark; Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Argyropoulos, Christos; Glew, Robert H; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-06-01

    Although disturbances of serum tonicity (effective osmolality) may have dire consequences, only surrogate indices of tonicity are available in practice. This report identifies the appropriate index for expressing clinical states of dystonicity. Serum sodium concentration ([Na]S) and osmolality ([Osm]S) may be incongruent. When the tonicity state shown by [Osm]S is higher than [Na]S and the difference between the 2 indices is caused by an excess of solute that distributes in total body water, tonicity is described by [Na]S. When this difference results from a gain of solute with extracellular distribution like mannitol or a decrease in serum water content, causing a falsely low measurement of [Na]S, [Osm]S accurately reflects tonicity. Two indices of tonicity are applicable during hyperglycemia: the tonicity formula (2 ·[Na]S + [Glucose]S/18) and the corrected [Na]S ([Na]S corrected to a normal [Glucose]S using an empirically derived coefficient). Clinicians should understand the uses and limitations of the tonicity indices.

  18. Translational Challenges With Tonic Immobility

    PubMed Central

    Zoellner, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing heavily from the nonhuman animal literature, understanding of tonic immobility (TI), a sustained and involuntary physical immobility, may yield clear clinical implications and strong future translational research. Clinically, for individuals who potentially have experienced TI, psychoeducation regarding its involuntary and defensive nature may help normalize trauma-related reactions. This must be balanced with the reactive nature of the information and the recognition of potentially more common survival strategies. The application of TI for research purposes may pose translational obstacles regarding construct definition and assessment. Issues include separating the construct from non-TI-related event or perpetrator characteristics, peritraumatic dissociation, and event severity. Furthermore, with its assessment, clinical status and time may inflate endorsement of the presence or severity of TI reactions. PMID:22180702

  19. Kai-xin-san, a chinese herbal decoction containing ginseng radix et rhizoma, polygalae radix, acori tatarinowii rhizoma, and poria, stimulates the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Yan, Artemis Lu; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction.

  20. Kai-Xin-San, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria, Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Neurotrophic Factors in Cultured Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Yan, Artemis Lu; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction. PMID:24222781

  1. The herbal medicine Rikkunshi-to stimulates and coordinates the gastric myoelectric activity in post-operative dyspeptic children after gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yagi, M; Homma, S; Kubota, M; Iinuma, Y; Kanada, S; Kinoshita, Y; Ohtaki, M; Yamazaki, S; Murata, H

    2004-01-01

    Rikkunshi-to (TJ-43), a gastroprotective herbal medicine, has been used for the symptomatic relief of adult patients with dyspepsia. However, its mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of TJ-43 on the gastric myoelectric activity in post-operative dyspeptic patients, whose symptoms persisted for over 1 year after gastrointestinal surgery. Electrogastrography (EGG) recordings were performed to calculate the biomechanical parameters on the dominant peak frequency (DPF). Eight pediatric patients with dyspeptic symptoms after gastrointestinal surgery were examined and six age-matched children without any dyspeptic symptoms were used as controls, and they were compared with nine age-matched children without any dyspeptic symptoms after gastrointestinal surgery as subcontrols. All patients exhibited symptomatic relief after the administration of TJ-43, and the mean symptom score decreased significantly after the treatment of TJ-43 over a 1-month period ( P<0.0001). The variability index (VI) and the percentage of normal waves (PNW) were calculated as irregularity parameters of DPF. The power ratio (PR) was calculated as a parameter of the gastric contractile activity. There were no significant differences in the VI and PNW between the controls and patients during the postprandial state after therapy, even though significant differences existed regarding those parameters between the controls and patients before the therapy. There were no significant differences in the DPF, VI, and PNW between the controls and subcontrols. Furthermore, PR exhibited a significant increase after therapy ( P<0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the PR between the controls and subcontrols ( P<0.05). Postprandial dip was observed in all control subjects, eight patients in the subcontrols, and two patients after administration of TJ-43, respectively. An abnormal gastric electrical activity therefore seems to be an important

  2. A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, Stimulates Proliferation, Differentiation and Gene Expression of Cultured Osteosarcoma Cells: Genomic Approach to Reveal Specific Gene Activation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Roy C. Y.; Gao, Qiu T.; Cheung, Anna W. H.; Zhu, Judy T. T.; Lau, Faye T. C.; Li, Jun; Li, Winnie Z. M.; Chu, Glanice K. Y.; Duan, Ran; Cheung, Jerry K. H.; Ding, An W.; Zhao, Kui J.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2011-01-01

    Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction used to treat ailments in women, contains Radix Astragali (Huangqi; RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui; RAS). When DBT was applied onto cultured MG-63 cells, an increase of cell proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cell were revealed: both of these effects were significantly higher in DBT than RA or RAS extract. To search for the biological markers that are specifically regulated by DBT, DNA microarray was used to reveal the gene expression profiling of DBT in MG-63 cells as compared to that of RA- or RAS-treated cells. Amongst 883 DBT-regulated genes, 403 of them are specifically regulated by DBT treatment, including CCL-2, CCL-7, CCL-8, and galectin-9. The signaling cascade of this DBT-regulated gene expression was also elucidated in cultured MG-63 cells. The current results reveal the potential usage of this herbal decoction in treating osteoporosis and suggest the uniqueness of Chinese herbal decoction that requires a well-defined formulation. The DBT-regulated genes in the culture could serve as biological responsive markers for quality assurance of the herbal preparation. PMID:19131392

  3. Effects of Deception on Tonic Autonomic Arousal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    if tonic levels of electrodermal and cardiovascular activity can be used to improve the accuracy of polygraph examinations. Three hundred and thirty...use of absolute measures of electrodermal and cardiovascular activity would do little to improve the accuracy of computer algorithms for diagnosing...lie polygraph examinations. It also tested if tonic levels of electrodermal and cardiovascular activity can be used to improve the accuracy of

  4. Surround Propinquity and Tonic Accommodation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tammy; Stark, Lawrence R

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies of dark focus have found evidence of a propinquity response, in which subjects accommodate to the perceived distance of their surroundings despite being in absolute darkness. Their distance perception in a lighted room allows a spatial representation to persist within the darkened room. This study sought to establish the significance and magnitude of the propinquity response in a large sample of young adults, and to determine whether the propinquity response can be predicted by a subject's initial dark focus in an unknown dark room. Dark focus was measured with a dynamic infrared optometer (Plusoptix PowerRef 3) in 30 young adult subjects, 26 of whom were naive to the testing room and its dimensions. Dark focus was then measured at varying dioptric wall distances of 0.25-4D. The subject viewed the lighted room before each measurement. For each individual, the dark focus was plotted as a function of dioptric wall distance. The slope of this function was used as a measure of the propinquity response. The mean initial dark focus value was 1.05D (SD 1.04D) for the 26 naive subjects. The mean slope of the plot of dark focus as a function of dioptric wall distance was small (+0.097), yet highly statistically significant (P = .0002). The propinquity response function showed no statistically significant quadratic or cubic trends, and so may be considered linear. No statistically significant correlation was found between naive dark focus and propinquity response (r = +0.246, P = .226). Propinquity seems to be a small but statistically significant factor in dark focus measurements. Though it is unlikely to contaminate tonic accommodation measurements in large samples under normal laboratory conditions, a minority of individuals exhibit large propinquity responses equal to that of proximal accommodation in lighted conditions.

  5. Tianma modulates blood vessel tonicity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Manavalan, Arulmani; Mishra, Manisha; Sze, Siu Kwan; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Heese, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Tianma is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often used for the treatment of hypertension and heart diseases. To elucidate the function of tianma at the molecular level, we investigated the effect of tianma on vascular functions and aortic protein metabolism. We found that long-term treatment with tianma (~2.5g/kg/day for three months) in one-year-old rats could enhance acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation in endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings against both KCl (80 mM)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction. By using the iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification) technique, we confirmed from the functional data at the proteome level that tianma treatment down-regulated the expressions of contractile proteins (e.g. Acta2) and other related structural proteins (e.g. desmin), and up-regulated the expressions of extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins (e.g. Fbln5) and anti-thrombotic proteins (e.g. Anxa2) in aortic tissue. By inductive reasoning, tianma could perform its vasodilatory effect not only by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction, but also by enhancing blood vessel elasticity and stabilizing the arterial structure. Thus, tianma might become a novel therapeutic herbal medicine for cardiovascular diseases by regulating the aortic proteome metabolism.

  6. Tianma Modulates Blood Vessel Tonicity

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Manavalan, Arulmani; Mishra, Manisha; Sze, Siu Kwan; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Heese, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Tianma is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often used for the treatment of hypertension and heart diseases. To elucidate the function of tianma at the molecular level, we investigated the effect of tianma on vascular functions and aortic protein metabolism. We found that long-term treatment with tianma (~2.5g/kg/day for three months) in one-year-old rats could enhance acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation in endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings against both KCl (80 mM)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction. By using the iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification) technique, we confirmed from the functional data at the proteome level that tianma treatment down-regulated the expressions of contractile proteins (e.g. Acta2) and other related structural proteins (e.g. desmin), and up-regulated the expressions of extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins (e.g. Fbln5) and anti-thrombotic proteins (e.g. Anxa2) in aortic tissue. By inductive reasoning, tianma could perform its vasodilatory effect not only by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction, but also by enhancing blood vessel elasticity and stabilizing the arterial structure. Thus, tianma might become a novel therapeutic herbal medicine for cardiovascular diseases by regulating the aortic proteome metabolism. PMID:22787517

  7. The Immune Effects of an African Traditional Energy Tonic in In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    PubMed

    Ngcobo, Mlungisi; Gqaleni, Nceba; Naidoo, Vinny; Cele, Protus

    2017-01-01

    Most of the African traditional medicines (ATM) are formulated as energy tonics to boost and maintain immune defences. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immune effects of a traditional energy tonic using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), THP-1 monocytes, and bacteria infected rats. When tested in mitogen and peptidoglycan stimulated PBMCs, this energy tonic showed minimal cytotoxicity, while in acute toxicity studies in rats it did not exhibit any significant toxicity at doses up to 2000 mg/mL/kg. The energy tonic doses between 100 and 10 μg/mL were shown to stimulate secretion of cytokines and increase sIL-2R levels in PHA-treated PBMCs. Similar doses in PG-S. aureus-stimulated PBMCs significantly (p < 0.05) increased IL-1α, IL-2, and GM-CSF while causing a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in sIL-2R levels. NF-κβ transcriptional activity was increased in LPS stimulated THP-1 cells. In Sprague Dawley rats pretreated with the energy tonic and then infected with S. aureus, there were insignificant increases in cytokines and sIL-2R when compared to bacteria infected only and 5% Enrofloxacin treated rats. Posttreatment with energy tonic doses after infection with S. aureus did not enhance inflammatory cytokines significantly but changed the immune response profile and decreased corticosterone levels. This ATM showed promising immunomodulatory effects on isolated immune cells and modulated the immune response of rat models infected with S. aureus.

  8. The Immune Effects of an African Traditional Energy Tonic in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    PubMed Central

    Ngcobo, Mlungisi; Naidoo, Vinny; Cele, Protus

    2017-01-01

    Most of the African traditional medicines (ATM) are formulated as energy tonics to boost and maintain immune defences. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immune effects of a traditional energy tonic using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), THP-1 monocytes, and bacteria infected rats. When tested in mitogen and peptidoglycan stimulated PBMCs, this energy tonic showed minimal cytotoxicity, while in acute toxicity studies in rats it did not exhibit any significant toxicity at doses up to 2000 mg/mL/kg. The energy tonic doses between 100 and 10 μg/mL were shown to stimulate secretion of cytokines and increase sIL-2R levels in PHA-treated PBMCs. Similar doses in PG-S. aureus-stimulated PBMCs significantly (p < 0.05) increased IL-1α, IL-2, and GM-CSF while causing a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in sIL-2R levels. NF-κβ transcriptional activity was increased in LPS stimulated THP-1 cells. In Sprague Dawley rats pretreated with the energy tonic and then infected with S. aureus, there were insignificant increases in cytokines and sIL-2R when compared to bacteria infected only and 5% Enrofloxacin treated rats. Posttreatment with energy tonic doses after infection with S. aureus did not enhance inflammatory cytokines significantly but changed the immune response profile and decreased corticosterone levels. This ATM showed promising immunomodulatory effects on isolated immune cells and modulated the immune response of rat models infected with S. aureus. PMID:28408939

  9. Cerebellar brain inhibition in the target and surround muscles during voluntary tonic activation.

    PubMed

    Panyakaew, Pattamon; Cho, Hyun Joo; Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Popa, Traian; Wu, Tianxia; Hallett, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Motor surround inhibition is the neural mechanism that selectively favours the contraction of target muscles and inhibits nearby muscles to prevent unwanted movements. This inhibition was previously reported at the onset of a movement, but not during a tonic contraction. Cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) is reduced in active muscles during tonic activation; however, it has not been studied in the surround muscles. CBI was evaluated in the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle as the target muscle, and the abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles as surround muscles, during rest and tonic activation of the FDI muscle in 21 subjects. Cerebellar stimulation was performed under magnetic resonance imaging-guided neuronavigation targeting lobule VIII of the cerebellar hemisphere. Stimulus intensities for cerebellar stimulation were based on the resting motor cortex threshold (RMT) and adjusted for the depth difference between the cerebellar and motor cortices. We used 90-120% of the adjusted RMT as the conditioning stimulus intensity during rest. The intensity that generated the best CBI at rest in the FDI muscle was selected for use during tonic activation. During selective tonic activation of the FDI muscle, CBI was significantly reduced only for the FDI muscle, and not for the surround muscles. Unconditioned motor evoked potential sizes were increased in all muscles during FDI muscle tonic activation as compared with rest, despite background electromyography activity increasing only for the FDI muscle. Our study suggests that the cerebellum may play an important role in selective tonic finger movement by reducing its inhibition in the motor cortex only for the relevant agonist muscle.

  10. Tonic Shock Induces Detachment of Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Wendy R.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The parasite Giardia lamblia must remain attached to the host small intestine in order to proliferate and subsequently cause disease. However, little is known about the factors that may cause detachment in vivo, such as changes in the aqueous environment. Osmolality within the proximal small intestine can vary by nearly an order of magnitude between host fed and fasted states, while pH can vary by several orders of magnitude. Giardia cells are known to regulate their volume when exposed to changes in osmolality, but the short-timescale effects of osmolality and pH on parasite attachment are not known. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a closed flow chamber assay to test the effects of rapid changes in media osmolality, tonicity, and pH on Giardia attachment to both glass and C2Bbe-1 intestinal cell monolayer surfaces. We found that Giardia detach from both surfaces in a tonicity-dependent manner, where tonicity is the effective osmolality experienced by the cell. Detachment occurs with a characteristic time constant of 25 seconds (SD = 10 sec, n = 17) in both hypo- and hypertonic media but is otherwise insensitive to physiologically relevant changes in media composition and pH. Interestingly, cells that remain attached are able to adapt to moderate changes in tonicity. By exposing cells to a timed pattern of tonicity variations and adjustment periods, we found that it is possible to maximize the tonicity change experienced by the cells, overcoming the adaptive response and resulting in extensive detachment. Conclusions and Significance These results, conducted with human-infecting Giardia on human intestinal epithelial monolayers, highlight the ability of Giardia to adapt to the changing intestinal environment and suggest new possibilities for treatment of giardiasis by manipulation of tonicity in the intestinal lumen. PMID:18270543

  11. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Charles T.; Radford, Robert J.; Zastrow, Melissa L.; Zhang, Daniel Y.; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling. PMID:25947151

  12. Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they…

  13. Short-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in tonically-active and in tonically-inactive dopamine neurons: effects of haloperidol and protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Iuvone, P M

    1983-09-26

    Dopamine (DA)-containing neurons of retina were employed as an experimental model for studying the short-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in tonically-active and tonically-inactive neurons. These DA-containing neurons are trans-synaptically activated by light. Two mechanisms have been observed in this system for regulation of TH activity. A short-term activation of TH that is characterized by a decreased apparent Km for pteridine cofactors occurs in response to rapid increases of neuronal activity. A second mechanism occurs in response to prolonged, tonic changes of neuronal activity and is characterized by changes of Vmax. Both the Km changes and Vmax changes represent changes of specific activity of TH rather than enzyme induction. To determine the effects of short-term increases of neuronal activity on TH in tonically-active and tonically-inactive neurons, the effects of acute administration of haloperidol were examined in rats that were continuously light-exposed or light-deprived for 4 days. Haloperidol increased TH activity in both light-exposed and light-deprived retinas. The drug elicited the same percent stimulation in both experimental conditions. However, because the basal activity of TH was higher in the light-exposed than the light-deprived retinas, the absolute increase of TH specific activity was greater in the light-exposed samples. The effect of protein phosphorylation on TH activity in extracts of chronically light-exposed or light-deprived retinas was also examined to determine if the differences in the response to haloperidol might be due to a difference in the amount of TH available for short-term activation. Phosphorylation by endogenous cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (APK) or by purified catalytic subunit of APK resulted in larger increases of TH specific activity in extracts of light-exposed retinas than in those of light-deprived retinas. As was observed for haloperidol-induced activation, the percent stimulation elicited

  14. Tonic vibration reflexes and background force level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; Dizio, Paul; Fisk, John

    1992-01-01

    On earth, the functional stretch reflex is an important component in the maintenance of posture and muscle tone. In parabolic flight experiments, it is evaluated whether the functional stretch reflex, as reflected in the tonic vibration reflex, adjusts appropriately for changes in background gravitoinertial force level. Virtually immediate alterations of appropriate sign occurred.

  15. Tonicity-independent regulation of the osmosensitive transcription factor TonEBP (NFAT5).

    PubMed

    Halterman, Julia A; Kwon, H Moo; Wamhoff, Brian R

    2012-01-01

    Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP/nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 [NFAT5]) is a Rel homology transcription factor classically known for its osmosensitive role in regulating cellular homeostasis during states of hypo- and hypertonic stress. A recently growing body of research indicates that TonEBP is not solely regulated by tonicity, but that it can be stimulated by various tonicity-independent mechanisms in both hypertonic and isotonic tissues. Physiological and pathophysiological stimuli such as cytokines, growth factors, receptor and integrin activation, contractile agonists, ions, and reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the positive regulation of TonEBP expression and activity in diverse cell types. These new data demonstrate that tonicity-independent stimulation of TonEBP is critical for tissue-specific functions like enhanced cell survival, migration, proliferation, vascular remodeling, carcinoma invasion, and angiogenesis. Continuing research will provide a better understanding as to how these and other alternative TonEBP stimuli regulate gene expression in both health and disease.

  16. Tonicity-independent regulation of the osmosensitive transcription factor TonEBP (NFAT5)

    PubMed Central

    Halterman, Julia A.; Kwon, H. Moo

    2012-01-01

    Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP/nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 [NFAT5]) is a Rel homology transcription factor classically known for its osmosensitive role in regulating cellular homeostasis during states of hypo- and hypertonic stress. A recently growing body of research indicates that TonEBP is not solely regulated by tonicity, but that it can be stimulated by various tonicity-independent mechanisms in both hypertonic and isotonic tissues. Physiological and pathophysiological stimuli such as cytokines, growth factors, receptor and integrin activation, contractile agonists, ions, and reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the positive regulation of TonEBP expression and activity in diverse cell types. These new data demonstrate that tonicity-independent stimulation of TonEBP is critical for tissue-specific functions like enhanced cell survival, migration, proliferation, vascular remodeling, carcinoma invasion, and angiogenesis. Continuing research will provide a better understanding as to how these and other alternative TonEBP stimuli regulate gene expression in both health and disease. PMID:21998140

  17. Optogenetically-induced tonic dopamine release from VTA-nucleus accumbens projections inhibits reward consummatory behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, Maria A; Bass, Caroline E; Grinevich, Valentina P; Chappell, Ann M; Deal, Alex L; Bonin, Keith D; Weiner, Jeff L; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Budygin, Evgeny A

    2016-10-01

    Recent optogenetic studies demonstrated that phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens may play a causal role in multiple aspects of natural and drug reward-related behaviors. The role of tonic dopamine release in reward consummatory behavior remains unclear. The current study used a combinatorial viral-mediated gene delivery approach to express ChR2 on mesolimbic dopamine neurons in rats. We used optical activation of this dopamine circuit to mimic tonic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and to explore the causal relationship between this form of dopamine signaling within the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens projection and consumption of a natural reward. Using a two bottle choice paradigm (sucrose vs. water), the experiments revealed that tonic optogenetic stimulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission significantly decreased reward consummatory behaviors. Specifically, there was a significant decrease in the number of bouts, licks and amount of sucrose obtained during the drinking session. Notably, activation of VTA dopamine cell bodies or dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens resulted in identical behavioral consequences. No changes in water intake were evident under the same experimental conditions. Collectively, these data demonstrate that tonic optogenetic stimulation of VTA-nucleus accumbens dopamine release is sufficient to inhibit reward consummatory behavior, possibly by preventing this circuit from engaging in phasic activity that is thought to be essential for reward-based behaviors. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methamphetamine neurotoxicity decreases phasic, but not tonic, dopaminergic signaling in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Howard, Christopher D; Keefe, Kristen A; Garris, Paul A; Daberkow, David P

    2011-08-01

    Neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine (METH) are known to cause depletions in striatal dopamine (DA) tissue content. However, the effects of METH-induced insults on dopaminergic neurotransmission are not fully understood. Here, we employed fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at a carbon-fiber microelectrode in the anesthetized rat striatum to assess the effects of a neurotoxic regimen of METH on phasic and tonic modes of dopaminergic signaling and underlying mechanisms of DA release and uptake. Extracellular DA was electrically evoked by stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle mimicking tonic and phasic firing patterns for dopaminergic cells and was monitored simultaneously in both the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum. Kinetic analysis of evoked recordings determined parameters describing DA release and uptake. Striatal DA tissue content was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. METH-pretreatment (four doses of 7.5 or 10.0 mg/kg s.c.) induced DA depletions of ∼ 40% on average, which are reported in both striatal subregions. METH pre-treatment significantly decreased the amplitude of signals evoked by phasic, but not tonic, stimulation. Parameters for DA release and uptake were also similarly reduced by ∼ 40%, consistent with effects on evoked phasic-like responses and DA tissue content. Taken together, these results suggest that METH-pretreatment selectively diminishes phasic, but not tonic, dopaminergic signaling in the dorsal striatum.

  19. Classic yin and yang tonic formula for osteopenia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a growing worldwide problem, with the greatest burden resulting from fractures. Nevertheless, the majority of fractures in adults occur in those with "osteopenia" (bone mineral density (BMD) only moderately lower than young normal individuals). Since long-term drug therapy is an expensive option with uncertain consequences and side effects, natural herbal therapy offers an attractive alternative. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect on BMD and safety of the Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Formula for treatment of osteopenia and to investigate the mechanism by which this efficacy is achieved. Methods/design We propose a multicenter double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Formula for the treatment of osteopenia. Participants aged 55 to 75 with low bone mineral density (T-score between -1 and -2.5) and kidney deficiency in TCM will be included and randomly allocated into two groups: treatment group and control group. Participants in the treatment group will be treated with Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Granule, while the controlled group will receive placebo. Primary outcome measure will be BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes will include pain intensity measured with visual analogue scales, quality of life, serum markers of bone metabolism, indices of Neuro-endocrino-immune network and safety. Discussion If the Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Formula can increase bone mass without adverse effects, it may be a novel strategy for the treatment of osteoporosis. Furthermore, the mechanism of the Chinese medical formula for osteoporosis will be partially elucidated. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01271647. PMID:21806837

  20. Transcriptional regulation by changes in tonicity.

    PubMed

    Handler, J S; Kwon, H M

    2001-08-01

    Most organisms respond to a hypertonic environment by accumulating small organic solutes. In contrast to high concentrations of electrolytes, the small organic solutes do not perturb the activity of enzymes and other macromolecules within the cell. When the renal medulla becomes hypertonic during antidiuresis, multiple signaling pathways are activated. Here, we review the role of tonicity responsive enhancers (TonE) binding protein (TonEBP), a transcription factor activated in hypertonic cells. The activation of TonEBP by hypertonicity results from its translocation to the nucleus as well as an increase in TonEBP mRNA and protein. TonEBP may have a role beyond the response to tonicity since it is highly expressed in activated lymphocytes and in developing tissues.

  1. Tonic postganglionic sympathetic inhibition induced by afferent renal nerves?

    PubMed

    Ditting, Tilmann; Freisinger, Wolfgang; Siegel, Kirsten; Fiedler, Christian; Small, Lisa; Neuhuber, Winfried; Heinlein, Sonja; Reeh, Peter W; Schmieder, Roland E; Veelken, Roland

    2012-02-01

    Other than efferent sympathetic innervation, the kidney has peptidergic afferent fibers expressing TRPV1 receptors and releasing substance P. We tested the hypothesis that stimulation of afferent renal nerve activity with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin inhibits efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity tonically by a neurokinin 1 receptor-dependant mechanism. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented as follows: (1) arterial and venous catheters for recording of blood pressure and heart rate and drug administration; (2) left-sided renal arterial catheter for selective intrarenal administration of the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (3.3, 6.6, 10, 33*10(-7) m; 10 μL; after 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, respectively) to stimulate afferent renal nerve activity; (3) right-sided bipolar electrode for continuous renal sympathetic nerve recording; and (4) specialized renal pelvic and renal artery catheters to separate pelvic from intrarenal afferent activity. Before and after intrarenal capsaicin application, increasing intravenous doses of the neurokinin 1 receptor blocker RP67580 were given. Intrarenal capsaicin decreased integrated renal sympathetic activity from 65.4±13.0 mV*s (baseline) to 12.8±3.2 mV*s (minimum; P<0.01). This sustained renal sympathetic inhibition reached its minimum within 70 minutes and was not directly linked to the transient electric afferent response to be expected with intrarenal capsaicin. Suppressed renal sympathetic activity transiently but completely recovered after intravenous administration of the neurokinin 1 blocker (maximum: 120.3±19.4 mV*s; P<0.01). Intrarenal afferent activity could be unequivocally separated from pelvic afferent activity. For the first time we provide direct evidence that afferent intrarenal nerves provide a tonically acting sympathoinhibitory system, which seems to be rather mediated by neurokinin release acting via neurokinin 1 receptor pathways rather than by electric afferent effects on central sympathetic

  2. Tonic inhibition of chemotaxis in human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Malawista, Stephen E.; de Boisfleury Chevance, Anne; van Damme, Jo; Serhan, Charles N.

    2008-01-01

    We found exaggerated chemotaxis in plasma treated with EDTA and thought that the EDTA might itself be inhibiting a tonic inhibitor(s) of chemotaxis. Our plasma fractionations suggested that evidence should be sought for a lipid moiety carrying this activity, and on spectrometry (LC-MS-MS together with GC-MS analyses), the biologically active but not the inactive fraction contained oleic and arachidonic acids. Because fatty acids are largely protein bound, we flooded plasma preparations with delipidated albumin, reasoning that it would bind enough fatty acids, including inhibitory ones, to counter their tonic inhibition. Indeed, we observed dramatic increases in chemotaxis. Hence, adding delipidated albumin to plasma has a similar effect to that of adding EDTA—amplification of the chemotactic response. Oleic acid in physiologic concentrations diminishes the magnifying effects of both EDTA and of delipidated albumin, and in fact diminishes the chemotactic response even without the presence of the amplifiers of chemotaxis. In contrast, arachidonic acid amplifies further the effect of EDTA but not of delipidated albumin, and this augmentation appears to be caused by an EDTA-dependent enrichment of the chemotactic gradient with leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We conclude that oleic acid, the blood levels of which vary among individuals, is at least one tonic inhibitor of chemotaxis in plasma. PMID:18997012

  3. How tonicity regulates genes: story of TonEBP transcriptional activator.

    PubMed

    Jeon, U S; Kim, J-A; Sheen, M R; Kwon, H M

    2006-01-01

    TonEBP stimulates genes whose products drive cellular accumulation of organic osmolytes and HSP70, which protect cells from the deleterious effects of hypertonicity and urea, respectively. Mice deficient in the TonEBP gene display severe atrophy of the renal medulla because cells failed to adapt to the hyperosmolality. Emerging data suggest that TonEBP plays a key role in the urinary concentrating mechanism by stimulating the UT-A urea transporters and possibly AQP2 water channel. Thus, TonEBP is an essential regulator in the urinary concentrating mechanism. Studies on structural basis of TonEBP function have revealed the structure of the DNA binding domain, and defined the transactivation domains. Molecular mechanisms underlying the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, transactivation, and phosphorylation in response to changes in tonicity need to be understood in molecular detail. Such knowledge is needed for the identification of the sensor that detects changes in ambient tonicity and signals to TonEBP.

  4. Tonic pain evoked by pulsating heat: temporal summation mechanisms and perceptual qualities.

    PubMed

    Lautenbacher, S; Roscher, S; Strian, F

    1995-01-01

    The properties of a newly developed tonic heat pain model (THPM), which makes use of pulsating contact heat, were investigated in 18 young men. The most important feature of this model is that repetitive heat pulses with an intensity of 1 degree C above the individual pain threshold are employed. This approach was used to tailor the tonic pain stimulation to the individual pain sensitivity. In the first of two experiments, the effects of pulse frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 pulses per minute (ppm) on ratings of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness (visual analogue scales) were examined. At all frequencies, both ratings increased steadily over the 5-min test period. Frequencies of 15 ppm or more appeared to enhance pain intensity throughout the test period compared to the lower frequencies, but did not appear to alter pain unpleasantness. This suggests that only pain intensity is influenced by slow temporal summation and that a sort of frequency threshold exists for this kind of summation. In the second experiment, the THPM was compared to a well-established form of tonic pain stimulation, the cold-pressor test (CPT); visual analogue scales were again used, and in addition the McGill Pain Questionnaire was employed. The CPT appeared to produce stronger tonic pain than the THPM. However, as is typical with tonic pain, both tonic pain models induced relatively higher values on the affective pain dimension than on the sensory pain dimension. The time course of pain was dynamic in the CPT, with an increase followed by a plateau phase, at least in those subjects who could tolerate the CPT for more than 60 sec. In contrast, as in the first experiment, the pain ratings in the THPM were characterized by a slow and steady increase over time. Moreover, there was absolutely no indication of a dichotomy between "pain-sensitive" and "pain-tolerant" individuals in the THPM, although such a dichotomy was evident in the CPT. This implies that the distinction between pain

  5. Human cervical spinal cord circuitry activated by tonic input can generate rhythmic arm movements.

    PubMed

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Zhvansky, D S; Gurfinkel, V S; Ivanenko, Y

    2016-02-01

    The coordination between arms and legs during human locomotion shares many features with that in quadrupeds, yet there is limited evidence for the central pattern generator for the upper limbs in humans. Here we investigated whether different types of tonic stimulation, previously used for eliciting stepping-like leg movements, may evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The subject was lying on the side, the trunk was fixed, and all four limbs were suspended in a gravity neutral position, allowing unrestricted low-friction limb movements in the horizontal plane. The results showed that peripheral sensory stimulation (continuous muscle vibration) and central tonic activation (postcontraction state of neuronal networks following a long-lasting isometric voluntary effort, Kohnstamm phenomenon) could evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements in most subjects. In ∼40% of subjects, tonic stimulation elicited nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements together with rhythmic movements of suspended legs. The fact that not all participants exhibited nonvoluntary limb oscillations may reflect interindividual differences in responsiveness of spinal pattern generation circuitry to its activation. The occurrence and the characteristics of induced movements highlight the rhythmogenesis capacity of cervical neuronal circuitries, complementing the growing body of work on the quadrupedal nature of human gait.

  6. Optogenetic Visualization of Presynaptic Tonic Inhibition of Cerebellar Parallel Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Ken; Wen, Lei; Dunbar, Robert L.; Feng, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Tonic inhibition was imaged in cerebellar granule cells of transgenic mice expressing the optogenetic chloride indicator, Clomeleon. Blockade of GABAA receptors substantially reduced chloride concentration in granule cells due to block of tonic inhibition. This indicates that tonic inhibition is a significant contributor to the resting chloride concentration of these cells. Tonic inhibition was observed not only in granule cell bodies, but also in their axons, the parallel fibers (PFs). This presynaptic tonic inhibition could be observed in slices both at room and physiological temperatures, as well as in vivo, and has many of the same properties as tonic inhibition measured in granule cell bodies. GABA application revealed that PFs possess at least two types of GABAA receptor: one high-affinity receptor that is activated by ambient GABA and causes a chloride influx that mediates tonic inhibition, and a second with a low affinity for GABA that causes a chloride efflux that excites PFs. Presynaptic tonic inhibition regulates glutamate release from PFs because GABAA receptor blockade enhanced both the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs and the amplitude of evoked EPSCs at the PF-Purkinje cell synapse. We conclude that tonic inhibition of PFs could play an important role in regulating information flow though cerebellar synaptic circuits. Such cross talk between phasic and tonic signaling could be a general mechanism for fine tuning of synaptic circuits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This paper demonstrates that an unconventional form of signaling, known as tonic inhibition, is found in presynaptic terminals and affects conventional synaptic communication. Our results establish the basic characteristics and mechanisms of presynaptic tonic inhibition and show that it occurs in vivo as well as in isolated brain tissue. PMID:27225762

  7. Is the yin-yang nature of Chinese herbal medicine equivalent to antioxidation-oxidation?

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim-Tong; Benzie, Iris F F

    2006-12-06

    It has been suggested that yin-yang theory described in traditional Chinese medicine is somewhat equivalent to the modern theory of antioxidant-oxidant balance. Some yin-tonic Chinese herbal medicines possess antioxidant properties. In this context, the DNA protective effect of 12 yin-tonic and 13 yang-tonic herbs were tested using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Lymphocytes from three healthy subjects were pre-incubated with aqueous herb extract, and the comet assay was performed on treated, untreated, challenged and unchallenged cells in parallel, oxidant challenge being induced by 5 min exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Results using this ex vivo cellular assay showed protection by some herbs. Seven out of 12 yin-tonic Chinese herbs demonstrated decreased DNA damage after treatment while 10 out of 13 yang-tonic herbs showed protection. Among 25 herbs tested, rhizome of Ligusticum sinensis Oliv. and aerial part of Artemisia annua L. demonstrated greatest DNA protective effect. Results indicated that the yin nature of herbs may not be necessarily associated with superior antioxidative effect to yang-tonic herbs, at least in terms of DNA protection against oxidant challenge.

  8. Tonic Dopamine Modulates Exploitation of Reward Learning

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jeff A.; Daw, Nathaniel; Frazier, Cristianne R. M.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of dopamine on adaptive behavior in a naturalistic environment is largely unexamined. Experimental work suggests that phasic dopamine is central to reinforcement learning whereas tonic dopamine may modulate performance without altering learning per se; however, this idea has not been developed formally or integrated with computational models of dopamine function. We quantitatively evaluate the role of tonic dopamine in these functions by studying the behavior of hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mice in an instrumental task in a semi-naturalistic homecage environment. In this “closed economy” paradigm, subjects earn all of their food by pressing either of two levers, but the relative cost for food on each lever shifts frequently. Compared to wild-type mice, hyperdopaminergic mice allocate more lever presses on high-cost levers, thus working harder to earn a given amount of food and maintain their body weight. However, both groups show a similarly quick reaction to shifts in lever cost, suggesting that the hyperdominergic mice are not slower at detecting changes, as with a learning deficit. We fit the lever choice data using reinforcement learning models to assess the distinction between acquisition and expression the models formalize. In these analyses, hyperdopaminergic mice displayed normal learning from recent reward history but diminished capacity to exploit this learning: a reduced coupling between choice and reward history. These data suggest that dopamine modulates the degree to which prior learning biases action selection and consequently alters the expression of learned, motivated behavior. PMID:21120145

  9. Ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter and the control of tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Monassi, C R; Leite-Panissi, C R; Menescal-de-Oliveira, L

    1999-10-01

    Tonic immobility is an inborn defensive behavior characterized by a temporary state of profound and reversible motor inhibition elicited by some forms of physical restraint. The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) contains neural circuits involved in descending pain modulation, as well as in the modulation of TI. We have reported previously that the cholinergic stimulation of the ventrolateral PAG increases the duration of TI in guinea pigs. In the present study, we attempted to characterize further the modulation of TI by pharmacological alteration of the neurochemistry of the ventrolateral PAG circuitry. We observed that both cholinergic (carbachol, 5.4 nmol/0.2 microl) and opioidergic stimulations (morphine, 4.48 nmol/0.2 microl) of the ventrolateral PAG increase the duration of TI and that these effects can be reversed by pre-treatment with naloxone (2.74 nmol/0.2 microl). Our results also showed that microinjection of the GABAergic agonist muscimol (1, 0.5, and 0.26 nmol/0.2 microl) decreased the duration of TI episodes, while microinjection of the GABAergic antagonist bicuculline (1 nmol/microl) increased it. Moreover, we observed that preadministration of muscimol (0.13 nmol/0.2 microl) at a dose that had no effect per se at this site antagonized the potentiating effect of morphine. Our results suggest that this modulation of TI from the ventrolateral PAG circuitry is accomplished by a complex interaction of cholinergic, opioidergic, and GABAergic mechanisms, similar to that proposed for descending antinociceptive circuits.

  10. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Gromek, Kamila; Drumond, Nélio; Simas, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The importance of herbal remedies in pharmacovigilance systems is becoming one of the primary tasks, due to the constantly ascending potential of herbal products and herbal medicines worldwide. Nowadays, the drug development is focused on finding new active compounds or combinations, but costs are simultaneously growing, which makes herbal medicines an attractive, harmless and cheaper alternative to synthetic drugs.Like all drugs, herbal are not free of risk and many studies suggest for potential adverse reactions and interactions. Available statistics show that some herbal products, used in traditional medication for generations, may possess carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic and other severe actions. Evaluation of the safety should include at least in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for >3 months or intermittently for >6 months), reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in some cases and examination of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes. Drug safety of herbal medicines should be developed, focusing on specific groups of patients.

  11. Nuclear redistribution of tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein requires proteasome activity.

    PubMed

    Woo, S K; Maouyo, D; Handler, J S; Kwon, H M

    2000-02-01

    Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is the transcription factor that regulates tonicity-responsive expression of the genes for the sodium-myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the sodium-chloride-betaine cotransporter (BGT1). Hypertonicity stimulates the activity of TonEBP due to a combination of increased protein abundance and increased nuclear distribution (proportion of TonEBP that is in the nucleus). We found that inhibitors of proteasome activity markedly reduce the induction of SMIT and BGT1 mRNA in response to hypertonicity. These inhibitors also reduce hypertonicity-induced stimulation of expression of a reporter gene controlled by the tonicity-responsive enhancer. Western and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the proteasome inhibitors reduce the hypertonicity-induced increase of TonEBP in the nucleus by inhibiting its nuclear redistribution without affecting its abundance. Although the nuclear distribution of TonEBP is sensitive to inhibition of proteasome activity as is that of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, the signaling pathways appear to be different in that hypertonicity does not affect the nuclear distribution of NF-kappaB. Conversely, treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha increases the nuclear distribution of NF-kappaB but not TonEBP.

  12. Marketing herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, M

    1999-01-01

    HIV-positive support groups, together with hospital pharmacists in Thailand are fighting the high cost and lack of access to pharmaceuticals by producing and distributing herbal medicines. In Theung district, Chiang Rai province, members of the local support group for people with HIV produce their own, low-cost, herbal medicines. Although the herbal medicines they produce do not provide a cure for HIV/AIDS, they do offer relief for some of the symptoms of opportunistic infections. The herbs are prepared by the group members under the supervision of the pharmacy department at the district hospital. Local people judge their effectiveness by hearing testimonials from people who have witnessed improvement in symptoms. In response to the popularity and effectiveness of herbal medicines, the Ministry of Public Health has approved plans to sell products derived from local herbs in the pharmacies of government hospitals.

  13. Herbal and food folk medicines of the Russlanddeutschen living in Künzelsau/Taläcker, South-Western Germany.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Andrea; Gray, Charlotte

    2008-07-01

    An urban ethnobotanical study was carried out among a community of Russlanddeutschen (Germans from Russia) who in recent years have moved from Russia and Central Asia to Künzelsau, a small town located in Württemberg, in South-Western Germany. Thirty-six in-depth interviews were conducted with the women in this community, and 62 homemade medicinal preparations derived from 46 botanical species were recorded. As well as common medicinal plant uses that are well known in modern evidence-based German and Western European phytotherapy, we were able to record traces of the community's Russian and Central Asian (Turkic) heritage through the very popular use of sorrel as a depurative or for preventing and treating colds and flu; the use of dill as a digestive; watermelon as a diuretic; birch to relieve rheumatism and arthritis; buckwheat as a tonic; rye-based fermented beverages as a stimulant and as a depurative, diverse berries to prevent colds and flu; coriander as a digestive, and other medicinal foods. Traces of archaic German preparations were also recorded, which were probably Swabian in origin. Nearly half of the overall quoted items represented folk functional foods. The researchers believe that the findings in this study could stimulate public health policies aimed at improving both the phyto-pharmacovigilance of lesser-known herbal drugs, and the health and well-being of migrants by promoting a better understanding of emic health beliefs and newcomers' healing strategies.

  14. Non-Segmental Phonology: Noun-Phrase Tonicity in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Edgar

    1977-01-01

    A study of tonic placement in various types of English noun phrases used as elements of clause structure. The notion of nominal compound is broadened; reflection of grammatical relationships by stress and tendencies concerning tonic placement in noun phrases as these are related to the Headword are noted. (AMH)

  15. Tonic blood pressure modulates the relationship between baroreceptor cardiac reflex sensitivity and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Del Paso, Gustavo A Reyes; González, M Isabel; Hernández, José Antonio; Duschek, Stefan; Gutiérrez, Nicolás

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the effects of tonic blood pressure on the association between baroreceptor cardiac reflex sensitivity and cognitive performance. Sixty female participants completed a mental arithmetic task. Baroreceptor reflex sensitivity was assessed using sequence analysis. An interaction was found, indicating that the relationship between baroreceptor reflex sensitivity and cognitive performance is modulated by blood pressure levels. Reflex sensitivity was inversely associated to performance indices in the subgroup of participants with systolic blood pressure above the mean, whereas the association was positive in participants with systolic values below the mean. These results are in accordance with the findings in the field of pain perception and suggest that tonic blood pressure modulates the inhibitory effects of baroreceptor stimulation on high central nervous functions.

  16. Role of support afferentation in control of the tonic muscle activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Sayenko, I. V.; Sayenko, D. G.; Miller, T. F.; Khusnutdinova, D. R.; Melnik, K. A.

    2007-02-01

    The paper summarizes the results of experimental studies advocating for the leading role of support afferentation in control of the functional organization of the tonic muscle system. It is shown that transition to supportless conditions is followed by a significant decline of transverse stiffness and maximal voluntary force of postural (extensor) muscles limiting their participation in locomotion and increasing involvement of phasic muscles. Mechanical stimulation of the support zones of the soles under the supportless conditions eliminates all the above-mentioned effects, including changes in transverse stiffness and maximal voluntary forces of postural muscles, and consequent loss of influence of postural muscles in the locomotor activity. It is suggested that support afferentation, facilitating (support is present) or suppressing (support is absent) the tonic motor units (MUs) activities, defines the coordination patterns of postural synergies, and ensures the optimal strategy of corrective postural responses.

  17. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "sho-seiryu-to"--stimulation of mucosal immune system and effect on allergic pulmonary inflammation model mice.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Yamada, H

    1998-05-01

    When BALB/c mice were treated with a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "Sho-seiryu-to (SST)" (1 g/kg, 10 times) orally from 7 days before to 5 days after the infection and infected with mouse-adapted influenza virus A/PR/8/34 by nasal-site restricted infection, SST caused increment of the influenza virus hemagglutinin-specific IgA antibody secreting cells in nasal lymphocyte but not in Peyer's patch lymphocyte at 6 days after infection in comparison with water-treated mice. Oral administration of SST also augmented IL-2 receptor beta chain+ (activated) T-cell in Peyer's patch lymphocyte, but not in the nasal lymphocyte. We previously reported that SST showed potent anti-influenza virus activity through augmentation of the antiviral IgA antibody titer in the nasal and broncho-alveolar cavities of the mice (T. Nagai and H. Yamada, 1994, Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 16, 605-613). These results suggest that oral administration of SST shows anti-influenza virus activity in the nasal cavity by activation of T-cell in Peyer's patch lymphocyte and stimulation of production of anti-influenza virus IgA antibody in nasal lymphocyte. When ovalbumin-sensitized allergic pulmonary inflammation model mice were administered orally with SST (1 g/kg) from 8 days before (11 times) or from 2 h after (4 times) to 4 days after the infection and infected with mouse-adapted influenza virus A/PR/8/34, replications of the virus in the both nasal and broncho-alveolar cavities or only nasal cavity were significantly inhibited at 5 days after infection in comparison with water-treated control by augmenting antiviral IgA antibody, respectively. These results suggest that SST is useful for both prophylaxis and treatment of influenza virus infection on patients with allergic pulmonary inflammation, such as bronchial asthma.

  18. Tonic and phasic differential GABAergic inhibition of synaptic actions of joint afferents in the cat.

    PubMed

    Rudomin, P; Hernández, E; Lomelí, J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the functional organization of the spinal neuronal networks activated by myelinated afferent fibers in the posterior articular nerve (PAN) of the anesthetized cat. Particular attention was given to the tonic and phasic GABAa inhibitory modulation of these networks. Changes in the synaptic effectiveness of the joint afferents were inferred from changes in the intraspinal focal potentials produced by electrical stimulation of the PAN. We found that conditioning stimulation of cutaneous nerves (sural, superficial peroneus and saphenous) and of the nucleus raphe magnus often inhibited, in a differential manner, the early and late components of the intraspinal focal potentials produced by stimulation of low and high threshold myelinated PAN afferents, respectively. The degree of the inhibition depended on the strength of both the conditioning and test stimuli and on the segmental level of recording. Conditioning stimulation of group I muscle afferents was less effective, but marked depression of the early and late focal potentials was produced by stimuli exceeding 5 xT. The i.v. injection of 1-2.5 mg/kg of picrotoxin, a GABAa blocker, had relatively minor effects on the early components of the PAN focal potentials, but was able to induce a significant increase of the late components. It also reduced the inhibitory effects of cutaneous and joint nerve conditioning on PAN focal responses. Conditioning autogenetic stimulation with high-frequency trains depressed the PAN focal potentials. The late components of the PAN responses remained depressed several minutes after discontinuing the conditioning train, even after picrotoxin administration. The present observations indicate that the neuronal networks activated by the low threshold PAN afferents show a relatively small post-activation depression and appear to be subjected to a minor tonic inhibitory GABAa control. In contrast, the pathways activated by stimulation of high threshold

  19. Brain dysplasia evoked by gamma irradiation at different stages of prenatal development leads to different tonic and clonic seizure reactivity.

    PubMed

    Setkowicz, Zuzanna; Gzieło-Jurek, Kinga; Uram, Łukasz; Janicka, Dominika; Janeczko, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Rats with brain dysplasia evoked by interruption of different stages of prenatal neurogenesis show characteristic variations in susceptibility to seizures depending on the neurochemical specificity of pharmacological agents used to evoke seizures. To verify a discrepancy between the data obtained using different pharmacological models, neurochemically neutral electroshocks were applied here. To produce brain dysplasia of different degrees, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to a single 1.0Gy dose of gamma rays on gestation days 13, 15, 17 or 19. From the postnatal day 60, their male offspring (E13s, E15s, E17s and E19s, respectively) were subjected to 21 daily electrical stimulations to evoke seizures. Profiles of tonic and clonic reactivity to electrical stimulation significantly differed from those observed following pilocarpine or kainic acid administration. E17s showed minimal intensity of tonic but maximal of clonic responses. On the contrary, very high tonic and low clonic reactivity was observed in E13s and E15s. Periventricular nodular heterotopias (PNHs) were observed exclusively in E15s and E17s. Generally, the size of PNHs was correlated positively with susceptibility to tonic seizures but negatively with susceptibility to clonic seizures. Analogous correlations with the size of the neocortex were opposite. E13s and E19s had brains devoid PNHs but showed high tonic seizure susceptibility similar to that in E15s. It can therefore be concluded that PNHs modified the type of seizure reactivity from tonic to clonic, depending of their size, but the presence of PNHs was not necessary for the development of seizure susceptibility itself.

  20. Bidirectional regulation of tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein in response to changes in tonicity.

    PubMed

    Woo, S K; Dahl, S C; Handler, J S; Kwon, H M

    2000-06-01

    Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) regulates transcription of tonicity responsive genes such as the sodium-myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT), the sodium-chloride-betaine cotransporter (BGT1), and aldose reductase (AR). To characterize signals that activate TonEBP in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the abundance and nuclear distribution of TonEBP were studied after the osmolality of the culture medium was changed. Hypertonicity but not hyperosmolality is effective in activation of TonEBP as expected. Surprisingly, exposure to hypotonic medium leads to a dramatic downregulation of TonEBP both in abundance and nuclear distribution, indicating that under isotonic conditions, TonEBP is at a low-level activated state and can respond to both increase and decrease in tonicity. Additional experiments suggest that cellular ionic strength is the signal that initiates regulation of TonEBP. The increase in abundance of TonEBP is mediated by an increase in mRNA abundance and a parallel increase in synthesis of TonEBP. The stability of TonEBP mRNA is not affected by hypertonicity indicating that transcription plays a major role in the induction of TonEBP by hypertonicity.

  1. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: a review.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-12-07

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects.

  2. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  3. Natremia, tonicity, and conductivity measurements in hemodialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, François; Laplanche, Sophie; Petitclerc, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Natremia is usually considered to reflect tonicity in non-hemodialyzed patients. Some hemodialysis monitors provide an online value (NaCond) of natremia calculated from conductivity measurements. This study compared the relation between tonicity and natremia (NaLab) measured at laboratory with the relation between tonicity and NaCond in hemodialysis patients. Fifty-five hemodialysis sessions performed with a Fresenius 5008 dialysis monitor (Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany) providing a value of NaCond were analyzed. Tonicity (calculated as "osmolality - urea"), NaLab and NaCond were measured at the beginning and end of sessions. The r2 correlation-coefficient between tonicity and NaLab is 0.48 (n = 110). The correlation between tonicity and NaCond is stronger (r2 =  0.71). Conductivity measurements provide a natremia value (NaCond) that is a better surrogate for tonicity than natremia measured at laboratory. Because NaCond is not obtained from sodium measurement, dialysis monitors should display a value for plasma conductivity (mS/cm) instead for natremia (mmol/l).

  4. A guide to herbal remedies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and quality of their products. DO NOT give herbal supplements to children or use them if you are ... sites can help you learn more about specific herbal supplements: NIH MedlinePlus database of herbs and supplements -- www. ...

  5. Reflex and cerebellar influences on α and on `rhythmic' and `tonic' γ activity in the intercostal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Corda, M.; von Euler, C.; Lennerstrand, G.

    1966-01-01

    1. Efferent intercostal α and γ activity and afferent intercostal muscle spindle activity were studied in decerebrate cats in response to stimulation of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum and to postural and other reflexes. 2. Low threshold intercostal responses were elicited from lobuli IV and V of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum. 3. The existence of two functionally different types of intercostal γ neurones has been confirmed. These are the `rhythmic' or `specifically respiratory' γ neurones, and the `tonic' γ neurones. 4. In response to cerebellar stimulation, facilitatory, inhibitory and diphasic tetanic and post-tetanic effects were obtained from α and the two types of γ fibres in both external and internal intercostal nerve branches. 5. Generally both inspiratory and expiratory α and γ activity was facilitated in response to tetanic stimulation at contralateral stimulus sites, and inhibited in response to stimulation of ipsilateral sites. 6. `Rhythmic' γ activity appeared to be rather closely linked to the respiratory α activity but the balance between `rhythmic' γ and α was often changed in response to cerebellar stimulation, as indicated by the responses of primary muscle spindle afferents. 7. The `tonic' γ neurones were as a rule more responsive to cerebellar stimulation than were the α and `rhythmic' γ neurones. Long-lasting post-tetanic effects were much more prominent in the `tonic' γ fibres than in the α or `rhythmic' γ fibres. 8. `Rhythmic' γ activity was abolished after cervical transections of the cord. `Tonic' γ activity remained in the spinal preparations although usually at a different discharge rate. 9. `Tonic' γ neurones were more responsive than the `rhythmic' γ neurones to the proprioceptive γ reflex elicited by passive movements of the chest wall as well as to other spinal and supraspinal reflexes. 10. Both `dynamic' and `static' γ fibres seem to be represented in the group of `tonic' intercostal γ neurones. 11

  6. Interstitial tonicity controls TonEBP expression in the renal medulla.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Mee R; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lim, Sun W; Jung, Ju-Y; Han, Ki-H; Jeon, Un S; Park, Soo-H; Kim, Jin; Kwon, H Moo

    2009-03-01

    Cells in the hyperosmotic kidney medulla, express a transcriptional activator termed tonicity responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP). Genes targeted by TonEBP protect kidney cells from the deleterious effects of hyperosmolality by inducing the expression of organic osmolytes and molecular chaperones, and other genes that mediate urine concentration such as aquaporin-2 and urea transporters. We tested here the effect of hypertonicity and hyperosmotic salt in the renal medullary interstitium on the expression TonEBP. When massive water diuresis was induced in rats the medullary sodium concentrations did not change, neither did TonEBP expression. In these animals the medullary tonicity was unchanged despite the production of dilute urine. On the other hand, treatment with the loop diurectic furosemide resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the medullary sodium concentration causing a reduction in interstitial tonicity. Here, TonEBP expression was blunted in the outer and inner medulla which was due, in part, to decreased mRNA abundance. As expected, the expression of TonEBP target genes in the renal medulla also decreased in response to furosemide. Hence TonEBP expression in the renal medulla is stimulated by interstitial hypertonicity.

  7. Regulation of TonEBP transcriptional activator in MDCK cells following changes in ambient tonicity.

    PubMed

    Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Woo, Seung Kyoon; Na, Ki Young; Grunbein, Rita; Park, Won Kun; Nahm, Ohnn; Beck, Franz-X; Kwon, H Moo

    2002-12-01

    In response to ambient hypertonicity, TonEBP (tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein) stimulates certain genes including those encoding cytokines, transporters for organic solutes, and a molecular chaperone. TonEBP is regulated in a bidirectional manner, upregulated by an increase in ambient tonicity while downregulated by a decrease. To investigate the role of intracellular ionic strength in the activity of TonEBP, we subjected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to a variety of conditions. Electron microprobe analysis was performed to measure intracellular electrolytes. Under conditions in which changes in cell volume were similar, TonEBP activity correlated with the intracellular ionic strength regardless of the external tonicity. On the other hand, inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase and high external K+ concentration led to a decreased activity of TonEBP despite a marked increase in the intracellular ionic strength. Because isotonic swelling is known to occur under these conditions, these data suggest that dilution of the cytoplasmic constituents inhibits the activity of TonEBP. We conclude that intracellular ionic strength and water content are major factors that determine the activity of TonEBP.

  8. Tonic cholinergic inhibition of spinal mechanical transmission.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, M; Gebhart, G F

    1991-08-01

    The present study examined the role of spinal cholinergic modulation of spinal mechanical and thermal transmission. Intrathecal administration of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonists atropine or scopolamine in awake rats produced a dose-dependent decrease in the nociceptive mechanical withdrawal threshold of the rat tail. Pirenzepine, a selective muscarinic receptor type 1 antagonist, produced a similar effect at greater doses while mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist, was without effect. The nociceptive tail flick (TF) reflex evoked by noxious heating was unaffected by the above drugs. Intrathecal administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine produced a rapid, reversible and significant increase in the mechanical withdrawal threshold; TF latency was increased slightly but not significantly. Intrathecal administration of morphine, carbachol or clonidine all produced dose-dependent increases in TF latency; morphine and carbachol, but not clonidine, also increased the mechanical withdrawal threshold significantly. Intrathecal pretreatment with atropine reversed carbachol-produced increases in TF latency and the mechanical withdrawal threshold but did not affect increases in TF latency produced by intrathecal morphine or clonidine. The morphine-produced increase in the mechanical withdrawal threshold, however, was shifted rightward in a parallel fashion by intrathecal pretreatment with atropine. Intrathecal pretreatment with yohimbine did not affect the inhibitory effect of carbachol on either TF latency or the mechanical withdrawal threshold. These results suggest that a tonic, endogenous cholinergic muscarinic influence in the spinal cord, independent of spinal adrenergic mechanisms, modulates spinal mechanical transmission.

  9. Frequency evolution during tonic-clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, R Quian; Garcia, H; Rabinowicz, A

    2002-09-01

    By using the Short Time Fourier Transform, we analyzed the EEG frequency evolution during tonic-clonic seizures on 18 scalp recordings corresponding to 7 patients admitted for Video-EEG monitoring. This information was correlated with clinical findings observed in the video recordings. From the time-frequency plots, we recognized patterns related with brain activity even when embedded in a background of muscle artifacts. In 13/18 seizures we found a clear frequency dynamics characterized by an activity originally localized at about 8 Hz, later slowing down to about 1.5 Hz. In the remaining cases muscle artifacts hinder the disclosure of a clear frequency evolution. The clonic phases started when the main frequency slowed down to about 3 Hz. We conclude that the Short Time Fourier Transform is very useful for a quantitative analysis of epileptic seizures, especially when muscle artifacts contaminate the recordings. We further conclude that the clonic phase starts as a response to brain activity that can be only established when brain oscillations are slow enough to be followed by the muscles.

  10. Herbal medicine in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pinn, Graham; Pallett, Linda

    2002-05-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the frequency of alternative medical usage in an antenatal population. A survey of alternative medicine usage was carried out among 305 consecutive patients over 2 months at their registration in mid-pregnancy at an Australian Antenatal Clinic. The study showed that something like 40% of patients used alternative medical therapy, including 12% herbal therapy. No specific study of pregnancy outcome was carried out, but it is of concern that some herbs taken had the potential to adversely affect pregnancy outcome. The herbal therapies commonly used in pregnancy are reviewed with their potential complications; examples of toxicity are also discussed. It is important to obtain a herbal medicine history at any time but particularly in pregnancy. Herbs may have unrecognised effects on pregnancy or labour, have interactions with prescribed medications and have potentially serious complications for the foetus.

  11. Phototoxicity of herbal plants and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Wang, Shuguang; Yu, Hongtao; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Plants are used by humans in daily life in many different ways, including as food, herbal medicines, and cosmetics. Unfortunately, many natural plants and their chemical constituents are photocytotoxic and photogenotoxic, and these phototoxic phytochemicals are widely present in many different plant families. To date, information concerning the phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity of many plants and their chemical constituents is limited. In this review, we discuss phototoxic plants and their major phototoxic constituents; routes of human exposure; phototoxicity of these plants and their constituents; general mechanisms of phototoxicity of plants and phototoxic components; and several representative phototoxic plants and their photoactive chemical constituents.

  12. PKC delta-isoform translocation and enhancement of tonic contractions of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Poole, Daniel P; Furness, John B

    2007-03-01

    PKC is involved in mediating the tonic component of gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction in response to stimulation by agonists for G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we present pharmacological and immunohistochemical evidence indicating that a member of the novel PKC isoforms, PKC-delta, is involved in maintaining muscarinic receptor-coupled tonic contractions of the guinea pig ileum. The tonic component of carbachol-evoked contractions was enhanced by an activator of conventional and novel PKCs, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 200 nM or 1 microM), and by an activator of novel PKCs, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate (IDB; 100 or 500 nM). Enhancement was unaffected by concentrations of bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM-I; 22 nM) that block conventional PKCs or by a PKC-epsilon-specific inhibitor peptide but was attenuated by higher doses of BIM-I (2.2 microM). Relevant proteins were localized at a cellular and subcellular level using confocal analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of the ileum showed that PKC-delta was exclusively expressed in smooth muscles distributed throughout the layers of the gut wall. PKC-epsilon immunoreactivity was prominent in enteric neurons but was largely absent from smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. Treatment with PDBu, IDB, or carbachol resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent translocation of PKC-delta from the cytoplasm to filamentous structures within smooth muscle cells. These were parallel to, but distinct from, actin filaments. The translocation of PKC-delta in response to carbachol was significantly reduced by scopolamine or calphostin C. The present study indicates that the tonic carbachol-induced contraction of the guinea pig ileum is mediated through a novel PKC, probably PKC-delta.

  13. Tonic central and sensory stimuli facilitate involuntary air-stepping in humans.

    PubMed

    Selionov, V A; Ivanenko, Y P; Solopova, I A; Gurfinkel, V S

    2009-06-01

    Air-stepping can be used as a model for investigating rhythmogenesis and its interaction with sensory input. Here we show that it is possible to entrain involuntary rhythmic movement patterns in healthy humans by using different kinds of stimulation techniques. The subjects lay on their sides with one or both legs suspended, allowing low-friction horizontal rotation of the limb joints. To evoke involuntary stepping of the suspended leg, either we used continuous muscle vibration, electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal or sural nerves, the Jendrassik maneuver, or we exploited the postcontraction state of neuronal networks (Kohnstamm phenomenon). The common feature across all stimulations was that they were tonic. Air-stepping could be elicited by most techniques in about 50% of subjects and involved prominent movements at the hip and the knee joint (approximately 40-70 degrees). Typically, however, the ankle joint was not involved. Minimal loading forces (4-25 N) applied constantly to the sole (using a long elastic cord) induced noticeable (approximately 5-20 degrees) ankle-joint-angle movements. The aftereffect of a voluntary long-lasting (30-s) contraction in the leg muscles featured alternating rhythmic leg movements that lasted for about 20-40 s, corresponding roughly to a typical duration of the postcontraction activity in static conditions. The Jendrassik maneuver per se did not evoke air-stepping. Nevertheless, it significantly prolonged rhythmic leg movements initiated manually by an experimenter or by a short (5-s) period of muscle vibration. Air-stepping of one leg could be evoked in both forward and backward directions with frequent spontaneous transitions, whereas involuntary alternating two-legged movements were more stable (no transitions). The hypothetical role of tonic influences, contact forces, and bilateral coordination in rhythmogenesis is discussed. The results overall demonstrated that nonspecific tonic drive may cause air

  14. Itches-stimulating compounds from Colocasia esculenta (taro): bioactive-guided screening and LC-MS/MS identification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Gao; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Zong-Xiang; Yang, Yan

    2015-10-15

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schoot (taro) is one of the most common crops in the world. Its rhizome was a tonic medicine and accustomed to treat some gastrointestinal disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. Today, the taro was further developed as anticancer prescription in herbal therapy. However, the mucilage of the fresh taro has irritation, and causes itchy feeling. The components in the mucilage were not evident up to now. Two active compounds, uracil and glycol-protein taro lectin (Accession number: A5HMM7), were purified and identified from the fresh taro. The glycol-protein taro lectin showed nerve stimulation activity on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from GCaMP transgenic mice at the concentration of 1mg/mL.

  15. Context-Dependent Modulation of GABAAR-Mediated Tonic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bijal; Bright, Damian P.; Mortensen, Martin; Frølund, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Tonic GABA currents mediated by high-affinity extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, are increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell and neuronal network excitability. Dysfunctional GABAA receptor signaling that results in modified tonic GABA currents is associated with a number of neurological disorders. Consequently, developing compounds to selectively modulate the activity of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors underlying tonic inhibition is likely to prove therapeutically useful. Here, we examine the GABAA receptor subtype selectivity of the weak partial agonist, 5-(4-piperidyl)isoxazol-3-ol (4-PIOL), as a potential mechanism for modulating extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents. By using recombinant GABAA receptors expressed in HEK293 cells, and native GABAA receptors of cerebellar granule cells, hippocampal neurons, and thalamic relay neurons, 4-PIOL evidently displayed differential agonist and antagonist-type profiles, depending on the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor isoforms targeted. For neurons, this resulted in differential modulation of GABA tonic currents, depending on the cell type studied, their respective GABAA receptor subunit compositions, and critically, on the ambient GABA levels. Unexpectedly, 4-PIOL revealed a significant population of relatively low-affinity γ2 subunit-containing GABAA receptors in the thalamus, which can contribute to tonic inhibition under specific conditions when GABA levels are raised. Together, these data indicate that partial agonists, such as 4-PIOL, may be useful for modulating GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents, but the direction and extent of this modulation is strongly dependent on relative expression levels of different extrasynaptic GABAA receptor subtypes, and on the ambient GABA levels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A background level of inhibition (tonic) is important in the brain for controlling neuronal excitability. Increased levels of tonic inhibition are associated with some neurological disorders

  16. Does upper blepharoplasty affect frontalis tonicity?

    PubMed

    Kim, Daejin; Son, Daegu; Kim, Minkyung; Harijan, Aram; Yang, Shimo; Lee, Soyoung

    2015-05-01

    Frontalis hypertonicity has long been implicated in patients with significant dermatochalasia or blepharoptosis, as evidenced by eyebrow changes that occur after the resection of redundant skin or after blepharoptosis operation. However, whether upper blepharoplasty affects the forehead muscle has not been reported. Thus, this study investigated electrophysiology of the frontalis muscle and eyebrow morphology in a population of patients undergoing double-eyelid blepharoplasty. Patients wishing to undergo upper blepharoplasty were recruited for this prospective study between June 2011 and February 2012. The subjects were excluded for complaints of visual obstruction, trauma history, and for any underlying medical condition that would affect eyebrow height or electromyogram (EMG) findings. Eyebrow morphology was ascertained in a standardized photogrammetric evaluation, and the frontalis muscle activity was recorded with needle EMG. These assessments were carried out at preoperation and at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Root-mean-square (RMS) indices of various facial expressions were used to normalize the frontalis activity values across individuals. Thirteen patients with a mean age of 55.5 years were recruited. No statistical significance was observed for eyebrow heights at various assessment points. However, EMG recordings have demonstrated a gradual decrease in the proportional RMS index of the frontalis muscle activity. This difference was statistically significant between preoperation and 6 months postoperation (p < 0.05). Upper blepharoplasty was associated with gradual decreases in the frontalis muscle activity. A longer follow-up study is needed to evaluate whether this decreased tonicity results in morphologic changes such as decreased forehead wrinkles and depressed eyebrows. This research indicates that upper blepharoplasty has the potential to interfere with those human-computer interaction designs with facial EMG readings as an input. Copyright

  17. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD.

    PubMed

    Fragkaki, Iro; Stins, John; Roelofs, Karin; Jongedijk, Ruud A; Hagenaars, Muriel A

    2016-11-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a stabilometric platform. This study made a first step in exploring this as well as differences in body sway responses between PTSD patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that PTSD would be related to increased body sway under stress, whereas TI would be related to decreased body sway under stress. Eye closure was selected as a PTSD-relevant stress induction procedure. Body sway and heart rate (HR) were measured in 12 PTSD patients and 12 healthy controls in four conditions: (1) maintaining a stable stance with eyes open, (2) with eyes closed, (3) during a mental arithmetic task with eyes open, and (4) with eyes closed. As predicted, PTSD patients showed increased body sway from eyes open to eyes closed compared to controls and this effect was eliminated by executing the arithmetic task. Most importantly, retrospective self-reported TI was associated with lower body sway increases in PTSD and higher body sway decreases in controls from eyes-open to eyes-closed conditions. These preliminary findings suggest that eye closure has a different effect on PTSD patients than controls and that high self-reported TI might indicate a distinct stress response pattern, i.e., a proneness for immobility. It may be relevant to take such individual differences in stress-response into account in PTSD treatment.

  18. Herbal reference standards.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  19. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  20. The tonic/phasic model of dopamine system regulation and its implications for understanding alcohol and psychostimulant craving.

    PubMed

    Grace, A A

    2000-08-01

    All drugs of abuse have been shown to act either directly or indirectly by increasing dopamine neurotransmission within the limbic system. Thus, alcohol has been shown to increase dopamine transmission primarily by activating dopamine cell spike activity, whereas psychostimulants increase dopamine transmission by inhibiting the removal of dopamine from the synaptic space after its release. The spike-dependent release of dopamine that is modulated by drugs of abuse to lead to their rewarding actions has been termed the phasic dopamine response. In contrast, with repeated drug administration, dopamine will also accumulate in the extracellular space of the nucleus accumbens in concentrations too low to stimulate postsynaptic receptors, but of sufficient magnitude to activate dopamine release-inhibiting autoreceptors. In addition, the level of extracellular dopamine is proposed to be under the regulatory influence of cortico-accumbens afferents. This steady-state level of extrasynaptic dopamine has been termed the tonic dopamine response. In this paper it is proposed that several of the aspects of drug addiction, withdrawal and craving associated with the continued use of these drugs can be explained on the basis of their effects on tonic versus phasic dopamine system function. Thus, the increase in tonic dopamine levels that occurs with repeated drug administration would serve to oppose phasic dopamine release via stimulation of dopamine terminal autoreceptors, causing the subject to increase drug administration to restore the phasic response. Moreover, after withdrawal from the drugs, exposure to priming doses of drug or to drug-related stimuli are proposed to increase tonic dopamine levels, again triggering drug-seeking behavior in order to restore balance between the tonic and phasic dopamine systems. Therefore, one consequence of continued drug use is that these parameters of dopamine system function that normally serve to keep the system stable will enter into a

  1. Corticospinal excitability of the biceps brachii is higher during arm cycling than an intensity-matched tonic contraction.

    PubMed

    Forman, Davis; Raj, Amita; Button, Duane C; Power, Kevin E

    2014-09-01

    Human studies have not assessed corticospinal excitability of an upper-limb prime mover during arm cycling. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether supraspinal and/or spinal motoneuron excitability of the biceps brachii was different between arm cycling and an intensity-matched tonic contraction. We hypothesized that spinal motoneuron excitability would be higher during arm cycling than an intensity-matched tonic contraction. Supraspinal and spinal motoneuron excitability were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex and transmastoid electrical stimulation (TMES) of the corticospinal tract, respectively. TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and TMES-induced cervicomedullary-evoked potentials (CMEPs) were assessed at three separate positions (3, 6, and 12 o'clock relative to a clock face) during arm cycling and an intensity-matched tonic contraction. MEP amplitudes were 7.2 and 8.8% maximum amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (Mmax) larger during arm cycling compared with a tonic contraction at the 3 (P < 0.001) and 6 o'clock (P < 0.001) positions, respectively. There was no difference between tasks during elbow extension (12 o'clock). CMEP amplitudes were 5.2% Mmax larger during arm cycling compared with a tonic contraction at the 3 o'clock position (P < 0.001) with no differences seen at midflexion (6 o'clock) or extension (12 o'clock). The data indicate an increase in the excitability of corticospinal neurons, which ultimately project to biceps brachii during the elbow flexion portion of arm cycling, and increased spinal motoneuron excitability at the onset of elbow flexion during arm cycling. We conclude that supraspinal and spinal motoneuron excitability are phase- and task-dependent.

  2. [Arginine, octopine and alanine during the tonic and phasic contraction of the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis].

    PubMed

    Devroede, J; Baguet, F

    1982-01-01

    In this work, we compare the energetic cost of tonic and phasic contractions of the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis. The muscle is stimulated by six different stimulation methods and frozen when it reaches its maximal isometric response. Tonic and phasic tension developments are of similar amplitude and cause a hydrolysis of the same amount of phosphoarginine corresponding to 0.64 mumole per g of muscle and per kg/cm2 of tension (Fig. 1). As compared with the results reported in the literature the values are in good agreement with the biochemical and respiratory measurements, but they are 10 times higher than those measured by the heat production. The total arginine, octopine and alanine contents of those muscles frozen at the peak of contraction are not significantly different from those measured on the resting muscle. On the other hand, these metabolites may show seasonal variations.

  3. Review of selected Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Emily; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how Chinese herbal medicines are used in the treatment of diabetes, focusing on potential benefits and risks. Medline, expert interviews, and Internet searches were used to identify Chinese herbal medicines with antidiabetic properties and their diabetes-related health claim, proposed antidiabetic effect, adverse effects, contraindications, and drug interactions. Twenty-three herbs and 5 herbal formulas were selected for review. Antidiabetic health claims included increasing serum insulin, decreasing blood glucose, increasing glucose metabolism, and/or stimulating pancreatic function. Side effects were few or not reported. The use of Chinese herbal medicines in diabetes is promising but still far from proven. Diabetes educators need to be aware of the risks and benefits of herbal medicines. Patients should be asked about the use and source of herbal medicines and carefully monitored for drug interactions and adverse effects.

  4. Body fluid osmolality and tonicity in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Semama, D S; Bouziane, M; Allaert, F A; Gouyon, J B

    2001-11-01

    In adult patients, a recent physiological approach for the osmoregulatory system based on body fluid tonicity (the so-called effective osmolality) seems to provide better information on water movements than does the classical body fluid osmolality. To evaluate whether plasma or urinary tonicities could give a better assessment of osmoregulation than plasma and urine osmolalities in sick preterm infants cared for in a NICU. A prospective study was conducted in 30 preterm infants (BW=1284+/-377 g; GA=28.8+/-1.7 weeks). Fifteen consecutive 8-h urine collections were performed for each infant from the 8th h of life (450 periods). A plasma sample was obtained at the end of each urine collection. Sodium, potassium, creatinine, osmolality and tonicity were measured or calculated in urine and blood samples as often as possible. Hypernatremia (PNa=146-149 mmol/l) was observed in seven infants (23.3%) and in 5.9% of the periods. Fifty-three percent of the infants and 20.4% of the periods presented with plasma hyperosmolality (>300 mosmol/kg H2O). The relationship between Posm and PNa was significant, but the clinical relevance was weak (r(2)=0.411; P<0.001). Plasma osmolality (Posm) positively correlated with urine osmolality (Uosm), but did not correlate significantly with CH2O/100 ml GFR. Plasma tonicity (2x(PNa+PK)) positively correlated with both urine tonicity (2x(UNa+UK)) and effective water clearance (EWC/100 ml GFR). On an individual basis, the linear relationship between urine and plasma osmolalities was significantly weaker than the relationship between urine and plasma tonicities. This study suggests that the calculation of plasma and urine tonicities allows a better assessment of water movements in body fluid compartments than plasma and urine osmolalities.

  5. Cytoplasmic free calcium, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and force in phasic and tonic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The time course of [Ca2+]i, tension, and myosin light chain phosphorylation were determined during prolonged depolarization with high K+ in intact tonic (rabbit pulmonary artery) and phasic (longitudinal layer of guinea pig ileum) smooth muscles. [Ca2+]i was monitored with the 340 nm/380 nm signal ratio of the fluorescent indicator fura-2. The fluorescence ratio had a similar time course in both muscle types during depolarization with 109 mM [K+]o; after a transient peak, there was a decline to 70% of its peak value in tonic smooth muscle, and to 60% in phasic smooth muscle. Tension, however, continued to increase in the pulmonary artery, while in the ileum it declined in parallel with the [Ca2+]i. On changing [K+]o from 109 to 20 mM, tension and [Ca2+]i either remained unchanged or declined in parallel in the pulmonary artery. Phosphorylation of the 20-kD myosin light chain, measured during stimulation of muscle strips with 109 mM [K+]o in another set of experiments, increased from 3% to a peak of 50% in the intact pulmonary artery, and then declined to a steady state value of 23%. In the intact ileum, a very rapid, early transient phosphorylation (up to 50%) at 2-3 s was seen. This transient declined by 30 s to a value that was close to the resting level (7%), while tension remained at 55% of its peak force. A quick release during maintained stimulation induced no detectable change in the [Ca2+]i in either type of smooth muscle. We discuss the possibility that the slowly rising tonic tension in pulmonary artery could be due to cooperativity between phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated crossbridges. PMID:3216188

  6. GABA-independent GABAA Receptor Openings Maintain Tonic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Herd, Murray B.; Kersanté, Flavie; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Semyanov, Alexey; Belelli, Delia; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) produces two forms of inhibition: ‘phasic’ inhibition generated by the rapid, transient activation of synaptic GABAARs by presynaptic GABA release, and tonic inhibition generated by the persistent activation of peri- or extrasynaptic GABAARs which can detect extracellular GABA. Such tonic GABAAR-mediated currents are particularly evident in dentate granule cells in which they play a major role in regulating cell excitability. Here we show that in rat dentate granule cells in ex-vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings. This tonic GABAAR conductance is resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531, which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker picrotoxin. When slices are perfused with 200 nM GABA, a concentration that is comparable to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations but is twice that measured by us in the hippocampus in vivo using zero-net-flux microdialysis, negligible GABA is detected by dentate granule cells. Spontaneously opening GABAARs, therefore, maintain dentate granule cell tonic currents in the face of low extracellular GABA concentrations. PMID:23447601

  7. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control evoked by tonic craniofacial pain in humans.

    PubMed

    Sowman, P F; Wang, K; Svensson, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2011-02-01

    Tonic pain in one body segment can inhibit the perception of pain in another body segment. This phenomenon is mediated by diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), and its efficacy in craniofacial regions is investigated in this study. A compressive device that evoked a tonic, moderate/severe, headache-like, conditioning pain (∼8/10 on a visual analogue scale) was applied for 15min. Eleven males participated in the study. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and pressure pain tolerance (PPTol) at multiple heterosegmental body sites (right masseter, splenius capitis, second intermediate phalange, brachioradialis and tibialis anterior) were measured before, during and at multiple time points (5, 20 and 35min) after the termination of the conditioning pain. PPTs and PPTols were compared within participants across two experimental sessions; one that included painful conditioning stimulation, and a separate control session on a different day. Painful conditioning increased PPT significantly during pain over the masseter (p<0.05) and over the tibialis anterior (p<0.01). PPTol was unchanged. In the period after the painful conditioning stimulation PPT was depressed compared to control. This study shows that pain evoked from the craniofacial region evokes DNIC-like mechanisms on segmental as well as heterosegmental sites.

  8. Fingertip skin wrinkling - the effect of varying tonicity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, N; Kirkham, S

    2005-06-01

    Fingertip skin wrinkling after prolonged immersion in water is a well-recognized phenomenon, whereas a denervated digit does not exhibit normal skin wrinkling while a finger with a regenerated or repaired nerve shows at least partial reappearance of wrinkling. This is the basis for the bedside immersion-wrinkling test of autonomic digital nerve function. The exact mechanism of fingertip skin wrinkling is still subject to controversy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the tonicity of a solution and the time elapsed to skin wrinkling. Fourteen healthy volunteers (28 hands) were recruited for investigation. We submerged all 28 hands in solutions of varying tonicity while maintaining all other parameters constant. We found that increased tonicity significantly slowed the time to wrinkling (TTW). Hypotonic solutions such as water should be used when performing clinical bedside testing for autonomic digital nerve function.

  9. Herbal hepatotoxicity and WHO global introspection method.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare but highly disputed disease because numerous confounding variables may complicate accurate causality assessment. Case evaluation is even more difficult when the WHO global introspection method (WHO method) is applied as diagnostic algorithm. This method lacks liver specificity, hepatotoxicity validation, and quantitative items, basic qualifications required for a sound evaluation of hepatotoxicity cases. Consequently, there are no data available for reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Its scope is also limited by the fact that it cannot discriminate between a positive and a negative causality attribution, thereby stimulating case overdiagnosing and overreporting. The WHO method ignores uncertainties regarding daily dose, temporal association, start, duration, and end of herbal use, time to onset of the adverse reaction, and course of liver values after herb discontinuation. Insufficiently considered or ignored are comedications, preexisting liver diseases, alternative explanations upon clinical assessment, and exclusion of infections by hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). We clearly prefer as alternative the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) which is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, causality of herbal hepatotoxicity is best assessed by the liver specific CIOMS scale validated for hepatotoxicity rather than the obsolete WHO method that is liver unspecific and not validated for hepatotoxicity. CIOMS based assessments will ensure the correct diagnosis and exclude alternative diagnosis that may require other specific therapies.

  10. Downregulation of renal sodium transporters and tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein by long-term treatment with cyclosporin A.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sun Woo; Ahn, Kyung Ohk; Sheen, Mee Rie; Jeon, Un Sil; Kim, Jin; Yang, Chul Woo; Kwon, H Moo

    2007-02-01

    Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is a transcriptional activator that is regulated by ambient tonicity. TonEBP protects the renal medulla from the deleterious effects of hyperosmolality and regulates the urinary concentration by stimulating aquaporin-2 and urea transporters. The therapeutic use of cyclosporin A (CsA) is limited by nephrotoxicity that is manifested by reduced GFR, fibrosis, and tubular defects, including reduced urinary concentration. It was reported recently that long-term CsA treatment was associated with decreased renal expression of TonEBP target genes, including aquaporin-2, urea transporter, and aldose reductase. This study tested the hypothesis that long-term CsA treatment reduces the salinity/tonicity of the renal medullary interstitium as a result of inhibition of active sodium transporters, leading to downregulation of TonEBP. CsA treatment for 7 d did not affect TonEBP or renal function. Whereas expression of sodium transporters was altered, the medullary tonicity seemed unchanged. Conversely, 28 d of CsA treatment led to downregulation of TonEBP and overt nephrotoxicity. The downregulation of TonEBP involved reduced expression, cytoplasmic shift, and reduced transcription of its target genes. This was associated with reduced expression of active sodium transporters-sodium/potassium/chloride transporter type 2 (NKCC2), sodium/chloride transporter, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase-along with increased sodium excretion and reduced urinary concentration. Infusion of vasopressin restored the expression of NKCC2 in the outer medulla as well as the expression and the activity of TonEBP. It is concluded that the downregulation of TonEBP in the setting of long-term CsA administration is secondary to the reduced tonicity of the renal medullary interstitium.

  11. [Herbals and herbal nutritional products hepatotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Hernández-Rincón, Ileana; Barboza-Nobrega, María De Freitas

    2015-09-01

    Herbs and other botanicals have been used in different cultures with medicinal and dietary purposes for centuries. Contrary to the belief of being natural and safe products, their hepatotoxic potential is recognized in several studies worldwide, and represent a health problem that deserves greater attention. The reported prevalence of hepatotoxicity associated with botanicals is variable and depends on various factors such as population, period and design of the study. There have been reports of a total of 60 products with herbal medicinal and dietary purposes, which may cause liver damage; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Their clinical and histological features, not unlike liver injury associated with drugs in most patients, have a pattern of hepatocellular injury. Diagnosis is by exclusion, and represents a clinical challenge. It is essential the clinical suspicion and the differential diagnosis with other acute and chronic conditions. Hence, future researches are aimed at improving existing diagnostic methods and introducing new toxicological, genetic and immunological technologies. Treatment is complex and presents a challenge for the specialist, as there are no antidotes. Management based on the discontinued use of the product and in the symptomatic treatment, decreases the progression to an acute fulminant hepatic failure.

  12. Luminal fluid tonicity regulates airway ciliary beating by altering membrane stretch and intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Horváth, György; Sorscher, Eric J

    2008-06-01

    The coordinated, directional beating of airway cilia drives airway mucociliary clearance. Here we explore the hypothesis that airway surface liquid osmolarity is a key regulator of ciliary beating. Cilia in freshly isolated human and murine airways visualized with streaming video-microscopy exhibited a reciprocal dependence on a physiological range of luminal fluid osmolarities, across the entire range of ciliary activity (0-20 beats per sec). Increasing osmolarity slowed or completely abrogated, while lower osmolarity dramatically stimulated ciliary beating. In parallel, epithelial cell height and importantly, intracellular calcium levels (as judged by fluorescence imaging) also changed. Moreover, ciliary beating was stimulated by isosmotic solutions containing membrane permeant osmolytes, suggesting that cell size and membrane stretch (governed by apical fluid tonicity), rather than osmolarity itself, contribute to the activation. These findings shed light on the pathophysiology of diseases of mucociliary clearance such as cystic fibrosis and other chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. TONICITY-VOLUME RELATIONS IN PARTIALLY HEMOLYZED HYPOTONIC SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Ponder, Eric

    1950-01-01

    The linear relation between the red cell volume V and the reciprocal of the tonicity T of a hypotonic medium is not the linear one expected on the basis of the van't Hoff-Mariotte law, particularly when a fraction p of the cells are hemolyzed and the volume V/(1 – p) of the (1 – p) cells which remain intact is considered. In systems of relatively high tonicity in which p is zero, the relation is linear but its slope is usually too small; at lower tonicities in which p has a value between zero and 0.35, the volumes are larger than those expected on the basis of the van't Hoff-Mariotte law, while at still smaller tonicities they are much smaller than expected. The volume measurements referred to are made with a high speed hematocrit; the results obtained in systems containing relatively high and relatively low volume concentrations of cells are contrasted with each other, and allowance is made in the calculations for the volume of the hypotonic medium surrounding the cells being limited. Attempts are made at an explanation of the anomalous results in terms of incomplete packing, of a stepwise as opposed to an all-or-none loss of Hb from the cells, of a heterogeneity in the swelling properties of the cells of the population, of a loss of osmotically active substances from the intact cells, and of the red cell ghost having some degree of rigidity. These explanations are not satisfying, although some of them in combination may account for the phenomena observed. It seems likely that the structures involved in the hemolytic process (cells and ghosts) have different properties in different tonicity ranges and even when the same tonicity is established in systems which are dense, as opposed to dilute, with respect to cell concentration. The form of the tonicity-volume relation can be changed substantially, although not in the direction of greater linearity, by treating the cells with resorcinol, colloidal silicic acid, iodoacetate, or sodium oxalate. Small changes in p

  14. Relative potency of tetrahydrocannabinol derivatives on tonic immobility in chickens.

    PubMed

    Maser, J D; Gallup, G G; Thorn, W R; Edson, P H

    1975-01-01

    Chickens were given varying dosages of delta 3-, delta 8-, and delta 9-THC and tested for duration of tonic immobility (TI). Although all derivatives had a profound facilitation effect, delta 9-THC was the most potent. These results are unusual in that TI is a well documented fear-potentiated reaction and THC generally has tranquilization-like effects.

  15. Critical Thinking as Miracle Tonic: Selling Snake Oil in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.

    This paper proposes that the current interest in critical thinking is based on important conceptual, epistemological, and procedural confusions. It suggests that the attempt to identify a successful critical thinking construct mirrors the search for miracle tonics often peddled by snake oil salesmen as a medicinal cure-all. It goes to suggest that…

  16. The effect of tonicity and hypertonic solutions on microvascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Victorino, Gregory P; Newton, Christopher R; Curran, Brian

    2002-05-15

    The effect of hypertonic saline (HS) on microvascular permeability is unclear. We hypothesized that varying degrees of tonicity and HS solutions alter microvascular fluid flux across the endothelium. Hydraulic permeability (L(p)) is a measure of water flow across the endothelial barrier. L(p) was measured in cannulated rat mesenteric venules using the modified Landis micro-occlusion technique. The effect of tonicity was tested by measuring L(p) after successive perfusions with Ringers' solutions of varying sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (85, 135, 185, and 235 mM) (n = 6). Additional venules were perfused with control Ringers' ([NaCl] = 135 mM) and measures of L(p) were obtained after subsequent perfusions with 7% NaCl followed by 7% NaCl with 6% dextran (n = 6). Tonicity had a significant dose-dependent effect on L(p) (P < 0.0001). Perfusion with 7% NaCl significantly increased L(p) (P < 0.0001). The addition of 6% dextran to 7% NaCl significantly decreased L(p) compared with perfusion with 7% NaCl alone (P = 0.002). We conclude that (1) tonicity influences microvascular permeability, (2) HS increases microvascular permeability, and (3) the addition of dextran to HS greatly attenuates this response. These findings suggest an important role for tonicity and a possible deleterious effect of HS in modulating microvascular permeability as well as the benefit of dextran with HS for maintaining intravascular volume. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  17. How perceived egocentric distance varies with changes in tonic vergence.

    PubMed

    Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Neveu, Pascaline; Sillan, Olivier; Plantier, Justin; Roumes, Corinne; Prablanc, Claude

    2012-06-01

    According to the eye muscle potentiation (EMP) hypothesis, sustained vergence leads to changes in egocentric perceived distance. This perceptual effect has been attributed to a change in the resting or tonic state of vergence. The goal of the present study was to test the EMP hypothesis by quantifying the relationship between prism-induced changes in tonic vergence and corresponding changes in perceived distance and by measuring the dynamics of changes in perceived distance. During a 10-min exposure to 5-diopter base-out prisms that increased the vergence demand, thirteen right-handed subjects pointed to visual targets located within reaching space using their left hand, without visual feedback. Pre- and post-exposure tests assessed tonic vergence through phoria measurements and egocentric distance estimate through pointing to visual targets with each hand successively, without visual feedback. Similar distance aftereffects were observed for both hands, although only the left hand was used during exposure, indicating that these aftereffects are mediated by visual processes rather than by visuomotor interactions. The distance aftereffects were significantly correlated with prism-induced changes in phoria, demonstrating a relationship between perceived distance and the level of tonic vergence. Changes in perceived distance increased monotonically across trials during prism exposure and remained stable during the post-test, indicating a long time constant for these perceptual effects, consistent with current models of the vergence control system. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that vergence plays a role in reduced-cue distance perception. They further illustrate that variations in tonic vergence influence perceived distance by altering the sensed vergence effort.

  18. Timing of cortical excitability changes during the reaction time of movements superimposed on tonic motor activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Cyril; Lavoie, Brigitte A; Barbeau, Hugues; Capaday, Charles

    2004-12-01

    Seated subjects were instructed to react to an auditory cue by simultaneously contracting the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of each ankle isometrically. Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation of the leg area of the motor cortex (MCx) was used to determine the time course of changes in motor-evoked potential amplitude (MEP) during the reaction time (RT). In one condition the voluntary contraction was superimposed on tonic EMG activity maintained at 10% of maximal voluntary contraction. In the other condition the voluntary contraction was made starting from rest. MEPs in the TA contralateral to the stimulation coil were evoked at various times during the RT in each condition. These were compared to the control MEPs evoked during tonic voluntary activity or with the subject at rest. The RT was measured trial by trial from the EMG activity of the TA ipsilateral to the magnetic stimulus, taking into account the nearly constant time difference between the two sides. The MEPs became far greater than control MEPs during the RT (mean = 332%, SD = 44 %, of control MEPs, P < 0.001) without any measurable change in the background level of EMG activity. The onset of this facilitation occurred on average 12.80 ms (SD = 7.55 ms) before the RT. There was no difference in the onset of facilitation between the two conditions. Because MEPs were facilitated without a change in the background EMG activity, it is concluded that this facilitation is specifically due to an increase of MCx excitability just before voluntary muscle activation. This conclusion is further reinforced by the observation that MEPs evoked by near-threshold anodal stimuli to the MCx were not facilitated during the RT, in contrast to those evoked by near-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation. However, several observations in the present and previous studies indicate that MEP amplitude may be more sensitive to alpha-motoneuron activity than to motor cortical neuron activity, an idea that has important

  19. Hydration status affects nuclear distribution of transcription factor tonicity responsive enhancer binding protein in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Cha, J H; Woo, S K; Han, K H; Kim, Y H; Handler, J S; Kim, J; Kwon, H M

    2001-11-01

    Tonicity responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is the transcription factor that regulates tonicity responsive expression of proteins that catalyze cellular accumulation of compatible osmolytes. In cultured MDCK cells, hypertonicity stimulates the activity of TonEBP via a combination of increased protein abundance and increased nuclear localization. For investigating regulation of TonEBP in the kidney, rats were subjected to water loading or dehydration. Water loading lowered urine osmolality and mRNA expression of sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT), a target gene of TonEBP, in the renal medulla; dehydration doubled the urine osmolality and increased SMIT mRNA expression. In contrast, overall abundance of TonEBP and its mRNA measured by immunoblot and ribonuclease protection assay, respectively, was not affected. Immunohistochemical analysis, however, revealed that nuclear distribution of TonEBP is generally increased throughout the medulla in dehydrated animals compared with water loaded animals. Increased nuclear localization was particularly dramatic in thin limbs. Notable exceptions were the middle to terminal portions of the inner medullary collecting ducts and blood vessels, where a change in TonEBP distribution was not evident. Immunohistochemical detection of SMIT mRNA revealed that the changes in nuclear distribution of TonEBP correlate with expression of SMIT. It is concluded that under physiologic conditions, nucleocytoplasmic distribution is the dominant mode of regulation of TonEBP in the renal medulla.

  20. Regulation of Urea Transporters by Tonicity-responsive Enhancer Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju-Young; Kwon, H Moo; Kim, Jim

    2007-06-01

    Urea accumulation in the renal inner medulla plays a key role in the maintenance of maximal urinary concentrating ability. Urea transport in the kidney is mediated by transporter proteins that include renal urea transporter (UT-A) and erythrocyte urea transporter (UT-B). UT-A1 and UT-A2 are produced from the same gene. There is an active tonicity-responsive enhancer (TonE) in the promoter of UT-A1, and the UT-A1 promoter is stimulated by hypertonicity via tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP). The downregulation of UT-A2 raises the possibility that TonEBP also regulates its promoter. There is some evidence that TonEBP regulates expression of UT-A in vivo; (1) during the renal development of the urinary concentrating ability, expression of TonEBP precedes that of UT-A1; (2) in transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative form of TonEBP, expression of UT-A1 and UT-A2 is severely impaired; (3) in treatment with cyclosporine A, TonEBP was significantly downregulated after 28 days. This downregulation involves mRNA levels of UT-A2; (4) in hypokalemic animals, downregulation of TonEBP contributed to the down regulation of UT-A in the inner medulla. These data support that TonEBP directly contributes to the urinary concentration and renal urea recycling by the regulation of urea transporters.

  1. Regulation of Urea Transporters by Tonicity-responsive Enhancer Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, H. Moo; Kim, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Urea accumulation in the renal inner medulla plays a key role in the maintenance of maximal urinary concentrating ability. Urea transport in the kidney is mediated by transporter proteins that include renal urea transporter (UT-A) and erythrocyte urea transporter (UT-B). UT-A1 and UT-A2 are produced from the same gene. There is an active tonicity-responsive enhancer (TonE) in the promoter of UT-A1, and the UT-A1 promoter is stimulated by hypertonicity via tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP). The downregulation of UT-A2 raises the possibility that TonEBP also regulates its promoter. There is some evidence that TonEBP regulates expression of UT-A in vivo; (1) during the renal development of the urinary concentrating ability, expression of TonEBP precedes that of UT-A1; (2) in transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative form of TonEBP, expression of UT-A1 and UT-A2 is severely impaired; (3) in treatment with cyclosporine A, TonEBP was significantly downregulated after 28 days. This downregulation involves mRNA levels of UT-A2; (4) in hypokalemic animals, downregulation of TonEBP contributed to the down regulation of UT-A in the inner medulla. These data support that TonEBP directly contributes to the urinary concentration and renal urea recycling by the regulation of urea transporters. PMID:24459497

  2. Analgesia induced by morphine microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus: effects on tonic pain.

    PubMed

    Dualé, Christian; Sierralta, Fernando; Dallel, Radhouane

    2007-07-01

    One of the possible sites of action of the analgesic effect of morphine is the Nucleus Raphe Magnus, as morphine injected into this structure induces analgesia in transient pain models. In order to test if morphine in the Nucleus Raphe Magnus is also analgesic in a tonic pain model, 5 microg of morphine or saline (control) were microinjected into the Nucleus Raphe Magnus of the rat. Analgesic effects were assessed following nociceptive stimulation using transient heating of the tail (phasic pain) and subcutaneous orofacial injection of 1.5 % formalin (tonic pain). While morphine was strongly analgesic for the tail-flick response (p <0.0001 compared to control), analgesia on the response to formalin was also observed for both early (p = 0.007) and late responses (p = 0.02). However, the response to formalin was not completely blunted. These results suggest that the Nucleus Raphe Magnus is not the exclusive site of action of morphine-induced analgesia in clinical conditions.

  3. Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), including herbal medicine, are popular in the general population worldwide. Parallel to the increasing interest in ‘modern’ CAM therapies and the historical importance of Arab medicine, there is also a similar trend in research activities dealing with the efficacy and safety of medicinal plants in our region. Historical and current studies and surveys indicate that the Eastern region of the Mediterranean has been distinguished throughout the generations with a rich inventory of natural medicinal herbs. It is well documented that indigenous Arab medicine has contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine in Europe and remains one of the closest forms of original European medicine. The rapid increase in consumption of herbal remedies worldwide has been stimulated by several factors, including the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective. This article presents a systematic review on traditional Arab medicine including historical background, medical innovations introduced by Arab physicians in the field of safety and efficacy of herbal medicine and a state-of-the-art description of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the Mediterranean region. PMID:16322804

  4. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

  5. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  6. Adenosine A1 Receptor Suppresses Tonic GABAA Receptor Currents in Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells and in a Defined Subpopulation of Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Rombo, Diogo M; Dias, Raquel B; Duarte, Sofia T; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Lamsa, Karri P; Sebastião, Ana M

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous neuromodulator that decreases excitability of hippocampal circuits activating membrane-bound metabotropic A1 receptor (A1R). The presynaptic inhibitory action of adenosine A1R in glutamatergic synapses is well documented, but its influence on inhibitory GABAergic transmission is poorly known. We report that GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated tonic, but not phasic, transmission is suppressed by A1R in hippocampal neurons. Adenosine A1R activation strongly inhibits GABAAR agonist (muscimol)-evoked currents in Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) pyramidal neurons and in a specific subpopulation of interneurons expressing axonal cannabinoid receptor type 1. In addition, A1R suppresses tonic GABAAR currents measured in the presence of elevated ambient GABA as well as in naïve slices. The inhibition of GABAergic currents involves both protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways and decreases GABAAR δ-subunit expression. On the contrary, no A1R-mediated modulation was detected in phasic inhibitory postsynaptic currents evoked either by afferent electrical stimulation or by spontaneous quantal release. The results show that A1R modulates extrasynaptic rather than synaptic GABAAR-mediated signaling, and that this modulation selectively occurs in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and in a specific subpopulation of inhibitory interneurons. We conclude that modulation of tonic GABAAR signaling by adenosine A1R in specific neuron types may regulate neuronal gain and excitability in the hippocampus.

  7. HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

    For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

  8. Tonic and phasic tetrodotoxin block of sodium channels with point mutations in the outer pore region.

    PubMed Central

    Boccaccio, A; Moran, O; Imoto, K; Conti, F

    1999-01-01

    Tonic and use-dependent block by tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been studied in cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes expressing mutants W386Y, E945Q, D1426K, and D1717Q, of the outer-pore region of the rat brain IIA alpha-subunit of sodium channels. The various phenotypes are tonically half-blocked at TTX concentrations, IC50(t), that span a range of more than three orders of magnitude, from 4 nM in mutant D1426K to 11 microM in mutant D1717Q. When stimulated with repetitive depolarizing pulses at saturating frequencies, all channels showed a monoexponential increase in their TTX-binding affinity with time constants that span an equally wide range of values ([TTX] approximately IC50(t), from approximately 60 s for D1426K to approximately 30 ms for D1717Q) and are in most phenotypes roughly inversely proportional to IC50(t). In contrast, all phenotypes show the same approximately threefold increase in their TTX affinity under stimulation. The invariance of the free-energy difference between tonic and phasic configurations of the toxin-receptor complex, together with the extreme variability of phasic block kinetics, is fully consistent with the trapped-ion mechanism of use dependence suggested by and developed by. Using this model, we estimated for each phenotype both the second-order association rate constant, kon, and the first-order dissociation rate constant, koff, for TTX binding. Except for mutant E945Q, all phenotypes have roughly the same value of kon approximately 2 microM-1 s-1 and owe their large differences in IC50(t) to different koff values. However, a 60-fold reduction in kon is the main determinant of the low TTX sensitivity of mutant E945Q. This suggests that the carboxyl group of E945 occupies a much more external position in the pore vestibule than that of the homologous residue D1717. PMID:10388752

  9. Properties of macerated herbal oil

    PubMed Central

    Kantawong, Fahsai; Singhatong, Supawatchara; Srilamay, Aomjai; Boonyuen, Kantarose; Mooti, Niroot; Wanachantararak, Phenphichar; Kuboki, Thasaneeya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The addition of herbs into hot sesame oil could increase the oil-pulling efficiency of sesame oil. The aim of present study was to modify the proportion of herbs and sesame oil with the addition of other ingredients including menthol, camphor, and borneol and improve the medicinal properties and the scent of the oil. Methods: Macerated herbal oil was prepared by heat extraction of five species of herbs (Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiber zerumbet, Plantago major Linn, Citrus hystrix, and Amomum biflorum) with hot sesame oil. The study was performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties of this macerated herbal oil. Results: Macerated herbal oil was evaluated for antioxidant activity using DPPH and ABTS assays. It was shown that at dilution 1:2 in DMSO, the macerated herbal oil had DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities equal to 63% and 22%, respectively. Macerated herbal oil dilution 1:8 in DMSO demonstrated ferric reducing capacity equivalent to ascorbic acid (0.208 µM) and had reducing power equivalent to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) 7.41 µg/mL. MTT assay was performed using immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) as a cell culture model. The result indicated that the cytotoxic concentration of the macerated herbal oil was ≥ 2.5 µL/mL in complete DMEM. Anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated using the nitrite assay and RT-PCR. It was found that the macerated herbal oil could inhibit nitrite accumulation in culture media. Change in the expression of COX-2, Nrf2, and NF-kB in RT-PCR confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of the macerated herbal oil. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the macerated herbal oil could inhibit nitrite accumulation in culture media, which might be the inhibitory effect of the macerated herbal oil on COX-2 or Nrf2, the downstream modulator of the COX-2 pathway. Further intensive studies are needed for the optimization before bringing this macerated herbal oil

  10. Dynamics of muscle activation during tonic-clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai; Jennum, Poul; Wolf, Peter; Farina, Dario; Beniczky, Sándor

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to elucidate the dynamics of muscle activation during generalised tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). We recorded surface electromyography (EMG) from the deltoid muscle during 26 GTCS from 13 patients and compared it with GTCS-like events acted by 10 control subjects. GTCS consisted of a sequence of phases best described quantitatively by dynamics of the low frequency (LF) wavelet component (2-8Hz). Contrary to the traditional view, the tonic phase started with a gradual increase in muscle activity. A longer clonic phase was associated with a shorter onset of the tonic phase and a higher seizure occurrence. Increase in LF occurred during the onset phase and during the transition from the tonic to the clonic phase, corresponding to the vibratory movements. The clonic phase consisted of EMG discharges of remarkably constant duration (0.2s) separated by silent periods (SP) of exponentially increasing duration - features that could not be reproduced voluntarily. The last SP was longer in seizures with higher EMG peak frequency whereas the energy of the last clonus was higher in seizures with a short clonic phase. We found specific features of muscle activation dynamics during GTCS. Our findings suggest that the same inhibitory mechanisms that contribute to GTCS termination counteract seizure initiation, accounting for the gradual onset. Both active inhibition and mechanisms related to metabolic depletion act synergistically to stop the seizure. Analysis of the ictal EMG dynamics is a valuable tool for monitoring the balance between pro-convulsive and anti-convulsive factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel nuclear localization signal regulated by ambient tonicity in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min Seong; Lee, Sang Do; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Colla, Emanuela; Choi, Yu Jeong; Suh, Pann-Ghil; Kwon, H Moo

    2008-08-15

    TonEBP is a Rel domain-containing transcription factor implicated in adaptive immunity, viral replication, and cancer. In the mammalian kidney, TonEBP is a central regulator of water homeostasis. Animals deficient in TonEBP suffer from life-threatening dehydration due to renal water loss. Ambient tonicity (effective osmolality) is the prominent signal for TonEBP in a bidirectional manner; TonEBP activity decreases in hypotonicity, whereas it increases in hypertonicity. Here we found that TonEBP displayed nuclear export in response to hypotonicity and nuclear import in response to hypertonicity. The nuclear export of TonEBP was not mediated by the nuclear export receptor CRM1 or discrete nuclear export signal. In contrast, a dominant nuclear localization signal (NLS) was found in a small region of 16 amino acid residues. When short peptides containing the NLS were fused to constitutively cytoplasmic proteins, the fusion proteins displayed tonicity-dependent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking like TonEBP. Thus, tonicity-dependent activation of the NLS is crucial in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of TonEBP. The novel NLS is present only in the vertebrates, indicating that it developed late in evolution.

  12. Novel Nuclear Localization Signal Regulated by Ambient Tonicity in Vertebrates*

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min Seong; Lee, Sang Do; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Colla, Emanuela; Choi, Yu Jeong; Suh, Pann-Ghil; Kwon, H. Moo

    2008-01-01

    TonEBP is a Rel domain-containing transcription factor implicated in adaptive immunity, viral replication, and cancer. In the mammalian kidney, TonEBP is a central regulator of water homeostasis. Animals deficient in TonEBP suffer from life-threatening dehydration due to renal water loss. Ambient tonicity (effective osmolality) is the prominent signal for TonEBP in a bidirectional manner; TonEBP activity decreases in hypotonicity, whereas it increases in hypertonicity. Here we found that TonEBP displayed nuclear export in response to hypotonicity and nuclear import in response to hypertonicity. The nuclear export of TonEBP was not mediated by the nuclear export receptor CRM1 or discrete nuclear export signal. In contrast, a dominant nuclear localization signal (NLS) was found in a small region of 16 amino acid residues. When short peptides containing the NLS were fused to constitutively cytoplasmic proteins, the fusion proteins displayed tonicity-dependent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking like TonEBP. Thus, tonicity-dependent activation of the NLS is crucial in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of TonEBP. The novel NLS is present only in the vertebrates, indicating that it developed late in evolution. PMID:18579527

  13. Tonic and Phasic Receptor Neurons in the Vertebrate Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Rodolfo; Sanhueza, Magdalena; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Bacigalupo, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to odorants with characteristic patterns of action potentials that are relevant for odor coding. Prolonged odorant exposures revealed three populations of dissociated toad ORNs, which were mimicked by depolarizing currents: tonic (TN, displaying sustained firing, 49% of 102 cells), phasic (PN, exhibiting brief action potential trains, 36%) and intermediate neurons (IN, generating trains longer than PN, 15%). We studied the biophysical properties underlying the differences between TNs and PNs, the most extreme cases among ORNs. TNs and PNs possessed similar membrane capacitances (∼4 pF), but they differed in resting potential (−82 versus −64 mV), input resistance (4.2 versus 2.9 GΩ) and unspecific current, Iu (TNs: 0 < Iu ≤ 1 pA/pF; and PNs: Iu > 1 pA/pF). Firing behavior did not correlate with differences in voltage-gated conductances. We developed a mathematical model that accurately simulates tonic and phasic patterns. Whole cell recordings from rat ORNs in fragments (∼4 mm2) of olfactory epithelium showed that such a tissue normally contains tonic and phasic receptor neurons, suggesting that this feature is common across a wide range of vertebrates. Our findings show that the individual passive electrical properties can govern the firing patterns of ORNs. PMID:12770919

  14. How do tonic glutamatergic synapses evade receptor desensitization?

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ji-Jie; Gao, Fan; Barrow, Andrew; Jacoby, Roy A; Wu, Samuel M

    2008-01-01

    Photoreceptor output synapses are the best known tonic chemical synapses in the nervous system, in which glutamate is continuously released in darkness, activating AMPA/kainate receptors in postsynaptic neurons. It has been shown that glutamate receptors in certain types of second-order retinal cells are largely desensitized in darkness, leading to small postsynaptic currents and reduced response dynamic ranges. Here we show that the tonic glutamatergic synapses between photoreceptors and rod-dominated hyperpolarizing bipolar cells (HBCRs) in the salamander retina evade postsynaptic receptor desensitization by using (1) multiple invaginating ribbon junctions as releasing sites for low-frequency, synchronized multiquantal release at each site; and (2) the GluR4 AMPA receptors as the postsynaptic receptors. The multiquantal events exhibit faster decay time than the GluR4 receptor desensitization time constant and therefore self-desensitization is minimized, and the average inter-event duration in darkness is much longer than the GluR4 desensitization recovery time and thus mutual desensitization is avoided. Consequently, the HBCRs are not desensitized in darkness, allowing light signals to be encoded by the full operating range of the glutamate-gated postsynaptic currents. Our study illustrates for the first time how a tonic glutamatergic synapse avoids postsynaptic receptor desensitization, a strategy that may be shared by many other synapses in the nervous system that need extended operation capacity. PMID:18420706

  15. Anti-dandruff Hair Tonic Containing Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) Oil.

    PubMed

    Chaisripipat, Wannee; Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2015-01-01

    Natural remedies for treating dandruff are becoming popular. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-head efficacy evaluation was conducted 30 Thai volunteers aged 20-60 years experiencing dandruff measured at level 3 on D-Squame® scale. An easy to use hair tonic containing essential oil of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) active against lipophilic yeasts was developed and then evaluated for efficacy and preference. The base formulation with the significantly highest preference (p < 0.05) was stowed with the oil at 5, 10 or 15%. Subjects applied the formulation twice a day, and an efficacy assessment with D-Squame® scale was conducted on days 7 and 14 of application. The application of lemongrass oil hair tonics with 5, 10, or 15% reduced dandruff significant (p < 0.005) at day 7 (33, 75, and 51%) and increased the effect even more (p < 0.005) at day 14 (52, 81, and 74%). The hair tonic formulation with 10% of lemongrass oil seems to be the most effective preparation. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  16. Methods for recording and measuring tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bright, Damian P; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-12-05

    Tonic inhibitory conductances mediated by GABAA receptors have now been identified and characterized in many different brain regions. Most experimental studies of tonic GABAergic inhibition have been carried out using acute brain slice preparations but tonic currents have been recorded under a variety of different conditions. This diversity of recording conditions is likely to impact upon many of the factors responsible for controlling tonic inhibition and can make comparison between different studies difficult. In this review, we will firstly consider how various experimental conditions, including age of animal, recording temperature and solution composition, are likely to influence tonic GABAA conductances. We will then consider some technical considerations related to how the tonic conductance is measured and subsequently analyzed, including how the use of current noise may provide a complementary and reliable method for quantifying changes in tonic current.

  17. Methods for recording and measuring tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Damian P.; Smart, Trevor G.

    2013-01-01

    Tonic inhibitory conductances mediated by GABAA receptors have now been identified and characterized in many different brain regions. Most experimental studies of tonic GABAergic inhibition have been carried out using acute brain slice preparations but tonic currents have been recorded under a variety of different conditions. This diversity of recording conditions is likely to impact upon many of the factors responsible for controlling tonic inhibition and can make comparison between different studies difficult. In this review, we will firstly consider how various experimental conditions, including age of animal, recording temperature and solution composition, are likely to influence tonic GABAA conductances. We will then consider some technical considerations related to how the tonic conductance is measured and subsequently analyzed, including how the use of current noise may provide a complementary and reliable method for quantifying changes in tonic current. PMID:24367296

  18. Drug interactions with herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms.

  19. Tonic GABAA conductance decreases membrane time constant and increases EPSP-spike precision in hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I; Xu, Chun; Song, Inseon; Doronin, Maxim; Wu, Yu-Wei; Walker, Matthew C; Semyanov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Because of a complex dendritic structure, pyramidal neurons have a large membrane surface relative to other cells and so a large electrical capacitance and a large membrane time constant (τm). This results in slow depolarizations in response to excitatory synaptic inputs, and consequently increased and variable action potential latencies, which may be computationally undesirable. Tonic activation of GABAA receptors increases membrane conductance and thus regulates neuronal excitability by shunting inhibition. In addition, tonic increases in membrane conductance decrease the membrane time constant (τm), and improve the temporal fidelity of neuronal firing. Here we performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and found that bath application of 10μM GABA indeed decreases τm in these cells. GABA also decreased first spike latency and jitter (standard deviation of the latency) produced by current injection of 2 rheobases (500 ms). However, when larger current injections (3-6 rheobases) were used, GABA produced no significant effect on spike jitter, which was low. Using mathematical modeling we demonstrate that the tonic GABAA conductance decreases rise time, decay time and half-width of EPSPs in pyramidal neurons. A similar effect was observed on EPSP/IPSP pairs produced by stimulation of Schaffer collaterals: the EPSP part of the response became shorter after application of GABA. Consistent with the current injection data, a significant decrease in spike latency and jitter was obtained in cell attached recordings only at near-threshold stimulation (50% success rate, S50). When stimulation was increased to 2- or 3- times S50, GABA significantly affected neither spike latency nor spike jitter. Our results suggest that a decrease in τm associated with elevations in ambient GABA can improve EPSP-spike precision at near-threshold synaptic inputs.

  20. Changes in Corticospinal and Spinal Excitability to the Biceps Brachii with a Neutral vs. Pronated Handgrip Position Differ between Arm Cycling and Tonic Elbow Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Davis A.; Richards, Mark; Forman, Garrick N.; Holmes, Michael W. R.; Power, Kevin E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of neutral and pronated handgrip positions on corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii during arm cycling. Corticospinal and spinal excitability were assessed using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and cervicomedullary-evoked potentials (CMEPs) elicited via transmastoid electrical stimulation (TMES), respectively. Participants were seated upright in front on arm cycle ergometer. Responses were recorded from the biceps brachii at two different crank positions (6 and 12 o’clock positions relative to a clock face) while arm cycling with neutral and pronated handgrip positions. Responses were also elicited during tonic elbow flexion to compare/contrast the results to a non-rhythmic motor output. MEP and CMEP amplitudes were significantly larger at the 6 o’clock position while arm cycling with a neutral handgrip position compared to pronated (45.6 and 29.9%, respectively). There were no differences in MEP and CMEP amplitudes at the 12 o’clock position for either handgrip position. For the tonic contractions, MEPs were significantly larger with a neutral vs. pronated handgrip position (32.6% greater) while there were no difference in CMEPs. Corticospinal excitability was higher with a neutral handgrip position for both arm cycling and tonic elbow flexion. While spinal excitability was also higher with a neutral handgrip position during arm cycling, no difference was observed during tonic elbow flexion. These findings suggest that not only is corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii modulated at both the supraspinal and spinal level, but that it is influenced differently between rhythmic arm cycling and tonic elbow flexion. PMID:27826236

  1. Consumers' attitude towards the use and safety of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Samojlik, Isidora; Mijatović, Vesna; Gavarić, Neda; Krstin, Sonja; Božin, Biljana

    2013-10-01

    The use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements in Serbia is very common and many patients consume herbal preparations with conventional drug therapy. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the consumers' awareness of herbal remedies and the safety of herbal dietary supplements, their attitude towards combining herbals and drugs, and the source of recommendations for their use. The study included all consumers who bought herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements in 15 pharmacies on the territory of Novi Sad during 2011 and who accepted to be interviewed. Structured interviews using questionnaire, conducted by pharmacists. The questionnaire included 4 parts: socio-demographic characteristics of consumers, source of recommendations for the use of herbal products, attitude towards safety of herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements use and their combination with regular drugs, as well as the question of purchased herbal products. Consumers' attitude towards the safety and use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements measured by 9 items. The majority of interviewed participants were highly educated, aged 41-60 and they consumed herbal remedies on their own initiative or on recommendation of nonmedically educated person, without previous consultation with medical doctor or pharmacist. Out of all participants: 88.9 % did not consider it important to inform their physician or pharmacist about use of herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements; 73.3 % found the use of herbal remedies harmless (where 9.4 % did not have any attitude towards that issue), while 40.3 % of participants regarded the combining of herbal and regular drugs unsafe. There is a need for consumers' education on reliable use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements, in order to improve their awareness of the limits of herbal remedies safety and potential risks of their combination with drugs.

  2. Antacid effects of Chinese herbal prescriptions assessed by a modified artificial stomach model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsung-Hsiu; Chen, I-Chin; Chen, Lih-Chi

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the antacid effects of the tonic Chinese herbal prescriptions, Si-Jun-Zi-Tang (SJZT) and Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (SLBZS). METHODS: Decoctions of the tonic Chinese herbal prescriptions, SJZT and SLBZS, were prepared according to Chinese original documents. The pH of the prescription decoctions and their neutralizing effects on artificial gastric acids were determined and compared with water and the active controls, sodium bicarbonate and colloidal aluminum phosphate. A modified model of Vatier’s artificial stomach was used to determine the duration of consistent neutralization effect on artificial gastric acids. The neutralization capacity in vitro was determined with the titration method of Fordtran’s model. RESULTS: The results showed that both SJZT and SLBZS have antacid effects in vitro. Compared with the water group, SJZT and SLBZS were found to possess significant gastric acid neutralizing effects. The duration for consistent neutralization of SLBZS was significantly longer than that of water. Also, SLBZS and SJZT exhibited significant antacid capacities compared to water. CONCLUSION: SJZT and SLBZS were consistently active in the artificial stomach model and are suggested to have antacid effects similar to the active control drugs. PMID:20845514

  3. Modulation of chemokine expression on intestinal epithelial cells by Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicine, Hochuekkito, and its active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Michiko; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Hiroko; Yabe, Takeshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2013-07-01

    The intestinal epithelial cells sit at the interface between a lumen and a lamina propria or lymph nodes such as Peyer's patches, where they play important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis through chemokine secretion. This study investigated the effect of Hochuekkito (TJ-41)-a traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) formula used as a tonic for weakness-on chemokine expression in intestinal epithelial cells in order to explore the mechanism of its modulating effect against mucosal immunity. When cells from the rat normal small intestinal epithelial cell-line IEC-6 were stimulated with TJ-41, mRNA expression of CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 11 (eotaxin), CCL20 (MIP-3α) and CCL25 (TECK) was enhanced. Oral administration of TJ-41 to methotrexate-treated mice enhanced mRNA expression of CCL25 and keratinocyte growth factor in the jejunum with, decreasing mRNA expression of the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Although oral administration of TJ-41 did not affect CCL20 mRNA expression in villus epithelium of methotrexate-treated mice, enhancement of CCL20 mRNA expression was observed in Peyer's patches. Immunohistochemical analysis detected dense staining with anti-CCL20 antibody in the follicle-associated epithelium region of Peyer's patches in mice administered TJ-41. Analysis of active ingredients indicates that polysaccharide-containing macromolecules in TJ-41 contribute to the enhancement of CCL20 mRNA expression through an intracellular signal cascade via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation.

  4. Chinese herbal medicines for hypertriglyceridaemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Li, George Q; Bensoussan, Alan; Kiat, Hosen; Chan, Kelvin; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-06-06

    Hypertriglyceridaemia is associated with many diseases including atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and chylomicronaemia. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. To assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for hypertriglyceridaemia. We searched a number of databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and several Chinese databases (all until May 2012). Randomised controlled trials in participants with hypertriglyceridaemia comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Any disagreement was resolved by discussion and a decision was achieved based on consensus. We assessed trials for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. We included three randomised trials with 170 participants. Ninety participants were randomised to the Chinese herbal medicines groups and 80 to the comparator groups with numbers ranging from 50 to 60 participants per trial. The duration of treatment varied from four to six weeks. All the included trials were conducted in China and published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was unclear. There were no outcome data in any of the trials on death from any cause, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, health-related quality of life, or costs.Three different herbal medicines, including Zhusuan Huoxue decoction, Huoxue Huayu Tongluo decoction, and Chushi Huayu decoction were evaluated. All three trials investigating Chinese herbal medicines treatment alone (two studies) or in combination with gemfibrozil (one study) reported results on serum triglyceride (TG) in favour of the herbal treatment. We did not perform a meta-analysis due to significant

  5. Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.

    PubMed

    Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA.

  6. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  7. Comparison of "herbal highs" composition.

    PubMed

    Zuba, Dariusz; Byrska, Bogumila; Maciow, Martyna

    2011-04-01

    Popularity of new psychoactive substances, known as legal highs or herbal highs, is continuously growing. These products are typically sold via internet and in so-called head shops. The aim of this study was to identify active ingredients of herbal highs and to compare their chemical composition. Twenty-nine various products seized by the police in one of the "head shops" were analysed. Herbal mixtures (0.2 g) were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction with 2.0 ml of ethanol for 2 h. The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main active compounds of the herbal mixtures were synthetic cannabinoids: JWH-018, JWH-073 and cannabicyclohexanol (CP-47,497-C8-homolog). Their content differed between the products; some contained only one cannabinoid whereas the others contained two or more. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that chemical composition of many products was very similar. The similarity was connected with their flavour and not the common name. This statement was true for the synthetic cannabinoids, other potential agonists of cannabinoid receptors (amides of fatty acids) and ingredients of natural origin and confirms that herbal highs are a threat to human health because the purchaser has no information on their real composition.

  8. Quality of herbal medicines: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Wider, Barbara; Shang, Hongcai; Li, Xuemei; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of herbal medicines has risen worldwide. This increase in usage renders safety issues important. Many adverse events of herbal medicines can be attributed to the poor quality of the raw materials or the finished products. Different types of herbal medicines are associated with different problems. Quality issues of herbal medicines can be classified into two categories: external and internal. In this review, external issues including contamination (e.g. toxic metals, pesticides residues and microbes), adulteration and misidentification are detailed. Complexity and non-uniformity of the ingredients in herbal medicines are the internal issues affecting the quality of herbal medicines. Solutions to the raised problems are discussed. The rigorous implementation of Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) would undoubtedly reduce the risk of external issues. Through the use of modern analytical methods and pharmaceutical techniques, previously unsolved internal issues have become solvable. Standard herbal products can be manufactured from the standard herbal extracts.

  9. A review of in vitro and in vivo studies on the efficacy of herbal medicines for primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Sun; Park, Kang-In; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Lee, Jin-Moo; Jang, Jun-Bock; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological complaint among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. This study aims to review the findings of published articles on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of herbal medicines for PD. Methods. In vitro and in vivo studies of herbal compounds, individual herbal extracts, or herbal formula decoctions published from their inception to April 2014 were included in this review. Results. A total of 18 studies involving herbal medicines exhibited their inhibitory effect on PD. The majority of in vitro studies investigated the inhibition of uterine contractions. In vivo studies suggest that herbal medicines exert a peripheral analgesic effect and a possible anti-inflammatory activity via the inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The mechanisms of herbal medicines for PD are associated with PG level reduction, suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, superoxide dismutase activation and malondialdehyde reduction, nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-kappa B reduction, stimulation of somatostatin receptor, intracellular Ca(2+) reduction, and recovery of phospholipid metabolism. Conclusions. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective therapeutic agents for PD. Further investigations on the appropriate herbal formula and their constituents are recommended.

  10. A Review of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on the Efficacy of Herbal Medicines for Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Sun; Lee, Jin-Moo; Jang, Jun-Bock; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological complaint among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. This study aims to review the findings of published articles on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of herbal medicines for PD. Methods. In vitro and in vivo studies of herbal compounds, individual herbal extracts, or herbal formula decoctions published from their inception to April 2014 were included in this review. Results. A total of 18 studies involving herbal medicines exhibited their inhibitory effect on PD. The majority of in vitro studies investigated the inhibition of uterine contractions. In vivo studies suggest that herbal medicines exert a peripheral analgesic effect and a possible anti-inflammatory activity via the inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The mechanisms of herbal medicines for PD are associated with PG level reduction, suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, superoxide dismutase activation and malondialdehyde reduction, nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-kappa B reduction, stimulation of somatostatin receptor, intracellular Ca2+ reduction, and recovery of phospholipid metabolism. Conclusions. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective therapeutic agents for PD. Further investigations on the appropriate herbal formula and their constituents are recommended. PMID:25431607

  11. Herbal medicine in healthcare--an overview.

    PubMed

    Mosihuzzaman, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    It is generally accepted by all concerned that modern pharmaceuticals will remain out of reach of many people and 'health for all' may only be realized by the use of adequately assessed herbal products. Mankind has been using herbal medicine for healing right from the beginning of human civilization. With the advent of 'modern medicine' herbal products have been looked down upon, especially by western societies. Yet, in recent times, use of herbal medicine for heathcare has increased steadily all over the world. However, serious concerns are being realized regarding the safety, claimed efficacy and quality of herbal products used as herbal medicine, nutraceuticals, health food and cosmetics. Although herbal products are generally considered safe due to their age-old usage, significant side effects have been reported for many herbal products, including herbal medicine. Accidental contamination and intentional adulteration are considered as primary reasons for the side effects. The historical perspective and the philosophy of herbal medical practice along with its present status in the light of present day science have been reviewed and included in the present article. Assurance of safety by identification of contaminants and assessment of toxicity has been outlined. Assessment of claimed efficacy of herbal medicine is difficult due to its holistic approach. Practical ways of assessing efficacy of herbal medicine by adapting the methodologies used for modern pharmaceutical are described. The maintenance of standard of herbal medicine has been stressed and pragmatic approaches of assuring quality of herbal medicine by using modern tools of fingerprinting the chemical profile of herbal medicine are discussed. As much of the traditional herbal medical knowledge is scattered around the world at the family and community levels, and more so in the indigeneous people, the knowledge base is continuously being lost and so needs immediate documentation. Difficulties in

  12. [Tonic pupil, pupil Adie syndrome Adie Holmes: current reassessment of terminology -- a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Szabo, Bianca; Popescu, Livia Adriana; Rusu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    The benign syndrome of pupillotonia and absence of deep reflexes is not uncommon. It was clearly and accurately described by Adie (1932), although incompletely recognized many years, before. The pupillary abnormality was reported by ophthalmologists at the turn of the century (Saenger, 1902, Strasburger 1902), and the associated deep reflex change was described by Markus (1906), Roemheld (1921) and Parkes Weber (1923). Holmes (1932) was fully aware of the association of "partial iridoplegia" with diminished reflexes. Tonic pupils react poorly to light but constrict during viewing of a near stimulus. Adie's name is typically used in association with tonic pupils, but a review of Adie's articles reveals that he described the syndrome of tonic pupils and absent reflexes and not the pupillary abnormality per se. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to refer to a tonic pupil as simply a 'tonic pupil" and leave Adie's name for the syndrome. We report a typical case of tonic pupil.

  13. Effect of sympathetic nervous system activation on the tonic vibration reflex in rabbit jaw closing muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, C; Deriu, F; Passatore, M

    1993-01-01

    1. In precollicular decerebrate rabbits we investigated the effect of sympathetic stimulation, at frequencies within the physiological range, on the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) elicited in jaw closing muscles by small amplitude vibrations applied to the mandible (15-50 microns, 150-180 Hz). The EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from masseter muscle and the force developed by the reflex was measured through an isometric transducer connected with the mandibular symphysis. 2. Unilateral stimulation of the peripheral stump of the cervical sympathetic by the TVR, and a marked decrease or disappearance of the ipsilateral EMG activity. No significant changes were detected in the EMG contralateral to the stimulated nerve. Bilateral CSN stimulation reduced by 60-90% the force reflexly produced by the jaw closing muscles and strongly decreased or suppressed EMG activity on both sides. This effect was often preceded by a transient TVR enhancement, very variable in amplitude and duration, which was concomitant with the modest increase in pulmonary ventilation induced by the sympathetic stimulation. 3. During bilateral CSN stimulation, an increase in the vibration amplitude by a factor of 1.5-2.5 was sufficient to restore the TVR reduced by sympathetic stimulation. 4. The depressant action exerted by sympathetic activation on the TVR is mediated by alpha-adrenergic receptors, since it was almost completely abolished by the I.V. administration of either phentolamine or prazosin, this last drug being a selective antagonist of alpha 1-adrenoceptors. The sympathetically induced decrease in the TVR was not mimicked by manoeuvres producing a large and sudden reduction or abolition of the blood flow to jaw muscles, such as unilateral or bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. 5. The effect of sympathetic stimulation was not significantly modified after denervation of the inferior dental arch and/or anaesthesia of the temporomandibular joint, i.e. after having reduced

  14. Herbal remedies. How much do you know?

    PubMed

    Myerscough, M

    1998-11-01

    In this article the importance of knowledge about herbal remedies in general practice is discussed using guarana (Paullinia cupana), St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), and gingko (Ginkgo biloba) as examples. Obtaining information about herbal remedies can be difficult. Lack of clinical data about the use, safety, efficacy and general practitioner attitudes to herbal remedies creates research opportunities in this area of general practice.

  15. Liver immunology and herbal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Yasemin H; Aka, Ceylan; Koca-Caliskan, Ufuk

    2017-01-01

    Beyond the metabolic functions, the liver recently has been defined as an organ of immune system (IS), which have central regulatory role for innate and adaptive immunity. The liver keeps a delicate balance between hepatic screening of pathogenic antigens and immune tolerance to self-antigens. Herbal treatments with immunological effects have potential to alter this hepatic immune balance towards either therapeutic side or diseases side by inducing liver injury via hepatotoxicity or initiation of autoimmune diseases. Most commonly known herbal treatments, which have therapeutic effect on liver and IS, have proven via in vitro, in vivo, and/or clinical studies were summarized in this review. PMID:28660010

  16. Herbal preparations for uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Hong; Xia, Yun; Cardini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids are the most common non-malignant growths in women of childbearing age. They are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding and subfertility. Herbal preparations are commonly used as alternatives to surgical procedures. Objectives To assess the benefits and risks of herbal preparations for uterine fibroids. Search strategy Authors searched following electronic databases: the Trials Registers of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), AMED, and LILACS. The searches ended on 31st December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing herbal preparations with no intervention, placebo, medical treatment or surgical procedures in women with uterine fibroids. We also included trials of herbal preparations with or without conventional therapy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors collected data independently. We assessed trial risk of bias according to our methodological criteria. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main results We included two randomised trials (involved 150 women) with clear description of randomisation methods. The methodological risk of bias of the trials varied. There were variations in the tested herbal preparations, and the treatment duration was six months. The outcomes available were not the primary outcomes selected for this review, such as symptom relief or the need for surgical treatment; trials mainly reported outcomes in terms of shrinkage of the fibroids. Compared with mifepristone, Huoxue Sanjie decoction showed no significant difference in the disappearance of uterine fibroids, number of

  17. cAMP-independent role of PKA in tonicity-induced transactivation of tonicity-responsive enhancer/ osmotic response element-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Joan D; Persaud, Prita; Williams, Chester K; Chen, Ye; Burg, Maurice B

    2002-12-24

    Hypertonicity-induced increase in activity of the transcription factor tonicity-responsive enhancer/osmotic response element-binding protein (TonEBP/OREBP) protects renal cells by increasing transcription of genes, including those involved in increased accumulation of organic osmolytes. We previously showed that hypertonicity increases transactivating activity of TonEBP/OREBP. Assay with a binary GAL4 transactivation system showed that the 984 C-terminal amino acids of TonEBP/OREBP (amino acids 548-1531) contain a tonicity-dependent transactivation domain (TAD). Also, amino acids 548-1531 undergo tonicity-dependent phosphorylation, and some inhibitors of protein kinases reduce the tonicity-dependent transactivation. In the present studies we examined the role of protein kinase A (PKA). (i) An inhibitor of PKA (H89) reduces tonicity-dependent increases in transactivation, ORE/TonE reporter activity, and induction of aldose reductase and betaine transporter mRNAs. (ii) Overexpression of the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc) increases transactivation activity of amino acids 548-1531 and activity of an ORE/TonE reporter. The increases are much greater under isotonic than under hypertonic conditions. (iii) A dominant-negative PKAc reduces activity of an ORE/TonE reporter. (iv) PKAc activity increases with tonicity but cAMP does not. (v) TonEBP/OREBP and PKAc coimmunoprecipitate. (vi) amino acids 872-1271, including N- and C-terminal polyglutamine stretches, demonstrate tonicity-dependent transactivation, albeit less than amino acids 548-1531, and a similar role for PKA. (i) PKA plays an important role in TonEBP/OREBP activation of tonicity-dependent gene expression; (ii) PKA activation of TonEBP/OREBP appears to be cAMP-independent; and (iii) amino acids 872-1271 are sufficient for tonicity-dependent transactivation of TonEBP/OREBP.

  18. cAMP-independent role of PKA in tonicity-induced transactivation of tonicity-responsive enhancer/ osmotic response element-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Joan D.; Persaud, Prita; Williams, Chester K.; Chen, Ye; Burg, Maurice B.

    2002-01-01

    Hypertonicity-induced increase in activity of the transcription factor tonicity-responsive enhancer/osmotic response element-binding protein (TonEBP/OREBP) protects renal cells by increasing transcription of genes, including those involved in increased accumulation of organic osmolytes. We previously showed that hypertonicity increases transactivating activity of TonEBP/OREBP. Assay with a binary GAL4 transactivation system showed that the 984 C-terminal amino acids of TonEBP/OREBP (amino acids 548–1531) contain a tonicity-dependent transactivation domain (TAD). Also, amino acids 548–1531 undergo tonicity-dependent phosphorylation, and some inhibitors of protein kinases reduce the tonicity-dependent transactivation. In the present studies we examined the role of protein kinase A (PKA). Results: (i) An inhibitor of PKA (H89) reduces tonicity-dependent increases in transactivation, ORE/TonE reporter activity, and induction of aldose reductase and betaine transporter mRNAs. (ii) Overexpression of the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc) increases transactivation activity of amino acids 548–1531 and activity of an ORE/TonE reporter. The increases are much greater under isotonic than under hypertonic conditions. (iii) A dominant-negative PKAc reduces activity of an ORE/TonE reporter. (iv) PKAc activity increases with tonicity but cAMP does not. (v) TonEBP/OREBP and PKAc coimmunoprecipitate. (vi) amino acids 872–1271, including N– and C-terminal polyglutamine stretches, demonstrate tonicity-dependent transactivation, albeit less than amino acids 548–1531, and a similar role for PKA. Conclusions: (i) PKA plays an important role in TonEBP/OREBP activation of tonicity-dependent gene expression; (ii) PKA activation of TonEBP/OREBP appears to be cAMP-independent; and (iii) amino acids 872–1271 are sufficient for tonicity-dependent transactivation of TonEBP/OREBP. PMID:12482947

  19. Ambient tonicity and intestinal cytochrome CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Andrew I; Ito, Shinya

    2010-08-01

    Recently-discovered tonicity-dependence of human CYP3A expression in vitro may be a novel mechanism of CYP3A regulation in the intestinal epithelia, which exists in a dynamic osmotic environment influenced by food intake. A combination of focused and comprehensive literature searches to identify any relevant reports using Medline (from 1950 to 7 November 2009) through the OVID system. An update on current knowledge on osmotic environment in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its impact on intestinal CYP3A expression and function with special emphasis on the tonicity-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5). In vitro hypertonicity of ambient osmotic environment in cultured human cells increases expression of CYP3A through transcriptional enhancement by osmosensitive NFAT5. Although post-prandial osmolality in the GI lumen in vivo is substantially increased, NFAT5 activation has not been reported. Similarly, high-salt diet increases intestinal CYP3A function in humans, but it is not known whether these changes are mediated directly by NFAT5.

  20. Bilateral tonic pupils: Holmes Adie syndrome or generalised neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Bremner, F D; Smith, S E

    2007-12-01

    To compare the pupil signs in patients with bilateral pupillotonia caused by Holmes-Adie syndrome or generalised peripheral neuropathy. Infrared video pupillographic techniques were used to measure a number of pupil variables in patients with Holmes-Adie syndrome, generalised neuropathy (various aetiologies) and healthy age-matched control subjects. Regardless of aetiology, the patients generally had pupil signs typical of pupillotonia (small dark diameters, large light diameters, tonic near responses, attenuated light responses with light-near dissociation, and sector palsy). However, significant differences were found in the prevalence and magnitude of several pupil variables in the two patient groups. In particular, sector palsy and anisocoria exceeding 1 mm (in the light) were seen much more commonly in Holmes-Adie patients than patients with generalised neuropathy. The presence of both these pupil signs can be used to distinguish between these diagnoses with a sensitivity of 58% and a specificity of 90%. The tonic pupils of patients with Holmes-Adie syndrome are significantly different to those found in patients with generalised neuropathy; recognition of these differences may allow distinction between these diagnoses.

  1. Analysis of wavelet-filtered tonic-clonic electroencephalogram recordings.

    PubMed

    Rosso, O A; Figliola, A; Creso, J; Serrano, E

    2004-07-01

    EEG signals obtained during tonic-clonic epileptic seizures can be severely contaminated by muscle and physiological noise. Heavily contaminated EEG signals are hard to analyse quantitatively and also are usually rejected for visual inspection by physicians, resulting in a considerable loss of collected information. The aim of this work was to develop a computer-based method of time series analysis for such EEGs. A method is presented for filtering those frequencies associated with muscle activity using a wavelet transform. One of the advantages of this method over traditional filtering is that wavelet filtering of some frequency bands does not modify the pattern of the remaining ones. In consequence, the dynamics associated with them do not change. After generation of a 'noise free' signal by removal of the muscle artifacts using wavelets, a dynamic analysis was performed using non-linear dynamics metric tools. The characteristic parameters evaluated (correlation dimension D2 and largest Lyapunov exponent lambda1) were compatible with those obtained in previous works. The average values obtained were: D2=4.25 and lambda1=3.27 for the pre-ictal stage; D2=4.03 and lambda1=2.68 for the tonic seizure stage; D2=4.11 and lambda1=2.46 for the clonic seizure stage.

  2. Arousal thresholds during human tonic and phasic REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Ermis, Ummehan; Krakow, Karsten; Voss, Ursula

    2010-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate arousal thresholds (ATs) in tonic and phasic episodes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and to compare the frequency spectrum of these sub-states of REM to non-REM (NREM) stages of sleep. We found the two REM stages to differ with regard to behavioural responses to external acoustic stimuli. The AT in tonic REM was indifferent from that in sleep stage 2, and ATs in phasic REM were similar to those in slow-wave sleep (stage 4). NREM and REM stages of similar behavioural thresholds were distinctly different with regard to their frequency pattern. These data provide further evidence that REM sleep should not be regarded a uniform state. Regarding electroencephalogram frequency spectra, we found that the two REM stages were more similar to each other than to NREM stages with similar responsivity. Ocular activity such as ponto-geniculo-occipital-like waves and microsaccades are discussed as likely modulators of behavioural responsiveness and cortical processing of auditory information in the two REM sub-states.

  3. Tonic and stimulus-evoked nitric oxide production in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Graeme; Buerk, Donald G.; Ma, Jie; Gelperin, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been long assumed to play a key role in mammalian olfaction. This was based largely on circumstantial evidence, i.e. prominent staining for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclic GMP or soluble guanylyl cyclase, an effector enzyme activated by NO, in local interneurons of the olfactory bulb. Here we employ innovative custom-fabricated NO micro-sensors to obtain the first direct, time-resolved measurements of NO signaling in the olfactory bulb. In 400 μm thick mouse olfactory bulb slices, we detected a steady average basal level of 87 nM NO in the extracellular space of mitral or granule cell layers. This NO ‘tone’ was sensitive to NOS substrate manipulation (200 μM L-arginine, 2 mM L-NAME) and Mg2+ modulation of NMDA receptor conductance. Electrical stimulation of olfactory nerve fibers evoked transient (peak at 10 s) increments in NO levels 90 – 100 nM above baseline. In the anesthetized mouse, NO micro-sensors inserted into the granule cell layer detected NO transients averaging 55 nM in amplitude and peaking at 3.4 sec after onset of a 5 sec odorant stimulation. These findings suggest dual roles for NO signaling in the olfactory bulb – tonic inhibitory control of principal neurons, and regulation of circuit dynamics during odor information processing. PMID:18407420

  4. Changes of phasic and tonic smooth muscle function of jejunum in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing-Bo; Chen, Peng-Min; Gregersen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To generate phasic and tonic stress-strain curves for evaluation of intestinal smooth muscle function in type 2 diabetic rats during active and passive conditions. METHODS: Seven diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) male rats, 32-wk old (GK group), and 9 age-matched normal Wistar rats (Normal group) were included in the study. Jejunal segments were distended up to a pressure of 10 cm H2O in an organ bath containing 37 °C Krebs solution with addition of carbachol (CA). The pressure and outer diameter changes were synchronously recorded. Passive conditions were obtained using calcium-free Krebs solution containing ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and papaverine. Total phasic, tonic and passive circumferential stress and strain were computed from the diameter and pressure data with reference to the zero-stress state geometry. The active phasic and tonic stresses were defined as the total phasic and tonic stresses minus the passive stress. RESULTS: Diabetes increased jejunal mucosa and muscle layer thicknesses compared to the Normal group (mucosa, 755.8 ± 63.3 vs 633.1 ± 59.1 μm, P < 0.01; muscle, 106.3 ± 12.9 vs 85.2 ± 11.7 μm, P < 0.05). The pressure and stress thresholds were decreased in the GK group after CA application compared to distensions without CA application (pressure, 1.01 ± 0.07 vs 1.99 ± 0.19 cmH2O, P < 0.01; stress, 0.11 ± 0.01 vs 0.24 ± 0.02 kPa, P < 0.01). CA application did not change the pressure and stress threshold in the Normal group (pressure, 2.13 ± 0.32 vs 2.34 ± 0.32 cm H2O, P > 0.05; stress, 0.25 ± 0.03 vs 0.35 ± 0.06 kPa, P > 0.05). The amplitude of total phasic, total tonic, active phasic and active tonic circumferential stresses did not differ for the distensions without CA application between the GK group and the Normal group. However, the total phasic and total tonic stresses increased after CA application in the GK group compared those in the Normal group. When normalized to muscle layer thickness, the amplitude of active

  5. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment.

  6. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  7. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  8. Perioperative Considerations of Herbal Medications.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Ryan M; Egan, Brian J

    2017-09-13

    A considerable portion of the US population uses herbal supplements on a daily basis for their various proposed beneficial effects. However, the over-the-counter nature of these medications and lack of knowledge of adverse effect profiles can have unexpected serious impact on the perioperative course. The growing list of supplements presents a pharmacologic conundrum to the anesthesiologist. To compile a comprehensive list of vitamins, herbals, and supplements used commonly by patients, describe the risks associated with them, and identify recommendations for perioperative management. The current literature on PubMed and Medline was reviewed for the years 2000 through 2016. The reference lists of each selected article were also reviewed for additional sources of information. The review identified 23 herbals and supplements that are commonly used and their perioperative considerations. The management of herbals and supplements is an issue for the anesthesiologist. Although it would be prudent to stop use of most substances a week or more preoperatively, the perioperative physician must be wary of the potential for withdrawal. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Unique Aspects of Herbal Whole System Research

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Suzanna M.; Schwabl, Herbert; Flower, Andrew; Lac, Dip; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Hirschkorn, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Whole systems of healthcare offer unique methodological and theoretical challenges for researchers. Herbalism has its own set of methodological and philosophical research issues, which are beyond those presented for whole system research, in general. Methods An International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) workshop was presented on, “Challenges in Herbal Whole Systems Research”. Starting from a definition of herbalism the most important challenges to herbal whole system research (HWSR) were elicited with inputs from both the workshop presenters and the audience. Results Five major challenges unique to herbal whole systems research were identified: (1) Defining herbalists and herbalism; (2) role of natural products industry in herbal research; (3) designing placebos and delivering active herbal treatments as are given by herbalists; (4) researching the herb as a living entity; and (5) designing trials to investigate and develop multi-component herbal therapies. Conclusions To design studies of herbalism requires unique methods and theoretical frameworks. Solutions to these methodological challenges need to be addressed to conduct research that examines herbal systems of medicine versus conducting trials on individual herbs given out of their original therapeutic context. PMID:19272580

  10. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

    2012-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Main results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects

  11. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

    2011-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus

  12. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

    2010-07-07

    Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects.Astragalus membranaceus (either as an injection or granules) showed significant positive effects in

  13. The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhenxiang; Leng, Yashu; Lv, Jiayin; Li, Bingjin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs. Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies. Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments. The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs. PMID:28423368

  14. The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ge, Tongtong; Pan, Zhenxiang; Leng, Yashu; Lv, Jiayin; Li, Bingjin

    2017-07-18

    Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs. Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies. Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments. The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs.

  15. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple expressions of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-12-01

    Chinese herbal property is the highly summarized concept of herbal nature and pharmaceutical effect, which reflect the characteristics of herbal actions on human body. These herbal actions, also interpreted as presenting the information about pharmaceutical effect contained in herbal property on the biological carrier, are defined as herbal property expressions. However, the biological expression of herbal property is believed to possess complex features for the involved complexity of Chinese medicine and organism. Firstly, there are multiple factors which could influence the expression results of herbal property such as the growth environment, harvest season and preparing methods of medicinal herbs, and physique and syndrome of body. Secondly, there are multiple biological approaches and biochemical indicators for the expression of the same property. This paper elaborated these complexities for further understanding of herbal property. The individuality of herbs and expression factors should be well analyzed in the related studies.

  16. Tonic fibres in axial muscle of cyprinid fish larvae: their definition, possible origins and functional importance.

    PubMed

    Stoiber, W; Haslett, J R; Steinbacher, P; Freimüller, M; Sänger, A M

    2002-05-01

    Teleost fish are known to develop small populations of muscle fibres that are assumed to be tonic in nature although their contractile properties and many other characteristics remain unknown. Here we attempt to resolve some of the ambiguity and confusions surrounding the definition and functional role of tonic fibres in teleosts and provide new information on their ontogeny. We investigate the differentiation of tonic muscle fibres in three species of cyprinid fish using electron microscopy, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The fine structure of the fibres defined as tonic in the larvae used in this study complies with patterns known from studies in teleost adults. This allows formal definition of tonic fibres in cyprinid larvae. The tonic fibres may be recognized by a variety of features: (1) by their characteristic position along the medial confines of the red muscle insertion at the horizontal septum, (2) their fine structure, including solid clusters of irregularly cleaved myofibrils, thick and wavy Z-lines, and T-tubules at the A-band/I-band transitions, (3) their histochemical features, specifically weak but obvious staining for mATPase after alkaline preincubation, and lack of SDH activity in the more advanced larval stages, (4) their unique immunological properties, being the only fibre type in the myotome that reacts with a serum against chicken tonic myosin (anti- T2). Expression of tonic characters usually begins within a few fibres in the dorsal domain of the superficial red muscle insertion at the horizontal septum and hence involves a high degree of dorso-ventral polarity. The present evidence indicates that tonic fibres arise from separate myogenic stem cells rather than by transdifferentiation from existing red fibres. First appearance of tonic fibres during ontogeny correlates closely with the onset of free swimming and exogeneous feeding. We use this fact to argue that tonic fibres are probably a prerequisite for

  17. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Shouval, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) have been used for health-related purposes since more than 5000 years, and their application is firmly anchored in all societies worldwide. Over last decades, a remarkable renaissance in the use of HDS can be noticed in affluent societies for manifold reasons. HDS are forms of complementary and alternative medicines commonly used to prevent or treat diseases, or simply as a health tonic. Another growing indication for HDS is their alleged benefit for weight loss or to increase physical fitness. Access is easy via internet and mail-order pharmacies, and their turnover reaches billions of dollars in the USA and Europe alone. However, HDS are generally not categorized as drugs and thus less strictly regulated in most countries. As a result, scientific evidence proving their beneficial effects is mostly lacking, although some HDS may have purported benefits. However, the majority lacks such proof of value, and their use is predominantly based on belief and hope. In addition to missing scientific evidence supporting their use, HDS are typically prone to batch-to-batch variability in composition and concentration, contamination, and purposeful adulteration. Moreover, numerous examples of preparations emerged which have been linked to significant liver injury. These include single ingredients, such as kava, germander, and several Chinese herbals. Other HDS products associated with liver toxicity consist of multiple, often ill-defined ingredients, such as Hydroxycut and Herbalife. Affirmative diagnostic tests are not available, and the assessment of liver injury ascribed to HDS depends on a thorough and proactive medical history, careful exclusion of other causes, and a search for available reports on similar events linked to the intake of the suspected preparation or ingredients contained therein.

  18. Exploration of nutraceutical potential of herbal oil formulated from parasitic plant.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Fozia; Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Shahid, Muhammad; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Talpur, Mir Munsif Ali

    2014-01-01

    Cuscuta reflexa (C. reflexa) is a parasitic climber of medicinal importance. The present study was aimed to evaluate the nutraceutical potential of C. reflexa stems collected from different hosts and to evaluate the role of the herbal formulation in dandruff, hair fall control as well as hair growth promoter. Hair formulations of C. reflexa collected from different host plants were prepared in the form of herbal oils (10% w/v). C. reflexa stems were extracted using mustard oil as base oil by using direct boiling technique. Prepared oil was studied as hair tonic. The experimental protocols used were anti-dandruff hair growth activity, as well as hair fall reduction. Herbal hair oils versus mustard oil were evaluated by applying oils on human volunteers with hair fall and dandruff problem whereas promotion of hair growth activity was conducted on rats. The formulated oils were also characterised for proximate analysis, physiochemical composition, as well as antimicrobial activity. The test oils of C. reflexa collected from Azadiracta indica and Zizyphus jujuba were effective in the promotion of hair growth, dandruff control, as well as reduction in hair fall activity. All the formulated oils showed potent antimicrobial activity against all selected strains of bacteria and fungi.

  19. Ross syndrome: Unilateral hyperhidrosis, Adie's tonic pupils and diffuse areflexia.

    PubMed

    Yaşar, Sirin; Aslan, Canan; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Demirci, Gülşen Tükenmez; Tutkavul, Kemal; Babalik, Dilek

    2010-12-01

    Ross syndrome is a rare disorder first described in 1958 with partial autonomic dysfunction. It has three basic components including unilateral or bilateral segmental anhidrosis, Adie's tonic pupils and areflexia or hyporeflexia of deep tendon reflexes. The most disturbing symptom in the patients is segmental compensatory hyperhidrosis and often the hypohidrosis or anhidrosis is not even noticed. While the pathogenesis of Ross syndrome is unclear, degenerative changes or damage to the peripheral autonomic nerve system or dorsal root ganglia have been suggested as possible causes. About 50 cases have been reported, usually by neurologists and ophthalmologists, and less often by dermatologists. We present a 26-year-old patient who displayed the classic triad of this syndrome, emphasizing that the presenting complaint may be hyperhidrosis and that multidisciplinary evaluation in neurology and ophthalmology is essential. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  20. [Tonic pupil and tendon areflexia: the Holmes-Adie's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martinelli, P; Minardi, C

    2001-10-01

    The Holmes-Adie syndrome (HAS) is characterised by initially monolateral, then bilateral enlargement of the pupil with delayed responses to near vision and subsequent redilation, and absent tendon reflexes. The diameter of the affected pupil is oval or irregular, sometimes with spontaneous movements of the pupillary sphincter muscle. Reaction to light may require several minutes' exposure to bright light, as it does redilation after a prolonged stay in a dark room. The reaction to near vision is tonic and delayed, as the subsequent redilation. In 10% of cases there is a permanent failure of the pupil to react either to light or to near vision. Absence of deep tendon reflexes is acquired and permanent, most frequently involving the Achilles' tendon reflex. Loss of different degrees of ciliary and spinal ganglia neurons, without evidence of inflammatory findings, are the neuropathological data accounting for the clinical signs of HAS. Polyneuropathies of different origin can be complicated by a symptomatic form of HAS.

  1. A comparative study of changes operated by sympathetic nervous system activation on spindle afferent discharge and on tonic vibration reflex in rabbit jaw muscles.

    PubMed

    Passatore, M; Deriu, F; Grassi, C; Roatta, S

    1996-03-07

    The effect of sympathetic activation on the spindle afferent response to vibratory stimuli eliciting the tonic vibration reflex in jaw closing muscles was studied in precollicularly decerebrate rabbits. Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk, at frequencies within the physiologic range, consistently induced a decrease in spindle response to muscle vibration, which was often preceded by a transient enhancement. Spindle discharge was usually correlated with the EMG activity in the masseter muscle and the tension reflexly developed by jaw muscles. The changes in spindle response to vibration were superimposed on variations of the basal discharge which exhibited different patterns in the studied units, increases in the firing rate being more frequently observed. These effects were mimicked by close arterial injection of the selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Data presented here suggest that sympathetically-induced modifications of the tonic vibration reflex are due to changes exerted on muscle spindle afferent information.

  2. Pelvic floor tonicity affects urodynamic measurements in children with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Gokhan; Avlan, Dincer; Nayci, Ali; Tasdelen, Bahar

    2011-11-01

    In a cystometry procedure in a child with myelomeningocele (MMC), a pressure increase in the abdominal pressure (P (abd)) tracing was detected during filling. This pressure alteration was not related to other known events (straining, talking, rectal contractions). This study was conducted to investigate this phenomenon. Forty-three children with MMC were enrolled in the study. A slow and gradual pressure increase associated with the bladder filling was sought in the P (abd) tracings. End filling and initial P (abd) gradient more than 3 cm H(2)O were considered as increased P (abd). If the defined pressure event occurs, the bladder was evacuated for verifying the filling-pressure relation. Age, gender, study position, pelvic floor tonicity and cystometric capacity were correlated with the pressure alteration. P (abd) increase was noted in 18 (41.8%) children. The mean P (abd) gradient between end and initial filling was 4.78 ± 1.63 cm H(2)O in these children. No statistically significant difference was noted for age, gender and study position. Statistically significant differences were noted with decreased pelvic floor tonicity and high values of cystometric capacity (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). The pressure increase is thought to be a consequence of a posterior positional change in the bladder during filling die to decreased pelvic floor support in MMC. This pressure alteration was more obvious with increased bladder capacity. Urodynamic studies of children with MMC should be carefully evaluated for the presence of this phenomenon to prevent low measurement of the detrusor pressure, compliance and detrusor leak point pressure values.

  3. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional

  4. Influences on consumer spending for herbal products.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R; Ganther-Urmie, Julie M

    2006-06-01

    Despite the rapid growth in consumer spending on herbal products, we know little about factors that influence such spending. To use a model of adoption to investigate consumers' spending on herbal products. The study used a mail survey of a stratified random sample of 1,300 consumers. The population consisted of consumers aged 18 years and older residing in the United States. The sampling frame was a mailing list purchased from KM Lists. The independent variables were consumer characteristics, social systems, communication channels, and herbal characteristics. The amount of spending on herbs was the dependent measure, with responses divided into monthly spending of 10 dollars or less and more than 10 dollars . Binary logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between adoption model variables and spending on herbs. Of the 1,300 mailed surveys, there were 77 undeliverable surveys and 456 usable returned surveys, yielding a usable response rate of 37.3%. A total of 181 (39.7%) respondents reported using herbal products. The logistic regression was performed using the 168 herbal users who reported that they spent money in the past month on herbal products. The overall regression model was significant (P<.05, Nagelkerke R(2)=0.499). The significant influences on spending on herbals were age, over-the-counter (OTC) drug use, and use of an herb professional as an information source about herbs. Older people reported spending more on herbal products than younger people. OTC drug use was positively related to spending on herbals and appears to complement herbal usage. Finally, consumers who obtain information about herbals from an herb professional tend to spend more on herbals. An adoption model may be useful in explaining consumers' spending on herbal products.

  5. Remission of Unresectable Lung Metastases from Rectal Cancer After Herbal Medicine Treatment: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsuk; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Lung metastasis is frequent in rectal cancer patients and has a poor prognosis, with an expected three-year survival rate of about 10%. Though western medicine has made great strides in the curative resection of liver metastases, resection of lung metastases has lagged far behind. Many preclinical studies have suggested that herbal treatments block metastasis, but few clinical studies have addressed this topic. We present the case of a 57-year-old Asian male with lung metastases from rectal cancer. He first underwent resection of the primary lesion (stage IIA, T3N0M0) and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, lung metastases were confirmed about one year later. Palliative chemotherapy was begun, but his disease continued to progress after three cycles and chemotherapy was halted. The patient was exclusively treated with herbal medicine-standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua stokes extract combined with Dokhwaljihwang-tang (Sasang constitutional medicine in Korea). After seven weeks of herbal medicine treatment, the lung metastases were markedly improved. Regression of lung metastases has continued; also, the patient's rectal cancer has not returned. He has been receiving herbal medicine for over two years and very few side effects have been observed. We suggest that the herbal regimen used in our patient is a promising candidate for the treatment of lung metastases secondary to rectal cancer, and we hope that this case stimulates further investigation into the efficacy of herbal treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

  6. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  7. Quantitative evaluation of the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) in the masseter muscle.

    PubMed

    Takata, Y; Nakajima, T; Yamada, Y

    1996-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) elicited by high-frequency vibration in evaluating masticatory muscle excitability. The experiment was performed on 16 male adult volunteers, 20 to 45 years of age, without spontaneous pain or tenderness in the masticatory muscles. The subjects were seated in a chair in a fixed head position with the mouth kept open with a bite block. TVR was elicited by vibratory stimulation applied to the mandible (approximately 15 m/s2, 160 Hz). An electromyogram (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from the masseter muscles and analyzed quantitatively using an arbitrary index (TVR index) calculated from the response. Bite force was measured during clenching using a pressure-sensitive foil. Wide variations in the TVR index (maximum, 22.7%; minimum, 0.9%, average, 7.7%) were observed among individuals. The mean index for five subjects with a clenching habit was significantly higher than that for 11 subjects without a history of clenching. Tolperisone HCl (100 mg taken orally), a gamma-drive depressant, was found to reduce the response for 2 hours. There was a negative correlation (r = -.504, P < .05) between bite force and TVR index when the values on both sides were compared. The TVR may be of use in evaluating masseter muscle excitability.

  8. Review article: herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bunchorntavakul, C; Reddy, K R

    2013-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements are commonly used throughout the World. There is a tendency for underreporting their ingestion by patients and the magnitude of their use is underrecognised by Physicians. Herbal hepatotoxicity is not uncommonly encountered, but the precise incidence and manifestations have not been well characterised. To review the epidemiology, presentation and diagnosis of herbal hepatotoxicity. This review will mainly discuss single ingredients and complex mixtures of herbs marketed under a single label. A Medline search was undertaken to identify relevant literature using search terms including 'herbal', 'herbs', 'dietary supplement', 'liver injury', 'hepatitis' and 'hepatotoxicity'. Furthermore, we scanned the reference lists of the primary and review articles to identify publications not retrieved by electronic searches. The incidence rates of herbal hepatotoxicity are largely unknown. The clinical presentation and severity can be highly variable, ranging from mild hepatitis to acute hepatic failure requiring transplantation. Scoring systems for the causality assessment of drug-induced liver injury may be helpful, but have not been validated for herbal hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity features of commonly used herbal products, such as Ayurvedic and Chinese herbs, black cohosh, chaparral, germander, greater celandine, green tea, Herbalife, Hydroxycut, kava, pennyroyal, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, skullcap, and usnic acid, have been individually reviewed. Furthermore, clinically significant herb-drug interactions are also discussed. A number of herbal medicinal products are associated with a spectrum of hepatotoxicity events. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and the risks involved are needed to improve herbal medicine safety. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. [A new concept to explain dysnatremia: the tonicity balance of entries and exits].

    PubMed

    Mallié, J P; Halperin, M L

    2001-01-01

    Plasma sodium concentration, or natremia, results from three main factors: exchangeable sodium (Na+), exchangeable potassium (K+) and total body water (H2O). Its alterations often imply a change in cell volume. Understanding dysnatremias is essential for the treatment and prevention of hydromineral disorders. Extra-cellular fluid tonomoles consist almost exclusively of Na+ salts. Their dilution is the tonicity. K+ is an essential tonomole for intra-cellular fluid tonicity. The balance between intra and extracellular tonicities depends on water movements and is responsible for changes in intra- and extracellular fluid volumes. Cell volume is therefore depending on the tonicity balance. A change in body tonicity (which is not osmolality) can be correctly and rapidly appreciated by measuring the (Na+ + K+) and H2O balances. Clinical cases emphasize the misleadings resulting from the free-water clearance calculation or the only measurements of urinary losses. They also demonstrate that tonicity balance provides indications for therapy whereas analyses based upon electrolyte-free water do not. Intakes should be quantified with the same care than losses. The units used must be coherent to allow a quick and easy understanding at the bedside. Tonicity balance should be taught and Na+ + K+ and H2O balances should be routinely utilized by practitioners, dieticians and nurses in the concerned pediatrics, in particular intensive care, internal medicine, nephrology, pediatry and anesthesiology.

  10. Albumin impacts the effects of tonicity on microvascular hydraulic permeability.

    PubMed

    Victorino, Gregory P; Chong, Terry J; Curran, Brian

    2004-12-01

    An increase in tonicity shrinks endothelial cells. This cell shrinkage may open inter-endothelial gaps and allow more fluid to escape from the microvasculature. This increase in microvascular permeability is not supported by clinical studies suggesting that water is pulled into the vascular space, not lost into the interstitium. We hypothesized that albumin influences the change in trans-endothelial water movement caused by alterations in tonicity by a mechanism other than oncotic pressure. Hydraulic permeability (L(p)) was measured in rat mesenteric venules using the Landis micro-occlusion model. Measures of L(p) were obtained after successive perfusions with 1% albumin solution (BSA) of varying sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (85, 135, 185, and 235 mm) (n = 6). Additional venules were perfused with 7% NaCl followed by 7% NaCl + BSA and L(p) measured (n = 6). Units for L(p) are x10(-7) cm/sec(-1) cm/H(2)O(-1). As the NaCl concentration in BSA increased from 85 mm to 235 mm, L(p) decreased from 1.93 +/- 0.41 to 0.97 +/- 0.11. Compared to results without albumin, BSA with 185 mm NaCl decreased L(p) from 3.93 +/- 0.08 to 1.25 +/- 0.18 (P = 0.04), and BSA with 235 mm NaCl decreased L(p) from 6.14 +/- 0.05 to 0.96 +/- 0.11 (P = 0.002). There was a three-fold decrease in L(p) when BSA was added to the 7% NaCl solution (P = 0.02). Albumin attenuated the increase in L(p) that is associated with higher NaCl concentrations. Because this model controls for oncotic pressure, albumin may impact L(p) by a mechanism other than oncotic force. Albumin appears to stabilize the endothelial barrier during HS perfusion and prevents the loss of intravascular fluid. Appropriate albumin levels may play an important clinical role in modulating trans-endothelial fluid efflux during HS administration.

  11. EEG spectral power in phasic and tonic REM sleep: different patterns in young adults and children.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Szakadát, Sára; Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is composed of phasic and tonic periods, two distinguishable microstates in terms of arousal thresholds and sensory processing. Background electroencephalogram oscillations are also different between periods with (phasic state) and periods without (tonic state) eye movements. In Study 1, previous findings analysing electroencephalogram spectral power in phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep were replicated, and analyses extended to the high gamma range (52-90 Hz). In Study 2, phasic and tonic spectral power differences within a group of 4-8-year-old children were examined. Based on the polysomnographic data of 20 young adults, the phasic state yielded increased delta and theta power in anterior sites, as well as generally decreased high alpha and beta power in comparison to the tonic state. Moreover, phasic periods exhibited greater spectral power in the lower and the higher gamma band. Interestingly, children (n = 18) exhibited a different pattern, showing increased activity in the low alpha range during phasic periods. Moreover, during phasic in contrast to tonic rapid eye movement sleep, increased low and high gamma and enhanced low gamma band power emerged in anterior and posterior regions, respectively. The current findings show that spectral activity within the high gamma range substantially contributes to the differences between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep, especially in adults. Moreover, the current data underscore the heterogeneity of rapid eye movement sleep, and point to marked differences between young adults and children regarding phasic/tonic electroencephalogram spectral power. These results suggest that the differentiation between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement periods undergoes maturation.

  12. Robust tonic GABA currents can inhibit cell firing in mouse newborn neocortical pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Sebe, Joy Y.; Looke-Stewart, Elizabeth C.; Estrada, Rosanne C.; Baraban, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the hippocampus and neocortex, GABA is considered excitatory in early development due to a relatively depolarized Cl- reversal potential. Although the depolarizing nature of synaptic GABAergic events has been well established, it is unknown whether cortical tonic currents mediated by extrasynaptically located GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are also excitatory. Here we examined the development of tonic currents in the neocortex and their effect on neuronal excitability. We found that mean tonic current, recorded from Layer 5 pyramidal cells of the mouse somatosensory cortex, is robust in newborns (P2-4) then decreases dramatically by the second postnatal week (P7-10 and P30-40). Pharmacological studies, in combination with Western blot analysis, show that neonatal tonic currents are partially mediated by the GABAAR α5, and likely the δ, subunit. In newborns, the charge due to tonic current accounts for nearly 100% of total GABA charge, a contribution that decreases to less than 50% in mature tissue. Current clamp recordings reveal that tonic current contributes to large fluctuations in the membrane potential that may disrupt its stability. Bath application of 5 μM GABA, to induce tonic currents, markedly decreased cell firing frequency in most recorded cells while increasing it in others. Gramicidin perforated patch recordings reveal heterogeneity in ECl recorded from P2-5 Layer 5 pyramidal cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that tonic currents activated by low GABA concentrations can dominate GABAergic transmission in newborn neocortical pyramidal cells and that tonic currents can exert heterogeneous effects on neuronal excitability. PMID:20846324

  13. The impact of luminance on tonic and phasic pupillary responses to sustained cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Vachon, François; Dehais, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Pupillary reactions independent of light conditions have been linked to cognition for a long time. However, the light conditions can impact the cognitive pupillary reaction. Previous studies underlined the impact of luminance on pupillary reaction, but it is still unclear how luminance modulates the sustained and transient components of pupillary reaction - tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the luminance on these two components under sustained cognitive load. Fourteen participants performed a novel working memory task combining mathematical computations with a classic n-back task. We studied both tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response under low (1-back) and high (2-back) working memory load and two luminance levels (gray and white). We found that the impact of working memory load on the tonic pupil diameter was modulated by the level of luminance, the increase in tonic pupil diameter with the load being larger under lower luminance. In contrast, the smaller phasic pupil response found under high load remained unaffected by luminance. These results showed that luminance impacts the cognitive pupillary reaction - tonic pupil diameter (phasic pupil response) being modulated under sustained (respectively, transient) cognitive load. These findings also support the relationship between the locus-coeruleus system, presumably functioning in two firing modes - tonic and phasic - and the pupil diameter. We suggest that the tonic pupil diameter tracks the tonic activity of the locus-coeruleus while phasic pupil response reflects its phasic activity. Besides, the designed novel cognitive paradigm allows the simultaneous manipulation of sustained and transient components of the cognitive load and is useful for dissociating the effects on the tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response.

  14. Anti-aging and health-promoting constituents derived from traditional oriental herbal remedies: information retrieval using the TradiMed 2000 DB.

    PubMed

    Chang, I M

    2001-04-01

    Asia, Korea, China, and Japan have legally adopted the traditional Oriental (Chinese) medical system along with the Western system. A number of traditional herbal drugs including the polypharmacy type of prescriptions (a combination of multiple herbs) are available and are widely dispensed. Herbal therapy used in traditional Oriental medicine appears to be quite different from its counterpart Western drug therapy. The polypharmacy type of herbal therapy generally exhibits holistic effectiveness by exerting activities to multitarget organs (organ systems) according to the principles of traditional Oriental medicine. The Traditional Oriental Medicine Database (TradiMed 2000 DB) is a unique database of traditional Oriental herbal therapy containing a variety of information such as formulae, chemical information on ingredients, botanical information on herbal materials, and a dictionary of disease classification (TOM and Western classification). A formula, namely, the Sip-Jeon-Dae-Bo-Tang consisting of 10 different herbs, was selected by retrieving information from the TradiMed 2000 DB. Then its tonic effects for elderly people were shown as an example.

  15. Contribution of tonic vibration reflex to the evaluation and diagnosis of cerebellar disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, G; Abbruzzese, M; Ratto, S; Favale, E

    1982-01-01

    Biceps brachii tonic vibration reflexes were elicited in patients with either focal or diffuse cerebellar damage and spino-cerebellar degenerations. As compared to normal controls, tonic vibration reflex amplitude was reduced in cerebellar patients, particularly in cases with unilateral hemispheric lesion, who exhibited a clear cut tonic vibration reflex asymmetry even when clinical symptoms were mild. These reflexes were absent or very weak in patients with spino-cerebellar degenerations. Muscle vibration induced in most of the patients an enhancement of mild or latent clinical symptoms such as intention tremor, difficulty in muscle relaxation or motor incoordination. PMID:7119815

  16. Anticonvulsant drugs for generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Piccorossi, Alessandra; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Verrotti, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Primary generalized tonic clonic seizures (pGTCS) are still linked to major concerns for the clinic and hazards for patients suffering from idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), so a quick search of the most effective and appropriate therapy is needed to control them. The key criteria for proper treatment are syndromic diagnosis and distinction between newly diagnosed and refractory patients. Other criteria include age, gender and comorbidities. Areas covered: Treatment for pGTCS has expanded in the last two years, with new antiepileptic drugs like perampanel joining valproic acid, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, topiramate, while further evidence-based data are required for zonisamide and lacosamide. Expert opinion: Currently, valproic acid can be considered as a first choice in male or menopausal women, and in the absence of weight issue, both in adults and in children, and in the absence of side effects such as insomnia and headache. Today, valproic acid is not recommended in child-bearing age and in relation to possible cognitive problems, especially in children. Lamotrigine and levetiracetam can be a viable alternative as a first choice. Topiramate is also effective as a first choice, but concerns may arise from its potential cognitive and memory adverse side effects. Additionally, perampanel and lacosamide are promising treatments.

  17. Both happy and sad melodies modulate tonic human heat pain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huixuan; Chen, Andrew C N

    2009-09-01

    The mechanism of music effects on pain perception remains to be elucidated. To determine which component (mood or valence) of music is more important in music-induced hypoalgesia, we compared the effects of 2 melodies with different moods (happy vs sad) but with the same degree of valence (pleasant vs unpleasant) to an affective neutral lecture and a control (baseline) on the objective and subjective responses to tonic heat pain. Our hypothesis was that if mood was the key component, the happy melody would reduce pain, whereas the sad one would exacerbate pain; and if valence is the key component, the 2 melodies would both alleviate pain. Twenty females participated in this study which consisted of 4 conditions (baseline, happy melody, sad melody, and lecture). Pain tolerance time (PTT), pain intensity, and distress dynamics and the characteristics of pain were measured. A newly devised multiple affective rating scale (MARS) was employed to assess the subjective experience of auditory perception. Both happy and sad melodies of equal valence resulted in significant lower pain ratings during the pain test and were in contrast to the mood prediction. These results indicate that the valence of music, rather than the mood it induced, appears to be the most likely mediator of the hypoalgesic effect of the different music. This article provides new evidence that the valence of music is more crucial than mood in affective pain modulation. This finding gives impetus for health professionals to manage pain more effectively in patients with proper music.

  18. Rapid critical period induction by tonic inhibition in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Youichi; Fagiolini, Michela; Obata, Kunihiko; Hensch, Takao K

    2003-07-30

    Mice lacking a synaptic isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) do not exhibit ocular dominance plasticity unless an appropriate level of GABAergic transmission is restored by direct infusion of benzodiazepines into the brain. To better understand how intracortical inhibition triggers experience-dependent changes, we dissected the precise timing requirement for GABA function in the monocular deprivation (MD) paradigm. Diazepam (DZ) or vehicle solution was infused daily before and/or during 4 d of MD in GAD65 knock-out mice. Extracellular single-unit recordings from the binocular zone of visual cortex were performed at the end of deprivation. We found that a minimum treatment of 2 d near the beginning of MD was sufficient to fully activate plasticity but did not need to overlap the deprivation per se. Extended delay after DZ infusion eventually led to loss of plasticity accompanied by improved intrinsic inhibitory circuit function. Two day DZ treatment just after eye opening similarly closed the critical period prematurely in wild-type mice. Raising wild-type mice in complete darkness from birth delayed the peak sensitivity to MD as in other mammals. Interestingly, 2 d DZ infusion in the dark also closed the critical period, whereas equally brief light exposure during dark-rearing had no such effect. Thus, enhanced tonic signaling through GABA(A) receptors rapidly creates a milieu for plasticity within neocortex capable of triggering a critical period for ocular dominance independent of visual experience itself.

  19. Tonic PKA Activity Regulates SK Channel Nanoclustering and Somatodendritic Distribution.

    PubMed

    Abiraman, Krithika; Sah, Megha; Walikonis, Randall S; Lykotrafitis, George; Tzingounis, Anastasios V

    2016-06-05

    Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels mediate a potassium conductance in the brain and are involved in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. SK channels show a distinct subcellular localization that is crucial for their neuronal functions. However, the mechanisms that control this spatial distribution are unknown. We imaged SK channels labeled with fluorophore-tagged apamin and monitored SK channel nanoclustering at the single molecule level by combining atomic force microscopy and toxin (i.e., apamin) pharmacology. Using these two complementary approaches, we found that native SK channel distribution in pyramidal neurons, across the somatodendritic domain, depends on ongoing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) levels, strongly limiting SK channel expression at the pyramidal neuron soma. Furthermore, tonic cAMP-PKA levels also controlled whether SK channels were expressed in nanodomains as single entities or as a group of multiple channels. Our study reveals a new level of regulation of SK channels by cAMP-PKA and suggests that ion channel topography and nanoclustering might be under the control of second messenger cascades. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction of tonic labyrinth and neck reflexes in man.

    PubMed

    Aiello, I; Rosati, G; Sau, G F; Lentinu, M E; Tidore, B S; Sotgiu, S; Cacciotto, R; Posadinu, D; Muzzu, S; Manca, I

    1992-04-01

    Interaction of tonic labyrinth and neck reflexes was studied in 3 healthy volunteers by analyzing changes in Soleus H-Reflex (SHR) area in relation to both lateral tiltings and neck rotations. By using a Kermath chair each subject was tilted laterally from the vertical to the left and to the right up 15 degrees in steps of 5 degrees and at the same time the longitudinal body axis, keeping the head fixed, was rotated to the right and to the left up to 15 degrees in steps of 5 degrees. All combinations of lateral tiltings and neck rotations were tested. Each test position was followed by a return to 0 degree for both rotation and tilting (control position). Twelve H-reflexes of right soleus muscle were recorded in each test and control position and the changes in RSHR area were expressed as percentage variations from the mean value absorbed in the pretest and post-test control position. Our data indicate that in man, as in animals, labyrinth and neck reflexes act in the opposite direction, and that in the static condition their contribution to postural stabilization is equal.

  1. Hippocampal cell loss and propagation of abnormal discharges accompanied with the expression of tonic convulsion in the spontaneously epileptic rat.

    PubMed

    Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sasa, Masashi; Sugata, Sei; Tokudome, Mai; Serikawa, Tadao; Kurisu, Kaoru; Arita, Kazunori

    2010-04-30

    Spontaneously epileptic rats (SER) are double mutants with both tonic convulsion and absence-like seizures from the age of 8 weeks. Hippocampal CA3 neurons in SER display a long-lasting depolarizing shift accompanied by repetitive firing (attributed to abnormalities of the Ca(2+) channels) with a single stimulation of the mossy fibers. In the present investigation, we examined if the seizure discharges of SER were correlated with the hippocampal abnormality of SER using electrophysiological and histological methods. In CA1 neurons of seizure-susceptible mature SER, higher-voltage (<8-11 V) stimulations induced a long depolarization shift (in 25% of neurons) with repetitive firing (in 12.5% of neurons). However, the tremor rat, one of the parent strains of SER, did not exhibit such abnormal firing in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The number of CA3 neurons in SER was significantly (p<0.01) lower than that in tremor rats and Wistar rats, although no significant difference was established in the hilus. Sprouting of mossy fiber was observed in the dentate of mature SER; however, negligible staining was spotted in the dentate of both mature tremor and Wistar rats. Interestingly, expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor was higher in the hilus, CA3, and granular cell layer of dentate gyrus in SER than normal Wistar rats. The expression levels of TUNEL, bax, and Caspase-3 did not show significant changes between the SER and Wistar rats. SER exhibited hippocampal sclerosis-like changes which did not have enough potential for epileptogenesis. Repetitive tonic seizures and vulnerable CA3 neurons of SER could be involved in the induction of sclerosis-like changes in the hippocampus.

  2. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  3. Determination of methanol in Iranian herbal distillates.

    PubMed

    Shirani, Kobra; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Azar-Khiavi, Kamal Razavi; Moghaddam, Zohreh Samie; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Herbal distillates have been used as beverages, for flavoring, or as phytomedicines in many countries for a long time. Recently, the occurrence of blindness after drinking herbal distillates has created concerns in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of methanol in herbal distillates produced in Iran. Eighty-four most commonly used herbal distillates purchased from herbal distillate factories were analyzed for methanol contents by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection, with ethanol as internal standard. In 15 herbal distillates, the methanol concentration was below the limit of quantitation. The methanol concentrations in all samples ranged from 43 to 277 mg/L. Forty-five samples contained methanol in excess of the Iranian standard. The maximum concentration was found in an herbal distillate of Mentha piperita (factory E) (277±12), and the minimum in a distillate of Carum carvi (factory B) (42.6 ± 0.5). Since the 45 Iranian herbal distillates containing methanol levels were beyond the legal limits according to the Iranian standard, it seems necessary to monitor the amount of methanol and give a warning to watch out for the latent risk problem of methanol uptake, and establish a definitive relationship between the degree of intoxication observed and the accumulation of methanol in the blood.

  4. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  5. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds.

  6. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  7. DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ichim, Mihael C; Newmaster, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products.

  8. Combination of herbal extracts and platelet-rich plasma induced dermal papilla cell proliferation: involvement of ERK and Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Rastegar, Hosein; Ahmadi Ashtiani, Hamidreza; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Ehsani, Amirohushang; Barikbin, Behrooz

    2013-06-01

    Recently, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has attracted attention in various medical fields, including plastic surgery, treatment for problematic wounds, and dermatology. Specifically, PRP has been tested during hair transplantation to reduce swelling and pain and to increase hair density. We examined the effects of PRP and herbal extracts combination in order to identify potential stimulants of hair growth. PRP was prepared using the double-spin method and applied to dermal papilla cells (DPCs). MTT viability test and BrdU cell proliferation assay were used to study the effect of herbal extracts and PRP on proliferation of DPCs. To understand the mechanisms of herbal extracts and PRP involved in the regulation of hair growth, we evaluated signaling pathways and measured the expressions of ERK and Akt, by Western blot. Combination of herbal extracts and PRP was found to induce significant proliferation of human DPCs at concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 4.5%. The present study shows that herbal extracts and PRP affect the expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt in DPCs. In this study, we have shown that combination of herbal extracts and PRP plays an active role in promoting the proliferation of human dermal papilla (DP) cells via the regulation of ERK and Akt proteins, and this may be applicable to the future development of herbal extracts and PRP combination therapeutics to enhance hair growth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. PMID:21799681

  10. [Functional targets of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Wang, Yun

    2010-12-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, much work has been done based on chemical constituent-target in the molecular system. It cannot comply with the holistic efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. Thus, the authors of this paper proposed to study the functional target adopted from Western medicine. The data of Chinese herbal function were collected from 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. A total of 135 functional targets were found, and a network about functional target and mode of action was built. The authors also explored the applications of functional target and the network combined with Sijunzi Decoction and Mahuang Decoction. The results, reflecting the feature of Chinese herbal medicine, will not only be helpful to elucidate the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, but also beneficial to studying the theory of Chinese formulas and developing new formulas.

  11. Remote preoperative tonic-clonic seizures do not influence outcome after surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Rabiei, Amin H; Gracely, Edward J; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-10-15

    Tonic-clonic seizures are associated with greater chance of seizure relapse after anterior temporal lobectomy. We investigated whether the interval between the last preoperative tonic-clonic seizure and surgery relates to seizure outcome in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). In this retrospective study, patients were prospectively registered in a database from 1986 through 2014. Postsurgical outcome was categorized as seizure freedom or relapse. The relationship between surgical outcome and the interval between the last preoperative tonic-clonic seizure and surgery was investigated. One-hundred seventy-one patients were studied. Seventy nine (46.2%) patients experienced tonic-clonic seizures before surgery. Receiver operating characteristic curve of timing of the last preoperative tonic-clonic seizure was a moderate indicator to anticipate surgery failure (area under the curve: 0.657, significance; 0.016). The best cutoff that maximizes sensitivity and specificity was 27months; with a sensitivity of 0.76 and specificity of 0.60. Cox-Mantel analysis confirmed that the chance of becoming free of seizures after surgery in patients with no or remote history of preoperative tonic-clonic seizures was significantly higher compared with patients with a recent history (i.e., in 27months before surgery) (p=0.0001). The more remote the occurrence of preoperative tonic-clonic seizures, the better the postsurgical seizure outcome, with at least a two year gap being more favorable. A recent history of tonic-clonic seizures in a patient with MTLE may reflect more widespread epileptogenicity extending beyond the borders of mesial temporal structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Perampanel for tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Gregory L.; Wechsler, Robert T.; Wang, Xue-Feng; DiVentura, Bree; Brandt, Christian; Trinka, Eugen; O'Brien, Terence J.; Laurenza, Antonio; Patten, Anna; Bibbiani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess efficacy and safety of adjunctive perampanel in patients with drug-resistant, primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01393743; funded by Eisai Inc.), patients 12 years or older with PGTC seizures and IGE were randomized to placebo or perampanel during a 4-week titration period (perampanel uptitrated from 2 to 8 mg/d, or highest tolerated dose) and 13-week maintenance period. The primary endpoint was percent change in PGTC seizure frequency per 28 days (titration plus maintenance vs baseline). The key secondary endpoint (primary endpoint for European Union registration) was 50% PGTC seizure responder rate (patients achieving ≥50% reduction in PGTC seizure frequency; maintenance vs baseline). Treatment-emergent adverse events were monitored. Results: Of 164 randomized patients, 162 comprised the full analysis set (placebo, 81; perampanel, 81). Compared with placebo, perampanel conferred a greater median percent change in PGTC seizure frequency per 28 days (−38.4% vs −76.5%; p < 0.0001) and greater 50% PGTC seizure responder rate (39.5% vs 64.2%; p = 0.0019). During maintenance, 12.3% of placebo-treated patients and 30.9% of perampanel-treated patients achieved PGTC seizure freedom. For the safety analysis (placebo, 82; perampanel, 81), the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events with perampanel were dizziness (32.1%) and fatigue (14.8%). Conclusions: Adjunctive perampanel was well tolerated and improved control of drug-resistant PGTC seizures in patients with IGE. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that adjunctive perampanel reduces PGTC seizure frequency, compared with placebo, in patients with drug-resistant PGTC seizures in IGE. PMID:26296511

  13. Association between maintenance fluid tonicity and hospital-acquired hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Carandang, Francis; Anglemyer, Andrew; Longhurst, Christopher A; Krishnan, Gomathi; Alexander, Steven R; Kahana, Madelyn; Sutherland, Scott M

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate whether the administration of hypotonic fluids compared with isotonic fluids is associated with a greater risk for hyponatremia in hospitalized children. Informatics-enabled cohort study of all hospitalizations at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital between April 2009 and March 2011. Extraction and analysis of electronic medical record data identified normonatremic hospitalized children who received either hypotonic or isotonic intravenous maintenance fluids upon admission. The primary exposure was the administration of hypotonic maintenance fluids, and the primary outcome was the development of hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mEq/L). A total of 1048 normonatremic children received either hypotonic (n = 674) or isotonic (n = 374) maintenance fluids upon admission. Hyponatremia developed in 260 (38.6%) children who received hypotonic fluids and 104 (27.8%) of those who received isotonic fluids (unadjusted OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.15, P < .001). After we controlled for intergroup differences and potential confounders, patients receiving hypotonic fluids remained more likely to develop hyponatremia (aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.84). Multivariable analysis identified additional factors associated with the development of hyponatremia, including surgical admission (aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.09-1.91), cardiac admitting diagnosis (aOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.34-3.20), and hematology/oncology admitting diagnosis (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.74-3.25). Hyponatremia was common regardless of maintenance fluid tonicity; however, the administration of hypotonic maintenance fluids compared with isotonic fluids was associated with a greater risk of developing hospital-acquired hyponatremia. Additional clinical characteristics modified the hyponatremic effect of hypotonic fluid, and it is possible that optimal maintenance fluid therapy now requires a more individualized approach. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Osmolytes in renal medulla during rapid changes in papillary tonicity.

    PubMed

    Beck, F X; Schmolke, M; Guder, W G; Dörge, A; Thurau, K

    1992-05-01

    The effect of acute changes in extracellular tonicity on cell electrolyte concentrations at the renal papillary tip and on organic osmolytes in different kidney zones was studied using electron microprobe analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography in four groups of rats: controls, 1- or 4-h water diuresis, and 4-h water diuresis followed by 30-min deamino-[Cys1,D-Arg8]vasopressin (ddAVP). The sum of the papillary interstitial concentrations of Na, K, and Cl was reduced from 981 mmol/kg wet wt in controls to 318 mmol/kg wet wt after 4-h diuresis and increased after ddAVP to 840 mmol/kg wet wt. In papillary collecting ducts intracellular electrolytes fell from 225 to 156 mmol/kg wet wt after 4-h diuresis and rose to 268 mmol/kg wet wt (significantly higher than control) after ddAVP. Organic osmolytes [sum of glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC), betaine, myo-inositol, and sorbitol] at the papillary tip decreased from 2,018 (control) to 1,037 mmol/kg protein after 4-h diuresis and did not increase after ddAVP. After ddAVP, cell P concentration, an index of cell GPC concentration, increased, indicating cell shrinkage. GPC concentration increased, indicating cell shrinkage. The results suggest that the concentrations of all osmoeffectors in papillary cells initially increase due to cell shrinkage in response to hypertonic stress. The higher intracellular ionic strength may be a signal for modulation of transport and metabolism of organic osmolytes.

  15. Neuromyelitis optica: association with paroxysmal painful tonic spasms.

    PubMed

    Carnero Contentti, E; Leguizamón, F; Hryb, J P; Celso, J; Pace, J L Di; Ferrari, J; Knorre, E; Perassolo, M B

    2016-10-01

    Paroxysmal painful tonic spasms (PPTS) were initially described in multiple sclerosis (MS) but they are more frequent in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The objective is to report their presence in a series of cases of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD), as well as to determine their frequency and clinical features. We conducted a retrospective assessment of medical histories of NMO/NMOSD patients treated in 2 hospitals in Buenos Aires (Hospital Durand and Hospital Álvarez) between 2009 and 2013. Out of 15 patients with NMOSD (7 with definite NMO and 8 with limited NMO), 4 presented PPTS (26.66%). PPTS frequency in the definite NMO group was 57.14% (4/7). Of the 9 patients with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), 44.44% (9/15) presented PPTS. Mean age was 35 years (range, 22-38 years) and all patients were women. Mean time between NMO diagnosis and PPTS onset was 7 months (range, 1-29 months) and mean time from last relapse of LETM was 30 days (range 23-40 days). LETM (75% cervicothoracic and 25% thoracic) was observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in all patients. Control over spasms and pain was achieved in all patients with carbamazepine (associated with gabapentin in one case). No favourable responses to pregabalin, gabapentin, or phenytoin were reported. PPTS are frequent in NMO. Mean time of PPTS onset is approximately one month after an LETM relapse, with extensive cervicothoracic lesions appearing on the MRI scan. They show an excellent response to carbamazepine but little or no response to pregabalin and gabapentin. Prospective studies with larger numbers of patients are necessary in order to confirm these results. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Tonic signaling from O2 sensors sets neural circuit activity and behavioral state

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Karl Emanuel; Laurent, Patrick; Soltesz, Zoltan; Murphy, Robin Joseph; Faivre, Olivier; Hedwig, Berthold; Thomas, Martin; Smith, Heather L.; de Bono, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Tonic receptors convey stimulus duration and intensity and are implicated in homeostatic control. However, how tonic homeostatic signals are generated, and how they reconfigure neural circuits and modify animal behavior is poorly understood. Here we show that C. elegans O2-sensing neurons are tonic receptors that continuously signal ambient [O2] to set the animal’s behavioral state. Sustained signalling relies on a Ca2+ relay involving L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, the ryanodine and the IP3 receptors. Tonic activity evokes continuous neuropeptide release, which helps elicit the enduring behavioral state associated with high [O2]. Sustained O2 receptor signalling is propagated to downstream neural circuits, including the hub interneuron RMG. O2 receptors evoke similar locomotory states at particular [O2], regardless of previous d[O2]/dt. However, a phasic component of the URX receptors’ response to high d[O2]/dt, as well as tonic-to-phasic transformations in downstream interneurons, enable transient reorientation movements shaped by d[O2]/dt. Our results highlight how tonic homeostatic signals can generate both transient and enduring behavioral change. PMID:22388961

  17. The In Vitro and In Vivo Wound Healing Properties of the Chinese Herbal Medicine "Jinchuang Ointment".

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsung-Jung; Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Lin, Guang-Huey; Li, Tzong Shiun; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Yang, Jai-Sing; Hsieh, Ming-Chuan; Wu, Chun-Chang; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Hao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Jinchuang ointment" is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex for treatment of incised wounds. For more than ten years, it has been used at China Medical University Hospital (Taichung, Taiwan) for the treatment of diabetic foot infections and decubitus ulcers. Three different cases are presented in this study. "Jinchuang" ointment is a mixture of natural product complexes from nine different components, making it difficult to analyze its exact chemical compositions. To further characterize the herbal ingredients used in this study, the contents of reference standards present in a subset of the ointment ingredients (dragon's blood, catechu, frankincense, and myrrh) were determined by HPLC. Two in vitro cell based assay platforms, wound healing and tube formation, were used to examine the biological activity of this medicine. Our results show that this herbal medicine possesses strong activities including stimulation of angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and cell migration, which provide the scientific basis for its clinically observed curative effects on nonhealing diabetic wounds.

  18. Structural Analysis and Immuno-Stimulating Activity of an Acidic Polysaccharide from the Stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Hui; Zuo, Shu-Rong; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2017-04-10

    Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an epiphytic herb distributed in the Southeast Asia, is used as a tonic and antipyretic herbal medicine in China. In this study, a water-soluble acidic heteropolysaccharide, DNP-W4, containing mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid, in the molar ratios of 1.0:4.9:2.5:0.5:1.0:0.9, was obtained from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Using methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, pectolyase treatment, NMR, and ESI-MS, the structure of DNP-W4 was elucidated. The obtained data indicated that DNP-W4 was a complex heteropolysaccharide and possessed a backbone composed of (1→4)-linked β-d-Glcp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Glcp, and (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp, with substitutes at O-4/6 of Glcp residues and O-3 of Galp. The branches of DNP-W4 were composed of terminal Manp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Manp, (1→3)-linked β-d-Glcp, β-d-Glcp, β-d-Galp, (1→4)-linked α-d-GalAp, (1→2)-linked α-L-Rhap, and Xylp. DNP-W4 had little immunological activities, but its derivatives had immuno-stimulating activities to some extent.

  19. Iron fertilization: A tonic, but no cure for the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1994-02-25

    One proposed solution to counteract greenhouse warming is the stimulation of phytoplankton growth in the oceans by the addition of iron. The excess phytoplankton would then absorb CO[sub 2] and sequester it in their bodies when they died. An experiment to test this hypothesis was carried out in the equatorial Pacific. Addition of Fe stimulated phytoplankton growth, but the technique may have limited value. The iron quickly forms particulates which sink and become unavailable to the phytoplankton.

  20. Indigenous Knowledge of Herbal Medicines among Adolescents in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964

  1. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the

  2. Modulating effects of rooibos and honeybush herbal teas on the development of esophageal papillomas in rats.

    PubMed

    Sissing, Linda; Marnewick, Jeanine; de Kock, Maryna; Swanevelder, Sonja; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel

    2011-01-01

    Widespread consumption of herbal teas has stimulated interest in their role as cancer preventive agents. The present investigation monitored the modulation of methylbenzylnitrosamine (MBN)-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis by rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) herbal and Camellia sinensis teas in male F344 rats. The tumor multiplicity was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by unfermented honeybush (45.5%), green (50%), and black (36%) teas, while the other teas exhibited weaker effects (<30% inhibition). The mean total papilloma size was reduced by unfermented rooibos (87%), unfermented honeybush (94%), and fermented honeybush (74%) due to the absence of large papillomas (>10 mm(3)). Reduction of the mean total papilloma number correlated with the total polyphenol (TPP) (r = 0.79; P < 0.02) and flavanol/proanthocyanidin (FLAVA) (r = 0.89; P < 0.008) intake (mg/100 g body weight) of the teas and the FLAVA (r = 0.89; P < 0.04) and flavonol/flavones/xanthones (r = 0.99; P < 0.002) intake when considering only the herbal teas. A daily TPP intake threshold of 7 mg/100 g body weight existed below where no inhibition of papilloma development was observed. Fermentation of herbal teas reduced the inhibitory effects on papilloma development associated with a reduction in the polyphenolic constituents. The inhibitory effect of herbal teas on papilloma development is associated with different flavonoid subgroups and/or combination thereof.

  3. Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  4. Requirements on efficacy of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Claeson, Per

    2014-12-02

    Based on the regulatory requirements on efficacy documentation in the European Union, the herbal medicinal products have been grouped into the following sections: (i) Herbal medicinal products for which the efficacy is demonstrated by results of a "full" set of clinical trials that are in conformity with the relevant guidelines of the therapeutic area in question. This regulatory pathway to obtain a marketing authorisation for a new medicinal product (new chemical entity) is open to herbal medicinal products, but the examples are in reality few. (ii) Herbal medicinal products which have a "well-established medicinal use with a recognised efficacy and an acceptable level of safety" in the European Union. Results of new and product specific clinical trials are not required to obtain a marketing authorisation for products that fulfil these criteria, but a substantial clinical experience must be documented and sufficient scientific data on efficacy must be publicly available. (iii) "Traditional" herbal medicinal products, that do not fulfil the efficacy requirements for a marketing authorisation, but for which a medicinal use of at least 30 years including 15 years in the European Union can be documented. Traditional herbal medicinal products can only be registered with therapeutic indications that are considered safe for use without the supervision of a physician. After briefly reviewing the regulatory requirements on efficacy documentation of herbal medicinal products in the European Union, some concluding remarks on the past and future developments in the area are made.

  5. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

    1999-01-15

    Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available.

  6. Pharmacovigilance of herbal products in India.

    PubMed

    Wal, P; Wal, A; Gupta, S; Sharma, G; Rai, Ak

    2011-07-01

    Herbal formulations being widely accepted therapeutic agents as antidiabetics, antiarthritics, hepatoprotectives, cough remedies, memory enhancers, and adaptogens. The commonest myth regarding herbal medicines is that these medicines are completely safe, and can therefore be safely consumed by the patient on his/her own, without a physician's prescription. This belief has led to large-scale self-medication by people all over the world, often leading to disappointing end-results, side-effects, or unwanted after-effects. There is an increasing awareness at several levels of the need to develop pharmacovigilance practices for herbal medicines. The current model of pharmacovigilance and its associated tools have been developed in relation to synthetic drugs, and applying these methods to monitoring the safety of herbal medicines presents unique challenges in addition to those described for conventional medicines. Several problems relate to the ways in which herbal medicines are named, perceived, sourced, and utilized. This may be because of differences in the use of nonorthodox drugs (e.g., herbal remedies) which may pose special toxicological problems, when used alone or in combination with other drugs. The purpose of pharmacovigilance is to detect, assess, and understand, and to prevent the adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems, related to herbal, traditional, and complementary medicines.

  7. Mechanosensitivity of mouse tracheal ciliary beat frequency: roles for Ca2+, purinergic signaling, tonicity, and viscosity.

    PubMed

    Winters, Scot L; Davis, C William; Boucher, Richard C

    2007-03-01

    Mechanosensitivity is hypothesized to participate in the regulation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in airway epithelia. To investigate this hypothesis, CBF in excised mouse trachea was monitored (microscopy image analysis) while varying mucosal shear (perfusate velocity and/or viscosity; planar flow). CBF increased within minutes of step increase to steady shear stress as small as 10(-3) Pa and decreased within minutes of shear reduction (stimulation, inhibitable by the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline. Thus CBF response to shear is finely tuned, directional, La3+ sensitive, likely dependent on extracellular Ca2+ and ATP, involving P2Y2 and adenosine receptor activations, influenced by shear history, tonicity, viscosity, and metabolism/exposure of ATP, and thus reflective of a complex interplay of physical and biochemical actions.

  8. How do kinases contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of the transcription factor NFAT5?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    NFAT5 plays a critical role in maintaining the renal functions. Its dis-regulation in the kidney leads to or is associated with certain renal diseases or disorders, most notably the urinary concentration defect. Hypertonicity, which the kidney medulla is normally exposed to, activates NFAT5 through phosphorylation of a signaling molecule or NFAT5 itself. Hypotonicity inhibits NFAT5 through a similar mechanism. More than a dozen of protein and lipid kinases have been identified to contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of NFAT5. Hypertonicity activates NFAT5 by increasing its nuclear localization and transactivating activity in the early phase and protein abundance in the late phase. The known mechanism for inhibition of NFAT5 by hypotonicity is a decrease of nuclear NFAT5. The present article reviews the effect of each kinase on NFAT5 nuclear localization, transactivation and protein abundance, and the relationship among these kinases, if known. Cyclosporine A and tacrolimus suppress immune reactions by inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin-dependent activation of NFAT1. It is hoped that this review would stimulate the interest to seek explanations from the NFAT5 regulatory pathways for certain clinical presentations and to explore novel therapeutic approaches based on the pathways. On the basic science front, this review raises two interesting questions. The first one is how these kinases can specifically signal to NFAT5 in the context of hypertonicity or hypotonicity, because they also regulate other cellular activities and even opposite activities in some cases. The second one is why these many kinases, some of which might have redundant functions, are needed to regulate NFAT5 activity. This review reiterates the concept of signaling through cooperation. Cells need these kinases working in a coordinated way to provide the signaling specificity that is lacking in the individual one. Redundancy in regulation of NFAT5 is a critical strategy for cells to

  9. How do kinases contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of the transcription factor NFAT5?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoming

    2016-01-06

    NFAT5 plays a critical role in maintaining the renal functions. Its dis-regulation in the kidney leads to or is associated with certain renal diseases or disorders, most notably the urinary concentration defect. Hypertonicity, which the kidney medulla is normally exposed to, activates NFAT5 through phosphorylation of a signaling molecule or NFAT5 itself. Hypotonicity inhibits NFAT5 through a similar mechanism. More than a dozen of protein and lipid kinases have been identified to contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of NFAT5. Hypertonicity activates NFAT5 by increasing its nuclear localization and transactivating activity in the early phase and protein abundance in the late phase. The known mechanism for inhibition of NFAT5 by hypotonicity is a decrease of nuclear NFAT5. The present article reviews the effect of each kinase on NFAT5 nuclear localization, transactivation and protein abundance, and the relationship among these kinases, if known. Cyclosporine A and tacrolimus suppress immune reactions by inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin-dependent activation of NFAT1. It is hoped that this review would stimulate the interest to seek explanations from the NFAT5 regulatory pathways for certain clinical presentations and to explore novel therapeutic approaches based on the pathways. On the basic science front, this review raises two interesting questions. The first one is how these kinases can specifically signal to NFAT5 in the context of hypertonicity or hypotonicity, because they also regulate other cellular activities and even opposite activities in some cases. The second one is why these many kinases, some of which might have redundant functions, are needed to regulate NFAT5 activity. This review reiterates the concept of signaling through cooperation. Cells need these kinases working in a coordinated way to provide the signaling specificity that is lacking in the individual one. Redundancy in regulation of NFAT5 is a critical strategy for cells to

  10. Experimental tonic hand pain modulates the corticospinal plasticity induced by a subsequent hand deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Mavromatis, N; Gagné, M; Voisin, J I A V; Reilly, K T; Mercier, C

    2016-08-25

    Sensorimotor reorganization is believed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of phantom limb pain, but pain itself might modulate sensorimotor plasticity induced by deafferentation. Clinical and basic research support this idea, as pain prior to amputation increases the risk of developing post-amputation pain. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of experimental tonic cutaneous hand pain on the plasticity induced by temporary ischemic hand deafferentation. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in two experimental sessions (Pain, No Pain) in which transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess corticospinal excitability in two forearm muscles (flexor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis) before (T0, T10, T20, and T40) and after (T60 and T75) inflation of a cuff around the wrist. The cuff was inflated at T45 in both sessions and in the Pain session capsaicin cream was applied on the dorsum of the hand at T5. Corticospinal excitability was significantly greater during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.002) and increased similarly in both muscles (p=0.861). Importantly, the excitability increase in the Post-inflation phase was greater for the Pain than the No-Pain condition (p=0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed a significant difference between the two conditions during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.030) but no difference during the Pre-inflation phase (p=0.601). In other words, the corticospinal facilitation was greater when pain was present prior to cuff inflation. These results indicate that pain can modulate the plasticity induced by another event, and could partially explain the sensorimotor reorganization often reported in chronic pain populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A Review of Herbal Medicine in Iranian Traditional Manuscripts for Treatment of Participatory Gastric Headache.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Hamedi, Azadeh

    2016-05-01

    Participatory gastric headache is a type of headache described in Iranian traditional medicine. It is defined as a headache not originated from the head and neck disorders; rather the pain in the head is caused by gastric dysfunction and its disorders. Treatment of this type of headache is completely reliant on the treatment of the gastric complaint. Reviewing Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) literature, a broad spectrum of herbal medicines that could be useful in the treatment of this type of headache is described. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the therapeutic management of this disorder in ITM and evaluating related characteristics of each medicinal herb. In this study, medicinal plants prescribed for gastric headache from different ancient Iranian literature is documented. The botanical name, family name, part used, temperaments, rout of administration and dosage forms are provided in this article. About 40 plants, mainly used orally, were prescribed for the treatment of participatory gastric headache. Most of them have the astringent effect, which is related to their dryness temperament. Therefore, they could strengthen the stomach and prevent ascending vapors into the brain that in turn helps to get relief from headache. In addition, they possess reinforcement effect on the brain. In general, herbal medicines with tonic characteristics could be effective in participatory gastric headache.

  12. Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomić, Sinisa

    2009-12-01

    Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework.

  13. Reward prediction-related increases and decreases in tonic neuronal activity of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    The neuromodulators serotonin, acetylcholine, and dopamine have been proposed to play important roles in the execution of movement, control of several forms of attentional behavior, and reinforcement learning. While the response pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and its specific role in reinforcement learning have been revealed, the roles of the other neuromodulators remain elusive. Reportedly, neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, one major source of serotonin, continually track the state of expectation of future rewards by showing a correlated response to the start of a behavioral task, reward cue presentation, and reward delivery. Here, we show that neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN), one major source of acetylcholine, showed similar encoding of the expectation of future rewards by a systematic increase or decrease in tonic activity. We recorded and analyzed PPTN neuronal activity in monkeys during a reward conditioned visually guided saccade task. The firing patterns of many PPTN neurons were tonically increased or decreased throughout the task period. The tonic activity pattern of neurons was correlated with their encoding of the predicted reward value; neurons exhibiting an increase or decrease in tonic activity showed higher or lower activity in the large reward-predicted trials, respectively. Tonic activity and reward-related modulation ended around the time of reward delivery. Additionally, some tonic changes in activity started prior to the appearance of the initial stimulus, and were related to the anticipatory fixational behavior. A partially overlapping population of neurons showed both the initial anticipatory response and subsequent predicted reward value-dependent activity modulation by their systematic increase or decrease of tonic activity. These bi-directional reward- and anticipatory behavior-related modulation patterns are suitable for the presumed role of the PPTN in reward processing and motivational control. PMID

  14. Selective postsynaptic inhibition of tonic-firing neurons in substantia gelatinosa by mu-opioid agonist.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sónia F A; Melnick, Igor V; Safronov, Boris V

    2004-11-01

    Spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) is a site of action of administered and endogenous opioid agonists and is an important element in the system of antinociception. However, little is known about the types of neurons serving as specific postsynaptic targets for opioid action within the SG. To study the spinal mechanisms of opioidergic analgesia, the authors compared the action of mu-opioid agonist [D-Ala, N-Me-Phe, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) on SG neurons with different intrinsic firing properties. Whole cell patch clamp recordings from spinal cord slices of Wistar rats were used to study the sensitivity of SG neurons to DAMGO. Three groups of neurons with distinct distributions in SG were classified: tonic-, adapting-, and delayed-firing neurons. DAMGO at 1 microm concentration selectively hyperpolarized all tonic-firing neurons tested, whereas none of the adapting- or delayed-firing neurons were affected. The effect of DAMGO on tonic-firing neurons was due to activation of G protein-coupled inward-rectifier K conductance, which could be blocked by 500 microm Ba and 500 microm Cs but increased by 50 microm baclofen. As a functional consequence of DAMGO action, a majority of tonic-firing neurons changed their pattern of intrinsic firing from tonic to adapting. It is suggested that tonic-firing neurons, presumably functioning as excitatory interneurons, are primary postsynaptic targets for administered and endogenous opioid agonists in spinal SG. Functional transition of cells in this group from tonic to adapting firing mode may represent an important mechanism facilitating opioidergic analgesia.

  15. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model.

  16. Transcription of the Sodium/myo-Inositol Cotransporter Gene Is Regulated by Multiple Tonicity-responsive Enhancers Spread over 50 Kilobase Pairs in the 5′-Flanking Region*

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Jong S.; Atta, Mohamed G.; Dahl, Stephen C.; Berry, Gerard T.; Handler, Joseph S.; Kwon, H. Moo

    2008-01-01

    The sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter is a plasma membrane protein responsible for concentrative cellular accumulation of myo-inositol in a variety of tissues. When cells in kidney and brain are exposed to a hyperosmolar salt condition (hypertonicity) due to the operation of urinary concentration mechanism and pathological conditions, respectively, they survive the stress of hypertonicity by raising the cellular concentration of myo-inositol. Transcription of the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter gene is markedly stimulated in response to hypertonicity, leading to an increase in the activity of the cotransporter, which in turn drives the osmoprotective accumulation of myo-inositol. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which hypertonicity stimulates transcription, we analyzed the 5′-flanking region of the cotransporter gene for cis-acting regulatory sequences. We identified five tonicity-responsive enhancers that are scattered over 50 kilobase pairs. All the enhancers are variations of the same type of enhancer interacting with the transcription factor named tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein. In vivo methylation experiments demonstrated that exposure of cells to hypertonicity increases the binding of tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein to the enhancer sites, indicating that all of these enhancers are involved in the transcriptional stimulation. We conclude that the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter gene is regulated by a large region (∼50 kilobase pairs) upstream of the gene. PMID:9685419

  17. Role of opioidergic and GABAergic neurotransmission of the nucleus raphe magnus in the modulation of tonic immobility in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luis Felipe Souza; Menescal-de-Oliveira, Leda

    2007-04-02

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an inborn defensive behavior characterized by a temporary state of profound and reversible motor inhibition elicited by some forms of physical restraint. Previous results from our laboratory have demonstrated that nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) is also a structure involved in the modulation of TI behavior, as chemical stimulation through carbachol decreases the duration of TI in guinea pigs. In view of the fact that GABAergic and opioidergic circuits participate in the regulation of neuronal activity in the NRM and since these neurotransmitters are also involved in the modulation of TI, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of these circuits of the NRM in the modulation of the behavioral TI response. Microinjection of morphine (4.4 nmol/0.2 microl) or bicuculline (0.4 nmol/0.2 microl) into the NRM increased the duration of TI episodes while muscimol (0.5 nmol/0.2 microl) decreased it. The effect of morphine injection into the NRM was blocked by previous microinjection of naloxone (2.7 nmol/0.2 microl). Muscimol at 0.25 nmol did not produce any change in TI duration; however, it blocked the increased response induced by morphine. Our results indicate a facilitatory role of opioidergic neurotransmission in the modulation of the TI response within the NRM, whereas GABAergic activity plays an inhibitory role. In addition, in the present study the modulation of TI in the NRM possibly occurred via an interaction between opioidergic and GABAergic systems, where the opioidergic effect might be due to inhibition of tonically active GABAergic interneurons.

  18. Herbal supplements: Facts and myths--talking to your patients about herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Messina, Barbara Ann M

    2006-08-01

    The use of herbal supplements in the United States is steadily growing and raises concerns about safety, efficacy, and how they affect safe patient care. The direct health risks associated with herbal supplements include hypertension, prolonged bleeding, and the potential for drug-herb interactions. These potential drug interactions are of particular concern for patients undergoing anesthesia. This article provides a review of literature on the 10 most popular herbal supplements and addresses the herbal supplements' reported use, possible adverse effect(s), patient teaching, possible drug interaction(s), and recommendations regarding discontinuation before surgery.

  19. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future.

  20. Herbal Medications in Cardiovascular Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liperoti, Rosa; Vetrano, Davide L; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2017-03-07

    Herbal medications are commonly used for clinical purposes, including the treatment of cardiovascular conditions. Compared with conventional medications, herbal medications do not require clinical studies before their marketing or formal approval from regulatory agencies, and for this reason their efficacy and safety are rarely proven. In this review, we summarize available evidence on herbal medications mostly used in cardiovascular medicine. We show that the use of these medications for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases is often not supported by scientific evidence. Despite most of these herbs showing an effect on biological mechanisms related to the cardiovascular system, data on their clinical effects are lacking. Potential relevant side effects, including increased risk of drug interactions, are described, and the possibility of contamination or substitution with other medications represents a concern. Physicians should always assess the use of herbal medications with patients and discuss the possible benefits and side effects with them.

  1. Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sophie; West, Lance M

    2012-06-01

    We report an extensive intra-operative bleed which may have occurred as a result of the patient taking a herbal medicine. The patient underwent orthognathic surgery as a part of his orthodontic treatment, and lost approximately 3.5 litres of blood during the procedure. Preoperative blood tests were normal; the patient took no prescription medications and an appendectomy had been performed without incident. To aid healing, however, the patient had taken arnica the day before his operation. A concise literature review is presented which outlines the causes of surgical bleeding and discusses some of the bleeding concerns that herbal medicine use may raise for clinicians. Herbal medicines may contribute to unexplained surgical bleeding in the absence of other causative factors; it would therefore be useful to include an enquiry about the taking of herbal remedies at the history-taking stage for dental and maxillofacial surgical procedures.

  2. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  3. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  4. A critical firing rate associated with tonic-to-bursting transitions in synchronized gap-junction coupled neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Annabelle; Follmann, Rosangela; Harris, Allison L.; Postnova, Svetlana; Braun, Hans; Rosa, Epaminondas

    2017-06-01

    A transition between tonic and bursting neuronal behaviors is studied using a linear chain of three electrically coupled model neurons. Numerical simulations show that, depending on their individual dynamical states, the neurons first synchronize either in a tonic or in a bursting regime. Additionally, a characteristic firing rate, mediating tonic-to-bursting transitions in networked neurons, is found to be associated with a firing rate encountered in the single neuron's equivalent transition. A few cases describing this peculiar phenomenon are presented.

  5. Physiological tonicity improves human chondrogenic marker expression through nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 in vitro.

    PubMed

    van der Windt, Anna E; Haak, Esther; Das, Ruud H J; Kops, Nicole; Welting, Tim J M; Caron, Marjolein M J; van Til, Niek P; Verhaar, Jan A N; Weinans, Harrie; Jahr, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Chondrocytes experience a hypertonic environment compared with plasma (280 mOsm) due to the high fixed negative charge density of cartilage. Standard isolation of chondrocytes removes their hypertonic matrix, exposing them to nonphysiological conditions. During in vitro expansion, chondrocytes quickly lose their specialized phenotype, making them inappropriate for cell-based regenerative strategies. We aimed to elucidate the effects of tonicity during isolation and in vitro expansion on chondrocyte phenotype. Human articular chondrocytes were isolated and subsequently expanded at control tonicity (280 mOsm) or at moderately elevated, physiological tonicity (380 mOsm). The effects of physiological tonicity on chondrocyte proliferation and chondrogenic marker expression were evaluated. The role of Tonicity-responsive Enhancer Binding Protein in response to physiological tonicity was investigated using nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) RNA interference. Moderately elevated, physiological tonicity (380 mOsm) did not affect chondrocyte proliferation, while higher tonicities inhibited proliferation and diminished cell viability. Physiological tonicity improved expression of chondrogenic markers and NFAT5 and its target genes, while suppressing dedifferentiation marker collagen type I and improving type II/type I expression ratios >100-fold. Effects of physiological tonicity were similar in osteoarthritic and normal (nonosteoarthritic) chondrocytes, indicating a disease-independent mechanism. NFAT5 RNA interference abolished tonicity-mediated effects and revealed that NFAT5 positively regulates collagen type II expression, while suppressing type I. Physiological tonicity provides a simple, yet effective, means to improve phenotypical characteristics during cytokine-free isolation and in vitro expansion of human articular chondrocytes. Our findings will lead to the development of improved cell-based repair strategies for chondral lesions and provides important

  6. Physiological tonicity improves human chondrogenic marker expression through nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Chondrocytes experience a hypertonic environment compared with plasma (280 mOsm) due to the high fixed negative charge density of cartilage. Standard isolation of chondrocytes removes their hypertonic matrix, exposing them to nonphysiological conditions. During in vitro expansion, chondrocytes quickly lose their specialized phenotype, making them inappropriate for cell-based regenerative strategies. We aimed to elucidate the effects of tonicity during isolation and in vitro expansion on chondrocyte phenotype. Methods Human articular chondrocytes were isolated and subsequently expanded at control tonicity (280 mOsm) or at moderately elevated, physiological tonicity (380 mOsm). The effects of physiological tonicity on chondrocyte proliferation and chondrogenic marker expression were evaluated. The role of Tonicity-responsive Enhancer Binding Protein in response to physiological tonicity was investigated using nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) RNA interference. Results Moderately elevated, physiological tonicity (380 mOsm) did not affect chondrocyte proliferation, while higher tonicities inhibited proliferation and diminished cell viability. Physiological tonicity improved expression of chondrogenic markers and NFAT5 and its target genes, while suppressing dedifferentiation marker collagen type I and improving type II/type I expression ratios >100-fold. Effects of physiological tonicity were similar in osteoarthritic and normal (nonosteoarthritic) chondrocytes, indicating a disease-independent mechanism. NFAT5 RNA interference abolished tonicity-mediated effects and revealed that NFAT5 positively regulates collagen type II expression, while suppressing type I. Conclusions Physiological tonicity provides a simple, yet effective, means to improve phenotypical characteristics during cytokine-free isolation and in vitro expansion of human articular chondrocytes. Our findings will lead to the development of improved cell-based repair strategies for

  7. Tonic GABAA conductance bidirectionally controls interneuron firing pattern and synchronization in the CA3 hippocampal network

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Ivan; Savtchenko, Leonid P.; Song, Inseon; Koo, Jaeyeon; Pimashkin, Alexey; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Semyanov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The spiking output of interneurons is key for rhythm generation in the brain. However, what controls interneuronal firing remains incompletely understood. Here we combine dynamic clamp experiments with neural network simulations to understand how tonic GABAA conductance regulates the firing pattern of CA3 interneurons. In baseline conditions, tonic GABAA depolarizes these cells, thus exerting an excitatory action while also reducing the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude through shunting. As a result, the emergence of weak tonic GABAA conductance transforms the interneuron firing pattern driven by individual EPSPs into a more regular spiking mode determined by the cell intrinsic properties. The increased regularity of spiking parallels stronger synchronization of the local network. With further increases in tonic GABAA conductance the shunting inhibition starts to dominate over excitatory actions and thus moderates interneuronal firing. The remaining spikes tend to follow the timing of suprathreshold EPSPs and thus become less regular again. The latter parallels a weakening in network synchronization. Thus, our observations suggest that tonic GABAA conductance can bidirectionally control brain rhythms through changes in the excitability of interneurons and in the temporal structure of their firing patterns. PMID:24344272

  8. Inhibition of tonic spinal glutamatergic activity induces antinociception in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tambeli, Claudia H; Parada, Carlos A; Levine, Jon D; Gear, Robert W

    2002-10-01

    Inhibition of tonic activity in spino-supraspinal projection neurons induces heterosegmental antinociception that is mediated by opioid receptors in nucleus accumbens. To investigate the origin of this tonic activity, we evaluated the ability of inhibiting neurotransmission in the spinal cord to produce heterosegmental antinociception in the trigeminal nociceptive jaw-opening reflex (JOR) in the rat. Spinal intrathecal administration of calcium channel blockers attenuated the JOR, suggesting that the tonic spinal activity depends on synaptic input. To identify the excitatory neurotransmitter receptors involved, selective antagonists for AMPA/kainate, mGluR1, NMDA or NK1 receptors were administered intrathecally to the spinal cord. The AMPA/kainate and mGluR1 receptor antagonists, but not the NMDA or NK1 receptor antagonists, induced antinociception, which was antagonized by intra-accumbens administration of the selective micro -opioid receptor antagonist CTOP. Thus, inhibition of tonic spinal glutamatergic activity resulted in supraspinally mediated antinociception. As this antinociception occurred in the absence of interventions that would produce a facilitated nociceptive state, this tonic glutamatergic activity is important in setting nociceptive threshold.

  9. Unilateral Adie's Tonic Pupil and Viral Hepatitis - Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Karadžić, Jelena; Jaković, Natalija; Kovačević, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Adie's (tonic) pupil is a neuro-ophthalmological disorder characterized by a tonically dilated pupil, which is unresponsive to light. It is caused by damage to postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic innervation of the eye, usually by a viral.or bacterial infection. Adie's syndrome includes diminished deep tendon reflexes. We report data of a 59-year-old female with unequal pupil sizes. She complained of blurred vision and headache mainly while reading. She had a 35-year history of hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis. On exam, left pupil was mydriatic and there was no response to light and at slit lamp we saw segments of the sphincter constrict. We performed 0.125% pilocarpine test and there was a remarkable reduction of size in the left pupil. The second case is a 55-year-old female who was referred to the University Eye Clinic because of a headache and mydriatic left pupil. She had diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as hepatitis A virus 20 years earlier. On exam, the left pupil was mydriatic, with no response to light. Test with diluted pilocarpine was positive. Neurological examinations revealed no abnormality in either case so we excluded Adie's syndrome. Adie's tonic pupil is benign neuro-ophthalmological disorder of unknown etiology. Most patients commonly present no symptoms and anisocoria is noticed accidentally. Although the etiology is unknown, there are some conditions that cause tonic pupil. It may be a part of a syndrome in which tonic pupil is associated with absent deep tendon reflexes.

  10. Is there tonic immobility in humans? Biological evidence from victims of traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Volchan, Eliane; Souza, Gabriela G; Franklin, Camila M; Norte, Carlos E; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa; Oliveira, Jose M; David, Isabel A; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Fiszman, Adriana; Berger, William; Marques-Portella, Carla; Figueira, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    Tonic immobility, characterized by profound motor inhibition, is elicited under inescapable threat in many species. To fully support the existence of tonic immobility in humans, our aim was to elicit this reaction in a laboratory setting and measure it objectively. To mimic exposure to life-threatening events in the lab, trauma-exposed participants with PTSD (n=18) and without PTSD (n=15) listened to the script of their autobiographical trauma. Posturography and electrocardiography were employed. Reports of script-induced immobility were associated with restricted area of body sway and were correlated with accelerated heart rate and diminished heart rate variability, implying that tonic immobility is preserved in humans as an involuntary defensive strategy. Immobility reports seemed more evident in PTSD, suggesting that, in some patients, tonic immobility may be elicited during re-experiencing episodes in daily life. This study provided a measure of tonic immobility, a peritraumatic reaction for which cumulative clinical evidence had linked to the severity of PTSD.

  11. The effect of varying tonicity on nasal epithelial ion transport in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael G; Geddes, Duncan M; Alton, Eric W F W

    2005-04-01

    There is reasonable evidence that the fluid layer of the airway epithelium is exposed to changes in tonicity. The inspiration of cool, dry air causes an increased tonicity, whereas this tonicity may be decreased by glandular secretions. We hypothesized that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is involved in the responses to changes in tonicity and that these may be altered in cystic fibrosis (CF). Using nasal potential difference (PD) protocols in 8 subjects with CF and 10 subjects without CF, we investigated the effects of hyper- and hypotonicity on ion transport processes. We found significant differences between the two groups. In response to a hypertonic challenge (mannitol 500 mM), there was a decreased PD in both groups, suggesting decreased sodium absorption. However, after the prior inhibition of sodium transport using amiloride, there was an increased PD in the non-CF group alone, suggesting CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in response to luminal hypertonicity. For the hypotonic solution, we found that hypotonicity inhibited CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in the non-CF group. These data suggest that CFTR plays a role in the recognition and regulation of airway fluid tonicity.

  12. Tonic GABAA conductance bidirectionally controls interneuron firing pattern and synchronization in the CA3 hippocampal network.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Ivan; Savtchenko, Leonid P; Song, Inseon; Koo, Jaeyeon; Pimashkin, Alexey; Rusakov, Dmitri A; Semyanov, Alexey

    2014-01-07

    The spiking output of interneurons is key for rhythm generation in the brain. However, what controls interneuronal firing remains incompletely understood. Here we combine dynamic clamp experiments with neural network simulations to understand how tonic GABAA conductance regulates the firing pattern of CA3 interneurons. In baseline conditions, tonic GABAA depolarizes these cells, thus exerting an excitatory action while also reducing the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude through shunting. As a result, the emergence of weak tonic GABAA conductance transforms the interneuron firing pattern driven by individual EPSPs into a more regular spiking mode determined by the cell intrinsic properties. The increased regularity of spiking parallels stronger synchronization of the local network. With further increases in tonic GABAA conductance the shunting inhibition starts to dominate over excitatory actions and thus moderates interneuronal firing. The remaining spikes tend to follow the timing of suprathreshold EPSPs and thus become less regular again. The latter parallels a weakening in network synchronization. Thus, our observations suggest that tonic GABAA conductance can bidirectionally control brain rhythms through changes in the excitability of interneurons and in the temporal structure of their firing patterns.

  13. Control of hippocampal gamma oscillation frequency by tonic inhibition and excitation of interneurons.

    PubMed

    Mann, Edward O; Mody, Istvan

    2010-02-01

    Gamma-frequency oscillations depend on phasic synaptic GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition to synchronize spike timing. The spillover of synaptically released GABA can also activate extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs, and such tonic inhibition may also contribute to modulating network dynamics. In many neuronal cell types, tonic inhibition is mediated by delta subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs. We found that the frequency of in vitro cholinergically induced gamma oscillations in the mouse hippocampal CA3 region was increased by the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) on interneurons. The NMDAR-dependent increase of gamma oscillation frequency was counteracted by the tonic inhibition of the interneurons mediated by delta subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs. Recordings of synaptic currents during gamma activity revealed that NMDAR-mediated increases in oscillation frequency correlated with a progressive synchronization of phasic excitation and inhibition in the network. Thus, the balance between tonic excitation and tonic inhibition of interneurons may modulate gamma frequency by shaping interneuronal synchronization.

  14. Attenuated Tonic and Enhanced Phasic Release of Dopamine in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Sinha, Sampada; Sajjad, Munawwar; Wack, David S

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a hypodopaminergic or hyperdopaminergic condition. Different sets of data suggest either hyperactive or hypoactive dopamine system. Since indirect methods used in earlier studies have arrived at contradictory conclusions, we directly measured the tonic and phasic release of dopamine in ADHD volunteers. The tonic release in ADHD and healthy control volunteers was measured and compared using dynamic molecular imaging technique. The phasic release during performance of Eriksen's flanker task was measured in the two groups using single scan dynamic molecular imaging technique. In these experiments volunteers were positioned in a positron emission tomography (PET) camera and administered a dopamine receptor ligand (11)C-raclopride intravenously. After the injection PET data were acquired dynamically while volunteers either stayed still (tonic release experiments) or performed the flanker task (phasic release experiments). PET data were analyzed to measure dynamic changes in ligand binding potential (BP) and other receptor kinetic parameters. The analysis revealed that at rest the ligand BP was significantly higher in the right caudate of ADHD volunteers suggesting reduced tonic release. During task performance significantly lower ligand BP was observed in the same area, indicating increased phasic release. In ADHD tonic release of dopamine is attenuated and the phasic release is enhanced in the right caudate. By characterizing the nature of dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission in ADHD, the results explain earlier findings of reduced or increased dopaminergic activity.

  15. Emerging principles and neural substrates underlying tonic sleep-state-dependent influences on respiratory motor activity.

    PubMed

    Horner, Richard L

    2009-09-12

    Respiratory muscles with dual respiratory and non-respiratory functions (e.g. the pharyngeal and intercostal muscles) show greater suppression of activity in sleep than the diaphragm, a muscle almost entirely devoted to respiratory function. This sleep-related suppression of activity is most apparent in the tonic component of motor activity, which has functional implications of a more collapsible upper airspace in the case of pharyngeal muscles, and decreased functional residual capacity in the case of intercostal muscles. A major source of tonic drive to respiratory motoneurons originates from neurons intimately involved in states of brain arousal, i.e. neurons not classically involved in generating respiratory rhythm and pattern per se. The tonic drive to hypoglossal motoneurons, a respiratory motor pool with both respiratory and non-respiratory functions, is mediated principally by noradrenergic and glutamatergic inputs, these constituting the essential components of the wakefulness stimulus. These tonic excitatory drives are opposed by tonic inhibitory glycinergic and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) inputs that constrain the level of respiratory-related motor activity, with the balance determining net motor tone. In sleep, the excitatory inputs are withdrawn and GABA release into the brainstem is increased, thus decreasing respiratory motor tone and predisposing susceptible individuals to hypoventilation and obstructive sleep apnoea.

  16. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    PubMed

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  17. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Extemporaneously Prepared Herbal Mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Dua, Kamal; Sheshala, Ravi; Al-Waeli, Haider A; Gupta, Gauarv; Chellappan, Dinesh K

    2015-01-01

    Natural products like plants and its components have been in use for treatment and cure of diseases all around the globe from ancient times much before the discovery of the current modern drugs. These substances from the nature are well known to contain components which have therapeutic properties and can also behave as precursors for the synthesis of potential drugs. The beneficial results from herbal drugs are well reported where their popularity in usage has increased across the globe. Subsequently developing countries are now recognizing the many positive advantages from their use which has engaged the expansion of R & D from herbal research. The flow on effect from this expansion has increased the awareness to develop new herbal products and the processes, throughout the entire world. Mouth washes and mouth rinses which have plant oils, plant components or extracts have generated particular attention. High prevalence of gingival inflammation and periodontal diseases, suggests majority of the patients practice inadequate plaque control. Of the currently available mouthwashes in the market, Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) has been investigated on a larger scale with much detail. CHX is associated with side effects like staining of teeth when used daily as well as the bitter taste of the mouthwash which leads to patient incompliance. The present research encompasses the antibacterial activity of extemporaneously prepared herbal mouthwash using natural herbs and therefore allows for the potential commercialization with in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries. Also, the present research article reviewed details of various existing patents of herbal mouthwashes which shows the trend of existing market and significance of emerging mouthwashes in both pharmaceutical and herbal industries. The antimicrobial activity of prepared mouthwashes was found to be effective against various strains of bacteria. It also suggests that the prepared herbal mouthwashes may provide

  18. Herbal medicines for the management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, George Q; Kam, Antony; Wong, Ka H; Zhou, Xian; Omar, Eshaifol A; Alqahtani, Ali; Li, Kong M; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been used in the management of diabetes in traditional medicine. This chapter reviews recent findings of the most popular herbs reported to treat diabetes through their relevant mechanistic pathways. These include increased insulin secretion, improvement in insulin sensitivity, enhanced glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibition of glucose absorption from intestine, inhibition of glucose production from hepatocytes and anti-inflammatory activities. The pharmacological activities have highlighted the potential efficacy of these herbal medicines in the management of diabetes.

  19. Risks associated with consumption of herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S

    1997-01-01

    Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available.

  20. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kim Sooi, Law

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  1. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice.

    PubMed

    Kim Sooi, Law; Lean Keng, Soon

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy.

  2. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving re-uptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068

  3. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving reuptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine.

  4. Tonic γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic activity in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is attenuated in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Tetsuya; Kawabe, Kazumi; Sapru, Hreday N

    2013-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that tonic γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic activity in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARCN) modulates blood pressure control and attenuation of this inhibitory activity contributes to hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and greater splanchnic nerve activity (GSNA) were recorded in urethane-anesthetized, artificially ventilated, adult male SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Microinjections of gabazine into the ARCN elicited significantly smaller increases in MAP, HR, and GSNA in baroreceptor-intact SHR compared with baroreceptor-intact WKY. Attenuation of the responses to gabazine in SHR persisted, despite lowering of their baseline MAP to levels of WKY or barodenervation. Microinjections of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) into the ARCN elicited decreases in MAP and GSNA and increases in HR in baroreceptor-intact WKY. However, after microinjections of gabazine into the ARCN, microinjections of NMDA into the same nucleus elicited pressor responses in baroreceptor-intact WKY. In barodenervated WKY, increases in MAP and GSNA were elicited by ARCN stimulation by NMDA and the increases in HR were exaggerated. In baroreceptor-intact SHR, ARCN stimulation by NMDA elicited increases in MAP, GSNA, and HR which persisted, despite lowering of baseline MAP or barodenervation. Increases in MAP and GSNA elicited by ARCN stimulation by NMDA in barodenervated SHR were significantly greater than corresponding increases in barodenervated WKY. These results indicated that attenuated γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic activity in the ARCN and impaired baroreflex function may contribute to increases in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity after ARCN stimulation by NMDA and elevation of baseline blood pressure in SHR.

  5. Insulation for Daydreams: A Role for Tonic Norepinephrine in the Facilitation of Internally Guided Thought

    PubMed Central

    Smallwood, Jonathan; Brown, Kevin S.; Baird, Benjamin; Mrazek, Michael D.; Franklin, Michael S.; Schooler, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Although consciousness can be brought to bear on both perceptual and internally generated information, little is known about how these different cognitive modes are coordinated. Here we show that between-participant variance in thoughts unrelated to the task being performed (known as task unrelated thought, TUT) is associated with longer response times (RT) when target presentation occurs during periods when baseline Pupil Diameter (PD) is increased. As behavioral interference due to high baseline PD can reflect increased tonic activity in the norepinephrine system (NE), these results might implicate high tonic NE activity in the facilitation of TUTs. Based on these findings, it is hypothesised that high tonic mode NE leads to a generalised de-amplification of task relevant information that prioritses internally generated thought and insulates it from the potentially disruptive events taking place in the external environment. PMID:22493672

  6. (R)-roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, enhances tonic GABA inhibition in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A; Tyzio, R; Zilberter, Y; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2008-10-02

    Pharmacological agents that mediate a persistent GABAergic conductance are of considerable interest for treatment of epilepsy. (R)-roscovitine is a membrane permeable cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, designed to block cell division. It is currently undergoing a phase II clinical trial as an anticancer drug. We show that (R)-roscovitine increases a tonic GABA-mediated current in rat hippocampal neurons. This enhanced tonic current appears independent of synaptic GABA release and requires functional transmembrane GABA transport. The effect of (R)-roscovitine is associated with neither modification of GABAA receptors nor protein kinase activity, but is associated with a significant increase in intracellular GABA concentration in hippocampal GABAergic neurons. (R)-roscovitine-induced tonic inhibition significantly suppresses spontaneous spiking activity of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Therefore, (R)-roscovitine is a potent modulator of neuronal activity in rat hippocampus and may provide a tool for preventing paroxysmal activity.

  7. Insulation for daydreams: a role for tonic norepinephrine in the facilitation of internally guided thought.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Jonathan; Brown, Kevin S; Baird, Benjamin; Mrazek, Michael D; Franklin, Michael S; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2012-01-01

    Although consciousness can be brought to bear on both perceptual and internally generated information, little is known about how these different cognitive modes are coordinated. Here we show that between-participant variance in thoughts unrelated to the task being performed (known as task unrelated thought, TUT) is associated with longer response times (RT) when target presentation occurs during periods when baseline Pupil Diameter (PD) is increased. As behavioral interference due to high baseline PD can reflect increased tonic activity in the norepinephrine system (NE), these results might implicate high tonic NE activity in the facilitation of TUTs. Based on these findings, it is hypothesised that high tonic mode NE leads to a generalised de-amplification of task relevant information that prioritses internally generated thought and insulates it from the potentially disruptive events taking place in the external environment.

  8. Tonic B-cell receptor signaling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Havranek, Ondrej; Xu, Jingda; Köhrer, Stefan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Becker, Lisa; Comer, Justin M; Henderson, Jared; Ma, Wencai; Man Chun Ma, John; Westin, Jason R; Ghosh, Dipanjan; Shinners, Nicholas; Sun, Luhong; Yi, Allen F; Karri, Anusha R; Burger, Jan A; Zal, Tomasz; Davis, R Eric

    2017-08-24

    We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-mediated genomic modification to investigate B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in cell lines of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Three manipulations that altered BCR genes without affecting surface BCR levels showed that BCR signaling differs between the germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype, which is insensitive to Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibition by ibrutinib, and the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype. Replacing antigen-binding BCR regions had no effect on BCR signaling in GCB-DLBCL lines, reflecting this subtype's exclusive use of tonic BCR signaling. Conversely, Y188F mutation in the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif of CD79A inhibited tonic BCR signaling in GCB-DLBCL lines but did not affect their calcium flux after BCR cross-linking or the proliferation of otherwise-unmodified ABC-DLBCL lines. CD79A-GFP fusion showed BCR clustering or diffuse distribution, respectively, in lines of ABC and GCB subtypes. Tonic BCR signaling acts principally to activate AKT, and forced activation of AKT rescued GCB-DLBCL lines from knockout (KO) of the BCR or 2 mediators of tonic BCR signaling, SYK and CD19. The magnitude and importance of tonic BCR signaling to proliferation and size of GCB-DLBCL lines, shown by the effect of BCR KO, was highly variable; in contrast, pan-AKT KO was uniformly toxic. This discrepancy was explained by finding that BCR KO-induced changes in AKT activity (measured by gene expression, CXCR4 level, and a fluorescent reporter) correlated with changes in proliferation and with baseline BCR surface density. PTEN protein expression and BCR surface density may influence clinical response to therapeutic inhibition of tonic BCR signaling in DLBCL. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. Effective water clearance and tonicity balance: the excretion of water revisited.

    PubMed

    Mallie, J P; Bichet, D G; Halperin, M L

    1997-02-01

    To demonstrate (1) that hyponatremia is usually due to an inappropriately low rate of excretion of electrolyte-free water and (2) that the measure "effective water clearance" (EWC) provides better information about renal defence of the body tonicity than does the classic measure free-water clearance, and to provide the rationale for calculating a "tonicity balance," which involves using water and sodium plus potassium intakes and their renal excretion to reveal the basis for changes in body tonicity. Prospective study. Four normal subjects with no conditions affecting excretion, 10 patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) and 5 patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Normals and patients were administered a standard water load (20 mL per kg of body weight) during 45 minutes, and blood and urine samples were taken before, during and after the load was given. Urine and blood sodium and potassium concentrations, osmolar clearance, free-water clearance, electrolyte clearance and EWC. The water load was excreted rapidly by normals, more slowly by patients with CHF, and not at all by patients with SIADH. The EWC was positive in normals and those with CHF, but negative in those with SIADH. In patients with CHF, the EWC, but not the free-water clearance, helped explain why hyponatremia was corrected after the water load was given. In subjects with abnormal water excretion, the EWC provides the physiologic explanation for the renal role in variations in natremia. The authors propose a bedside evaluation of renal water and electrolyte handling that takes into consideration the role of urinary potassium in body tonicity. Changes in body tonicity can be explained by a "tonicity balance," a calculation in which the source and the net balance of sodium, potassium and water are considered.

  10. Protein kinase C regulates tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the hippocampus and thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Damian P; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-01-01

    Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is an important regulator of neuronal excitability. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) provides a key mode of regulation for synaptic GABAARs underlying phasic inhibition; however, less attention has been focused on the plasticity of tonic inhibition and whether this can also be modulated by receptor phosphorylation. To address this issue, we used whole-cell patch clamp recording in acute murine brain slices at both room and physiological temperatures to examine the effects of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on tonic inhibition. Recordings from dentate gyrus granule cells in the hippocampus and dorsal lateral geniculate relay neurons in the thalamus demonstrated that PKC activation caused downregulation of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. Conversely, inhibition of PKC resulted in an increase in tonic GABAAR activity. These findings were corroborated by experiments on human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing recombinant α4β2δ GABAARs, which represent a key extrasynaptic GABAAR isoform in the hippocampus and thalamus. Using bath application of low GABA concentrations to mimic activation by ambient neurotransmitter, we demonstrated a similar inhibition of receptor function following PKC activation at physiological temperature. Live cell imaging revealed that this was correlated with a loss of cell surface GABAARs. The inhibitory effects of PKC activation on α4β2δ GABAAR activity appeared to be mediated by direct phosphorylation at a previously identified site on the β2 subunit, serine 410. These results indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation can be an important physiological regulator of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. PMID:24102973

  11. Surface roughness of composite resin veneer after application of herbal and non-herbal toothpaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraini, S.; Herda, E.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the surface roughness of composite resin veneer after brushing. In this study, 24 specimens of composite resin veneer are divided into three subgroups: brushed without toothpaste, brushed with non-herbal toothpaste, and brushed with herbal toothpaste. Brushing was performed for one set of 5,000 strokes and continued for a second set of 5,000 strokes. Roughness of composite resin veneer was determined using a Surface Roughness Tester. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Post Hoc Mann-Whitney. The results indicate that the highest difference among the Ra values occurred within the subgroup that was brushed with the herbal toothpaste. In conclusion, the herbal toothpaste produced a rougher surface on composite resin veneer compared to non-herbal toothpaste.

  12. Tonic Pupil, a Paraneoplastic Neuro-Ophtalmological Disease Associated with Occult Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Peyman, Alireza; Kabiri, Majid; Peyman, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a case of tonic pupil associated with occult breast cancer as a paraneoplastic neuro-ophthalmology syndrome. A 45-year-old woman developed progressive photophobia and blurred vision due to unilateral Adie's tonic pupil. Magnetic resonance image of her brain and neurological examination (including deep tendon reflexes) were normal at first visit. Follow-up examinations performed by ophthalmologist every 6 month without any change in her condition. After 2 years, patient discovered a mass in her breast which identified to be malignant after diagnostic procedures. Despite surgical and medical treatment for cancer, no change in the ocular condition was happened.

  13. Rottlerin inhibits tonicity-dependent expression and action of TonEBP in a PKCdelta-independent fashion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyu; Tian, Wei; Cohen, David M

    2002-04-01

    Novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms PKCdelta and PKCepsilon have recently been implicated in signaling by hypertonic stress. We investigated the role of the putative PKCdelta inhibitor rottlerin on tonicity-dependent gene regulation. In the renal medullary mIMCD3 cell line, rottlerin blocked tonicity-dependent transcription of a tonicity enhancer (TonE)-driven luciferase reporter gene, as well as tonicity-dependent transcription of the physiological tonicity effector gene aldose reductase, but not urea-dependent transcription. Consistent with these data, rottlerin inhibited tonicity-dependent expression of TonE binding protein (TonEBP) at the mRNA and protein levels. Another inhibitor of both novel and conventional PKC isoforms, GF-109203X, suppressed TonEBP-dependent transcription but failed to influence tonicity-inducible TonEBP expression. Global PKC downregulation with protracted phorbol ester treatment, however, failed to influence tonicity-dependent signaling, arguing against a PKCdelta-dependent mechanism of rottlerin action in this model. In addition, hypertonic stress failed to induce phosphorylation of PKCdelta. Furthermore, in a PC-12 cell model with a comparable degree of tonicity-dependent transcription, constitutive overexpression of dominant negative-acting PKCdelta or PKCepsilon effectively decreased tonicity signaling to extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, as expected, but failed to influence TonE-dependent transcription. TonE-dependent transcription, however, remained rottlerin sensitive in this PC-12 cell model. In the aggregate, these data indicate that rottlerin dramatically inhibits tonicity-dependent TonEBP expression and TonE-dependent transcription but, despite its reputed mode of action, does so through a PKCdelta-independent pathway.

  14. Metals Content in Herbal Supplements.

    PubMed

    Barrella, Michelle Vieira; Heringer, Otavio Arruda; Cardoso, Priscylla Maria Martins; Pimentel, Elisangela Flavia; Scherer, Rodrigo; Lenz, Dominik; Endringer, Denise C

    2017-02-01

    Obesity has become an international epidemic. To evaluate the level of metals in extracts of plants prescribed as weight loss supplements, different brands containing Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Citrus aurantium L., Cordia ecalyculata Vell, Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil, Cissus quadrangularis L., Senna alexandrina Mill were purchased in local market, hot acid digested, and analyzed while metal content by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, ICP-OES. Quality assurance and quality control tests were carried out in order to monitor and control the reliability of the analytical method. For each metal evaluated, a calibration curve was prepared with certified reference material. The recovery test was performed for each batch of samples. Analyses were performed in triplicate. Quantification of aluminum, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, vanadium, and zinc were determined. The metals most frequently detected were manganese (15.3-329,60 mg kg(-1)) aluminum (11.76-342.4 mg kg(-1)), and iron (11.14-73.01 mg kg(-1)) with higher levels in products containing C. sinensis China origin, I. paraguariensis Brazilian origin, C. quadrangularis, and C. aurantium China origin, respectively. To ensure safety consumption, an adequacy of the certification of Brazilian suppliers for herbal weight loss products is indispensable.

  15. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  16. [Herbal supplement usage in cardiac patients].

    PubMed

    Pınar, Neslihan; Topaloğlu, Meyli; Özer, Cahit; Alp, Harun

    2017-10-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become more and more widespread around the world. CAM is a broad term that refers to all medical healthcare services, methods, and practices that are not part of standard medical care, as well as the accompanying theories and beliefs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of herbal medicinal products in cardiac patients, as well as the methods of administration of the products. This descriptive cross-sectional study included 199 patients aged over 18 years who were hospitalized in the Defne Hospital department of cardiology and volunteered to participate in a 20-item survey between April 2016 and June 2016. The study results indicated that 28.6% (n=57) of patients were using herbal products and 71.6% (n=142) said they did not. Only 14.03% (n=8) of those who used herbal products said they used them in consultation with their physician; 85.9% (n=49) had used herbal medicine without consulting their doctor. Of the participants with hypertension, 35.7% of them reported using herbal medicinal products. Of these, 22.5% of them were consuming lemon, 17.5% pomegranate syrup, and 17.5% green tea. Of the participants with cardiovascular diseases, 23.5% of them stated that they were taking herbal products. Of these, 25% were consuming green tea, 25% ginger, and 18.8% sage. Herbal medicinal supplements were used by a large portion of the cardiac patients in this study. Furthermore, most of the patients stated that they were using these products without informing their physician, a practice that can have unwanted consequences.

  17. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated.

  18. Chinese herbal medicines for treating osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Jian Ping; Xia, Yun

    2014-03-06

    Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time to treat osteoporosis. The evidence of their benefits and harms needs to be systematically reviewed. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of Chinese herbal medicines as a general experimental intervention for treating primary osteoporosis by comparing herbal treatments with placebo, no intervention and conventional medicine. We searched the following electronic databases to January 2013: the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, JICST-E, AMED, Chinese Biomedical Database and CINAHL. Randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicines compared with placebo, no intervention or conventional medicine were included. Two authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias independently. Disagreement was resolved by discussion. One hundred and eight randomised trials involving 10,655 participants were included. Ninety-nine different Chinese herbal medicines were tested and compared with placebo (three trials), no intervention (five trials) or conventional medicine (61 trials), or Chinese herbal medicines plus western medicine were compared with western medicine (47 trials). The risk of bias across all studies was unclear for most domains primarily due to inadequate reporting of study design. Although we rated the risk of selective reporting for all studies as unclear, only a few studies contributed numerical data to the key outcomes.Seven trials reported fracture incidence, but they were small in sample size, suffered from various biases and tested different Chinese herbal medicines. These trials compared Kanggusong capsules versus placebo, Kanggusong granule versus Caltrate or ipriflavone plus Caltrate, Yigu capsule plus calcium versus placebo plus calcium, Xianlinggubao capsule plus Caltrate versus placebo plus Caltrate, Bushen Zhuanggu granules plus Caltrate versus placebo granules plus Caltrate, Kanggusong soup plus Caltrate versus Caltrate

  19. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  20. [Clinical observation on treatment of postcardiotomic complications with Chinese herbal medicine based on syndrome differentiation with angiocardiopathy].

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Jiao, Z; Zhang, R

    1999-04-01

    To study the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) based on Syndrome Differentiation on postcardiotomic complications in patients with angiocardiopathy. Aimed at the frequently encountered postcardiotomic complications including fever, cough and expectoration, belching, abdominal distension, palpitation, short breath, etc. CHM treatment was applied in combination with routine western drugs treatment (cardiac tonic, diuretics, vascular dilatator and anticoagulant). Twenty out of 22 patients with protracted fever and irresponsive to multi-antibiotics therapy were cured, the other one with hydrothorax received other therapy and the another one with drug fever was natural cured after stopping medication. Among 23 patients complicated mainly with respiratory symptoms, 17 were cured and 6 improved, among 15 with digestive symptoms, 12 cured and 3 improved, and among 7 with cardiovascular symptoms, 3 cured, 2 improved and 2 ineffective. CHM has good effect on postcardiotomic complications, it could improve the functional recovery of heart and lung.

  1. Traditional Chinese herbal remedies for Asthma and Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). This trend has begun to attract interest from the mainstream healthcare providers and scientific investigators, and has stimulated government agencies in the US to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of CAM. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better healthcare/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy. PMID:17560638

  2. Tonic Investigation Concept of Cervico-vestibular Muscle Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Linda Josephine; Lappat, Annabelle; Neuhuber, Winfried; Scherer, Hans; Olze, Heidi; Hölzl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interdisciplinary research has contributed greatly to an improved understanding of the vestibular system. To date, however, very little research has focused on the vestibular system's somatosensory afferents. To ensure the diagnostic quality of vestibular somatosensory afferent data, especially the extra cranial afferents, stimulation of the vestibular balance system has to be precluded. Objective Sophisticated movements require intra- and extra cranial vestibular receptors. The study's objective is to evaluate an investigation concept for cervico-vestibular afferents with respect to clinical feasibility. Methods A dedicated chair was constructed, permitting three-dimensional trunk excursions, during which the volunteer's head remains fixed. Whether or not a cervicotonic provocation nystagmus (c-PN) can be induced with static trunk excursion is to be evaluated and if this can be influenced by cervical monophasic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (c-TENS) with a randomized test group. 3D-video-oculography (VOG) was used to record any change in cervico-ocular examination parameters. The occurring nystagmuses were evaluated visually due to the small caliber of nystagmus amplitudes in healthy volunteers. Results The results demonstrate: no influence of placebo-controlled c-TENS on the spontaneous nystagmus; a significant increase of the vertical nystagmus on the 3D-trunk-excursion chair in static trunk flexion with cervical provocation in all young healthy volunteers (n = 49); and a significant difference between vertical and horizontal nystagmuses during static trunk excursion after placebo-controlled c-TENS, except for the horizontal nystagmus during trunk torsion. Conclusion We hope this cervicotonic investigation concept on the 3D trunk-excursion chair will contribute to new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives on cervical pathologies in vestibular head-to-trunk alignment. PMID:28050208

  3. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  4. Selective reinnervation of twitch and tonic muscle fibres of the frog.

    PubMed Central

    Elizalde, A; Huerta, M; Stefani, E

    1983-01-01

    The electrical properties and innervation of piriformis muscle fibres and the conduction velocities and thresholds of the corresponding motor axons were studied. In normal muscles all fibres clearly fell into the category of twitch or tonic. Tonic muscle fibres were selectively reinnervated by small motor axons after crushing or cutting the piriformis nerve. Twitch fibres were reinnervated by large motor axons. Tonic fibres were also selectively reinnervated by small motor axons when the proximal stump of the piriformis nerve was cut and attached to the caudal end of the muscle. With this procedure the possibility of mechanical guidance by remaining neural sheaths was eliminated. Polyneuronal innervation in twitch fibres in piriformis muscles of normal frogs was 4.7% and in contralateral muscles of operated frogs with the piriformis nerve cut it was 22.6%. Unexpectedly three out of seventeen tonic fibres in contralateral muscles were simultaneously innervated by both small and large motor axons. It is concluded that reinnervation is highly specific for fibre type in frog skeletal muscles. PMID:6604153

  5. Estimates of mouse oviductal fluid tonicity based on osmotic responses of embryos.

    PubMed

    Collins, J L; Baltz, J M

    1999-05-01

    Zygotes and early cleavage-stage embryos are very sensitive to increased osmolality in vitro, although the tonicity of their in vivo environment, oviductal fluid, is unknown. A preference for low osmolality in vitro might imply similar conditions in vivo or be specific to culture. Previous electron probe x-ray microanalysis measurements of total ion content predicted oviductal fluid osmolalities of 310-360 mOs/kg, higher than osmolalities tolerated by mouse zygotes in vitro. However, such indirect estimates may not reflect the tonicity experienced by embryos. We have now used embryos themselves as osmosensors to determine the tonicity of mouse oviductal fluid. In one method, we measured the mean volume of zygotes in undiluted oviductal fluid and compared this to the mean volumes measured for zygotes in media spanning a range of osmolalities. The osmolality corresponding to the measured mean volume in oviductal fluid was taken to be isotonic. In another, independent method, the sizes of zygotes and two-cell embryos were measured as a function of time beginning immediately after removal from oviducts. The osmolality in which the embryos neither swelled nor shrank was taken to be isotonic. Both methods yielded approximately the same range for the tonicity of oviductal fluid: around 290-300 mOs/kg.

  6. The Roles of Phasic and Tonic Dopamine in Tic Learning and Expression.

    PubMed

    Maia, Tiago V; Conceição, Vasco A

    2017-09-15

    Tourette syndrome (TS) prominently involves dopaminergic disturbances, but the precise nature of those disturbances has remained elusive. A substantial body of empirical work and recent computational models have characterized the specific roles of phasic and tonic dopamine (DA) in action learning and selection, respectively. Using insights from this work and models, we suggest that TS involves increases in both phasic and tonic DA, which produce increased propensities for tic learning and expression, respectively. We review the evidence from reinforcement-learning and habit-learning studies in TS, which supports the idea that TS involves increased phasic DA responses; we also review the evidence that tics engage the habit-learning circuitry. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that tics are exaggerated, maladaptive, and persistent motor habits reinforced by aberrant, increased phasic DA responses. Increased tonic DA amplifies the tendency to execute learned tics and also provides a fertile ground of motor hyperactivity for tic learning. We review evidence suggesting that antipsychotics may counter both the increased propensity for tic expression, by increasing excitability in the indirect pathway, and the increased propensity for tic learning, by shifting plasticity in the indirect pathway toward long-term potentiation (and possibly also through more complex mechanisms). Finally, we review evidence suggesting that low doses of DA agonists that effectively treat TS decrease both phasic and tonic DA, thereby also reducing the propensity for both tic learning and tic expression, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tonic Firing Rate Controls Dendritic Ca2+ Signaling and Synaptic Gain in Substantia Nigra Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Substantia nigra dopamine neurons fire tonically resulting in action potential backpropagation and dendritic Ca2+ influx. Using Ca2+ imaging in acute mouse brain slices, we find a surprisingly steep relationship between tonic firing rate and dendritic Ca2+. Increasing the tonic rate from 1 to 6 Hz generated Ca2+ signals up to fivefold greater than predicted by linear summation of single spike-evoked Ca2+-transients. This “Ca2+ supralinearity” was produced largely by depolarization of the interspike voltage leading to activation of subthreshold Ca2+ channels and was present throughout the proximal and distal dendrites. Two-photon glutamate uncaging experiments show somatic depolarization enhances NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ signals >400 μm distal to the soma, due to unusually tight electrotonic coupling of the soma to distal dendrites. Consequently, we find that fast tonic firing intensifies synaptically driven burst firing output in dopamine neurons. These results show that modulation of background firing rate precisely tunes dendritic Ca2+ signaling and provides a simple yet powerful mechanism to dynamically regulate the gain of synaptic input. PMID:25855191

  8. Tonic and phasic drive to medullary respiratory neurons during periodic breathing

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, Andrew T.; Fraigne, Jimmy J.; Dunin-Barkowski, Witali L.; Vidruk, Edward H.; Orem, John M.

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown how central neural activity produces the repetitive termination and restart of periodic breathing (PB). We hypothesized that inspiratory and expiratory neural activities would be greatest during the waxing phase and least during the waning phase. We analyzed diaphragmatic and medullary respiratory neural activities during PB in intact unanesthetized adult cats. Diaphragmatic activity was increased and phasic during the waxing phase and was decreased and tonic during the waning phase. Activity of expiratory (n=21) and inspiratory (n=40) neurons was generally increased and phasic during the waxing phase and was decreased and more tonic during the waning phase. During apneas associated with PB, diaphragmatic activity was silent and most, but not all, inspiratory cells were inactive whereas most expiratory cells decreased activity but remained tonically active. We suggest that reduced strength of reciprocal inhibition, secondary to reduced respiratory drive, allows for simultaneous tonic activity of inspiratory and expiratory neurons of the central pattern generator, ultimately resulting in central apnea. PMID:22484379

  9. Tonic Immobility in Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors and Its Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Sauder, Colin L.; Martin, Elaine K.; Marx, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that 37% to 52% of sexual assault survivors report experiencing a set of peritraumatic responses, which include gross motor inhibition, analgesia, and fixed or unfocused staring. This response set closely resembles a set of unconditioned responses, collectively known as Tonic Immobility (TI). This study examined TI among…

  10. Tonic Immobility in Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors and Its Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Sauder, Colin L.; Martin, Elaine K.; Marx, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that 37% to 52% of sexual assault survivors report experiencing a set of peritraumatic responses, which include gross motor inhibition, analgesia, and fixed or unfocused staring. This response set closely resembles a set of unconditioned responses, collectively known as Tonic Immobility (TI). This study examined TI among…

  11. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  12. In vitro effects of medium tonicity, nutrient concentration, and free chlorine content on Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Bergmanson, Jan P G; Wang, Eva; Gire, Anisa I; Osato, Michael S

    2011-08-01

    The environment preferred by Acanthamoeba trophozoites and the mechanism by which the amebae enters the cornea are not yet fully understood. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease may help with prevention and treatment. To define the preferred environments for Acanthamoeba survival and proliferation in vitro by examining the effect of tonicity, nutrient concentration, and free chlorine content on Acanthamoeba. Human corneal isolates of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites were cultured at 22°C (room temperature) in PYG (peptone-yeast extract-glucose) medium. The effect of tonicity on amebae was determined by incubating trophozoites in sodium chloride solutions in concentrations ranging from 0% to 10% for 19 days. Two different sets of media were prepared-one with and the other without added nutrients. The tonicity varied from 50 to 3438 mOsm/L while the pH was maintained at 6.7-6.8. Aliquots were recovered to determine the number and morphologic type of the amebae. To test the effect of chlorine, Acanthamoeba trophozoites were incubated for 7 days in buffered solutions with free chlorine concentrations varying from 0 to 5 mg/L free chlorine at 22°C. The pH was maintained at 7.2 and the tonicity varied from 88 to 92 mOsm/L. Trophozoites were enumerated by hemocytometer. Low tonicity solutions (<300 mOsm/L) favored the trophozoite stage, but elevating tonicity encouraged encystment. Only 3.3-3.9% of the trophozoites remained in 10% NaCl, while 46-58% of the trophozoites were present in distilled water. Increasing osmolality yielded a smaller number of Acanthamoeba with a greater proportion of cysts. Nutrients improved the replication rate at lower concentrations, increased the number of trophozoites and reduced the percentage of cysts. Chlorine completely inhibited both species of Acanthamoeba at free chlorine levels of 5mg/L, while lesser concentrations were less inhibitory. Acanthamoeba prefer hypotonic environments

  13. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases.

  14. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    PubMed

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used.

  15. Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Alan Keith

    2008-01-01

    Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment.

  16. Herbal medicines as adjuvants for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention.

  17. Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    (1) Functional dyspepsia is extremely common, yet few if any treatments have been shown to be effective. This review examines the potential benefits and risks of using herbal products in treating symptoms of dyspepsia. (2) About forty plants have been approved in France in the composition of products traditionally used for dyspepsia. (3) The clinical efficacy of most of these plants has not been assessed. Some essential oils can cause severe adverse effects, including seizures. Herbal teas appear to be safe when used appropriately. (4) A few randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that peppermint essential oil is effective in reducing abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea in patients with "irritable bowel syndrome". Peppermint tea, containing essential oil, has no known adverse effects. (5) There is no sound reason to discourage patients from using herbal teas made from plants such as lemon balm, German chamomile or star anise.

  18. Bestrophin1 Channels are Insensitive to Ethanol and Do not Mediate Tonic GABAergic Currents in Cerebellar Granule Cells.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Marvin R; Wadleigh, Aya; Hughes, Benjamin A; Woodward, John J; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The granule cell layer of the cerebellum functions in spatio-temporal encoding of information. Granule cells (GCs) are tonically inhibited by spillover of GABA released from Golgi cells and this tonic inhibition is facilitated by acute ethanol. Recently, it was demonstrated that a specialized Ca(2+)-activated anion-channel, bestrophin1 (Best1), found on glial cells, can release GABA that contributes up to 50-75% of the tonic GABAergic current. However, it is unknown if ethanol has any actions on Best1 function. Using whole-cell electrophysiology, we found that recombinant Best1 channels expressed in HEK-293 cells were insensitive to 40 and 80 mM ethanol. We attempted to measure the Best1-mediated component of the tonic current in slices using 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB). We confirmed that this agent blocks recombinant Best1 channels. Unexpectedly, we found that NPPB significantly potentiated the tonic current and the area and decay of GABA(A)-mediated spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GCs in rodent slices under two different recording conditions. To better isolate the Best1-dependent tonic current component, we blocked the Golgi cell component of the tonic current with tetrodotoxin and found that NPPB similarly and significantly potentiated the tonic current amplitude and decay time of miniature IPSCs. Two other Cl(-)-channel blockers were also tested: 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt hydrate (DIDS) showed no effect on GABAergic transmission, while niflumic acid (NFA) significantly suppressed the tonic current noise, as well as the mIPSC frequency, amplitude, and area. These data suggest that acute ethanol exposure does not modulate Best1 channels and these findings serve to challenge recent data indicating that these channels participate in the generation of tonic GABAergic currents in cerebellar GCs.

  19. Bestrophin1 Channels are Insensitive to Ethanol and Do not Mediate Tonic GABAergic Currents in Cerebellar Granule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Marvin R.; Wadleigh, Aya; Hughes, Benjamin A.; Woodward, John J.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The granule cell layer of the cerebellum functions in spatio-temporal encoding of information. Granule cells (GCs) are tonically inhibited by spillover of GABA released from Golgi cells and this tonic inhibition is facilitated by acute ethanol. Recently, it was demonstrated that a specialized Ca2+-activated anion-channel, bestrophin1 (Best1), found on glial cells, can release GABA that contributes up to 50–75% of the tonic GABAergic current. However, it is unknown if ethanol has any actions on Best1 function. Using whole-cell electrophysiology, we found that recombinant Best1 channels expressed in HEK-293 cells were insensitive to 40 and 80 mM ethanol. We attempted to measure the Best1-mediated component of the tonic current in slices using 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB). We confirmed that this agent blocks recombinant Best1 channels. Unexpectedly, we found that NPPB significantly potentiated the tonic current and the area and decay of GABAA-mediated spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GCs in rodent slices under two different recording conditions. To better isolate the Best1-dependent tonic current component, we blocked the Golgi cell component of the tonic current with tetrodotoxin and found that NPPB similarly and significantly potentiated the tonic current amplitude and decay time of miniature IPSCs. Two other Cl−-channel blockers were also tested: 4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid disodium salt hydrate (DIDS) showed no effect on GABAergic transmission, while niflumic acid (NFA) significantly suppressed the tonic current noise, as well as the mIPSC frequency, amplitude, and area. These data suggest that acute ethanol exposure does not modulate Best1 channels and these findings serve to challenge recent data indicating that these channels participate in the generation of tonic GABAergic currents in cerebellar GCs. PMID:22275879

  20. Japanese herbal medicine in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Inadomi, J M; Hibi, T

    2009-07-01

    Management of functional gastrointestinal disorders is hindered by both poor efficacy and adverse effects of traditional pharmacological therapy. Herbal medicine may be an attractive alternative based on the perception of its 'natural' approach and low risk of side effects; however, the lack of standardization of drug components has limited the ability to perform rigorous clinical studies in Western countries. Japanese herbal medicine (JHM) is a standardized form of herbal medicine with regards to the quality and quantities of ingredients. While extensively studied and widely used in Asia, there is a paucity of data upon which physicians in other parts of the world may draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to summarize the most recent developments in JHM for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data of JHM used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The herbal components of JHM were examined. Results describing the physiological and clinical effects of JHM were abstracted, with an emphasis on functional gastrointestinal disorders. JHM are associated with a variety of beneficial physiological on the gastrointestinal system. Patient-based clinical outcomes are improved in several conditions. Rikkunnshi-to reduces symptoms and reverses physiological abnormalities associated with functional dyspepsia, while dai-kenchu-to improves symptoms of postoperative ileus and constipation in children. This updated summary of JHM in the field of gastrointestinal disorders illustrates the potential for herbal medication to serve a valuable role in the management of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  1. Tonic and phasic co-variation of peripheral arousal indices in infants

    PubMed Central

    Wass, S.V.; de Barbaro, K.; Clackson, K.

    2015-01-01

    Tonic and phasic differences in peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) indicators strongly predict differences in attention and emotion regulation in developmental populations. However, virtually all previous research has been based on individual ANS measures, which poses a variety of conceptual and methodlogical challenges to comparing results across studies. Here we recorded heart rate, electrodermal activity (EDA), pupil size, head movement velocity and peripheral accelerometry concurrently while a cohort of 37 typical 12-month-old infants completed a mixed assessment battery lasting approximately 20 min per participant. We analysed covariation of these autonomic indices in three ways: first, tonic (baseline) arousal; second, co-variation in spontaneous (phasic) changes during testing; third, phasic co-variation relative to an external stimulus event. We found that heart rate, head velocity and peripheral accelerometry showed strong positive co-variation across all three analyses. EDA showed no co-variation in tonic activity levels but did show phasic positive co-variation with other measures, that appeared limited to sections of high but not low general arousal. Tonic pupil size showed significant positive covariation, but phasic pupil changes were inconsistent. We conclude that: (i) there is high covariation between autonomic indices in infants, but that EDA may only be sensitive at extreme arousal levels, (ii) that tonic pupil size covaries with other indices, but does not show predicted patterns of phasic change and (iii) that motor activity appears to be a good proxy measure of ANS activity. The strongest patterns of covariation were observed using epoch durations of 40 s per epoch, although significant covariation between indices was also observed using shorter epochs (1 and 5 s). PMID:26316360

  2. The effect of extracellular tonicity on the anatomy of triad complexes in amphibian skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Martin, Claire A; Petousi, Nayia; Chawla, Sangeeta; Hockaday, Austin R; Burgess, Antony J; Fraser, James A; Huang, Christopher L H; Skepper, Jeremy N

    2003-01-01

    Ultrastructural features of tubular-sarcoplasmic (T-SR) triad junctions and measures of cell volume following graded increases of extracellular tonicity were compared under physiological conditions recently shown to produce spontaneous release of intracellularly stored Ca2+ in fully polarized amphibian skeletal muscle fibres. The fibres were fixed using solutions of equivalent tonicities prior to processing for electron microscopy. The resulting anatomical sections demonstrated a partially reversible cell shrinkage corresponding to substantial increases in intracellular solute or ionic strength graded with extracellular tonicity. Serial thin sections through triad structures confirmed the presence of geometrically close but anatomically isolated transverse (T-) tubular and sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) membranes contrary to earlier suggestions for the development of luminal continuities between these structures in hypertonic solutions. They also quantitatively demonstrated accompanying decreases in T-SR distances, increased numbers of sections that showed closely apposed T and SR membranes, tubular luminal swelling and reductions in luminal volume of the junctional SR, all correlated with the imposed increases in extracellular osmolarity. Fully polarized fibres correspondingly showed elementary Ca(2+)-release events ('sparks', in 100 mM-sucrose-Ringer solution), sustained Ca2+ elevations and propagated Ca2+ waves (> or = 350-500 mM sucrose) following exposure to physiological Ringer solutions of successively greater tonicities. These were absent in hypotonic, isotonic or less strongly hypertonic (approximately 50 mM sucrose-Ringer) solutions. Yet exposure to hypotonic solutions also disrupted T-SR junctional anatomy. It increased the tubular diameters and T-SR distances and reduced their area of potential contact. The spontaneous release of intracellularly stored Ca2+ thus appears more closely to correlate with the expected changes in intracellular solute strength or

  3. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of GABAA Receptor γ2-Subunit Regulates Tonic and Phasic Inhibition in the Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Nani, Francesca; Bright, Damian P.; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Tretter, Verena; Moss, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    GABA-mediated tonic and phasic inhibition of thalamic relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) was studied after ablating tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation of receptor γ2-subunits. As phosphorylation of γ2 Y365 and Y367 reduces receptor internalization, to understand their importance for inhibition we created a knock-in mouse in which these residues are replaced by phenylalanines. On comparing wild-type (WT) and γ2Y365/367F+/− (HT) animals (homozygotes are not viable in utero), the expression levels of GABAA receptor α4-subunits were increased in the thalamus of female, but not male mice. Raised δ-subunit expression levels were also observed in female γ2Y365/367F +/− thalamus. Electrophysiological analyses revealed no difference in the level of inhibition in male WT and HT dLGN, while both the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic activity and the tonic current were significantly augmented in female HT relay cells. The sensitivity of tonic currents to the δ-subunit superagonist THIP, and the blocker Zn2+, were higher in female HT relay cells. This is consistent with upregulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors containing α4- and δ-subunits to enhance tonic inhibition. In contrast, the sensitivity of GABAA receptors mediating inhibition in the female γ2Y356/367F +/− to neurosteroids was markedly reduced compared with WT. We conclude that disrupting tyrosine phosphorylation of the γ2-subunit activates a sex-specific increase in tonic inhibition, and this most likely reflects a genomic-based compensation mechanism for the reduced neurosteroid sensitivity of inhibition measured in female HT relay neurons. PMID:23904608

  4. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GABAA receptor γ2-subunit regulates tonic and phasic inhibition in the thalamus.

    PubMed

    Nani, Francesca; Bright, Damian P; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Tretter, Verena; Moss, Stephen J; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-07-31

    GABA-mediated tonic and phasic inhibition of thalamic relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) was studied after ablating tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation of receptor γ2-subunits. As phosphorylation of γ2 Y365 and Y367 reduces receptor internalization, to understand their importance for inhibition we created a knock-in mouse in which these residues are replaced by phenylalanines. On comparing wild-type (WT) and γ2(Y365/367F)+/- (HT) animals (homozygotes are not viable in utero), the expression levels of GABAA receptor α4-subunits were increased in the thalamus of female, but not male mice. Raised δ-subunit expression levels were also observed in female γ2(Y365/367F) +/- thalamus. Electrophysiological analyses revealed no difference in the level of inhibition in male WT and HT dLGN, while both the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic activity and the tonic current were significantly augmented in female HT relay cells. The sensitivity of tonic currents to the δ-subunit superagonist THIP, and the blocker Zn(2+), were higher in female HT relay cells. This is consistent with upregulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors containing α4- and δ-subunits to enhance tonic inhibition. In contrast, the sensitivity of GABAA receptors mediating inhibition in the female γ2(Y356/367F) +/- to neurosteroids was markedly reduced compared with WT. We conclude that disrupting tyrosine phosphorylation of the γ2-subunit activates a sex-specific increase in tonic inhibition, and this most likely reflects a genomic-based compensation mechanism for the reduced neurosteroid sensitivity of inhibition measured in female HT relay neurons.

  5. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-11-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a field that has rapidly grown over the last few years along with increased use of herbal products worldwide. To summarize the various facets of this disease, we undertook a literature search for herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements with reported cases of herbal hepatotoxicity. A selective literature search was performed to identify published case reports, spontaneous case reports, case series and review articles regarding herbal hepatotoxicity. A total of 185 publications were identified and the results compiled. They show 60 different herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements with reported potential hepatotoxicity, additional information including synonyms of individual herbs, botanical names and cross references are provided. If known, details are presented for specific ingredients and chemicals in herbal products, and for references with authors that can be matched to each herbal product and to its effect on the liver. Based on stringent causality assessment methods and/or positive re-exposure tests, causality was highly probable or probable for Ayurvedic herbs, Chaparral, Chinese herbal mixture, Germander, Greater Celandine, green tea, few Herbalife products, Jin Bu Huan, Kava, Ma Huang, Mistletoe, Senna, Syo Saiko To and Venencapsan(®). In many other publications, however, causality was not properly evaluated by a liver-specific and for hepatotoxicity-validated causality assessment method such as the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). This compilation presents details of herbal hepatotoxicity, assisting thereby clinical assessment of involved physicians in the future. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Single-point but not tonic cuff pressure pain sensitivity is associated with level of physical fitness--a study of non-athletic healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is often used for pain rehabilitation but the link between physical activity level and pain sensitivity is still not fully understood. Pressure pain sensitivity to cuff algometry and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated in highly active men (n=22), normally active men (n=26), highly active women (n=27) and normally active women (n=23) based on the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Cuff pressure pain sensitivity was assessed at the arm and lower leg. The subjects scored the pain intensity on an electronic Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) during ten minutes with 25 kPa constant cuff pressure and two minutes with zero pressure. The maximal VAS score and area under the VAS-curve were extracted. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded by manual pressure algometry on the ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle before, during and after the tonic arm stimulation. Tonic cuff stimulation of the arm and leg resulted in higher VAS peak scores in women compared with men (p<0.04). In all groups the PPTs were reduced during and after the cuff stimulation compared with baseline (p=0.001). PPT were higher in men compared with women (p=0.03) and higher in highly physical active compared with normal active (p=0.048). Besides the well-known gender difference in pressure pain sensitivity this study demonstrates that a high physical fitness degree in non-athletic subjects is associated with increased pressure pain thresholds but does not affect cuff pressure pain sensitivity in healthy people.

  7. Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Shampoo Powder

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sachin; Nema, Neelesh; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a standard formulation and evaluation parameters, which will certainly help in the standardization for quality and purity of such type of herbal powder shampoos. PMID:22557149

  8. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  9. Tonic sympathetic support of metabolic rate is attenuated with age, sedentary lifestyle, and female sex in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bell, C; Seals, D R; Monroe, M B; Day, D S; Shapiro, L F; Johnson, D G; Jones, P P

    2001-09-01

    We recently demonstrated in young adult humans that the sympathetic nervous system contributes to the control of resting metabolic rate via tonic beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation. In the present follow-up study we determined the respective effects of age, habitual exercise status, and sex on this regulatory mechanism. Resting metabolic rate (ventilated hood, indirect calorimetry) was determined in 55 healthy sedentary or endurance exercise-trained adults, aged 18-35 or 60-75 yr (29 men and 26 women), before (baseline) and during the infusion of either a nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol) or saline (control). Relative to baseline values, during beta-adrenergic receptor antagonism resting metabolic rate adjusted for fat-free mass was reduced to a lesser extent in older (mean +/- SE, -130 +/- 46 kJ/d) compared with young (-297 +/- 46) adults, sedentary (-151 +/- 50) compared with endurance exercise-trained (-268 +/- 46) adults, and women (-105 +/- 33) compared with men (-318 +/- 50; all P < 0.01). Reductions in resting metabolic rate during beta-adrenergic receptor antagonism were positively related to higher baseline resting metabolic rate and plasma catecholamine concentrations and negatively related to adiposity (all P < 0.05). Resting metabolic rate was unchanged in response to saline control in all groups. These results provide experimental support for the hypothesis that aging, sedentary living, and female sex are associated with attenuated sympathetic nervous system support of resting metabolic rate in healthy adult humans.

  10. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Deborah A; Lupattelli, Angela; Koren, Gideon; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2013-12-12

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is

  11. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

  12. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oreagba, Ibrahim Adekunle; Oshikoya, Kazeem Adeola; Amachree, Mercy

    2011-11-25

    Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless.This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire.The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects.

  13. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe.

  14. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  15. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  16. A rapid and low-cost approach to evaluate the allergenicity of herbal injection using HPLC analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Peng, Guoping; Li, Cunyu; Jiang, Baoping; Xu, Haokun; Ding, Ning; Zheng, Yunfeng; Leng, John Q

    2013-07-01

    Herbal medicines have ever been thought harmless, but it is obviously not true. Many adverse reports emerged with the development of their popular application in the world. Allergic reactions, especially serious immediate hypersensitivity, frequently occurred when herbal injections were used in clinic and made this ever prevailing agent nearly disappear in China. The aim of this study is to establish a rapid and economical method for the prediction of the allergenicity of herbal injections. Ovalbumin (OVA) and four other herbal injections, in which two of them were well known for their allergenicity, were selected to sensitize and stimulate the animals. Serotonin in the animal serum was detected with HPLC to reflect the anaphylactic response and compared with the other cytokines which could mediate the anaphylaxis, including histamine, IgE and β-hexosaminidase. The results suggest that serotonin can be detected quickly and has good correlation with the other allergy-related cytokines. It is a promising way for predicting the allergenicity of the herbal injections and those complicated natural products.

  17. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  18. HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)

    PubMed Central

    Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

  19. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  20. Online sources of herbal product information.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions.

  1. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  2. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  4. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-01

    Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT) is the fundamental characteristic of Chinese materia medica different from modern medicines. It reflects the herbal properties associated with efficacy and formed the early framework of four properties and five flavors in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. After the supplement and improvement of CHPT in the past thousands of years, it has developed a theory system including four properties, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (ascending, descending, floating and sinking) and toxicity. However, because of the influence of philosophy about yin-yang theory and five-phase theory and the difference of cognitive approach and historical background at different times, CHPT became complex. One of the complexity features was the multiple methods for determining herbal property, which might include the inference from herbal efficacy, the thought of Chinese Taoist School and witchcraft, the classification thinking according to manifestations, etc. Another complexity feature was the multiselection associations between herbal property and efficacy, which indicated that the same property could be inferred from different kinds of efficacy. This paper analyzed these complexity features and provided the importance of cognitive approaches and efficacy attributes corresponding to certain herbal property in the study of CHPT.

  5. Tonic immobility during sexual assault - a common reaction predicting post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression.

    PubMed

    Möller, Anna; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2017-08-01

    Active resistance is considered to be the 'normal' reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. Tonic immobility at the time of the assault was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale in 298 women who had visited the Emergency clinic for raped women within 1 month of a sexual assault. Information about the assault and the victim characteristics were taken from the structured clinical data files. After 6 months, 189 women were assessed regarding the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Of the 298 women, 70% reported significant tonic immobility and 48% reported extreme tonic immobility during the assault. Tonic immobility was associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.50-5.03, p = 0.001) and severe depression (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.51-7.72, p = 0.003) at 6 months. Further, previous trauma history (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.48-3.77, p < 0.001) and psychiatric treatment history (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.26-3.19, p = 0.003) were associated with the tonic immobility response. Tonic immobility during rape is a common reaction associated with subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. Knowledge of this reaction in sexual assault victims is important in legal matters and for healthcare follow up. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Tonic Electromyogram Density in Multiple System Atrophy with Predominant Parkinsonism and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Shen, Yun; Xiong, Kang-Ping; He, Pei-Cheng; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Li, Jie; Wang, Fu-Yu; Wang, Ya-Li; Huang, Jun-Ying; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) have associated sleep disorders related to the underlying neurodegenerative pathology. Clinically, MSA with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) resembles PD in the manifestation of prominent parkinsonism. Whether the amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia could be a potential marker for differentiating MSA-P from PD has not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to examine whether sleep parameters could provide a method for differentiating MSA-P from PD. Methods: This study comprised 24 MSA-P patients and 30 PD patients, and they were of similar age, gender, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) prevalence. All patients underwent clinical evaluation and one night of video-polysomnography recording. The tonic and phasic chin electromyogram (EMG) activity was manually quantified during REM sleep of each patient. We divided both groups in terms of whether they had RBD to make subgroup analysis. Results: No significant difference between MSA-P group and PD group had been found in clinical characteristics and sleep architecture. However, MSA-P patients had higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI; 1.15 [0.00, 8.73]/h vs. 0.00 [0.00, 0.55]/h, P = 0.024) and higher tonic chin EMG density (34.02 [18.48, 57.18]% vs. 8.40 [3.11, 13.06]%, P < 0.001) as compared to PD patients. Subgroup analysis found that tonic EMG density in MSA + RBD subgroup was higher than that in PD + RBD subgroup (55.04 [26.81, 69.62]% vs. 11.40 [8.51, 20.41]%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, no evidence of any difference in tonic EMG density emerged between PD + RBD and MSA - RBD subgroups (P > 0.05). Both disease duration (P = 0.056) and AHI (P = 0.051) showed no significant differences during subgroup analysis although there was a trend toward longer disease duration in PD + RBD subgroup and higher AHI in MSA - RBD subgroup. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified the presence of MSA-P (β = 0.552, P

  7. Inhibiting calcineurin activity under physiologic tonicity elevates anabolic but suppresses catabolic chondrocyte markers.

    PubMed

    van der Windt, Anna E; Haak, Esther; Kops, Nicole; Verhaar, Jan A N; Weinans, Harrie; Jahr, Holger

    2012-06-01

    The physiologic interstitial tonicity of healthy articular cartilage (350-480 mOsm) is lowered to 280-350 mOsm in osteoarthritis (OA). This results in loss of tissue prestress, altered compressive behavior, and, thus, inferior tissue properties. This study was undertaken to determine whether physiologic tonicity in combination with the inhibition of calcineurin (Cn) activity by FK-506 has synergistic effects on human articular chondrocytes and explants in vitro. OA chondrocytes and explants and non-OA chondrocytes were cultured in cytokine-free medium of 280 mOsm or 380 mOsm with or without Cn inhibition by FK-506. Chondrogenic, hypertrophic, and catabolic marker expression was evaluated at the messenger RNA (mRNA), protein, and activity levels. Compared to OA chondrocytes cultured at 280 mOsm, those cultured at 380 mOsm had increased expression of mRNA for chondrogenic markers (e.g., ∼13 fold for COL2; P < 0.001), and decreased COL1 expression (∼0.5 fold, P < 0.01). Inhibiting Cn activity under physiologic tonicity further enhanced the expression of anabolic markers at the mRNA level (∼50 fold for COL2; P < 0.001, ∼2 fold for AGC1; P < 0.001, and ∼3.5 fold for SOX9; P < 0.001) and at the protein level (∼6 fold for type II collagen; P < 0.001). Cn inhibition suppressed relevant collagenases as well as hypertropic and mineralization markers at the mRNA and activity levels. Expression of aggrecanase 1 and aggrecanase 2 was not influenced by tonicity or FK-506 alone, but the combination suppressed both, by ∼50% (P < 0.05) and ∼40% (P < 0.001), respectively. Generally, similar anabolic and antihypertrophic effects were observed in ex vivo cartilage explant cultures and non-OA chondrocytes. Our findings indicate that Cn at physiologic tonicity exerts a superior effect compared to physiologic tonicity or FK-506 alone, increasing anabolic markers while suppressing hypertrophic and catabolic markers. Our data may aid in the development of improved cell

  8. Peripheral chemoreceptors tune inspiratory drive via tonic expiratory neuron hubs in the medullary ventral respiratory column network.

    PubMed

    Segers, L S; Nuding, S C; Ott, M M; Dean, J B; Bolser, D C; O'Connor, R; Morris, K F; Lindsey, B G

    2015-01-01

    Models of brain stem ventral respiratory column (VRC) circuits typically emphasize populations of neurons, each active during a particular phase of the respiratory cycle. We have proposed that "tonic" pericolumnar expiratory (t-E) neurons tune breathing during baroreceptor-evoked reductions and central chemoreceptor-evoked enhancements of inspiratory (I) drive. The aims of this study were to further characterize the coordinated activity of t-E neurons and test the hypothesis that peripheral chemoreceptors also modulate drive via inhibition of t-E neurons and disinhibition of their inspiratory neuron targets. Spike trains of 828 VRC neurons were acquired by multielectrode arrays along with phrenic nerve signals from 22 decerebrate, vagotomized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated adult cats. Forty-eight of 191 t-E neurons fired synchronously with another t-E neuron as indicated by cross-correlogram central peaks; 32 of the 39 synchronous pairs were elements of groups with mutual pairwise correlations. Gravitational clustering identified fluctuations in t-E neuron synchrony. A network model supported the prediction that inhibitory populations with spike synchrony reduce target neuron firing probabilities, resulting in offset or central correlogram troughs. In five animals, stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors evoked changes in the firing rates of 179 of 240 neurons. Thirty-two neuron pairs had correlogram troughs consistent with convergent and divergent t-E inhibition of I cells and disinhibitory enhancement of drive. Four of 10 t-E neurons that responded to sequential stimulation of peripheral and central chemoreceptors triggered 25 cross-correlograms with offset features. The results support the hypothesis that multiple afferent systems dynamically tune inspiratory drive in part via coordinated t-E neurons.

  9. Relationship between the tonic elevator mandibular activity and the vertical dimension during the states of vigilance and hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Manns, A; Zuazola, R V; Sirhan, R M; Quiroz, M; Rocabado, M

    1990-04-01

    The variation of the tonic EMG elevator mandibular activity was studied as well as the consequent variation of the vertical dimension in two different experimental states: those of vigilance and hypnosis. In the state of vigilance, normal values of tonic EMG activity were recorded and a space of inocclusion (X = 2.22 mm) coincident with the postural mandibular position. Under hypnosis a significant reduction of the tonic EMG activity was observed (43 to 50%), together with a great increase of the inocclusion space (X = 8.90 mm).

  10. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-04-27

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance.

  11. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  12. Insights from molecular investigations of traditional Chinese herbal stroke medicines: implications for neuroprotective epilepsy therapy.

    PubMed

    Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2006-03-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicine is the most widely practiced form of herbalism worldwide. It is based on a sophisticated system of medical theory and practice that is distinctly different from orthodox Western scientific medicine. Most traditional therapeutic formulations consist of a combination of several drugs. The combination of multiple drugs is thought to maximize therapeutic efficacy by facilitating synergistic actions and ameliorating or preventing potential adverse effects while at the same time aiming at multiple targets. Orthodox drug therapy has been subject to critical analysis by the "evidence-based medicine" movement, and demands have been made that herbal medicine should be subject to the same kind of scrutiny. However, evaluation of the effectiveness of herbal medicines can be challenging, as their active components are often not known. Accordingly, it may be difficult to ensure that an herbal preparation used in clinical trials contains the components underlying its purported therapeutic effect. We reasoned that the identification of actions of herbal medicines at well-defined molecular targets and subsequent identification of chemical compounds underlying these molecular effects might serve as surrogate markers in the hypothesis-guided evaluation of their therapeutic efficacy. A research program was initiated to characterize in vitro molecular actions of a collection of 58 traditional Chinese drugs that are often used for the treatment of stroke. The results indicate that these drugs possess activity at disparate molecular targets in the signaling pathways involved in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated neuronal injury and death. Each herbal drug contains diverse families of chemical compounds, where each family comprises structurally related members that act with low affinity at multiple molecular targets. The data appear to support the multicomponent, multitarget approach of traditional Chinese medicine. Glutamate release and

  13. Facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use in Accra, Ghana: an inductive exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng

    2016-05-26

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. The study employed an inductive exploratory qualitative approach. It was conducted at a private herbal clinic in Accra. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit 16 participants. Data collection was through individual face-to-face interviews and these were transcribed and analysed using content analysis procedures. It was realized that the factors that enhanced the use of herbal medicine included use of convincing information to enhance the initiation of herbal medicine use, effectiveness of herbal medicine, personal preference for herbal medicine, perceived ineffectiveness of western medicine and integration of spirituality in herbal medicine. The factors that hindered herbal medicine use included negative perceptions and attitudes about herbal medicine, poor vending environment, poor knowledge of vendors, high cost of herbal products at credible herbal clinics and inconsistent effectiveness of some herbal products. Participants desired that the national health insurance scheme will cover the cost of herbal medicine to alleviate the financial burden associated with herbal medicine use. Although some Ghanaians patronize herbal medicine, the negative perceptions about herbal medicine resulting from deceitful producers and vendors call for enhanced education and monitoring to ensure that effective herbal products are used.

  14. Selective responses to tonic descending commands by temporal summation in a spinal motor pool

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Chun; McLean, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Motor responses of varying intensities rely on descending commands to heterogeneous pools of motoneurons. In vertebrates, numerous sources of descending excitatory input provide systematically more drive to progressively less excitable spinal motoneurons. While this presumably facilitates simultaneous activation of motor pools, it is unclear how selective patterns of recruitment could emerge from inputs weighted this way. Here, using in vivo electrophysiological and imaging approaches in larval zebrafish, we find that, despite weighted excitation, more excitable motoneurons are preferentially activated by a midbrain reticulospinal nucleus, by virtue of longer membrane time constants that facilitate temporal summation of tonic drive. We confirm the utility of this phenomenon by assessing the activity of the midbrain and motoneuron populations during a light-driven behavior. Our findings demonstrate that weighted descending commands can generate selective motor responses by exploiting systematic differences in the biophysical properties of target motoneurons and their relative sensitivity to tonic input. PMID:25066087

  15. Influence of pulsing and postpulsing media tonicity on electrotransformation of intact yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Ganeva, V; Galutzov, B

    1993-08-15

    The maximal transformation yield of intact yeast cells in hypotonic medium was obtained by application of nine pulses with a duration of 990 microseconds at 2.5 kV cm-1. Pulsation at the same electrical parameters in isotonic solution did not lead to any transformation and the electropermeability decreased by 50%. The transfer of cells, 1 min after pulsation in hypotonic medium, into media with different tonicity led to an increase of the number of transformed cells, depending on the sorbitol concentration of up to 250 mM. Further augmentation of the tonicity of postpulse medium in the range 330-1000 mM provoked strong decrease of transformation. This effect was present even when cells were resuspended in isotonic medium 30 min after pulsation.

  16. [Effects of electromagnetic fields on tonicity of cerebral vessels and arterial pressure].

    PubMed

    Razumov, A N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Kolesnikova, I V; Kasparov, E V; Anan'in, N N; El'chininov, N V; Gallinger, V E; Mineeva, E N

    2006-01-01

    Investigations performed by the authors show that normalization of the mechanisms of vegetative regulation of arterial pressure and cerebral vessels tonicity in young patients with sympathico-tonic vegetative dystonia can be achieved by combined use of constant magnetic field (magnetic induction 60 mTl, penetration 10 mm, area 1.5 cm2) and monochromatic electromagnetic wave (length 0.47 mcm, frequency 6 x 10(14) Hz, penetration 1.5 mm and light spot 7 mm) which are directed to a biologically active point C7 shen-men from both sides simultaneously for 3 min, at 11 a.m. to 13 p.m. once a day, for 10 days.

  17. Painful tonic spasms and brainstem involvement in a patient with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Roman-Filip, Corina; Ungureanu, Aurelian; Cernuşcă-Miţaru, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system classically characterized by optic neuritis and severe myelitis. New diagnostic criteria defined neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder as limited forms of NMO or diverse neurologic presentations in the presence of specific antiaquaporin-4 antibodies. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman admitted in our department for recurrent attacks of optic neuritis, tetraparesis with severe painful tonic spasms of the left limbs and brainstem involvement. Painful tonic spasms have been described as movement disorders associated with multiple sclerosis, but a growing number of reports describe them in cases of NMO. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Dream recall after night awakenings from tonic/phasic REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Hodoba, Danilo; Hrabrić, Kremimir; Krmpotić, Pavao; Brecić, Petra; Kujundzić-Tiljak, Mirjana; Majdaneić, Zeljko

    2008-01-01

    Eleven healthy subjects, 9 females and 2 males aged 21-23, were submitted to all night polygraphic recording and awaken in REM (Rapid Eye Movements) sleep, randomly upon tonic or phasic REM. Immediately upon awakening subjects were asked about possible dreaming according to the standardized questionnaire. Seventy-seven dreams, i.e. 79% of all 97 REM awakenings, were reported and analyzed. There were no significant differences in reported frequency of dreamings after awakening, mood and dream content due to phasic/tonic REM sleep. Dreams from phasic REM were a bit more colorful. Predictor of morning remembering of dreams was meaninglessness, not meaningfulness of dreams, and, in lesser extent, good mood, colorfulness, dreams with words and phasic REM sleep.

  19. Sympatho-excitatory neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla are oxygen sensors and essential elements in the tonic and reflex control of the systemic and cerebral circulations.

    PubMed

    Reis, D J; Golanov, E V; Ruggiero, D A; Sun, M K

    1994-12-01

    MEDULLARY ROSTRAL VENTROLATERAL RETICULAR NUCLEUS (RVL): Reticulospinal neurons are critical to control of the circulation by the brain. Its actions are implemented by a few reticulospinal neurons, 200 in the rat. These directly innervate and excite preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord by releasing L-glutamate. The RVL-spinal sympathetic premotor neurons are innervated by neurochemically diverse afferents from local and remote sources. They maintain arterial pressure tonically, mediate vasomotor reflexes elicited by stimulation of baro- or chemoreceptors or in response to pain or muscular exercise, and couple vasomotor responses to defense and conditioned fear behaviors. RVL-spinal neurons are central oxygen sensors, directly excited by hypoxia, and initiate sympathetic responses to cerebral ischemia or distortion (Cushing reflex). Stimulation of the RVL directly elevates cerebral flow independently of metabolism and initiates much of the cerebrovascular vasodilation in response to hypoxemia. RVL-SPINAL NEURONS IN RELATION TO HYPERTENSION AND SHOCK: RVL-spinal neurons are sites of action for many centrally acting antihypertensive drugs and some vasoactive hormones. Their integrity is required for expression of the elevated arterial pressure in neurogenic hypertension and for the compensatory sympathetic responses to hemorrhage. We propose that RVL-spinal neurons (1) maintain the activity of sympathetic neurons in mid-range amplifying, thereby, their signaling capacities; (2) initiate and integrate circulatory responses to a lack of oxygen so as to protect the brain from real or threatened hypoxia; (3) maintain, by tonic activity, normal expression of genes and gene products of central and peripheral sympathetic neurons and their peripheral targets that relate to their structure and neurotransmission-associated functions.

  20. Deficient tonic GABAergic conductance and synaptic balance in the fragile X syndrome amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brandon S.; Corbin, Joshua G.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability. Comorbidities of FXS such as autism are increasingly linked to imbalances in excitation and inhibition (E/I) as well as dysfunction in GABAergic transmission in a number of brain regions including the amygdala. However, the link between E/I imbalance and GABAergic transmission deficits in the FXS amygdala is poorly understood. Here we reveal that normal tonic GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission in principal neurons (PNs) of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is comprised of both δ- and α5-subunit-containing GABAA receptors. Furthermore, tonic GABAergic capacity is reduced in these neurons in the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model of FXS (1.5-fold total, 3-fold δ-subunit, and 2-fold α5-subunit mediated) as indicated by application of gabazine (50 μM), 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP, 1 μM), and α5ia (1.5 μM) in whole cell patch-clamp recordings. Moreover, α5-containing tonic GABAA receptors appear to preferentially modulate nonsomatic compartments of BLA PNs. Examination of evoked feedforward synaptic transmission in these cells surprisingly revealed no differences in overall synaptic conductance or E/I balance between wild-type (WT) and Fmr1 KO mice. Instead, we observed altered feedforward kinetics in Fmr1 KO PNs that supports a subtle yet significant decrease in E/I balance at the peak of excitatory conductance. Blockade of α5-subunit-containing GABAA receptors replicated this condition in WT PNs. Therefore, our data suggest that tonic GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission can modulate synaptic E/I balance and timing established by feedforward inhibition and thus may represent a therapeutic target to enhance amygdala function in FXS. PMID:24848467

  1. Honeybee Kenyon cells are regulated by a tonic GABA receptor conductance.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mary J; Harvey, Jenni

    2014-10-15

    The higher cognitive functions of insects are dependent on their mushroom bodies (MBs), which are particularly large in social insects such as honeybees. MB Kenyon cells (KCs) receive multisensory input and are involved in associative learning and memory. In addition to receiving sensory input via excitatory nicotinic synapses, KCs receive inhibitory GABAergic input from MB feedback neurons. Cultured honeybee KCs exhibit ionotropic GABA receptor currents, but the properties of GABA-mediated inhibition in intact MBs are currently unknown. Here, using whole cell recordings from KCs in acutely isolated honeybee brain, we show that KCs exhibit a tonic current that is inhibited by picrotoxin but not by bicuculline. Bath application of GABA (5 μM) and taurine (1 mM) activate a tonic current in KCs, but l-glutamate (0.1-0.5 mM) has no effect. The tonic current is strongly potentiated by the allosteric GABAA receptor modulator pentobarbital and is reduced by inhibition of Ca(2+) channels with Cd(2+) or nifedipine. Noise analysis of the GABA-evoked current gives a single-channel conductance value for the underlying receptors of 27 ± 3 pS, similar to that of resistant to dieldrin (RDL) receptors. The amount of injected current required to evoke action potential firing in KCs is significantly lower in the presence of picrotoxin. KCs recorded in an intact honeybee head preparation similarly exhibit a tonic GABA receptor conductance that reduces neuronal excitability, a property that is likely to contribute to the sparse coding of sensory information in insect MBs. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Reduced GABAAR-mediated tonic inhibition in aged rat auditory thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Ben D.; Ling, Lynne L.; Uteshev, Victor V.; Caspary, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related deficits in detecting and understanding speech, which can lead to social withdrawal and isolation, have been linked to changes in the central auditory system. Many of these central age-related changes involve altered mechanisms of inhibitory neurotransmission, essential for accurate and reliable auditory processing. In sensory thalamus, GABA mediates fast (phasic) inhibition via synaptic GABAAR and long-lasting (tonic) inhibition via high affinity (extrasynaptic) GABAARs which provide a majority of the overall inhibitory tone in sensory thalamus. Due to a delicate balance between excitation and inhibition, alteration of normal thalamic inhibitory function with age and a reduction of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition may disrupt normal adult auditory processing, sensory gating, thalamocortical rhythmicity and slow-wave sleep. The present study examined age-related homeostatic plasticity of GABAAR function in auditory thalamus or medial geniculate body (MGB). Using thalamic slices from young adult (3–8 months) and aged (28–32 months) rats, these studies found a 45.5% reduction in GABAAR density and a 50.4% reduction in GABAAR-mediated tonic whole cell Cl− currents in the aged MGB. Synaptic GABAAR-mediated inhibition appeared differentially affected in aged lemniscal and non-lemniscal MGB. Except for resting membrane potential, basic properties were unaltered with age, including neuronal Cl− homeostasis determined using the gramicidin perforated patch-clamp method. Results demonstrate selective significant age-dependent deficits in the tonic inhibitory tone within the MGB. These data suggest that selective GABAAR subtype agonists or modulators might be used to augment MGB inhibitory neurotransmission, improving speech understanding, sensory gating and slow-wave sleep for a subset of elderly individuals. PMID:23325258

  3. Analysis of Diet Tonic Water Using Capillary Electrophoresis. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Harvey B.; Jezorek, John R.; Tang, Zhe

    2000-06-01

    An experiment for instrumental analysis is described in which components of diet tonic water are determined using capillary electrophoresis. Separation of quinine, saccharin, and benzoate in pH 7 phosphate buffer, with phenol as internal standard, is accomplished in about 12 minutes. The equipment requirements are modest: UV detection on an unmodified column. One of the components, quinine, is quantitated using a four-point standard addition calibration curve.

  4. Tonic immobility: differences in susceptibility of experimental and normal sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    MOORE, A U; AMSTEY, M S

    1962-03-02

    Tonic immobility ("animal hypnosis" or catatonic trance) could not be induced in 1-year-old foster lambs and kids. Control animals, conforming to a characteristic of their species, could be readily immobilized. The suggested explanation for this difference in behavior is that the foster animals did not develop a normal flight distance because of the ambivalent behavior of the "stepmother," who alternately permitted and refused nursing.

  5. Dynamics of Intrinsic Dendritic Calcium Signaling during Tonic Firing of Thalamic Reticular Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chausson, Patrick; Leresche, Nathalie; Lambert, Régis C.

    2013-01-01

    The GABAergic neurons of the nucleus reticularis thalami that control the communication between thalamus and cortex are interconnected not only through axo-dendritic synapses but also through gap junctions and dendro-dendritic synapses. It is still unknown whether these dendritic communication processes may be triggered both by the tonic and the T-type Ca2+ channel-dependent high frequency burst firing of action potentials displayed by nucleus reticularis neurons during wakefulness and sleep, respectively. Indeed, while it is known that activation of T-type Ca2+ channels actively propagates throughout the dendritic tree, it is still unclear whether tonic action potential firing can also invade the dendritic arborization. Here, using two-photon microscopy, we demonstrated that dendritic Ca2+ responses following somatically evoked action potentials that mimic wake-related tonic firing are detected throughout the dendritic arborization. Calcium influx temporally summates to produce dendritic Ca2+ accumulations that are linearly related to the duration of the action potential trains. Increasing the firing frequency facilitates Ca2+ influx in the proximal but not in the distal dendritic compartments suggesting that the dendritic arborization acts as a low-pass filter in respect to the back-propagating action potentials. In the more distal compartment of the dendritic tree, T-type Ca2+ channels play a crucial role in the action potential triggered Ca2+ influx suggesting that this Ca2+ influx may be controlled by slight changes in the local dendritic membrane potential that determine the T-type channels’ availability. We conclude that by mediating Ca2+ dynamic in the whole dendritic arborization, both tonic and burst firing of the nucleus reticularis thalami neurons might control their dendro-dendritic and electrical communications. PMID:23991078

  6. Decrease in tonic inhibition contributes to increase in dentate semilunar granule cell excitability after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Akshay; Elgammal, Fatima S; Proddutur, Archana; Shah, Samik; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-02-15

    Brain injury is an etiological factor for temporal lobe epilepsy and can lead to memory and cognitive impairments. A recently characterized excitatory neuronal class in the dentate molecular layer, semilunar granule cell (SGC), has been proposed to regulate dentate network activity patterns and working memory formation. Although SGCs, like granule cells, project to CA3, their typical sustained firing and associational axon collaterals suggest that they are functionally distinct from granule cells. We find that brain injury results in an enhancement of SGC excitability associated with an increase in input resistance 1 week after trauma. In addition to prolonging miniature and spontaneous IPSC interevent intervals, brain injury significantly reduces the amplitude of tonic GABA currents in SGCs. The postinjury decrease in SGC tonic GABA currents is in direct contrast to the increase observed in granule cells after trauma. Although our observation that SGCs express Prox1 indicates a shared lineage with granule cells, data from control rats show that SGC tonic GABA currents are larger and sIPSC interevent intervals shorter than in granule cells, demonstrating inherent differences in inhibition between these cell types. GABA(A) receptor antagonists selectively augmented SGC input resistance in controls but not in head-injured rats. Moreover, post-traumatic differences in SGC firing were abolished in GABA(A) receptor blockers. Our data show that cell-type-specific post-traumatic decreases in tonic GABA currents boost SGC excitability after brain injury. Hyperexcitable SGCs could augment dentate throughput to CA3 and contribute substantively to the enhanced risk for epilepsy and memory dysfunction after traumatic brain injury.

  7. Clinical course of untreated tonic-clonic seizures in childhood: prospective, hospital based study.

    PubMed Central

    van Donselaar, C. A.; Brouwer, O. F.; Geerts, A. T.; Arts, W. F.; Stroink, H.; Peters, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess decleration and acceleration in the disease process in the initial phase of epilepsy in children with new onset tonic-clonic seizures. STUDY DESIGN: Hospital based follow up study. SETTING: Two university hospitals, a general hospital, and a children's hospital in the Netherlands. PATIENTS: 204 children aged 1 month to 16 years with idiopathic or remote symptomatic, newly diagnosed, tonic-clonic seizures, of whom 123 were enrolled at time of their first ever seizure; all children were followed until the start of drug treatment (78 children), the occurrence of the fourth untreated seizure (41 children), or the end of the follow up period of two years (85 untreated children). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis of disease pattern from first ever seizure. The pattern was categorised as decelerating if the child became free of seizures despite treatment being withheld. In cases with four seizures, the pattern was categorised as decelerating if successive intervals increased or as accelerating if intervals decreased. Patterns in the remaining children were classified as uncertain. RESULTS: A decelerating pattern was found in 83 of 85 children who became free of seizures without treatment. Three of the 41 children with four or more untreated seizures showed a decelerating pattern and eight an accelerating pattern. In 110 children the disease process could not be classified, mostly because drug treatment was started after the first, second, or third seizure. The proportion of children with a decelerating pattern (42%, 95% confidence interval 35% to 49%) may be a minimum estimate because of the large number of patients with an uncertain disease pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Though untreated epilepsy is commonly considered to be a progressive disorder with decreasing intervals between seizures, a large proportion of children with newly diagnosed, unprovoked tonic-clonic seizures have a decelerating disease process. The fear that tonic-clonic seizures commonly

  8. Effects of conventional anticonvulsant drugs on generalized tonic-clonic seizures in Noda epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Maki; Yamamoto, Ayaka; Kaneko, Yuka; Noda, Atsushi; Naito, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    Noda epileptic rats (NERs) present with clinico-pathological manifestations reminiscent of human generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy. Thus, this strain of rat has been a model of primary, generalized, tonic-clonic epilepsy. However, the infrequency of seizures in these rats makes the assessment of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) difficult. Therefore, traditional AEDs have only been tested in NERs against audiogenic seizures evoked by weekly acoustic priming from 3 to 22 weeks of age or by using the kindling procedure in adult animals. Adult NERs are susceptible to changes in their environment, such as bedding replacement or unpleasant sensory stimuli. In the present study, traditional AEDs-phenobarbital (PB) and sodium valproate (VPA)-were evaluated against seizures evoked by strong environmental stimuli in mature NERs that had not been previously primed. The number of animals presenting with seizures decreased in a dose-dependent manner following administration of either PB (dose range 1.0-5.0mg/kg) or VPA (50 and 100mg/kg). Consequently, the utility of NERs as a model of generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy was confirmed. This type of protocol can be used to further evaluate AEDs and test effects of chronic administration of AEDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ras activation of Erk restores impaired tonic BCR signaling and rescues immature B cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Sarah L.; DePersis, Corinne L.; Torres, Raul M.

    2010-01-01

    B cell receptors (BCRs) generate tonic signals critical for B cell survival and early B cell development. To determine whether these signals also mediate the development of transitional and mature B cells, we examined B cell development using a mouse strain in which nonautoreactive immunoglobulin heavy and light chain–targeted B cells express low surface BCR levels. We found that reduced BCR expression translated into diminished tonic BCR signals that strongly impaired the development of transitional and mature B cells. Constitutive expression of Bcl-2 did not rescue the differentiation of BCR-low B cells, suggesting that this defect was not related to decreased cell survival. In contrast, activation of the Ras pathway rescued the differentiation of BCR-low immature B cells both in vitro and in vivo, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) inhibition impaired the differentiation of normal immature B cells. These results strongly suggest that tonic BCR signaling mediates the differentiation of immature into transitional and mature B cells via activation of Erk, likely through a pathway requiring Ras. PMID:20176802

  10. Peptidergic CGRPα primary sensory neurons encode heat and itch and tonically suppress sensitivity to cold.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Eric S; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Street, Sarah E; Pribisko, Alaine L; Zheng, Jihong; Zylka, Mark J

    2013-04-10

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a classic molecular marker of peptidergic primary somatosensory neurons. Despite years of research, it is unknown whether these neurons are required to sense pain or other sensory stimuli. Here, we found that genetic ablation of CGRPα-expressing sensory neurons reduced sensitivity to noxious heat, capsaicin, and itch (histamine and chloroquine) and impaired thermoregulation but did not impair mechanosensation or β-alanine itch-stimuli associated with nonpeptidergic sensory neurons. Unexpectedly, ablation enhanced behavioral responses to cold stimuli and cold mimetics without altering peripheral nerve responses to cooling. Mechanistically, ablation reduced tonic and evoked activity in postsynaptic spinal neurons associated with TRPV1/heat, while profoundly increasing tonic and evoked activity in spinal neurons associated with TRPM8/cold. Our data reveal that CGRPα sensory neurons encode heat and itch and tonically cross-inhibit cold-responsive spinal neurons. Disruption of this crosstalk unmasks cold hypersensitivity, with mechanistic implications for neuropathic pain and temperature perception.

  11. Role of tonic GABAergic currents during pre- and early postnatal rodent development

    PubMed Central

    Kilb, Werner; Kirischuk, Sergei; Luhmann, Heiko J.

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades it became evident that the GABAergic system plays an essential role for the development of the central nervous system, by influencing the proliferation of neuronal precursors, neuronal migration and differentiation, as well as by controlling early activity patterns and thus formation of neuronal networks. GABA controls neuronal development via depolarizing membrane responses upon activation of ionotropic GABA receptors. However, many of these effects occur before the onset of synaptic GABAergic activity and thus require the presence of extrasynaptic tonic currents in neuronal precursors and immature neurons. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the role of tonic GABAergic currents during early brain development. In this review we compare the temporal sequence of the expression and functional relevance of different GABA receptor subunits, GABA synthesizing enzymes and GABA transporters. We also refer to other possible endogenous agonists of GABAA receptors. In addition, we describe functional consequences mediated by the GABAergic system during early developmental periods and discuss current models about the origin of extrasynaptic GABA and/or other endogenous GABAergic agonists during early developmental states. Finally, we present evidence that tonic GABAergic activity is also critically involved in the generation of physiological as well as pathophysiological activity patterns before and after the establishment of functional GABAergic synaptic connections. PMID:24027498

  12. Role of rho kinase in the functional and dysfunctional tonic smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Márcio A F; Rattan, Satish

    2011-07-01

    Tonic smooth muscles play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of debilitating diseases of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Tonic smooth muscles differ from phasic smooth muscles in the ability to spontaneously develop myogenic tone. This ability has been primarily attributed to the local production of specific neurohumoral substances that can work in conjunction with calcium sensitization via signal transduction events associated with the Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK II) pathways. In this article, we discuss the molecular pathways involved in the myogenic properties of tonic smooth muscles, particularly the contribution of protein kinase C vs the RhoA/ROCK II pathway in the genesis of basal tone, pathophysiology and novel therapeutic approaches for certain gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that manipulation of RhoA/ROCK II activity through inhibitors or silencing of RNA interface techniques could represent a new therapeutic approach for various gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases.

  13. T-type calcium channels consolidate tonic action potential output of thalamic neurons to neocortex.

    PubMed

    Deleuze, Charlotte; David, François; Béhuret, Sébastien; Sadoc, Gérard; Shin, Hee-Sup; Uebele, Victor N; Renger, John J; Lambert, Régis C; Leresche, Nathalie; Bal, Thierry

    2012-08-29

    The thalamic output during different behavioral states is strictly controlled by the firing modes of thalamocortical neurons. During sleep, their hyperpolarized membrane potential allows activation of the T-type calcium channels, promoting rhythmic high-frequency burst firing that reduces sensory information transfer. In contrast, in the waking state thalamic neurons mostly exhibit action potentials at low frequency (i.e., tonic firing), enabling the reliable transfer of incoming sensory inputs to cortex. Because of their nearly complete inactivation at the depolarized potentials that are experienced during the wake state, T-channels are not believed to modulate tonic action potential discharges. Here, we demonstrate using mice brain slices that activation of T-channels in thalamocortical neurons maintained in the depolarized/wake-like state is critical for the reliable expression of tonic firing, securing their excitability over changes in membrane potential that occur in the depolarized state. Our results establish a novel mechanism for the integration of sensory information by thalamocortical neurons and point to an unexpected role for T-channels in the early stage of information processing.

  14. Peptidergic CGRPα primary sensory neurons encode heat and itch and tonically suppress sensitivity to cold

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Eric S.; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Street, Sarah E.; Pribisko, Alaine L.; Zheng, Jihong; Zylka, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a classic molecular marker of peptidergic primary somatosensory neurons. Despite years of research, it is unknown if these neurons are required to sense pain or other sensory stimuli. Here, we found that genetic ablation of CGRPα-expressing sensory neurons reduced sensitivity to noxious heat, capsaicin and itch (histamine and chloroquine) and impaired thermoregulation but did not impair mechanosensation or β-alanine itch—stimuli associated with nonpeptidergic sensory neurons. Unexpectedly, ablation enhanced behavioral responses to cold stimuli and cold mimetics without altering peripheral nerve responses to cooling. Mechanistically, ablation reduced tonic and evoked activity in postsynaptic spinal neurons associated with TRPV1/heat, while profoundly increasing tonic and evoked activity in spinal neurons associated with TRPM8/cold. Our data reveal that CGRPα sensory neurons encode heat and itch and tonically cross-inhibit cold-responsive spinal neurons. Disruption of this crosstalk unmasks cold hypersensitivity, with mechanistic implications for neuropathic pain and temperature perception. PMID:23523592

  15. p21-activated kinase 1 restricts tonic endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shuting; Zhou, Zikai; Leung, Celeste; Zhu, Yuehua; Pan, Xingxiu; Qi, Junxia; Morena, Maria; Hill, Matthew N; Xie, Wei; Jia, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    PAK1 inhibitors are known to markedly improve social and cognitive function in several animal models of brain disorders, including autism, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We show here that disruption of PAK1 in mice suppresses inhibitory neurotransmission through an increase in tonic, but not phasic, secretion of endocannabinoids (eCB). Consistently, we found elevated levels of anandamide (AEA), but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) following PAK1 disruption. This increased tonic AEA signaling is mediated by reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and COX-2 inhibitors recapitulate the effect of PAK1 deletion on GABAergic transmission in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner. These results establish a novel signaling process whereby PAK1 upregulates COX-2, reduces AEA and restricts tonic eCB-mediated processes. Because PAK1 and eCB are both critically involved in many other organ systems in addition to the brain, our findings may provide a unified mechanism by which PAK1 regulates these systems and their dysfunctions including cancers, inflammations and allergies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14653.001 PMID:27296803

  16. The relative unimportance of the temporal pattern of the primary afferent input in determining the mean level of motor firing in the tonic vibration reflex.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, P B

    1975-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the effect of varying the temporal arrangement of the mechanical stimuli used to elicit the tonic vibration reflex in the soleus muscle of the decerebrate cat. The reflex was elicited by brief mechanical pulses, applied repetitively, either as a regular series or, at the same mean frequency, in groups of 2, 3 or 4 pulses with a separation between the pulses of 3-5 msec. Mean frequencies of 140/sec and 100/sec were used. The amplitude of the pulses was such that it could be presumed that each pulse excited every Ia fibre from soleus to discharge a spike, irrespective of the patterning employed. 2. Alterations in the stimulus pattern produced only minimal alterations in the size of the resultant reflex recorded myographically. The grouped stimulation regularly tended to produce the larger effect, but even with groups of 4 at 100/sec the modal effect was only 10% of the pre-existing response; expressed another way this was equivalent to an increase of 11 Hz in the mean frequency of stimulation. Thus under these conditions grouping the stimuli cannot have had an appreciable effect either in increasing the firing frequency of those motoneurones which were already active, or in recruiting those which were initially quiescent. 3. Recording from individual motor units with fine electrodes placed on the surface of the muscle showed that they were not significantly changing their frequency of firing on altering the pattern of stimulation. 4. Gross electromyographic recording showed that the motor discharge was locked in time to the mechanical stimuli and of appropriate latency for it to be presumed that the actual discharge of impulses was triggered by Ia monosynaptic action. 5. Similar insensitivity to the temporal pattern of the afferent input was found when the motoneurones were excited via two separate channels, one being the pulsed mechanical stimulation of soleus, the other being the weak electrical stimulation of the nerve to the medial

  17. Use and definition of herbal medicines differ by ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Diana X; Morling, Beth A; Niesenbaum, Richard A

    2003-10-01

    While past studies have investigated uses of and attitudes toward herbal medicines by different ethnic groups, none have assessed how people may define them. To determine definitions of and attitudes toward herbal medicines in different ethnic groups. Surveys were distributed to 300 people of different professions and ethnic backgrounds in northern Pennsylvania. We quantified Latino/non-Latino group similarities and differences in the following variables: which of a list of 26 substances people categorized as herbal medicines, people's intent to use herbal medicines in the future, people's attitudes toward herbal medicine use, how people described their doctors' and friends' attitudes toward herbal medicines, and people's ability to use herbal medicines. These variables were based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The Latino sample compared with the non-Latino white sample was more likely to categorize certain foods (e.g., garlic, carrots) as herbal medicines. Non-Latinos had more negative attitudes toward herbal medicines and were less likely to intend to use them in the future. Non-Latinos were more likely to base their attitudes on those of their health professionals, whereas Latinos were more likely to base their attitudes on their ability to buy and use herbal medicines. Our results suggest that pharmacists have greater potential to educate and consult with the non-Latino population regarding the use of herbal medicines, and the Latino population may be at greater risk of adverse effects from herbal medicines. Our results also suggest that, because of the ways that different groups define herbal medicines, health professionals should clarify what their clients mean when they use this term.

  18. Selective modulation of GABAergic tonic current by dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Marty, Vincent N; Mulpuri, Yatendra; Olsen, Richard W; Spigelman, Igor

    2014-07-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system and plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors. Alterations in glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling were recently demonstrated in the NAcc of rats after chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment, a model of alcohol dependence. Here we studied dopamine (DA) modulation of GABAergic signaling and how this modulation might be altered by CIE treatment. We show that the tonic current (I(tonic)) mediated by extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAcc core is differentially modulated by DA at concentrations in the range of those measured in vivo (0.01-1 μM), without affecting the postsynaptic kinetics of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). Use of selective D1 receptor (D1R) and D2 receptor (D2R) ligands revealed that I(tonic) potentiation by DA (10 nM) is mediated by D1Rs while I(tonic) depression by DA (0.03-1 μM) is mediated by D2Rs in the same MSNs. Addition of guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDPβS) to the recording pipettes eliminated I(tonic) decrease by the selective D2R agonist quinpirole (5 nM), leaving intact the quinpirole effect on mIPSC frequency. Recordings from CIE and vehicle control (CIV) MSNs during application of D1R agonist (SKF 38393, 100 nM) or D2R agonist (quinpirole, 2 nM) revealed that SKF 38393 potentiated I(tonic) to the same extent, while quinpirole reduced I(tonic) to a similar extent, in both groups of rats. Our data suggest that the selective modulatory effects of DA on I(tonic) are unaltered by CIE treatment and withdrawal.

  19. Affinity for MgADP and force of unbinding from actin of myosin purified from tonic and phasic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Léguillette, Renaud; Zitouni, Nedjma B.; Govindaraju, Karuthapillai; Fong, Laura M.; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Smooth muscle is unique in its ability to maintain force at low MgATP consumption. This property, called the latch state, is more prominent in tonic than phasic smooth muscle. Studies performed at the muscle strip level have suggested that myosin from tonic muscle has a greater affinity for MgADP and therefore remains attached to actin longer than myosin from phasic muscle, allowing for cross-bridge dephosphorylation and latch-bridge formation. An alternative hypothesis is that after dephosphorylation, myosin reattaches to actin and maintains force. We investigated these fundamental properties of smooth muscle at the molecular level. We used an in vitro motility assay to measure actin filament velocity (νmax) when propelled by myosin purified from phasic or tonic muscle at increasing [MgADP]. Myosin was 25% thiophosphorylated and 75% unphosphorylated to approximate in vivo conditions. The slope of νmax versus [MgADP] was significantly greater for tonic (−0.51 ± 0.04) than phasic muscle myosin (−0.15 ± 0.04), demonstrating the greater MgADP affinity of myosin from tonic muscle. We then used a laser trap assay to measure the unbinding force from actin of populations of unphosphorylated tonic and phasic muscle myosin. Both myosin types attached to actin, and their unbinding force (0.092 ± 0.022 pN for phasic muscle and 0.084 ± 0.017 pN for tonic muscle) was not statistically different. We conclude that the greater affinity for MgADP of tonic muscle myosin and the reattachment of dephosphorylated myosin to actin may both contribute to the latch state. PMID:18614813

  20. Status epilepticus enhances tonic GABA currents and depolarizes GABA reversal potential in dentate fast-spiking basket cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiandong; Proddutur, Archana; Elgammal, Fatima S.; Ito, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with loss of interneurons and inhibitory dysfunction in the dentate gyrus. While status epilepticus (SE) leads to changes in granule cell inhibition, whether dentate basket cells critical for regulating granule cell feedforward and feedback inhibition express tonic GABA currents (IGABA) and undergo changes in inhibition after SE is not known. We find that interneurons immunoreactive for parvalbumin in the hilar-subgranular region express GABAA receptor (GABAAR) δ-subunits, which are known to underlie tonic IGABA. Dentate fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) demonstrate baseline tonic IGABA blocked by GABAAR antagonists. In morphologically and physiologically identified FS-BCs, tonic IGABA is enhanced 1 wk after pilocarpine-induced SE, despite simultaneous reduction in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) frequency. Amplitude of tonic IGABA in control and post-SE FS-BCs is enhanced by 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), demonstrating the contribution of GABAAR δ-subunits. Whereas FS-BC resting membrane potential is unchanged after SE, perforated-patch recordings from FS-BCs show that the reversal potential for GABA currents (EGABA) is depolarized after SE. In model FS-BCs, increasing tonic GABA conductance decreased excitability when EGABA was shunting and increased excitability when EGABA was depolarizing. Although simulated focal afferent activation evoked seizurelike activity in model dentate networks with FS-BC tonic GABA conductance and shunting EGABA, excitability of identical networks with depolarizing FS-BC EGABA showed lower activity levels. Thus, together, post-SE changes in tonic IGABA and EGABA maintain homeostasis of FS-BC activity and limit increases in dentate excitability. These findings have implications for normal FS-BC function and can inform studies examining comorbidities and therapeutics following SE. PMID:23324316

  1. Quality Standards for Herbal Drugs and Herbal Drug Preparations - Appropriate or Improvements Necessary?

    PubMed

    Länger, Reinhard; Stöger, Erich; Kubelka, Wolfgang; Helliwell, Keith

    2017-08-29

    Standards for quality control as defined in the European Pharmacopoeia contribute significantly to a consistent and high quality of herbal drugs, herbal drug preparations, and herbal medicinal products. The minimum content of single plant constituents is considered of high relevance. Therefore, nearly all monographs on herbal drugs or herbal drug preparations contain an obligatory assay.However, a critical evaluation of the data published for such assayed constituents reveals that in most cases these constituents have to be considered as purely analytical markers without correlation to quality or efficacy. Examples where the assay does not meet its objective support the need to adapt current quality standards. Moreover, the trend to increase the content of certain constituents may lead to significant modifications to traditional manufacturing processes.In order to initiate a scientific discussion, the role of the assay in the context of quality requirements, quality documentation in the manufacturing process, safety, and efficacy is discussed and possible alternatives to the single marker assay are examined. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Herbal treatment of the urinary system diseases based on 16(th) and 17(th) century herbals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-02-01

    The medicinal use of herbs is a principal achievement of human ingenuity. The most renowned doctors of antiquity: Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder and Galen mentioned herbs in their works. The first printed herbal was published in Mainz in 1485. Outstanding scientists e.g. Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, Leonard Fuchs and Andreo Mattiola published herbals in the 16th century. Polish doctors also contributed to the development of herbal treatment. The first work: Of Herbs and their Potency by Stefan Falimirz, published in 1534, triggered other publications in the 16th century, the age of herbals. In 1542, Hieronymus Spiczynski published a herbal: Of Local and Overseas Herbs and their Potency. Then, in 1568, Marcin Siennik published his: Herbal, which is the Description of Local and Overseas Herbs, their Potency and Application. In 1595, Marcin of Urzedow published: The Polish Herbal, the Books of Herbs. Completed in mid-16th century, it was only published 22 years after his death. The last work discussed is Herbal Known in Latin as published in 1613 by Simon Syrenius a graduate of Ingolstadt and Padua universities and lecturer at the Academy of Krakow. The work was Europes most complete elaboration on herbal treatment. The herbs described in the herbals worked as diuretics, demulcents, analgesics, relaxants and preventives of kidney stones. Published in Polish, they are still to be found in Poland. All the works presented herein are held by the Library of the Seminary of Wloclawek, and the Ossolinski National Institute in Wroclaw.

  3. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  4. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  5. Integrative physicians and an herbal cancer "cure".

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Rosenberg, Shoshana Keren; Samuels, Noah

    2016-08-01

    Oncologists are frequently asked about herbal remedies claiming to "cure" cancer, or at least delay its progression. While complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) should be aimed primarily at improving quality-of-life (QOL) related concerns, "wonder cures" are part of an alternative health belief model providing hope for a "miracle" where conventional treatment has failed. We describe a physician with extensive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) undergoing chemotherapy, with significant toxicities and impaired daily function. He had come for an integrative physician (IP) consultation, provided by a medical doctor dually trained in CIM and supportive cancer care, taking place in a conventional supportive cancer care service. We describe the IP consultation in general and regarding an herbal remedy which was being promoted as a "cure" for cancer. The subsequent patient-tailored CIM treatment process, in which patients receive evidence-based guidance on treatments which address QOL-related concerns, are presented.

  6. Multiple Forms of Endocannabinoid and Endovanilloid Signaling Regulate the Tonic Control of GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Ledri, Marco; Tóth, Blanka; Marchionni, Ivan; Henstridge, Christopher M.; Dudok, Barna; Kenesei, Kata; Barna, László; Szabó, Szilárd I.; Renkecz, Tibor; Oberoi, Michelle; Watanabe, Masahiko; Limoli, Charles L.; Horvai, George; Soltesz, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Persistent CB1 cannabinoid receptor activity limits neurotransmitter release at various synapses throughout the brain. However, it is not fully understood how constitutively active CB1 receptors, tonic endocannabinoid signaling, and its regulation by multiple serine hydrolases contribute to the synapse-specific calibration of neurotransmitter release probability. To address this question at perisomatic and dendritic GABAergic synapses in the mouse hippocampus, we used a combination of paired whole-cell patch-clamp recording, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy super-resolution imaging, and immunogold electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, application of the CB1 antagonist and inverse agonist AM251 [N-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide], but not the neutral antagonist NESS0327 [8-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-piperidin-1-yl-5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[2,3]cyclohepta[2,4-b]pyrazole-3-carboxamine], significantly increased synaptic transmission between CB1-positive perisomatic interneurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons. JZL184 (4-nitrophenyl 4-[bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)(hydroxy)methyl]piperidine-1-carboxylate), a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), the presynaptic degrading enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), elicited a robust increase in 2-AG levels and concomitantly decreased GABAergic transmission. In contrast, inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) by PF3845 (N-pyridin-3-yl-4-[[3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]oxyphenyl]methyl]piperidine-1-carboxamide) elevated endocannabinoid/endovanilloid anandamide levels but did not change GABAergic synaptic activity. However, FAAH inhibitors attenuated tonic 2-AG increase and also decreased its synaptic effects. This antagonistic interaction required the activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor TRPV1, which was concentrated on postsynaptic

  7. A Systems-Pharmacology Analysis of Herbal Medicines Used in Health Improvement Treatment: Predicting Potential New Drugs and Targets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianling; Pei, Mengjie; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    For thousands of years, tonic herbs have been successfully used all around the world to improve health, energy, and vitality. However, their underlying mechanisms of action in molecular/systems levels are still a mystery. In this work, two sets of tonic herbs, so called Qi-enriching herbs (QEH) and Blood-tonifying herbs (BTH) in TCM, were selected to elucidate why they can restore proper balance and harmony inside body, organ and energy system. Firstly, a pattern recognition model based on artificial neural network and discriminant analysis for assessing the molecular difference between QEH and BTH was developed. It is indicated that QEH compounds have high lipophilicity while BTH compounds possess high chemical reactivity. Secondly, a systematic investigation integrating ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) prediction, target fishing and network analysis was performed and validated on these herbs to obtain the compound-target associations for reconstructing the biologically-meaningful networks. The results suggest QEH enhance physical strength, immune system and normal well-being, acting as adjuvant therapy for chronic disorders while BTH stimulate hematopoiesis function in body. As an emerging approach, the systems pharmacology model might facilitate to understand the mechanisms of action of the tonic herbs, which brings about new development for complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:24369484

  8. Nurse Practitioners’ Experience With Herbal Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    Nursing Services Approval Letter APPENDIX B: USUHS IRB Approval Letter APPENDIX C: Malcolm Grow IRB Approval Letter APPENDIX D: Research Study...schools are beginning to recognize the growing trend of patients resorting to complementary and non-traditional therapies, including the use of herbal...response to this growing trend has not been well documented. Because patients are at an increased risk for medication-herb interactions, adverse side

  9. Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    In Iran, conventional production methods of herbal oils are widely used by local practitioners. Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine. The current study (i) compiled an inventory of herbal oils used in ancient and medieval Persia and (ii) compared the preparation methods and therapeutic applications of ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plant species used for herbal oils through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Herbal oils have been traditionally administered via oral, topical and nasal routes for gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neural diseases, respectively. According to current investigations, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Medicinal oils are currently available in Iranian medicinal plant markets and are prepared using traditional procedures for desirable clinical outcomes. Other than historical clarification, the present study provides data on clinical applications of the oils that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  10. [Herbal medications. Possible importance for anaesthesia and intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, S; Rump, G; Kotter, J

    2007-12-01

    There is a great enthusiasm for herbal medications with increasing and widespread use among the population in various countries. A certain scepticism towards the use of pharmaceutical drugs may promote the use of herbal medicines such as echinacea, ginger, garlic, ginkgo, cranberry, valerian or St. John's wort even in western countries. Although considered safe among users, adverse effects such as increased bleeding tendencies, hypertension and hepatotoxicity can occur. Physicians should caution patients on the adverse side effects of herbal medicines and interactions between herbal medicines and pharmaceutical drugs, leading to various and uncontrollable deterioration of vital functions in the perioperative period. Although evidence-based data are lacking, anaesthesiologists and surgeons should be familiar with the effects of herbal medicines and should enquire about the use of these agents in the preoperative assessment. Currently available data suggest that herbal medications should be discontinued up to 2 weeks before elective surgery, although no guidelines of scientific societies have yet been published.

  11. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  12. Herbal therapies in pregnancy: what works?

    PubMed

    Dante, Giulia; Bellei, Giulia; Neri, Isabella; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this article is two-fold: to report the prevalence of herbal products used by pregnant women and to evaluate the evidence of efficacy and safety of the most popular remedies. Of the 671 articles identified, 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 16 non-RCTs were eligible. Ginger was the most investigated remedy and it was consistently reported to ameliorate nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Although raspberry, blue cohosh, castor oil, and evening primrose oil are believed to facilitate labor in traditional medicine, very few scientific data support such indication. Moreover, they have been associated with severe adverse events. Data on the safety of Hypericum perforatum in pregnancy or lactation are reassuring, whereas efficacy was demonstrated only in nonpregnant individuals. There is still insufficient evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of Echinacea, garlic, and cranberry in pregnancy. Epidemiological studies reported a wide range of use of herbal remedies in pregnancy. Too few studies have been devoted to the safety and efficacy of singular herbs. With the exception of ginger, there are no consistent data to support the use of any other herbal supplement during pregnancy. Severe adverse events have been reported using blue cohosh and evening primrose oil.

  13. The rediscovery of ancient Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Yan, Yong-Qing; Wang, Jie; Xu, Zhao-Hui; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2004-08-01

    This review presents some recent discoveries of ancient Chinese herbal formulas evolved through thousands of years of clinical practice. It appears that many of the ancient combination formulas have sound scientific basis through modern pharmacological evaluation. Significant chemical changes occurred during the preparation (decoction) process of a prescribed herbal formula. For example, some toxic ingredients were significantly reduced and new active compounds generated due to the chemical interactions among the ingredients. Many combination formulas showed significantly better pharmacological results than individual herbal medicines participated in the formula. These findings suggest that the current drug screening and regulatory methodology will not be appropriate for the development of a botanical drug containing a group of phytochemicals, in which a synergistic interaction from chemical ingredients plays a fundamental role in the treatment of disease. If we view a diseased state in a holistic and dynamic way, i.e. it involves interactions among many biological systems in human body and these interactions change as the disease improves or worsens, the treatment of such disease with a single chemical entity may not be logical or technically feasible. Combination formulas may hold the potential to become the therapeutics of choice in the future due to the synergistic effect and dynamic adjustment achieved by the multiple ingredients that will restore the balance of an imbalanced or diseased human body.

  14. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  15. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM.

    PubMed

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M; Moudgil, Kamal D

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities.

  16. Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase 1 Regulates Tonicity-induced Osmotic Response Element-binding Protein/Tonicity Enhancer-binding Protein Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, SongXiao; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Tong, Edith H. Y.; Chung, Stephen S. M.; Yates, John R.; Yin, YiBing; Ko, Ben C. B.

    2008-01-01

    The osmotic response element-binding protein (OREBP), also known as tonicity enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) or NFAT5, is the only known osmo-sensitive transcription factor that mediates cellular adaptations to extracellular hypertonic stress. Although it is well documented that the subcellular localization and transactivation activity of OREBP/TonEBP are tightly regulated by extracellular tonicity, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we show that nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP is regulated by the dual phosphorylation of Ser-155 and Ser-158. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed that Ser-155 is an essential residue that regulates OREBP/TonEBP nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed that Ser-155 and Ser-158 of OREBP/TonEBP are both phosphorylated in living cells under hypotonic conditions. In vitro phosphorylation assays further suggest that phosphorylation of the two serine residues proceeds in a hierarchical manner with phosphorylation of Ser-155 priming the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and that these phosphorylations are essential for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of the transcription factor. Finally, we have shown that the pharmacological inhibition of casein kinase 1 (CK1) abolishes the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and impedes OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export and that recombinant CK1 phosphorylates Ser-158. Knockdown of CK1α1L, a novel isoform of CK1, inhibits hypotonicity-induced OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export. Together these data highlight the importance of Ser-155 and Ser-158 in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP and indicate that CK1 plays a major role in regulating this process. PMID:18411282

  17. Phosphorylation by casein kinase 1 regulates tonicity-induced osmotic response element-binding protein/tonicity enhancer-binding protein nucleocytoplasmic trafficking.

    PubMed

    Xu, SongXiao; Wong, Catherine C L; Tong, Edith H Y; Chung, Stephen S M; Yates, John R; Yin, YiBing; Ko, Ben C B

    2008-06-20

    The osmotic response element-binding protein (OREBP), also known as tonicity enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) or NFAT5, is the only known osmo-sensitive transcription factor that mediates cellular adaptations to extracellular hypertonic stress. Although it is well documented that the subcellular localization and transactivation activity of OREBP/TonEBP are tightly regulated by extracellular tonicity, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we show that nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP is regulated by the dual phosphorylation of Ser-155 and Ser-158. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed that Ser-155 is an essential residue that regulates OREBP/TonEBP nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed that Ser-155 and Ser-158 of OREBP/TonEBP are both phosphorylated in living cells under hypotonic conditions. In vitro phosphorylation assays further suggest that phosphorylation of the two serine residues proceeds in a hierarchical manner with phosphorylation of Ser-155 priming the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and that these phosphorylations are essential for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of the transcription factor. Finally, we have shown that the pharmacological inhibition of casein kinase 1 (CK1) abolishes the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and impedes OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export and that recombinant CK1 phosphorylates Ser-158. Knockdown of CK1alpha1L, a novel isoform of CK1, inhibits hypotonicity-induced OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export. Together these data highlight the importance of Ser-155 and Ser-158 in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP and indicate that CK1 plays a major role in regulating this process.

  18. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products.

  19. [Application of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine for treating hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Chen; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Recent years, the pathogenesis of hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been changed. Kidney-deficiency has become the key of modern pathogenesis, and the new problem of treating hypertension. It has become the new strategy for treating hypertension with kidney-nourishing herbal medicine. This article reviewed the clinical and experimental researches of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine, including single herb, herbal formulae and traditional Chinese patent medicine, in order to strengthen the evidence of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine for treating hypertension.

  20. Herbal drug regulation and commercialization: an Indian industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-12-01

    To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries.

  1. [Surgery patients' intake of herbal preparations and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Vaabengaard, Pernille; Clausen, Lars Michael

    2003-08-25

    Herbal medicine is being frequently used by patients around the world. Several products may interact with ordinary medicine, so it is important for doctors to know what kind of herbal medicines their patients take. A questionnaire was given to presurgery patients during a two-month period. A total of 115 consecutive patients responded, 69 women (60%) and 46 men (40%). 50.4% had taken or still took herbal medicine, with the following distribution of gender: women 69.8%, men 30.2%. The age group was 18-82 years. The frequently used herbal medicines were fish oil, ginkgo, Echinacea, Co-Q10, garlic, and hip. Twenty-five patients took nutritional supplements with the following spread of gender: 84% women and 16% men. The frequently used nutritional supplements were Gerimax, LongoVital, and Melbrosia. Not all patients would inform their doctor about their use of herbal medicine. 28.6% retained information because of the doctor and 64.3%, did not perceive herbal medicine as "real medicine". It is important for anaesthesiologists to know what specific kind of herbal medicines patients are using before they anaesthetize them as interactions between herbal medicine and anaesthesia are prevalent. Anaesthesiologists have to ask specific questions to receive full information regarding herbal medicines during the preoperative period.

  2. Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

  3. Herbal medicines for children: an illusion of safety?

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, A J; Simone, K

    2001-04-01

    Herbal medicaments are in common use. In general, the judicious use of carefully selected and prepared herbal medications seems to cause few adverse effects and may be beneficial. However, toxic effects of these products have been reported with increasing frequency. Infants and children may be even more susceptible to some of the adverse effects and toxicity of these products because of differences in physiology, immature metabolic enzyme systems, and dose per body weight. Although information promoting the use of herbal medicine is widespread, true evidence-based information about the efficacy and safety of herbal medications is limited. Although the most conservative approach is to recommend against use of herbal medicine until such evidence is available, some patients are not receptive to this approach. A reasonable approach for health care providers may be to follow such use closely, assist in herbal therapeutic decisions, and monitor for adverse effects and interactions. This manuscript discusses general concepts about herbal medicines, public health implications, and a framework for mechanisms of adverse effects from the use of botanicals. Adverse effects and toxicity of selected herbal products, including Chinese herbal medicines, are presented. The authors propose a risk reduction approach in which physicians actively seek information about the use of complementary or alternative medicine while taking medical histories.

  4. Chinese herbal medicine for atopic dermatitis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hsiewe Ying; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Chen, DaCan; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lenon, George Binh

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, itching skin disease, and conventional therapies offer inadequate symptom management. Patients with AD are increasingly turning to Chinese medicine. We systematically evaluated the clinical evidence of the efficacy and safety of oral Chinese herbal medicine for AD. Searches were conducted on major electronic databases using the following key words: "randomized controlled trials," "atopic dermatitis," "traditional Chinese medicine," "traditional East Asian medicine," "herbal medicine," "Chinese herbal drugs," "medicinal plants," "phytotherapy," "Kampo medicine," and "Korean traditional medicine." The results were screened to include English/Chinese randomized controlled trials. A metaanalysis was conducted on suitable outcome measures. Seven randomized controlled trials were included (1 comparing Chinese herbal medicine and Western medicine with Western medicine alone; 6 comparing Chinese herbal medicine with placebo). Combined Chinese herbal medicine with Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone. Three placebo controlled trials showed significant treatment efficacy and 2 showed significantly reduced concurrent therapy with Chinese herbal medicine. No abnormalities in safety profile or severe adverse events were reported. A metaanalysis of all included studies could not be conducted because of study heterogeneity. Chinese herbal medicine significantly improved symptom severity of AD and was reported as well tolerated. However, the poor quality of studies did not allow for valid conclusions to support its tolerability and routine use. Additional studies addressing the methodologic issues are warranted to determine the therapeutic benefit of Chinese herbal medicine for AD. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 exerts a tonic brake on G protein-coupled receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Sheffler, Douglas J; Kroeze, Wesley K; Garcia, Bonnie G; Deutch, Ariel Y; Hufeisen, Sandra J; Leahy, Patrick; Brüning, Jens C; Roth, Bryan L

    2006-03-21

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for normal central CNS function and represent the proximal site(s) of action for most neurotransmitters and many therapeutic drugs, including typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Similarly, protein kinases mediate many of the downstream actions for both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. We report here that genetic deletion of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) potentiates GPCR signaling. Initial studies of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor signaling in fibroblasts obtained from RSK2 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice showed that 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and both basal and 5-HT-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation are augmented in RSK2 knockout fibroblasts. Endogenous signaling by other GPCRs, including P2Y-purinergic, PAR-1-thrombinergic, beta1-adrenergic, and bradykinin-B receptors, was also potentiated in RSK2-deficient fibroblasts. Importantly, reintroduction of RSK2 into RSK2-/- fibroblasts normalized signaling, thus demonstrating that RSK2 apparently modulates GPCR signaling by exerting a "tonic brake" on GPCR signal transduction. Our results imply the existence of a novel pathway regulating GPCR signaling, modulated by downstream members of the extracellular signal-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. The loss of RSK2 activity in humans leads to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, which is manifested by mental retardation, growth deficits, skeletal deformations, and psychosis. Because RSK2-inactivating mutations in humans lead to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, our results imply that alterations in GPCR signaling may account for some of its clinical manifestations.

  6. Effect of short-chain fatty acids and acidification on the phasic and tonic motor activity of the human colon.

    PubMed

    Jouët, P; Moussata, D; Duboc, H; Boschetti, G; Attar, A; Gorbatchef, C; Sabaté, J-M; Coffin, B; Flourié, B

    2013-12-01

    The effects of bacterial fermentation on human colonic motor activity could be explained by colonic acidification or short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. We compared in healthy volunteers the colonic motor effects of intracolonic infusion of neutral or acidic saline solutions and then of neutral or acidic solutions containing an SCFA mixture. 20 healthy volunteers swallowed a probe (with an infusion catheter, 6 perfused catheters and a balloon connected to a barostat) that migrated into the colon. Colonic motor activity was recorded in fasting basal state (1 h), during (3 h) and after (2 h) intracolonic infusion in a random order on two consecutive days of 750 mL of NaCl at pH 7.0 (neutral saline) or 4.5 (acidic saline) in 10 volunteers (first experiment) and of an SCFA mixture (acetic acid 66%, propionic acid 24% and butyric acid 10%; 100 mM) at pH 7.0 or 4.5 in 10 other volunteers (second experiment). We determined for each hour a global motility index (reflecting phasic activity recorded by all catheters), the mean balloon volume (reflecting tonic activity), and the mean number of high-amplitude-propagated contractions (HAPCs). Intracolonic infusion of neutral or acidic solutions containing saline or an SCFA mixture did not change the global motility index, the barostat balloon volume, or the HAPC number compared with basal values. Under our experimental conditions, these findings suggest that the stimulation of colonic motor activity induced by carbohydrate fermentation is not explained by the acidification of the colonic contents or the resulting production of SCFAs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Does acetylcholine released within the C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) tonically maintain arterial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Arneric, S.P.; Giuliano, R.; Ernsberger, P.; Underwood, M.D.; Reis, D.J.

    1986-03-05

    The RVL, which contains C1 epinephrine neurons (C1 area), plays a major role in the maintenance and reflex control of arterial pressure (AP). Muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the C1 area is sympathoexcitatory. They sought to determine whether the C1 area of rat: (1) contains choline acetyltransferase (ChAT); (2) releases acetylcholine (ACh); and (3) has ACh receptors. ChAT was immunocytochemically localized to neurons in the C1 area. ChAT activity (pmol/mg prot./40 min; N=5) varied 10-fold over 19 regions microdissected from medulla; it was highest in the hypoglossal and vagal nuclei (203 +/- 63), lowest in the pyramidal tract (19 +/- 4) and moderate in the C1 area (96 +/- 12). Muscarinic binding sites labeled by /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzylate (2 nM) and identified autoradiographically had a similar distribution. Release of /sup 3/H-ACh from (1.0 x 0.5 mm) punches of the C1 area was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent and graded with respect to the depolarization stimulus (5-55 mM K/sup +/). Bilateral microinjection of atropine sulfate (5.0 nmol/100nl) into the C1 area of urethane anesthetized rats, but not adjacent raphen., lowered MAP (mmHg: - 38 +/- 7; N=7). They conclude that the C1 area contains muscarinic cholinergic receptors and that local neurons synthesize, store and release substantial amounts of ACh. ACh released within the C1 area may participate in the tonic maintenance of resting AP.

  8. Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Brian J.; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Perez, Alice; Gomez- Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy (HT), and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Design Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action, and determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts were investigated in an estrogen reporter gene ERβ-CALUX® assay in U2-OS cells, and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Six of the plant extracts bound to the estrogen receptors. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ERβ-CALUX® assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing E2-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression, but reducing E2-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182780. Conclusions This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to HT. PMID:19424091

  9. Herbal therapy: A review of emerging pharmacological tools in the management of diabetes mellitus in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kibiti, Cromwell Mwiti; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic physiological glucose metabolic disorder. It has affected millions of people all over the world thereby having a significant impact on quality of life. The management of diabetes includes both nonpharmacological and conventional interventions. Drawbacks in conventional therapy have led to seeking alternative therapy in herbal medicine. Therefore, the need to review, elucidate and classify their mode of action in therapy for diabetes disease arises. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive literature reports were used to review all conventional agents and herbal therapy used in the management of diabetes. An online database search was conducted for medicinal plants of African origin that have been investigated for their antidiabetic therapeutic potentials. Results: The results showed that of the documented sixty five plants used, fourteen inhibit intestinal absorption of glucose, three exhibit insulin-mimetic properties, seventeen stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, twelve enhance peripheral glucose uptake, one promotes regeneration of beta-cell of islets of Langerhans, thirteen ameliorate oxidative stress and twenty induces hypoglycemic effect (mode of action is still obscure). Thirteen of these plants have a duplicate mode of actions while one of them has three modes of actions. These agents have a similar mechanism of action as the conventional drugs. Conclusion: In conclusion, antidiabetic activities of these plants are well established; however, the molecular modulation remains unknown. It is envisaged that the use of herbal therapy will promote good health and improve the status of diabetic patients. PMID:26664014

  10. Herbal plants and their derivatives as growth and health promoters in animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyed Reza; Davoodi, Homa

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth, or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used in animal diets include immunostimulators, antimicrobials, antioxidants, pH control agents and enzymes. Herbal plants, are a new class of growth promoters and in recent years this feed additives have gained extensive attention in the feed industry. They are a wide variety of herbs, spices, and products derived thereof, and are mainly essential oils. Although numerous reports have demonstrated antioxidative and antimicrobial and immune stimulation efficacy in vitro, respective experimental in vivo evidence is still quite limited. A limited number of experimental comparisons of herbal plants feed additives with antibiotics or organic acid have suggested similar effects on the animal gut microflora. Gut microflora has significant effects on host nutrition, health, and growth performance by interacting with nutrient utilization and the development of gut system of the host. In addition, some phytogenic compounds seem to promote intestinal mucus production. However, the future of using herbs in animal feeding will in great measure depend on the knowledge of chemical structure, their value and characteristics of practical herbs or their extract physiological needs and well-being of animal, and, above all on consumer's preferences and expectations.

  11. The effects of perilymphatic tonicity on endolymph composition and synaptic activity at the frog semicircular canal.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M L; Ferrary, E; Martini, M; Pelucchi, B; Bernard, C; Teixeira, M; Sterkers, O; Rubbini, G; Fesce, R

    1998-07-01

    The effects of changes in perilymphatic tonicity on the semicircular canal were investigated by combining the measurements of transepithelial potential and endolymphatic ionic composition in the isolated frog posterior canal with the electrophysiological assessment of synaptic activity and sensory spike firing at the posterior canal in the isolated intact labyrinth. In the isolated posterior canal, the endolymph was replaced by an endolymph-like solution of known composition, in the presence of basolateral perilymph-like solutions of normal (230 mosmol/kg), reduced (105 mosmol/kg, low NaCl) or increased osmolality (550 mosmol/kg, Na-Gluconate added). Altered perilymphatic tonicity did not produce significant changes in endolymphatic ionic concentrations during up to 5 min. In the presence of hypotonic perilymph, decreased osmolality, K and Cl concentrations were observed at 10 min. In the presence of hypertonic perilymph, the endolymphatic osmolality began to increase at 5 min and by 10 min Na concentration had also significantly increased. On decreasing the tonicity of the external solution an immediate decline was observed in transepithelial potential, whereas hypertonicity produced the opposite effect. In the intact frog labyrinth, mEPSPs and spike potentials were recorded from single fibers of the posterior nerve in normal Ringer's (240 mosmol/kg) as well as in solutions with modified tonicity. Hypotonic solutions consistently decreased and hypertonic solutions consistently increased mEPSP and spike frequencies, independent of the species whose concentration was altered. These effects ensued within 1-2 min after the start of perfusion with the test solutions. In particular, when the tonicity was changed by varying Na concentration the mean mEPSP rate was directly related to osmolality. Size histograms of synaptic potentials were well described by single log-normal distribution functions under all experimental conditions. Hypotonic solutions (105 mosmol

  12. Menthol enhances phasic and tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in midbrain periaqueductal grey neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Benjamin K; Karim, Shafinaz; Goodchild, Ann K; Vaughan, Christopher W; Drew, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Menthol, a naturally occurring compound in the essential oil of mint leaves, is used for its medicinal, sensory and fragrant properties. Menthol acts via transient receptor potential (TRPM8 and TRPA1) channels and as a positive allosteric modulator of recombinant GABAA receptors. Here, we examined the actions of menthol on GABAA receptor-mediated currents in intact midbrain slices. Experimental Approach Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons in midbrain slices from rats to determine the effects of menthol on GABAA receptor-mediated phasic IPSCs and tonic currents. Key Results Menthol (150–750 μM) produced a concentration-dependent prolongation of spontaneous GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs, but not non-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs throughout the PAG. Menthol actions were unaffected by TRPM8 and TRPA1 antagonists, tetrodotoxin and the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil. Menthol also enhanced a tonic current, which was sensitive to the GABAA receptor antagonists, picrotoxin (100 μM), bicuculline (30 μM) and Zn2+ (100 μM), but unaffected by gabazine (10 μM) and a GABAC receptor antagonist, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid hydrate (TPMPA; 50 μM). In addition, menthol potentiated currents induced by the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist THIP/gaboxadol (10 μM). Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that menthol positively modulates both synaptic and extrasynaptic populations of GABAA receptors in native PAG neurons. The development of agents that potentiate GABAA-mediated tonic currents and phasic IPSCs in a manner similar to menthol could provide a basis for novel GABAA-related pharmacotherapies. PMID:24460753

  13. Effects of tonicity-adjusting and surfactant agents on the antimicrobial activity of alexidine.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Ryoji; Ueda, Kiichi; Nishida, Teruo; Toyohara, Megumi; Mori, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Alexidine is a bis-biguanide disinfectant with two cationic active sites and hydrophobic ethylhexyl end groups, both of which are believed to support its association with microbial cell membranes through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. We evaluated the effects of tonicity-adjusting and surfactant agents on the antimicrobial activity of alexidine to assess its suitability as a disinfectant in multipurpose solutions for contact lenses. The antimicrobial activity of alexidine (4.5 ppm) against various bacteria and fungi was measured with the stand-alone procedure (ISO 14729, 2001). The effect of NaCl as an ionic tonicity-adjusting agent on such activity was determined in comparison with that of propylene glycol as a nonionic tonicity-adjusting agent. The effect of the nonionic surfactant Poloxamer 407 (Px407) was similarly examined in the absence or presence of NaCl. Alexidine showed robust antimicrobial activity, with no organisms surviving after 1 hr. Antifungal activity was inhibited by NaCl in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity was affected by propylene glycol. The activity of alexidine was not affected by Px407 (4%) alone but was attenuated by the combination of NaCl and Px407 with all microorganisms tested. The antifungal activity of alexidine was inhibited by adjustment of osmolality with the ionic agent NaCl but not by that with the nonionic agent propylene glycol. The surfactant Px407 reduced antimicrobial activity only in the presence of NaCl. These findings indicate that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the microbial cell membrane are a key factor in the antimicrobial activity of alexidine.

  14. Tonic and phasic phenomena underlying eye movements during sleep in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Escudero, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sleep is not a homogenous state, and different variables have traditionally been used to distinguish different periods during sleep. Of these variables, eye movement is one of the most paradigmatic, and has been used to differentiate between the so-called rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Despite this, eye movements during sleep are poorly understood, and the behaviour of the oculomotor system remains almost unknown. In the present work, we recorded binocular eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle of adult cats by the scleral search-coil technique. During alertness, eye movements consisted of conjugated saccades and eye fixations. During NREM sleep, eye movements were slow and mostly unconjugated. The two eyes moved upwardly and in the abducting direction, producing a tonic divergence and elevation of the visual axis. During the transition period between NREM and REM sleep, rapid monocular eye movements of low amplitude in the abducting direction occurred in coincidence with ponto-geniculo-occipital waves. Along REM sleep, the eyes tended to maintain a tonic convergence and depression, broken by high-frequency bursts of complex rapid eye movements. In the horizontal plane, each eye movement in the burst comprised two consecutive movements in opposite directions, which were more evident in the eye that performed the abducting movements. In the vertical plane, rapid eye movements were always upward. Comparisons of the characteristics of eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle reveal the uniqueness of eye movements during sleep, and the noteworthy existence of tonic and phasic phenomena in the oculomotor system, not observed until now. PMID:18499729

  15. Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children: TONIC Trial Design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease. The cause of NAFLD is unknown, but it is commonly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Objectives TONIC is conducted to test whether treatment with metformin, an insulin sensitizer, or vitamin E, a naturally available antioxidant, will lead to improvements in biochemical and histological features of nondiabetic children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Design TONIC is a randomized, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of 96 weeks of treatment with metformin or vitamin E. The primary outcome measure chosen for the trial is improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels with treatment as compared to placebo. An improvement in ALT is defined as reduction in serum ALT levels to below 50% of the baseline values or into the normal range (40 U/L or less) during the last 48 weeks of treatment. Histological improvement is defined by changes in liver histology between a baseline and end-of-treatment liver biopsy in regards to (1) steatohepatitis, (2) NAFLD Activity Score, consisting of scores for steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocellular injury (ballooning), and (3) fibrosis score. Methods Between September 2005 and September 2007, 173 children were enrolled into TONIC at 10 clinical centers in the United States. Participants were randomized to receive either metformin (500 mg b.i.d.), vitamin E (400 IU b.i.d.), or placebo for 96 weeks. This protocol was approved by all participating center Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00063635.) PMID:19761871

  16. Altered Markers of Tonic Inhibition in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex of Subjects With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Avilés, Jaime G.; Curley, Allison A.; Hashimoto, Takanori; Morrow, A. Leslie; Ramsey, Amy J.; O’Donnell, Patricio; Volk, David W.; Lewis, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are associated with lower expression of markers of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis in the prefrontal cortex. The effects of GABA are mediated by GABAA receptors that mediate either phasic or tonic inhibition. The authors assessed the expression of GABAA receptor α4 and δ subunits, which coassemble to form receptors mediating tonic inhibition, in schizophrenia. Method The authors used in situ hybridization to quantify expression patterns of GABAA receptor α4 and δ subunits in pre-frontal cortex from 23 matched pairs of schizophrenia and comparison subjects. Results Levels of δ mRNA were significantly lower in schizophrenia subjects regardless of medication use, whereas α4 mRNA levels were lower only in subjects with schizophrenia receiving certain medications at the time of death. To understand the nature of this unexpected dissociation between α 4 and δ subunit expression in schizophrenia, the authors used similar methods to quantify α4 and δ mRNA levels in multiple animal models. During postnatal development of monkey prefrontal cortex, levels of α4 mRNA decreased, whereas δ mRNA levels increased. In addition, δ mRNA levels, but not α4 mRNA levels, were lower in the medial frontal cortex of mice with a genetic deletion of the GABAA receptor α1 subunit, and neither δ nor α4 mRNA levels were altered in rodent models of altered excitatory neurotransmission. Conclusions Since GABAA receptor α1 subunits also have lower mRNA levels in schizophrenia, show increased expression with age in monkey prefrontal cortex, and can coassemble with δ subunits to form functional GABAA receptors, lower δ mRNA levels in schizophrenia might reflect a reduced number of α1βxδ GABAA receptors that could contribute to deficient tonic inhibition and prefrontal cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:19289452

  17. Fluctuations in intracellular calcium concentration and their effect on tonic tension in canine cardiac Purkinje fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Kort, A A; Lakatta, E G; Marban, E; Stern, M D; Wier, W G

    1985-01-01

    Ca2+-activated aequorin luminescence and tension were measured in dog Purkinje fibres during twitches and during the increase in resting force produced by exposure of the fibres to a low-Na+ solution after 3 min without external K+. Over the restricted range which could be examined, the relation between tension and 'mean' aequorin luminescence (luminescence filtered at 0.2 Hz) was approximately linear during the development and maintenance of contracture. For a given level of force, the mean aequorin luminescence during contracture was up to 20 times greater than the peak luminescence during the twitch. Noise analysis of aequorin luminescence and tension during contracture indicated the presence of periodic fluctuations, with a predominant frequency in the range 1-4 Hz. Ryanodine (1 microM) or caffeine (10 mM) abolished the fluctuations in luminescence and tension and made the relation between tension and mean aequorin luminescence much steeper. A mathematical model, the key feature of which is periodicity in the asynchronous occurrence of spatially localized regions of relatively high [Ca2+], reproduces the experimental data derived from contractures. From the model analysis, we infer that tonic tension is produced by recruitment of increasing numbers of regions of high [Ca2+], rather than by homogeneous graded activation. These results indicate that during contracture or 'tonic tension', intracellular [Ca2+] is not at steady state, but rather undergoes large, asynchronous spatio-temporal fluctuations. Thus the assumptions that intracellular [Ca2+] is at steady state or homogeneous during tonic tension are not valid. PMID:4057100

  18. Relations between biased tonicity of the body and vertical judgement in poststroke hemiplegic persons.

    PubMed

    Ishikura, K

    1999-06-01

    The influence of muscular tension upon visual vertical judgement in a standing posture was investigated in 16 hemiplegic persons and 12 normal elderly persons. The normal elderly group showed that their judgements of verticality were accurate and stable. In hemiplegic persons, judgements were displaced opposite to the side in which there was high tension in the body. Differences between groups in body tension and the side to which judgement was displaced were significant. The peculiar judgement errors made by hemiplegic persons are thus an overcorrection for tonicity. It was related to one's own body perception.

  19. A study of gabapentin in the treatment of tonic-clonic seizures of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Tahirović, Ismet; Kundurović, Zlata

    2004-01-01

    In this study for thirty (30) patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome, the response to anticolvusant gabapentin was assessed. Thirty (30) patients with median age of 57.0 years and median body weight of 79.1 kg were treated with gabapentin 3 x 300 mg daily for up 30 days. The preliminary findings of this study suggest that gabapentin is very effective against tonic-clonic seizures in alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Gabapentin was safe and well tolerated. For twenty (20) patients no side effect were observed.

  20. Successful treatment of paroxysmal tonic spasms with topiramate in a patient with neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Iida, Shin; Nakamura, Masataka; Wate, Reika; Kaneko, Satoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2015-09-01

    A 49-year-old woman with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) developed severe quadriplegia and frequent paroxysmal tonic spasms (PTS). Carbamazepine, although initially effective against PTS, caused drug eruption and she was unable to continue. PTS re-emerged after discontinuation of carbamazepine and hindered rehabilitation. Then topiramate was started, and PTS promptly disappeared. The patient became able to resume rehabilitation and her activity of daily life improved significantly. Carbamazepine and topiramate have a common pharmacological action to block voltage-gated sodium channels. The action may have contributed to inhibition of ephaptic transmission in the demyelinating lesions by NMO and eventually improved PTS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Searching for hidden information with Gabor Transform in generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Quian Quiroga, R; Blanco, S; Rosso, O A; Garcia, H; Rabinowicz, A

    1997-10-01

    The analysis of generalized tonic clonic seizures is usually difficult with scalp EEG due to muscle artifact. We applied Gabor Transform to evaluate 20 seizures from 8 consecutive patients admitted for video-EEG monitoring. We studied the relative intensity ratios of alpha, theta and delta bands over time. In 14/20 events we found a significant decremental activity in the delta band at the onset of the seizure indicating that this is dominated by theta and alpha bands. We conclude that GT is a useful auxiliary tool in the analysis of ictal activity that sheds light on the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  2. Sex differences in hypothalamic-mediated tonic norepinephrine release for thermal hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M; Banerjee, T; Jeong, Y; Holden, J E

    2016-06-02

    Neuropathic pain is treated using serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors with mixed results. Pain facilitation mediated by α1-adrenoceptors may be involved, but whether norepinephrine (NE) is tonically released is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether NE is tonically released from A7 cells following chronic constriction injury (CCI), and if the lateral hypothalamus (LH) plays a role in this release in male and female rats with nociceptive and neuropathic pain types. Neuropathic groups received left CCI while nociceptive groups remained naïve to injury. Fourteen days later, rats were given intrathecal infusion of either the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101, the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (74 μg), or normal saline for control. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL) from a thermal stimulus was measured. The generalized estimated equation method was used for statistical analysis. Nociceptive rats given WB4101 had a PWL significantly longer than saline control (7.89 ± 0.63 vs. 5.87 ± 0.52 s), while the PWL of neuropathic rats given WB4101 was 13.20 ± 0.52 s compared to 6.78 ± 0.52 s for the saline control rats. Yohimbine had no significant effect. Microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl) in the A7 catecholamine cell group to prevent synaptic transmission blocked the effect of WB4101 in all groups, supporting the notion that spinally descending A7 cells tonically release NE that contributes to α1-mediated nociceptive facilitation. Microinjection of CoCl into the left LH blocked the effect of WB4101 in nociceptive and neuropathic male rats, but had no effect in female rats of either pain type, suggesting differential innervation. These findings indicate that tonic release of NE acts at pronociceptive α1-adrenoceptors, that this effect is greater in rats with nerve damage, and that, while NE comes primarily from the A7 cell group, LH innervation of the A7 cell group is different between the sexes. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by

  3. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety

  4. Herbal medicines: prevalence and predictors of use among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Z; Tey, N P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and identify factors, which predict the use of herbal medicines among Malaysian adults. Using a cross-sectional design, data were collected via face-to-face interview using structured questionnaire from convenience sample of adults from four towns in Malaysia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the significant predictors of herbal medicines use. From a total of 1601 respondents, 542 (33.9%) reported use of herbal medicines in the previous 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the following variables to be predictive of herbal medicines use: female gender [odds ratio (OR) 1.80, confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.31], being married [OR 1.97, CI 1.44-2.71], having health problems [OR 2.31, CI 1.74-3.07] and having high-income levels [OR 4.21, CI 1.72-10.30]. The odds of someone using herbal medicines also increases though slightly if someone has favorable opinions about herbal medicines on the aspects examined. On the other hand, being Chinese [OR 0.74, CI 0.57-0.96] and Indians [OR 0.17, CI 0.11-0.27] were associated with decreased odds of using herbal medicines compared to Malays. The prevalence of herbal medicines use is high. Respondents' personal attributes and opinions influence their likelihood of using herbal medicines. These findings are important because knowledge of the predictors of herbal medicines use may help health care providers to identify patients at increased risk who would be candidates for receiving guidance on safe use of herbal medicines.

  5. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

  6. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

  7. Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

  8. Reduced tonicity stimulates an inflammatory response in nucleus pulposus tissue that can be limited by a COX-2-specific inhibitor.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Bart; Potier, Esther; van DIjk, Maarten; Langelaan, Marloes; Papen-Botterhuis, Nicole; Ito, Keita

    2015-11-01

    In intervertebral disc herniation with nucleus pulposus (NP) extrusion, the elicited inflammatory response is considered a key pain mechanism. However, inflammatory cytokines are reported in extruded herniated tissue, even before monocyte infiltration, suggesting that the tissue itself initiates the inflammation. Since herniated tissue swells, we investigated whether this simple mechanobiological stimulus alone could provoke an inflammatory response that could cause pain. Furthermore, we investigated whether sustained-release cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor would be beneficial in such conditions. Healthy bovine NP explants were allowed to swell freely or confined. The swelling explants were treated with Celecoxib, applied either as a bolus or in sustained-release. Swelling explants produced elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) for 28 days, while confined explants did not. Both a high concentration bolus and 10 times lower concentration in sustained release completely inhibited PGE2 production, but did not affect IL-6 production. Swelling of NP tissue, without the inflammatory system response, can trigger cytokine production and Celecoxib, even in bolus form, may be useful for pain control in extruded disc herniation. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of antibacterial effects of oral rinses chlorhexidine and herbal mouth wash in patients admitted to intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Baradari, A G; Khezri, H D; Arabi, S

    2012-01-01

    Mouthwashes decrease the risk of VAP by reducing the number of microorganisms and their transmission and colonization in the lung. Among the oral rinses, chlorhexidine is considered as the gold standard but it has a variety of complications. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare anti-bacterial effects of the chlorhexidine gluconate and herbal mouthwashes in intensive care unit patients. In this double blind randomized clinical trial, 60 patients who were admitted in ICU were divided into two equal 30 persons groups. In the first group Chlorhexidine gluconate 2 % mouthwash and in the second group herbal mouth wash was used. Just before and again after 6 min of oral rinsing, salivary samples were obtained without any stimulation in order to culture Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The data were processed in SPSS16 software and were analyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Matrica® and chlorhexidine mouthwashes have significant antibacterial effects against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Decreasing of the number of bacteria in samples after oral rinsing was significant in both groups (p <0.001) but chlorhexidine was significantly more effective than herbal mouth wash in reducing the number of colonies (p < 0.001). The herbal mouth wash has significant antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, but its efficacy is less than chlorhexidine, so after further investigation, it would be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine in ICUs (Tab. 3, Ref. 33).

  10. A Review on Hepatoprotective and Immunomodulatory Herbal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, Uorakkottil; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu; Naseef, Punnooth Poonguzi

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the most important organ that plays an important role in maintaining various physiological processes in the body. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. There are five main viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D, and E. These five types are of the greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the drug regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of liver disease for a long time. The immune system is the part of body that diagnoses the pathogen by using a specific receptor to reveal immediate response by the activation of immune components cells, chemokines, and cytokines, and also the release of the inflammatory mediator. They potentiate and modulate the immune system. The plant-derived phytoconstituents (polysaccharides, proteins and flavanoids, lignans, rotenoids, etc.) stimulate the immune system and maintained hepatic diseases. There are a number of hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs that have been reported. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemicals from hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs. PMID:27041876

  11. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality.

  12. Demystifying traditional herbal medicine with modern approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Fu-Shuang; Weng, Jing-Ke

    2017-07-31

    Plants have long been recognized for their therapeutic properties. For centuries, indigenous cultures around the world have used traditional herbal medicine to treat a myriad of maladies. By contrast, the rise of the modern pharmaceutical industry in the past century has been based on exploiting individual active compounds with precise modes of action. This surge has yielded highly effective drugs that are widely used in the clinic, including many plant natural products and analogues derived from these products, but has fallen short of delivering effective cures for complex human diseases with complicated causes, such as cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and degenerative diseases. While the plant kingdom continues to serve as an important source for chemical entities supporting drug discovery, the rich traditions of herbal medicine developed by trial and error on human subjects over thousands of years contain invaluable biomedical information just waiting to be uncovered using modern scientific approaches. Here we provide an evolutionary and historical perspective on why plants are of particular significance as medicines for humans. We highlight several plant natural products that are either in the clinic or currently under active research and clinical development, with particular emphasis on their mechanisms of action. Recent efforts in developing modern multi-herb prescriptions through rigorous molecular-level investigations and standardized clinical trials are also discussed. Emerging technologies, such as genomics and synthetic biology, are enabling new ways for discovering and utilizing the medicinal properties of plants. We are entering an exciting era where the ancient wisdom distilled into the world's traditional herbal medicines can be reinterpreted and exploited through the lens of modern science.

  13. In the developing rat hippocampus a tonic GABAA-mediated conductance selectively enhances the glutamatergic drive of principal cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchionni, Ivan; Omrani, Azar; Cherubini, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    In the adult hippocampus, two different forms of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition have been identified: phasic and tonic. The first is due to the activation of GABAA receptors facing the presynaptic releasing sites, whereas the second is due to the activation of receptors localized away from the synapses. Because of their high affinity and low desensitization rate, extrasynaptic receptors are persistently able to sense low concentrations of GABA. Here we show that, early in postnatal life, between postnatal day (P) 2 and P6, CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells but not stratum radiatum interneurons, express a tonic GABAA-mediated conductance. Block of the neuronal GABA transporter GAT-1 slightly enhanced the persistent GABA conductance in principal cells but not in GABAergic interneurons. However, in adulthood, a tonic GABAA-mediated conductance could be revealed in stratum radiatum interneurons, indicating that the ability of these cells to sense ambient GABA levels is developmentally regulated. Pharmacological analysis of the tonic conductance in principal cells demonstrated the involvement of β2/β3, α5 and γ2 GABAA receptor subunits. Removal of the tonic depolarizing action of GABA with picrotoxin, reduced the excitability and the glutamatergic drive of principal cells but did not modify the excitability of stratum radiatum interneurons. The increased cell excitability and synaptic activity following the activation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors by ambient GABA would facilitate the induction of giant depolarizing potentials. PMID:17317750

  14. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  15. Anticonvulsant effects of mefloquine on generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by two acute models in rats.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Javier; Ballesteros-Zebadúa, Paola; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Joaquín

    2015-03-01

    Mefloquine can cross the blood-brain barrier and block the gap junction intercellular communication in the brain. Enhanced electrical coupling mediated by gap junctions is an underlying mechanism involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures. For this reason, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the systemic administration of mefloquine on tonic-clonic seizures induced by two acute models such as pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock. All the control rats presented generalized tonic-clonic seizures after the administration of pentylenetetrazole. However, the incidence of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole significantly decreased in the groups administered systematically with 40 and 80 mg/kg of mefloquine. In the control group, none of the rats survived after the generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, but survival was improved by mefloquine. Besides, mefloquine significantly modified the total spectral power as well as the duration, amplitude and frequency of the epileptiform activity induced by pentylenetetrazole. For the maximal electroshock model, mefloquine did not change the occurrence of tonic hindlimb extension. However, this gap junction blocker significantly decreased the duration of the tonic hindlimb extension induced by the acute electroshock. These data suggest that mefloquine at low doses might be eliciting some anticonvulsant effects when is systemically administered to rats.

  16. Diagnosis of public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Ely Eduardo Saranz; Bandeira, Mary Anne Medeiros; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes

    2011-07-01

    The present study is aimed to diagnose the current public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil by means of in loco visits to 10 programs selected by means of questionnaires sent to 124 municipalities that count on herbal medicine services. The main purpose of the implementation of program programs is related to the development of medicinal herbs. 70% of them are intended for the production of herbal medicines and 50% are aimed to ensure the access of the population to medicinal plants and or herbal medicines. The initiative of the implementation of these programs was related to the managers (60%). The difficulties in this implementation were due to the lack of funding (100%) of the programs. In 60% of the programs, the physicians did not adhere to herbal medicine services due to the lack of knowledge of the subject. Training courses were proposed (80%) to increase the adhesion of prescribers to the system. Some municipalities use information obtained from patients to assess the therapeutic efficiency of medicinal plants and herbal medicines. Of the programs underway, cultivation of medicinal plants was observed in 90% and 78% of them adopt quality control. In most programs, this control is not performed in accordance with the legal requirements. The programs focused on medicinal plants and herbal medicines implemented in Brazil face some chronic problems of infrastructure, management, operational capacity and self-sustainability, which can be directly related to the absence of a national policy on medicinal plants and herbal medicines.

  17. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  18. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  19. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  20. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  1. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  2. Homoeopathic and herbal prescribing in general practice in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Sarah; Simpson, Colin R; McLay, James S

    2006-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Homoeopathy and herbalism are increasingly popular among the public and prescribed by general practitioners in the NHS. Doctors and regulatory authorities have expressed concerns about their efficacy and safety. Studies from the 1990s suggest that between 5.9 and 7.5% of English NHS general practitioners have prescribed homoeopathy, while less than 1% have prescribed herbal remedies. Current levels of prescribing are unknown but are thought to have increased. What this study adds Sixty percent of Scottish general practices now prescribe homoeopathic or herbal remedies. The prevalence of homoeopathic prescribing in those under 16 years has doubled since 2000 and is maximal in children < 1 year old, of whom 1% are prescribed a homoeopathic remedy. Recognized drug–herb interactions were identified in 4% of patients prescribed oral herbal remedies. Aims To investigate the current levels of homoeopathic and herbal prescribing in Scottish general practice. Methods Prescribing of homoeopathic and herbal remedies in primary care was assessed in 1891 669 patients for the year 2003–2004, using computerized prescribing data retrieved from 323 general practices in Scotland. Results Forty-nine percent of practices prescribed homoeopathic and 32% herbal remedies. A total of 193 homoeopathic and 17 herbal remedies were prescribed, with 5% of practices accounting for 46% of patients and 50% of remedies. Four thousand one hundred and sixty patients (2.2/1000 registered patients) were prescribed at least one homoeopathic remedy during the study period, with the highest prevalence to children under 12 months of age (9.5/1000 children of that age). Children under the age of 16 made up 16% of the population prescribed homoeopathic remedies (2.2/1000 registered patients of that age). Three hundred and sixty-one patients (0.2/1000 registered patients) were prescribed at least one herbal remedy during the study period, 44 of whom were children

  3. Aberrant long-range functional connectivity density in generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Li, Yibo; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Rong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2016-06-01

    Studies in generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) have reported both structural and functional alterations in the brain. However, changes in spontaneous neuronal functional organization in GTCS remain largely unknown.In this study, 70 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by tonic-clonic seizures and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Here, functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, an ultrafast data-driven method based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was applied for the first time to investigate the changes of spontaneous functional brain activity caused by epilepsy.The results showed significantly decreased long-range FCD in the middle and inferior temporal, prefrontal, and inferior parietal cortices as well as increased long-range FCD in the cerebellum anterior lobe and sensorimotor areas. Negative correlation between duration of disease and reduced long-range FCD was found. In addition, most regions with reduced long-range FCD showed decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) within default mode network.Negative correlation between duration of disease and long-range FCD may reflect an adverse consequence eventually from original. Furthermore, the observed FCD and rsFC alterations have been speculated to be associated with the social-cognitive impairments as well as motor control. Our study provided novel evidences to look into neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying GTCS.

  4. Tonic inhibition and ponto-geniculo-occipital-related activities shape abducens motoneuron discharge during REM sleep

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Miguel; Márquez-Ruiz, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Eye movements, ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, muscular atonia and desynchronized cortical activity are the main characteristics of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Although eye movements designate this phase, little is known about the activity of the oculomotor system during REM sleep. In this work, we recorded binocular eye movements by the scleral search-coil technique and the activity of identified abducens (ABD) motoneurons along the sleep–wake cycle in behaving cats. The activity of ABD motoneurons during REM sleep was characterized by a tonic decrease of their mean firing rate throughout this period, and short bursts and pauses coinciding with the occurrence of PGO waves. We demonstrate that the decrease in the mean firing discharge was due to an active inhibition of ABD motoneurons, and that the occurrence of primary and secondary PGO waves induced a pattern of simultaneous but opposed phasic activation and inhibition on each ABD nucleus. With regard to eye movements, during REM sleep ABD motoneurons failed to codify eye position as during alertness, but continued to codify eye velocity. The pattern of tonic inhibition and the phasic activations and inhibitions shown by ABD motoneurons coincide with those reported in other non-oculomotor motoneurons, indicating that the oculomotor system – contrary to what has been accepted until now – is not different from other motor systems during REM sleep, and that all motor systems are receiving similar command signals during this period. PMID:18499728

  5. Characterization of cortical source generators based on electroencephalography during tonic pain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tine Maria; Mark, Esben Bolvig; Olesen, Søren Schou; Gram, Mikkel; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the cortical source generators evoked by experimental tonic pain. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded on two separate days during rest and with immersion of the hand in ice water for 2 minutes (cold pressor test). Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography source localization was performed in 31 healthy volunteers to characterize the cortical source generators. Reliability was high in all eight frequency bands during rest and cold pressor conditions (intraclass coefficients =0.47-0.83 in the cingulate and insula). Tonic pain increased cortical activities in the delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), beta1 (12-18 Hz), beta2 (18-24 Hz), beta3 (24-32 Hz), and gamma (32-60 Hz) bands (all P<0.011) in widespread areas mainly in the limbic system, whereas decreased cortical activities were found in cingulate and pre- and postcentral gyri in the alpha2 (10-12 Hz) band (P=0.007). The pain intensity was correlated with cingulate activity in the beta2, beta3, and gamma bands (all P<0.04). Source localization of EEG is a reliable method to estimate cortical source generators. Activities in different brain regions, mainly in the limbic system, showed fluctuations in various frequency bands. Cingulate changes were correlated with pain intensity. This method might add information to the objective assessment of the cortical pain response in future experimental pain studies.

  6. Cholangiocyte cilia express TRPV4 and detect changes in luminal tonicity inducing bicarbonate secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gradilone, Sergio A.; Masyuk, Anatoliy I.; Splinter, Patrick L.; Banales, Jesus M.; Huang, Bing Q.; Tietz, Pamela S.; Masyuk, Tatyana V.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.

    2007-01-01

    Cholangiocytes, epithelial cells lining the biliary tree, have primary cilia extending from their apical membrane into the ductal lumen. Although important in disease, cilia also play a vital role in normal cellular functions. We reported that cholangiocyte cilia are sensory organelles responding to mechanical stimuli (i.e., luminal fluid flow) by alterations in intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP. Because cholangiocyte cilia are also ideally positioned to detect changes in composition and tonicity of bile, we hypothesized that cilia also function as osmosensors. TRPV4, a Ca2+-permeable ion channel, has been implicated in signal transduction of osmotic stimuli. Using purified rat cholangiocytes and perfused intrahepatic bile duct units (IBDUs), we found that TRPV4 is expressed on cholangiocyte cilia, and that hypotonicity induces an increase in intracellular Ca2+ in a TRPV4-, ciliary-, and extracellular calcium-dependent manner. The osmosensation of luminal tonicity by ciliary TRPV4 induces bicarbonate secretion, the main determinant of ductal bile formation, by a mechanism involving apical ATP release. Furthermore, the activation of TRPV4 in vivo, by its specific agonist, 4αPDD, induces an increase in bile flow as well as ATP release and bicarbonate secretion. Our results suggest that cholangiocyte primary cilia play an important role in ductal bile formation by acting as osmosensors. PMID:18024594

  7. [Effects of endotheline and nitric oxide on vascular tonicity in patients with chronic cardiac failure].

    PubMed

    Denisov, E N; Kots, Ia I; Bakhtiiarov, R Z; Gumanova, N G

    2007-01-01

    To examine effects of endotheline-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) on endothelium-dependent mechanisms of vascular tonicity regulation in patients with chronic cardiac failure (CCF) of FC I-IV (NYHA). Vascular reactions of 94 patients with CCF of FC I-IV were examined according to D.S. Celermajer method using ultrasound of high resolution. Tissue oxygenation was studied with transcutaneous polarography (TCM-2, Radiometer). Parameters of circulating erythrocytes were studied by impurity spectrum. Endothelial NO-synthase expression was determined with application of monoclonal antibodies to endothelial NO-synthase. NO metabolites were studied with colorimetric method using Griss reagent. ET-1 was measured in plasma by enzyme immunoassay. The control group consisted of 28 healthy men aged 20 to 54 years. Patients with CCF of FC I-IV have reduced endothelium-dependent vascular reactions progressing with aggravation of CCF. The causes of the disorders lie in altered metabolism of ET-1 and NO in CCF. CCF patients demonstrate changes in endothelium-dependent mechanisms of vascular tonicity regulation caused by disturbed metabolism of ET-1 and NO developing in abnormal regime of tissue oxygenation and depending on CCF severity.

  8. Loss of NFAT5 results in renal atrophy and lack of tonicity-responsive gene expression.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Antos, Christopher L; Shelton, John M; Richardson, James A; Lin, Fangming; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Bronson, Roderick T; Igarashi, Peter; Rao, Anjana; Olson, Eric N

    2004-02-24

    The transcription factor NFAT5/TonEBP, a member of the NFAT/Rel family of transcription factors, has been implicated in diverse cellular responses, including the response to osmotic stress, integrin-dependent cell migration, T cell activation, and the Ras pathway in Drosophila. To clarify the in vivo role of NFAT5, we generated NFAT5-null mice. Homozygous mutants were genetically underrepresented after embryonic day 14.5. Surviving mice manifested a progressive and profound atrophy of the kidney medulla with impaired activation of several osmoprotective genes, including those encoding aldose reductase, Na+/Cl--coupled betaine/gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter, and the Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter. The aldose reductase gene is controlled by a tonicity-responsive enhancer, which was refractory to hypertonic stress in fibroblasts lacking NFAT5, establishing this enhancer as a direct transcriptional target of NFAT5. Our findings demonstrate a central role for NFAT5 as a tonicity-responsive transcription factor required for kidney homeostasis and function.

  9. Cholangiocyte cilia express TRPV4 and detect changes in luminal tonicity inducing bicarbonate secretion.

    PubMed

    Gradilone, Sergio A; Masyuk, Anatoliy I; Splinter, Patrick L; Banales, Jesus M; Huang, Bing Q; Tietz, Pamela S; Masyuk, Tatyana V; Larusso, Nicholas F

    2007-11-27

    Cholangiocytes, epithelial cells lining the biliary tree, have primary cilia extending from their apical membrane into the ductal lumen. Although important in disease, cilia also play a vital role in normal cellular functions. We reported that cholangiocyte cilia are sensory organelles responding to mechanical stimuli (i.e., luminal fluid flow) by alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP. Because cholangiocyte cilia are also ideally positioned to detect changes in composition and tonicity of bile, we hypothesized that cilia also function as osmosensors. TRPV4, a Ca(2+)-permeable ion channel, has been implicated in signal transduction of osmotic stimuli. Using purified rat cholangiocytes and perfused intrahepatic bile duct units (IBDUs), we found that TRPV4 is expressed on cholangiocyte cilia, and that hypotonicity induces an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) in a TRPV4-, ciliary-, and extracellular calcium-dependent manner. The osmosensation of luminal tonicity by ciliary TRPV4 induces bicarbonate secretion, the main determinant of ductal bile formation, by a mechanism involving apical ATP release. Furthermore, the activation of TRPV4 in vivo, by its specific agonist, 4alphaPDD, induces an increase in bile flow as well as ATP release and bicarbonate secretion. Our results suggest that cholangiocyte primary cilia play an important role in ductal bile formation by acting as osmosensors.

  10. Tonic pupil after botulinum toxin-A injection for treatment of esotropia in children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A total of 27 children with esotropia (mean age, 3.9 years; range, 9 months to 13.8 years) were enrolled in a 9-month observational study following botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection of one (n = 7) or both (n = 20) medial rectus muscles. BTX-A dosage ranged from 3.0 to 6.0 units per muscle. Three participants developed tonic pupil, noted at the first follow-up visit, occurring 12-19 days after injection. All 3 cases occurred in the left eye of participants who underwent bilateral BTX-A injection by the same surgeon. Anisocoria diminished from a maximum of 4 mm at the 2-week visit to 1–2 mm in all patients over the 9-month postinjection data collection period. No adverse visual outcomes were noted. Tonic pupil is an infrequently reported complication of BTX-A injection for strabismus. The experience of our investigator group suggests the need for careful injection technique and thorough preinjection counseling. PMID:26917081

  11. A matching pursuit algorithm for inferring tonic sympathetic arousal from spontaneous skin conductance fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Staib, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tonic sympathetic arousal is often inferred from spontaneous fluctuations in skin conductance, and this relies on assumptions about the shape of these fluctuations and how they are generated. We have previously furnished a psychophysiological model for this relation, and an efficient and reliable inversion method to estimate tonic arousal from given data in the framework of dynamic causal modeling (DCM). Here, we provide a fast alternative inversion method in the form of a matching pursuit (MP) algorithm. Analyzing simulated data, this algorithm approximates the true underlying arousal up to about 10 spontaneous fluctuations per minute of data. For empirical data, we assess predictive validity as the ability to differentiate two known psychological arousal states. Predictive validity is comparable between the methods for three datasets, and also comparable to visual peak scoring. Computation time of the MP algorithm is 2–3 orders of magnitude faster for the MP than the DCM algorithm. In summary, the new MP algorithm provides a fast and reliable alternative to DCM inversion for SF data, in particular when the expected number of fluctuations is lower than 10 per minute, as in typical experimental situations. PMID:25930177

  12. The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is tonically activated in vivo and involved in body temperature regulation.

    PubMed

    Gavva, Narender R; Bannon, Anthony W; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Hovland, David N; Lehto, Sonya G; Gore, Anu; Juan, Todd; Deng, Hong; Han, Bora; Klionsky, Lana; Kuang, Rongzhen; Le, April; Tamir, Rami; Wang, Jue; Youngblood, Brad; Zhu, Dawn; Norman, Mark H; Magal, Ella; Treanor, James J S; Louis, Jean-Claude

    2007-03-28

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) is a cation channel that serves as a polymodal detector of pain-producing stimuli such as capsaicin, protons (pH <5.7), and heat. TRPV1 antagonists block pain behaviors in rodent models of inflammatory, neuropathic, and cancer pain, suggesting their utility as analgesics. Here, we report that TRPV1 antagonists representing various chemotypes cause an increase in body temperature (hyperthermia), identifying a potential issue for their clinical development. Peripheral restriction of antagonists did not eliminate hyperthermia, suggesting that the site of action is predominantly outside of the blood-brain barrier. Antagonists that are ineffective against proton activation also caused hyperthermia, indicating that blocking capsaicin and heat activation of TRPV1 is sufficient to produce hyperthermia. All TRPV1 antagonists evaluated here caused hyperthermia, suggesting that TRPV1 is tonically activated in vivo and that TRPV1 antagonism and hyperthermia are not separable. TRPV1 antagonists caused hyperthermia in multiple species (rats, dogs, and monkeys), demonstrating that TRPV1 function in thermoregulation is conserved from rodents to primates. Together, these results indicate that tonic TRPV1 activation regulates body temperature.

  13. Loss of NFAT5 results in renal atrophy and lack of tonicity-responsive gene expression

    PubMed Central

    López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Antos, Christopher L.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Lin, Fangming; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Igarashi, Peter; Rao, Anjana; Olson, Eric N.

    2004-01-01

    The transcription factor NFAT5/TonEBP, a member of the NFAT/Rel family of transcription factors, has been implicated in diverse cellular responses, including the response to osmotic stress, integrin-dependent cell migration, T cell activation, and the Ras pathway in Drosophila. To clarify the in vivo role of NFAT5, we generated NFAT5-null mice. Homozygous mutants were genetically underrepresented after embryonic day 14.5. Surviving mice manifested a progressive and profound atrophy of the kidney medulla with impaired activation of several osmoprotective genes, including those encoding aldose reductase, Na+/Cl–-coupled betaine/γ-aminobutyric acid transporter, and the Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter. The aldose reductase gene is controlled by a tonicity-responsive enhancer, which was refractory to hypertonic stress in fibroblasts lacking NFAT5, establishing this enhancer as a direct transcriptional target of NFAT5. Our findings demonstrate a central role for NFAT5 as a tonicity-responsive transcription factor required for kidney homeostasis and function. PMID:14983020

  14. Influence of the hypothalamus on the midbrain tonic inhibitory mechanism on metabolic heat production in rats.

    PubMed

    Uno, Tadashi; Roth, Joachim; Shibata, Masaaki

    2003-07-15

    Influence of the hypothalamus on increased body temperature was examined in male rats. Body temperature was increased by removing the midbrain tonic inhibitory mechanism (TIM) on heat production from brown adipose tissue (BAT) by microinjections of a local anesthetic, procaine, into the midbrain. Procaine microinjections in unanesthetized rats increased rectal temperature that was followed by a strong tail skin temperature rise. Procaine microinjections in unanesthetized and decerebrated rats also increased rectal temperature but without skin temperature rise. These decerebrated animals fatally developed hyperthermia. In anesthetized rats, procaine microinjections increased temperature of the interscapular BAT (IBAT) higher with shorter onset for temperature rise than rectal temperature. Increased IBAT temperature by procaine microinjections in anesthetized rats was attenuated during hypothalamic warming, and enhanced during hypothalamic cooling when compared with that observed during thermoneutral hypothalamic temperature. These results suggest that the midbrain TIM is able to function in unanesthetized conscious rats, and that the integrity of the midbrain mechanism to tonically inhibit metabolic heat production does not require the presence of intact hypothalamus. These results also suggest that the hypothalamus modulates directly or indirectly IBAT heat production that was induced by removal of the midbrain TIM.

  15. To Take Risk is to Face Loss: A Tonic Pupillometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Yechiam, Eldad; Telpaz, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    The construct of risk taking is studied through the prism of the relation between tonic arousal and risk taking behavior. Several theories have proposed that high aroused individuals tend to exhibit risk aversion. We posit that this arousal–behavior association is activated much more strongly in risks with losses, as losses increase arousal and trigger relevant traits associated with the sensitivity to risk. In three studies we examined risk taking in experience-based decision tasks, with either token losses or relative-losses (in the gain domain). In Study 1 we found a negative correlation between pre-task pupil diameter and risk taking in the loss domain but not in the gain domain. In Study 2 we re-analyzed a previous pupillometry dataset involving symmetric mixed gains and losses. We found that the negative correlation in this mixed condition emerged even while the participants did not show loss aversion. This finding was replicated in Study 3. Thus, the effect of losses on arousal provides sufficient conditions for the moderation of the tonic arousal–behavior association. The findings suggest an important role for losses in the psychological and physiological experience of risk. PMID:22125546

  16. Phasic and tonic alerting in mild cognitive impairment: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Martella, Diana; Manzanares, Salvadora; Campoy, Guillermo; Roca, Javier; Antúnez, Carmen; Fuentes, Luis J

    2014-01-01

    In this preliminary study we assessed the functioning of the different attentional networks in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, taking as theoretical framework the Posner's cognitive neuroscience approach. Two groups of participants were tested in a single short experiment: 20 MCI patients (6 amnestic, 6 non-amnestic and 8 multiple-domain) and 18 healthy matched controls (HC). For attentional assessment we used a version of the Attention Network Test (the ANTI-V) that provided not only a score of the orienting, the executive, and the alerting networks and their interactions, but also an independent measure of vigilance (tonic alerting). The results showed that all subtypes of MCI patients exhibited a selective impairment in the tonic component of alerting, as indexed by a decrease in the d' sensitivity index, and their performance in executive network increased up to the HC group level when phasic alerting was provided by a warning tone. Our findings suggest that a core attentional deficit, especially the endogenous component of alerting, may significantly contribute to the behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with MCI.

  17. The electroclinical-semiology of generalized tonic-clonic seizures among different epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Pan, S P; Wang, F; Zhang, Y; Wang, J

    2015-11-01

    The study reported here discusses the duration of the generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) among frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). The study was done by analyzing the data from patients who had undergone video-EEG in 2009 and had GTCS during the monitoring. The patients were selected for the frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Once they met the criteria, the durations of all the phases were measured, then discussed if there were any difference in duration for different epilepsies. On comparison of the total duration of various types of seizures it was found that the duration of FLE (177 ± 212.6 sec.) was significantly different from the duration of MTLE (104.6 ± 51.8 sec.) and IGE (63.9 ± 28.2 sec.). It can be found in the comparison of GTCS that the duration of phase 6,7 of FLE (63.5 ± 30.9 sec.) was statistically significant compared with MTLE (37.3 ± 13.8 sec.) and IGE (46.4 ± 30.1 sec.). The duration of various types of epilepsy in the generalized tonic-clonic period was not statistically significant. Through this study, we found the differences of the duration of different types of epilepsies that provide the clinical basis for further studies of seizure mechanism and neural network conduction.

  18. Attentional control affects the relationship between tonic immobility and intrusive memories.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Muriel A; Putman, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Cognitive control and tonic immobility (TI) have both been implicated in the development of PTSD, but it is not known how these factors are related. The present study investigated if a specific form of cognitive control (attentional control) would moderate the relationship between TI and intrusive memories. Participants (N = 43) completed the Attentional Control Scale (ACS) before watching an aversive film. They completed the Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS, with an immobility and fear subscale: TIS-TI and TIS-Fear) afterwards and recorded intrusive memories of the film in the subsequent week. TIS-TI was related to intrusion frequency, while ACS was not. However, ACS had a moderating role; the relationship between TIS-TI and intrusion frequency was significant in low ACS but not in high ACS participants. The TIS-Fear subscale was not related to intrusion frequency in low ACS or high ACS participants. Replication of the results is merited in selected extreme groups and males. The results may imply that enhanced attentional control serves as a protective factor against the development of intrusive memories after trauma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of SM22 in the differential regulation of phasic vs. tonic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary proteomics studies between tonic vs. phasic smooth muscles identified three distinct protein spots identified to be those of transgelin (SM22). The latter was found to be distinctly downregulated in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) vs. rectal smooth muscle (RSM) SMC. The major focus of the present studies was to examine the differential molecular control mechanisms by SM22 in the functionality of truly tonic smooth muscle of the IAS vs. the adjoining phasic smooth muscle of the RSM. We monitored SMC lengths before and after incubation with pFLAG-SM22 (for SM22 overexpression), and SM22 small-interfering RNA. pFLAG-SM22 caused concentration-dependent and significantly greater relaxation in the IAS vs. the RSM SMCs. Conversely, temporary silencing of SM22 caused contraction in both types of the SMCs. Further studies revealed a significant reverse relationship between the levels of SM22 phosphorylation and the amount of SM22-actin binding in the IAS and RSM SMC. Data showed higher phospho-SM22 levels and decreased SM22-actin binding in the IAS, and reverse to be the case in the RSM SMCs. Experiments determining the mechanism for SM22 phosphorylation in these smooth muscles revealed that Y-27632 (Rho kinase inhibitor) but not Gö-6850 (protein kinase C inhibitor) caused concentration-dependent decreased phosphorylation of SM22. We speculate that SM22 plays an important role in the regulation of basal tone via Rho kinase-induced phosphorylation of SM22. PMID:25617350

  20. The leak channel NALCN controls tonic firing and glycolytic sensitivity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lutas, Andrew; Lahmann, Carolina; Soumillon, Magali; Yellen, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Certain neuron types fire spontaneously at high rates, an ability that is crucial for their function in brain circuits. The spontaneously active GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), a major output of the basal ganglia, provide tonic inhibition of downstream brain areas. A depolarizing 'leak' current supports this firing pattern, but its molecular basis remains poorly understood. To understand how SNr neurons maintain tonic activity, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to determine the transcriptome of individual mouse SNr neurons. We discovered that SNr neurons express the sodium leak channel, NALCN, and that SNr neurons lacking NALCN have impaired spontaneous firing. In addition, NALCN is involved in the modulation of excitability by changes in glycolysis and by activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings suggest that disruption of NALCN could impair the basal ganglia circuit, which may underlie the severe motor deficits in humans carrying mutations in NALCN. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15271.001 PMID:27177420

  1. Systematic changes in tonic physiological activities during the Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tokihiro; Matsuda, Izumi; Hirota, Akihisa; Takasawa, Noriyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Many studies on the Concealed Information Test have focused on phasic physiological changes that are temporally locked to stimulus presentation. However, little is known about changes in tonic, basal physiological levels throughout a stimulus series. This study focused on changes in tonic physiological activities during the CIT. Thirty-nine participants carried out a mock theft and subsequently received a CIT. Skin conductance, heart rate, and normalized pulse volume (NPV) were recorded. The pre-stimulus physiological level of these measures throughout the CIT series was compared across a question series with different serial positions of the relevant item. Results showed that changes in the pre-stimulus level differed depending on the serial position of the relevant item. Skin conductance declined throughout the series, but showed a transient increase after relevant item presentation. Heart rate was relatively constant throughout the series, but decreased after relevant item presentation. NPV continued to decrease until the relevant item, but increased thereafter, indicating a pattern similar to the classic Peak of Tension concept. In addition, the pre-stimulus NPV showed a significant relevant-irrelevant difference. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice.

  3. Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2008-08-01

    Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal medicine research: social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio. Significant challenges exist in determining shared concepts of social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio across international research collaborations. However, we argue that collaborative partnership, including democratic deliberation, offers the context and process by which many of the ethical challenges in international herbal medicine research can, and should be, resolved. By "cross-training" investigators, and investing in safety-monitoring infrastructure, the issues identified by this comprehensive framework can promote ethically sound international herbal medicine research that contributes to global health.

  4. Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

  5. Changing the knowledge base in Western herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sue

    2008-12-01

    The project of modernising Western herbal medicine in order to allow it to be accepted by the public and to contribute to contemporary healthcare is now over two decades old. One aspect of this project involves changes to the ways knowledge about medicinal plants is presented. This paper contrasts the models of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Traditional Knowledge (TK) to illuminate some of the complexities which have arisen consequent to these changes, particularly with regard to the concept of vitalism, the retention or rejection of which may have broad implications for the clinical practice of herbal medicine. Illustrations from two herbals (central texts on the medicinal use of plants) demonstrate the differences between these frameworks in regard to how herbs are understood. Further, a review of articles on herbal therapeutics published in the Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine indicates that practitioners are moving away from TK and towards the use of EBM in their clinical discussions.

  6. Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

  7. Therapeutic applications of herbal medicines for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy.

  8. Natural drug extracts for a nutritive-tonic drink, promotes the induction of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yasuko; Ishige, Kumiko; Ohtakara, Tomohiro; Ito, Yoshihisa

    2006-07-01

    We have shown previously that oral administration of a nutritive-tonic drink (NTD) improves scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance task and Morris water-maze in mice and that this action is attributable to the natural drug extracts, rather than synthetic drugs such as taurine and caffeine, in the NTD. In order to investigate the mechanism underlying the antiamnesic effects of the natural drug extracts, the effects of the extracts on the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) was investigated in the dentate gyrus (DG) of normal and scopolamine-treated rats. Oral administration of natural drug extracts enhanced the induction of population spike amplitude induced by weak tetanic stimulation (30 pulses at 60 Hz). Scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) completely inhibited the induction of LTP induced by both weak and strong tetanic stimulation (100 pulses at 100 Hz). Natural drug extracts enhanced partially but significantly the induction of LTP by strong tetanus, but had a very weak effect on that induced by weak tetanus. These results suggest that LTP induced by strong tetanus is sensitive to natural drug extracts, and that the antiamnesic effect of the NTD is at least partly attributable to the LTP-improving effect of the natural drug extracts in the DG.

  9. The prevalence of herbal medicine home use and concomitant use with pharmaceutical medicines in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Picking, David; Younger, Novie; Mitchell, Sylvia; Delgoda, Rupika

    2011-09-01

    The work described in this paper aimed to study the prevalence of herbal medicine use in treating illness and concomitant use with pharmaceutical medicines in Jamaica. A survey using a structured questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer to randomly selected adults in systematically selected households within randomly selected urban and rural clusters. Categorical data analysis was performed using Stata version 10 software. 91.4%(372/407) of selected people agreed to participate. 72.6%(270/372) self-medicated with herbs within the previous year. Commonly treated were illnesses of the respiratory system (RS, 77.8%(210/270)), gastro-intestinal tract (GIT, 53.3%(144/270)) and health maintenance using tonics (29.6%(80/270)). 26.7%(72/270) of respondents used pharmaceuticals concomitantly with medicinal plants. Commonly treated were illnesses of the RS (20.4%(55/270)), GIT (13.7%(37/270)) and hypertension (10.0%(27/270)). 19.4% (14/72) of physicians knew of such practices. There was significant association of herb use with/without drugs with age (p<0.001), employment status (p<0.001), religion (p=0.004), gender (p=0.02) and educational level (p=0.031). Thus prevalence of herb use alone was greatest amongst people aged 35-44 and 45-54 years; those employed; Rastafarians; those without health insurance; males and people who had completed secondary education. Whilst prevalence of concomitant herb-drug use was greater amongst people aged 65 years and older; those retired; those of religions other than Rastafarians and Christians, females and people who had attained primary education and below. Self-medication with herbs in Jamaica is highly prevalent and highest for self-limiting conditions of the RS, GIT and health maintenance with tonics. Concomitant herb and drug use is highest for self-limiting conditions of the RS, GIT and hypertension, and the use of combined therapy highlights the need for investigations on potential drug-herb interactions. Physicians

  10. Herbal medicine development: a plea for a rigorous scientific foundation.

    PubMed

    Lietman, Paul S

    2012-09-01

    Science, including rigorous basic scientific research and rigorous clinical research, must underlie both the development and the clinical use of herbal medicines. Yet almost none of the hundreds or thousands of articles that are published each year on some aspect of herbal medicines, adheres to 3 simple but profound scientific principles must underlie all of herbal drug development or clinical use. Three fundamental principles that should underlie everyone's thinking about the development and/or clinical use of any herbal medicine. (1) There must be standardization and regulation (rigorously enforced) of the product being studied or being used clinically. (2) There must be scientific proof of a beneficial clinical effect for something of value to the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. (3) There must be scientific proof of safety (acceptable toxicity) for the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. These fundamental principles of science have ramifications for both the scientist and the clinician. It is critically important that both the investigator and the prescriber know exactly what is in the studied or recommended product and how effective and toxic it is. We will find new and useful drugs from natural sources. However, we will have to learn how to study herbal medicines rigorously, and we will have to try to convince the believers in herbal medicines of the wisdom and even the necessity of a rigorous scientific approach to herbal medicine development. Both biomedical science and practicing physicians must enthusiastically accept the responsibility for searching for truth in the discovery and development of new herbal medicines, in the truthful teaching about herbal medicines from a scientific perspective, and in the scientifically proven clinical use of herbal medicines.

  11. [Multimorbidity and multi-target-therapy with herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Saller, R; Rostock, M

    2012-12-12

    The active components of herbal drugs and substances are pleiotropic multi-ingredient compounds with multitarget properties including antiinflammatory effects. A pleiotropic inhibition of inflammation could play an important role in mutlimorbide patients as an attempt of prevention or retardation of metastasis. A large number of experimental data for European and non-European herbal drugs as well as various herbal drug combinations suggest such a possibility. Despite the so far small number of clinical studies, such an experimental herbal treatment could appear to be reasonable and acceptable, provided that there are data available on quality and safety of these herbal drugs by treatments of patients with various diseases. Besides, herbal drugs and substances play a growing role the treatment of patients with multimorbidity. Many of these herbal drugs have antiinflammatory effects beside their proved symptomatic efficacy in a lot of other diseases. The specific selection of herbal drugs that are efficacious in specific indications and additionally showed antiinflammatory effects offers the possibility of simultaneous antiinflammatory and specific efficacy. St. John's Wort and milk thistle belong to the oldest and to the best experimentally and clinically examined herbal remedies. The spectrum of internal and external uses of Hypercum perforatum as a multicompound herbal drug includes functional gastro-intestinal complaint and illness, skin disease, mucosal lesion, superficial injury, depressive upset and depression, somatoform disorders, restlessness, nervosity, convalescence, exhaustion and sleep disturbances respectively. The plurivalent character of the multicompound even enables a broad spectrum of activity. This might justify to prefer St. John's Wort to other drugs in a wide range of treatments: In multimorbide patients with depression or in depressive patients with coronary heart disease the anti-inflammatory effects could mean an additional advantage

  12. Herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Tulunay, Munevver; Aypak, Cenk; Yikilkan, Hulya; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used all over the world, and herbal medicines are the most preferred ways of CAM. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2014 among patients who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia (HL) in Family Medicine Department of Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, in Ankara. A questionnaire about herbal drug use was applied by face to face interview to the participants. A total of 217 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the participants was 56.6 ± 9.7 years (55 male and 162 female). The rate of herbal medicine use was 29%. Herbal medicine use among female gender was significantly higher (P = 0.040). Conventional medication use was found to be lower among herbal medicine consumers. There was no relationship between herbal medicine use and type of chronic disease, living area, and occupation or education level. Most frequently used herbs were lemon (39.6%) and garlic (11.1%) for HT, cinnamon (12.7%) for DM, and walnut (6.3%) for HL. In this study, herbal medicine use was found to be higher among patients who had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. Therefore, physicians should be aware of herbal medicine usage of their patients and inform them about the effectivity and side effects of herbal medicines.

  13. [Clinical observations on effects on prognostic factor treating hepatitis B-related cirrhosis with purification purgation dispersion tonicity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongzhi; Li, Chuntao; Wang, Yongze; Guan, Weibin; Yang, Yuewu

    2003-11-01

    With prognostic factors as assessment standards, the effects of combination of TCM(purification purgation dispersion tonicity) and western medicine treating hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and its complications were assessed. In this study, study group and control group were divided, the number of each group was 30. In order to keep balance between the two groups, matching control design was adopted with Wang's 8 prognostic factors as matching conditions. In study group, except Hb, TBIL, ALB and PT had statistic difference, and the complications of cirrhosis such as ascites, HEP and UGH were treated with significant effects. Between study group and control group, in all of prognostic factors only TBIL had statistical diffirence. It suggested the effects were significant treating hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and its complications with combination of TCM(purification purgation dispersion tonicity) and western medicine. It also suggested that TCM therapy combining purification, purgation, dispersion and tonicity had significant effects on reducing jaundice.

  14. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species.

  15. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years.

  16. Tonic inhibition of accumbal spiny neurons by extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors modulates the actions of psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Edward P; Macpherson, Tom; Swinny, Jerome D; Dixon, Claire I; Herd, Murray B; Belelli, Delia; Stephens, David N; King, Sarah L; Lambert, Jeremy J

    2014-01-15

    Within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate phasic inhibition of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and influence behavioral responses to cocaine. We demonstrate that both dopamine D1- and D2-receptor-expressing MSNs (D-MSNs) additionally harbor extrasynaptic GABAARs incorporating α4, β, and δ subunits that mediate tonic inhibition, thereby influencing neuronal excitability. Both the selective δ-GABAAR agonist THIP and DS2, a selective positive allosteric modulator, greatly increased the tonic current of all MSNs from wild-type (WT), but not from δ(-/-) or α4(-/-) mice. Coupling dopamine and tonic inhibition, the acute activation of D1 receptors (by a selective agonist or indirectly by amphetamine) greatly enhanced tonic inhibition in D1-MSNs but not D2-MSNs. In contrast, prolonged D2 receptor activation modestly reduced the tonic conductance of D2-MSNs. Behaviorally, WT and constitutive α4(-/-) mice did not differ in their expression of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). Importantly, however, mice with the α4 deletion specific to D1-expressing neurons (α4(D1-/-)) showed increased CPP. Furthermore, THIP administered systemically or directly into the NAc of WT, but not α4(-/-) or α4(D1-/-) mice, blocked cocaine enhancement of CPP. In comparison, α4(D2-/-) mice exhibited normal CPP, but no cocaine enhancement. In conclusion, dopamine modulation of GABAergic tonic inhibition of D1- and D2-MSNs provides an intrinsic mechanism to differentially affect their excitability in response to psychostimulants and thereby influence their ability to potentiate conditioned reward. Therefore, α4βδ GABAARs may represent a viable target for the development of novel therapeutics to better understand and influence addictive behaviors.

  17. Agreement between clinical and laboratory methods assessing tonic and cross-link components of accommodation and vergence.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Pascaline; Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Philippe, Matthieu; Fuchs, Philippe; Roumes, Corinne

    2015-09-01

    Several tests are available to optometrists for investigating accommodation and vergence. This study sought to investigate the agreement between clinical and laboratory methods and to clarify which components are actually measured when tonic and cross-link of accommodation and vergence are assessed. Tonic vergence, tonic accommodation, accommodative vergence (AC/A) and vergence accommodation (CA/C) were measured using several tests. Clinical tests were compared to the laboratory assessment, the latter being regarded as an absolute reference. The repeatability of each test and the degree of agreement between the tests were quantified using Bland-Altman analysis. The values obtained for each test were found to be stable across repetitions; however, in most cases, significant differences were observed between tests supposed to measure the same oculomotor component. Tonic and cross-link components cannot be easily assessed because proximal and instrumental responses interfere with the assessment. Other components interfere with oculomotor assessment. Specifically, accommodative divergence interferes with tonic vergence estimation and the type of accommodation considered in the AC/A ratio affects its magnitude. Results on clinical tonic accommodation and clinical CA/C show that further investigation is needed to clarify the limitations associated with the use of difference of Gaussian as visual targets to open the accommodative loop. Although different optometric tests of accommodation and vergence rely on the same basic principles, the results of this study indicate that clinical and laboratory methods actually involve distinct components. These differences, which are induced by methodological choices, must be taken into account, when comparing studies or when selecting a test to investigate a particular oculomotor component. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  18. Tonic Inhibition of Accumbal Spiny Neurons by Extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA Receptors Modulates the Actions of Psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Edward P.; Macpherson, Tom; Swinny, Jerome D.; Dixon, Claire I.; Herd, Murray B.; Belelli, Delia; Stephens, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate phasic inhibition of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and influence behavioral responses to cocaine. We demonstrate that both dopamine D1- and D2-receptor-expressing MSNs (D-MSNs) additionally harbor extrasynaptic GABAARs incorporating α4, β, and δ subunits that mediate tonic inhibition, thereby influencing neuronal excitability. Both the selective δ-GABAAR agonist THIP and DS2, a selective positive allosteric modulator, greatly increased the tonic current of all MSNs from wild-type (WT), but not from δ−/− or α4−/− mice. Coupling dopamine and tonic inhibition, the acute activation of D1 receptors (by a selective agonist or indirectly by amphetamine) greatly enhanced tonic inhibition in D1-MSNs but not D2-MSNs. In contrast, prolonged D2 receptor activation modestly reduced the tonic conductance of D2-MSNs. Behaviorally, WT and constitutive α4−/− mice did not differ in their expression of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). Importantly, however, mice with the α4 deletion specific to D1-expressing neurons (α4D1−/−) showed increased CPP. Furthermore, THIP administered systemically or directly into the NAc of WT, but not α4−/− or α4D1−/− mice, blocked cocaine enhancement of CPP. In comparison, α4D2−/− mice exhibited normal CPP, but no cocaine enhancement. In conclusion, dopamine modulation of GABAergic tonic inhibition of D1- and D2-MSNs provides an intrinsic mechanism to differentially affect their excitability in response to psychostimulants and thereby influence their ability to potentiate conditioned reward. Therefore, α4βδ GABAARs may represent a viable target for the development of novel therapeutics to better understand and influence addictive behaviors. PMID:24431441

  19. The role of ERK in phasic and tonic contractile responses in rat femoral arteries after hindlimb unloading.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Li, Zhili; Wang, Desheng; Jiang, Shizhong

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that the role of ERK in phasic and tonic contractile responses is declined by hindlimb unloading (HU) in rat femoral arteries. Male Wistar rats were randomised into HU and Control group (n=7). After 14d, the femoral arteries were isolated and cut into 3-mm ring segments. In the absence or presence of PD98059(MEK inhibitor), contractile response to NE(10μM) was measured in Krebs solution in a tissue bath at 37°C, isometric tension were recorded with Powerlab system. The area under curve (AUC), phasic and tonic contractile responses between two groups were compared. After 14d-HU, the AUC, phasic and tonic NE-induced contractile responses were declined compared with controls. PD98059 did not affect the AUC in arteries from HU, but significantly decreased the AUC in arteries from control (100±7.1% vs. 61.18±11.3%, P<0.05). In contrast to control, the inhibitory ratio of PD98059 was significantly lower in phasic (7.42±3.24% vs. 33.59± 9.19%, P=0.0198) and tonic (26.93±3.78% vs. 46.75±5.67%, P=0.0131) contractile responses of HU group. Moreover, the inhibitory ratio of PD98059 wasn't significantly different between the phasic and tonic contractile responses in control group (P=0.2464). But for HU group, the difference was statistically significant (P=0.002). We demonstrated that the role of ERK was declined in both phasic and tonic contractile responses in rat femoral arteries after hindlimb unloading. Simulated microgravity induced by HU may attenuate the contractile responses of femoral arteries by inhibiting the role of ERK in thick and thin filament regulatory pathways.

  20. Glycine receptor α3 and α2 subunits mediate tonic and exogenous agonist-induced currents in forebrain.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Lindsay M; Lowes, Daniel C; Salling, Michael C; Carreau-Vollmer, Cyndel; Odean, Naomi N; Blednov, Yuri A; Betz, Heinrich; Harris, R Adron; Harrison, Neil L

    2017-08-22

    Neuronal inhibition can occur via synaptic mechanisms or through tonic activation of extrasynaptic receptors. In spinal cord, glycine mediates synaptic inhibition through the activation of heteromeric glycine receptors (GlyRs) composed primarily of α1 and β subunits. Inhibitory GlyRs are also found throughout the brain, where GlyR α2 and α3 subunit expression exceeds that of α1, particularly in forebrain structures, and coassembly of these α subunits with the β subunit appears to occur to a lesser extent than in spinal cord. Here, we analyzed GlyR currents in several regions of the adolescent mouse forebrain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis). Our results show ubiquitous expression of GlyRs that mediate large-amplitude currents in response to exogenously applied glycine in these forebrain structures. Additionally, tonic inward currents were also detected, but only in the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex (PFC). These tonic currents were sensitive to both strychnine and picrotoxin, indicating that they are mediated by extrasynaptic homomeric GlyRs. Recordings from mice deficient in the GlyR α3 subunit (Glra3(-/-)) revealed a lack of tonic GlyR currents in the striatum and the PFC. In Glra2(-/Y) animals, GlyR tonic currents were preserved; however, the amplitudes of current responses to exogenous glycine were significantly reduced. We conclude that functional α2 and α3 GlyRs are present in various regions of the forebrain and that α3 GlyRs specifically participate in tonic inhibition in the striatum and PFC. Our findings suggest roles for glycine in regulating neuronal excitability in the forebrain.

  1. Effects of solution tonicity on crossbridge properties and myosin lever arm disposition in intact frog muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Colombini, Barbara; Bagni, Maria Angela; Cecchi, Giovanni; Griffiths, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of solution tonicity on muscle properties, and to verify their consistence with the lever arm theory of force generation. Experiments were made in single muscle fibres and in fibre bundles from the frog, using both fast stretches and time-resolved X-ray diffraction, in isotonic Ringer solution (1T), hypertonic (1.4T) and hypotonic (0.8T) solutions. Fast stretches (0.4–0.6 ms duration and 16–25 nm per half-sarcomere (nm hs−1) amplitude) were applied at various tensions during the force development in isometric tetani. Force increased during the stretch up to a peak (critical tension, Pc) at which it started to fall, in spite of continued stretching. In all solutions, Pc was proportional to the initial isometric tension developed. For a given isometric tension, Pc increased with solution tonicity and occurred at a precise sarcomere elongation (critical length, Lc) which also increased with tonicity. M3 meridional layer line intensity (IM3) was measured during the application of sinusoidal length oscillations (1 kHz frequency, and about 2% fibre length amplitude) at tetanus plateau. IM3 changed during the length oscillations in a sinusoidal manner in phase opposition to length changes, but a double peak distortion occurred at the peak of the release phase. The presence of the distortion, which decreased with tonicity, allowed calculation of the mean position of the myosin head (S1) during the oscillation cycle. In agreement with the lever arm theory, both X-ray diffraction and mechanical data show that solution tonicity affects S1 mean position and consequently crossbridge individual extension and force, with no effect on crossbridge number. The force needed to break the single crossbridge was insensitive to solution tonicity suggesting a non-ionic nature of the actomyosin bond. PMID:17023505

  2. Effects of solution tonicity on crossbridge properties and myosin lever arm disposition in intact frog muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Colombini, Barbara; Bagni, Maria Angela; Cecchi, Giovanni; Griffiths, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of solution tonicity on muscle properties, and to verify their consistence with the lever arm theory of force generation. Experiments were made in single muscle fibres and in fibre bundles from the frog, using both fast stretches and time-resolved X-ray diffraction, in isotonic Ringer solution (1T), hypertonic (1.4T) and hypotonic (0.8T) solutions. Fast stretches (0.4-0.6 ms duration and 16-25 nm per half-sarcomere (nm hs(-1)) amplitude) were applied at various tensions during the force development in isometric tetani. Force increased during the stretch up to a peak (critical tension, Pc) at which it started to fall, in spite of continued stretching. In all solutions, Pc was proportional to the initial isometric tension developed. For a given isometric tension, Pc increased with solution tonicity and occurred at a precise sarcomere elongation (critical length, Lc) which also increased with tonicity. M3 meridional layer line intensity (I M3) was measured during the application of sinusoidal length oscillations (1 kHz frequency, and about 2% fibre length amplitude) at tetanus plateau. I M3 changed during the length oscillations in a sinusoidal manner in phase opposition to length changes, but a double peak distortion occurred at the peak of the release phase. The presence of the distortion, which decreased with tonicity, allowed calculation of the mean position of the myosin head (S1) during the oscillation cycle. In agreement with the lever arm theory, both X-ray diffraction and mechanical data show that solution tonicity affects S1 mean position and consequently crossbridge individual extension and force, with no effect on crossbridge number. The force needed to break the single crossbridge was insensitive to solution tonicity suggesting a non-ionic nature of the actomyosin bond.

  3. Disposition pathways and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicines in humans.

    PubMed

    He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal