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Sample records for herbal tonics stimulate

  1. Essiac? and Flor-Essence? herbal tonics stimulate the in vitro growth of human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K S; Montgomery, J L; McLimans, B; Latham, E R; Shattuck, D L; Klotz, D M; Bennett, L M

    2005-10-07

    People diagnosed with cancer often self-administer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) to supplement their conventional treatments, improve health, or prevent recurrence. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics are commercially available complex mixtures of herbal extracts sold as dietary supplements and used by cancer patients based on anecdotal evidence that they can treat or prevent disease. In this study, we evaluated Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} for their effects on the growth of human tumor cells in culture. The effect of Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics on cell proliferation was tested in MCF-7, MDA-MB-436, MDA-MB-231, and T47D cancer cells isolated from human breast tumors. Estrogen receptor (ER) dependent activation of a luciferase reporter construct was tested in MCF-7 cells. Specific binding to the ER was tested using an ICI 182,780 competition assay. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics at 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% stimulated cell proliferation relative to untreated controls and activated ER dependent luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells. A 10{sup -7} M concentration of ICI 870,780 inhibited the induction of ER dependent luciferase activity by Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, but did not affect cell proliferation. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics can stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells through ER mediated as well as ER independent mechanisms of action. Cancer patients and health care providers can use this information to make informed decisions about the use of these CAMs.

  2. Flor-Essence? Herbal Tonic Promotes Mammary Tumor Development in Sprague Dawley Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, L; Montgomery, J; Steinberg, S; Kulp, K

    2004-01-28

    Background: Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer often self-administer complementary and alternative medicines to augment their conventional treatments, improve health, or prevent recurrence. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} Tonic is a complex mixture of herbal extracts used by cancer patients because of anecdotal evidence that it can treat or prevent disease. Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were given water or exposed to 3% or 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign} beginning at one day of age. Mammary tumors were induced with a single oral 40 mg/kg/bw dose of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene at 50 days of age and sacrificed at 23 weeks. Rats were maintained on AIN-76A diet. Results: Control rats had palpable mammary tumor incidence of 51.0% at 19 weeks of age compared to 65.0% and 59.4% for the 3% and 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign} groups respectively. Overall, no significant difference in time until first palpable tumor was detected among any of the groups. At necropsy, mammary tumor incidence was 82.5% for controls compared to 90.0% and 97.3% for rats consuming 3% and 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign}, respectively. Mean mammary tumor multiplicity ({+-}SES) for the controls was 2.8 ({+-} 0.5) and statistically different from the 3% or 6% Flor- Essence{reg_sign} groups with 5.2 ({+-} 0.7), and 4.8 ({+-} 0.6), respectively (p{<=}0.01). As expected, the majority of isolated tumors were diagnosed as adenocarcinomas. Conclusions: Flor-Essence{reg_sign} can promote mammary tumor development in the Sprague Dawley rat model. This observation is contrary to widely available anecdotal evidence as well as the desire of the consumer that this commercially available herbal tonic will suppress and/or inhibit tumor growth.

  3. Inhibition of midbrain-evoked tonic and rhythmic motor activity by cutaneous stimulation in decerebrate cats.

    PubMed

    Beyaert, C A; Haouzi, P; Marchal, F

    2003-03-01

    The effect of mechanical and electrical stimulation of cervical cutaneous afferents was analysed on both the centrally induced tonic and rhythmic activities in hindlimb antagonist muscle nerves of 16 decerebrate paralysed cats. Electrical stimulation of dorsal midbrain evoked in the nerve to the tibialis anterior muscle (TAn) either rhythmic discharges (n=14), associated with tonic discharges in ten cats, or only tonic discharges (n=4). Centrally induced activity in the ipsilateral nerve to gastrocnemius medialis (GMn) occurred in fewer cats (n=12) and displayed similar patterns as in TAn. Manual traction of the scruff of the neck reduced the TAn tonic and rhythmic discharges (n=6) by 73% (P<0.05) and 71% (P<0.05), respectively, and reduced only the tonic component of GMn discharges (by 41%, n=3). Electrical stimulation (impulses 0.1-0.5 ms, 50 Hz) of cervical nerves belonging to C5 or C6 dermatomes, the intensity (0.4-4 mA) of which induced minimal inhibition of both TAn and GMn discharges, reduced significantly the tonic component of TAn discharges (by 39%, n=4). At higher intensities of electrical cervical nerve stimulation (2-6 mA) inducing maximal inhibitory effect, both tonic and rhythmic activities in TAn and GMn were both significantly reduced by, respectively, 81% and 94% in TAn (n=7), and by 49% and 43% in GMn (n=7). Electrical cervical nerve stimulation consistently reduced the isolated tonic discharge in TAn by 66% (n=4, P<0.05) and in GMn by 23% (n=3) when present. Thus the tonic component was more sensitive to inhibition than the rhythmic component of hindlimb muscle nerve activity.

  4. Modality-specific facilitation and adaptation to painful tonic stimulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Polianskis, Romanas; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of stimulus modality on adaptation or facilitation of pain during tonic cold and tourniquet pressure stimulation. Experimental set-up for the cold stimulation consisted of a thermo-tank with water, cooled to 3 degrees C, circulation pump, electronic thermometer and an electronic 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Experimental set-up for the tonic pressure stimulation consisted of a pneumatic tourniquet cuff, a computer-controlled air compressor, and an electronic VAS. The first experiment assessed temporal profiles of pain intensity and skin temperature during immersion of the non-dominant hand and lower arm into cold water for 3 min or until the pain tolerance limit was reached. The second experiment assessed temporal profile of cuff pain intensity during constant compressions for 10 min beginning at pain intensities of 2, 4, and 6 cm on the VAS ("VAS 2", "VAS 4" and "VAS 6" sessions). Subjects enduring cold stimulation for less than 3 min were defined as non-adapting to cold and vice versa. The intensity of cold pain in non-adapting subjects increased significantly faster than in adapting subjects and reached significantly higher magnitude. The course of pain intensity during constant compression, estimated by a linear regression line, was increasing or decreasing, representing facilitation or adaptation of pain, respectively. The typical profile of adaptation consisted of an "overshoot" in pain intensity, followed by a decrease in pain intensity. There was significant correlation in VAS slopes between sessions separated by 2-5 days, suggesting consistent pattern in pain responses to tonic pressure stimulation. Adaptation or facilitation rates and the overshoot magnitude were dependent on the initial pain intensity (2, 4, or 6 cm on the VAS). The facilitation rate was highest and the adaptation rate was lowest during the "VAS 2" session, while the facilitation rate was lowest and the adaptation rate was highest during the "VAS 6

  5. Stimulating effect of Japanese herbal (kampo) medicine, hochuekkito on upper respiratory mucosal immune system.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, H; Nagai, T; Munakata, K; Nonaka, K; Hanawa, T; Kim, S J; Yamada, H

    2006-12-01

    Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41) and Juzentaihoto (Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese, TJ-48) are well-known Kampo formulas used as tonic. Although these medicines have separately been applied to the patients clinically depending on their symptoms, the differences of the pharmacological activities for these medicines have not been fully understood. TJ-48 and TJ-41 were compared for their effects on antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal immune system in vivo. Oral administration of TJ-41 (100 mg kg(-1) per day) to early aged BALB/c mice, which were nasally sensitized with influenza hemagglutinin vaccine, significantly enhanced influenza virus-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers in nasal cavity and sera, respectively. However, oral administration of TJ-48 (100 mg kg(-1) per day) failed to show the enhancing activity. TJ-41 increased not only influenza virus-specific IgA antibody titer but also total IgA antibody titer in nasal cavity. The stimulating activity of TJ-41 disappeared after treatment with methotrexate. The present study strongly suggests that TJ-41 can stimulate the mucosal immune system of upper respiratory tract, and results in enhancement of antigen-specific antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal and systemic immune systems.

  6. Stimulating Effect of Japanese Herbal (Kampo) Medicine, Hochuekkito on Upper Respiratory Mucosal Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Kiyohara, H.; Nagai, T.; Munakata, K.; Nonaka, K.; Hanawa, T.; Kim, S. J.; Yamada, H.

    2006-01-01

    Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41) and Juzentaihoto (Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese, TJ-48) are well-known Kampo formulas used as tonic. Although these medicines have separately been applied to the patients clinically depending on their symptoms, the differences of the pharmacological activities for these medicines have not been fully understood. TJ-48 and TJ-41 were compared for their effects on antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal immune system in vivo. Oral administration of TJ-41 (100 mg kg−1 per day) to early aged BALB/c mice, which were nasally sensitized with influenza hemagglutinin vaccine, significantly enhanced influenza virus-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers in nasal cavity and sera, respectively. However, oral administration of TJ-48 (100 mg kg−1 per day) failed to show the enhancing activity. TJ-41 increased not only influenza virus-specific IgA antibody titer but also total IgA antibody titer in nasal cavity. The stimulating activity of TJ-41 disappeared after treatment with methotrexate. The present study strongly suggests that TJ-41 can stimulate the mucosal immune system of upper respiratory tract, and results in enhancement of antigen-specific antibody response in upper respiratory mucosal and systemic immune systems. PMID:17173109

  7. Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on motor cortex excitability upon release of tonic muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kenichi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Higashi, Toshio

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurophysiological triggers underlying muscle relaxation from the contracted state, and to examine the mechanisms involved in this process and their subsequent modification by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to produce motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in 23 healthy participants, wherein motor cortex excitability was examined at the onset of voluntary muscle relaxation following a period of voluntary tonic muscle contraction. In addition, the effects of afferent input on motor cortex excitability, as produced by NMES during muscle contraction, were examined. In particular, two NMES intensities were used for analysis: 1.2 times the sensory threshold and 1.2 times the motor threshold (MT). Participants were directed to execute constant wrist extensions and to release muscle contraction in response to an auditory "GO" signal. MEPs were recorded from the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles, and TMS was applied at three different time intervals (30, 60, and 90 ms) after the "GO" signal. Motor cortex excitability was greater during voluntary ECR and FCR relaxation using high-intensity NMES, and relaxation time was decreased. Each parameter differed significantly between 30 and 60 ms. Moreover, in both muscles, SICI was larger in the presence than in the absence of NMES. Therefore, the present findings suggest that terminating a muscle contraction triggers transient neurophysiological mechanisms that facilitate the NMES-induced modulation of cortical motor excitability in the period prior to muscle relaxation. High-intensity NMES might facilitate motor cortical excitability as a function of increased inhibitory intracortical activity, and therefore serve as a transient trigger for the relaxation of prime mover muscles in a therapeutic context.

  8. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Merritt, Sharon L.; Peterson, Sara Davia; Block, Keith I.; Gochenour, Tom

    2000-06-01

    World-wide use of herbal medicines is increasing, following regulatory and manufacturing developments. Herbs are attractive alternative medications to many patients with sleep disorders, who may be averse to using conventional drugs. We review here the most common herbal stimulants and sedatives. Caffeine, in herbal teas, black tea, coffee, soft drinks and pharmaceuticals, is used widely to control sleepiness, but more research is needed on its use in sleep disorders. Ephedra, and its constituent ephedrine, are used in both stimulant and weight loss preparations, sometimes with caffeine; safety concerns have arisen with this practice. Yohimbe is another herb used in stimulant and body-building preparations which has safety concerns. Asian and Siberian ginseng have been traditionally used for fatigue, and have some supportive experimental evidence for this use. Herbal sedatives also have some evidence for efficacy; the observations that certain plant flavonoid compounds bind to benzodiazepine receptors adds interest to their use. Valerian and kava have received the most research attention; both have decreased sleep onset time and promoted deeper sleep in small studies, and kava also shows anxiolytic effects. German chamomile, lavender, hops, lemon balm and passionflower are reputed to be mild sedatives but need much more experimental examination.

  9. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    PubMed

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially

  10. Herbal medicine "sho-saiko-to" induces in vitro granulocyte colony-stimulating factor production on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashiki, M; Asakawa, M; Kayaba, Y; Kosaka, Y; Nishimura, A

    1992-01-01

    The herbal medicine "Sho-saiko-to (Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang)" has been used in China for about 3000 years for the treatment of pyretic diseases. This medicine is now available as one of the prescribing drugs approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan, and has also been widely used for patients with chronic viral liver disease as one of biological response modifiers in the field of Japan's Western Medicine. However, its mode of action has not been fully described. In the present in vitro study, we added "Sho-saiko-to" (TJ-9, Tsumura, Tokyo) to the culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from healthy volunteers, and observed a dose-dependent increase in the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The same experiment was conducted using other herbal medicines "Dai-saiko-to" (TJ-8) and "Saiko-keishi-to" (TJ-10) which showed similar effects, or "Sho-seiryu-to" (TJ-19) which consists of very different compounds and shows different efficacy. The increases of G-CSF production were similar when "Sho-saiko-to" (TJ-9) or one of the 2 reference drugs (TJ-8 and 10) was added, whereas the increase when the control drug "Sho-seiryu-to" (TJ-19) was added, was quite small. This result shows that G-CSF induction is not a common effect of herbal medicines, but a specific effect of TJ-8, 9, and 10. Among these 3 drugs the increase produced by "Sho-saiko-to" was the largest. Based on this result, we conclude that administration of "Sho-saiko-to" may be useful not only for the treatment of chronic liver disease, but also for malignant diseases and acute infectious diseases where G-CSF is efficacious.

  11. To strengthen and refresh: herbal therapy in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Van Esterik, P

    1988-01-01

    Throughout Southeast Asia herbal tonic drinks are a long established part of the health adaptation system of both rural and urban households. A recent study on infant feeding practices in urban poor households revealed a differential use of postpartum herbal tonics in Bangkok, Thailand and Semarang, Indonesia. This paper explores the cultural meaning of this difference between comparable groups of mothers, focussing on the colonial and neocolonial development of the medical systems, the transmission of knowledge about herbal therapies, and how the tonics fit into the food-drug classification system in both countries.

  12. Clinical toxicology study of an herbal medicinal extract of Paullinia cupana, Trichilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides and Zingiber officinale (Catuama) in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Celso H; Moraes, Maria Elizabete A; Moraes, Manoel O; Bezerra, Fernando A F; Abib, Eduardo; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, a herbal medicinal extract named Catuama containing a mixture of Paullinia cupana (guarana; Sapindaceae), Trichilia catigua (catuaba; Meliaceae), Ptychopetalum olacoides (muirapuama; Olacaceae) and Zingiber officinale (ginger; Zingiberaceae) is used as a body stimulant, energetic, tonic and aphrodisiac. The present study investigated the chronic administration of 25 mL Catuama twice a day during 28 days for any toxic effect on healthy human volunteers of both sexes. No severe adverse reactions or haematological and biochemical changes were reported.

  13. Hochuekkito, a Kampo (Traditional Japanese Herbal) Medicine, and its Polysaccharide Portion Stimulate G-CSF Secretion from Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Moriya, Michiyo; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Haruki

    2010-09-01

    Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicines are taken orally due to which the gastric mucosal immune system may act as one of the major targets for the expression of pharmacological activity. The inner surface of the intestinal tract possesses a large area of mucosal membranes, and the intestinal epithelial cells sit at the interface between a lumen and a lymphocyte-rich lamina propria. The cross talk that occurs between these compartments serves to maintain intestinal homeostasis, and the cytokine network plays an important role in the cross talk. In this study, the effect of Hochuekkito (HET), one of Kampo medicines, on cytokine secretion of intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. When murine normal colonic epithelial cell-line MCE301 cells were stimulated with HET, the contents of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the conditioned medium were significantly increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. The enhanced G-CSF gene transcription in MCE301 cells by the stimulation of HET was observed by RT-PCR. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET was also observed in C3H/HeJ mice-derived primary cultured colonic epithelial cells. When the HET was fractionated, only the polysaccharide fraction (F-5) enhanced the G-CSF secretion of MCE301 cells, and the activity of F-5 lost after the treatment of periodate that can degrade the carbohydrate moiety. These results suggest that HET enhances secretion of G-CSF from colonic epithelial cells and the polysaccharide is one of the active ingredients of HET. The enhanced G-CSF secretion by HET may partly contribute to the clinically observed various pharmacological activities of HET including immunomodulating activity.

  14. Relaxation - Induced by Vibroacoustic Stimulation via a Body Monochord and via Relaxation Music - Is Associated with a Decrease in Tonic Electrodermal Activity and an Increase of the Salivary Cortisol Level in Patients with Psychosomatic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Hubertus; Fendel, Uta; Buße, Petra; Rose, Matthias; Bösel, Rainer; Klapp, Burghard F

    2017-01-01

    Vibroacoustic stimulation by a Body Monochord can induce relaxation states of various emotional valence. The skin conductance level (SCL) of the tonic electrodermal activity is an indicator of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system and thus an indicator of the relaxation response. Salivary cortisol is considered to be a stress indicator of the HPA-axis. The effects of the treatment with a Body Monochord and listening to relaxation music (randomized chronological presentation) on SCL and salivary cortisol in relation to the emotional valence of the experience were examined in patients with psychosomatic disorders (N = 42). Salivary cortisol samples were collected immediately before and after the expositions. Subjective experience was measured via self-rating scales. Overall, both the exposure to the Body Monochord as well as the exposure to the relaxation music induced an improvement of patients' mood and caused a highly significant reduction of SCL. A more emotionally positive experience of relaxation correlated with a slightly stronger reduction of the SCL. Both treatment conditions caused a slight increase in salivary cortisol, which was significant after exposure to the first treatment. The increase of salivary cortisol during a relaxation state is contrary to previous findings. It is possible that the relaxation state was experienced as an emotional challenge, due to inner images and uncommon sensations that might have occurred.

  15. Relaxation – Induced by Vibroacoustic Stimulation via a Body Monochord and via Relaxation Music – Is Associated with a Decrease in Tonic Electrodermal Activity and an Increase of the Salivary Cortisol Level in Patients with Psychosomatic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Hubertus; Fendel, Uta; Buße, Petra; Rose, Matthias; Bösel, Rainer; Klapp, Burghard F.

    2017-01-01

    Vibroacoustic stimulation by a Body Monochord can induce relaxation states of various emotional valence. The skin conductance level (SCL) of the tonic electrodermal activity is an indicator of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system and thus an indicator of the relaxation response. Salivary cortisol is considered to be a stress indicator of the HPA-axis. The effects of the treatment with a Body Monochord and listening to relaxation music (randomized chronological presentation) on SCL and salivary cortisol in relation to the emotional valence of the experience were examined in patients with psychosomatic disorders (N = 42). Salivary cortisol samples were collected immediately before and after the expositions. Subjective experience was measured via self-rating scales. Overall, both the exposure to the Body Monochord as well as the exposure to the relaxation music induced an improvement of patients’ mood and caused a highly significant reduction of SCL. A more emotionally positive experience of relaxation correlated with a slightly stronger reduction of the SCL. Both treatment conditions caused a slight increase in salivary cortisol, which was significant after exposure to the first treatment. The increase of salivary cortisol during a relaxation state is contrary to previous findings. It is possible that the relaxation state was experienced as an emotional challenge, due to inner images and uncommon sensations that might have occurred. PMID:28114399

  16. [Tonic pupil caused by ischemia].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, H

    1989-01-01

    Tonic pupil is usually an idiopathic condition. In some cases, the cause of the ciliary ganglion lesion leading to tonic pupils is obvious. Rarely ischemia causes a lesion of the ciliary ganglion or the short ciliary nerves due to the good blood supply of the ciliary ganglion. Only two cases of tonic pupils in the course of giant cell arteritis are mentioned in the literature, but tonic pupils are probably much more common with this disease. Five cases are demonstrated here. All had associated ischemic optic neuropathy, and stagnation of the blood flow in the supratrochlear artery could be demonstrated in two cases by Doppler sonography. Tonic pupils may also occur when an oclusion of the internal carotid artery resolves, probably because of transient stasis of the orbital blood flow. In another case, tonic pupils were associated with choroidal ischemia (proved by video fluorescent angiography) of unknown origin. The diagnosis of tonic pupils was made by pharmacological testing for cholinergic hypersensitivity with 0.1% pilocarpine.

  17. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  18. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  19. TONIC INFLUENCE OF NEOCORTEX ON HIPPOCAMPAL SEIZURES.

    PubMed

    Saralidze, E; Khuchua, L; Kobaidze, I

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between different brain structures could be crucial to predicting seizure occurrence, threshold and spread. Moreover, the sleep-wake cycle and electrical activity of brain structures in different phases of sleep could significantly affect the pattern and extent of seizure spread, and therefore the characteristics of epileptic activity. In this animal model using 15 Wistar rats, we show that the duration of hippocampal seizures, induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus, is significantly increased during slow sleep. Moreover, decreasing the electrical activity of the neocortex by cooling of the cortical surface or induction of cortical spreading depression also caused an increase in hippocampal seizure duration. Conversely, warming the cortical surface triggered a remission in spreading depression, in turn restoring the duration of epileptic episodes. Our data suggest that the neocortex probably exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on hippocampal seizures. Thus, cortico-hippocampal interaction could be an important component in the manifestation and generalization of limbic seizures.

  20. Cerebellar brain inhibition in the target and surround muscles during voluntary tonic activation

    PubMed Central

    Panyakaew, Pattamon; Cho, Hyun Joo; Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Popa, Traian; Wu, Tianxia; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Motor surround inhibition is the neural mechanism that selectively favors the contraction of target muscles and inhibits nearby muscles to prevent unwanted movements. This inhibition was previously reported at the onset of a movement, but not during a tonic contraction. Cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) is reduced in active muscles during tonic activation; however, it has not been studied in the surround muscles. CBI was evaluated in the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) as the target muscle, and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) as surround muscles during rest and tonic activation of FDI in fourteen subjects. Cerebellar stimulation was performed under MRI-guided neuronavigation targeting lobule VIII of the cerebellar hemisphere. Stimulus intensities for cerebellar stimulation were based on the resting motor cortex threshold (RMT) and adjusted for the depth difference between the cerebellar and motor cortices. We used 90% to 120% of adjusted RMT as the conditioning stimulus intensity during rest. The intensity that generated the best CBI at rest in the FDI was selected for use during tonic activation. During selective tonic activation of FDI, CBI was significantly reduced only for FDI but not for the surround muscles. Unconditioned MEP sizes were increased in all muscles during FDI tonic activation compared to rest, despite background EMG activity increasing only for the FDI. Our study suggests that the cerebellum may play an important role in selective tonic finger movement by reducing its inhibition in the motor cortex only for the relevant agonist muscle. PMID:26900871

  1. Efficacy and safety of the Chinese herbal medicine shuganjieyu with and without adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for geriatric depression: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    XIE, Minmin; JIANG, Wenhai; YANG, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmacological treatment of geriatric depression is often ineffective because patients cannot tolerate adequate doses of antidepressant medications. Aim Examine the efficacy and safety of shuganjieyu – the first Chinese herbal medicine approved for the treatment of depression by China’s drug regulatory agency -- with and without adjunctive treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of geriatric depression. Methods Sixty-five inpatients 60 or older who met ICD-10 criteria for depression were randomly assigned to an experimental group (shuganjieyu + rTMS) (n=36) or a control group (shuganjieyu + sham rTMS)(n=29). All participants received 4 capsules of shuganjieyu daily for 6 weeks. rTMS (or sham rTMS) was administered 20 minutes daily, five days a week for 4 weeks. Blinded raters used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale to assess clinical efficacy and safety at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after starting treatment. Over the six-week trial, there was only one dropout from the experimental group and two dropouts from the control group. Results None of the patients had serious side effects, but 40% in the experimental group and 50% in the control group experienced minor side effects that all resolved spontaneously. Both groups showed substantial stepwise improvement in depressive symptoms over the 6 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA found no differences between the two groups. After 6 weeks, 97% of the experimental group had experienced a 25% or greater drop in the level of depression, but only 20% had experience a 50% or greater drop in the level of depression; the corresponding values in the control group were 96% and 19%. There were some minor, non-significant differences in the onset of the treatment effect between the different types of depressive symptoms, but by the second week of treatment all five HAMD-17 subscale scores had improved significantly

  2. Translational Challenges With Tonic Immobility

    PubMed Central

    Zoellner, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing heavily from the nonhuman animal literature, understanding of tonic immobility (TI), a sustained and involuntary physical immobility, may yield clear clinical implications and strong future translational research. Clinically, for individuals who potentially have experienced TI, psychoeducation regarding its involuntary and defensive nature may help normalize trauma-related reactions. This must be balanced with the reactive nature of the information and the recognition of potentially more common survival strategies. The application of TI for research purposes may pose translational obstacles regarding construct definition and assessment. Issues include separating the construct from non-TI-related event or perpetrator characteristics, peritraumatic dissociation, and event severity. Furthermore, with its assessment, clinical status and time may inflate endorsement of the presence or severity of TI reactions. PMID:22180702

  3. Kai-Xin-San, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria, Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Neurotrophic Factors in Cultured Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Yan, Artemis Lu; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction. PMID:24222781

  4. The herbal medicine Rikkunshi-to stimulates and coordinates the gastric myoelectric activity in post-operative dyspeptic children after gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yagi, M; Homma, S; Kubota, M; Iinuma, Y; Kanada, S; Kinoshita, Y; Ohtaki, M; Yamazaki, S; Murata, H

    2004-01-01

    Rikkunshi-to (TJ-43), a gastroprotective herbal medicine, has been used for the symptomatic relief of adult patients with dyspepsia. However, its mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of TJ-43 on the gastric myoelectric activity in post-operative dyspeptic patients, whose symptoms persisted for over 1 year after gastrointestinal surgery. Electrogastrography (EGG) recordings were performed to calculate the biomechanical parameters on the dominant peak frequency (DPF). Eight pediatric patients with dyspeptic symptoms after gastrointestinal surgery were examined and six age-matched children without any dyspeptic symptoms were used as controls, and they were compared with nine age-matched children without any dyspeptic symptoms after gastrointestinal surgery as subcontrols. All patients exhibited symptomatic relief after the administration of TJ-43, and the mean symptom score decreased significantly after the treatment of TJ-43 over a 1-month period ( P<0.0001). The variability index (VI) and the percentage of normal waves (PNW) were calculated as irregularity parameters of DPF. The power ratio (PR) was calculated as a parameter of the gastric contractile activity. There were no significant differences in the VI and PNW between the controls and patients during the postprandial state after therapy, even though significant differences existed regarding those parameters between the controls and patients before the therapy. There were no significant differences in the DPF, VI, and PNW between the controls and subcontrols. Furthermore, PR exhibited a significant increase after therapy ( P<0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the PR between the controls and subcontrols ( P<0.05). Postprandial dip was observed in all control subjects, eight patients in the subcontrols, and two patients after administration of TJ-43, respectively. An abnormal gastric electrical activity therefore seems to be an important

  5. Tianma Modulates Blood Vessel Tonicity

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Manavalan, Arulmani; Mishra, Manisha; Sze, Siu Kwan; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Heese, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Tianma is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often used for the treatment of hypertension and heart diseases. To elucidate the function of tianma at the molecular level, we investigated the effect of tianma on vascular functions and aortic protein metabolism. We found that long-term treatment with tianma (~2.5g/kg/day for three months) in one-year-old rats could enhance acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation in endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings against both KCl (80 mM)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction. By using the iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification) technique, we confirmed from the functional data at the proteome level that tianma treatment down-regulated the expressions of contractile proteins (e.g. Acta2) and other related structural proteins (e.g. desmin), and up-regulated the expressions of extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins (e.g. Fbln5) and anti-thrombotic proteins (e.g. Anxa2) in aortic tissue. By inductive reasoning, tianma could perform its vasodilatory effect not only by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction, but also by enhancing blood vessel elasticity and stabilizing the arterial structure. Thus, tianma might become a novel therapeutic herbal medicine for cardiovascular diseases by regulating the aortic proteome metabolism. PMID:22787517

  6. The Immune Effects of an African Traditional Energy Tonic in In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    PubMed

    Ngcobo, Mlungisi; Gqaleni, Nceba; Naidoo, Vinny; Cele, Protus

    2017-01-01

    Most of the African traditional medicines (ATM) are formulated as energy tonics to boost and maintain immune defences. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immune effects of a traditional energy tonic using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), THP-1 monocytes, and bacteria infected rats. When tested in mitogen and peptidoglycan stimulated PBMCs, this energy tonic showed minimal cytotoxicity, while in acute toxicity studies in rats it did not exhibit any significant toxicity at doses up to 2000 mg/mL/kg. The energy tonic doses between 100 and 10 μg/mL were shown to stimulate secretion of cytokines and increase sIL-2R levels in PHA-treated PBMCs. Similar doses in PG-S. aureus-stimulated PBMCs significantly (p < 0.05) increased IL-1α, IL-2, and GM-CSF while causing a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in sIL-2R levels. NF-κβ transcriptional activity was increased in LPS stimulated THP-1 cells. In Sprague Dawley rats pretreated with the energy tonic and then infected with S. aureus, there were insignificant increases in cytokines and sIL-2R when compared to bacteria infected only and 5% Enrofloxacin treated rats. Posttreatment with energy tonic doses after infection with S. aureus did not enhance inflammatory cytokines significantly but changed the immune response profile and decreased corticosterone levels. This ATM showed promising immunomodulatory effects on isolated immune cells and modulated the immune response of rat models infected with S. aureus.

  7. The Immune Effects of an African Traditional Energy Tonic in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    PubMed Central

    Ngcobo, Mlungisi; Naidoo, Vinny; Cele, Protus

    2017-01-01

    Most of the African traditional medicines (ATM) are formulated as energy tonics to boost and maintain immune defences. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immune effects of a traditional energy tonic using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), THP-1 monocytes, and bacteria infected rats. When tested in mitogen and peptidoglycan stimulated PBMCs, this energy tonic showed minimal cytotoxicity, while in acute toxicity studies in rats it did not exhibit any significant toxicity at doses up to 2000 mg/mL/kg. The energy tonic doses between 100 and 10 μg/mL were shown to stimulate secretion of cytokines and increase sIL-2R levels in PHA-treated PBMCs. Similar doses in PG-S. aureus-stimulated PBMCs significantly (p < 0.05) increased IL-1α, IL-2, and GM-CSF while causing a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in sIL-2R levels. NF-κβ transcriptional activity was increased in LPS stimulated THP-1 cells. In Sprague Dawley rats pretreated with the energy tonic and then infected with S. aureus, there were insignificant increases in cytokines and sIL-2R when compared to bacteria infected only and 5% Enrofloxacin treated rats. Posttreatment with energy tonic doses after infection with S. aureus did not enhance inflammatory cytokines significantly but changed the immune response profile and decreased corticosterone levels. This ATM showed promising immunomodulatory effects on isolated immune cells and modulated the immune response of rat models infected with S. aureus.

  8. Cerebellar brain inhibition in the target and surround muscles during voluntary tonic activation.

    PubMed

    Panyakaew, Pattamon; Cho, Hyun Joo; Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Popa, Traian; Wu, Tianxia; Hallett, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Motor surround inhibition is the neural mechanism that selectively favours the contraction of target muscles and inhibits nearby muscles to prevent unwanted movements. This inhibition was previously reported at the onset of a movement, but not during a tonic contraction. Cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) is reduced in active muscles during tonic activation; however, it has not been studied in the surround muscles. CBI was evaluated in the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle as the target muscle, and the abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles as surround muscles, during rest and tonic activation of the FDI muscle in 21 subjects. Cerebellar stimulation was performed under magnetic resonance imaging-guided neuronavigation targeting lobule VIII of the cerebellar hemisphere. Stimulus intensities for cerebellar stimulation were based on the resting motor cortex threshold (RMT) and adjusted for the depth difference between the cerebellar and motor cortices. We used 90-120% of the adjusted RMT as the conditioning stimulus intensity during rest. The intensity that generated the best CBI at rest in the FDI muscle was selected for use during tonic activation. During selective tonic activation of the FDI muscle, CBI was significantly reduced only for the FDI muscle, and not for the surround muscles. Unconditioned motor evoked potential sizes were increased in all muscles during FDI muscle tonic activation as compared with rest, despite background electromyography activity increasing only for the FDI muscle. Our study suggests that the cerebellum may play an important role in selective tonic finger movement by reducing its inhibition in the motor cortex only for the relevant agonist muscle.

  9. Short-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in tonically-active and in tonically-inactive dopamine neurons: effects of haloperidol and protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Iuvone, P M

    1983-09-26

    Dopamine (DA)-containing neurons of retina were employed as an experimental model for studying the short-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in tonically-active and tonically-inactive neurons. These DA-containing neurons are trans-synaptically activated by light. Two mechanisms have been observed in this system for regulation of TH activity. A short-term activation of TH that is characterized by a decreased apparent Km for pteridine cofactors occurs in response to rapid increases of neuronal activity. A second mechanism occurs in response to prolonged, tonic changes of neuronal activity and is characterized by changes of Vmax. Both the Km changes and Vmax changes represent changes of specific activity of TH rather than enzyme induction. To determine the effects of short-term increases of neuronal activity on TH in tonically-active and tonically-inactive neurons, the effects of acute administration of haloperidol were examined in rats that were continuously light-exposed or light-deprived for 4 days. Haloperidol increased TH activity in both light-exposed and light-deprived retinas. The drug elicited the same percent stimulation in both experimental conditions. However, because the basal activity of TH was higher in the light-exposed than the light-deprived retinas, the absolute increase of TH specific activity was greater in the light-exposed samples. The effect of protein phosphorylation on TH activity in extracts of chronically light-exposed or light-deprived retinas was also examined to determine if the differences in the response to haloperidol might be due to a difference in the amount of TH available for short-term activation. Phosphorylation by endogenous cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (APK) or by purified catalytic subunit of APK resulted in larger increases of TH specific activity in extracts of light-exposed retinas than in those of light-deprived retinas. As was observed for haloperidol-induced activation, the percent stimulation elicited

  10. Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they…

  11. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dietary supplement that contains one or more herbs.Herbal health products and supplements are available in ... wort.Are herbal health products and supplements safe?Herbs aren't necessarily safer than the ingredients in ...

  12. Methamphetamine neurotoxicity decreases phasic, but not tonic, dopaminergic signaling in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Howard, Christopher D; Keefe, Kristen A; Garris, Paul A; Daberkow, David P

    2011-08-01

    Neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine (METH) are known to cause depletions in striatal dopamine (DA) tissue content. However, the effects of METH-induced insults on dopaminergic neurotransmission are not fully understood. Here, we employed fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at a carbon-fiber microelectrode in the anesthetized rat striatum to assess the effects of a neurotoxic regimen of METH on phasic and tonic modes of dopaminergic signaling and underlying mechanisms of DA release and uptake. Extracellular DA was electrically evoked by stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle mimicking tonic and phasic firing patterns for dopaminergic cells and was monitored simultaneously in both the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum. Kinetic analysis of evoked recordings determined parameters describing DA release and uptake. Striatal DA tissue content was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. METH-pretreatment (four doses of 7.5 or 10.0 mg/kg s.c.) induced DA depletions of ∼ 40% on average, which are reported in both striatal subregions. METH pre-treatment significantly decreased the amplitude of signals evoked by phasic, but not tonic, stimulation. Parameters for DA release and uptake were also similarly reduced by ∼ 40%, consistent with effects on evoked phasic-like responses and DA tissue content. Taken together, these results suggest that METH-pretreatment selectively diminishes phasic, but not tonic, dopaminergic signaling in the dorsal striatum.

  13. Classic yin and yang tonic formula for osteopenia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a growing worldwide problem, with the greatest burden resulting from fractures. Nevertheless, the majority of fractures in adults occur in those with "osteopenia" (bone mineral density (BMD) only moderately lower than young normal individuals). Since long-term drug therapy is an expensive option with uncertain consequences and side effects, natural herbal therapy offers an attractive alternative. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect on BMD and safety of the Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Formula for treatment of osteopenia and to investigate the mechanism by which this efficacy is achieved. Methods/design We propose a multicenter double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Formula for the treatment of osteopenia. Participants aged 55 to 75 with low bone mineral density (T-score between -1 and -2.5) and kidney deficiency in TCM will be included and randomly allocated into two groups: treatment group and control group. Participants in the treatment group will be treated with Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Granule, while the controlled group will receive placebo. Primary outcome measure will be BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes will include pain intensity measured with visual analogue scales, quality of life, serum markers of bone metabolism, indices of Neuro-endocrino-immune network and safety. Discussion If the Classic Yin and Yang Tonic Formula can increase bone mass without adverse effects, it may be a novel strategy for the treatment of osteoporosis. Furthermore, the mechanism of the Chinese medical formula for osteoporosis will be partially elucidated. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01271647. PMID:21806837

  14. Tonic inhibition of chemotaxis in human plasma

    PubMed Central

    Malawista, Stephen E.; de Boisfleury Chevance, Anne; van Damme, Jo; Serhan, Charles N.

    2008-01-01

    We found exaggerated chemotaxis in plasma treated with EDTA and thought that the EDTA might itself be inhibiting a tonic inhibitor(s) of chemotaxis. Our plasma fractionations suggested that evidence should be sought for a lipid moiety carrying this activity, and on spectrometry (LC-MS-MS together with GC-MS analyses), the biologically active but not the inactive fraction contained oleic and arachidonic acids. Because fatty acids are largely protein bound, we flooded plasma preparations with delipidated albumin, reasoning that it would bind enough fatty acids, including inhibitory ones, to counter their tonic inhibition. Indeed, we observed dramatic increases in chemotaxis. Hence, adding delipidated albumin to plasma has a similar effect to that of adding EDTA—amplification of the chemotactic response. Oleic acid in physiologic concentrations diminishes the magnifying effects of both EDTA and of delipidated albumin, and in fact diminishes the chemotactic response even without the presence of the amplifiers of chemotaxis. In contrast, arachidonic acid amplifies further the effect of EDTA but not of delipidated albumin, and this augmentation appears to be caused by an EDTA-dependent enrichment of the chemotactic gradient with leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We conclude that oleic acid, the blood levels of which vary among individuals, is at least one tonic inhibitor of chemotaxis in plasma. PMID:18997012

  15. Tonic pain evoked by pulsating heat: temporal summation mechanisms and perceptual qualities.

    PubMed

    Lautenbacher, S; Roscher, S; Strian, F

    1995-01-01

    The properties of a newly developed tonic heat pain model (THPM), which makes use of pulsating contact heat, were investigated in 18 young men. The most important feature of this model is that repetitive heat pulses with an intensity of 1 degree C above the individual pain threshold are employed. This approach was used to tailor the tonic pain stimulation to the individual pain sensitivity. In the first of two experiments, the effects of pulse frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 pulses per minute (ppm) on ratings of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness (visual analogue scales) were examined. At all frequencies, both ratings increased steadily over the 5-min test period. Frequencies of 15 ppm or more appeared to enhance pain intensity throughout the test period compared to the lower frequencies, but did not appear to alter pain unpleasantness. This suggests that only pain intensity is influenced by slow temporal summation and that a sort of frequency threshold exists for this kind of summation. In the second experiment, the THPM was compared to a well-established form of tonic pain stimulation, the cold-pressor test (CPT); visual analogue scales were again used, and in addition the McGill Pain Questionnaire was employed. The CPT appeared to produce stronger tonic pain than the THPM. However, as is typical with tonic pain, both tonic pain models induced relatively higher values on the affective pain dimension than on the sensory pain dimension. The time course of pain was dynamic in the CPT, with an increase followed by a plateau phase, at least in those subjects who could tolerate the CPT for more than 60 sec. In contrast, as in the first experiment, the pain ratings in the THPM were characterized by a slow and steady increase over time. Moreover, there was absolutely no indication of a dichotomy between "pain-sensitive" and "pain-tolerant" individuals in the THPM, although such a dichotomy was evident in the CPT. This implies that the distinction between pain

  16. Human cervical spinal cord circuitry activated by tonic input can generate rhythmic arm movements.

    PubMed

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Zhvansky, D S; Gurfinkel, V S; Ivanenko, Y

    2016-02-01

    The coordination between arms and legs during human locomotion shares many features with that in quadrupeds, yet there is limited evidence for the central pattern generator for the upper limbs in humans. Here we investigated whether different types of tonic stimulation, previously used for eliciting stepping-like leg movements, may evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The subject was lying on the side, the trunk was fixed, and all four limbs were suspended in a gravity neutral position, allowing unrestricted low-friction limb movements in the horizontal plane. The results showed that peripheral sensory stimulation (continuous muscle vibration) and central tonic activation (postcontraction state of neuronal networks following a long-lasting isometric voluntary effort, Kohnstamm phenomenon) could evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements in most subjects. In ∼40% of subjects, tonic stimulation elicited nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements together with rhythmic movements of suspended legs. The fact that not all participants exhibited nonvoluntary limb oscillations may reflect interindividual differences in responsiveness of spinal pattern generation circuitry to its activation. The occurrence and the characteristics of induced movements highlight the rhythmogenesis capacity of cervical neuronal circuitries, complementing the growing body of work on the quadrupedal nature of human gait.

  17. Optogenetic Visualization of Presynaptic Tonic Inhibition of Cerebellar Parallel Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Ken; Wen, Lei; Dunbar, Robert L.; Feng, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Tonic inhibition was imaged in cerebellar granule cells of transgenic mice expressing the optogenetic chloride indicator, Clomeleon. Blockade of GABAA receptors substantially reduced chloride concentration in granule cells due to block of tonic inhibition. This indicates that tonic inhibition is a significant contributor to the resting chloride concentration of these cells. Tonic inhibition was observed not only in granule cell bodies, but also in their axons, the parallel fibers (PFs). This presynaptic tonic inhibition could be observed in slices both at room and physiological temperatures, as well as in vivo, and has many of the same properties as tonic inhibition measured in granule cell bodies. GABA application revealed that PFs possess at least two types of GABAA receptor: one high-affinity receptor that is activated by ambient GABA and causes a chloride influx that mediates tonic inhibition, and a second with a low affinity for GABA that causes a chloride efflux that excites PFs. Presynaptic tonic inhibition regulates glutamate release from PFs because GABAA receptor blockade enhanced both the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs and the amplitude of evoked EPSCs at the PF-Purkinje cell synapse. We conclude that tonic inhibition of PFs could play an important role in regulating information flow though cerebellar synaptic circuits. Such cross talk between phasic and tonic signaling could be a general mechanism for fine tuning of synaptic circuits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This paper demonstrates that an unconventional form of signaling, known as tonic inhibition, is found in presynaptic terminals and affects conventional synaptic communication. Our results establish the basic characteristics and mechanisms of presynaptic tonic inhibition and show that it occurs in vivo as well as in isolated brain tissue. PMID:27225762

  18. Herbal Products and Your Anesthestic

    MedlinePlus

    Using Herbal Products Safely The dietary and herbal supplement industry is unregulated. Safety and effectiveness are largely unstudied. To use an herbal product as safely as possible: • C onsult your doctor first. • ...

  19. Is the yin-yang nature of Chinese herbal medicine equivalent to antioxidation-oxidation?

    PubMed

    Szeto, Yim-Tong; Benzie, Iris F F

    2006-12-06

    It has been suggested that yin-yang theory described in traditional Chinese medicine is somewhat equivalent to the modern theory of antioxidant-oxidant balance. Some yin-tonic Chinese herbal medicines possess antioxidant properties. In this context, the DNA protective effect of 12 yin-tonic and 13 yang-tonic herbs were tested using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Lymphocytes from three healthy subjects were pre-incubated with aqueous herb extract, and the comet assay was performed on treated, untreated, challenged and unchallenged cells in parallel, oxidant challenge being induced by 5 min exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Results using this ex vivo cellular assay showed protection by some herbs. Seven out of 12 yin-tonic Chinese herbs demonstrated decreased DNA damage after treatment while 10 out of 13 yang-tonic herbs showed protection. Among 25 herbs tested, rhizome of Ligusticum sinensis Oliv. and aerial part of Artemisia annua L. demonstrated greatest DNA protective effect. Results indicated that the yin nature of herbs may not be necessarily associated with superior antioxidative effect to yang-tonic herbs, at least in terms of DNA protection against oxidant challenge.

  20. Tonic blood pressure modulates the relationship between baroreceptor cardiac reflex sensitivity and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Del Paso, Gustavo A Reyes; González, M Isabel; Hernández, José Antonio; Duschek, Stefan; Gutiérrez, Nicolás

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the effects of tonic blood pressure on the association between baroreceptor cardiac reflex sensitivity and cognitive performance. Sixty female participants completed a mental arithmetic task. Baroreceptor reflex sensitivity was assessed using sequence analysis. An interaction was found, indicating that the relationship between baroreceptor reflex sensitivity and cognitive performance is modulated by blood pressure levels. Reflex sensitivity was inversely associated to performance indices in the subgroup of participants with systolic blood pressure above the mean, whereas the association was positive in participants with systolic values below the mean. These results are in accordance with the findings in the field of pain perception and suggest that tonic blood pressure modulates the inhibitory effects of baroreceptor stimulation on high central nervous functions.

  1. Role of support afferentation in control of the tonic muscle activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Sayenko, I. V.; Sayenko, D. G.; Miller, T. F.; Khusnutdinova, D. R.; Melnik, K. A.

    2007-02-01

    The paper summarizes the results of experimental studies advocating for the leading role of support afferentation in control of the functional organization of the tonic muscle system. It is shown that transition to supportless conditions is followed by a significant decline of transverse stiffness and maximal voluntary force of postural (extensor) muscles limiting their participation in locomotion and increasing involvement of phasic muscles. Mechanical stimulation of the support zones of the soles under the supportless conditions eliminates all the above-mentioned effects, including changes in transverse stiffness and maximal voluntary forces of postural muscles, and consequent loss of influence of postural muscles in the locomotor activity. It is suggested that support afferentation, facilitating (support is present) or suppressing (support is absent) the tonic motor units (MUs) activities, defines the coordination patterns of postural synergies, and ensures the optimal strategy of corrective postural responses.

  2. Tonic and phasic differential GABAergic inhibition of synaptic actions of joint afferents in the cat.

    PubMed

    Rudomin, P; Hernández, E; Lomelí, J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the functional organization of the spinal neuronal networks activated by myelinated afferent fibers in the posterior articular nerve (PAN) of the anesthetized cat. Particular attention was given to the tonic and phasic GABAa inhibitory modulation of these networks. Changes in the synaptic effectiveness of the joint afferents were inferred from changes in the intraspinal focal potentials produced by electrical stimulation of the PAN. We found that conditioning stimulation of cutaneous nerves (sural, superficial peroneus and saphenous) and of the nucleus raphe magnus often inhibited, in a differential manner, the early and late components of the intraspinal focal potentials produced by stimulation of low and high threshold myelinated PAN afferents, respectively. The degree of the inhibition depended on the strength of both the conditioning and test stimuli and on the segmental level of recording. Conditioning stimulation of group I muscle afferents was less effective, but marked depression of the early and late focal potentials was produced by stimuli exceeding 5 xT. The i.v. injection of 1-2.5 mg/kg of picrotoxin, a GABAa blocker, had relatively minor effects on the early components of the PAN focal potentials, but was able to induce a significant increase of the late components. It also reduced the inhibitory effects of cutaneous and joint nerve conditioning on PAN focal responses. Conditioning autogenetic stimulation with high-frequency trains depressed the PAN focal potentials. The late components of the PAN responses remained depressed several minutes after discontinuing the conditioning train, even after picrotoxin administration. The present observations indicate that the neuronal networks activated by the low threshold PAN afferents show a relatively small post-activation depression and appear to be subjected to a minor tonic inhibitory GABAa control. In contrast, the pathways activated by stimulation of high threshold

  3. Brain dysplasia evoked by gamma irradiation at different stages of prenatal development leads to different tonic and clonic seizure reactivity.

    PubMed

    Setkowicz, Zuzanna; Gzieło-Jurek, Kinga; Uram, Łukasz; Janicka, Dominika; Janeczko, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Rats with brain dysplasia evoked by interruption of different stages of prenatal neurogenesis show characteristic variations in susceptibility to seizures depending on the neurochemical specificity of pharmacological agents used to evoke seizures. To verify a discrepancy between the data obtained using different pharmacological models, neurochemically neutral electroshocks were applied here. To produce brain dysplasia of different degrees, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to a single 1.0Gy dose of gamma rays on gestation days 13, 15, 17 or 19. From the postnatal day 60, their male offspring (E13s, E15s, E17s and E19s, respectively) were subjected to 21 daily electrical stimulations to evoke seizures. Profiles of tonic and clonic reactivity to electrical stimulation significantly differed from those observed following pilocarpine or kainic acid administration. E17s showed minimal intensity of tonic but maximal of clonic responses. On the contrary, very high tonic and low clonic reactivity was observed in E13s and E15s. Periventricular nodular heterotopias (PNHs) were observed exclusively in E15s and E17s. Generally, the size of PNHs was correlated positively with susceptibility to tonic seizures but negatively with susceptibility to clonic seizures. Analogous correlations with the size of the neocortex were opposite. E13s and E19s had brains devoid PNHs but showed high tonic seizure susceptibility similar to that in E15s. It can therefore be concluded that PNHs modified the type of seizure reactivity from tonic to clonic, depending of their size, but the presence of PNHs was not necessary for the development of seizure susceptibility itself.

  4. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Gromek, Kamila; Drumond, Nélio; Simas, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The importance of herbal remedies in pharmacovigilance systems is becoming one of the primary tasks, due to the constantly ascending potential of herbal products and herbal medicines worldwide. Nowadays, the drug development is focused on finding new active compounds or combinations, but costs are simultaneously growing, which makes herbal medicines an attractive, harmless and cheaper alternative to synthetic drugs.Like all drugs, herbal are not free of risk and many studies suggest for potential adverse reactions and interactions. Available statistics show that some herbal products, used in traditional medication for generations, may possess carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, cardiotoxic and other severe actions. Evaluation of the safety should include at least in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for >3 months or intermittently for >6 months), reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in some cases and examination of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes. Drug safety of herbal medicines should be developed, focusing on specific groups of patients.

  5. Herbal and food folk medicines of the Russlanddeutschen living in Künzelsau/Taläcker, South-Western Germany.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Andrea; Gray, Charlotte

    2008-07-01

    An urban ethnobotanical study was carried out among a community of Russlanddeutschen (Germans from Russia) who in recent years have moved from Russia and Central Asia to Künzelsau, a small town located in Württemberg, in South-Western Germany. Thirty-six in-depth interviews were conducted with the women in this community, and 62 homemade medicinal preparations derived from 46 botanical species were recorded. As well as common medicinal plant uses that are well known in modern evidence-based German and Western European phytotherapy, we were able to record traces of the community's Russian and Central Asian (Turkic) heritage through the very popular use of sorrel as a depurative or for preventing and treating colds and flu; the use of dill as a digestive; watermelon as a diuretic; birch to relieve rheumatism and arthritis; buckwheat as a tonic; rye-based fermented beverages as a stimulant and as a depurative, diverse berries to prevent colds and flu; coriander as a digestive, and other medicinal foods. Traces of archaic German preparations were also recorded, which were probably Swabian in origin. Nearly half of the overall quoted items represented folk functional foods. The researchers believe that the findings in this study could stimulate public health policies aimed at improving both the phyto-pharmacovigilance of lesser-known herbal drugs, and the health and well-being of migrants by promoting a better understanding of emic health beliefs and newcomers' healing strategies.

  6. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "sho-seiryu-to"--stimulation of mucosal immune system and effect on allergic pulmonary inflammation model mice.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Yamada, H

    1998-05-01

    When BALB/c mice were treated with a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine "Sho-seiryu-to (SST)" (1 g/kg, 10 times) orally from 7 days before to 5 days after the infection and infected with mouse-adapted influenza virus A/PR/8/34 by nasal-site restricted infection, SST caused increment of the influenza virus hemagglutinin-specific IgA antibody secreting cells in nasal lymphocyte but not in Peyer's patch lymphocyte at 6 days after infection in comparison with water-treated mice. Oral administration of SST also augmented IL-2 receptor beta chain+ (activated) T-cell in Peyer's patch lymphocyte, but not in the nasal lymphocyte. We previously reported that SST showed potent anti-influenza virus activity through augmentation of the antiviral IgA antibody titer in the nasal and broncho-alveolar cavities of the mice (T. Nagai and H. Yamada, 1994, Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 16, 605-613). These results suggest that oral administration of SST shows anti-influenza virus activity in the nasal cavity by activation of T-cell in Peyer's patch lymphocyte and stimulation of production of anti-influenza virus IgA antibody in nasal lymphocyte. When ovalbumin-sensitized allergic pulmonary inflammation model mice were administered orally with SST (1 g/kg) from 8 days before (11 times) or from 2 h after (4 times) to 4 days after the infection and infected with mouse-adapted influenza virus A/PR/8/34, replications of the virus in the both nasal and broncho-alveolar cavities or only nasal cavity were significantly inhibited at 5 days after infection in comparison with water-treated control by augmenting antiviral IgA antibody, respectively. These results suggest that SST is useful for both prophylaxis and treatment of influenza virus infection on patients with allergic pulmonary inflammation, such as bronchial asthma.

  7. Marketing herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, M

    1999-01-01

    HIV-positive support groups, together with hospital pharmacists in Thailand are fighting the high cost and lack of access to pharmaceuticals by producing and distributing herbal medicines. In Theung district, Chiang Rai province, members of the local support group for people with HIV produce their own, low-cost, herbal medicines. Although the herbal medicines they produce do not provide a cure for HIV/AIDS, they do offer relief for some of the symptoms of opportunistic infections. The herbs are prepared by the group members under the supervision of the pharmacy department at the district hospital. Local people judge their effectiveness by hearing testimonials from people who have witnessed improvement in symptoms. In response to the popularity and effectiveness of herbal medicines, the Ministry of Public Health has approved plans to sell products derived from local herbs in the pharmacies of government hospitals.

  8. Frequency evolution during tonic-clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, R Quian; Garcia, H; Rabinowicz, A

    2002-09-01

    By using the Short Time Fourier Transform, we analyzed the EEG frequency evolution during tonic-clonic seizures on 18 scalp recordings corresponding to 7 patients admitted for Video-EEG monitoring. This information was correlated with clinical findings observed in the video recordings. From the time-frequency plots, we recognized patterns related with brain activity even when embedded in a background of muscle artifacts. In 13/18 seizures we found a clear frequency dynamics characterized by an activity originally localized at about 8 Hz, later slowing down to about 1.5 Hz. In the remaining cases muscle artifacts hinder the disclosure of a clear frequency evolution. The clonic phases started when the main frequency slowed down to about 3 Hz. We conclude that the Short Time Fourier Transform is very useful for a quantitative analysis of epileptic seizures, especially when muscle artifacts contaminate the recordings. We further conclude that the clonic phase starts as a response to brain activity that can be only established when brain oscillations are slow enough to be followed by the muscles.

  9. Reflex and cerebellar influences on α and on `rhythmic' and `tonic' γ activity in the intercostal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Corda, M.; von Euler, C.; Lennerstrand, G.

    1966-01-01

    1. Efferent intercostal α and γ activity and afferent intercostal muscle spindle activity were studied in decerebrate cats in response to stimulation of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum and to postural and other reflexes. 2. Low threshold intercostal responses were elicited from lobuli IV and V of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum. 3. The existence of two functionally different types of intercostal γ neurones has been confirmed. These are the `rhythmic' or `specifically respiratory' γ neurones, and the `tonic' γ neurones. 4. In response to cerebellar stimulation, facilitatory, inhibitory and diphasic tetanic and post-tetanic effects were obtained from α and the two types of γ fibres in both external and internal intercostal nerve branches. 5. Generally both inspiratory and expiratory α and γ activity was facilitated in response to tetanic stimulation at contralateral stimulus sites, and inhibited in response to stimulation of ipsilateral sites. 6. `Rhythmic' γ activity appeared to be rather closely linked to the respiratory α activity but the balance between `rhythmic' γ and α was often changed in response to cerebellar stimulation, as indicated by the responses of primary muscle spindle afferents. 7. The `tonic' γ neurones were as a rule more responsive to cerebellar stimulation than were the α and `rhythmic' γ neurones. Long-lasting post-tetanic effects were much more prominent in the `tonic' γ fibres than in the α or `rhythmic' γ fibres. 8. `Rhythmic' γ activity was abolished after cervical transections of the cord. `Tonic' γ activity remained in the spinal preparations although usually at a different discharge rate. 9. `Tonic' γ neurones were more responsive than the `rhythmic' γ neurones to the proprioceptive γ reflex elicited by passive movements of the chest wall as well as to other spinal and supraspinal reflexes. 10. Both `dynamic' and `static' γ fibres seem to be represented in the group of `tonic' intercostal γ neurones. 11

  10. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: a review.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-12-07

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects.

  11. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  12. PKC delta-isoform translocation and enhancement of tonic contractions of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Poole, Daniel P; Furness, John B

    2007-03-01

    PKC is involved in mediating the tonic component of gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction in response to stimulation by agonists for G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we present pharmacological and immunohistochemical evidence indicating that a member of the novel PKC isoforms, PKC-delta, is involved in maintaining muscarinic receptor-coupled tonic contractions of the guinea pig ileum. The tonic component of carbachol-evoked contractions was enhanced by an activator of conventional and novel PKCs, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 200 nM or 1 microM), and by an activator of novel PKCs, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate (IDB; 100 or 500 nM). Enhancement was unaffected by concentrations of bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM-I; 22 nM) that block conventional PKCs or by a PKC-epsilon-specific inhibitor peptide but was attenuated by higher doses of BIM-I (2.2 microM). Relevant proteins were localized at a cellular and subcellular level using confocal analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of the ileum showed that PKC-delta was exclusively expressed in smooth muscles distributed throughout the layers of the gut wall. PKC-epsilon immunoreactivity was prominent in enteric neurons but was largely absent from smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. Treatment with PDBu, IDB, or carbachol resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent translocation of PKC-delta from the cytoplasm to filamentous structures within smooth muscle cells. These were parallel to, but distinct from, actin filaments. The translocation of PKC-delta in response to carbachol was significantly reduced by scopolamine or calphostin C. The present study indicates that the tonic carbachol-induced contraction of the guinea pig ileum is mediated through a novel PKC, probably PKC-delta.

  13. Context-Dependent Modulation of GABAAR-Mediated Tonic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bijal; Bright, Damian P.; Mortensen, Martin; Frølund, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Tonic GABA currents mediated by high-affinity extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, are increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell and neuronal network excitability. Dysfunctional GABAA receptor signaling that results in modified tonic GABA currents is associated with a number of neurological disorders. Consequently, developing compounds to selectively modulate the activity of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors underlying tonic inhibition is likely to prove therapeutically useful. Here, we examine the GABAA receptor subtype selectivity of the weak partial agonist, 5-(4-piperidyl)isoxazol-3-ol (4-PIOL), as a potential mechanism for modulating extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents. By using recombinant GABAA receptors expressed in HEK293 cells, and native GABAA receptors of cerebellar granule cells, hippocampal neurons, and thalamic relay neurons, 4-PIOL evidently displayed differential agonist and antagonist-type profiles, depending on the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor isoforms targeted. For neurons, this resulted in differential modulation of GABA tonic currents, depending on the cell type studied, their respective GABAA receptor subunit compositions, and critically, on the ambient GABA levels. Unexpectedly, 4-PIOL revealed a significant population of relatively low-affinity γ2 subunit-containing GABAA receptors in the thalamus, which can contribute to tonic inhibition under specific conditions when GABA levels are raised. Together, these data indicate that partial agonists, such as 4-PIOL, may be useful for modulating GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents, but the direction and extent of this modulation is strongly dependent on relative expression levels of different extrasynaptic GABAA receptor subtypes, and on the ambient GABA levels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A background level of inhibition (tonic) is important in the brain for controlling neuronal excitability. Increased levels of tonic inhibition are associated with some neurological disorders

  14. Corticospinal excitability of the biceps brachii is higher during arm cycling than an intensity-matched tonic contraction.

    PubMed

    Forman, Davis; Raj, Amita; Button, Duane C; Power, Kevin E

    2014-09-01

    Human studies have not assessed corticospinal excitability of an upper-limb prime mover during arm cycling. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether supraspinal and/or spinal motoneuron excitability of the biceps brachii was different between arm cycling and an intensity-matched tonic contraction. We hypothesized that spinal motoneuron excitability would be higher during arm cycling than an intensity-matched tonic contraction. Supraspinal and spinal motoneuron excitability were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex and transmastoid electrical stimulation (TMES) of the corticospinal tract, respectively. TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and TMES-induced cervicomedullary-evoked potentials (CMEPs) were assessed at three separate positions (3, 6, and 12 o'clock relative to a clock face) during arm cycling and an intensity-matched tonic contraction. MEP amplitudes were 7.2 and 8.8% maximum amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (Mmax) larger during arm cycling compared with a tonic contraction at the 3 (P < 0.001) and 6 o'clock (P < 0.001) positions, respectively. There was no difference between tasks during elbow extension (12 o'clock). CMEP amplitudes were 5.2% Mmax larger during arm cycling compared with a tonic contraction at the 3 o'clock position (P < 0.001) with no differences seen at midflexion (6 o'clock) or extension (12 o'clock). The data indicate an increase in the excitability of corticospinal neurons, which ultimately project to biceps brachii during the elbow flexion portion of arm cycling, and increased spinal motoneuron excitability at the onset of elbow flexion during arm cycling. We conclude that supraspinal and spinal motoneuron excitability are phase- and task-dependent.

  15. The tonic/phasic model of dopamine system regulation and its implications for understanding alcohol and psychostimulant craving.

    PubMed

    Grace, A A

    2000-08-01

    All drugs of abuse have been shown to act either directly or indirectly by increasing dopamine neurotransmission within the limbic system. Thus, alcohol has been shown to increase dopamine transmission primarily by activating dopamine cell spike activity, whereas psychostimulants increase dopamine transmission by inhibiting the removal of dopamine from the synaptic space after its release. The spike-dependent release of dopamine that is modulated by drugs of abuse to lead to their rewarding actions has been termed the phasic dopamine response. In contrast, with repeated drug administration, dopamine will also accumulate in the extracellular space of the nucleus accumbens in concentrations too low to stimulate postsynaptic receptors, but of sufficient magnitude to activate dopamine release-inhibiting autoreceptors. In addition, the level of extracellular dopamine is proposed to be under the regulatory influence of cortico-accumbens afferents. This steady-state level of extrasynaptic dopamine has been termed the tonic dopamine response. In this paper it is proposed that several of the aspects of drug addiction, withdrawal and craving associated with the continued use of these drugs can be explained on the basis of their effects on tonic versus phasic dopamine system function. Thus, the increase in tonic dopamine levels that occurs with repeated drug administration would serve to oppose phasic dopamine release via stimulation of dopamine terminal autoreceptors, causing the subject to increase drug administration to restore the phasic response. Moreover, after withdrawal from the drugs, exposure to priming doses of drug or to drug-related stimuli are proposed to increase tonic dopamine levels, again triggering drug-seeking behavior in order to restore balance between the tonic and phasic dopamine systems. Therefore, one consequence of continued drug use is that these parameters of dopamine system function that normally serve to keep the system stable will enter into a

  16. A guide to herbal remedies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and quality of their products. DO NOT give herbal supplements to children or use them if you are ... sites can help you learn more about specific herbal supplements: NIH MedlinePlus database of herbs and supplements -- www. ...

  17. Itches-stimulating compounds from Colocasia esculenta (taro): bioactive-guided screening and LC-MS/MS identification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Gao; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Zong-Xiang; Yang, Yan

    2015-10-15

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schoot (taro) is one of the most common crops in the world. Its rhizome was a tonic medicine and accustomed to treat some gastrointestinal disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. Today, the taro was further developed as anticancer prescription in herbal therapy. However, the mucilage of the fresh taro has irritation, and causes itchy feeling. The components in the mucilage were not evident up to now. Two active compounds, uracil and glycol-protein taro lectin (Accession number: A5HMM7), were purified and identified from the fresh taro. The glycol-protein taro lectin showed nerve stimulation activity on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from GCaMP transgenic mice at the concentration of 1mg/mL.

  18. [Arginine, octopine and alanine during the tonic and phasic contraction of the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis].

    PubMed

    Devroede, J; Baguet, F

    1982-01-01

    In this work, we compare the energetic cost of tonic and phasic contractions of the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis. The muscle is stimulated by six different stimulation methods and frozen when it reaches its maximal isometric response. Tonic and phasic tension developments are of similar amplitude and cause a hydrolysis of the same amount of phosphoarginine corresponding to 0.64 mumole per g of muscle and per kg/cm2 of tension (Fig. 1). As compared with the results reported in the literature the values are in good agreement with the biochemical and respiratory measurements, but they are 10 times higher than those measured by the heat production. The total arginine, octopine and alanine contents of those muscles frozen at the peak of contraction are not significantly different from those measured on the resting muscle. On the other hand, these metabolites may show seasonal variations.

  19. Herbal medicine in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pinn, Graham; Pallett, Linda

    2002-05-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the frequency of alternative medical usage in an antenatal population. A survey of alternative medicine usage was carried out among 305 consecutive patients over 2 months at their registration in mid-pregnancy at an Australian Antenatal Clinic. The study showed that something like 40% of patients used alternative medical therapy, including 12% herbal therapy. No specific study of pregnancy outcome was carried out, but it is of concern that some herbs taken had the potential to adversely affect pregnancy outcome. The herbal therapies commonly used in pregnancy are reviewed with their potential complications; examples of toxicity are also discussed. It is important to obtain a herbal medicine history at any time but particularly in pregnancy. Herbs may have unrecognised effects on pregnancy or labour, have interactions with prescribed medications and have potentially serious complications for the foetus.

  20. Phototoxicity of herbal plants and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Wang, Shuguang; Yu, Hongtao; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Plants are used by humans in daily life in many different ways, including as food, herbal medicines, and cosmetics. Unfortunately, many natural plants and their chemical constituents are photocytotoxic and photogenotoxic, and these phototoxic phytochemicals are widely present in many different plant families. To date, information concerning the phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity of many plants and their chemical constituents is limited. In this review, we discuss phototoxic plants and their major phototoxic constituents; routes of human exposure; phototoxicity of these plants and their constituents; general mechanisms of phototoxicity of plants and phototoxic components; and several representative phototoxic plants and their photoactive chemical constituents.

  1. Cytoplasmic free calcium, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and force in phasic and tonic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The time course of [Ca2+]i, tension, and myosin light chain phosphorylation were determined during prolonged depolarization with high K+ in intact tonic (rabbit pulmonary artery) and phasic (longitudinal layer of guinea pig ileum) smooth muscles. [Ca2+]i was monitored with the 340 nm/380 nm signal ratio of the fluorescent indicator fura-2. The fluorescence ratio had a similar time course in both muscle types during depolarization with 109 mM [K+]o; after a transient peak, there was a decline to 70% of its peak value in tonic smooth muscle, and to 60% in phasic smooth muscle. Tension, however, continued to increase in the pulmonary artery, while in the ileum it declined in parallel with the [Ca2+]i. On changing [K+]o from 109 to 20 mM, tension and [Ca2+]i either remained unchanged or declined in parallel in the pulmonary artery. Phosphorylation of the 20-kD myosin light chain, measured during stimulation of muscle strips with 109 mM [K+]o in another set of experiments, increased from 3% to a peak of 50% in the intact pulmonary artery, and then declined to a steady state value of 23%. In the intact ileum, a very rapid, early transient phosphorylation (up to 50%) at 2-3 s was seen. This transient declined by 30 s to a value that was close to the resting level (7%), while tension remained at 55% of its peak force. A quick release during maintained stimulation induced no detectable change in the [Ca2+]i in either type of smooth muscle. We discuss the possibility that the slowly rising tonic tension in pulmonary artery could be due to cooperativity between phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated crossbridges. PMID:3216188

  2. GABA-independent GABAA Receptor Openings Maintain Tonic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Herd, Murray B.; Kersanté, Flavie; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Semyanov, Alexey; Belelli, Delia; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) produces two forms of inhibition: ‘phasic’ inhibition generated by the rapid, transient activation of synaptic GABAARs by presynaptic GABA release, and tonic inhibition generated by the persistent activation of peri- or extrasynaptic GABAARs which can detect extracellular GABA. Such tonic GABAAR-mediated currents are particularly evident in dentate granule cells in which they play a major role in regulating cell excitability. Here we show that in rat dentate granule cells in ex-vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings. This tonic GABAAR conductance is resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531, which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker picrotoxin. When slices are perfused with 200 nM GABA, a concentration that is comparable to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations but is twice that measured by us in the hippocampus in vivo using zero-net-flux microdialysis, negligible GABA is detected by dentate granule cells. Spontaneously opening GABAARs, therefore, maintain dentate granule cell tonic currents in the face of low extracellular GABA concentrations. PMID:23447601

  3. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control evoked by tonic craniofacial pain in humans.

    PubMed

    Sowman, P F; Wang, K; Svensson, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2011-02-01

    Tonic pain in one body segment can inhibit the perception of pain in another body segment. This phenomenon is mediated by diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), and its efficacy in craniofacial regions is investigated in this study. A compressive device that evoked a tonic, moderate/severe, headache-like, conditioning pain (∼8/10 on a visual analogue scale) was applied for 15min. Eleven males participated in the study. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and pressure pain tolerance (PPTol) at multiple heterosegmental body sites (right masseter, splenius capitis, second intermediate phalange, brachioradialis and tibialis anterior) were measured before, during and at multiple time points (5, 20 and 35min) after the termination of the conditioning pain. PPTs and PPTols were compared within participants across two experimental sessions; one that included painful conditioning stimulation, and a separate control session on a different day. Painful conditioning increased PPT significantly during pain over the masseter (p<0.05) and over the tibialis anterior (p<0.01). PPTol was unchanged. In the period after the painful conditioning stimulation PPT was depressed compared to control. This study shows that pain evoked from the craniofacial region evokes DNIC-like mechanisms on segmental as well as heterosegmental sites.

  4. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  5. Herbal reference standards.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  6. Critical Thinking as Miracle Tonic: Selling Snake Oil in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.

    This paper proposes that the current interest in critical thinking is based on important conceptual, epistemological, and procedural confusions. It suggests that the attempt to identify a successful critical thinking construct mirrors the search for miracle tonics often peddled by snake oil salesmen as a medicinal cure-all. It goes to suggest that…

  7. Relative potency of tetrahydrocannabinol derivatives on tonic immobility in chickens.

    PubMed

    Maser, J D; Gallup, G G; Thorn, W R; Edson, P H

    1975-01-01

    Chickens were given varying dosages of delta 3-, delta 8-, and delta 9-THC and tested for duration of tonic immobility (TI). Although all derivatives had a profound facilitation effect, delta 9-THC was the most potent. These results are unusual in that TI is a well documented fear-potentiated reaction and THC generally has tranquilization-like effects.

  8. How perceived egocentric distance varies with changes in tonic vergence.

    PubMed

    Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Neveu, Pascaline; Sillan, Olivier; Plantier, Justin; Roumes, Corinne; Prablanc, Claude

    2012-06-01

    According to the eye muscle potentiation (EMP) hypothesis, sustained vergence leads to changes in egocentric perceived distance. This perceptual effect has been attributed to a change in the resting or tonic state of vergence. The goal of the present study was to test the EMP hypothesis by quantifying the relationship between prism-induced changes in tonic vergence and corresponding changes in perceived distance and by measuring the dynamics of changes in perceived distance. During a 10-min exposure to 5-diopter base-out prisms that increased the vergence demand, thirteen right-handed subjects pointed to visual targets located within reaching space using their left hand, without visual feedback. Pre- and post-exposure tests assessed tonic vergence through phoria measurements and egocentric distance estimate through pointing to visual targets with each hand successively, without visual feedback. Similar distance aftereffects were observed for both hands, although only the left hand was used during exposure, indicating that these aftereffects are mediated by visual processes rather than by visuomotor interactions. The distance aftereffects were significantly correlated with prism-induced changes in phoria, demonstrating a relationship between perceived distance and the level of tonic vergence. Changes in perceived distance increased monotonically across trials during prism exposure and remained stable during the post-test, indicating a long time constant for these perceptual effects, consistent with current models of the vergence control system. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that vergence plays a role in reduced-cue distance perception. They further illustrate that variations in tonic vergence influence perceived distance by altering the sensed vergence effort.

  9. Herbal hepatotoxicity and WHO global introspection method.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare but highly disputed disease because numerous confounding variables may complicate accurate causality assessment. Case evaluation is even more difficult when the WHO global introspection method (WHO method) is applied as diagnostic algorithm. This method lacks liver specificity, hepatotoxicity validation, and quantitative items, basic qualifications required for a sound evaluation of hepatotoxicity cases. Consequently, there are no data available for reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Its scope is also limited by the fact that it cannot discriminate between a positive and a negative causality attribution, thereby stimulating case overdiagnosing and overreporting. The WHO method ignores uncertainties regarding daily dose, temporal association, start, duration, and end of herbal use, time to onset of the adverse reaction, and course of liver values after herb discontinuation. Insufficiently considered or ignored are comedications, preexisting liver diseases, alternative explanations upon clinical assessment, and exclusion of infections by hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). We clearly prefer as alternative the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) which is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, causality of herbal hepatotoxicity is best assessed by the liver specific CIOMS scale validated for hepatotoxicity rather than the obsolete WHO method that is liver unspecific and not validated for hepatotoxicity. CIOMS based assessments will ensure the correct diagnosis and exclude alternative diagnosis that may require other specific therapies.

  10. Timing of cortical excitability changes during the reaction time of movements superimposed on tonic motor activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Cyril; Lavoie, Brigitte A; Barbeau, Hugues; Capaday, Charles

    2004-12-01

    Seated subjects were instructed to react to an auditory cue by simultaneously contracting the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of each ankle isometrically. Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation of the leg area of the motor cortex (MCx) was used to determine the time course of changes in motor-evoked potential amplitude (MEP) during the reaction time (RT). In one condition the voluntary contraction was superimposed on tonic EMG activity maintained at 10% of maximal voluntary contraction. In the other condition the voluntary contraction was made starting from rest. MEPs in the TA contralateral to the stimulation coil were evoked at various times during the RT in each condition. These were compared to the control MEPs evoked during tonic voluntary activity or with the subject at rest. The RT was measured trial by trial from the EMG activity of the TA ipsilateral to the magnetic stimulus, taking into account the nearly constant time difference between the two sides. The MEPs became far greater than control MEPs during the RT (mean = 332%, SD = 44 %, of control MEPs, P < 0.001) without any measurable change in the background level of EMG activity. The onset of this facilitation occurred on average 12.80 ms (SD = 7.55 ms) before the RT. There was no difference in the onset of facilitation between the two conditions. Because MEPs were facilitated without a change in the background EMG activity, it is concluded that this facilitation is specifically due to an increase of MCx excitability just before voluntary muscle activation. This conclusion is further reinforced by the observation that MEPs evoked by near-threshold anodal stimuli to the MCx were not facilitated during the RT, in contrast to those evoked by near-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation. However, several observations in the present and previous studies indicate that MEP amplitude may be more sensitive to alpha-motoneuron activity than to motor cortical neuron activity, an idea that has important

  11. Analgesia induced by morphine microinjected into the nucleus raphe magnus: effects on tonic pain.

    PubMed

    Dualé, Christian; Sierralta, Fernando; Dallel, Radhouane

    2007-07-01

    One of the possible sites of action of the analgesic effect of morphine is the Nucleus Raphe Magnus, as morphine injected into this structure induces analgesia in transient pain models. In order to test if morphine in the Nucleus Raphe Magnus is also analgesic in a tonic pain model, 5 microg of morphine or saline (control) were microinjected into the Nucleus Raphe Magnus of the rat. Analgesic effects were assessed following nociceptive stimulation using transient heating of the tail (phasic pain) and subcutaneous orofacial injection of 1.5 % formalin (tonic pain). While morphine was strongly analgesic for the tail-flick response (p <0.0001 compared to control), analgesia on the response to formalin was also observed for both early (p = 0.007) and late responses (p = 0.02). However, the response to formalin was not completely blunted. These results suggest that the Nucleus Raphe Magnus is not the exclusive site of action of morphine-induced analgesia in clinical conditions.

  12. [Herbals and herbal nutritional products hepatotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Hernández-Rincón, Ileana; Barboza-Nobrega, María De Freitas

    2015-09-01

    Herbs and other botanicals have been used in different cultures with medicinal and dietary purposes for centuries. Contrary to the belief of being natural and safe products, their hepatotoxic potential is recognized in several studies worldwide, and represent a health problem that deserves greater attention. The reported prevalence of hepatotoxicity associated with botanicals is variable and depends on various factors such as population, period and design of the study. There have been reports of a total of 60 products with herbal medicinal and dietary purposes, which may cause liver damage; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Their clinical and histological features, not unlike liver injury associated with drugs in most patients, have a pattern of hepatocellular injury. Diagnosis is by exclusion, and represents a clinical challenge. It is essential the clinical suspicion and the differential diagnosis with other acute and chronic conditions. Hence, future researches are aimed at improving existing diagnostic methods and introducing new toxicological, genetic and immunological technologies. Treatment is complex and presents a challenge for the specialist, as there are no antidotes. Management based on the discontinued use of the product and in the symptomatic treatment, decreases the progression to an acute fulminant hepatic failure.

  13. Adenosine A1 Receptor Suppresses Tonic GABAA Receptor Currents in Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells and in a Defined Subpopulation of Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Rombo, Diogo M; Dias, Raquel B; Duarte, Sofia T; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Lamsa, Karri P; Sebastião, Ana M

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous neuromodulator that decreases excitability of hippocampal circuits activating membrane-bound metabotropic A1 receptor (A1R). The presynaptic inhibitory action of adenosine A1R in glutamatergic synapses is well documented, but its influence on inhibitory GABAergic transmission is poorly known. We report that GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated tonic, but not phasic, transmission is suppressed by A1R in hippocampal neurons. Adenosine A1R activation strongly inhibits GABAAR agonist (muscimol)-evoked currents in Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) pyramidal neurons and in a specific subpopulation of interneurons expressing axonal cannabinoid receptor type 1. In addition, A1R suppresses tonic GABAAR currents measured in the presence of elevated ambient GABA as well as in naïve slices. The inhibition of GABAergic currents involves both protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways and decreases GABAAR δ-subunit expression. On the contrary, no A1R-mediated modulation was detected in phasic inhibitory postsynaptic currents evoked either by afferent electrical stimulation or by spontaneous quantal release. The results show that A1R modulates extrasynaptic rather than synaptic GABAAR-mediated signaling, and that this modulation selectively occurs in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and in a specific subpopulation of inhibitory interneurons. We conclude that modulation of tonic GABAAR signaling by adenosine A1R in specific neuron types may regulate neuronal gain and excitability in the hippocampus.

  14. Tonic and phasic tetrodotoxin block of sodium channels with point mutations in the outer pore region.

    PubMed Central

    Boccaccio, A; Moran, O; Imoto, K; Conti, F

    1999-01-01

    Tonic and use-dependent block by tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been studied in cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes expressing mutants W386Y, E945Q, D1426K, and D1717Q, of the outer-pore region of the rat brain IIA alpha-subunit of sodium channels. The various phenotypes are tonically half-blocked at TTX concentrations, IC50(t), that span a range of more than three orders of magnitude, from 4 nM in mutant D1426K to 11 microM in mutant D1717Q. When stimulated with repetitive depolarizing pulses at saturating frequencies, all channels showed a monoexponential increase in their TTX-binding affinity with time constants that span an equally wide range of values ([TTX] approximately IC50(t), from approximately 60 s for D1426K to approximately 30 ms for D1717Q) and are in most phenotypes roughly inversely proportional to IC50(t). In contrast, all phenotypes show the same approximately threefold increase in their TTX affinity under stimulation. The invariance of the free-energy difference between tonic and phasic configurations of the toxin-receptor complex, together with the extreme variability of phasic block kinetics, is fully consistent with the trapped-ion mechanism of use dependence suggested by and developed by. Using this model, we estimated for each phenotype both the second-order association rate constant, kon, and the first-order dissociation rate constant, koff, for TTX binding. Except for mutant E945Q, all phenotypes have roughly the same value of kon approximately 2 microM-1 s-1 and owe their large differences in IC50(t) to different koff values. However, a 60-fold reduction in kon is the main determinant of the low TTX sensitivity of mutant E945Q. This suggests that the carboxyl group of E945 occupies a much more external position in the pore vestibule than that of the homologous residue D1717. PMID:10388752

  15. Tonic and Phasic Receptor Neurons in the Vertebrate Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Rodolfo; Sanhueza, Magdalena; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Bacigalupo, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to odorants with characteristic patterns of action potentials that are relevant for odor coding. Prolonged odorant exposures revealed three populations of dissociated toad ORNs, which were mimicked by depolarizing currents: tonic (TN, displaying sustained firing, 49% of 102 cells), phasic (PN, exhibiting brief action potential trains, 36%) and intermediate neurons (IN, generating trains longer than PN, 15%). We studied the biophysical properties underlying the differences between TNs and PNs, the most extreme cases among ORNs. TNs and PNs possessed similar membrane capacitances (∼4 pF), but they differed in resting potential (−82 versus −64 mV), input resistance (4.2 versus 2.9 GΩ) and unspecific current, Iu (TNs: 0 < Iu ≤ 1 pA/pF; and PNs: Iu > 1 pA/pF). Firing behavior did not correlate with differences in voltage-gated conductances. We developed a mathematical model that accurately simulates tonic and phasic patterns. Whole cell recordings from rat ORNs in fragments (∼4 mm2) of olfactory epithelium showed that such a tissue normally contains tonic and phasic receptor neurons, suggesting that this feature is common across a wide range of vertebrates. Our findings show that the individual passive electrical properties can govern the firing patterns of ORNs. PMID:12770919

  16. Methods for recording and measuring tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bright, Damian P; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-12-05

    Tonic inhibitory conductances mediated by GABAA receptors have now been identified and characterized in many different brain regions. Most experimental studies of tonic GABAergic inhibition have been carried out using acute brain slice preparations but tonic currents have been recorded under a variety of different conditions. This diversity of recording conditions is likely to impact upon many of the factors responsible for controlling tonic inhibition and can make comparison between different studies difficult. In this review, we will firstly consider how various experimental conditions, including age of animal, recording temperature and solution composition, are likely to influence tonic GABAA conductances. We will then consider some technical considerations related to how the tonic conductance is measured and subsequently analyzed, including how the use of current noise may provide a complementary and reliable method for quantifying changes in tonic current.

  17. Methods for recording and measuring tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Damian P.; Smart, Trevor G.

    2013-01-01

    Tonic inhibitory conductances mediated by GABAA receptors have now been identified and characterized in many different brain regions. Most experimental studies of tonic GABAergic inhibition have been carried out using acute brain slice preparations but tonic currents have been recorded under a variety of different conditions. This diversity of recording conditions is likely to impact upon many of the factors responsible for controlling tonic inhibition and can make comparison between different studies difficult. In this review, we will firstly consider how various experimental conditions, including age of animal, recording temperature and solution composition, are likely to influence tonic GABAA conductances. We will then consider some technical considerations related to how the tonic conductance is measured and subsequently analyzed, including how the use of current noise may provide a complementary and reliable method for quantifying changes in tonic current. PMID:24367296

  18. Tonic GABAA conductance decreases membrane time constant and increases EPSP-spike precision in hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I; Xu, Chun; Song, Inseon; Doronin, Maxim; Wu, Yu-Wei; Walker, Matthew C; Semyanov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Because of a complex dendritic structure, pyramidal neurons have a large membrane surface relative to other cells and so a large electrical capacitance and a large membrane time constant (τm). This results in slow depolarizations in response to excitatory synaptic inputs, and consequently increased and variable action potential latencies, which may be computationally undesirable. Tonic activation of GABAA receptors increases membrane conductance and thus regulates neuronal excitability by shunting inhibition. In addition, tonic increases in membrane conductance decrease the membrane time constant (τm), and improve the temporal fidelity of neuronal firing. Here we performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and found that bath application of 10μM GABA indeed decreases τm in these cells. GABA also decreased first spike latency and jitter (standard deviation of the latency) produced by current injection of 2 rheobases (500 ms). However, when larger current injections (3-6 rheobases) were used, GABA produced no significant effect on spike jitter, which was low. Using mathematical modeling we demonstrate that the tonic GABAA conductance decreases rise time, decay time and half-width of EPSPs in pyramidal neurons. A similar effect was observed on EPSP/IPSP pairs produced by stimulation of Schaffer collaterals: the EPSP part of the response became shorter after application of GABA. Consistent with the current injection data, a significant decrease in spike latency and jitter was obtained in cell attached recordings only at near-threshold stimulation (50% success rate, S50). When stimulation was increased to 2- or 3- times S50, GABA significantly affected neither spike latency nor spike jitter. Our results suggest that a decrease in τm associated with elevations in ambient GABA can improve EPSP-spike precision at near-threshold synaptic inputs.

  19. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

  20. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  1. Changes in Corticospinal and Spinal Excitability to the Biceps Brachii with a Neutral vs. Pronated Handgrip Position Differ between Arm Cycling and Tonic Elbow Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Davis A.; Richards, Mark; Forman, Garrick N.; Holmes, Michael W. R.; Power, Kevin E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of neutral and pronated handgrip positions on corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii during arm cycling. Corticospinal and spinal excitability were assessed using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and cervicomedullary-evoked potentials (CMEPs) elicited via transmastoid electrical stimulation (TMES), respectively. Participants were seated upright in front on arm cycle ergometer. Responses were recorded from the biceps brachii at two different crank positions (6 and 12 o’clock positions relative to a clock face) while arm cycling with neutral and pronated handgrip positions. Responses were also elicited during tonic elbow flexion to compare/contrast the results to a non-rhythmic motor output. MEP and CMEP amplitudes were significantly larger at the 6 o’clock position while arm cycling with a neutral handgrip position compared to pronated (45.6 and 29.9%, respectively). There were no differences in MEP and CMEP amplitudes at the 12 o’clock position for either handgrip position. For the tonic contractions, MEPs were significantly larger with a neutral vs. pronated handgrip position (32.6% greater) while there were no difference in CMEPs. Corticospinal excitability was higher with a neutral handgrip position for both arm cycling and tonic elbow flexion. While spinal excitability was also higher with a neutral handgrip position during arm cycling, no difference was observed during tonic elbow flexion. These findings suggest that not only is corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii modulated at both the supraspinal and spinal level, but that it is influenced differently between rhythmic arm cycling and tonic elbow flexion. PMID:27826236

  2. HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

    For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

  3. [Tonic pupil, pupil Adie syndrome Adie Holmes: current reassessment of terminology -- a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Szabo, Bianca; Popescu, Livia Adriana; Rusu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    The benign syndrome of pupillotonia and absence of deep reflexes is not uncommon. It was clearly and accurately described by Adie (1932), although incompletely recognized many years, before. The pupillary abnormality was reported by ophthalmologists at the turn of the century (Saenger, 1902, Strasburger 1902), and the associated deep reflex change was described by Markus (1906), Roemheld (1921) and Parkes Weber (1923). Holmes (1932) was fully aware of the association of "partial iridoplegia" with diminished reflexes. Tonic pupils react poorly to light but constrict during viewing of a near stimulus. Adie's name is typically used in association with tonic pupils, but a review of Adie's articles reveals that he described the syndrome of tonic pupils and absent reflexes and not the pupillary abnormality per se. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to refer to a tonic pupil as simply a 'tonic pupil" and leave Adie's name for the syndrome. We report a typical case of tonic pupil.

  4. Effect of sympathetic nervous system activation on the tonic vibration reflex in rabbit jaw closing muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, C; Deriu, F; Passatore, M

    1993-01-01

    1. In precollicular decerebrate rabbits we investigated the effect of sympathetic stimulation, at frequencies within the physiological range, on the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) elicited in jaw closing muscles by small amplitude vibrations applied to the mandible (15-50 microns, 150-180 Hz). The EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from masseter muscle and the force developed by the reflex was measured through an isometric transducer connected with the mandibular symphysis. 2. Unilateral stimulation of the peripheral stump of the cervical sympathetic by the TVR, and a marked decrease or disappearance of the ipsilateral EMG activity. No significant changes were detected in the EMG contralateral to the stimulated nerve. Bilateral CSN stimulation reduced by 60-90% the force reflexly produced by the jaw closing muscles and strongly decreased or suppressed EMG activity on both sides. This effect was often preceded by a transient TVR enhancement, very variable in amplitude and duration, which was concomitant with the modest increase in pulmonary ventilation induced by the sympathetic stimulation. 3. During bilateral CSN stimulation, an increase in the vibration amplitude by a factor of 1.5-2.5 was sufficient to restore the TVR reduced by sympathetic stimulation. 4. The depressant action exerted by sympathetic activation on the TVR is mediated by alpha-adrenergic receptors, since it was almost completely abolished by the I.V. administration of either phentolamine or prazosin, this last drug being a selective antagonist of alpha 1-adrenoceptors. The sympathetically induced decrease in the TVR was not mimicked by manoeuvres producing a large and sudden reduction or abolition of the blood flow to jaw muscles, such as unilateral or bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. 5. The effect of sympathetic stimulation was not significantly modified after denervation of the inferior dental arch and/or anaesthesia of the temporomandibular joint, i.e. after having reduced

  5. Modulation of chemokine expression on intestinal epithelial cells by Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicine, Hochuekkito, and its active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Michiko; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Hiroko; Yabe, Takeshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2013-07-01

    The intestinal epithelial cells sit at the interface between a lumen and a lamina propria or lymph nodes such as Peyer's patches, where they play important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis through chemokine secretion. This study investigated the effect of Hochuekkito (TJ-41)-a traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) formula used as a tonic for weakness-on chemokine expression in intestinal epithelial cells in order to explore the mechanism of its modulating effect against mucosal immunity. When cells from the rat normal small intestinal epithelial cell-line IEC-6 were stimulated with TJ-41, mRNA expression of CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 11 (eotaxin), CCL20 (MIP-3α) and CCL25 (TECK) was enhanced. Oral administration of TJ-41 to methotrexate-treated mice enhanced mRNA expression of CCL25 and keratinocyte growth factor in the jejunum with, decreasing mRNA expression of the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Although oral administration of TJ-41 did not affect CCL20 mRNA expression in villus epithelium of methotrexate-treated mice, enhancement of CCL20 mRNA expression was observed in Peyer's patches. Immunohistochemical analysis detected dense staining with anti-CCL20 antibody in the follicle-associated epithelium region of Peyer's patches in mice administered TJ-41. Analysis of active ingredients indicates that polysaccharide-containing macromolecules in TJ-41 contribute to the enhancement of CCL20 mRNA expression through an intracellular signal cascade via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation.

  6. Arousal thresholds during human tonic and phasic REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Ermis, Ummehan; Krakow, Karsten; Voss, Ursula

    2010-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate arousal thresholds (ATs) in tonic and phasic episodes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and to compare the frequency spectrum of these sub-states of REM to non-REM (NREM) stages of sleep. We found the two REM stages to differ with regard to behavioural responses to external acoustic stimuli. The AT in tonic REM was indifferent from that in sleep stage 2, and ATs in phasic REM were similar to those in slow-wave sleep (stage 4). NREM and REM stages of similar behavioural thresholds were distinctly different with regard to their frequency pattern. These data provide further evidence that REM sleep should not be regarded a uniform state. Regarding electroencephalogram frequency spectra, we found that the two REM stages were more similar to each other than to NREM stages with similar responsivity. Ocular activity such as ponto-geniculo-occipital-like waves and microsaccades are discussed as likely modulators of behavioural responsiveness and cortical processing of auditory information in the two REM sub-states.

  7. Tonic and stimulus-evoked nitric oxide production in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Graeme; Buerk, Donald G.; Ma, Jie; Gelperin, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been long assumed to play a key role in mammalian olfaction. This was based largely on circumstantial evidence, i.e. prominent staining for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclic GMP or soluble guanylyl cyclase, an effector enzyme activated by NO, in local interneurons of the olfactory bulb. Here we employ innovative custom-fabricated NO micro-sensors to obtain the first direct, time-resolved measurements of NO signaling in the olfactory bulb. In 400 μm thick mouse olfactory bulb slices, we detected a steady average basal level of 87 nM NO in the extracellular space of mitral or granule cell layers. This NO ‘tone’ was sensitive to NOS substrate manipulation (200 μM L-arginine, 2 mM L-NAME) and Mg2+ modulation of NMDA receptor conductance. Electrical stimulation of olfactory nerve fibers evoked transient (peak at 10 s) increments in NO levels 90 – 100 nM above baseline. In the anesthetized mouse, NO micro-sensors inserted into the granule cell layer detected NO transients averaging 55 nM in amplitude and peaking at 3.4 sec after onset of a 5 sec odorant stimulation. These findings suggest dual roles for NO signaling in the olfactory bulb – tonic inhibitory control of principal neurons, and regulation of circuit dynamics during odor information processing. PMID:18407420

  8. Changes of phasic and tonic smooth muscle function of jejunum in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing-Bo; Chen, Peng-Min; Gregersen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To generate phasic and tonic stress-strain curves for evaluation of intestinal smooth muscle function in type 2 diabetic rats during active and passive conditions. METHODS: Seven diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) male rats, 32-wk old (GK group), and 9 age-matched normal Wistar rats (Normal group) were included in the study. Jejunal segments were distended up to a pressure of 10 cm H2O in an organ bath containing 37 °C Krebs solution with addition of carbachol (CA). The pressure and outer diameter changes were synchronously recorded. Passive conditions were obtained using calcium-free Krebs solution containing ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and papaverine. Total phasic, tonic and passive circumferential stress and strain were computed from the diameter and pressure data with reference to the zero-stress state geometry. The active phasic and tonic stresses were defined as the total phasic and tonic stresses minus the passive stress. RESULTS: Diabetes increased jejunal mucosa and muscle layer thicknesses compared to the Normal group (mucosa, 755.8 ± 63.3 vs 633.1 ± 59.1 μm, P < 0.01; muscle, 106.3 ± 12.9 vs 85.2 ± 11.7 μm, P < 0.05). The pressure and stress thresholds were decreased in the GK group after CA application compared to distensions without CA application (pressure, 1.01 ± 0.07 vs 1.99 ± 0.19 cmH2O, P < 0.01; stress, 0.11 ± 0.01 vs 0.24 ± 0.02 kPa, P < 0.01). CA application did not change the pressure and stress threshold in the Normal group (pressure, 2.13 ± 0.32 vs 2.34 ± 0.32 cm H2O, P > 0.05; stress, 0.25 ± 0.03 vs 0.35 ± 0.06 kPa, P > 0.05). The amplitude of total phasic, total tonic, active phasic and active tonic circumferential stresses did not differ for the distensions without CA application between the GK group and the Normal group. However, the total phasic and total tonic stresses increased after CA application in the GK group compared those in the Normal group. When normalized to muscle layer thickness, the amplitude of active

  9. A Review of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on the Efficacy of Herbal Medicines for Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Sun; Lee, Jin-Moo; Jang, Jun-Bock; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological complaint among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. This study aims to review the findings of published articles on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of herbal medicines for PD. Methods. In vitro and in vivo studies of herbal compounds, individual herbal extracts, or herbal formula decoctions published from their inception to April 2014 were included in this review. Results. A total of 18 studies involving herbal medicines exhibited their inhibitory effect on PD. The majority of in vitro studies investigated the inhibition of uterine contractions. In vivo studies suggest that herbal medicines exert a peripheral analgesic effect and a possible anti-inflammatory activity via the inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The mechanisms of herbal medicines for PD are associated with PG level reduction, suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, superoxide dismutase activation and malondialdehyde reduction, nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-kappa B reduction, stimulation of somatostatin receptor, intracellular Ca2+ reduction, and recovery of phospholipid metabolism. Conclusions. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective therapeutic agents for PD. Further investigations on the appropriate herbal formula and their constituents are recommended. PMID:25431607

  10. A review of in vitro and in vivo studies on the efficacy of herbal medicines for primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Sun; Park, Kang-In; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Lee, Jin-Moo; Jang, Jun-Bock; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological complaint among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. This study aims to review the findings of published articles on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of herbal medicines for PD. Methods. In vitro and in vivo studies of herbal compounds, individual herbal extracts, or herbal formula decoctions published from their inception to April 2014 were included in this review. Results. A total of 18 studies involving herbal medicines exhibited their inhibitory effect on PD. The majority of in vitro studies investigated the inhibition of uterine contractions. In vivo studies suggest that herbal medicines exert a peripheral analgesic effect and a possible anti-inflammatory activity via the inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The mechanisms of herbal medicines for PD are associated with PG level reduction, suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, superoxide dismutase activation and malondialdehyde reduction, nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-kappa B reduction, stimulation of somatostatin receptor, intracellular Ca(2+) reduction, and recovery of phospholipid metabolism. Conclusions. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective therapeutic agents for PD. Further investigations on the appropriate herbal formula and their constituents are recommended.

  11. Comparison of "herbal highs" composition.

    PubMed

    Zuba, Dariusz; Byrska, Bogumila; Maciow, Martyna

    2011-04-01

    Popularity of new psychoactive substances, known as legal highs or herbal highs, is continuously growing. These products are typically sold via internet and in so-called head shops. The aim of this study was to identify active ingredients of herbal highs and to compare their chemical composition. Twenty-nine various products seized by the police in one of the "head shops" were analysed. Herbal mixtures (0.2 g) were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction with 2.0 ml of ethanol for 2 h. The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main active compounds of the herbal mixtures were synthetic cannabinoids: JWH-018, JWH-073 and cannabicyclohexanol (CP-47,497-C8-homolog). Their content differed between the products; some contained only one cannabinoid whereas the others contained two or more. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that chemical composition of many products was very similar. The similarity was connected with their flavour and not the common name. This statement was true for the synthetic cannabinoids, other potential agonists of cannabinoid receptors (amides of fatty acids) and ingredients of natural origin and confirms that herbal highs are a threat to human health because the purchaser has no information on their real composition.

  12. Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.

    PubMed

    Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA.

  13. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  14. Tonic fibres in axial muscle of cyprinid fish larvae: their definition, possible origins and functional importance.

    PubMed

    Stoiber, W; Haslett, J R; Steinbacher, P; Freimüller, M; Sänger, A M

    2002-05-01

    Teleost fish are known to develop small populations of muscle fibres that are assumed to be tonic in nature although their contractile properties and many other characteristics remain unknown. Here we attempt to resolve some of the ambiguity and confusions surrounding the definition and functional role of tonic fibres in teleosts and provide new information on their ontogeny. We investigate the differentiation of tonic muscle fibres in three species of cyprinid fish using electron microscopy, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The fine structure of the fibres defined as tonic in the larvae used in this study complies with patterns known from studies in teleost adults. This allows formal definition of tonic fibres in cyprinid larvae. The tonic fibres may be recognized by a variety of features: (1) by their characteristic position along the medial confines of the red muscle insertion at the horizontal septum, (2) their fine structure, including solid clusters of irregularly cleaved myofibrils, thick and wavy Z-lines, and T-tubules at the A-band/I-band transitions, (3) their histochemical features, specifically weak but obvious staining for mATPase after alkaline preincubation, and lack of SDH activity in the more advanced larval stages, (4) their unique immunological properties, being the only fibre type in the myotome that reacts with a serum against chicken tonic myosin (anti- T2). Expression of tonic characters usually begins within a few fibres in the dorsal domain of the superficial red muscle insertion at the horizontal septum and hence involves a high degree of dorso-ventral polarity. The present evidence indicates that tonic fibres arise from separate myogenic stem cells rather than by transdifferentiation from existing red fibres. First appearance of tonic fibres during ontogeny correlates closely with the onset of free swimming and exogeneous feeding. We use this fact to argue that tonic fibres are probably a prerequisite for

  15. Herbal Treatment for Anxiety: Is It Effective?

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal pain. If you're considering taking any herbal supplement as a treatment for anxiety, talk to your ... you take other medications. The interaction of some herbal supplements and certain medications can cause serious side effects. ...

  16. Quality of herbal medicines: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Wider, Barbara; Shang, Hongcai; Li, Xuemei; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of herbal medicines has risen worldwide. This increase in usage renders safety issues important. Many adverse events of herbal medicines can be attributed to the poor quality of the raw materials or the finished products. Different types of herbal medicines are associated with different problems. Quality issues of herbal medicines can be classified into two categories: external and internal. In this review, external issues including contamination (e.g. toxic metals, pesticides residues and microbes), adulteration and misidentification are detailed. Complexity and non-uniformity of the ingredients in herbal medicines are the internal issues affecting the quality of herbal medicines. Solutions to the raised problems are discussed. The rigorous implementation of Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) would undoubtedly reduce the risk of external issues. Through the use of modern analytical methods and pharmaceutical techniques, previously unsolved internal issues have become solvable. Standard herbal products can be manufactured from the standard herbal extracts.

  17. Herbal medicine in healthcare--an overview.

    PubMed

    Mosihuzzaman, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    It is generally accepted by all concerned that modern pharmaceuticals will remain out of reach of many people and 'health for all' may only be realized by the use of adequately assessed herbal products. Mankind has been using herbal medicine for healing right from the beginning of human civilization. With the advent of 'modern medicine' herbal products have been looked down upon, especially by western societies. Yet, in recent times, use of herbal medicine for heathcare has increased steadily all over the world. However, serious concerns are being realized regarding the safety, claimed efficacy and quality of herbal products used as herbal medicine, nutraceuticals, health food and cosmetics. Although herbal products are generally considered safe due to their age-old usage, significant side effects have been reported for many herbal products, including herbal medicine. Accidental contamination and intentional adulteration are considered as primary reasons for the side effects. The historical perspective and the philosophy of herbal medical practice along with its present status in the light of present day science have been reviewed and included in the present article. Assurance of safety by identification of contaminants and assessment of toxicity has been outlined. Assessment of claimed efficacy of herbal medicine is difficult due to its holistic approach. Practical ways of assessing efficacy of herbal medicine by adapting the methodologies used for modern pharmaceutical are described. The maintenance of standard of herbal medicine has been stressed and pragmatic approaches of assuring quality of herbal medicine by using modern tools of fingerprinting the chemical profile of herbal medicine are discussed. As much of the traditional herbal medical knowledge is scattered around the world at the family and community levels, and more so in the indigeneous people, the knowledge base is continuously being lost and so needs immediate documentation. Difficulties in

  18. Herbal preparations for uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Hong; Xia, Yun; Cardini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids are the most common non-malignant growths in women of childbearing age. They are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding and subfertility. Herbal preparations are commonly used as alternatives to surgical procedures. Objectives To assess the benefits and risks of herbal preparations for uterine fibroids. Search strategy Authors searched following electronic databases: the Trials Registers of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), AMED, and LILACS. The searches ended on 31st December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing herbal preparations with no intervention, placebo, medical treatment or surgical procedures in women with uterine fibroids. We also included trials of herbal preparations with or without conventional therapy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors collected data independently. We assessed trial risk of bias according to our methodological criteria. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main results We included two randomised trials (involved 150 women) with clear description of randomisation methods. The methodological risk of bias of the trials varied. There were variations in the tested herbal preparations, and the treatment duration was six months. The outcomes available were not the primary outcomes selected for this review, such as symptom relief or the need for surgical treatment; trials mainly reported outcomes in terms of shrinkage of the fibroids. Compared with mifepristone, Huoxue Sanjie decoction showed no significant difference in the disappearance of uterine fibroids, number of

  19. A comparative study of changes operated by sympathetic nervous system activation on spindle afferent discharge and on tonic vibration reflex in rabbit jaw muscles.

    PubMed

    Passatore, M; Deriu, F; Grassi, C; Roatta, S

    1996-03-07

    The effect of sympathetic activation on the spindle afferent response to vibratory stimuli eliciting the tonic vibration reflex in jaw closing muscles was studied in precollicularly decerebrate rabbits. Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk, at frequencies within the physiologic range, consistently induced a decrease in spindle response to muscle vibration, which was often preceded by a transient enhancement. Spindle discharge was usually correlated with the EMG activity in the masseter muscle and the tension reflexly developed by jaw muscles. The changes in spindle response to vibration were superimposed on variations of the basal discharge which exhibited different patterns in the studied units, increases in the firing rate being more frequently observed. These effects were mimicked by close arterial injection of the selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Data presented here suggest that sympathetically-induced modifications of the tonic vibration reflex are due to changes exerted on muscle spindle afferent information.

  20. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment.

  1. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  2. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Shouval, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) have been used for health-related purposes since more than 5000 years, and their application is firmly anchored in all societies worldwide. Over last decades, a remarkable renaissance in the use of HDS can be noticed in affluent societies for manifold reasons. HDS are forms of complementary and alternative medicines commonly used to prevent or treat diseases, or simply as a health tonic. Another growing indication for HDS is their alleged benefit for weight loss or to increase physical fitness. Access is easy via internet and mail-order pharmacies, and their turnover reaches billions of dollars in the USA and Europe alone. However, HDS are generally not categorized as drugs and thus less strictly regulated in most countries. As a result, scientific evidence proving their beneficial effects is mostly lacking, although some HDS may have purported benefits. However, the majority lacks such proof of value, and their use is predominantly based on belief and hope. In addition to missing scientific evidence supporting their use, HDS are typically prone to batch-to-batch variability in composition and concentration, contamination, and purposeful adulteration. Moreover, numerous examples of preparations emerged which have been linked to significant liver injury. These include single ingredients, such as kava, germander, and several Chinese herbals. Other HDS products associated with liver toxicity consist of multiple, often ill-defined ingredients, such as Hydroxycut and Herbalife. Affirmative diagnostic tests are not available, and the assessment of liver injury ascribed to HDS depends on a thorough and proactive medical history, careful exclusion of other causes, and a search for available reports on similar events linked to the intake of the suspected preparation or ingredients contained therein.

  3. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  4. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple expressions of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-12-01

    Chinese herbal property is the highly summarized concept of herbal nature and pharmaceutical effect, which reflect the characteristics of herbal actions on human body. These herbal actions, also interpreted as presenting the information about pharmaceutical effect contained in herbal property on the biological carrier, are defined as herbal property expressions. However, the biological expression of herbal property is believed to possess complex features for the involved complexity of Chinese medicine and organism. Firstly, there are multiple factors which could influence the expression results of herbal property such as the growth environment, harvest season and preparing methods of medicinal herbs, and physique and syndrome of body. Secondly, there are multiple biological approaches and biochemical indicators for the expression of the same property. This paper elaborated these complexities for further understanding of herbal property. The individuality of herbs and expression factors should be well analyzed in the related studies.

  5. EEG spectral power in phasic and tonic REM sleep: different patterns in young adults and children.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Szakadát, Sára; Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is composed of phasic and tonic periods, two distinguishable microstates in terms of arousal thresholds and sensory processing. Background electroencephalogram oscillations are also different between periods with (phasic state) and periods without (tonic state) eye movements. In Study 1, previous findings analysing electroencephalogram spectral power in phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep were replicated, and analyses extended to the high gamma range (52-90 Hz). In Study 2, phasic and tonic spectral power differences within a group of 4-8-year-old children were examined. Based on the polysomnographic data of 20 young adults, the phasic state yielded increased delta and theta power in anterior sites, as well as generally decreased high alpha and beta power in comparison to the tonic state. Moreover, phasic periods exhibited greater spectral power in the lower and the higher gamma band. Interestingly, children (n = 18) exhibited a different pattern, showing increased activity in the low alpha range during phasic periods. Moreover, during phasic in contrast to tonic rapid eye movement sleep, increased low and high gamma and enhanced low gamma band power emerged in anterior and posterior regions, respectively. The current findings show that spectral activity within the high gamma range substantially contributes to the differences between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep, especially in adults. Moreover, the current data underscore the heterogeneity of rapid eye movement sleep, and point to marked differences between young adults and children regarding phasic/tonic electroencephalogram spectral power. These results suggest that the differentiation between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement periods undergoes maturation.

  6. Robust tonic GABA currents can inhibit cell firing in mouse newborn neocortical pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Sebe, Joy Y.; Looke-Stewart, Elizabeth C.; Estrada, Rosanne C.; Baraban, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the hippocampus and neocortex, GABA is considered excitatory in early development due to a relatively depolarized Cl- reversal potential. Although the depolarizing nature of synaptic GABAergic events has been well established, it is unknown whether cortical tonic currents mediated by extrasynaptically located GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are also excitatory. Here we examined the development of tonic currents in the neocortex and their effect on neuronal excitability. We found that mean tonic current, recorded from Layer 5 pyramidal cells of the mouse somatosensory cortex, is robust in newborns (P2-4) then decreases dramatically by the second postnatal week (P7-10 and P30-40). Pharmacological studies, in combination with Western blot analysis, show that neonatal tonic currents are partially mediated by the GABAAR α5, and likely the δ, subunit. In newborns, the charge due to tonic current accounts for nearly 100% of total GABA charge, a contribution that decreases to less than 50% in mature tissue. Current clamp recordings reveal that tonic current contributes to large fluctuations in the membrane potential that may disrupt its stability. Bath application of 5 μM GABA, to induce tonic currents, markedly decreased cell firing frequency in most recorded cells while increasing it in others. Gramicidin perforated patch recordings reveal heterogeneity in ECl recorded from P2-5 Layer 5 pyramidal cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that tonic currents activated by low GABA concentrations can dominate GABAergic transmission in newborn neocortical pyramidal cells and that tonic currents can exert heterogeneous effects on neuronal excitability. PMID:20846324

  7. The impact of luminance on tonic and phasic pupillary responses to sustained cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Vachon, François; Dehais, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Pupillary reactions independent of light conditions have been linked to cognition for a long time. However, the light conditions can impact the cognitive pupillary reaction. Previous studies underlined the impact of luminance on pupillary reaction, but it is still unclear how luminance modulates the sustained and transient components of pupillary reaction - tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the luminance on these two components under sustained cognitive load. Fourteen participants performed a novel working memory task combining mathematical computations with a classic n-back task. We studied both tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response under low (1-back) and high (2-back) working memory load and two luminance levels (gray and white). We found that the impact of working memory load on the tonic pupil diameter was modulated by the level of luminance, the increase in tonic pupil diameter with the load being larger under lower luminance. In contrast, the smaller phasic pupil response found under high load remained unaffected by luminance. These results showed that luminance impacts the cognitive pupillary reaction - tonic pupil diameter (phasic pupil response) being modulated under sustained (respectively, transient) cognitive load. These findings also support the relationship between the locus-coeruleus system, presumably functioning in two firing modes - tonic and phasic - and the pupil diameter. We suggest that the tonic pupil diameter tracks the tonic activity of the locus-coeruleus while phasic pupil response reflects its phasic activity. Besides, the designed novel cognitive paradigm allows the simultaneous manipulation of sustained and transient components of the cognitive load and is useful for dissociating the effects on the tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response.

  8. Contribution of tonic vibration reflex to the evaluation and diagnosis of cerebellar disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, G; Abbruzzese, M; Ratto, S; Favale, E

    1982-01-01

    Biceps brachii tonic vibration reflexes were elicited in patients with either focal or diffuse cerebellar damage and spino-cerebellar degenerations. As compared to normal controls, tonic vibration reflex amplitude was reduced in cerebellar patients, particularly in cases with unilateral hemispheric lesion, who exhibited a clear cut tonic vibration reflex asymmetry even when clinical symptoms were mild. These reflexes were absent or very weak in patients with spino-cerebellar degenerations. Muscle vibration induced in most of the patients an enhancement of mild or latent clinical symptoms such as intention tremor, difficulty in muscle relaxation or motor incoordination. PMID:7119815

  9. Rapid critical period induction by tonic inhibition in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Youichi; Fagiolini, Michela; Obata, Kunihiko; Hensch, Takao K

    2003-07-30

    Mice lacking a synaptic isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) do not exhibit ocular dominance plasticity unless an appropriate level of GABAergic transmission is restored by direct infusion of benzodiazepines into the brain. To better understand how intracortical inhibition triggers experience-dependent changes, we dissected the precise timing requirement for GABA function in the monocular deprivation (MD) paradigm. Diazepam (DZ) or vehicle solution was infused daily before and/or during 4 d of MD in GAD65 knock-out mice. Extracellular single-unit recordings from the binocular zone of visual cortex were performed at the end of deprivation. We found that a minimum treatment of 2 d near the beginning of MD was sufficient to fully activate plasticity but did not need to overlap the deprivation per se. Extended delay after DZ infusion eventually led to loss of plasticity accompanied by improved intrinsic inhibitory circuit function. Two day DZ treatment just after eye opening similarly closed the critical period prematurely in wild-type mice. Raising wild-type mice in complete darkness from birth delayed the peak sensitivity to MD as in other mammals. Interestingly, 2 d DZ infusion in the dark also closed the critical period, whereas equally brief light exposure during dark-rearing had no such effect. Thus, enhanced tonic signaling through GABA(A) receptors rapidly creates a milieu for plasticity within neocortex capable of triggering a critical period for ocular dominance independent of visual experience itself.

  10. Interaction of tonic labyrinth and neck reflexes in man.

    PubMed

    Aiello, I; Rosati, G; Sau, G F; Lentinu, M E; Tidore, B S; Sotgiu, S; Cacciotto, R; Posadinu, D; Muzzu, S; Manca, I

    1992-04-01

    Interaction of tonic labyrinth and neck reflexes was studied in 3 healthy volunteers by analyzing changes in Soleus H-Reflex (SHR) area in relation to both lateral tiltings and neck rotations. By using a Kermath chair each subject was tilted laterally from the vertical to the left and to the right up 15 degrees in steps of 5 degrees and at the same time the longitudinal body axis, keeping the head fixed, was rotated to the right and to the left up to 15 degrees in steps of 5 degrees. All combinations of lateral tiltings and neck rotations were tested. Each test position was followed by a return to 0 degree for both rotation and tilting (control position). Twelve H-reflexes of right soleus muscle were recorded in each test and control position and the changes in RSHR area were expressed as percentage variations from the mean value absorbed in the pretest and post-test control position. Our data indicate that in man, as in animals, labyrinth and neck reflexes act in the opposite direction, and that in the static condition their contribution to postural stabilization is equal.

  11. Remission of Unresectable Lung Metastases from Rectal Cancer After Herbal Medicine Treatment: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsuk; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Lung metastasis is frequent in rectal cancer patients and has a poor prognosis, with an expected three-year survival rate of about 10%. Though western medicine has made great strides in the curative resection of liver metastases, resection of lung metastases has lagged far behind. Many preclinical studies have suggested that herbal treatments block metastasis, but few clinical studies have addressed this topic. We present the case of a 57-year-old Asian male with lung metastases from rectal cancer. He first underwent resection of the primary lesion (stage IIA, T3N0M0) and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, lung metastases were confirmed about one year later. Palliative chemotherapy was begun, but his disease continued to progress after three cycles and chemotherapy was halted. The patient was exclusively treated with herbal medicine-standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua stokes extract combined with Dokhwaljihwang-tang (Sasang constitutional medicine in Korea). After seven weeks of herbal medicine treatment, the lung metastases were markedly improved. Regression of lung metastases has continued; also, the patient's rectal cancer has not returned. He has been receiving herbal medicine for over two years and very few side effects have been observed. We suggest that the herbal regimen used in our patient is a promising candidate for the treatment of lung metastases secondary to rectal cancer, and we hope that this case stimulates further investigation into the efficacy of herbal treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

  12. Hippocampal cell loss and propagation of abnormal discharges accompanied with the expression of tonic convulsion in the spontaneously epileptic rat.

    PubMed

    Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sasa, Masashi; Sugata, Sei; Tokudome, Mai; Serikawa, Tadao; Kurisu, Kaoru; Arita, Kazunori

    2010-04-30

    Spontaneously epileptic rats (SER) are double mutants with both tonic convulsion and absence-like seizures from the age of 8 weeks. Hippocampal CA3 neurons in SER display a long-lasting depolarizing shift accompanied by repetitive firing (attributed to abnormalities of the Ca(2+) channels) with a single stimulation of the mossy fibers. In the present investigation, we examined if the seizure discharges of SER were correlated with the hippocampal abnormality of SER using electrophysiological and histological methods. In CA1 neurons of seizure-susceptible mature SER, higher-voltage (<8-11 V) stimulations induced a long depolarization shift (in 25% of neurons) with repetitive firing (in 12.5% of neurons). However, the tremor rat, one of the parent strains of SER, did not exhibit such abnormal firing in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The number of CA3 neurons in SER was significantly (p<0.01) lower than that in tremor rats and Wistar rats, although no significant difference was established in the hilus. Sprouting of mossy fiber was observed in the dentate of mature SER; however, negligible staining was spotted in the dentate of both mature tremor and Wistar rats. Interestingly, expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor was higher in the hilus, CA3, and granular cell layer of dentate gyrus in SER than normal Wistar rats. The expression levels of TUNEL, bax, and Caspase-3 did not show significant changes between the SER and Wistar rats. SER exhibited hippocampal sclerosis-like changes which did not have enough potential for epileptogenesis. Repetitive tonic seizures and vulnerable CA3 neurons of SER could be involved in the induction of sclerosis-like changes in the hippocampus.

  13. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  14. Chronic stress impairs GABAergic control of amygdala through suppressing the tonic GABAA receptor currents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic stress is generally known to exacerbate the development of numerous neuropsychiatric diseases such as fear and anxiety disorders, which is at least partially due to the disinhibition of amygdala subsequent to the prolonged stress exposure. GABA receptor A (GABAAR) mediates the primary component of inhibition in brain and its activation produces two forms of inhibition: the phasic and tonic inhibition. While both of them are critically engaged in limiting the activity of amygdala, their roles in the amygdala disinhibition subsequent to chronic stress exposure are largely unknown. Results We investigated the possible alterations of phasic and tonic GABAAR currents and their roles in the amygdala disinhibition subsequent to chronic stress. We found that both chronic immobilization and unpredictable stress led to long lasting loss of tonic GABAAR currents in the projection neurons of lateral amygdala. By contrast, the phasic GABAAR currents, as measured by the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents, were virtually unaltered. The loss of tonic inhibition varied with the duration of daily stress and the total days of stress exposure. It was prevented by pretreatment with metyrapone to block corticosterone synthesis or RU 38486, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, suggesting the critical involvement of glucocorticoid receptor activation. Moreover, chronic treatment with corticosterone mimicked the effect of chronic stress and reduced the tonic inhibition in lateral amygdala of control mice. The loss of tonic inhibition resulted in the impaired GABAergic gating on neuronal excitability in amygdala, which was prevented by metyrapone pretreatment. Conclusions Our study suggests that enduring loss of tonic but not phasic GABAAR currents critically contributes to the prolonged amygdala disinhibition subsequent to chronic stress. We propose that the preferential loss of tonic inhibition may account for the development of stress

  15. Iron fertilization: A tonic, but no cure for the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1994-02-25

    One proposed solution to counteract greenhouse warming is the stimulation of phytoplankton growth in the oceans by the addition of iron. The excess phytoplankton would then absorb CO[sub 2] and sequester it in their bodies when they died. An experiment to test this hypothesis was carried out in the equatorial Pacific. Addition of Fe stimulated phytoplankton growth, but the technique may have limited value. The iron quickly forms particulates which sink and become unavailable to the phytoplankton.

  16. How do kinases contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of the transcription factor NFAT5?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    NFAT5 plays a critical role in maintaining the renal functions. Its dis-regulation in the kidney leads to or is associated with certain renal diseases or disorders, most notably the urinary concentration defect. Hypertonicity, which the kidney medulla is normally exposed to, activates NFAT5 through phosphorylation of a signaling molecule or NFAT5 itself. Hypotonicity inhibits NFAT5 through a similar mechanism. More than a dozen of protein and lipid kinases have been identified to contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of NFAT5. Hypertonicity activates NFAT5 by increasing its nuclear localization and transactivating activity in the early phase and protein abundance in the late phase. The known mechanism for inhibition of NFAT5 by hypotonicity is a decrease of nuclear NFAT5. The present article reviews the effect of each kinase on NFAT5 nuclear localization, transactivation and protein abundance, and the relationship among these kinases, if known. Cyclosporine A and tacrolimus suppress immune reactions by inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin-dependent activation of NFAT1. It is hoped that this review would stimulate the interest to seek explanations from the NFAT5 regulatory pathways for certain clinical presentations and to explore novel therapeutic approaches based on the pathways. On the basic science front, this review raises two interesting questions. The first one is how these kinases can specifically signal to NFAT5 in the context of hypertonicity or hypotonicity, because they also regulate other cellular activities and even opposite activities in some cases. The second one is why these many kinases, some of which might have redundant functions, are needed to regulate NFAT5 activity. This review reiterates the concept of signaling through cooperation. Cells need these kinases working in a coordinated way to provide the signaling specificity that is lacking in the individual one. Redundancy in regulation of NFAT5 is a critical strategy for cells to

  17. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  18. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  19. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds.

  20. DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ichim, Mihael C; Newmaster, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products.

  1. Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. PMID:21799681

  2. [Functional targets of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Wang, Yun

    2010-12-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, much work has been done based on chemical constituent-target in the molecular system. It cannot comply with the holistic efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. Thus, the authors of this paper proposed to study the functional target adopted from Western medicine. The data of Chinese herbal function were collected from 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. A total of 135 functional targets were found, and a network about functional target and mode of action was built. The authors also explored the applications of functional target and the network combined with Sijunzi Decoction and Mahuang Decoction. The results, reflecting the feature of Chinese herbal medicine, will not only be helpful to elucidate the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine, but also beneficial to studying the theory of Chinese formulas and developing new formulas.

  3. Role of opioidergic and GABAergic neurotransmission of the nucleus raphe magnus in the modulation of tonic immobility in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luis Felipe Souza; Menescal-de-Oliveira, Leda

    2007-04-02

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an inborn defensive behavior characterized by a temporary state of profound and reversible motor inhibition elicited by some forms of physical restraint. Previous results from our laboratory have demonstrated that nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) is also a structure involved in the modulation of TI behavior, as chemical stimulation through carbachol decreases the duration of TI in guinea pigs. In view of the fact that GABAergic and opioidergic circuits participate in the regulation of neuronal activity in the NRM and since these neurotransmitters are also involved in the modulation of TI, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of these circuits of the NRM in the modulation of the behavioral TI response. Microinjection of morphine (4.4 nmol/0.2 microl) or bicuculline (0.4 nmol/0.2 microl) into the NRM increased the duration of TI episodes while muscimol (0.5 nmol/0.2 microl) decreased it. The effect of morphine injection into the NRM was blocked by previous microinjection of naloxone (2.7 nmol/0.2 microl). Muscimol at 0.25 nmol did not produce any change in TI duration; however, it blocked the increased response induced by morphine. Our results indicate a facilitatory role of opioidergic neurotransmission in the modulation of the TI response within the NRM, whereas GABAergic activity plays an inhibitory role. In addition, in the present study the modulation of TI in the NRM possibly occurred via an interaction between opioidergic and GABAergic systems, where the opioidergic effect might be due to inhibition of tonically active GABAergic interneurons.

  4. Indigenous Knowledge of Herbal Medicines among Adolescents in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964

  5. Tonic GABAA conductance bidirectionally controls interneuron firing pattern and synchronization in the CA3 hippocampal network.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Ivan; Savtchenko, Leonid P; Song, Inseon; Koo, Jaeyeon; Pimashkin, Alexey; Rusakov, Dmitri A; Semyanov, Alexey

    2014-01-07

    The spiking output of interneurons is key for rhythm generation in the brain. However, what controls interneuronal firing remains incompletely understood. Here we combine dynamic clamp experiments with neural network simulations to understand how tonic GABAA conductance regulates the firing pattern of CA3 interneurons. In baseline conditions, tonic GABAA depolarizes these cells, thus exerting an excitatory action while also reducing the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude through shunting. As a result, the emergence of weak tonic GABAA conductance transforms the interneuron firing pattern driven by individual EPSPs into a more regular spiking mode determined by the cell intrinsic properties. The increased regularity of spiking parallels stronger synchronization of the local network. With further increases in tonic GABAA conductance the shunting inhibition starts to dominate over excitatory actions and thus moderates interneuronal firing. The remaining spikes tend to follow the timing of suprathreshold EPSPs and thus become less regular again. The latter parallels a weakening in network synchronization. Thus, our observations suggest that tonic GABAA conductance can bidirectionally control brain rhythms through changes in the excitability of interneurons and in the temporal structure of their firing patterns.

  6. Control of hippocampal gamma oscillation frequency by tonic inhibition and excitation of interneurons.

    PubMed

    Mann, Edward O; Mody, Istvan

    2010-02-01

    Gamma-frequency oscillations depend on phasic synaptic GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition to synchronize spike timing. The spillover of synaptically released GABA can also activate extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs, and such tonic inhibition may also contribute to modulating network dynamics. In many neuronal cell types, tonic inhibition is mediated by delta subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs. We found that the frequency of in vitro cholinergically induced gamma oscillations in the mouse hippocampal CA3 region was increased by the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) on interneurons. The NMDAR-dependent increase of gamma oscillation frequency was counteracted by the tonic inhibition of the interneurons mediated by delta subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs. Recordings of synaptic currents during gamma activity revealed that NMDAR-mediated increases in oscillation frequency correlated with a progressive synchronization of phasic excitation and inhibition in the network. Thus, the balance between tonic excitation and tonic inhibition of interneurons may modulate gamma frequency by shaping interneuronal synchronization.

  7. The effect of varying tonicity on nasal epithelial ion transport in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael G; Geddes, Duncan M; Alton, Eric W F W

    2005-04-01

    There is reasonable evidence that the fluid layer of the airway epithelium is exposed to changes in tonicity. The inspiration of cool, dry air causes an increased tonicity, whereas this tonicity may be decreased by glandular secretions. We hypothesized that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is involved in the responses to changes in tonicity and that these may be altered in cystic fibrosis (CF). Using nasal potential difference (PD) protocols in 8 subjects with CF and 10 subjects without CF, we investigated the effects of hyper- and hypotonicity on ion transport processes. We found significant differences between the two groups. In response to a hypertonic challenge (mannitol 500 mM), there was a decreased PD in both groups, suggesting decreased sodium absorption. However, after the prior inhibition of sodium transport using amiloride, there was an increased PD in the non-CF group alone, suggesting CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in response to luminal hypertonicity. For the hypotonic solution, we found that hypotonicity inhibited CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in the non-CF group. These data suggest that CFTR plays a role in the recognition and regulation of airway fluid tonicity.

  8. Is there tonic immobility in humans? Biological evidence from victims of traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Volchan, Eliane; Souza, Gabriela G; Franklin, Camila M; Norte, Carlos E; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa; Oliveira, Jose M; David, Isabel A; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Fiszman, Adriana; Berger, William; Marques-Portella, Carla; Figueira, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    Tonic immobility, characterized by profound motor inhibition, is elicited under inescapable threat in many species. To fully support the existence of tonic immobility in humans, our aim was to elicit this reaction in a laboratory setting and measure it objectively. To mimic exposure to life-threatening events in the lab, trauma-exposed participants with PTSD (n=18) and without PTSD (n=15) listened to the script of their autobiographical trauma. Posturography and electrocardiography were employed. Reports of script-induced immobility were associated with restricted area of body sway and were correlated with accelerated heart rate and diminished heart rate variability, implying that tonic immobility is preserved in humans as an involuntary defensive strategy. Immobility reports seemed more evident in PTSD, suggesting that, in some patients, tonic immobility may be elicited during re-experiencing episodes in daily life. This study provided a measure of tonic immobility, a peritraumatic reaction for which cumulative clinical evidence had linked to the severity of PTSD.

  9. Tonic GABAA conductance bidirectionally controls interneuron firing pattern and synchronization in the CA3 hippocampal network

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Ivan; Savtchenko, Leonid P.; Song, Inseon; Koo, Jaeyeon; Pimashkin, Alexey; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Semyanov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The spiking output of interneurons is key for rhythm generation in the brain. However, what controls interneuronal firing remains incompletely understood. Here we combine dynamic clamp experiments with neural network simulations to understand how tonic GABAA conductance regulates the firing pattern of CA3 interneurons. In baseline conditions, tonic GABAA depolarizes these cells, thus exerting an excitatory action while also reducing the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude through shunting. As a result, the emergence of weak tonic GABAA conductance transforms the interneuron firing pattern driven by individual EPSPs into a more regular spiking mode determined by the cell intrinsic properties. The increased regularity of spiking parallels stronger synchronization of the local network. With further increases in tonic GABAA conductance the shunting inhibition starts to dominate over excitatory actions and thus moderates interneuronal firing. The remaining spikes tend to follow the timing of suprathreshold EPSPs and thus become less regular again. The latter parallels a weakening in network synchronization. Thus, our observations suggest that tonic GABAA conductance can bidirectionally control brain rhythms through changes in the excitability of interneurons and in the temporal structure of their firing patterns. PMID:24344272

  10. Inhibition of tonic spinal glutamatergic activity induces antinociception in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tambeli, Claudia H; Parada, Carlos A; Levine, Jon D; Gear, Robert W

    2002-10-01

    Inhibition of tonic activity in spino-supraspinal projection neurons induces heterosegmental antinociception that is mediated by opioid receptors in nucleus accumbens. To investigate the origin of this tonic activity, we evaluated the ability of inhibiting neurotransmission in the spinal cord to produce heterosegmental antinociception in the trigeminal nociceptive jaw-opening reflex (JOR) in the rat. Spinal intrathecal administration of calcium channel blockers attenuated the JOR, suggesting that the tonic spinal activity depends on synaptic input. To identify the excitatory neurotransmitter receptors involved, selective antagonists for AMPA/kainate, mGluR1, NMDA or NK1 receptors were administered intrathecally to the spinal cord. The AMPA/kainate and mGluR1 receptor antagonists, but not the NMDA or NK1 receptor antagonists, induced antinociception, which was antagonized by intra-accumbens administration of the selective micro -opioid receptor antagonist CTOP. Thus, inhibition of tonic spinal glutamatergic activity resulted in supraspinally mediated antinociception. As this antinociception occurred in the absence of interventions that would produce a facilitated nociceptive state, this tonic glutamatergic activity is important in setting nociceptive threshold.

  11. Emerging principles and neural substrates underlying tonic sleep-state-dependent influences on respiratory motor activity.

    PubMed

    Horner, Richard L

    2009-09-12

    Respiratory muscles with dual respiratory and non-respiratory functions (e.g. the pharyngeal and intercostal muscles) show greater suppression of activity in sleep than the diaphragm, a muscle almost entirely devoted to respiratory function. This sleep-related suppression of activity is most apparent in the tonic component of motor activity, which has functional implications of a more collapsible upper airspace in the case of pharyngeal muscles, and decreased functional residual capacity in the case of intercostal muscles. A major source of tonic drive to respiratory motoneurons originates from neurons intimately involved in states of brain arousal, i.e. neurons not classically involved in generating respiratory rhythm and pattern per se. The tonic drive to hypoglossal motoneurons, a respiratory motor pool with both respiratory and non-respiratory functions, is mediated principally by noradrenergic and glutamatergic inputs, these constituting the essential components of the wakefulness stimulus. These tonic excitatory drives are opposed by tonic inhibitory glycinergic and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) inputs that constrain the level of respiratory-related motor activity, with the balance determining net motor tone. In sleep, the excitatory inputs are withdrawn and GABA release into the brainstem is increased, thus decreasing respiratory motor tone and predisposing susceptible individuals to hypoventilation and obstructive sleep apnoea.

  12. Modulating effects of rooibos and honeybush herbal teas on the development of esophageal papillomas in rats.

    PubMed

    Sissing, Linda; Marnewick, Jeanine; de Kock, Maryna; Swanevelder, Sonja; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel

    2011-01-01

    Widespread consumption of herbal teas has stimulated interest in their role as cancer preventive agents. The present investigation monitored the modulation of methylbenzylnitrosamine (MBN)-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis by rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) herbal and Camellia sinensis teas in male F344 rats. The tumor multiplicity was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by unfermented honeybush (45.5%), green (50%), and black (36%) teas, while the other teas exhibited weaker effects (<30% inhibition). The mean total papilloma size was reduced by unfermented rooibos (87%), unfermented honeybush (94%), and fermented honeybush (74%) due to the absence of large papillomas (>10 mm(3)). Reduction of the mean total papilloma number correlated with the total polyphenol (TPP) (r = 0.79; P < 0.02) and flavanol/proanthocyanidin (FLAVA) (r = 0.89; P < 0.008) intake (mg/100 g body weight) of the teas and the FLAVA (r = 0.89; P < 0.04) and flavonol/flavones/xanthones (r = 0.99; P < 0.002) intake when considering only the herbal teas. A daily TPP intake threshold of 7 mg/100 g body weight existed below where no inhibition of papilloma development was observed. Fermentation of herbal teas reduced the inhibitory effects on papilloma development associated with a reduction in the polyphenolic constituents. The inhibitory effect of herbal teas on papilloma development is associated with different flavonoid subgroups and/or combination thereof.

  13. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

    1999-01-15

    Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available.

  14. Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  15. Requirements on efficacy of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Claeson, Per

    2014-12-02

    Based on the regulatory requirements on efficacy documentation in the European Union, the herbal medicinal products have been grouped into the following sections: (i) Herbal medicinal products for which the efficacy is demonstrated by results of a "full" set of clinical trials that are in conformity with the relevant guidelines of the therapeutic area in question. This regulatory pathway to obtain a marketing authorisation for a new medicinal product (new chemical entity) is open to herbal medicinal products, but the examples are in reality few. (ii) Herbal medicinal products which have a "well-established medicinal use with a recognised efficacy and an acceptable level of safety" in the European Union. Results of new and product specific clinical trials are not required to obtain a marketing authorisation for products that fulfil these criteria, but a substantial clinical experience must be documented and sufficient scientific data on efficacy must be publicly available. (iii) "Traditional" herbal medicinal products, that do not fulfil the efficacy requirements for a marketing authorisation, but for which a medicinal use of at least 30 years including 15 years in the European Union can be documented. Traditional herbal medicinal products can only be registered with therapeutic indications that are considered safe for use without the supervision of a physician. After briefly reviewing the regulatory requirements on efficacy documentation of herbal medicinal products in the European Union, some concluding remarks on the past and future developments in the area are made.

  16. (R)-roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, enhances tonic GABA inhibition in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A; Tyzio, R; Zilberter, Y; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2008-10-02

    Pharmacological agents that mediate a persistent GABAergic conductance are of considerable interest for treatment of epilepsy. (R)-roscovitine is a membrane permeable cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, designed to block cell division. It is currently undergoing a phase II clinical trial as an anticancer drug. We show that (R)-roscovitine increases a tonic GABA-mediated current in rat hippocampal neurons. This enhanced tonic current appears independent of synaptic GABA release and requires functional transmembrane GABA transport. The effect of (R)-roscovitine is associated with neither modification of GABAA receptors nor protein kinase activity, but is associated with a significant increase in intracellular GABA concentration in hippocampal GABAergic neurons. (R)-roscovitine-induced tonic inhibition significantly suppresses spontaneous spiking activity of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Therefore, (R)-roscovitine is a potent modulator of neuronal activity in rat hippocampus and may provide a tool for preventing paroxysmal activity.

  17. Insulation for Daydreams: A Role for Tonic Norepinephrine in the Facilitation of Internally Guided Thought

    PubMed Central

    Smallwood, Jonathan; Brown, Kevin S.; Baird, Benjamin; Mrazek, Michael D.; Franklin, Michael S.; Schooler, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Although consciousness can be brought to bear on both perceptual and internally generated information, little is known about how these different cognitive modes are coordinated. Here we show that between-participant variance in thoughts unrelated to the task being performed (known as task unrelated thought, TUT) is associated with longer response times (RT) when target presentation occurs during periods when baseline Pupil Diameter (PD) is increased. As behavioral interference due to high baseline PD can reflect increased tonic activity in the norepinephrine system (NE), these results might implicate high tonic NE activity in the facilitation of TUTs. Based on these findings, it is hypothesised that high tonic mode NE leads to a generalised de-amplification of task relevant information that prioritses internally generated thought and insulates it from the potentially disruptive events taking place in the external environment. PMID:22493672

  18. Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomić, Sinisa

    2009-12-01

    Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework.

  19. Painful tonic spasms and brainstem involvement in a patient with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Roman-Filip, Corina; Ungureanu, Aurelian; Cernuşcă-Miţaru, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system classically characterized by optic neuritis and severe myelitis. New diagnostic criteria defined neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder as limited forms of NMO or diverse neurologic presentations in the presence of specific antiaquaporin-4 antibodies. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman admitted in our department for recurrent attacks of optic neuritis, tetraparesis with severe painful tonic spasms of the left limbs and brainstem involvement. Painful tonic spasms have been described as movement disorders associated with multiple sclerosis, but a growing number of reports describe them in cases of NMO.

  20. Tonic Pupil, a Paraneoplastic Neuro-Ophtalmological Disease Associated with Occult Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Peyman, Alireza; Kabiri, Majid; Peyman, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a case of tonic pupil associated with occult breast cancer as a paraneoplastic neuro-ophthalmology syndrome. A 45-year-old woman developed progressive photophobia and blurred vision due to unilateral Adie's tonic pupil. Magnetic resonance image of her brain and neurological examination (including deep tendon reflexes) were normal at first visit. Follow-up examinations performed by ophthalmologist every 6 month without any change in her condition. After 2 years, patient discovered a mass in her breast which identified to be malignant after diagnostic procedures. Despite surgical and medical treatment for cancer, no change in the ocular condition was happened.

  1. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model.

  2. Herbal supplements: Facts and myths--talking to your patients about herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Messina, Barbara Ann M

    2006-08-01

    The use of herbal supplements in the United States is steadily growing and raises concerns about safety, efficacy, and how they affect safe patient care. The direct health risks associated with herbal supplements include hypertension, prolonged bleeding, and the potential for drug-herb interactions. These potential drug interactions are of particular concern for patients undergoing anesthesia. This article provides a review of literature on the 10 most popular herbal supplements and addresses the herbal supplements' reported use, possible adverse effect(s), patient teaching, possible drug interaction(s), and recommendations regarding discontinuation before surgery.

  3. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  4. Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sophie; West, Lance M

    2012-06-01

    We report an extensive intra-operative bleed which may have occurred as a result of the patient taking a herbal medicine. The patient underwent orthognathic surgery as a part of his orthodontic treatment, and lost approximately 3.5 litres of blood during the procedure. Preoperative blood tests were normal; the patient took no prescription medications and an appendectomy had been performed without incident. To aid healing, however, the patient had taken arnica the day before his operation. A concise literature review is presented which outlines the causes of surgical bleeding and discusses some of the bleeding concerns that herbal medicine use may raise for clinicians. Herbal medicines may contribute to unexplained surgical bleeding in the absence of other causative factors; it would therefore be useful to include an enquiry about the taking of herbal remedies at the history-taking stage for dental and maxillofacial surgical procedures.

  5. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future.

  6. Herbal Medications in Cardiovascular Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liperoti, Rosa; Vetrano, Davide L; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2017-03-07

    Herbal medications are commonly used for clinical purposes, including the treatment of cardiovascular conditions. Compared with conventional medications, herbal medications do not require clinical studies before their marketing or formal approval from regulatory agencies, and for this reason their efficacy and safety are rarely proven. In this review, we summarize available evidence on herbal medications mostly used in cardiovascular medicine. We show that the use of these medications for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases is often not supported by scientific evidence. Despite most of these herbs showing an effect on biological mechanisms related to the cardiovascular system, data on their clinical effects are lacking. Potential relevant side effects, including increased risk of drug interactions, are described, and the possibility of contamination or substitution with other medications represents a concern. Physicians should always assess the use of herbal medications with patients and discuss the possible benefits and side effects with them.

  7. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  8. Risks associated with consumption of herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S

    1997-01-01

    Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available.

  9. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice.

    PubMed

    Kim Sooi, Law; Lean Keng, Soon

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy.

  10. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving re-uptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068

  11. Tonic Investigation Concept of Cervico-vestibular Muscle Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Linda Josephine; Lappat, Annabelle; Neuhuber, Winfried; Scherer, Hans; Olze, Heidi; Hölzl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interdisciplinary research has contributed greatly to an improved understanding of the vestibular system. To date, however, very little research has focused on the vestibular system's somatosensory afferents. To ensure the diagnostic quality of vestibular somatosensory afferent data, especially the extra cranial afferents, stimulation of the vestibular balance system has to be precluded. Objective Sophisticated movements require intra- and extra cranial vestibular receptors. The study's objective is to evaluate an investigation concept for cervico-vestibular afferents with respect to clinical feasibility. Methods A dedicated chair was constructed, permitting three-dimensional trunk excursions, during which the volunteer's head remains fixed. Whether or not a cervicotonic provocation nystagmus (c-PN) can be induced with static trunk excursion is to be evaluated and if this can be influenced by cervical monophasic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (c-TENS) with a randomized test group. 3D-video-oculography (VOG) was used to record any change in cervico-ocular examination parameters. The occurring nystagmuses were evaluated visually due to the small caliber of nystagmus amplitudes in healthy volunteers. Results The results demonstrate: no influence of placebo-controlled c-TENS on the spontaneous nystagmus; a significant increase of the vertical nystagmus on the 3D-trunk-excursion chair in static trunk flexion with cervical provocation in all young healthy volunteers (n = 49); and a significant difference between vertical and horizontal nystagmuses during static trunk excursion after placebo-controlled c-TENS, except for the horizontal nystagmus during trunk torsion. Conclusion We hope this cervicotonic investigation concept on the 3D trunk-excursion chair will contribute to new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives on cervical pathologies in vestibular head-to-trunk alignment. PMID:28050208

  12. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  13. Tonic Immobility in Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors and Its Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Sauder, Colin L.; Martin, Elaine K.; Marx, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that 37% to 52% of sexual assault survivors report experiencing a set of peritraumatic responses, which include gross motor inhibition, analgesia, and fixed or unfocused staring. This response set closely resembles a set of unconditioned responses, collectively known as Tonic Immobility (TI). This study examined TI among…

  14. Tonic Firing Rate Controls Dendritic Ca2+ Signaling and Synaptic Gain in Substantia Nigra Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Substantia nigra dopamine neurons fire tonically resulting in action potential backpropagation and dendritic Ca2+ influx. Using Ca2+ imaging in acute mouse brain slices, we find a surprisingly steep relationship between tonic firing rate and dendritic Ca2+. Increasing the tonic rate from 1 to 6 Hz generated Ca2+ signals up to fivefold greater than predicted by linear summation of single spike-evoked Ca2+-transients. This “Ca2+ supralinearity” was produced largely by depolarization of the interspike voltage leading to activation of subthreshold Ca2+ channels and was present throughout the proximal and distal dendrites. Two-photon glutamate uncaging experiments show somatic depolarization enhances NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ signals >400 μm distal to the soma, due to unusually tight electrotonic coupling of the soma to distal dendrites. Consequently, we find that fast tonic firing intensifies synaptically driven burst firing output in dopamine neurons. These results show that modulation of background firing rate precisely tunes dendritic Ca2+ signaling and provides a simple yet powerful mechanism to dynamically regulate the gain of synaptic input. PMID:25855191

  15. Tonic and phasic co-variation of peripheral arousal indices in infants

    PubMed Central

    Wass, S.V.; de Barbaro, K.; Clackson, K.

    2015-01-01

    Tonic and phasic differences in peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) indicators strongly predict differences in attention and emotion regulation in developmental populations. However, virtually all previous research has been based on individual ANS measures, which poses a variety of conceptual and methodlogical challenges to comparing results across studies. Here we recorded heart rate, electrodermal activity (EDA), pupil size, head movement velocity and peripheral accelerometry concurrently while a cohort of 37 typical 12-month-old infants completed a mixed assessment battery lasting approximately 20 min per participant. We analysed covariation of these autonomic indices in three ways: first, tonic (baseline) arousal; second, co-variation in spontaneous (phasic) changes during testing; third, phasic co-variation relative to an external stimulus event. We found that heart rate, head velocity and peripheral accelerometry showed strong positive co-variation across all three analyses. EDA showed no co-variation in tonic activity levels but did show phasic positive co-variation with other measures, that appeared limited to sections of high but not low general arousal. Tonic pupil size showed significant positive covariation, but phasic pupil changes were inconsistent. We conclude that: (i) there is high covariation between autonomic indices in infants, but that EDA may only be sensitive at extreme arousal levels, (ii) that tonic pupil size covaries with other indices, but does not show predicted patterns of phasic change and (iii) that motor activity appears to be a good proxy measure of ANS activity. The strongest patterns of covariation were observed using epoch durations of 40 s per epoch, although significant covariation between indices was also observed using shorter epochs (1 and 5 s). PMID:26316360

  16. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  17. Single-point but not tonic cuff pressure pain sensitivity is associated with level of physical fitness--a study of non-athletic healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is often used for pain rehabilitation but the link between physical activity level and pain sensitivity is still not fully understood. Pressure pain sensitivity to cuff algometry and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated in highly active men (n=22), normally active men (n=26), highly active women (n=27) and normally active women (n=23) based on the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Cuff pressure pain sensitivity was assessed at the arm and lower leg. The subjects scored the pain intensity on an electronic Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) during ten minutes with 25 kPa constant cuff pressure and two minutes with zero pressure. The maximal VAS score and area under the VAS-curve were extracted. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded by manual pressure algometry on the ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle before, during and after the tonic arm stimulation. Tonic cuff stimulation of the arm and leg resulted in higher VAS peak scores in women compared with men (p<0.04). In all groups the PPTs were reduced during and after the cuff stimulation compared with baseline (p=0.001). PPT were higher in men compared with women (p=0.03) and higher in highly physical active compared with normal active (p=0.048). Besides the well-known gender difference in pressure pain sensitivity this study demonstrates that a high physical fitness degree in non-athletic subjects is associated with increased pressure pain thresholds but does not affect cuff pressure pain sensitivity in healthy people.

  18. Metals Content in Herbal Supplements.

    PubMed

    Barrella, Michelle Vieira; Heringer, Otavio Arruda; Cardoso, Priscylla Maria Martins; Pimentel, Elisangela Flavia; Scherer, Rodrigo; Lenz, Dominik; Endringer, Denise C

    2017-02-01

    Obesity has become an international epidemic. To evaluate the level of metals in extracts of plants prescribed as weight loss supplements, different brands containing Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Citrus aurantium L., Cordia ecalyculata Vell, Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil, Cissus quadrangularis L., Senna alexandrina Mill were purchased in local market, hot acid digested, and analyzed while metal content by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, ICP-OES. Quality assurance and quality control tests were carried out in order to monitor and control the reliability of the analytical method. For each metal evaluated, a calibration curve was prepared with certified reference material. The recovery test was performed for each batch of samples. Analyses were performed in triplicate. Quantification of aluminum, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, vanadium, and zinc were determined. The metals most frequently detected were manganese (15.3-329,60 mg kg(-1)) aluminum (11.76-342.4 mg kg(-1)), and iron (11.14-73.01 mg kg(-1)) with higher levels in products containing C. sinensis China origin, I. paraguariensis Brazilian origin, C. quadrangularis, and C. aurantium China origin, respectively. To ensure safety consumption, an adequacy of the certification of Brazilian suppliers for herbal weight loss products is indispensable.

  19. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  20. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated.

  1. Traditional Chinese herbal remedies for Asthma and Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in westernized countries is a significant health problem. Curative therapies for these diseases are not available. There are also significant concerns regarding the potential side effects from the chronic use of conventional drugs such as corticosteroids, especially in children. Many patients with chronic allergic conditions seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). This trend has begun to attract interest from the mainstream healthcare providers and scientific investigators, and has stimulated government agencies in the US to provide support and guidance for the scientific investigation of CAM. This effort may lead to improved therapies and better healthcare/patient outcomes. This review presents an update on the most promising Chinese herbal remedies for asthma and food allergy. PMID:17560638

  2. Tonic Electromyogram Density in Multiple System Atrophy with Predominant Parkinsonism and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Shen, Yun; Xiong, Kang-Ping; He, Pei-Cheng; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Li, Jie; Wang, Fu-Yu; Wang, Ya-Li; Huang, Jun-Ying; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) have associated sleep disorders related to the underlying neurodegenerative pathology. Clinically, MSA with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) resembles PD in the manifestation of prominent parkinsonism. Whether the amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia could be a potential marker for differentiating MSA-P from PD has not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to examine whether sleep parameters could provide a method for differentiating MSA-P from PD. Methods: This study comprised 24 MSA-P patients and 30 PD patients, and they were of similar age, gender, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) prevalence. All patients underwent clinical evaluation and one night of video-polysomnography recording. The tonic and phasic chin electromyogram (EMG) activity was manually quantified during REM sleep of each patient. We divided both groups in terms of whether they had RBD to make subgroup analysis. Results: No significant difference between MSA-P group and PD group had been found in clinical characteristics and sleep architecture. However, MSA-P patients had higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI; 1.15 [0.00, 8.73]/h vs. 0.00 [0.00, 0.55]/h, P = 0.024) and higher tonic chin EMG density (34.02 [18.48, 57.18]% vs. 8.40 [3.11, 13.06]%, P < 0.001) as compared to PD patients. Subgroup analysis found that tonic EMG density in MSA + RBD subgroup was higher than that in PD + RBD subgroup (55.04 [26.81, 69.62]% vs. 11.40 [8.51, 20.41]%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, no evidence of any difference in tonic EMG density emerged between PD + RBD and MSA - RBD subgroups (P > 0.05). Both disease duration (P = 0.056) and AHI (P = 0.051) showed no significant differences during subgroup analysis although there was a trend toward longer disease duration in PD + RBD subgroup and higher AHI in MSA - RBD subgroup. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified the presence of MSA-P (β = 0.552, P

  3. Review Raises Questions about Herbal Meds for Heart Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163808.html Review Raises Questions About Herbal Meds for Heart Problems ... popular among people with heart disease, a new review suggests. "Physicians should improve their knowledge of herbal ...

  4. Herbal Supplements May Not Mix with Heart Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health Some herbal supplements can have dangerous interactions with heart medications. By Mayo Clinic Staff ... 26, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/in-depth/herbal-supplements/art-20046488 . ...

  5. Peripheral chemoreceptors tune inspiratory drive via tonic expiratory neuron hubs in the medullary ventral respiratory column network.

    PubMed

    Segers, L S; Nuding, S C; Ott, M M; Dean, J B; Bolser, D C; O'Connor, R; Morris, K F; Lindsey, B G

    2015-01-01

    Models of brain stem ventral respiratory column (VRC) circuits typically emphasize populations of neurons, each active during a particular phase of the respiratory cycle. We have proposed that "tonic" pericolumnar expiratory (t-E) neurons tune breathing during baroreceptor-evoked reductions and central chemoreceptor-evoked enhancements of inspiratory (I) drive. The aims of this study were to further characterize the coordinated activity of t-E neurons and test the hypothesis that peripheral chemoreceptors also modulate drive via inhibition of t-E neurons and disinhibition of their inspiratory neuron targets. Spike trains of 828 VRC neurons were acquired by multielectrode arrays along with phrenic nerve signals from 22 decerebrate, vagotomized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated adult cats. Forty-eight of 191 t-E neurons fired synchronously with another t-E neuron as indicated by cross-correlogram central peaks; 32 of the 39 synchronous pairs were elements of groups with mutual pairwise correlations. Gravitational clustering identified fluctuations in t-E neuron synchrony. A network model supported the prediction that inhibitory populations with spike synchrony reduce target neuron firing probabilities, resulting in offset or central correlogram troughs. In five animals, stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors evoked changes in the firing rates of 179 of 240 neurons. Thirty-two neuron pairs had correlogram troughs consistent with convergent and divergent t-E inhibition of I cells and disinhibitory enhancement of drive. Four of 10 t-E neurons that responded to sequential stimulation of peripheral and central chemoreceptors triggered 25 cross-correlograms with offset features. The results support the hypothesis that multiple afferent systems dynamically tune inspiratory drive in part via coordinated t-E neurons.

  6. Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Alan Keith

    2008-01-01

    Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment.

  7. Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    (1) Functional dyspepsia is extremely common, yet few if any treatments have been shown to be effective. This review examines the potential benefits and risks of using herbal products in treating symptoms of dyspepsia. (2) About forty plants have been approved in France in the composition of products traditionally used for dyspepsia. (3) The clinical efficacy of most of these plants has not been assessed. Some essential oils can cause severe adverse effects, including seizures. Herbal teas appear to be safe when used appropriately. (4) A few randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that peppermint essential oil is effective in reducing abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea in patients with "irritable bowel syndrome". Peppermint tea, containing essential oil, has no known adverse effects. (5) There is no sound reason to discourage patients from using herbal teas made from plants such as lemon balm, German chamomile or star anise.

  8. Herbal medicines as adjuvants for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention.

  9. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    PubMed

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used.

  10. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases.

  11. Japanese herbal medicine in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Inadomi, J M; Hibi, T

    2009-07-01

    Management of functional gastrointestinal disorders is hindered by both poor efficacy and adverse effects of traditional pharmacological therapy. Herbal medicine may be an attractive alternative based on the perception of its 'natural' approach and low risk of side effects; however, the lack of standardization of drug components has limited the ability to perform rigorous clinical studies in Western countries. Japanese herbal medicine (JHM) is a standardized form of herbal medicine with regards to the quality and quantities of ingredients. While extensively studied and widely used in Asia, there is a paucity of data upon which physicians in other parts of the world may draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to summarize the most recent developments in JHM for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data of JHM used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The herbal components of JHM were examined. Results describing the physiological and clinical effects of JHM were abstracted, with an emphasis on functional gastrointestinal disorders. JHM are associated with a variety of beneficial physiological on the gastrointestinal system. Patient-based clinical outcomes are improved in several conditions. Rikkunnshi-to reduces symptoms and reverses physiological abnormalities associated with functional dyspepsia, while dai-kenchu-to improves symptoms of postoperative ileus and constipation in children. This updated summary of JHM in the field of gastrointestinal disorders illustrates the potential for herbal medication to serve a valuable role in the management of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  12. Dream recall after night awakenings from tonic/phasic REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Hodoba, Danilo; Hrabrić, Kremimir; Krmpotić, Pavao; Brecić, Petra; Kujundzić-Tiljak, Mirjana; Majdaneić, Zeljko

    2008-01-01

    Eleven healthy subjects, 9 females and 2 males aged 21-23, were submitted to all night polygraphic recording and awaken in REM (Rapid Eye Movements) sleep, randomly upon tonic or phasic REM. Immediately upon awakening subjects were asked about possible dreaming according to the standardized questionnaire. Seventy-seven dreams, i.e. 79% of all 97 REM awakenings, were reported and analyzed. There were no significant differences in reported frequency of dreamings after awakening, mood and dream content due to phasic/tonic REM sleep. Dreams from phasic REM were a bit more colorful. Predictor of morning remembering of dreams was meaninglessness, not meaningfulness of dreams, and, in lesser extent, good mood, colorfulness, dreams with words and phasic REM sleep.

  13. Selective responses to tonic descending commands by temporal summation in a spinal motor pool

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Chun; McLean, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Motor responses of varying intensities rely on descending commands to heterogeneous pools of motoneurons. In vertebrates, numerous sources of descending excitatory input provide systematically more drive to progressively less excitable spinal motoneurons. While this presumably facilitates simultaneous activation of motor pools, it is unclear how selective patterns of recruitment could emerge from inputs weighted this way. Here, using in vivo electrophysiological and imaging approaches in larval zebrafish, we find that, despite weighted excitation, more excitable motoneurons are preferentially activated by a midbrain reticulospinal nucleus, by virtue of longer membrane time constants that facilitate temporal summation of tonic drive. We confirm the utility of this phenomenon by assessing the activity of the midbrain and motoneuron populations during a light-driven behavior. Our findings demonstrate that weighted descending commands can generate selective motor responses by exploiting systematic differences in the biophysical properties of target motoneurons and their relative sensitivity to tonic input. PMID:25066087

  14. Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Shampoo Powder

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sachin; Nema, Neelesh; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a standard formulation and evaluation parameters, which will certainly help in the standardization for quality and purity of such type of herbal powder shampoos. PMID:22557149

  15. Dynamics of Intrinsic Dendritic Calcium Signaling during Tonic Firing of Thalamic Reticular Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chausson, Patrick; Leresche, Nathalie; Lambert, Régis C.

    2013-01-01

    The GABAergic neurons of the nucleus reticularis thalami that control the communication between thalamus and cortex are interconnected not only through axo-dendritic synapses but also through gap junctions and dendro-dendritic synapses. It is still unknown whether these dendritic communication processes may be triggered both by the tonic and the T-type Ca2+ channel-dependent high frequency burst firing of action potentials displayed by nucleus reticularis neurons during wakefulness and sleep, respectively. Indeed, while it is known that activation of T-type Ca2+ channels actively propagates throughout the dendritic tree, it is still unclear whether tonic action potential firing can also invade the dendritic arborization. Here, using two-photon microscopy, we demonstrated that dendritic Ca2+ responses following somatically evoked action potentials that mimic wake-related tonic firing are detected throughout the dendritic arborization. Calcium influx temporally summates to produce dendritic Ca2+ accumulations that are linearly related to the duration of the action potential trains. Increasing the firing frequency facilitates Ca2+ influx in the proximal but not in the distal dendritic compartments suggesting that the dendritic arborization acts as a low-pass filter in respect to the back-propagating action potentials. In the more distal compartment of the dendritic tree, T-type Ca2+ channels play a crucial role in the action potential triggered Ca2+ influx suggesting that this Ca2+ influx may be controlled by slight changes in the local dendritic membrane potential that determine the T-type channels’ availability. We conclude that by mediating Ca2+ dynamic in the whole dendritic arborization, both tonic and burst firing of the nucleus reticularis thalami neurons might control their dendro-dendritic and electrical communications. PMID:23991078

  16. Clinical course of untreated tonic-clonic seizures in childhood: prospective, hospital based study.

    PubMed Central

    van Donselaar, C. A.; Brouwer, O. F.; Geerts, A. T.; Arts, W. F.; Stroink, H.; Peters, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess decleration and acceleration in the disease process in the initial phase of epilepsy in children with new onset tonic-clonic seizures. STUDY DESIGN: Hospital based follow up study. SETTING: Two university hospitals, a general hospital, and a children's hospital in the Netherlands. PATIENTS: 204 children aged 1 month to 16 years with idiopathic or remote symptomatic, newly diagnosed, tonic-clonic seizures, of whom 123 were enrolled at time of their first ever seizure; all children were followed until the start of drug treatment (78 children), the occurrence of the fourth untreated seizure (41 children), or the end of the follow up period of two years (85 untreated children). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis of disease pattern from first ever seizure. The pattern was categorised as decelerating if the child became free of seizures despite treatment being withheld. In cases with four seizures, the pattern was categorised as decelerating if successive intervals increased or as accelerating if intervals decreased. Patterns in the remaining children were classified as uncertain. RESULTS: A decelerating pattern was found in 83 of 85 children who became free of seizures without treatment. Three of the 41 children with four or more untreated seizures showed a decelerating pattern and eight an accelerating pattern. In 110 children the disease process could not be classified, mostly because drug treatment was started after the first, second, or third seizure. The proportion of children with a decelerating pattern (42%, 95% confidence interval 35% to 49%) may be a minimum estimate because of the large number of patients with an uncertain disease pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Though untreated epilepsy is commonly considered to be a progressive disorder with decreasing intervals between seizures, a large proportion of children with newly diagnosed, unprovoked tonic-clonic seizures have a decelerating disease process. The fear that tonic-clonic seizures commonly

  17. Reduced GABAAR-mediated tonic inhibition in aged rat auditory thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Ben D.; Ling, Lynne L.; Uteshev, Victor V.; Caspary, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related deficits in detecting and understanding speech, which can lead to social withdrawal and isolation, have been linked to changes in the central auditory system. Many of these central age-related changes involve altered mechanisms of inhibitory neurotransmission, essential for accurate and reliable auditory processing. In sensory thalamus, GABA mediates fast (phasic) inhibition via synaptic GABAAR and long-lasting (tonic) inhibition via high affinity (extrasynaptic) GABAARs which provide a majority of the overall inhibitory tone in sensory thalamus. Due to a delicate balance between excitation and inhibition, alteration of normal thalamic inhibitory function with age and a reduction of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition may disrupt normal adult auditory processing, sensory gating, thalamocortical rhythmicity and slow-wave sleep. The present study examined age-related homeostatic plasticity of GABAAR function in auditory thalamus or medial geniculate body (MGB). Using thalamic slices from young adult (3–8 months) and aged (28–32 months) rats, these studies found a 45.5% reduction in GABAAR density and a 50.4% reduction in GABAAR-mediated tonic whole cell Cl− currents in the aged MGB. Synaptic GABAAR-mediated inhibition appeared differentially affected in aged lemniscal and non-lemniscal MGB. Except for resting membrane potential, basic properties were unaltered with age, including neuronal Cl− homeostasis determined using the gramicidin perforated patch-clamp method. Results demonstrate selective significant age-dependent deficits in the tonic inhibitory tone within the MGB. These data suggest that selective GABAAR subtype agonists or modulators might be used to augment MGB inhibitory neurotransmission, improving speech understanding, sensory gating and slow-wave sleep for a subset of elderly individuals. PMID:23325258

  18. Honeybee Kenyon cells are regulated by a tonic GABA receptor conductance.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mary J; Harvey, Jenni

    2014-10-15

    The higher cognitive functions of insects are dependent on their mushroom bodies (MBs), which are particularly large in social insects such as honeybees. MB Kenyon cells (KCs) receive multisensory input and are involved in associative learning and memory. In addition to receiving sensory input via excitatory nicotinic synapses, KCs receive inhibitory GABAergic input from MB feedback neurons. Cultured honeybee KCs exhibit ionotropic GABA receptor currents, but the properties of GABA-mediated inhibition in intact MBs are currently unknown. Here, using whole cell recordings from KCs in acutely isolated honeybee brain, we show that KCs exhibit a tonic current that is inhibited by picrotoxin but not by bicuculline. Bath application of GABA (5 μM) and taurine (1 mM) activate a tonic current in KCs, but l-glutamate (0.1-0.5 mM) has no effect. The tonic current is strongly potentiated by the allosteric GABAA receptor modulator pentobarbital and is reduced by inhibition of Ca(2+) channels with Cd(2+) or nifedipine. Noise analysis of the GABA-evoked current gives a single-channel conductance value for the underlying receptors of 27 ± 3 pS, similar to that of resistant to dieldrin (RDL) receptors. The amount of injected current required to evoke action potential firing in KCs is significantly lower in the presence of picrotoxin. KCs recorded in an intact honeybee head preparation similarly exhibit a tonic GABA receptor conductance that reduces neuronal excitability, a property that is likely to contribute to the sparse coding of sensory information in insect MBs.

  19. Deficient tonic GABAergic conductance and synaptic balance in the fragile X syndrome amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brandon S.; Corbin, Joshua G.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability. Comorbidities of FXS such as autism are increasingly linked to imbalances in excitation and inhibition (E/I) as well as dysfunction in GABAergic transmission in a number of brain regions including the amygdala. However, the link between E/I imbalance and GABAergic transmission deficits in the FXS amygdala is poorly understood. Here we reveal that normal tonic GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission in principal neurons (PNs) of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is comprised of both δ- and α5-subunit-containing GABAA receptors. Furthermore, tonic GABAergic capacity is reduced in these neurons in the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model of FXS (1.5-fold total, 3-fold δ-subunit, and 2-fold α5-subunit mediated) as indicated by application of gabazine (50 μM), 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP, 1 μM), and α5ia (1.5 μM) in whole cell patch-clamp recordings. Moreover, α5-containing tonic GABAA receptors appear to preferentially modulate nonsomatic compartments of BLA PNs. Examination of evoked feedforward synaptic transmission in these cells surprisingly revealed no differences in overall synaptic conductance or E/I balance between wild-type (WT) and Fmr1 KO mice. Instead, we observed altered feedforward kinetics in Fmr1 KO PNs that supports a subtle yet significant decrease in E/I balance at the peak of excitatory conductance. Blockade of α5-subunit-containing GABAA receptors replicated this condition in WT PNs. Therefore, our data suggest that tonic GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission can modulate synaptic E/I balance and timing established by feedforward inhibition and thus may represent a therapeutic target to enhance amygdala function in FXS. PMID:24848467

  20. Sympatho-excitatory neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla are oxygen sensors and essential elements in the tonic and reflex control of the systemic and cerebral circulations.

    PubMed

    Reis, D J; Golanov, E V; Ruggiero, D A; Sun, M K

    1994-12-01

    MEDULLARY ROSTRAL VENTROLATERAL RETICULAR NUCLEUS (RVL): Reticulospinal neurons are critical to control of the circulation by the brain. Its actions are implemented by a few reticulospinal neurons, 200 in the rat. These directly innervate and excite preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord by releasing L-glutamate. The RVL-spinal sympathetic premotor neurons are innervated by neurochemically diverse afferents from local and remote sources. They maintain arterial pressure tonically, mediate vasomotor reflexes elicited by stimulation of baro- or chemoreceptors or in response to pain or muscular exercise, and couple vasomotor responses to defense and conditioned fear behaviors. RVL-spinal neurons are central oxygen sensors, directly excited by hypoxia, and initiate sympathetic responses to cerebral ischemia or distortion (Cushing reflex). Stimulation of the RVL directly elevates cerebral flow independently of metabolism and initiates much of the cerebrovascular vasodilation in response to hypoxemia. RVL-SPINAL NEURONS IN RELATION TO HYPERTENSION AND SHOCK: RVL-spinal neurons are sites of action for many centrally acting antihypertensive drugs and some vasoactive hormones. Their integrity is required for expression of the elevated arterial pressure in neurogenic hypertension and for the compensatory sympathetic responses to hemorrhage. We propose that RVL-spinal neurons (1) maintain the activity of sympathetic neurons in mid-range amplifying, thereby, their signaling capacities; (2) initiate and integrate circulatory responses to a lack of oxygen so as to protect the brain from real or threatened hypoxia; (3) maintain, by tonic activity, normal expression of genes and gene products of central and peripheral sympathetic neurons and their peripheral targets that relate to their structure and neurotransmission-associated functions.

  1. Role of tonic GABAergic currents during pre- and early postnatal rodent development

    PubMed Central

    Kilb, Werner; Kirischuk, Sergei; Luhmann, Heiko J.

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades it became evident that the GABAergic system plays an essential role for the development of the central nervous system, by influencing the proliferation of neuronal precursors, neuronal migration and differentiation, as well as by controlling early activity patterns and thus formation of neuronal networks. GABA controls neuronal development via depolarizing membrane responses upon activation of ionotropic GABA receptors. However, many of these effects occur before the onset of synaptic GABAergic activity and thus require the presence of extrasynaptic tonic currents in neuronal precursors and immature neurons. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the role of tonic GABAergic currents during early brain development. In this review we compare the temporal sequence of the expression and functional relevance of different GABA receptor subunits, GABA synthesizing enzymes and GABA transporters. We also refer to other possible endogenous agonists of GABAA receptors. In addition, we describe functional consequences mediated by the GABAergic system during early developmental periods and discuss current models about the origin of extrasynaptic GABA and/or other endogenous GABAergic agonists during early developmental states. Finally, we present evidence that tonic GABAergic activity is also critically involved in the generation of physiological as well as pathophysiological activity patterns before and after the establishment of functional GABAergic synaptic connections. PMID:24027498

  2. Role of rho kinase in the functional and dysfunctional tonic smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Márcio A F; Rattan, Satish

    2011-07-01

    Tonic smooth muscles play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of debilitating diseases of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Tonic smooth muscles differ from phasic smooth muscles in the ability to spontaneously develop myogenic tone. This ability has been primarily attributed to the local production of specific neurohumoral substances that can work in conjunction with calcium sensitization via signal transduction events associated with the Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK II) pathways. In this article, we discuss the molecular pathways involved in the myogenic properties of tonic smooth muscles, particularly the contribution of protein kinase C vs the RhoA/ROCK II pathway in the genesis of basal tone, pathophysiology and novel therapeutic approaches for certain gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that manipulation of RhoA/ROCK II activity through inhibitors or silencing of RNA interface techniques could represent a new therapeutic approach for various gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases.

  3. T-type calcium channels consolidate tonic action potential output of thalamic neurons to neocortex.

    PubMed

    Deleuze, Charlotte; David, François; Béhuret, Sébastien; Sadoc, Gérard; Shin, Hee-Sup; Uebele, Victor N; Renger, John J; Lambert, Régis C; Leresche, Nathalie; Bal, Thierry

    2012-08-29

    The thalamic output during different behavioral states is strictly controlled by the firing modes of thalamocortical neurons. During sleep, their hyperpolarized membrane potential allows activation of the T-type calcium channels, promoting rhythmic high-frequency burst firing that reduces sensory information transfer. In contrast, in the waking state thalamic neurons mostly exhibit action potentials at low frequency (i.e., tonic firing), enabling the reliable transfer of incoming sensory inputs to cortex. Because of their nearly complete inactivation at the depolarized potentials that are experienced during the wake state, T-channels are not believed to modulate tonic action potential discharges. Here, we demonstrate using mice brain slices that activation of T-channels in thalamocortical neurons maintained in the depolarized/wake-like state is critical for the reliable expression of tonic firing, securing their excitability over changes in membrane potential that occur in the depolarized state. Our results establish a novel mechanism for the integration of sensory information by thalamocortical neurons and point to an unexpected role for T-channels in the early stage of information processing.

  4. Processing of musical syntax tonic versus subdominant: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Bigand, Emmanuel; Koelsch, Stefan

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigates the effect of a change in syntactic-like musical function on event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Eight-chord piano sequences were presented to musically expert and novice listeners. Instructed to watch a movie and to ignore the musical sequences, the participants had to react when a chord was played with a different instrument than the piano. Participants were not informed that the relevant manipulation was the musical function of the last chord (target) of the sequences. The target chord acted either as a syntactically stable tonic chord (i.e., a C major chord in the key of C major) or as a less syntactically stable subdominant chord (i.e., a C major chord in the key of G major). The critical aspect of the results related to the impact such a manipulation had on the ERPs. An N5-like frontal negative component was found to be larger for subdominant than for tonic chords and attained significance only in musically expert listeners. These findings suggest that the subdominant chord is more difficult to integrate with the previous context than the tonic chord (as indexing by the observed N5) and that the processing of a small change in musical function occurs in an automatic way in musically expert listeners. The present results are discussed in relation to previous studies investigating harmonic violations with ERPs.

  5. Peptidergic CGRPα primary sensory neurons encode heat and itch and tonically suppress sensitivity to cold.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Eric S; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Street, Sarah E; Pribisko, Alaine L; Zheng, Jihong; Zylka, Mark J

    2013-04-10

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a classic molecular marker of peptidergic primary somatosensory neurons. Despite years of research, it is unknown whether these neurons are required to sense pain or other sensory stimuli. Here, we found that genetic ablation of CGRPα-expressing sensory neurons reduced sensitivity to noxious heat, capsaicin, and itch (histamine and chloroquine) and impaired thermoregulation but did not impair mechanosensation or β-alanine itch-stimuli associated with nonpeptidergic sensory neurons. Unexpectedly, ablation enhanced behavioral responses to cold stimuli and cold mimetics without altering peripheral nerve responses to cooling. Mechanistically, ablation reduced tonic and evoked activity in postsynaptic spinal neurons associated with TRPV1/heat, while profoundly increasing tonic and evoked activity in spinal neurons associated with TRPM8/cold. Our data reveal that CGRPα sensory neurons encode heat and itch and tonically cross-inhibit cold-responsive spinal neurons. Disruption of this crosstalk unmasks cold hypersensitivity, with mechanistic implications for neuropathic pain and temperature perception.

  6. p21-activated kinase 1 restricts tonic endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shuting; Zhou, Zikai; Leung, Celeste; Zhu, Yuehua; Pan, Xingxiu; Qi, Junxia; Morena, Maria; Hill, Matthew N; Xie, Wei; Jia, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    PAK1 inhibitors are known to markedly improve social and cognitive function in several animal models of brain disorders, including autism, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We show here that disruption of PAK1 in mice suppresses inhibitory neurotransmission through an increase in tonic, but not phasic, secretion of endocannabinoids (eCB). Consistently, we found elevated levels of anandamide (AEA), but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) following PAK1 disruption. This increased tonic AEA signaling is mediated by reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and COX-2 inhibitors recapitulate the effect of PAK1 deletion on GABAergic transmission in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner. These results establish a novel signaling process whereby PAK1 upregulates COX-2, reduces AEA and restricts tonic eCB-mediated processes. Because PAK1 and eCB are both critically involved in many other organ systems in addition to the brain, our findings may provide a unified mechanism by which PAK1 regulates these systems and their dysfunctions including cancers, inflammations and allergies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14653.001 PMID:27296803

  7. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

  8. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  9. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  10. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe.

  11. A rapid and low-cost approach to evaluate the allergenicity of herbal injection using HPLC analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Peng, Guoping; Li, Cunyu; Jiang, Baoping; Xu, Haokun; Ding, Ning; Zheng, Yunfeng; Leng, John Q

    2013-07-01

    Herbal medicines have ever been thought harmless, but it is obviously not true. Many adverse reports emerged with the development of their popular application in the world. Allergic reactions, especially serious immediate hypersensitivity, frequently occurred when herbal injections were used in clinic and made this ever prevailing agent nearly disappear in China. The aim of this study is to establish a rapid and economical method for the prediction of the allergenicity of herbal injections. Ovalbumin (OVA) and four other herbal injections, in which two of them were well known for their allergenicity, were selected to sensitize and stimulate the animals. Serotonin in the animal serum was detected with HPLC to reflect the anaphylactic response and compared with the other cytokines which could mediate the anaphylaxis, including histamine, IgE and β-hexosaminidase. The results suggest that serotonin can be detected quickly and has good correlation with the other allergy-related cytokines. It is a promising way for predicting the allergenicity of the herbal injections and those complicated natural products.

  12. Status epilepticus enhances tonic GABA currents and depolarizes GABA reversal potential in dentate fast-spiking basket cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiandong; Proddutur, Archana; Elgammal, Fatima S.; Ito, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with loss of interneurons and inhibitory dysfunction in the dentate gyrus. While status epilepticus (SE) leads to changes in granule cell inhibition, whether dentate basket cells critical for regulating granule cell feedforward and feedback inhibition express tonic GABA currents (IGABA) and undergo changes in inhibition after SE is not known. We find that interneurons immunoreactive for parvalbumin in the hilar-subgranular region express GABAA receptor (GABAAR) δ-subunits, which are known to underlie tonic IGABA. Dentate fast-spiking basket cells (FS-BCs) demonstrate baseline tonic IGABA blocked by GABAAR antagonists. In morphologically and physiologically identified FS-BCs, tonic IGABA is enhanced 1 wk after pilocarpine-induced SE, despite simultaneous reduction in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) frequency. Amplitude of tonic IGABA in control and post-SE FS-BCs is enhanced by 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), demonstrating the contribution of GABAAR δ-subunits. Whereas FS-BC resting membrane potential is unchanged after SE, perforated-patch recordings from FS-BCs show that the reversal potential for GABA currents (EGABA) is depolarized after SE. In model FS-BCs, increasing tonic GABA conductance decreased excitability when EGABA was shunting and increased excitability when EGABA was depolarizing. Although simulated focal afferent activation evoked seizurelike activity in model dentate networks with FS-BC tonic GABA conductance and shunting EGABA, excitability of identical networks with depolarizing FS-BC EGABA showed lower activity levels. Thus, together, post-SE changes in tonic IGABA and EGABA maintain homeostasis of FS-BC activity and limit increases in dentate excitability. These findings have implications for normal FS-BC function and can inform studies examining comorbidities and therapeutics following SE. PMID:23324316

  13. Affinity for MgADP and force of unbinding from actin of myosin purified from tonic and phasic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Léguillette, Renaud; Zitouni, Nedjma B.; Govindaraju, Karuthapillai; Fong, Laura M.; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Smooth muscle is unique in its ability to maintain force at low MgATP consumption. This property, called the latch state, is more prominent in tonic than phasic smooth muscle. Studies performed at the muscle strip level have suggested that myosin from tonic muscle has a greater affinity for MgADP and therefore remains attached to actin longer than myosin from phasic muscle, allowing for cross-bridge dephosphorylation and latch-bridge formation. An alternative hypothesis is that after dephosphorylation, myosin reattaches to actin and maintains force. We investigated these fundamental properties of smooth muscle at the molecular level. We used an in vitro motility assay to measure actin filament velocity (νmax) when propelled by myosin purified from phasic or tonic muscle at increasing [MgADP]. Myosin was 25% thiophosphorylated and 75% unphosphorylated to approximate in vivo conditions. The slope of νmax versus [MgADP] was significantly greater for tonic (−0.51 ± 0.04) than phasic muscle myosin (−0.15 ± 0.04), demonstrating the greater MgADP affinity of myosin from tonic muscle. We then used a laser trap assay to measure the unbinding force from actin of populations of unphosphorylated tonic and phasic muscle myosin. Both myosin types attached to actin, and their unbinding force (0.092 ± 0.022 pN for phasic muscle and 0.084 ± 0.017 pN for tonic muscle) was not statistically different. We conclude that the greater affinity for MgADP of tonic muscle myosin and the reattachment of dephosphorylated myosin to actin may both contribute to the latch state. PMID:18614813

  14. Selective modulation of GABAergic tonic current by dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Marty, Vincent N; Mulpuri, Yatendra; Olsen, Richard W; Spigelman, Igor

    2014-07-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system and plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors. Alterations in glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling were recently demonstrated in the NAcc of rats after chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment, a model of alcohol dependence. Here we studied dopamine (DA) modulation of GABAergic signaling and how this modulation might be altered by CIE treatment. We show that the tonic current (I(tonic)) mediated by extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAcc core is differentially modulated by DA at concentrations in the range of those measured in vivo (0.01-1 μM), without affecting the postsynaptic kinetics of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). Use of selective D1 receptor (D1R) and D2 receptor (D2R) ligands revealed that I(tonic) potentiation by DA (10 nM) is mediated by D1Rs while I(tonic) depression by DA (0.03-1 μM) is mediated by D2Rs in the same MSNs. Addition of guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDPβS) to the recording pipettes eliminated I(tonic) decrease by the selective D2R agonist quinpirole (5 nM), leaving intact the quinpirole effect on mIPSC frequency. Recordings from CIE and vehicle control (CIV) MSNs during application of D1R agonist (SKF 38393, 100 nM) or D2R agonist (quinpirole, 2 nM) revealed that SKF 38393 potentiated I(tonic) to the same extent, while quinpirole reduced I(tonic) to a similar extent, in both groups of rats. Our data suggest that the selective modulatory effects of DA on I(tonic) are unaltered by CIE treatment and withdrawal.

  15. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  16. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  17. HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)

    PubMed Central

    Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

  18. Online sources of herbal product information.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions.

  19. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-01

    Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT) is the fundamental characteristic of Chinese materia medica different from modern medicines. It reflects the herbal properties associated with efficacy and formed the early framework of four properties and five flavors in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. After the supplement and improvement of CHPT in the past thousands of years, it has developed a theory system including four properties, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (ascending, descending, floating and sinking) and toxicity. However, because of the influence of philosophy about yin-yang theory and five-phase theory and the difference of cognitive approach and historical background at different times, CHPT became complex. One of the complexity features was the multiple methods for determining herbal property, which might include the inference from herbal efficacy, the thought of Chinese Taoist School and witchcraft, the classification thinking according to manifestations, etc. Another complexity feature was the multiselection associations between herbal property and efficacy, which indicated that the same property could be inferred from different kinds of efficacy. This paper analyzed these complexity features and provided the importance of cognitive approaches and efficacy attributes corresponding to certain herbal property in the study of CHPT.

  20. Multiple Forms of Endocannabinoid and Endovanilloid Signaling Regulate the Tonic Control of GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Ledri, Marco; Tóth, Blanka; Marchionni, Ivan; Henstridge, Christopher M.; Dudok, Barna; Kenesei, Kata; Barna, László; Szabó, Szilárd I.; Renkecz, Tibor; Oberoi, Michelle; Watanabe, Masahiko; Limoli, Charles L.; Horvai, George; Soltesz, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Persistent CB1 cannabinoid receptor activity limits neurotransmitter release at various synapses throughout the brain. However, it is not fully understood how constitutively active CB1 receptors, tonic endocannabinoid signaling, and its regulation by multiple serine hydrolases contribute to the synapse-specific calibration of neurotransmitter release probability. To address this question at perisomatic and dendritic GABAergic synapses in the mouse hippocampus, we used a combination of paired whole-cell patch-clamp recording, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy super-resolution imaging, and immunogold electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, application of the CB1 antagonist and inverse agonist AM251 [N-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide], but not the neutral antagonist NESS0327 [8-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-piperidin-1-yl-5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[2,3]cyclohepta[2,4-b]pyrazole-3-carboxamine], significantly increased synaptic transmission between CB1-positive perisomatic interneurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons. JZL184 (4-nitrophenyl 4-[bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)(hydroxy)methyl]piperidine-1-carboxylate), a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), the presynaptic degrading enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), elicited a robust increase in 2-AG levels and concomitantly decreased GABAergic transmission. In contrast, inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) by PF3845 (N-pyridin-3-yl-4-[[3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]oxyphenyl]methyl]piperidine-1-carboxamide) elevated endocannabinoid/endovanilloid anandamide levels but did not change GABAergic synaptic activity. However, FAAH inhibitors attenuated tonic 2-AG increase and also decreased its synaptic effects. This antagonistic interaction required the activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor TRPV1, which was concentrated on postsynaptic

  1. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-04-27

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance.

  2. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  3. Diazepam Inhibits Electrically Evoked and Tonic Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens and Reverses the Effect of Amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Gomez-A, Alexander; Fiorenza, Amanda M; Boschen, Suelen L; Sugi, Adam H; Beckman, Danielle; Ferreira, Sergio T; Lee, Kendall; Blaha, Charles D; Da Cunha, Claudio

    2017-02-15

    Diazepam is a benzodiazepine receptor agonist with anxiolytic and addictive properties. Although most drugs of abuse increase the level of release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, here we show that diazepam not only causes the opposite effect but also prevents amphetamine from enhancing dopamine release. We used 20 min sampling in vivo microdialysis and subsecond fast-scan cyclic voltammetry recordings at carbon-fiber microelectrodes to show that diazepam caused a dose-dependent decrease in the level of tonic and electrically evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of urethane-anesthetized adult male Swiss mice. In fast-scan cyclic voltammetry assays, dopamine release was evoked by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area. We observed that 2 and 3 mg of diazepam/kg reduced the level of electrically evoked dopamine release, and this effect was reversed by administration of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil in doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. No significant effects on measures of dopamine re-uptake were observed. Cyclic voltammetry experiments further showed that amphetamine (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) caused a significant increase in the level of dopamine release and in the half-life for dopamine re-uptake. Diazepam (2 mg/kg) significantly weakened the effect of amphetamine on dopamine release without affecting dopamine re-uptake. These results suggest that the pharmacological effects of benzodiazepines have a dopaminergic component. In addition, our findings challenge the classic view that all drugs of abuse cause dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and suggest that benzodiazepines could be useful in the treatment of addiction to other drugs that increase the level of dopamine release, such as cocaine, amphetamines, and nicotine.

  4. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 exerts a tonic brake on G protein-coupled receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Sheffler, Douglas J; Kroeze, Wesley K; Garcia, Bonnie G; Deutch, Ariel Y; Hufeisen, Sandra J; Leahy, Patrick; Brüning, Jens C; Roth, Bryan L

    2006-03-21

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for normal central CNS function and represent the proximal site(s) of action for most neurotransmitters and many therapeutic drugs, including typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Similarly, protein kinases mediate many of the downstream actions for both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. We report here that genetic deletion of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) potentiates GPCR signaling. Initial studies of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor signaling in fibroblasts obtained from RSK2 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice showed that 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and both basal and 5-HT-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation are augmented in RSK2 knockout fibroblasts. Endogenous signaling by other GPCRs, including P2Y-purinergic, PAR-1-thrombinergic, beta1-adrenergic, and bradykinin-B receptors, was also potentiated in RSK2-deficient fibroblasts. Importantly, reintroduction of RSK2 into RSK2-/- fibroblasts normalized signaling, thus demonstrating that RSK2 apparently modulates GPCR signaling by exerting a "tonic brake" on GPCR signal transduction. Our results imply the existence of a novel pathway regulating GPCR signaling, modulated by downstream members of the extracellular signal-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. The loss of RSK2 activity in humans leads to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, which is manifested by mental retardation, growth deficits, skeletal deformations, and psychosis. Because RSK2-inactivating mutations in humans lead to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, our results imply that alterations in GPCR signaling may account for some of its clinical manifestations.

  5. Does acetylcholine released within the C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) tonically maintain arterial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Arneric, S.P.; Giuliano, R.; Ernsberger, P.; Underwood, M.D.; Reis, D.J.

    1986-03-05

    The RVL, which contains C1 epinephrine neurons (C1 area), plays a major role in the maintenance and reflex control of arterial pressure (AP). Muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the C1 area is sympathoexcitatory. They sought to determine whether the C1 area of rat: (1) contains choline acetyltransferase (ChAT); (2) releases acetylcholine (ACh); and (3) has ACh receptors. ChAT was immunocytochemically localized to neurons in the C1 area. ChAT activity (pmol/mg prot./40 min; N=5) varied 10-fold over 19 regions microdissected from medulla; it was highest in the hypoglossal and vagal nuclei (203 +/- 63), lowest in the pyramidal tract (19 +/- 4) and moderate in the C1 area (96 +/- 12). Muscarinic binding sites labeled by /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzylate (2 nM) and identified autoradiographically had a similar distribution. Release of /sup 3/H-ACh from (1.0 x 0.5 mm) punches of the C1 area was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent and graded with respect to the depolarization stimulus (5-55 mM K/sup +/). Bilateral microinjection of atropine sulfate (5.0 nmol/100nl) into the C1 area of urethane anesthetized rats, but not adjacent raphen., lowered MAP (mmHg: - 38 +/- 7; N=7). They conclude that the C1 area contains muscarinic cholinergic receptors and that local neurons synthesize, store and release substantial amounts of ACh. ACh released within the C1 area may participate in the tonic maintenance of resting AP.

  6. A Systems-Pharmacology Analysis of Herbal Medicines Used in Health Improvement Treatment: Predicting Potential New Drugs and Targets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianling; Pei, Mengjie; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    For thousands of years, tonic herbs have been successfully used all around the world to improve health, energy, and vitality. However, their underlying mechanisms of action in molecular/systems levels are still a mystery. In this work, two sets of tonic herbs, so called Qi-enriching herbs (QEH) and Blood-tonifying herbs (BTH) in TCM, were selected to elucidate why they can restore proper balance and harmony inside body, organ and energy system. Firstly, a pattern recognition model based on artificial neural network and discriminant analysis for assessing the molecular difference between QEH and BTH was developed. It is indicated that QEH compounds have high lipophilicity while BTH compounds possess high chemical reactivity. Secondly, a systematic investigation integrating ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) prediction, target fishing and network analysis was performed and validated on these herbs to obtain the compound-target associations for reconstructing the biologically-meaningful networks. The results suggest QEH enhance physical strength, immune system and normal well-being, acting as adjuvant therapy for chronic disorders while BTH stimulate hematopoiesis function in body. As an emerging approach, the systems pharmacology model might facilitate to understand the mechanisms of action of the tonic herbs, which brings about new development for complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:24369484

  7. Tonic and phasic phenomena underlying eye movements during sleep in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Escudero, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sleep is not a homogenous state, and different variables have traditionally been used to distinguish different periods during sleep. Of these variables, eye movement is one of the most paradigmatic, and has been used to differentiate between the so-called rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Despite this, eye movements during sleep are poorly understood, and the behaviour of the oculomotor system remains almost unknown. In the present work, we recorded binocular eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle of adult cats by the scleral search-coil technique. During alertness, eye movements consisted of conjugated saccades and eye fixations. During NREM sleep, eye movements were slow and mostly unconjugated. The two eyes moved upwardly and in the abducting direction, producing a tonic divergence and elevation of the visual axis. During the transition period between NREM and REM sleep, rapid monocular eye movements of low amplitude in the abducting direction occurred in coincidence with ponto-geniculo-occipital waves. Along REM sleep, the eyes tended to maintain a tonic convergence and depression, broken by high-frequency bursts of complex rapid eye movements. In the horizontal plane, each eye movement in the burst comprised two consecutive movements in opposite directions, which were more evident in the eye that performed the abducting movements. In the vertical plane, rapid eye movements were always upward. Comparisons of the characteristics of eye movements during the sleep–wake cycle reveal the uniqueness of eye movements during sleep, and the noteworthy existence of tonic and phasic phenomena in the oculomotor system, not observed until now. PMID:18499729

  8. Menthol enhances phasic and tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in midbrain periaqueductal grey neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Benjamin K; Karim, Shafinaz; Goodchild, Ann K; Vaughan, Christopher W; Drew, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Menthol, a naturally occurring compound in the essential oil of mint leaves, is used for its medicinal, sensory and fragrant properties. Menthol acts via transient receptor potential (TRPM8 and TRPA1) channels and as a positive allosteric modulator of recombinant GABAA receptors. Here, we examined the actions of menthol on GABAA receptor-mediated currents in intact midbrain slices. Experimental Approach Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons in midbrain slices from rats to determine the effects of menthol on GABAA receptor-mediated phasic IPSCs and tonic currents. Key Results Menthol (150–750 μM) produced a concentration-dependent prolongation of spontaneous GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs, but not non-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs throughout the PAG. Menthol actions were unaffected by TRPM8 and TRPA1 antagonists, tetrodotoxin and the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil. Menthol also enhanced a tonic current, which was sensitive to the GABAA receptor antagonists, picrotoxin (100 μM), bicuculline (30 μM) and Zn2+ (100 μM), but unaffected by gabazine (10 μM) and a GABAC receptor antagonist, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid hydrate (TPMPA; 50 μM). In addition, menthol potentiated currents induced by the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist THIP/gaboxadol (10 μM). Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that menthol positively modulates both synaptic and extrasynaptic populations of GABAA receptors in native PAG neurons. The development of agents that potentiate GABAA-mediated tonic currents and phasic IPSCs in a manner similar to menthol could provide a basis for novel GABAA-related pharmacotherapies. PMID:24460753

  9. Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children: TONIC Trial Design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease. The cause of NAFLD is unknown, but it is commonly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Objectives TONIC is conducted to test whether treatment with metformin, an insulin sensitizer, or vitamin E, a naturally available antioxidant, will lead to improvements in biochemical and histological features of nondiabetic children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Design TONIC is a randomized, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of 96 weeks of treatment with metformin or vitamin E. The primary outcome measure chosen for the trial is improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels with treatment as compared to placebo. An improvement in ALT is defined as reduction in serum ALT levels to below 50% of the baseline values or into the normal range (40 U/L or less) during the last 48 weeks of treatment. Histological improvement is defined by changes in liver histology between a baseline and end-of-treatment liver biopsy in regards to (1) steatohepatitis, (2) NAFLD Activity Score, consisting of scores for steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocellular injury (ballooning), and (3) fibrosis score. Methods Between September 2005 and September 2007, 173 children were enrolled into TONIC at 10 clinical centers in the United States. Participants were randomized to receive either metformin (500 mg b.i.d.), vitamin E (400 IU b.i.d.), or placebo for 96 weeks. This protocol was approved by all participating center Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00063635.) PMID:19761871

  10. Fluctuations in intracellular calcium concentration and their effect on tonic tension in canine cardiac Purkinje fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Kort, A A; Lakatta, E G; Marban, E; Stern, M D; Wier, W G

    1985-01-01

    Ca2+-activated aequorin luminescence and tension were measured in dog Purkinje fibres during twitches and during the increase in resting force produced by exposure of the fibres to a low-Na+ solution after 3 min without external K+. Over the restricted range which could be examined, the relation between tension and 'mean' aequorin luminescence (luminescence filtered at 0.2 Hz) was approximately linear during the development and maintenance of contracture. For a given level of force, the mean aequorin luminescence during contracture was up to 20 times greater than the peak luminescence during the twitch. Noise analysis of aequorin luminescence and tension during contracture indicated the presence of periodic fluctuations, with a predominant frequency in the range 1-4 Hz. Ryanodine (1 microM) or caffeine (10 mM) abolished the fluctuations in luminescence and tension and made the relation between tension and mean aequorin luminescence much steeper. A mathematical model, the key feature of which is periodicity in the asynchronous occurrence of spatially localized regions of relatively high [Ca2+], reproduces the experimental data derived from contractures. From the model analysis, we infer that tonic tension is produced by recruitment of increasing numbers of regions of high [Ca2+], rather than by homogeneous graded activation. These results indicate that during contracture or 'tonic tension', intracellular [Ca2+] is not at steady state, but rather undergoes large, asynchronous spatio-temporal fluctuations. Thus the assumptions that intracellular [Ca2+] is at steady state or homogeneous during tonic tension are not valid. PMID:4057100

  11. Searching for hidden information with Gabor Transform in generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Quian Quiroga, R; Blanco, S; Rosso, O A; Garcia, H; Rabinowicz, A

    1997-10-01

    The analysis of generalized tonic clonic seizures is usually difficult with scalp EEG due to muscle artifact. We applied Gabor Transform to evaluate 20 seizures from 8 consecutive patients admitted for video-EEG monitoring. We studied the relative intensity ratios of alpha, theta and delta bands over time. In 14/20 events we found a significant decremental activity in the delta band at the onset of the seizure indicating that this is dominated by theta and alpha bands. We conclude that GT is a useful auxiliary tool in the analysis of ictal activity that sheds light on the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  12. Successful treatment of paroxysmal tonic spasms with topiramate in a patient with neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Iida, Shin; Nakamura, Masataka; Wate, Reika; Kaneko, Satoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2015-09-01

    A 49-year-old woman with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) developed severe quadriplegia and frequent paroxysmal tonic spasms (PTS). Carbamazepine, although initially effective against PTS, caused drug eruption and she was unable to continue. PTS re-emerged after discontinuation of carbamazepine and hindered rehabilitation. Then topiramate was started, and PTS promptly disappeared. The patient became able to resume rehabilitation and her activity of daily life improved significantly. Carbamazepine and topiramate have a common pharmacological action to block voltage-gated sodium channels. The action may have contributed to inhibition of ephaptic transmission in the demyelinating lesions by NMO and eventually improved PTS.

  13. A study of gabapentin in the treatment of tonic-clonic seizures of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Tahirović, Ismet; Kundurović, Zlata

    2004-01-01

    In this study for thirty (30) patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome, the response to anticolvusant gabapentin was assessed. Thirty (30) patients with median age of 57.0 years and median body weight of 79.1 kg were treated with gabapentin 3 x 300 mg daily for up 30 days. The preliminary findings of this study suggest that gabapentin is very effective against tonic-clonic seizures in alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Gabapentin was safe and well tolerated. For twenty (20) patients no side effect were observed.

  14. Integrative physicians and an herbal cancer "cure".

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Rosenberg, Shoshana Keren; Samuels, Noah

    2016-08-01

    Oncologists are frequently asked about herbal remedies claiming to "cure" cancer, or at least delay its progression. While complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) should be aimed primarily at improving quality-of-life (QOL) related concerns, "wonder cures" are part of an alternative health belief model providing hope for a "miracle" where conventional treatment has failed. We describe a physician with extensive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) undergoing chemotherapy, with significant toxicities and impaired daily function. He had come for an integrative physician (IP) consultation, provided by a medical doctor dually trained in CIM and supportive cancer care, taking place in a conventional supportive cancer care service. We describe the IP consultation in general and regarding an herbal remedy which was being promoted as a "cure" for cancer. The subsequent patient-tailored CIM treatment process, in which patients receive evidence-based guidance on treatments which address QOL-related concerns, are presented.

  15. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  16. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  17. Nurse Practitioners’ Experience With Herbal Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    Nursing Services Approval Letter APPENDIX B: USUHS IRB Approval Letter APPENDIX C: Malcolm Grow IRB Approval Letter APPENDIX D: Research Study...schools are beginning to recognize the growing trend of patients resorting to complementary and non-traditional therapies, including the use of herbal...response to this growing trend has not been well documented. Because patients are at an increased risk for medication-herb interactions, adverse side

  18. Nurse Practitioners Experience With Herbal Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    Grow IRB Approval Letter APPENDIX D: Research Study Information Sheet Herbal Therapy 1 CHAPTER I: AIM OF THE STUDY Introduction This chapter will...opportunity for intervention. American medical schools are beginning to recognize the growing trend of patients resorting to complementary and non...both in the United States and worldwide. Providers’ response to this growing trend has not been well documented. Because patients are at an increased

  19. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  20. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  1. The rediscovery of ancient Chinese herbal formulas.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Yan, Yong-Qing; Wang, Jie; Xu, Zhao-Hui; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2004-08-01

    This review presents some recent discoveries of ancient Chinese herbal formulas evolved through thousands of years of clinical practice. It appears that many of the ancient combination formulas have sound scientific basis through modern pharmacological evaluation. Significant chemical changes occurred during the preparation (decoction) process of a prescribed herbal formula. For example, some toxic ingredients were significantly reduced and new active compounds generated due to the chemical interactions among the ingredients. Many combination formulas showed significantly better pharmacological results than individual herbal medicines participated in the formula. These findings suggest that the current drug screening and regulatory methodology will not be appropriate for the development of a botanical drug containing a group of phytochemicals, in which a synergistic interaction from chemical ingredients plays a fundamental role in the treatment of disease. If we view a diseased state in a holistic and dynamic way, i.e. it involves interactions among many biological systems in human body and these interactions change as the disease improves or worsens, the treatment of such disease with a single chemical entity may not be logical or technically feasible. Combination formulas may hold the potential to become the therapeutics of choice in the future due to the synergistic effect and dynamic adjustment achieved by the multiple ingredients that will restore the balance of an imbalanced or diseased human body.

  2. In the developing rat hippocampus a tonic GABAA-mediated conductance selectively enhances the glutamatergic drive of principal cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchionni, Ivan; Omrani, Azar; Cherubini, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    In the adult hippocampus, two different forms of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition have been identified: phasic and tonic. The first is due to the activation of GABAA receptors facing the presynaptic releasing sites, whereas the second is due to the activation of receptors localized away from the synapses. Because of their high affinity and low desensitization rate, extrasynaptic receptors are persistently able to sense low concentrations of GABA. Here we show that, early in postnatal life, between postnatal day (P) 2 and P6, CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells but not stratum radiatum interneurons, express a tonic GABAA-mediated conductance. Block of the neuronal GABA transporter GAT-1 slightly enhanced the persistent GABA conductance in principal cells but not in GABAergic interneurons. However, in adulthood, a tonic GABAA-mediated conductance could be revealed in stratum radiatum interneurons, indicating that the ability of these cells to sense ambient GABA levels is developmentally regulated. Pharmacological analysis of the tonic conductance in principal cells demonstrated the involvement of β2/β3, α5 and γ2 GABAA receptor subunits. Removal of the tonic depolarizing action of GABA with picrotoxin, reduced the excitability and the glutamatergic drive of principal cells but did not modify the excitability of stratum radiatum interneurons. The increased cell excitability and synaptic activity following the activation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors by ambient GABA would facilitate the induction of giant depolarizing potentials. PMID:17317750

  3. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  4. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products.

  5. Influence of the hypothalamus on the midbrain tonic inhibitory mechanism on metabolic heat production in rats.

    PubMed

    Uno, Tadashi; Roth, Joachim; Shibata, Masaaki

    2003-07-15

    Influence of the hypothalamus on increased body temperature was examined in male rats. Body temperature was increased by removing the midbrain tonic inhibitory mechanism (TIM) on heat production from brown adipose tissue (BAT) by microinjections of a local anesthetic, procaine, into the midbrain. Procaine microinjections in unanesthetized rats increased rectal temperature that was followed by a strong tail skin temperature rise. Procaine microinjections in unanesthetized and decerebrated rats also increased rectal temperature but without skin temperature rise. These decerebrated animals fatally developed hyperthermia. In anesthetized rats, procaine microinjections increased temperature of the interscapular BAT (IBAT) higher with shorter onset for temperature rise than rectal temperature. Increased IBAT temperature by procaine microinjections in anesthetized rats was attenuated during hypothalamic warming, and enhanced during hypothalamic cooling when compared with that observed during thermoneutral hypothalamic temperature. These results suggest that the midbrain TIM is able to function in unanesthetized conscious rats, and that the integrity of the midbrain mechanism to tonically inhibit metabolic heat production does not require the presence of intact hypothalamus. These results also suggest that the hypothalamus modulates directly or indirectly IBAT heat production that was induced by removal of the midbrain TIM.

  6. Phasic and tonic alerting in mild cognitive impairment: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Martella, Diana; Manzanares, Salvadora; Campoy, Guillermo; Roca, Javier; Antúnez, Carmen; Fuentes, Luis J

    2014-01-01

    In this preliminary study we assessed the functioning of the different attentional networks in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, taking as theoretical framework the Posner's cognitive neuroscience approach. Two groups of participants were tested in a single short experiment: 20 MCI patients (6 amnestic, 6 non-amnestic and 8 multiple-domain) and 18 healthy matched controls (HC). For attentional assessment we used a version of the Attention Network Test (the ANTI-V) that provided not only a score of the orienting, the executive, and the alerting networks and their interactions, but also an independent measure of vigilance (tonic alerting). The results showed that all subtypes of MCI patients exhibited a selective impairment in the tonic component of alerting, as indexed by a decrease in the d' sensitivity index, and their performance in executive network increased up to the HC group level when phasic alerting was provided by a warning tone. Our findings suggest that a core attentional deficit, especially the endogenous component of alerting, may significantly contribute to the behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with MCI.

  7. Tonic pupil after botulinum toxin-A injection for treatment of esotropia in children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A total of 27 children with esotropia (mean age, 3.9 years; range, 9 months to 13.8 years) were enrolled in a 9-month observational study following botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection of one (n = 7) or both (n = 20) medial rectus muscles. BTX-A dosage ranged from 3.0 to 6.0 units per muscle. Three participants developed tonic pupil, noted at the first follow-up visit, occurring 12-19 days after injection. All 3 cases occurred in the left eye of participants who underwent bilateral BTX-A injection by the same surgeon. Anisocoria diminished from a maximum of 4 mm at the 2-week visit to 1–2 mm in all patients over the 9-month postinjection data collection period. No adverse visual outcomes were noted. Tonic pupil is an infrequently reported complication of BTX-A injection for strabismus. The experience of our investigator group suggests the need for careful injection technique and thorough preinjection counseling. PMID:26917081

  8. Systematic changes in tonic physiological activities during the Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tokihiro; Matsuda, Izumi; Hirota, Akihisa; Takasawa, Noriyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Many studies on the Concealed Information Test have focused on phasic physiological changes that are temporally locked to stimulus presentation. However, little is known about changes in tonic, basal physiological levels throughout a stimulus series. This study focused on changes in tonic physiological activities during the CIT. Thirty-nine participants carried out a mock theft and subsequently received a CIT. Skin conductance, heart rate, and normalized pulse volume (NPV) were recorded. The pre-stimulus physiological level of these measures throughout the CIT series was compared across a question series with different serial positions of the relevant item. Results showed that changes in the pre-stimulus level differed depending on the serial position of the relevant item. Skin conductance declined throughout the series, but showed a transient increase after relevant item presentation. Heart rate was relatively constant throughout the series, but decreased after relevant item presentation. NPV continued to decrease until the relevant item, but increased thereafter, indicating a pattern similar to the classic Peak of Tension concept. In addition, the pre-stimulus NPV showed a significant relevant-irrelevant difference. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Aberrant long-range functional connectivity density in generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Li, Yibo; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Rong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2016-06-01

    Studies in generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) have reported both structural and functional alterations in the brain. However, changes in spontaneous neuronal functional organization in GTCS remain largely unknown.In this study, 70 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by tonic-clonic seizures and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Here, functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, an ultrafast data-driven method based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was applied for the first time to investigate the changes of spontaneous functional brain activity caused by epilepsy.The results showed significantly decreased long-range FCD in the middle and inferior temporal, prefrontal, and inferior parietal cortices as well as increased long-range FCD in the cerebellum anterior lobe and sensorimotor areas. Negative correlation between duration of disease and reduced long-range FCD was found. In addition, most regions with reduced long-range FCD showed decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) within default mode network.Negative correlation between duration of disease and long-range FCD may reflect an adverse consequence eventually from original. Furthermore, the observed FCD and rsFC alterations have been speculated to be associated with the social-cognitive impairments as well as motor control. Our study provided novel evidences to look into neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying GTCS.

  10. The leak channel NALCN controls tonic firing and glycolytic sensitivity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lutas, Andrew; Lahmann, Carolina; Soumillon, Magali; Yellen, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Certain neuron types fire spontaneously at high rates, an ability that is crucial for their function in brain circuits. The spontaneously active GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), a major output of the basal ganglia, provide tonic inhibition of downstream brain areas. A depolarizing 'leak' current supports this firing pattern, but its molecular basis remains poorly understood. To understand how SNr neurons maintain tonic activity, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to determine the transcriptome of individual mouse SNr neurons. We discovered that SNr neurons express the sodium leak channel, NALCN, and that SNr neurons lacking NALCN have impaired spontaneous firing. In addition, NALCN is involved in the modulation of excitability by changes in glycolysis and by activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings suggest that disruption of NALCN could impair the basal ganglia circuit, which may underlie the severe motor deficits in humans carrying mutations in NALCN. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15271.001 PMID:27177420

  11. Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Brian J.; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Perez, Alice; Gomez- Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy (HT), and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Design Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action, and determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts were investigated in an estrogen reporter gene ERβ-CALUX® assay in U2-OS cells, and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Six of the plant extracts bound to the estrogen receptors. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ERβ-CALUX® assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing E2-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression, but reducing E2-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182780. Conclusions This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to HT. PMID:19424091

  12. Herbal medicines for children: an illusion of safety?

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, A J; Simone, K

    2001-04-01

    Herbal medicaments are in common use. In general, the judicious use of carefully selected and prepared herbal medications seems to cause few adverse effects and may be beneficial. However, toxic effects of these products have been reported with increasing frequency. Infants and children may be even more susceptible to some of the adverse effects and toxicity of these products because of differences in physiology, immature metabolic enzyme systems, and dose per body weight. Although information promoting the use of herbal medicine is widespread, true evidence-based information about the efficacy and safety of herbal medications is limited. Although the most conservative approach is to recommend against use of herbal medicine until such evidence is available, some patients are not receptive to this approach. A reasonable approach for health care providers may be to follow such use closely, assist in herbal therapeutic decisions, and monitor for adverse effects and interactions. This manuscript discusses general concepts about herbal medicines, public health implications, and a framework for mechanisms of adverse effects from the use of botanicals. Adverse effects and toxicity of selected herbal products, including Chinese herbal medicines, are presented. The authors propose a risk reduction approach in which physicians actively seek information about the use of complementary or alternative medicine while taking medical histories.

  13. [Application of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine for treating hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Chen; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Recent years, the pathogenesis of hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been changed. Kidney-deficiency has become the key of modern pathogenesis, and the new problem of treating hypertension. It has become the new strategy for treating hypertension with kidney-nourishing herbal medicine. This article reviewed the clinical and experimental researches of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine, including single herb, herbal formulae and traditional Chinese patent medicine, in order to strengthen the evidence of kidney-nourishing herbal medicine for treating hypertension.

  14. Herbal therapy: A review of emerging pharmacological tools in the management of diabetes mellitus in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kibiti, Cromwell Mwiti; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic physiological glucose metabolic disorder. It has affected millions of people all over the world thereby having a significant impact on quality of life. The management of diabetes includes both nonpharmacological and conventional interventions. Drawbacks in conventional therapy have led to seeking alternative therapy in herbal medicine. Therefore, the need to review, elucidate and classify their mode of action in therapy for diabetes disease arises. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive literature reports were used to review all conventional agents and herbal therapy used in the management of diabetes. An online database search was conducted for medicinal plants of African origin that have been investigated for their antidiabetic therapeutic potentials. Results: The results showed that of the documented sixty five plants used, fourteen inhibit intestinal absorption of glucose, three exhibit insulin-mimetic properties, seventeen stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, twelve enhance peripheral glucose uptake, one promotes regeneration of beta-cell of islets of Langerhans, thirteen ameliorate oxidative stress and twenty induces hypoglycemic effect (mode of action is still obscure). Thirteen of these plants have a duplicate mode of actions while one of them has three modes of actions. These agents have a similar mechanism of action as the conventional drugs. Conclusion: In conclusion, antidiabetic activities of these plants are well established; however, the molecular modulation remains unknown. It is envisaged that the use of herbal therapy will promote good health and improve the status of diabetic patients. PMID:26664014

  15. Herbal plants and their derivatives as growth and health promoters in animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyed Reza; Davoodi, Homa

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth, or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used in animal diets include immunostimulators, antimicrobials, antioxidants, pH control agents and enzymes. Herbal plants, are a new class of growth promoters and in recent years this feed additives have gained extensive attention in the feed industry. They are a wide variety of herbs, spices, and products derived thereof, and are mainly essential oils. Although numerous reports have demonstrated antioxidative and antimicrobial and immune stimulation efficacy in vitro, respective experimental in vivo evidence is still quite limited. A limited number of experimental comparisons of herbal plants feed additives with antibiotics or organic acid have suggested similar effects on the animal gut microflora. Gut microflora has significant effects on host nutrition, health, and growth performance by interacting with nutrient utilization and the development of gut system of the host. In addition, some phytogenic compounds seem to promote intestinal mucus production. However, the future of using herbs in animal feeding will in great measure depend on the knowledge of chemical structure, their value and characteristics of practical herbs or their extract physiological needs and well-being of animal, and, above all on consumer's preferences and expectations.

  16. Natural drug extracts for a nutritive-tonic drink, promotes the induction of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yasuko; Ishige, Kumiko; Ohtakara, Tomohiro; Ito, Yoshihisa

    2006-07-01

    We have shown previously that oral administration of a nutritive-tonic drink (NTD) improves scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance task and Morris water-maze in mice and that this action is attributable to the natural drug extracts, rather than synthetic drugs such as taurine and caffeine, in the NTD. In order to investigate the mechanism underlying the antiamnesic effects of the natural drug extracts, the effects of the extracts on the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) was investigated in the dentate gyrus (DG) of normal and scopolamine-treated rats. Oral administration of natural drug extracts enhanced the induction of population spike amplitude induced by weak tetanic stimulation (30 pulses at 60 Hz). Scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) completely inhibited the induction of LTP induced by both weak and strong tetanic stimulation (100 pulses at 100 Hz). Natural drug extracts enhanced partially but significantly the induction of LTP by strong tetanus, but had a very weak effect on that induced by weak tetanus. These results suggest that LTP induced by strong tetanus is sensitive to natural drug extracts, and that the antiamnesic effect of the NTD is at least partly attributable to the LTP-improving effect of the natural drug extracts in the DG.

  17. The role of ERK in phasic and tonic contractile responses in rat femoral arteries after hindlimb unloading.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Li, Zhili; Wang, Desheng; Jiang, Shizhong

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that the role of ERK in phasic and tonic contractile responses is declined by hindlimb unloading (HU) in rat femoral arteries. Male Wistar rats were randomised into HU and Control group (n=7). After 14d, the femoral arteries were isolated and cut into 3-mm ring segments. In the absence or presence of PD98059(MEK inhibitor), contractile response to NE(10μM) was measured in Krebs solution in a tissue bath at 37°C, isometric tension were recorded with Powerlab system. The area under curve (AUC), phasic and tonic contractile responses between two groups were compared. After 14d-HU, the AUC, phasic and tonic NE-induced contractile responses were declined compared with controls. PD98059 did not affect the AUC in arteries from HU, but significantly decreased the AUC in arteries from control (100±7.1% vs. 61.18±11.3%, P<0.05). In contrast to control, the inhibitory ratio of PD98059 was significantly lower in phasic (7.42±3.24% vs. 33.59± 9.19%, P=0.0198) and tonic (26.93±3.78% vs. 46.75±5.67%, P=0.0131) contractile responses of HU group. Moreover, the inhibitory ratio of PD98059 wasn't significantly different between the phasic and tonic contractile responses in control group (P=0.2464). But for HU group, the difference was statistically significant (P=0.002). We demonstrated that the role of ERK was declined in both phasic and tonic contractile responses in rat femoral arteries after hindlimb unloading. Simulated microgravity induced by HU may attenuate the contractile responses of femoral arteries by inhibiting the role of ERK in thick and thin filament regulatory pathways.

  18. Tonic Inhibition of Accumbal Spiny Neurons by Extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA Receptors Modulates the Actions of Psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Edward P.; Macpherson, Tom; Swinny, Jerome D.; Dixon, Claire I.; Herd, Murray B.; Belelli, Delia; Stephens, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate phasic inhibition of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and influence behavioral responses to cocaine. We demonstrate that both dopamine D1- and D2-receptor-expressing MSNs (D-MSNs) additionally harbor extrasynaptic GABAARs incorporating α4, β, and δ subunits that mediate tonic inhibition, thereby influencing neuronal excitability. Both the selective δ-GABAAR agonist THIP and DS2, a selective positive allosteric modulator, greatly increased the tonic current of all MSNs from wild-type (WT), but not from δ−/− or α4−/− mice. Coupling dopamine and tonic inhibition, the acute activation of D1 receptors (by a selective agonist or indirectly by amphetamine) greatly enhanced tonic inhibition in D1-MSNs but not D2-MSNs. In contrast, prolonged D2 receptor activation modestly reduced the tonic conductance of D2-MSNs. Behaviorally, WT and constitutive α4−/− mice did not differ in their expression of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). Importantly, however, mice with the α4 deletion specific to D1-expressing neurons (α4D1−/−) showed increased CPP. Furthermore, THIP administered systemically or directly into the NAc of WT, but not α4−/− or α4D1−/− mice, blocked cocaine enhancement of CPP. In comparison, α4D2−/− mice exhibited normal CPP, but no cocaine enhancement. In conclusion, dopamine modulation of GABAergic tonic inhibition of D1- and D2-MSNs provides an intrinsic mechanism to differentially affect their excitability in response to psychostimulants and thereby influence their ability to potentiate conditioned reward. Therefore, α4βδ GABAARs may represent a viable target for the development of novel therapeutics to better understand and influence addictive behaviors. PMID:24431441

  19. Reward and Behavioral Factors Contributing to the Tonic Activity of Monkey Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus Neurons during Saccade Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) in the brainstem plays a role in controlling reinforcement learning and executing conditioned behavior. We previously examined the activity of PPTg neurons in monkeys during a reward-conditioned, visually guided saccade task, and reported that a population of these neurons exhibited tonic responses throughout the task period. These tonic responses might depend on prediction of the upcoming reward, successful execution of the task, or both. Here, we sought to further distinguish these factors and to investigate how each contributes to the tonic neuronal activity of the PPTg. In our normal visually guided saccade task, the monkey initially fixated on the central fixation target (FT), then made saccades to the peripheral saccade target and received a juice reward after the saccade target disappeared. Most of the tonic activity terminated shortly after the reward delivery, when the monkey broke fixation. To distinguish between reward and behavioral epochs, we then changed the task sequence for a block of trials, such that the saccade target remained visible after the reward delivery. Under these visible conditions, the monkeys tended to continue fixating on the saccade target even after the reward delivery. Therefore, the prediction of the upcoming reward and the end of an individual trial were separated in time. Regardless of the task conditions, half of the tonically active PPTg neurons terminated their activity around the time of the reward delivery, consistent with the view that PPTg neurons might send reward prediction signals until the time of reward delivery, which is essential for computing reward prediction error in reinforcement learning. On the other hand, the other half of the tonically active PPTg neurons changed their activity dependent on the task condition. In the normal condition, the tonic responses terminated around the time of the reward delivery, while in the visible condition, the activity continued

  20. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety

  1. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

  2. Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

  3. A Review on Hepatoprotective and Immunomodulatory Herbal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, Uorakkottil; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu; Naseef, Punnooth Poonguzi

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the most important organ that plays an important role in maintaining various physiological processes in the body. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. There are five main viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D, and E. These five types are of the greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the drug regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of liver disease for a long time. The immune system is the part of body that diagnoses the pathogen by using a specific receptor to reveal immediate response by the activation of immune components cells, chemokines, and cytokines, and also the release of the inflammatory mediator. They potentiate and modulate the immune system. The plant-derived phytoconstituents (polysaccharides, proteins and flavanoids, lignans, rotenoids, etc.) stimulate the immune system and maintained hepatic diseases. There are a number of hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs that have been reported. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemicals from hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs. PMID:27041876

  4. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  5. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  6. Diagnosis of public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Ely Eduardo Saranz; Bandeira, Mary Anne Medeiros; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes

    2011-07-01

    The present study is aimed to diagnose the current public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil by means of in loco visits to 10 programs selected by means of questionnaires sent to 124 municipalities that count on herbal medicine services. The main purpose of the implementation of program programs is related to the development of medicinal herbs. 70% of them are intended for the production of herbal medicines and 50% are aimed to ensure the access of the population to medicinal plants and or herbal medicines. The initiative of the implementation of these programs was related to the managers (60%). The difficulties in this implementation were due to the lack of funding (100%) of the programs. In 60% of the programs, the physicians did not adhere to herbal medicine services due to the lack of knowledge of the subject. Training courses were proposed (80%) to increase the adhesion of prescribers to the system. Some municipalities use information obtained from patients to assess the therapeutic efficiency of medicinal plants and herbal medicines. Of the programs underway, cultivation of medicinal plants was observed in 90% and 78% of them adopt quality control. In most programs, this control is not performed in accordance with the legal requirements. The programs focused on medicinal plants and herbal medicines implemented in Brazil face some chronic problems of infrastructure, management, operational capacity and self-sustainability, which can be directly related to the absence of a national policy on medicinal plants and herbal medicines.

  7. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  8. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  9. Tectal-derived interneurons contribute to phasic and tonic inhibition in the visual thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Polona; Ye, Zhiwen; Yu, Xiao; Zagoraiou, Laskaro; Prekop, Hong-Ting; Partanen, Juha; Jessell, Thomas M.; Wisden, William; Brickley, Stephen G.; Delogu, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    The release of GABA from local interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN-INs) provides inhibitory control during visual processing within the thalamus. It is commonly assumed that this important class of interneurons originates from within the thalamic complex, but we now show that during early postnatal development Sox14/Otx2-expressing precursor cells migrate from the dorsal midbrain to generate dLGN-INs. The unexpected extra-diencephalic origin of dLGN-INs sets them apart from GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus. Using optogenetics we show that at increased firing rates tectal-derived dLGN-INs generate a powerful form of tonic inhibition that regulates the gain of thalamic relay neurons through recruitment of extrasynaptic high-affinity GABAA receptors. Therefore, by revising the conventional view of thalamic interneuron ontogeny we demonstrate how a previously unappreciated mesencephalic population controls thalamic relay neuron excitability. PMID:27929058

  10. The tripartite origins of the tonic neck reflex: Gesell, Gerstmann, and Magnus.

    PubMed

    Shevell, Michael

    2009-03-03

    The standard neurologic examination of the newborn and infant includes the elicitation of the tonic neck reflex. Normally present, its persistence is suggestive of neurologic dysfunction and a prognostic marker highly suggestive of an adverse outcome. Working in different fields, with different approaches and largely independently, three leaders of early 20th century neurosciences (Rudolf Magnus, Josef Gerstmann, and Arnold Gesell) elaborated different aspects of this primitive reflex. Magnus provided the first description in an animal model utilizing a meticulously prepared decerebrate cat correctly identifying the reflex's reliance on proprioceptors in the neck and processing in the upper cervical segment. Gerstmann first described its occurrence in the setting of neurologic disease, providing a meticulous written description in an early description of the index case of what would later be eponymously designated Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. Gesell initially described the reflex's fundamental occurrence in normal young infants, highlighting its adaptive role in early development and its persistence as a hallmark of neurologic pathology.

  11. Toward a theoretical role for tonic norepinephrine in the orbitofrontal cortex in facilitating flexible learning.

    PubMed

    Sadacca, Brian F; Wikenheiser, Andrew M; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2017-03-14

    To adaptively respond in a complex, changing world, animals need to flexibly update their understanding of the world when their expectations are violated. Though several brain regions in rodents and primates have been implicated in aspects of this updating, current models of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and norepinephrine neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC-NE) suggest that each plays a role in responding to environmental change, where the OFC allows updating of prior learning to occur without overwriting or unlearning one's previous understanding of the world that changed, while elevated tonic NE allows for increased flexibility in behavior that tracks an animal's uncertainty. In light of recent studies highlighting a specific LC-NE projection to the OFC, in this review we discuss current models of OFC and NE function, and their potential synergy in the updating of associations following environmental change.

  12. Hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy with paroxysmal tonic upgaze and absence of psychomotor development.

    PubMed

    Blumkin, Lubov; Lev, Dorit; Watemberg, Nathan; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2007-01-15

    Hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies are characterized by a substantial and permanent deficit in myelin deposition in the brain. Although our knowledge and understanding of the etiology of white matter diseases has progressively increased, many cases with this disorder remain undiagnosed, despite extensive evaluations. Recently, new disease entities have been defined by combining magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition and clinical features. We describe a 1-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish girl with a hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy, who presented in the neonatal period with episodes of sustained paroxysmal tonic upward gaze, roving eye movements, pendular nystagmus, and severe hypotonia, with the later appearance of pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs and no development. In addition, she has dysmorphic signs. This clinical picture is not consistent with any of the previously described hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies and may represent a new entity.

  13. Guaraná's Journey from Regional Tonic to Aphrodisiac and Global Energy Drink

    PubMed Central

    Atroch, André Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana H.B.K., Sapindaceae) is a rainforest vine that was domesticated in the Amazon for its caffeine-rich fruits. Guaraná has long been used as a tonic and to treat various disorders in Brazil and abroad and became a national soda in Brazil about a century ago. In the last two decades or so, guaraná has emerged as a key ingredient in various ‘sports’ and energy drinks as well as concoctions that allegedly boost one's libido. For some time, guaraná's high caffeine content was thought to be a detriment because of health concerns about excessive intake of caffeine-rich drinks. But it is precisely this quality, and the fact that it has a mysterious name and comes from an exotic land, that has propelled guaraná into a global beverage. PMID:18955289

  14. Painful generalised clonic and tonic-clonic seizures with retained consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Bell, W.; Walczak, T.; Shin, C.; Radtke, R.

    1997-01-01

    Two patients in whom consciousness and memory were retained during bilateral clonic or tonic-clonic seizures are reported on, and three patients reported on previously are reviewed. Ictal semiology differed from myoclonic and supplementary motor seizures, which are other seizure types characterised by bilateral motor movements and retained awareness. In the two new patients ictal pain was a prominent feature. It is proposed that propagation of seizure activity may be confined to the sensorimotor areas bilaterally while sparing the neural structures involved in maintaining consciousness and in processing language and memory. This unusual type of seizure may be misdiagnosed as a pseudoseizure. Detailed description of the ictal events and further laboratory evaluation including video-EEG monitoring may be necessary to make the distinction.

 PMID:9416819

  15. T-Type Calcium Channels Mediate the Transition between Tonic and Phasic Firing in Thalamic Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Setsuo; Rogawski, Michael A.

    1989-09-01

    Thalamic neurons undergo a shift from tonic to phasic (burst) firing upon hyperpolarization. This state transition results from deinactivation of a regenerative depolarizing event referred to as the low-threshold spike. Isolated adult guinea pig thalamic (dorsal lateral geniculate) neurons exhibited low-threshold spikes that could be blocked by low concentrations of nickel but were unaffected by the dihydropyridine nimodipine. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from these cells demonstrated a low-threshold, rapidly inactivating (T) Ca2+ current that manifested similar voltage dependency and time course as the low-threshold spike. Like low-threshold spikes, the T-type Ca2+ current was eliminated by nickel but was unaffected by nimodipine. In thalamic neurons, T-type Ca2+ channels underlie the low-threshold spike and, therefore, play a critical role in regulating the firing pattern of these cells.

  16. Are effects of the symmetric and asymmetric tonic neck reflexes still visible in healthy adults?

    PubMed

    Bruijn, S M; Massaad, F; Maclellan, M J; Van Gestel, L; Ivanenko, Y P; Duysens, J

    2013-11-27

    When a cat's head is rotated in a transverse plane to one side, the legs on that side of the body extend, while on the other side, they flex (asymmetric tonic neck reflexes ATNR). On the contrary, when the head is rotated in a sagittal plane both legs flex when the head flexes, and extend when the head extends (symmetric tonic neck reflexes STNR). These reflexes have also been found in newborn babies and are thought to be a motor primitive, which is suppressed later in life. Still, using a test in which children sit on hand and knees, the ATNR and STNR can be found in children up to 9 years of age. This may suggest that these reflexes may still be involved in motor control in these children. Whether this is also the case in full-grown adults has thus far only been studied using coarse methods. Thus, for the current study, we set out to measure in detail whether the ATNR/STNR can still be evoked in healthy adult subjects. We measured 10 subjects who were asked to sit on their hands and knees while (1) their head was rotated left and right by an experimenter, (2) their head was flexed and extended by an experimenter. Kinematics was registered using a Vicon system. Elbow and head angles were detrended, and a regression analysis was performed, to investigate the effects of head angle on elbow angle. Results clearly showed the existence of the ATNR and STNR in adult subjects. A next step will be to assess the effects of the ATNR and STNR during everyday motor control tasks, such as making head rotations while driving a bike.

  17. Micro- and nano-mechanics of osteoarthritic cartilage: The effects of tonicity and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Moshtagh, P R; Pouran, B; van Tiel, J; Rauker, J; Zuiddam, M R; Arbabi, V; Korthagen, N M; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to discover the contribution of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen fibers to the mechanical properties of the osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage tissue. We used nanoindentation experiments to understand the mechanical behavior of mild and severe osteoarthritic cartilage at micro- and nano-scale at different swelling conditions. Contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography (EPIC-μCT) was used to confirm that mild OA specimens had significantly higher GAGs content compared to severe OA specimens. In micro-scale, the semi-equilibrium modulus of mild OA specimens significantly dropped after immersion in a hypertonic solution and at nano-scale, the histograms of the measured elastic modulus revealed three to four components. Comparing the peaks with those observed for healthy cartilage in a previous study indicated that the first and third peaks represent the mechanical properties of GAGs and the collagen network. The third peak shows considerably stiffer elastic modulus for mild OA samples as compared to the severe OA samples in isotonic conditions. Furthermore, this peak clearly dropped when the tonicity increased, indicating the loss of collagen (pre-) stress in the shrunk specimen. Our observations support the association of the third peak with the collagen network. However, our results did not provide any direct evidence to support the association of the first peak with GAGs. For severe OA specimens, the peak associated with the collagen network did not drop when the tonicity increased, indicating a change in the response of OA cartilage to hypertonicity, likely collagen damage, as the disease progresses to its latest stages.

  18. Changing the knowledge base in Western herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sue

    2008-12-01

    The project of modernising Western herbal medicine in order to allow it to be accepted by the public and to contribute to contemporary healthcare is now over two decades old. One aspect of this project involves changes to the ways knowledge about medicinal plants is presented. This paper contrasts the models of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Traditional Knowledge (TK) to illuminate some of the complexities which have arisen consequent to these changes, particularly with regard to the concept of vitalism, the retention or rejection of which may have broad implications for the clinical practice of herbal medicine. Illustrations from two herbals (central texts on the medicinal use of plants) demonstrate the differences between these frameworks in regard to how herbs are understood. Further, a review of articles on herbal therapeutics published in the Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine indicates that practitioners are moving away from TK and towards the use of EBM in their clinical discussions.

  19. Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

  20. Therapeutic applications of herbal medicines for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy.

  1. Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

  2. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice.

  3. [Multimorbidity and multi-target-therapy with herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Saller, R; Rostock, M

    2012-12-12

    The active components of herbal drugs and substances are pleiotropic multi-ingredient compounds with multitarget properties including antiinflammatory effects. A pleiotropic inhibition of inflammation could play an important role in mutlimorbide patients as an attempt of prevention or retardation of metastasis. A large number of experimental data for European and non-European herbal drugs as well as various herbal drug combinations suggest such a possibility. Despite the so far small number of clinical studies, such an experimental herbal treatment could appear to be reasonable and acceptable, provided that there are data available on quality and safety of these herbal drugs by treatments of patients with various diseases. Besides, herbal drugs and substances play a growing role the treatment of patients with multimorbidity. Many of these herbal drugs have antiinflammatory effects beside their proved symptomatic efficacy in a lot of other diseases. The specific selection of herbal drugs that are efficacious in specific indications and additionally showed antiinflammatory effects offers the possibility of simultaneous antiinflammatory and specific efficacy. St. John's Wort and milk thistle belong to the oldest and to the best experimentally and clinically examined herbal remedies. The spectrum of internal and external uses of Hypercum perforatum as a multicompound herbal drug includes functional gastro-intestinal complaint and illness, skin disease, mucosal lesion, superficial injury, depressive upset and depression, somatoform disorders, restlessness, nervosity, convalescence, exhaustion and sleep disturbances respectively. The plurivalent character of the multicompound even enables a broad spectrum of activity. This might justify to prefer St. John's Wort to other drugs in a wide range of treatments: In multimorbide patients with depression or in depressive patients with coronary heart disease the anti-inflammatory effects could mean an additional advantage

  4. Herbal medicine development: a plea for a rigorous scientific foundation.

    PubMed

    Lietman, Paul S

    2012-09-01

    Science, including rigorous basic scientific research and rigorous clinical research, must underlie both the development and the clinical use of herbal medicines. Yet almost none of the hundreds or thousands of articles that are published each year on some aspect of herbal medicines, adheres to 3 simple but profound scientific principles must underlie all of herbal drug development or clinical use. Three fundamental principles that should underlie everyone's thinking about the development and/or clinical use of any herbal medicine. (1) There must be standardization and regulation (rigorously enforced) of the product being studied or being used clinically. (2) There must be scientific proof of a beneficial clinical effect for something of value to the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. (3) There must be scientific proof of safety (acceptable toxicity) for the patient and established by rigorous clinical research. These fundamental principles of science have ramifications for both the scientist and the clinician. It is critically important that both the investigator and the prescriber know exactly what is in the studied or recommended product and how effective and toxic it is. We will find new and useful drugs from natural sources. However, we will have to learn how to study herbal medicines rigorously, and we will have to try to convince the believers in herbal medicines of the wisdom and even the necessity of a rigorous scientific approach to herbal medicine development. Both biomedical science and practicing physicians must enthusiastically accept the responsibility for searching for truth in the discovery and development of new herbal medicines, in the truthful teaching about herbal medicines from a scientific perspective, and in the scientifically proven clinical use of herbal medicines.

  5. The effect of tonic contraction of the finger muscle on the motor cortical representation of the contracting adjacent muscle.

    PubMed

    Jono, Yasutomo; Chujo, Yuta; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Nikaido, Yasutaka; Hatanaka, Ryota; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of tonic contraction of the finger muscle on the motor cortical representation of the contracting adjacent muscle. A representation map of the motor evoked potential (MEP) in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles was obtained with the subject at rest or during tonic contraction of the ADM muscle while the FDI muscle was tonically contracted. The center of gravity (COG) of the MEP map in the FDI muscle shifted medially during contraction of the ADM muscle. Motor cortical excitability in the motor cortical representation of the FDI muscle that did not overlap with the motor cortical representation of the ADM muscle was suppressed, but motor cortical excitability in the motor cortical representation of the FDI muscle overlapping with the motor cortical representation of the ADM muscle was not suppressed during contraction of the ADM muscle. The motor cortical representation of the FDI muscle not overlapping with the motor cortical representation of the ADM muscle was located lateral to that of the FDI muscle that did overlap with the motor cortical representation of the ADM muscle. Medial shift of the COG of the motor cortical representation of the contracting finger muscle induced by tonic contraction of the adjacent finger muscle must be due to suppression of motor cortical excitability in the lateral part of the representation, which is not shared by the adjacent representation.

  6. Retraction. Clc-2 knockout attenuated experimental temporal lobe epilepsy in mice by tonic inhibition mediated by GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yu-Xing; Tian, Xiang-Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most prevalent form of epilepsy, is often associated with drug-resistant seizures. In TLE, altered function of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors (GABAARs) results in potentiation of excitatory and/or failure of inhibitory neurotransmission, which contributes to seizure induction and propagation. Our previous study suggested that chloride channel-2 (Clc-2) contributed to chronically elevated tonic inhibition mediated by GABAARs in a rat model of TLE. In the present study, we used Clc-2 knockout mice to investigate further the role of Clc-2 and its interaction with tonic GABAergic inhibition in a model of TLE. The results revealed that knockout of Clc-2 decreased tonic seizure protection, latency of clonic seizure, seizure threshold and mortality protection in mice. Clc-2 knockout decreased the action potential (AP)peak and APthreshold, Clc-2 currents and GABAAR-mediated tonic inhibition in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Thus, the voltage-gated chloride channel Clc-2, which was functionally upregulated in CA1 pyramidal cells after seizures, may provide protection against TLE by its regulation of action potentials, Clc-2 currents and GABAARs in the CA1 region of the hippocampus.

  7. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species.

  8. Disposition pathways and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicines in humans.

    PubMed

    He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a

  9. Monitoring In Vivo Changes in Tonic Extracellular Dopamine Level by Charge-Balancing Multiple Waveform Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoonbae; Park, Cheonho; Kim, Do Hyoung; Shin, Hojin; Kang, Yu Min; DeWaele, Mark; Lee, Jeyeon; Min, Hoon-Ki; Blaha, Charles D; Bennet, Kevin E; Kim, In Young; Lee, Kendall H; Jang, Dong Pyo

    2016-11-15

    Dopamine (DA) modulates central neuronal activity through both phasic (second to second) and tonic (minutes to hours) terminal release. Conventional fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), in combination with carbon fiber microelectrodes, has been used to measure phasic DA release in vivo by adopting a background subtraction procedure to remove background capacitive currents. However, measuring tonic changes in DA concentrations using conventional FSCV has been difficult because background capacitive currents are inherently unstable over long recording periods. To measure tonic changes in DA concentrations over several hours, we applied a novel charge-balancing multiple waveform FSCV (CBM-FSCV), combined with a dual background subtraction technique, to minimize temporal variations in background capacitive currents. Using this method, in vitro, charge variations from a reference time point were nearly zero for 48 h, whereas with conventional background subtraction, charge variations progressively increased. CBM-FSCV also demonstrated a high selectivity against 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and ascorbic acid, two major chemical interferents in the brain, yielding a sensitivity of 85.40 ± 14.30 nA/μM and limit of detection of 5.8 ± 0.9 nM for DA while maintaining selectivity. Recorded in vivo by CBM-FSCV, pharmacological inhibition of DA reuptake (nomifensine) resulted in a 235 ± 60 nM increase in tonic extracellular DA concentrations, while inhibition of DA synthesis (α-methyl-dl-tyrosine) resulted in a 72.5 ± 4.8 nM decrease in DA concentrations over a 2 h period. This study showed that CBM-FSCV may serve as a unique voltammetric technique to monitor relatively slow changes in tonic extracellular DA concentrations in vivo over a prolonged time period.

  10. Kindling alters neurosteroid-induced modulation of phasic and tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents: role of phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kia, Arash; Ribeiro, Fabiola; Nelson, Renee; Gavrilovici, Cezar; Ferguson, Stephen S G; Poulter, Michael O

    2011-03-01

    We have previously shown that after kindling (a model of temporal lobe epilepsy), the neuroactive steroid tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) was unable to augment GABA type A receptor (GABA(A))-mediated synaptic currents occurring on pyramidal cells of the piriform cortex. Phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors has been shown previously to alter the activity of THDOC, so we tested the hypothesis that kindling induces changes in the phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors and this accounts for the loss in efficacy. To assay whether GABA(A) receptors are more phosphorylated after kindling, we examined the phosphorylation state of the β3 subunit and found that it was increased. Incubation of brain slices with the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (100 nM) also increased phosphorylation in the same assay. In patch clamp, recordings from non-kindled rat brain slices PMA also reduced the activity of THDOC in a manner that was identical to what is observed after kindling. We also found that the tonic current was no longer augmented by THODC after kindling and PMA treatment. The protein kinase C (PKC) antagonist bisindolylmaleimide I blocked the effects PMA on the synaptic but not the tonic currents. However, the broad spectrum PKC antagonist staurosporine blocked the effects of PMA on the tonic currents, implying that different PKC isoforms phosphorylate GABA(A) receptors responsible for phasic and tonic currents. The phosphatase activator Li(+) palmitate restored the 'normal' activity of THDOC on synaptic currents in kindled brain slices but not the tonic currents. These data demonstrate that kindling enhances the phosphorylation state of GABA(A) receptors expressed in pyramidal neurons reducing THDOC efficacy.

  11. [Suggestions to strengthen quality management of herbal decoction pieces--based on production chain of herbal decoction pieces].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Nie, Qing; Chen, Jing

    2015-08-01

    With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent. The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it's also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important. The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances. The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an "integration" mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise.

  12. A novel and rapid HPGPC-based strategy for quality control of saccharide-dominant herbal materials: Dendrobium officinale, a case study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin; Yue, Rui-Qi; Ko, Chun-Hay; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Liu, Jing; Ho, Hing-Man; Yi, Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Zhou, Jun; Leung, Ping-Chung; Chen, Hu-Biao; Han, Quan-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative characterization of natural saccharides, especially polysaccharides, in herb materials remains a challenge due to their complicated structures and high macromolecular masses. Currently available methods involve time-consuming and complicated operations, and present poor specificity. Here, a novel and rapid high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC)-based approach is described for quality assessment of saccharide-dominant herbal materials by simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of saccharide components. Dendrobium officinale, one of the rarest tonic herbs worldwide, was employed as the model herb in this study. First, a HPGPC fingerprint based on the molecular weight distribution of its carbohydrate components was established for qualitative identification of D. officinale. Then, HPGPC-guided dominant holistic polysaccharide marker was separated using ultra-filtration followed by HPGPC determination for quantitative evaluation of D. officinale. The experimental results suggest that this method is more efficient, stable, and convenient compared with the currently available methods for authentication and quality evaluation of D. officinale, and we expect the method will have similar advantages when used for quality control of other saccharide-dominant herbal materials and products.

  13. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  14. Herbal remedies: issues in licensing and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, D M; Po, A L

    1999-10-01

    In recent years, the use of alternative therapies has become widespread. In particular, there has been a resurgence in the public's demand for herbal remedies, despite a lack of high-quality evidence to support the use of many of them. Given the increasing pressures to control healthcare spending in most countries, it is not surprising that attention is being focused on the cost effectiveness of herbal remedies. We address the question of whether there is sufficient information to enable the assessment of the cost effectiveness of herbal remedies. In so doing, we discuss the current state of play with several of the more high-profile alternative herbal remedies [Chinese medicinal herbs for atopic eczema, evening primrose oil, ginkgo biloba, hypericum (St John's wort)] and some which have made the transition from being alternative to being orthodox remedies. We use historical context to discuss, on the one hand, the increasing commodification of herbal remedies and on the other, the trend towards greater regulatory control and licensing of alternative herbal remedies. We argue that unless great care is exercised, these changes are not necessarily in the best interests of patients. In order to identify cost-effective care, we need reliable information about the costs as well as the efficacy and safety of the treatments being assessed. For most alternative therapies, such data are not available. We believe that studies to gather such data are long overdue. Whilst we argue strongly in favour of control of some herbal remedies, we urge caution with the trend towards licensing of all herbal remedies. We argue that the licensing of those herbal remedies with equivocal benefits and few risks, as evidenced by a long history of safe use, increases barriers to entry and increases societal healthcare costs.

  15. Comparative study of microvascular density in experimental third-degree skin burns treated with topical preparations containing herbal extracts.

    PubMed

    Mogoşanu, G D; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Lascăr, I; Mogoantă, L

    2013-01-01

    During the healing process of third-degree skin burns, a very complex response involves different cells and tissues linked together by intra- and extra-cellular mechanisms. For the restoration of damaged tissues, angiogenesis is the key point in the formation of new blood vessels. By their emollient, astringent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, active principles from natural products contribute to the acceleration of the wound-healing process. In our study, we investigated the angiogenesis process in experimental model of third-degree skin burns treated with three topical preparations (cold-creams) containing 10% herbal extracts, comparing with 1% sulfadiazine cream and cold-cream base respectively. By their biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, cold-creams with herbal extracts are locally modulators of the cellular response and support the wound healing. The phytocomplex stimulates the favorable evolution of the burnt skin wounds and the development of neoangiogenesis capillaries.

  16. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  17. Chemical Adulterants in Herbal Medicinal Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Calahan, Jacob; Howard, Dylan; Almalki, Ahmad J; Gupta, Mahabir P; Calderón, Angela I

    2016-04-01

    Many herbal medicinal products have been found to contain synthetic prescription drugs as chemical adulterants. This has become evident by the number of toxicity cases and adverse reactions reported in which casualties were reported via analytical techniques that detected the presence of chemical adulterants in them, which could be responsible for their toxicity. The adulteration of herbal medicinal products with synthetic drugs continues to be a serious problem for regulatory agencies. This review provides up to date information on cases of toxicity, major chemical adulterants in herbal medicinal products, and current analytical techniques used for their detection.

  18. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  19. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  20. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

  1. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  2. Biomarker-guided screening of Juzen-taiho-to, an Oriental herbal formulation for immmunostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Takaoka, Anna; Iacovidou, Maria; Hasson, Tal H.; Montenegro, Diego; Li, Xiangming; Tsuji, Moriya; Kawamura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Juzen-taiho-to (JTT) is an immunostimulatory herbal formulation that is clinically used in East Asia for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation. The formulation stimulates various leukocytes, including T, B, and NK cells and macrophages (MΦ). Although JTT is known to contain numerous compounds with various pharmacological activities, it is not clear which compounds are responsible for the stimulation of individual cell types. Here, we conducted what we call, “biomarker-guided screening,” to purify compounds responsible for the MΦ stimulatory activity. To this end, gene expression was analyzed by a DNA array for MΦ treated with JTT and DMSO (vehicle control), which identified intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) as a biomarker of MΦ-stimulation by JTT. A qRT-PCR assay of ICAM-1 was then used to guide the purification of active compounds. The screening resulted in the purification of a glycolipid mixture, containing β-glucosylceramides. The glycolipid mixture potently stimulated ICAM-1 expression in primary dendritic cells (DC) as well as in primary CD14+ (MΦ) cells. Identification of this glycolipid mixture opens an opportunity for further studies to understand how plant-derived glycolipids stimulate MΦ and DC in a safe and effective manner as demonstrated by JTT. PMID:24549928

  3. Evidence for a role of NTS2 receptors in the modulation of tonic pain sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Roussy, Geneviève; Dansereau, Marc-André; Baudisson, Stéphanie; Ezzoubaa, Faouzi; Belleville, Karine; Beaudet, Nicolas; Martinez, Jean; Richelson, Elliott; Sarret, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Background Central neurotensin (NT) administration results in a naloxone-insensitive antinociceptive response in animal models of acute and persistent pain. Both NTS1 and NTS2 receptors were shown to be required for different aspects of NT-induced analgesia. We recently demonstrated that NTS2 receptors were extensively associated with ascending nociceptive pathways, both at the level of the dorsal root ganglia and of the spinal dorsal horn. Then, we found that spinally administered NTS2-selective agonists induced dose-dependent antinociceptive responses in the acute tail-flick test. In the present study, we therefore investigated whether activation of spinal NTS2 receptors suppressed the persistent inflammatory pain symptoms observed after intraplantar injection of formalin. Results We first demonstrated that spinally administered NT and NT69L agonists, which bind to both NTS1 and NTS2 receptors, significantly reduced pain-evoked responses during the inflammatory phase of the formalin test. Accordingly, pretreatment with the NTS2-selective analogs JMV-431 and levocabastine was effective in inhibiting the aversive behaviors induced by formalin. With resolution at the single-cell level, we also found that activation of spinal NTS2 receptors reduced formalin-induced c-fos expression in dorsal horn neurons. However, our results also suggest that NTS2-selective agonists and NTS1/NTS2 mixed compounds differently modulated the early (21–39 min) and late (40–60 min) tonic phase 2 and recruited endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms integrated at different levels of the central nervous system. Indeed, while non-selective drugs suppressed pain-related behaviors activity in both part of phase 2, intrathecal injection of NTS2-selective agonists was only efficient in reducing pain during the late phase 2. Furthermore, assessment of the stereotypic pain behaviors of lifting, shaking, licking and biting to formalin also revealed that unlike non-discriminative NTS1/NTS2 analogs

  4. Autism: Pathophysiology and Promising Herbal Remedies.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies.

  5. Herbal Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems. PMID:20046764

  6. [Herbal supplements in sports: use and abuse].

    PubMed

    Caprino, Luciano; Braganò, Maria Cristina; Botrè, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    The use of natural supplements, included herbal supplements, by athletes has become an habit which often lacks any valid scientific rationale. It appears evident that this habit may entail health risks (including more or less serious adverse effects), consequent either: 1) to the pharmacodynamic effects of the drugs at high doses; or 2) to the occurrence of accumulation especially when their administration is not justified by a reduced synthesis or an increased demand; or 3) to the occurrence of intolerance; or, finally, 4) to the presence of unlabelled ingredients. The abuse of this kind of products always entails risks to the consumer, not only to the elite athlete, that can incur an adverse analytical finding on the occasion of anti-doping tests, but also to the amateur sportsman, for the possible occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR).

  7. Chinese herbal medicine research in eczema treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted. PMID:21527032

  8. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Mona; Owlia, Sina; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil's claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle. PMID:27247570

  9. Herbal medicine, Chaplin, and "The Kid".

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Zilletti, Lucilla

    2012-06-01

    At variance with other largely safe complementary alternative medicines like homeopathy and acupuncture, which only carry the risk of inducing patients to shun effective treatment, herbal remedies are real, albeit impure, drugs and therefore fully capable of producing undesirable consequences if misused. The advantages they offer are uncertain since genuine evidence of efficacy and effectiveness is present in only a few cases. A result of this imbalance is that studies in this field are considerably more meaningful when they deal with untoward effects than with therapeutic uses. This disproportion has suggested to us the curious similarity with the situation portrayed in the film "The Kid" where the essential task of the protagonist (Chaplin) is to repair the windows his stone-throwing child has just broken.

  10. Tonic efferent-induced cochlear damping in roosting and echolocating mustached bats.

    PubMed

    Xie, D H; Henson, O W

    1998-10-01

    The activity of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent system in mustached bats, Pteronotus p. parnellii, was studied by monitoring changes in the mechanical properties of the cochlea. The changing properties were expressed by the decay time (DT) of cochlear microphonic potentials produced by transient-induced ringing (Henson et al., 1995). Tape-recorded roost noise (biosonar and communication sounds) produced sudden, marked decreases in DT when presented to the contralateral ear of animals adapted to the quiet. When the animals were first removed from their roosts the DT was relatively short (1.2-1.5 ms) but this gradually lengthened by about 0.5-1.0 ms as they rested in a quiet chamber. The time required to reach a stable, quiet-adapted state after noise exposure varied with SPL and exposure time; in many experiments recovery was in the range of 90-120 min. When quiet-adapted bats were isolated and allowed to fly and echolocate for 20 min, the DTs measured within a few minutes after the end of the flight were also short and only slowly returned to longer preflight values. The administration of a single dose of gentamicin, which blocks MOC effects, greatly reduced the amount of suppression (damping) observed after periods of noise and echolocation sound exposure. We conclude that tonic MOC activity is induced by the natural vocalizations and roost noise and this activity probably regulates and protects the highly resonant cochlear partition.

  11. Responses of tonically active neurons in the monkey striatum discriminate between motivationally opposing stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Sabrina; Legallet, Eric; Apicella, Paul

    2003-09-17

    The striatum is involved in the control of appetitively motivated behavior. We found previously that tonically active neurons (TANs) in the monkey striatum show discriminative responses to different stimuli that are appetitive or aversive. However, these differential responses may reflect the sensory qualities of the stimulus rather than its motivational value. In the present study, we sought to define more precisely the relationship between the particular aspect of the response of TANs and the motivational value of stimuli. For this purpose, three monkeys were presented with two types of aversive stimuli (loud sound and air puff) and one appetitive stimulus (fruit juice). In most instances, the TAN responses to the loud sound and the air puff were similar, in terms of response pattern and duration, whereas responses to the liquid reward showed distinct features. Using classical appetitive conditioning, we reversed the motivational value of a stimulus so that a previously aversive stimulus was now associatively paired with a reward and found that this manipulation selectively modifies the expression of TAN responses to the stimulus. These data indicate that the characteristics of neuronal responses undergo modifications when the valence of the stimulus is changed from aversive to appetitive during associative learning, suggesting that TANs may contribute to a form of stimulus encoding that is dependent on motivational attributes. The adaptation of TAN responses such as observed in the present study likewise reflects a neuronal system that adjusts to the motivational information about environmental events.

  12. Differential physiological effects during tonic painful hand immersion tests using hot and ice water.

    PubMed

    Streff, Anouk; Kuehl, Linn K; Michaux, Gilles; Anton, Fernand

    2010-03-01

    The cold pressor test (CPT) is an empirically validated test commonly used in research on stress, pain and cardiovascular reactivity. Surprisingly, the equivalent test with water heated to noxious temperatures (hot water immersion test, HIT) has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the present study was to characterize the physiological effects and psychophysics of both tests and to analyze whether the autonomic responses are mainly induced by baroreflexes or a consequence of the pain experience itself. The study consisted of a single session including one CPT (4+/-0.2 degrees C) and one HIT (47+/-0.5 degrees C; cut-off point 5 min) trial performed on 30 healthy drug free volunteers aged 19-57 (median 24) yrs. The sequence of both trials was alternated and participants were randomly assigned to sequence order and parallelized with respect to gender. Physiological parameters (cardiovascular, respiratory and electrodermal activity) and subjective pain intensity were continuously monitored. In addition, pain detection and tolerance thresholds as well as pain unpleasantness were assessed. Both tests were comparable with regard to the time course and intensity of subjective pain. However, a significantly higher increase of blood pressure could be observed during the CPT when compared to the HIT. The HIT appears less confounded with thermoregulatory baroreflex activity and therefore seems to be a more appropriate model for tonic pain.

  13. HSP90 promotes Burkitt lymphoma cell survival by maintaining tonic B-cell receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Walter, Roland; Pan, Kuan-Ting; Doebele, Carmen; Comoglio, Federico; Tomska, Katarzyna; Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Young, Ryan M; Jacobs, Laura; Keller, Ulrich; Bönig, Halvard; Engelke, Michael; Rosenwald, Andreas; Urlaub, Henning; Staudt, Louis M; Serve, Hubert; Zenz, Thorsten; Oellerich, Thomas

    2017-02-02

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm that is currently treated by intensive chemotherapy in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. Because of their toxicity, current treatment regimens are often not suitable for elderly patients or for patients in developing countries where BL is endemic. Targeted therapies for BL are therefore needed. In this study, we performed a compound screen in 17 BL cell lines to identify small molecule inhibitors affecting cell survival. We found that inhibitors of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) induced apoptosis in BL cells in vitro at concentrations that did not affect normal B cells. By global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling, we show that, in BL, HSP90 inhibition compromises the activity of the pivotal B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-proximal effector spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), which we identified as an HSP90 client protein. Consistently, expression of constitutively active TEL-SYK counteracted the apoptotic effect of HSP90 inhibition. Together, our results demonstrate that HSP90 inhibition impairs BL cell survival by interfering with tonic BCR signaling, thus providing a molecular rationale for the use of HSP90 inhibitors in the treatment of BL.

  14. Spectral Analysis of Acceleration Data for Detection of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyo Sung; Han, Su-Hyun; Lee, Jongshill; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kang, Joong Koo; Woo, Jihwan

    2017-01-01

    Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) can be underestimated and can also increase mortality rates. The monitoring devices used to detect GTCS events in daily life are very helpful for early intervention and precise estimation of seizure events. Several studies have introduced methods for GTCS detection using an accelerometer (ACM), electromyography, or electroencephalography. However, these studies need to be improved with respect to accuracy and user convenience. This study proposes the use of an ACM banded to the wrist and spectral analysis of ACM data to detect GTCS in daily life. The spectral weight function dependent on GTCS was used to compute a GTCS-correlated score that can effectively discriminate between GTCS and normal movement. Compared to the performance of the previous temporal method, which used a standard deviation method, the spectral analysis method resulted in better sensitivity and fewer false positive alerts. Finally, the spectral analysis method can be implemented in a GTCS monitoring device using an ACM and can provide early alerts to caregivers to prevent risks associated with GTCS. PMID:28264522

  15. Phasic and Tonic mGlu7 Receptor Activity Modulates the Thalamocortical Network

    PubMed Central

    Tassin, Valériane; Girard, Benoît; Chotte, Apolline; Fontanaud, Pierre; Rigault, Delphine; Kalinichev, Mikhail; Perroy, Julie; Acher, Francine; Fagni, Laurent; Bertaso, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7 (mGlu7) induces absence-like epileptic seizures, but its precise role in the somatosensory thalamocortical network remains unknown. By combining electrophysiological recordings, optogenetics, and pharmacology, we dissected the contribution of the mGlu7 receptor at mouse thalamic synapses. We found that mGlu7 is functionally expressed at both glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses, where it can inhibit neurotransmission and regulate short-term plasticity. These effects depend on the PDZ-ligand of the receptor, as they are lost in mutant mice. Interestingly, the very low affinity of mGlu7 receptors for glutamate raises the question of how it can be activated, namely at GABAergic synapses and in basal conditions. Inactivation of the receptor activity with the mGlu7 negative allosteric modulator (NAM), ADX71743, enhances thalamic synaptic transmission. In vivo administration of the NAM induces a lethargic state with spindle and/or spike-and-wave discharges accompanied by a behavioral arrest typical of absence epileptic seizures. This provides evidence for mGlu7 receptor-mediated tonic modulation of a physiological function in vivo preventing synchronous and potentially pathological oscillations. PMID:27199672

  16. Muscle group dependent responses to stimuli in a grasshopper model for tonic immobility

    PubMed Central

    Miriyala, Ashwin; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Joseph, Joby

    2013-01-01

    Summary Tonic Immobility (TI) is a prolonged immobile condition exhibited by a variety of animals when exposed to certain stimuli, and is thought to be associated with a specific state of arousal. In our study, we characterize this state by using the reliably inducible TI state of the grasshopper (Hieroglyphus banian) and by monitoring abdominal pulsations and body movements in response to visual and auditory stimuli. These pulsations are present during the TI and ‘awake’, standing states, but not in the CO2 anesthetized state. In response to the stimuli, animals exhibited a suppression in pulsation and a startle response. The suppression of pulsation lasted longer than the duration of stimulus application. During TI, the suppression of pulsation does not habituate over time, whereas the startle response does. In response to the translating visual stimulus, the pulsations are suppressed at a certain phase independent of the time of stimulus application. Thus, we describe TI in Hieroglyphus banian as a state more similar to an ‘awake’ state than to an anesthetized state. During TI, the circuitry to the muscle outputs controlling the abdomen pulsation and the startle response are, at least in some part, different. The central pattern generators that maintain the abdomen pulsation receive inputs from visual and auditory pathways. PMID:24244858

  17. Synthesis of conolidine, a potent non-opioid analgesic for tonic and persistent pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarselli, Michael A.; Raehal, Kirsten M.; Brasher, Alex K.; Streicher, John M.; Groer, Chad E.; Cameron, Michael D.; Bohn, Laura M.; Micalizio, Glenn C.

    2011-06-01

    Management of chronic pain continues to represent an area of great unmet biomedical need. Although opioid analgesics are typically embraced as the mainstay of pharmaceutical interventions in this area, they suffer from substantial liabilities that include addiction and tolerance, as well as depression of breathing, nausea and chronic constipation. Because of their suboptimal therapeutic profile, the search for non-opioid analgesics to replace these well-established therapeutics is an important pursuit. Conolidine is a rare C5-nor stemmadenine natural product recently isolated from the stem bark of Tabernaemontana divaricata (a tropical flowering plant used in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic and Thai medicine). Although structurally related alkaloids have been described as opioid analgesics, no therapeutically relevant properties of conolidine have previously been reported. Here, we describe the first de novo synthetic pathway to this exceptionally rare C5-nor stemmadenine natural product, the first asymmetric synthesis of any member of this natural product class, and the discovery that (±)-, (+)- and (-)-conolidine are potent and efficacious non-opioid analgesics in an in vivo model of tonic and persistent pain.

  18. Critical tonicity determination of sperm using fluorescent staining and flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Noiles, E.E.; Ruffing, N.A.; Kleinhans, F.W.; Mark, L.A.; Watson, P.F.; Critser, J.K. ); Horstman, L. . School of Veterinary Medicine); Mazur, P. )

    1990-01-01

    The use of cryopreserved, rather than fresh, mammalian semen for artificial insemination confers several important medical and/or economic advantages. However, current methods for cryopreservation of both human and bovine spermatozoa result in approximately only a 50% survival rate with thawing, obviously reducing the fertilizing capacity of the semen. A primary consideration during the cooling process is to avoid intracellular ice crystal formation with its lethal consequences to the cell. Current techniques achieve this by controlling the cooling rate. Computation of the time necessary for this dehydration, and hence, the cooling rate, is dependent upon knowledge of the water permeability coefficient (L{sub {rho}}) and its activation energy. The fluorophore, 6-carboxyfluoroscein diacetate (CFDA), which is nonfluorescent, readily crosses the intact plasma membrane. Intracellular esterases hydrolyze CFDA to 6-carboxyfluoroscein, a fluorescent, membrane-impermeable fluorophore. Consequently, spermatozoa with intact plasma membranes fluoresce bright green (Garner et. al., 1986), but those with disrupted membranes do not. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use loss of CFDA fluorescence to determine the osmolality at which 50% of the spermatozoa will swell and lyse (critical tonicity, CT). These data will then be used to determine the L{sub {rho}} and its activation energy for sperm, thus increasing the knowledge available in cellular cryopreservation. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Influence of tonicity and chloramphenicol on hyperthermic cytotoxicity and cell permeability under various heating rates.

    PubMed

    Morozov, I I; Petin, V G; Dubovick, B V

    1997-01-01

    The cell lethality and permeability induced in Escherichia coli B/r, Escherichia coli Bs-1 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii cells by high temperature (52 degrees C) after heating at different rates (mean s 0.015, 0.25 and 1.50 degrees C per s) and in media of different tonicity and content (isotonic YEP broth versus 0.01 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 containing different concentrations of NaCl) and with versus without chloramphenicol (10 micrograms/ml) have been investigated. Hyperthermic treatment in YEP broth of isotonic 0.01 M phosphate buffer resulted in markedly reduced cytotoxicity with decreasing heat rate. The heating rate effect was larger when the cells were treated in YEP broth. Chloramphenicol, which is known to inhibit expression of heat shock proteins in bacteria, did not affect the viability of cells or the development of thermotolerance in cells heated at different heating rates in isotonic phosphate buffer but prevented the development of an additional degree of thermotolerance in cells heated slowly in YEP broth. In contrast, the differential effect of heating rate on cytotoxicity and cell permeability was not demonstrated when cells were heated in hypertonic solution (1M NaCl in phosphate buffer, pH 7.0). It is proposed that heat destabilization of the osmotic cell homeostasis, which is more profound after rapid heating, plays a major part in heat induced cellular lethality.

  20. Tonic glutamatergic input in the rostral ventrolateral medulla is increased in rats with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Zhong; Gao, Lie; Wang, Han-Jun; Zucker, Irving H; Wang, Wei

    2009-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by increased sympathetic tone. The glutamatergic input in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), which is a key region involved in sympathetic outflow, seems not to be involved in the generation of sympathetic tone in the normal state. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the RVLM glutamate receptors in the generation of sympathetic tone in CHF. CHF was produced by coronary artery ligation. Bilateral microinjection of the glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid, the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate, or the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione into the RVLM dose-dependently reduced resting blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity in CHF but not in sham rats. Picoinjection of kynurenic acid (100 pmol in 5 nL) significantly decreased the basal discharge by 47% in 25 RVLM presympathetic neurons in CHF rats. In contrast, kynurenic acid had no effect on the discharge in all 22 of the RVLM presympathetic neurons tested in sham rats. These data suggest that upregulated glutamate receptors, including NMDA and non-NMDA, in the RVLM are involved in tonic control of elevated sympathetic tone in CHF.

  1. Biophysical modeling of tonic cortical electrical activity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Rowe, D L; Robinson, P A; Lazzaro, I L; Powles, R C; Gordon, E; Williams, L M

    2005-09-01

    Psychophysiological theories characterize Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of cortical hypoarousal and a lack of inhibition of irrelevant sensory input, drawing on evidence of abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) delta-theta activity. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this disorder a biophysical model of the cortex was used to fit and replicate the EEGs from 54 ADHD adolescents and their control subjects. The EEG abnormalities in ADHD were accounted for by the model's neurophysiological parameters as follows: (i) dendritic response times were increased, (ii) intrathalamic activity involving the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) was increased, consistent with enhanced delta-theta activity, and (iii) intracortical activity was increased, consistent with slow wave (<1 Hz) abnormalities. The longer dendritic response time is consistent with the increase in the activity of inhibitory cells types, particularly in the TRN, and therefore reduced arousal. The increase in intracortical activity may also reflect an increase in background activity or cortical noise within neocortical circuits. In terms of neurochemistry, these findings may be accounted for by disturbances in the cholinergic and/or noradrenergic systems. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study to use a detailed biophysical model of the brain to elucidate the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying tonic abnormalities in ADHD.

  2. Limited Expression of Slow Tonic Myosin Heavy Chain in Human Cranial Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Sokoloff, Alan J.; Li, Haiyan; Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports of slow tonic myosin heavy chain (MHCst) in human masticatory and laryngeal muscles suggest that MHCst may have a wider distribution in humans than previously thought. Because of the novelty of this finding, we sought to confirm the presence of MHCst in human masticatory and laryngeal muscles by reacting tissue from these muscles and controls from extraocular, intrafusal, cardiac, appendicular and developmental muscle with antibodies (Abs) ALD-58 and S46 considered highly specific for MHCst. At Ab dilutions producing minimal reaction to muscle fibers positive for MHCI, only extraocular, intrafusal and fetal tongue tissue reacted with Ab S46 had strong immunoreaction in an appreciable number of muscle fibers. In immunoblots Ab S46, but not Ab ALD-58, labeled adult extraocular muscles; no other muscles were labeled with either Ab. We conclude that, in humans, Ab S46 has greater specificity for MHCst than does Ab ALD-58. We suggest that reports of MHCst in human masticatory and laryngeal muscles reflect false-positive identification of MHCst due to cross-reactivity of Ab ALD-58 with another MHC isoform. PMID:17486578

  3. [Advance in herbal medicine applied to intracanal antisepsis].

    PubMed

    Zhongpeng, Yang; Ling, Zou

    2014-12-01

    Intracanal antisepsis acts as one of the fundamental steps in root canal therapy. Intracanal medication is very common among the multitudinous root canal disinfection methods so far. However, as the most frequently-used intracanal medication, calcium hydroxide exists some problems, such as insufficient antimicrobial power and antibiogram. Thus exploring new root canal disinfectant is necessary. Herbal medicine is gaining favor for its wide varieties, broad efficacy and affordable prices. The current researches revealed that many kinds of herbs or compound herbal preparations possess good ability of antimicrobial and other properties that superior to those of traditional root canal disinfectants. However, herbal medicine itself and the studies have shortcomings. This paper will provide a review of various herbal alternatives that are being studied of late years.

  4. POTENTIAL OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN MODERN MEDICAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hakim Mohammed

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses in this paper the potentialities of Herbal medicine in modern therapy. Also he throws some light on the importance of natural drugs which bring about cure without generation side-effects. PMID:22557447

  5. Herbal Supplements: What to Know Before You Buy

    MedlinePlus

    ... putting their products on the market. Yet all herbs — including herbal supplement products labeled as "natural" — can ... prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Some herbs can cause serious side effects when mixed with ...

  6. Herbal drugs for diabetic treatment: an updated review of patents.

    PubMed

    Wais, Mohd; Nazish, Iram; Samad, Abdus; Beg, Sarwer; Abusufyan, S; Ajaj, S Ajaz; Aqil, Mohd

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, affecting 16 million individuals in the United States and 200 million worldwide. Despite the use of advanced synthetic drugs for the treatment, use of herbal remedies is gaining higher importance because of synthetic drugs have drawbacks and limitations. The herbal drugs with antidiabetic activity are extensively formulated commercially because of easy availability, affordability and less side effects as compared to the synthetic antidiabetic drugs. Antidiabetic herbal formulations (AHF) are considered to be more effective for the management of diabetes. There are around 600 herbal drug manufacturers in India of which almost all manufacturers are developing AHF in addition to others. Till date, no article is published to give detailed information of the patents on AHF. Thus, this review article undertake the attempt for providing updated information on the type of diabetes and patented AHF which will enhance the existing knowledge of the researchers.

  7. Herbal products in pregnancy: experimental studies and clinical reports.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Tomaino, Antonio; Trombetta, Domenico

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an update from an overview of the literature of the most frequently consumed herbal remedies during pregnancy, both alone and concomitantly with prescribed medications and particularly on their side effects to the mother and fetus. We have also analyzed some of the adverse interactions that may occur due to concomitant use of herbal and pharmaceutical products during pregnancy. Herbal remedies are not evaluated according to the same standards as pharmaceuticals, and in the USA some of it are not licensed but sold as food supplements. There is a lack of basic knowledge on the part of both clinicians and patients as to the indications for use and safety of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and lactation. If 'traditional use' is the only available information, the pregnant woman should be made aware of this to enable her to make an informed decision concerning potential use.

  8. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata. PMID:26130940

  9. A systematic review on the herbal extract Tribulus terrestris and the roots of its putative aphrodisiac and performance enhancing effect.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ahmed; Naughton, Declan P; Petroczi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a dicotyledonous herbal plant of the Zygophyllaceae family. In ancient medicine, extracts of the aerial parts and fruits have been used for its diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties. Today, TT is widely used by athletes and bodybuilders based on the belief, fueled by claims in marketing information, that it can enhance testosterone concentrations. To assess TT's effect on testosterone levels in human and animals, an electronic literature search out using seven databases and the patent database up to August 2013 was carried out. Randomized control trials, which included healthy human subjects ingesting TT as sole or combined supplement, along with animal studies with TT as a sole treatment across a number of species were included. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including one patent application. The results showed that trials varied in duration, dosage and supplementation with TT as sole or combined treatment, rendering meta-analysis impossible. A limited number of animal studies displayed a significant increase in serum testosterone levels after TT administration, but this effect was only noted in humans when TT was part of a combined supplement administration. Literature available for the effectiveness of TT on enhancing testosterone concentrations is limited. Evidence to date suggests that TT is ineffective for increasing testosterone levels in humans, thus marketing claims are unsubstantiated. The nitric oxide release effect of TT may offer a plausible explanation for the observed physiological responses to TT supplementation, independent of the testosterone level.

  10. [Regulatory sciences in herbal medicines and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Tsutani, Kiichiro; Takuma, Hiroki

    2008-06-01

    Regulatory science began in the late 1980's in the pharmaceutical area in Japan. It aimed not only at vertical, top-down regulation but also horizontal regulation to suit the social value system. Herbal medicines and dietary supplements are two areas where regulatory science is still not well developed and used. Risk perception, risk assessment and risk management in these areas are often neglected by regulators, academicians and the public. Since the risk of using herbal medicines and dietary supplements is a global concern, development of a global regulatory system is needed. In this paper, we introduce the current situation of several projects which deal with regulatory science in herbal medicines and dietary supplements, namely: (1) Herbal ATC (HATC) classification project initiated by Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) which led to the development of the provisional HATC code of 228 Kampo formulae and Standard Kampo Formula Nomenclature (SKFN) in Japan, (2) WHO/WPRO International Standardization of Terminology (IST) which resulted in the publication of "WHO Internal Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region Forum for Herbal Harmonization", (3) Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH), (4) CONSORT extension for herbal medicines, (5) ICH M5 (Data elements and standards for drug dictionaries), and (6) activities on nomenclature at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, there is a lack of coordination among these projects. Therefore, harmonization of all projects aimed at harmonizing and standardizing all aspects of regulatory science for herbal medicines and dietary supplements is recommended. However, careful consideration should be given to each unique local situation.

  11. [Use of herbal medicine for cancer treatment-related toxicities].

    PubMed

    Samuels, Noah; Morag, Ofir; Maimon, Yair

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment-related toxicities often require dose reductions and delays. Herbal medicine use is prevalent among cancer patients. Though evidence is lacking regarding benefits in treatment outcomes and immunity, a large body of evidence supports the use of herbals for reducing treatment-induced toxicities. We present three cases where herbal medicine provided relief from side effects of anti-cancer treatment, enabling the completion of treatment protocols. In the first case, a 79 year-old female patient with metastatic breast cancer developed flushing and excessive sweating from Tamoxifen treatment. Herbal medicine reduced symptoms significantly, enabling the continuation of treatment with partial disease resolution. In the second case, a 69 year-old male with esophageal cancer terminated treatment on the adjuvant treatment protocol because of severe nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, peripheral neuropathy and fatigue. Herbal medicine reduced symptom severity and chemotherapy was reinstituted. In the third case, a 58 year-old female patient with advanced metastatic colon cancer was referred by her oncologist for treatment with herbal medicine for alleviation of fatigue and weakness, flushing and palpitations, mouth ulcers and dyspnea. Despite significant symptom reduction, with completion of treatment regimens, her disease progressed and she subsequently succumbed to the disease. In summary, the above cases illustrate potential benefits of herbal medicine in the reduction of cancer treatment-related symptoms, enabling patients to complete their anti-cancer treatment regimen. Further research examining the efficacy and safety of herbal compounds is needed, in light of potential toxicity and negative interactions with conventional treatment.

  12. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  13. Research Advances on Hepatotoxicity of Herbal Medicines in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changxiao; Fan, Huirong; Li, Yazhuo; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2016-01-01

    In general, herbal medicines have been considered as safe by the general public, since they are naturally occurring and have been applied in treatment for over thousands of years. As the use of herbal medicine is rapidly increasing globally, the potential toxicity of herbal drugs, in particular drug-induced liver injury (DILI), has now become a serious medical issue. According to the literature, the authors analyzed and discussed the hepatotoxicity problem of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), including global overview on herbal-induced liver injury (HILI), current research progress on toxic CHM, diagnosis and treatment of HILI, and modern approaches and technologies of study of hepatotoxicity. As to promote the recognition of HILI and tackle the issue, a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of HILI has recently been drafted by Chinese scientists. As suggested by the guideline, the hepatotoxicity issue of CHM, as a matter of fact, is overestimated. Up to date, the investigation of hepatotoxicity of CHM is now booming with worldwide application of CHM. This review therefore provides useful information for investigating hepatotoxicity of herbal medicine and characterizing DILI caused by CHM. In addition, authors describe in which way further efforts should be made to study the rationale of CHM and liver injury.

  14. Application of transcriptomics in Chinese herbal medicine studies

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Li-Jen; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People's Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:24716122

  15. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the “Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae” and the “Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances.” These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  16. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W. Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  17. A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilin; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Leon, Christine

    2014-11-15

    Numerous adverse reactions have arisen following the use of inaccurately identified medicinal plant ingredients, resulting in conditions such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning. This problem has prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding, a technique aiming at detecting species-specific differences in a short region of DNA, provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. This review summarizes recent key advances in the DNA barcoding of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution towards safe and efficacious herbal medicines.

  18. Research Advances on Hepatotoxicity of Herbal Medicines in China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huirong; Li, Yazhuo; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2016-01-01

    In general, herbal medicines have been considered as safe by the general public, since they are naturally occurring and have been applied in treatment for over thousands of years. As the use of herbal medicine is rapidly increasing globally, the potential toxicity of herbal drugs, in particular drug-induced liver injury (DILI), has now become a serious medical issue. According to the literature, the authors analyzed and discussed the hepatotoxicity problem of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), including global overview on herbal-induced liver injury (HILI), current research progress on toxic CHM, diagnosis and treatment of HILI, and modern approaches and technologies of study of hepatotoxicity. As to promote the recognition of HILI and tackle the issue, a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of HILI has recently been drafted by Chinese scientists. As suggested by the guideline, the hepatotoxicity issue of CHM, as a matter of fact, is overestimated. Up to date, the investigation of hepatotoxicity of CHM is now booming with worldwide application of CHM. This review therefore provides useful information for investigating hepatotoxicity of herbal medicine and characterizing DILI caused by CHM. In addition, authors describe in which way further efforts should be made to study the rationale of CHM and liver injury. PMID:28078299

  19. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the "Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae" and the "Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances." These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice.

  20. Tonicity balance, and not electrolyte-free water calculations, more accurately guides therapy for acute changes in natremia.

    PubMed

    Carlotti, A P; Bohn, D; Mallie, J P; Halperin, M L

    2001-05-01

    The usual way to decide why hyponatremia or hypernatremia has developed and to plan goals for its therapy is to analyze events in electrolyte-free water (EFW) terms. We shall demonstrate that an EFW balance does not supply this information. Rather, one must calculate mass balances for water and sodium plus potassium separately (a tonicity balance) to understand the basis for the change in natremia and the proper goals for its therapy. These points are illustrated with a clinical example.

  1. Delta-subunit-containing GABAA-receptors mediate tonic inhibition in paracapsular cells of the mouse amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Marowsky, Anne; Vogt, Kaspar E.

    2014-01-01

    The intercalated paracapsular cells (pcs) are small GABAergic interneurons that form densely populated clusters surrounding the basolateral (BLA) complex of the amygdala. Their main task in the amygdala circuitry appears to be the control of information flow, as they act as an inhibitory interface between input and output nuclei. Modulation of their activity is thus thought to affect amygdala output and the generation of fear and anxiety. Recent evidence indicates that pcs express benzodiazepine (BZ)-sensitive GABAA receptor (GABAAR) variants containing the α2- and α3-subunit for transmission of post-synaptic currents, yet little is known about the expression of extrasynaptic GABAARs, mediating tonic inhibition and regulating neuronal excitability. Here, we show that pcs from the lateral and medial intercalated cell cluster (l- and mITC, respectively) express a tonic GABAergic conductance that could be significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner by the δ-preferring GABAAR agonist THIP (0.5–10 μM), but not by the BZ diazepam (1 μM). The neurosteroid THDOC (300 nM) also increased tonic currents in pcs significantly, but only in the presence of additional GABA (5 μM). Immunohistochemical stainings revealed that both the δ-GABAAR and the α4-GABAAR subunit are expressed throughout all ITCs, while no staining for the α5-GABAAR subunit could be detected. Moreover, 1 μM THIP dampened excitability in pcs most likely by increasing shunting inhibition. In line with this, THIP significantly decreased lITC-generated inhibition in target cells residing in the BLA nucleus by 30%. Taken together these results demonstrate for the first time that pcs express a tonic inhibitory conductance mediated most likely by α4/δ-containing GABAARs. This data also suggest that δ-GABAAR targeting compounds might possibly interfere with pcs-related neuronal processes such as fear extinction. PMID:24723854

  2. Phasic and Tonic Patterns of Locus Coeruleus Output Differentially Modulate Sensory Network Function in the Awake Rat

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, Barry D.

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) discharge with phasic bursts of activity superimposed on highly regular tonic discharge rates. Phasic bursts are elicited by bottom-up input mechanisms involving novel/salient sensory stimuli and top-down decision making processes; whereas tonic rates largely fluctuate according to arousal levels and behavioral states. Although it is generally believed that these two modes of activity differentially modulate information processing in LC targets, the unique role of phasic versus tonic LC output on signal processing in cells, circuits, and neural networks of waking animals is not well understood. In the current study, simultaneous recordings of individual neurons within ventral posterior medial thalamus and barrel field cortex of conscious rats provided evidence that each mode of LC output produces a unique modulatory impact on single neuron responsiveness to sensory-driven synaptic input and representations of sensory information across ensembles of simultaneously recorded cells. Each mode of LC activation specifically modulated the relationship between sensory-stimulus intensity and the subsequent responses of individual neurons and neural ensembles. Overall these results indicate that phasic versus tonic modes of LC discharge exert fundamentally different modulatory effects on target neuronal circuits within the rodent trigeminal somatosensory system. As such, each mode of LC output may differentially influence signal processing as a means of optimizing behaviorally relevant neural computations within this sensory network. Likely the ability of the LC system to differentially regulate neural responses and local circuit operations according to behavioral demands extends to other brain regions including those involved in higher cognitive functions. PMID:20980542

  3. Detection of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residue in herbal plants which are commonly used in the herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mruthyumjaya Meda; Kumarmeena, Ajay; Galib

    2011-10-01

    Herbal formulations are getting popular throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties. WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues. In view of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in herbal formulations were collected from local market, for testing heavy metals and persistent pesticides residue. Therefore, in the present case, we have examined few local samples of certain herbs viz. Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Withania somnifera. The present studies were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Apart from these, pesticide residue Viz. Organochlorine pesticides, Organophosphorus pesticides, and Pyrethroids were analyzed in the four samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals and pesticide residue were found below detection limits in all the samples.

  4. Salvia miltiorrhiza Induces Tonic Contraction of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter in Rats via Activation of Extracellular Ca2+ Influx.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Chang, Li-Ching; Huang, Shih-Che; Tey, Shu-Leei; Hsu, Wen-Li; Su, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Tong-Rong

    2015-08-11

    Up to 40% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) suffer from proton pump inhibitor refractory GERD but clinically the medications to strengthen the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to avoid irritating reflux are few in number. This study aimed to examine whether Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) extracts induce tonic contraction of rat LES ex vivo and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. To investigate the mechanism underlying the SM extract-induced contractile effects, rats were pretreated with atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), tetrodotoxin (a sodium channel blocker), nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker), and Ca(2+)-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), followed by administration of cumulative dosages of SM extracts. SM extracts induced dose-related tonic contraction of the LES, which was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, atropine, or nifedipine. However, the SM extract-induced LES contraction was significantly inhibited by Ca(2+)-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with EGTA. Next, SM extracts significantly induce extracellular Ca(2+) entry into primary LES cells in addition to intracellular Ca(2+) release and in a dose-response manner. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the SM extracts consistently induced significant extracellular Ca(2+) influx into primary LES cells in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, SM extracts could induce tonic contraction of LES mainly through the extracellular Ca(2+) influx pathway.

  5. Comparative Efficacy of Silymarin and Choline Chloride (Liver Tonics) in Preventing the Effects of Aflatoxin B1 in Bovine Calves.

    PubMed

    Naseer, O; Khan, J A; Khan, M S; Omer, M O; Chishti, G A; Sohail, M L; Saleem, M U

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. which are injurious to animals and humans The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI), Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG), haematological and serum biochemical responses of Bovine Calves and to determine the comparative efficacy of two different liver tonics against AFB1. Twenty seven calves were selected from herd and divided into 3 groups. All calves were fed with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 for a period of 10 days. After that they were fed with liver tonics: Silymarin fed at a rate of 600 mg/kg and Choline chloride 500 mg/kg for 7 days. The results indicate that the ADFI and ADWG of AFB1 treated calves decreased significantly. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine significantly increased due to AFB1. In haematology the total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), haemoglobin concentration (HGB), haematocrit levels (HCT), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocyte %, neutrophil % and monocyte % significantly decreased in AFB1 treated calves after 10 days of feeding. Both liver tonics significantly (p<0.05) improved all the parameters, including ADFI, ADWG, hematologial and serum biochemical test. However, Silymarin comparatively more efficiently ameliorate the effects induced by AFB1 than choline chloride.

  6. Decreased tonic inhibition in cerebellar granule cells causes motor dysfunction in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Kiyoshi; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Inoue, Koichi; Takayama, Masakazu; Takayama, Chitoshi; Saitoh, Shinji; Kishino, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2012-12-05

    Angelman syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of function of the UBE3A gene encoding a ubiquitin E3 ligase. Motor dysfunction is a characteristic feature of Angelman syndrome, but neither the mechanisms of action nor effective therapeutic strategies have yet been elucidated. We report that tonic inhibition is specifically decreased in cerebellar granule cells of Ube3a-deficient mice, a model of Angelman syndrome. As a mechanism underlying this decrease in tonic inhibition, we show that Ube3a controls degradation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT1) and that deficiency of Ube3a induces a surplus of GAT1 that results in a decrease in GABA concentrations in the extrasynaptic space. Administering low doses of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisothiazolo-[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), a selective extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor agonist, improves the abnormal firing properties of a population of Purkinje cells in cerebellar brain slices and reduces cerebellar ataxia in Ube3a-deficient mice in vivo. These results suggest that pharmacologically increasing tonic inhibition may be a useful strategy for alleviating motor dysfunction in Angelman syndrome.

  7. Orienting, emotion, and memory: phasic and tonic variation in heart rate predicts memory for emotional pictures in men.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Chambers, Andrea S; Greischar, Lawrence; Monticelli, Roxanne M

    2008-11-01

    Arousal-related processes associated with heightened heart rate (HR) predict memory enhancement, especially for emotionally arousing stimuli. In addition, phasic HR deceleration reflects "orienting" and sensory receptivity during perception of stimuli. We hypothesized that both tonic elevations in HR as well as phasic HR deceleration during viewing of pictures would be associated with deeper encoding and better subsequent memory for stimuli. Emotional pictures are more memorable and cause greater HR deceleration than neutral pictures. Thus, we predicted that the relations between cardiac activity and memory enhancement would be most pronounced for emotionally-laden compared to neutral pictures. We measured HR in 53 males during viewing of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures, and tested memory for the pictures two days later. Phasic HR deceleration during viewing of individual pictures was greater for subsequently remembered than forgotten pictures across all three emotion categories. Elevated mean HR across the entire encoding epoch also predicted better memory performance, but only for emotionally arousing pictures. Elevated mean HR and phasic HR deceleration were associated, such that individuals with greater tonic HR also showed greater HR decelerations during picture viewing, but only for emotionally arousing pictures. Results suggest that tonic elevations in HR are associated both with greater orienting and heightened memory for emotionally arousing stimuli.

  8. Fixed eruption due to quinine in tonic water: a case report with high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet A analyses.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Aoi; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Miyagi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Yu-Ichi; Yamada, Satoshi; Shiohira, Hideo; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Uno, Tsukasa; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2013-08-01

    Fixed drug eruption is a common cutaneous adverse reaction in young patients with a characteristic clinical appearance. However, the diagnosis and identification of the substance may be difficult if food or food additives provoke the fixed eruption. A 26-year-old man had a history of two episodes of cutaneous erythema with residual pigmentation. Close examination of the history including his diet in addition to an oral challenge test and patch testing led to the diagnosis of fixed eruption secondary to quinine in tonic water. We examined for the presence of quinine in commercially available brands of tonic water using ultraviolet A and irradiation and high-performance liquid chromatography. Both Schweppes and CANADA DRY brands of tonic water emitted fluorescent light upon ultraviolet A irradiation, and contained quinine at concentrations of 67.9 and 61.3 mg/L, respectively. Quinine contained in some tonic waters may trigger fixed eruption.

  9. Compilation of a herbal medicine formulary for herbal substances in Malta and its usefulness amongst healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, Maria; Attard, Everaldo; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Azzopardi, Lilian M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Today, the use of herbal medicine for primary healthcare has increased considerably. Since local pharmacists graduate with little knowledge on herbal medicine, the majority are ill-equipped to provide pharmaceutical advice. Aims To develop and evaluate a herbal medicine formulary to aid healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the prescribing, dispensing and counselling responsibilities. Settings and Design Community pharmacies. Methods and Material Monographs on all herbal substances available locally were compiled into a formulary. The formulary was then distributed to all, 216, local pharmacies. Subsequently, a questionnaire was distributed to 55 pharmacists and 10 general practitioners (GPs). Statistical analysis used Descriptive statistical analysis. Results A total of 177 herbal monographs have been compiled and 612 herbal products listed. Thirty HCPs participated in the questionnaire. The formulary was found to be useful by all participants with 19 claiming to use it frequently and 7 quite frequently. Participants (n = 30) agree that the information contained within the formulary was found to be useful (26), the formulary helped them learn which HMPs are present in the local market (29), the formulary is user friendly (27), information included is up-to-date and well referenced (29) and that there is the need for a formulary of this kind in Malta (28). Conclusions The formulary was found to be a useful tool for HCPs leading to high quality, evidence-based prescribing together with enhanced monitoring and improved patient care. PMID:24023448

  10. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  11. Herbal medicine IMOD suppresses LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaee, Saeedeh; Drewniak, Agata; Sarrami-Forooshani, Ramin; Kaptein, Tanja M.; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicines that stimulate or modulate the immune system can be used as innovative approaches to treat immunological diseases. The herbal medicine IMOD has been shown to strongly modulate immune responses in several animal studies as well as in clinical trials. However, little is known about the mechanisms of IMOD to modulate immunity. Here we have investigated whether IMOD modulates the immunological function of human dendritic cells (DCs). IMOD alone did not induce DC maturation nor production of cytokines. Notably, IMOD decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNFα by LPS-activated DCs at both mRNA and protein levels in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, treatment with IMOD did not affect LPS induced-production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, IMOD inhibited T cell activation/proliferation by LPS-treated DCs and skewed T-cells responses toward the T helper type 2 polarization. These data strongly indicate that IMOD has a potent immunomodulatory ability that affects TLR signaling and thereby modulates DC function. Insight into the immunomodulatory effect of herbal medicine IMOD may provide innovative strategies to affect the immune system and to help combat various diseases. PMID:25870561

  12. Differential effects of rapamycin treatment on tonic and phasic GABAergic inhibition in dentate granule cells after focal brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Butler, Corwin R; Boychuk, Jeffery A; Smith, Bret N

    2016-06-01

    The cascade of events leading to post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear. Altered inhibition in the hippocampal formation and dentate gyrus is a hallmark of several neurological disorders, including TBI and PTE. Inhibitory synaptic signaling in the hippocampus is predominately driven by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission, and is prominently mediated by postsynaptic type A GABA receptors (GABAAR's). Subsets of these receptors involved in tonic inhibition of neuronal membranes serve a fundamental role in maintenance of inhibitory state, and GABAAR-mediated tonic inhibition is altered functionally in animal models of both TBI and epilepsy. In this study, we assessed the effect of mTOR inhibition on hippocampal hilar inhibitory interneuron loss and synaptic and tonic GABAergic inhibition of dentate gyrus granule cells (DGCs) after controlled cortical impact (CCI) to determine if mTOR activation after TBI modulates GABAAR function. Hilar inhibitory interneuron density was significantly reduced 72h after CCI injury in the dorsal two-thirds of the hemisphere ipsilateral to injury compared with the contralateral hemisphere and sham controls. Rapamycin treatment did not alter this reduction in cell density. Synaptic and tonic current measurements made in DGCs at both 1-2 and 8-13weeks post-injury indicated reduced synaptic inhibition and THIP-induced tonic current density in DGCs ipsilateral to CCI injury at both time points post-injury, with no change in resting tonic GABAAR-mediated currents. Rapamycin treatment did not alter the reduced synaptic inhibition observed in ipsilateral DGCs 1-2weeks post-CCI injury, but further reduced synaptic inhibition of ipsilateral DGCs at 8-13weeks post-injury. The reduction in THIP-induced tonic current after injury, however, was prevented by rapamycin treatment at both time points. Rapamycin treatment thus differentially modifies CCI-induced changes in synaptic and tonic GABAAR

  13. Pulmonary edema following generalized tonic clonic seizures is directly associated with seizure duration

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jeffrey D.; Hardin, Kimberly A.; Parikh, Palak; Li, Chin-Shang; Seyal, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postictal pulmonary edema (PPE) is almost invariably present in human and animal cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) coming to autopsy. PPE may be a contributing factor in SUDEP. The incidence of postictal PPE is unknown. We retrospectively investigated PPE following generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) in the epilepsy monitoring unit. Methods Chest X-Rays (CXR) following each GTCS were obtained in 24 consecutive patients. Relationship of CXR abnormality to seizure duration, ictal/postictal oxygen desaturation (SpO2), apnea and presence of postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) was investigated using logistic regression. Results Eleven of 24 patients had CXR abnormalities following a GTCS. In these 11 patients, 22 CXR were obtained and abnormalities were present in 15 CXR. Abnormalities included PPE in 7 patients, of which 2 also had focal infiltrates. In 4 patients focal infiltrates were present without PPE. There was no significant difference in mean time to CXR (225 min) following GTCS in the abnormal CXR group versus the normal group of patients (196 min). Mean preceding seizure duration was longer (p=0.002) in GTCS with abnormal CXR (259.7 sec) versus GTCS with normal CXR (101.2 sec). Odds-ratio for CXR abnormality was 20.46 (p=0.006) with seizure duration greater than 100 sec versus less than 100 sec. On multivariable analysis, only the seizure duration was a significant predictor of CXR abnormality (p=0.015). Conclusions Radiographic abnormalities are not uncommon following GTCS. The presence of CXR abnormality is significantly associated with the duration of the preceding GTCS. Severe, untreated PPE may be relevant to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. PMID:25844030

  14. Feeling psychologically restrained: the effect of social exclusion on tonic immobility

    PubMed Central

    Mooren, Nora; van Minnen, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Background A variety of studies have demonstrated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in victims of bullying. Because bullying with only relational aggression, such as social exclusion, does not involve physical aggression that could explain PTSD symptoms, it remains unclear why these relational aggression situations are also linked to PTSD symptoms. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the fear-response tonic immobility (Ti) can occur during social exclusion. Since Ti, as an indicator of peritraumatic dissociation, is an important predictor of PTSD symptoms, we expected that the presence of Ti during social exclusion might contribute to possible explanations of PTSD symptoms in victims of relational aggression. Method Social exclusion was manipulated by a virtual Cyberball game in which participants were excluded and included by virtual confederates. During the game, Ti was measured, both physiologically (heart rate) and psychologically (subjective symptoms). Also, the underlying concepts of Ti, high levels of fear and psychological restraint (threatened sense of control), were measured. Results Excluded participants experienced higher levels of subjective and physiological Ti symptoms (lower heart rates) in comparison to social inclusion. Also, as expected, social exclusion resulted in higher levels of fear and psychological restraint in comparison to social inclusion. Conclusion Social exclusion can evoke symptoms of Ti, fear, and psychological restraint, which might be important mechanisms to consider in explaining PTSD symptoms after relational forms of bullying in the absence of physical aggression. Limitations The sample only contains healthy, female participants. Whether our results translate to bullying victims of relational aggression is therefore not known. Also, the physiological measurement of Ti (average heart rate) was rather limited and could be expanded in future studies. PMID:24765247

  15. Long-term outcomes of generalized tonic-clonic seizures in a childhood absence epilepsy trial

    PubMed Central

    Cnaan, Avital; Hu, Fengming; Clark, Peggy; Dlugos, Dennis; Hirtz, Deborah G.; Masur, David; Mizrahi, Eli M.; Moshé, Solomon L.; Glauser, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine incidence and early predictors of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCs) in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). Methods: Occurrence of GTCs was determined in 446 children with CAE who participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing ethosuximide, lamotrigine, and valproate as initial therapy for CAE. Results: As of June 2014, the cohort had been followed for a median of 7.0 years since enrollment and 12% (53) have experienced at least one GTC. The median time to develop GTCs from initial therapy was 4.7 years. The median age at first GTC was 13.1 years. Fifteen (28%) were not on medications at the time of their first GTC. On univariate analysis, older age at enrollment was associated with a higher risk of GTCs (p = −0.0009), as was the duration of the shortest burst on the baseline EEG (p = 0.037). Failure to respond to initial treatment (p < 0.001) but not treatment assignment was associated with a higher rate of GTCs. Among patients initially assigned to ethosuximide, 94% (15/16) with GTCs experienced initial therapy failure (p < 0.0001). A similar but more modest effect was noted in those initially treated with valproate (p = 0.017) and not seen in those initially treated with lamotrigine. Conclusions: The occurrence of GTCs in a well-characterized cohort of children with CAE appears lower than previously reported. GTCs tend to occur late in the course of the disorder. Children initially treated with ethosuximide who are responders have a particularly low risk of developing subsequent GTCs. PMID:26311751

  16. Dynamic functional network connectivity in idiopathic generalized epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Meiling; Wang, Wenqin; Li, Rong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2017-02-01

    Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) has been linked with disrupted intra-network connectivity of multiple resting-state networks (RSNs); however, whether impairment is present in inter-network interactions between RSNs, remains largely unclear. Here, 50 patients with IGE characterized by generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and 50 demographically matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scans. A dynamic method was implemented to investigate functional network connectivity (FNC) in patients with IGE-GTCS. Specifically, independent component analysis was first carried out to extract RSNs, and then sliding window correlation approach was employed to obtain dynamic FNC patterns. Finally, k-mean clustering was performed to characterize six discrete functional connectivity states, and state analysis was conducted to explore the potential alterations in FNC and other dynamic metrics. Our results revealed that state-specific FNC disruptions were observed in IGE-GTCS and the majority of aberrant functional connectivity manifested itself in default mode network. In addition, temporal metrics derived from state transition vectors were altered in patients including the total number of transitions across states and the mean dwell time, the fraction of time spent and the number of subjects in specific FNC state. Furthermore, the alterations were significantly correlated with disease duration and seizure frequency. It was also found that dynamic FNC could distinguish patients with IGE-GTCS from controls with an accuracy of 77.91% (P < 0.001). Taken together, this study not only provided novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of IGE-GTCS but also suggested that the dynamic FNC analysis was a promising avenue to deepen our understanding of this disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:957-973, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Interictal electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    M Ramadan, Mahmoud; El-Shahat, Nader; A Omar, Ashraf; Gomaa, Mohamed; Belal, Tamer; A Sakr, Sherif; Abu-Hegazy, Mohammad; Hakim, Hazem; A Selim, Heba; Omar, Sabry; A Omar, Sabry

    2013-01-01

    Partial and generalized seizures often affect autonomic functions during seizures, and interictal and postictal periods. We investigated possible interictal electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), together with evaluating any structural heart changes by echocardiography in these patients in comparison with healthy controls. We studied 120 definite GTCS patients (76 males and 44 females) who are neither diabetic nor under any medical treatment, and 60 healthy controls with a mean age of 25.2 ± 9.3 and 27.3 ± 7.5 years; respectively. Resting systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures were measured, and standard 12-lead electrocardiograms and a 2-dimensional echocardiographic examination were performed. In univariate analysis, GTCS patients (compared to controls) had significantly lower means of PR interval (147.2 ± 18.6 versus 153.8 ± 22.6 msec; P = 0.037), QT interval (362.8 ± 22.9 versus 379.9 ± 29.3 msec; P < 0.001), and QTc interval (425.5 ± 20.7 versus 441.6 ± 19.9 msec; P < 0.001) but significantly higher mean left atrial diameter (3.49 ± 0.64 versus 3.09 ± 0.45 cm; P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index in a multivariate adjusted logistic regression model, left atrial diameter (OR = 3.941 [1.739 - 8.932]) and QTc (OR = 0.924 [0.895 - 0.954]) were significantly and independently associated with GTCS. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy may be predisposed to disturbances of autonomic functions with subsequent cardiac arrhythmias due to the effects of recurrent seizures on cardiac microstructure. Further work is needed to stratify the risk of sudden unexplained cardiac death (SUDEP) on the basis of interictal autonomic parameters to improve prognosis.

  18. The In Vitro and In Vivo Wound Healing Properties of the Chinese Herbal Medicine “Jinchuang Ointment”

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tsung-Jung; Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Lin, Guang-Huey; Li, Tzong Shiun; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Yang, Jai-Sing; Hsieh, Ming-Chuan; Wu, Chun-Chang; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Hao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    “Jinchuang ointment” is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex for treatment of incised wounds. For more than ten years, it has been used at China Medical University Hospital (Taichung, Taiwan) for the treatment of diabetic foot infections and decubitus ulcers. Three different cases are presented in this study. “Jinchuang” ointment is a mixture of natural product complexes from nine different components, making it difficult to analyze its exact chemical compositions. To further characterize the herbal ingredients used in this study, the contents of reference standards present in a subset of the ointment ingredients (dragon's blood, catechu, frankincense, and myrrh) were determined by HPLC. Two in vitro cell based assay platforms, wound healing and tube formation, were used to examine the biological activity of this medicine. Our results show that this herbal medicine possesses strong activities including stimulation of angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and cell migration, which provide the scientific basis for its clinically observed curative effects on nonhealing diabetic wounds. PMID:27200097

  19. Evaluation of Estrogenic Activity of Extract from the Herbal Mixture Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley, Phlomis umbrosa Turczaninow, and Angelica gigas Nakai

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Jong; Jin, Sun Woo; Lee, Gi-Ho; Kim, Yong An; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2017-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) consists of highly effective prescription medications for treating menopausal symptoms; however, these agents have exhibited side effects including the risk of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Therefore, interest in phytotherapy-based materials as a natural source of alternatives to estrogen therapy has increased. However, some of these herbal medicines have been reported to increase the risk of estrogen-induced cancer. Herbal formulations composed of a combination of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley (CW), Phlomis umbrosa Turczaninow (PU), and Angelica gigas Nakai (AG) extracts (CPAE) have been used for treating menopausal symptoms. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the safety of CPAE by determining its potential adverse estrogenic activity using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 455 (TG455) in a stably transfected transcriptionally activated human estrogen receptor α (hERα)-HeLa9903 cell model. We found that CPAE did not how any estrogenic activity or stimulate promoters containing estrogen response elements in MCF-7 cells. In addition, CPAE showed no significant selective activity against hERα and hERβ, non-selective activity against the ER, or effects on ER target gene expression. Furthermore, CPAE did not significantly induce MCF-7 cell proliferation and uterine weight increase in ovariectomized rats. These results demonstrate that CPAE can be used as beneficial herbal drug for prevention and therapeutic intervention of estrogen carcinogenesis in menopausal women. PMID:28133516

  20. Fo Shou San, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction, protects endothelial function through increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Bi, Cathy W C; Xu, Li; Tian, Xiao Yu; Liu, Jian; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Lau, Chi Wai; Lau, David T W; Choi, Roy C Y; Dong, Tina T X; Huang, Yu; Tsim, Karl W K

    2012-01-01

    Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui) in a ratio of 2:3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, isolated from rats. Like radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol, FSS attenuated homocysteine-stimulated ROS generation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and it also stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) as measured by fluorescence dye and biochemical assay. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of both Akt kinase and endothelial NO synthases (eNOS) were markedly increased by FSS treatment, which was abolished by an Akt inhibitor triciribine. Likewise, triciribine reversed FSS-induced NO production in HUVECs. Finally, FSS elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels in HUVECs, and the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM inhibited the FSS-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. The present results show that this ancient herbal decoction benefits endothelial function through increased activity of Akt kinase and eNOS; this effect is causally via a rise of intracellular Ca(2+) and a reduction of ROS.

  1. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD

  2. Antifertility effect of Jamu (traditional herbal medicine).

    PubMed

    Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie; Embun Naim

    1983-12-01

    Rahwana and Kursani, 2 brands of jamu, a traditional Malay herbal medicine, were investigated for antifertility properties in rats and mice. The findings suggest that jamu has an antifertility effect in both these rodents. This effect appears to be dose dependent and in addition the stage at which it was fed also appears to be crucial for the effect to manifest. Rahwana is effective when fed on day 4 of gestation. However jamu Kursani does not appear to be dose dependent and is effective when fed on days 1 and 4 of gestation. Jamu Rahwana does not alter the LH or estrogen levels in rats. Therefore, the induction of the antifertility effect is suggested to be by means other than hormonal. It is felt that jamu either inhibits the implantation of the zygote or causes resorption of the fetus. Whether any antifertility effect exists in women using jamu remain to be clarified. The mechanism of action, its reliability and effectiveness as a contraceptive, the side effects, if any, pharmacology of the active ingredient and other relevant investigations need to be carried out before it can be recommended for human use. The study does indicate that jamu has potential as an antifertility agent and could be effectively used in fertility regulation.

  3. Chinese Herbal Medicine-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Peng, Jing-Hua; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and the associated adverse reactions has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians. Reports have shown that several types of CHM can cause liver injury, with increasing numbers of cases reported every year. The difficulty in characterizing CHM-induced liver injury stems from clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The clinical manifestations are varied, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the majority. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale is currently the most commonly used method for assessing causality in cases of medicine-induced liver injury with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity. However, the pathogenesis of CHM-induced liver injury is not well understood. The classic view encompasses a contribution from “toxic metabolites” that either elicit an immune response or directly affect cellular biochemical processes or functions. In addition, poor quality and inappropriate clinical use of CHMs contribute to safety concerns. To ensure the safe use of CHMs and decrease the number of hepatotoxic cases, clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies should share responsibility by regulating clinical use, strengthening basic toxicology research and establishing a strict quality control system. PMID:26355537

  4. Herbal extract targets in Leishmania tropica.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Bassim I; Al Shammary, Maani N; Abdul Mageed, Roaa H; Yousif, Nasser Ghaly

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of some herbal extract such as phenolic compounds on the viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro. Four tested chemical agents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), syringic acid (SA) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA)) were used in this study. The viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes was investigated under five different concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/ml) of each agent after (72 h). CA was the most active agent on the promastigotes viability after 72 h exposure to 30 mg/ml concentration so that the parasiticidal effect reach (53 × 10(4)) promastigote/ml. FA is the second agent in parasiticidal effect that parasiticidal effect reach to (50 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), 4-HBA is the third agent in parasiticidal effect that reach to (48 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), SA is the weakest agent in parasiticidal activity that reach to (44 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml). It can be concluded that (CA, FA, SA and 4-HBA) possess acidal effect on the Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro.

  5. Moxibustion with Chinese herbal has good effect on allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Cunyun; Peng, Congjian; Wei, Guojian; Huang, Xuhui; Fu, Tingting; Du, Yu; Wang, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of rhino-ocular mucosa, affecting up to 40% of population worldwide. Chinese herbal medicines and Acupuncture, adopted thousands of years in China, has good effect on allergic rhinitis. This study evaluates the effects of Moxibustion with Chinese herbal in treating patients with allergic rhinitis over a 1-year follow-up. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a sample of 355 participants recruited from Guangdong general hospital of China. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to treatment-group or control group. Treatment group received Moxibustion with Chinese herbal. Control group received Loratadine. The main outcomes, including symptom severity and quality of life were measured using the Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). Both moxibustion with Chinese herbal and Loratadine improve nose symptoms such as stuffy/blocked, sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, sore nose and post-nasal drip in patients with AR. Symptoms fatigue, loss of taste, afraid of cold/wind and cold limb were improved significantly in moxibustion with Chinese herbal group. The mean quality of life scores decreased in both groups after treatment. Compare to control group, moxibustion with Chinese herbal is more effective than Loratadine in improving the quality of life in patients with AR. The results show moxibustion with Chinese herbal was effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis. It is a simple, convenient and economic therapy for patients with AR. Further controlled trials of its effects in patients with allergic rhinitis are recommended. PMID:26629174

  6. Paired Stimulation to Promote Lasting Augmentation of Corticospinal Circuits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    After injury, electrical stimulation of the nervous system can augment plasticity of spared or latent circuits through focal modulation. Pairing stimulation of two parts of a spared circuit can target modulation more specifically to the intended circuit. We discuss 3 kinds of paired stimulation in the context of the corticospinal system, because of its importance in clinical neurorehabilitation. The first uses principles of Hebbian plasticity: by altering the stimulation timing of presynaptic neurons and their postsynaptic targets, synapse function can be modulated up or down. The second form uses synchronized presynaptic inputs onto a common synaptic target. We dub this a “convergent” mechanism, because stimuli have to converge on a common target with coordinated timing. The third form induces focal modulation by tonic excitation of one region (e.g., the spinal cord) during phasic stimulation of another (e.g., motor cortex). Additionally, endogenous neural activity may be paired with exogenous electrical stimulation. This review addresses what is known about paired stimulation of the corticospinal system of both humans and animal models, emphasizes how it qualitatively differs from single-site stimulation, and discusses the gaps in knowledge that must be addressed to maximize its use and efficacy in neurorehabilitation. PMID:27800189

  7. [Survey and assessment of heavy metals in soils and herbal medicines from Chinese herbal medicine cultivated regions].

    PubMed

    Chu, Zhuo-Dong; Liu, Wen-Ju; Xiao, Ya-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Duan, Yu-Hang

    2010-06-01

    Concentrations of As, Hg, Pb, Cd in soils and herbal medicine samples from cultivated regions of Anguo City in Hebei Province were analyzed and assessed, and the bioconcentration factors of different herbal medicines were studied and discussed as well. The results showed that the average contents of As, Hg, Pb, Cd in soils from herbal medicine cultivated regions were 12.9, 0.036, 15.6, 0.118 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in soils were lower than class II of the soil environmental quality standard. When local soil background values of heavy metals were used as assessment standard, among the 16 cultivated regions the percentage of As, Hg, Ph, Cd belonging to lightly pollution class were 18.75%, 43.75%, 0%, 100%, respectively based on the single pollution index. And the Nemerow index results were between 1 and 2, which suggested the soils were at slight pollution level. However, when quality standard class II was used, both the single pollution index and Nemerow index did not exceed 0.7, which means that soils investigated were generally safe for cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines. The assessment of heavy metals in herbal medicines showed that the pollution indices of most herbal samples (< 95%) were lower then 1. Cd bioconcentration factors of Aster tataricus L. and Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Hg bioconcentration factors of Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. f. and Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt ex Miq. were above 1. Therefore, the accumulation characteristic of heavy metals in Chinese herbal medicines should be fully concerned when GAP base soil quality assessment was taken.

  8. Evaluation of a Topical Herbal Agent for the Promotion of Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Wing-Sum; Ko, Chun-Hay; Lam, Ka-Wing; Shum, Wai-Ting; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Ko, Kam-Ming; Hung, Leung-Kim; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2015-01-01

    A topically used Chinese herbal paste, namely, CDNR, was designed to facilitate fracture healing which is usually not addressed in general hospital care. From our in vitro studies, CDNR significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide from RAW264.7 cells by 51 to 77%. This indicated its anti-inflammatory effect. CDNR also promoted the growth of bone cells by stimulating the proliferation of UMR106 cells up to 18%. It also increased the biomechanical strength of the healing bone in a drill-hole defect rat model by 16.5% significantly. This result revealed its in vivo efficacy on facilitation of bone healing. Furthermore, the detection of the chemical markers of CDNR in the skin and muscle of the treatment area demonstrated its transdermal properties. However, CDNR did not affect the bone turnover markers in serum of the rats. With its anti-inflammatory and bone formation properties, CDNR is found effective in promoting bone healing. PMID:25810746

  9. Tetanic depression is overcome by tonic adenosine A2A receptor facilitation of L-type Ca2+ influx into rat motor nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Laura; Timóteo, M Alexandrina; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Motor nerve terminals possess multiple voltage-sensitive calcium channels operating acetylcholine (ACh) release. In this study, we investigated whether facilitation of neuromuscular transmission by adenosine generated during neuronal firing was operated by Ca2+ influx via ‘prevalent’ P-type or via the recruitment of ‘silent’ L-type channels. The release of [3H]ACh from rat phrenic nerve endings decreased upon increasing the stimulation frequency of the trains (750 pulses) from 5 Hz (83 ± 4 × 103 disintegrations per minute per gram (d.p.m. g−1); n = 11) to 50 Hz (30 ± 3 × 103 d.p.m. g−1; n = 5). The P-type Ca2+ channel blocker, ω-agatoxin IVA (100 nm) reduced (by 40 ± 10%; n = 6) the release of [3H]ACh evoked by 50-Hz trains, while nifedipine (1 μm, an L-type blocker) was inactive. Tetanic depression was overcome (88 ± 6 × 103 d.p.m. g−1; n = 12) by stimulating the phrenic nerve with 50-Hz bursts (five bursts of 150 pulses, 20 s interburst interval). In these conditions, ω-agatoxin IVA (100 nm) failed to affect transmitter release, but nifedipine (1 μm) decreased [3H]ACh release by 21 ± 7% (n = 4). Inactivation of endogenous adenosine with adenosine deaminase (ADA, 0.5 U ml−1) reduced (by 54 ± 8%, n = 5) the release of [3H]ACh evoked with 50-Hz bursts. This effect was opposite to the excitatory actions of adenosine (0.5 mm), S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (5 μm, an adenosine uptake blocker) and CGS 21680C (3 nm, a selective A2A receptor agonist); as the A1 receptor agonist R-N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine (R-PIA, 300 nm) failed to affect the release of [3H]ACh, the results indicate that adenosine generated during 50-Hz bursts exerts an A2A-receptor-mediated tonus. The effects of ADA (0.5 U ml−1) and CGS 21680C (3 nm) were prevented by nifedipine (1 μm). Blocking tonic A2A receptor activation, with ADA (0.5 U ml−1) or 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargyl xanthine (10 μm, an A2A antagonist), recovered ω-agatoxin IVA (100 nm) inhibition and

  10. What risks do herbal products pose to the Australian community?

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Musgrave, Ian; Maker, Garth; Bunce, Michael

    2017-02-06

    Traditional herbal products are widely used in Australia to treat a broad range of conditions and diseases. It is popularly believed that these products are safer than prescribed drugs. While many may be safe, it is worrying that the specific effects and harmful interactions of a number of their components with prescription medications is not well understood. Some traditional herbal preparations contain heavy metals and toxic chemicals, as well as naturally occurring organic toxins. The effects of these substances can be dire, including acute hepatic and renal failure, exacerbation of pre-existing conditions and diseases, and even death. The content and quality of herbal preparations are not tightly controlled, with some ingredients either not listed or their concentrations recorded inaccurately on websites or labels. Herbal products may also include illegal ingredients, such as ephedra, Asarum europaeum (European wild ginger) and endangered animal species (eg, snow leopard). An additional problem is augmentation with prescription medications to enhance the apparent effectiveness of a preparation. Toxic substances may also be deliberately or inadvertently added: less expensive, more harmful plants may be substituted for more expensive ingredients, and processing may not be adequate. The lack of regulation and monitoring of traditional herbal preparations in Australia and other Western countries means that their contribution to illness and death is unknown. We need to raise awareness of these problems with health care practitioners and with the general public.

  11. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  12. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn's disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted.

  13. [The risks of combining medicine and herbal remedies].

    PubMed

    Goldstein, L H; Elias, M; Berkovitch, M; Golik, A

    2006-09-01

    The risks of using herbal remedies, considered 'natural', should not be disregarded, as some have serious side effects and some interact with and influence conventional medical therapeutics. The effect may be pharmacokinetic by altering absorption or metabolism, and may be pharmacodynamic, by changing the final effect of the drug. St. John's wort, for example, an antidepressant herbal remedy, may pharmacodynamically interact with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), causing a serotonin syndrome. St. Johns wort also causes serious pharmacokinetic interactions by activating the cytochrome CYP3A4, dangerously decreasing blood levels of cyclosporin, warfarin, and theophylline, and reducing the efficacy of contraceptive pills and AIDS therapy. The article presents a review of a number of herbal remedies, commonly used in Israel, that have documented drug interactions, providing details of common indications, adverse reactions and drug interactions of each herbal remedy. Physicians should recognize the fact that patients use herbal remedies, purchased directly at pharmacies or health stores, and be aware of the potential interactions of these remedies with conventional drugs.

  14. HIM-herbal ingredients in-vivo metabolism database

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbal medicine has long been viewed as a valuable asset for potential new drug discovery and herbal ingredients’ metabolites, especially the in vivo metabolites were often found to gain better pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and even better safety profiles compared to their parent compounds. However, these herbal metabolite information is still scattered and waiting to be collected. Description HIM database manually collected so far the most comprehensive available in-vivo metabolism information for herbal active ingredients, as well as their corresponding bioactivity, organs and/or tissues distribution, toxicity, ADME and the clinical research profile. Currently HIM contains 361 ingredients and 1104 corresponding in-vivo metabolites from 673 reputable herbs. Tools of structural similarity, substructure search and Lipinski’s Rule of Five are also provided. Various links were made to PubChem, PubMed, TCM-ID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Information database) and HIT (Herbal ingredients’ targets databases). Conclusions A curated database HIM is set up for the in vivo metabolites information of the active ingredients for Chinese herbs, together with their corresponding bioactivity, toxicity and ADME profile. HIM is freely accessible to academic researchers at http://www.bioinformatics.org.cn/. PMID:23721660

  15. Use of herbal therapies among midlife Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, S N; Shaver, J L; Peragallo, N; Fox, P; Chávez, N

    2001-09-01

    The cultural traditions of Mexican women living in the United States make it likely that some women promote their health and manage their symptoms using various herbal therapies, yet we know little about this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare midlife Mexican women living in the U.S. who were or were not using herbal therapies with regard to the extent of their acculturation, beliefs about herbs, and factors associated with their utilization of health services. A convenience sample of 30 Mexican women between the ages of 40 and 56 years completed face-to-face interviews in either English or Spanish. Nearly half reported using herbal therapies. With the exception of positive beliefs about herbs, we found few differences between herbal users and nonusers on acculturation or access to, and satisfaction with, health services. Although acculturation did not appear to influence whether the women used herbal therapies, it did relate to the types of herbs selected. Women most commonly reported using herbs popular in traditional Mexican culture, including manzanilla (chamomile), savila (aloe vera), ajo (garlic), uña de gato (cat's claw), and yerba buena (spearmint).

  16. Biopharmacologic and herbal therapies for cancer: research update from NCCAM.

    PubMed

    Richardson, M A

    2001-11-01

    During the past decade, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by the American public increased from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 1995 with related out-of-pocket expenditures estimated at $27 billion. Among cancer patients, use of CAM ranges between 30 and 75% worldwide and includes dietary approaches, herbals and other biologically based treatments such as melatonin, mushrooms, shark cartilage and high dose vitamins and minerals. Concerns about herb-nutrient-drug interactions and product quality and standardization emphasize the need for rigorous research. In 1998, Congress mandated the creation of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) to conduct and support such research of CAM therapies. The NCCAM portfolio for oncology is rapidly growing. As of July 2001, 26 projects are underway, two specialized centers are funded for cancer research and four botanical centers are cofunded with the Office of Dietary Supplements. Investigations are targeting herbals and complex herbal formulas; single dietary supplements and complex dietary regimens; biological agents; and mind-body, body-based and frontier approaches. Of these, biopharmacologic and herbal therapies are a major focus of research. The NCCAM portfolio illustrates how research of CAM, particularly studies of biopharmacologic and herbal approaches for cancer, is developing systematically and rigorously.

  17. A review of herbal medicines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Stana Kleinschek, Karin; Smrke, Dragica M; Kreft, Samo

    2015-07-01

    Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the perception that herbs cause minimal unwanted side effects. More recently, scientists increasingly rely on modern scientific methods and evidence-based medicine to prove efficacy of herbal medicines and focus on better understanding of mechanisms of their action. However, information concerning quantitative human health benefits of herbal medicines is still rare or dispersed, limiting their proper valuation. Preparations from traditional medicinal plants are often used for wound healing purposes covering a broad area of different skin-related diseases. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement, and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. Here we report on 22 plants used as wound healing agents in traditional medicine around the world. The aim of this review is therefore to review herbal medicines, which pose great potential for effective treatment of minor wounds.

  18. Does herbal medicine reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Rino, Yasushi; Yukawa, Norio; Yamamoto, Naoto

    2015-10-07

    Many herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may therefore suppress the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, treatment with a single-tablet regimen containing ledipasvir and sofosbuvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who did not respond to prior interferon-based treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C are expected to receive this treatment worldwide. However, many patients have hepatitis-like fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. A strategy to prevent the development of HCC in this subgroup of patients is urgently required. Whether herbal medicines can suppress the development of HCC remains to be established. However, herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may inhibit the development of HCC. Clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the prevention and treatment of HCC are therefore warranted. The current lack of knowledge and of educational programs is a barrier to increasing the use of potentially effective herbal medicines and performing prospective clinical trials.

  19. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products ...

  20. [Case of atopic dermatitis in infant treated with Chinese herbal medicines and nsaids ointment, which induced weight loss, electrolyte disturbance and hypoproteinemia].

    PubMed

    Yasutomi, Motoko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Murai, Hiroki; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Wada, Taizo; Ohshima, Yusei

    2013-07-01

    We report here a 4-month-old girl with atopic dermatitis accompanied by weight loss, electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. She has suffered from eczema since one-month of age. Although she was treated with Chinese herbal medicines, including Syosaikotokakikyosekko, Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto and Jumihaidokuto and ibuprofen ointment since three-month of age, she was referred to our hospital due to deteriorated eczema, severe diarrhea and failure to thrive. Laboratory examination revealed hyponatremia, hyperpotassemia, hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia and elevated levels of serum IL-18, TARC and fecal EDN. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation tests were positive for the prescribed Chinese herbal medicines. Discontinuation of these medicines and application of steroid ointments improved loose bowels and skin lesions as well as laboratory data. It is suggested that the application of inadequate ointment and Chinese herbal medicines exaggerated inflammation in the skin and the intestinal mucosa leading to electrolyte disturbance, hypoproteinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Chinese herbal medicines are depicted as an additional therapy in Japanese guideline for atopic dermatitis, whereas their indication to infants with atopic dermatitis should be carefully assessed.

  1. Hyperthermia induced by pre-pontine knife-cut: evidence for a tonic inhibition of non-shivering thermogenesis in anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Benzi, R H; Seydoux, J; Girardier, L

    1987-12-15

    Temperature of colon, interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) and paw skin (index of vasomotor activity) were monitored before and after microwire knife lesions at the pre-pontine or/and the post-mammillary levels in the urethane-anaesthetized rats at room temperature of 23-24 degrees C. Following the pre-pontine, but not the post-mammillary cut, colonic and IBAT temperatures increased by 3-4 degrees C within 90-240 min. IBAT temperature rose faster with a shorter latency and attained a higher steady-state value than colonic temperature; skin temperature, however rose by only 0.8 degrees C. A procaine microinjection into the pre-pontine area transiently increased by more than 1 degree C both colonic and IBAT temperatures, with similar kinetics as for the knife cut. Cardiac output distribution was measured using radiolabelled microspheres. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) was found to be the only organ to which the fractional blood flow increased dramatically (12 times over baseline value) during the development of hyperthermia. Propanolol, injected after the hyperthermia had fully developed, decreased IBAT and then colonic temperatures. Hexamethonium decreased both colonic and IBAT temperatures with a concomitant rise in skin temperature while tubocurarine was without effect. It is concluded that the hyperthermia observed after the pre-pontine lesion results from an increased sympathetic stimulation of BAT thermogenesis triggered by the release of a tonic inhibitory control on its heat production. Such an inhibitory system would be located somewhere between the lower midbrain and the upper pons.

  2. Tonic mGluR5/CB1-dependent suppression of inhibition as a pathophysiological hallmark in the striatum of mice carrying a mutant form of huntingtin

    PubMed Central

    Dvorzhak, Anton; Semtner, Marcus; Faber, Donald S; Grantyn, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the activity of striatal output neurons (SONs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). In this inherited polyglutamine disorder, accumulation of intracellular toxins causes a variety of deficits, including synaptic dysfunction, but it is still unclear to what extent striatal GABA release is afflicted as well. Two murine HD models were used, a recently created knock-in mouse (Z_Q175_KI) and an established model of HD (R6/2). In sagittal slices with relatively well-preserved glutamatergic connections throughout the basal ganglia, we have characterized the following: (i) the excitability of SONs; (ii) their spontaneous action potential-dependent GABAergic synaptic activity; (iii) the capacity of exogenous GABA to inhibit spontaneous action potential generation; and (iv) the properties of GABAergic unitary evoked responses (eIPSCs) in response to intrastriatal minimal stimulation at low and high frequency. The HD SONs exhibited enhanced intrisic excitability and higher levels of GABAergic spontaneous activity without presenting evidence for homeostatic upregulation of endogenous or exogenous GABA actions. Unitary eIPSC amplitudes were reduced, with a clear deficit in the probability of release, as indicated by a higher paired-pulse ratio, failure rate and coefficient of variation. In conditions of high-frequency activation, GABAergic connections of HD SONs were prone to asynchronous release and delayed IPSC generation at the expense of synchronized release. Both in wild-type and in HD SONs, GABA was inhibitory. Our results support the conclusion that the enhanced spontaneous synaptic activity in the HD striatum reflects disinhibition. Pharmacological tests identified the HD-related tonic suppression of synaptic inhibition as a glutamate- and endocannabinoid-dependent process. PMID:23230231

  3. Distinct effect of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the medial nucleus of the amygdala on tonic immobility behavior.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Bruna Balbino; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2016-07-15

    The tonic immobility (TI) response is an innate fear behavior associated with intensely dangerous situations, exhibited by many species of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In humans, it is possible that TI predicts the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. This behavioral response is initiated and sustained by the stimulation of various groups of neurons distributed in the telencephalon, diencephalon and brainstem. Previous research has found the highest Fos-IR in the posteroventral part of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MEA) during TI behavior; however, the neurotransmission of this amygdaloid region involved in the modulation of this innate fear behavior still needs to be clarified. Considering that a major drug class used for the treatment of psychopathology is based on serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, we investigated the effects of serotonergic receptor activation in the MEA on the duration of TI. The results indicate that the activation of the 5HT1A receptors or the blocking of the 5HT2 receptors of the MEA can promote a reduction in fear and/or anxiety, consequently decreasing TI duration in guinea pigs. In contrast, blocking the 5HT1A receptors or activating the 5HT2 receptors in this amygdalar region increased the TI duration, suggesting an increase in fear and/or anxiety. These alterations do not appear to be due to a modification of spontaneous motor activity, which might non-specifically affect TI duration. Thus, these results suggest a distinct role of the 5HT receptors in the MEA in innate fear modulation.

  4. Effects of ethanol on the tonicity of corporal tissue and the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of human corporal smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Sung Chul; Chae, Mee Ree; Kim, Ji Young; Choo, Seol Ho; Han, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sung Won

    2010-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of erectile dysfunction (ED); however, the acute effects of ethanol (EtOH) on penile tissue are not fully understood. We sought to investigate the effects of EtOH on corporal tissue tonicity, as well as the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and potassium channel activity of corporal smooth muscle. Strips of corpus cavernosum (CC) from rabbits were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension studies. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) was applied to strips precontracted with 10 μmol L−1 phenylephrine as a control. EtOH was then added to the organ bath and incubated before EFS. The [Ca2+]i levels were monitored by the ratio of fura-2 fluorescence intensities using the fura-2 loading method. Single-channel and whole-cell currents were recorded by the conventional patch-clamp technique in short-term cultured smooth muscle cells from human CC tissue. The corpus cavernosal relaxant response of EFS was decreased in proportion to the concentration of EtOH. EtOH induced a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i in a dose-dependent manner, Extracellular application of EtOH significantly increased whole-cell K+ currents in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). EtOH also increased the open probability in cell-attached patches; however, in inside-out patches, the application of EtOH to the intracellular aspect of the patches induced slight inhibition of Ca2+-activated potassium channel (KCa) activity. EtOH caused a dose-dependent increase in cavernosal tension by alterations to [Ca2+]i. Although EtOH did not affect KCa channels directly, it increased the channel activity by increasing [Ca2+]i. The increased corpus cavernosal tone caused by EtOH might be one of the mechanisms of ED after heavy drinking. PMID:20852651

  5. Potentiation by tonic A2a-adenosine receptor activation of CGRP-facilitated [3H]-ACh release from rat motor nerve endings.

    PubMed Central

    Correia-de-Sá, P.; Ribeiro, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) release from motor nerve endings and its interaction with presynaptic facilitatory A2a-adenosine and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was studied on rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations loaded with [3H]-choline. 2. CGRP (100-400 nM) increased electrically evoked [3H]-ACh release from phrenic nerve endings in a concentration-dependent manner. 3. The magnitude of CGRP excitation increased with the increase of the stimulation pulse duration from 40 microseconds to 1 ms, keeping the frequency, the amplitude and the train length constants. With 1 ms pulses, the evoked [3H]-ACh release was more intense than with 40 microseconds pulse duration. 4. Both the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, and the A2a adenosine receptor agonist, CGS 21680C, increased evoked [3H]-ACh release, but only CGS 21680C potentiated the facilitatory effect of CGRP. This potentiation was prevented by the A2a adenosine receptor antagonist, PD 115,199. 5. Adenosine deaminase prevented the excitatory effect of CGRP (400 nM) on [3H]-ACh release. This effect was reversed by the non-hydrolysable A2a-adenosine receptor agonist, CGS 21680C. 6. The nicotinic antagonist, tubocurarine, did not significantly change, whereas the A2-adenosine receptor antagonist, PD 115,199, blocked the CGRP facilitation. The A1-adenosine receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine, potentiated the CGRP excitatory effect. 7. The results suggest that the facilitatory effect of CGRP on evoked [3H]-ACh release from rat phrenic motor nerve endings depends on the presence of endogenous adenosine which tonically activates A2a-adenosine receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8004402

  6. Corticosterone microinjected into nucleus pontis oralis increases tonic immobility in rats.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Herrera, Vicente; Trujillo-Ferrara, José G; Miranda-Páez, Abraham; De La Cruz, Fidel; Zamudio, Sergio R

    2011-09-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is also known as "immobility response", "immobility reflex", "animal hypnosis", etc. It is an innate antipredatory behavior characterized by an absence of movement, varying degrees of muscular activity, and a relative unresponsiveness to external stimuli. Experimentally, TI is commonly produced by manually forcing an animal into an inverted position and restraining it in that position until the animal becomes immobile. Part of the neural mechanism(s) of TI involves the medullo-pontine reticular formation, with influence from other components of the brain, notably the limbic system. It has been observed that TI is more prolonged in stressed animals, and systemic injection of corticosterone (CORT) also potentiates this behavior. At present, the anatomical brain regions involved in the CORT modulation of TI are unknown. Thus, our study was made to determine if some pontine areas could be targets for the modulation of TI by CORT. A unilateral nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) microinjection of 1 μL of CORT (0.05 μg/1 μL) in rats resulted in clear behavioral responses. The animals had an increased duration of TI caused by clamping the neck (in this induction, besides of body inversion and restraint, there is also clamping the neck), with an enhancement in open-field motor activity, which were prevented by pretreatment injection into PnO with 1 μL of the mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonist spironolactone (0.5 μg/1 μL) or 1 μL of the glucocorticoid-receptor antagonist mifepristone (0.5 μg/1 μL). In contrast, these behavioral changes were not seen when CORT (0.05 μg/1 μL) was microinjected into medial lemniscus area or paramedian raphe. Our data support the idea that, in stressful situations, glucocorticoids released from adrenals of the prey reach the PnO to produce a hyper arousal state, which in turn can prolong the duration of TI.

  7. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant products are used orally for treating osteoarthritis. Although their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in full detail, interactions with common inflammatory mediators provide a rationale for using them to treat osteoarthritic complaints. Objectives To update a previous Cochrane review to assess the benefits and harms of oral medicinal plant products in treating osteoarthritis. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to 29 August 2013, unrestricted by language, and the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of orally consumed herbal interventions compared with placebo or active controls in people with osteoarthritis were included. Herbal interventions included any plant preparation but excluded homeopathy or aromatherapy products, or any preparation of synthetic origin. Data collection and analysis Two authors used standard methods for trial selection and data extraction, and assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach for major outcomes (pain, function, radiographic joint changes, quality of life, withdrawals due to adverse events, total adverse events, and serious adverse events). Main results Forty-nine randomised controlled studies (33 interventions, 5980 participants) were included. Seventeen studies of confirmatory design (sample and effect sizes pre-specified) were mostly at moderate risk of bias. The remaining 32 studies of exploratory design were at higher risk of bias. Due to differing interventions, meta-analyses were restricted to Boswellia serrata (monoherbal) and avocado-soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) (two herb combination) products. Five studies of three different extracts from Boswellia serrata were included. High-quality evidence from two studies (85 participants) indicated that 90 days treatment with 100

  8. Liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide, and HDS-induced liver injury in the United States has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements. Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute hepatitis-like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to multi-ingredient nutritional supplements, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment, and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of nonprescription products to guarantee their constituents and ensure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. (Hepatology 2017;65:363-373).

  9. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies.

  10. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes.

  11. Hepatitis after the use of germander, a herbal remedy.

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, L; Villeneuve, J P

    1996-01-01

    The authors report two cases of hepatic injury associated with the ingestion of germander, a herbal medicine used to facilitate weight loss. In both patients, hepatitis characterized by asthenia, jaundice and a marked increase in serum amino-transferase levels occurred after 5 to 6 months of germander use. The jaundice disappeared within 8 weeks after germander use was stopped, and the overall outcome was favourable. The subsequent resumption of germander therapy by one patient was soon followed by the recurrence of hepatitis. Similar reports from France have led to the banning of germander in that country. Like several other herbal remedies, germander may be hepatotoxic, and many herbal medicines may not be as safe as the public generally assumes. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8646656

  12. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-12-17

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined.

  13. [Herbal remedies in depression--state of the art].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have seen development of research and an increased interest in the psychopharmacology of natural remedies. More than 20 herbal remedies have been identified that may potentially be applied in medicine as antidepressive, anxiety relieving or sleep-inducing agents. Patients often prefer to take herbal remedies and often take them on their own, without consulting a physician. The aim of the study is to present the state of the art concerning the use of natural remedies in the treatment of depression. Following a literature review, 7 herbal remedies for which preclinical and clinical trials suggest their antidepressive influence have been identified: hypericum, lavender, borage, roseroot, chamomile, saffron and ginseng. For two of these, i.e. hypericum and saffron extracts, antidepressive effect in subjects with mild or moderate depression has been confirmed in controlled randomized clinical trials.

  14. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  15. Do no harm: avoidance of herbal medicines during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Donald M; Snodgrass, Wayne R

    2005-05-01

    Herbal medicines are regarded by the public and some health care providers as gentle and safe, but there is no scientific basis for that belief. The active ingredients of plant extracts are chemicals that are similar to those in purified medications, and they have the same potential to cause serious adverse effects. This commentary summarizes recent data on the poor quality control and toxicity of herbal remedies and on the pharmacologic activities of ginger, which is used for treatment of morning sickness. There are no rigorous scientific studies of the safety of dietary supplements during pregnancy, and the Teratology Society has stated that it should not be assumed that they are safe for the embryo or fetus. Obstetricians should advise women not to expose their fetuses to the risks of herbal medicines.

  16. Traditional herbal remedies in Buldhana District (Maharashtra, India)

    PubMed Central

    Ahirrao, Ya; Patil, PS; Aher, UP; Dusing, YA; Patil, DA

    2009-01-01

    The paper documents traditional herbal remedies from buldhana district of Maharashtra (India). The plant parts most commonly used are bark, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds, apart from plant products like latex and gum. The medicaments include recipes like decoction, infusion, paste, ash, extract juice, besides gum and latex. There are mainly used afresh. Occasionally, these are supplemented by domestic edible substances of plant-origin. The reliance on herbal medicines for healthcare is associated with traditional belief of effectiveness as well as poor economic status. Role of homestead gardens in native phytotherapy is being focused for the first time from this region. The first-hand information adduced is desired to divulge new lead molecules or will add new sources of herbal medicine. PMID:22557332

  17. Homeostatic regulation of synaptic excitability: tonic GABAA receptor currents replace Ih in cortical pyramidal neurons of HCN1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiangdong; Shu, Shaofang; Schwartz, Lauren C.; Sun, Chengsan; Kapur, Jaideep; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    Homeostatic control of synaptic efficacy is often mediated by dynamic regulation of excitatory synaptic receptors. Here, we report a novel form of homeostatic synaptic plasticity based on regulation of shunt currents that control dendritosomatic information transfer. In cortical pyramidal neurons from wild type mice, HCN1 channels underlie a dendritic hyperpolarization-activated cationic current (Ih) that serves to limit temporal summation of synaptic inputs. In HCN1 knockout mice, as expected, Ih is reduced in pyramidal neurons and its effects on synaptic summation are strongly diminished. Unexpectedly, we found a markedly enhanced bicuculline- and L-655,708-sensitive background GABAA current in these cells that could be attributed to selective up-regulation of GABAA α5 subunit expression in the cortex of HCN1 knockout mice. Strikingly, despite diminished Ih, baseline sub-linear summation of evoked EPSPs was unchanged in pyramidal neurons from HCN1 knockout mice; however, blocking tonic GABAA currents with bicuculline enhanced synaptic summation more strongly in pyramidal cells from HCN1 knockout mice than in those cells from wild type mice. Increasing tonic GABAA receptor conductance in the context of reduced Ih, using computational or pharmacological approaches, restored normal baseline synaptic summation, as observed in neurons from HCN1 knockout mice. These data indicate that up-regulation of α5 subunit-mediated GABAA receptor tonic current compensates quantitatively for loss of dendritic Ih in cortical pyramidal neurons from HCN1 knockout mice to maintain normal synaptic summation; they further imply that dendritosomatic synaptic efficacy is a controlled variable for homeostatic regulation of cortical neuron excitability in vivo. PMID:20164346

  18. Serum tonicity, extracellular volume and clinical manifestations in symptomatic dialysis-associated hyperglycemia treated only with insulin.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, A H; Rohrscheib, M; Ing, T S; Siamopoulos, K C; Elisaf, M F; Spalding, C T

    2004-09-01

    The absence of osmotic diuresis modifies the effects of hyperglycemia on body fluids in patients with advanced renal failure. To determine the relationship between clinical manifestations and abnormalities in tonicity and extracellular volume in such patients, we analyzed 43 episodes of severe dialysis-associated hyperglycemia (serum glucose exceeding 600 mg/dL) treated only with insulin. The main manifestations were dyspnea in 22 cases (pulmonary edema in 19), nausea and vomiting in 15, coma in 13 and seizures in 3, while 5 patients had no symptoms. Treatment with insulin resulted in a decrease in serum glucose value from 913 +/- 197 mg/dL to 170 +/- 78 mg/dL, an increase in serum sodium level from 125 +/- 5 to 136 +/- 5 mmol/L, and a fall in calculated serum tonicity value from 300 +/- 13 to 282 +/- 11 mmol/kg (all at p < 0.001). The ratio of the change in serum sodium level over change in serum glucose concentration was -1.50 +/- 0.22 mmol/L per 100 mg/dL. The percent increase in extracellular volume secondary to hyperglycemia developing from the prior euglycemic state and calculated from changes in serum sodium and chloride concentrations, was 10.9% +/- 4.6% (1.5% +/- 0.6% per 100 mg/dL increase in serum glucose level). All clinical manifestations dissipated after correction of hyperglycemia in 42 patients. One woman developed during treatment a fatal myocardial infarction. Dialysis patients with severe hyperglycemia may develop symptoms as a result of hypertonicity and extracellular expansion. Insulin alone may be sufficient treatment for these symptoms. The changes in serum tonicity and electrolytes during treatment are consistent with theoretical predictions.

  19. Spontaneously tonic smooth muscle has characteristically higher levels of RhoA/ROK compared with the phasic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag A; Rattan, Satish

    2006-11-01

    The internal anal sphincter (IAS) tone is important for the rectoanal continence. The RhoA/Rho kinase (ROK) pathway has been associated with the agonist-induced sustained contraction of the smooth muscle, but its role in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle is not known. Present studies compared expression of different components of the RhoA/ROK pathway between the IAS (a truly tonic SM), the rectal smooth muscle (RSM) (a mixture of phasic and tonic), and anococcygeus smooth muscle (ASM) (a purely phasic SM) of rat. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to determine RhoA, ROCK-II, CPI-17, MYPT1, and myosin light-chain 20 (MLC20). Phosphorylated CPI-17 at threonine-38 residue (p(Thr38)-CPI-17), MYPT1 at threonine-696 residue (p(Thr696)-MYPT1), and MLC20 at threonine-18/serine-19 residues (p(Thr18/Ser19)-MLC20) were also determined in the basal state and after pretreatment with the ROK inhibitor Y 27632. In addition, we compared the effect of Y 27632 on the basal isometric tension and ROK activity in the IAS vs. the RSM. Our data show the highest levels of RhoA, ROCK-II, CPI-17, MLC20, and of phospho-MYPT1, -CPI-17, and -MLC20 in the IAS followed by in the RSM and ASM. Conversely, MYPT1 levels were lowest in the IAS and highest in the ASM. In the IAS, Y 27632 caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the basal tone, levels of phospho-MYPT1, -CPI-17, and -MLC20, and ROK activity. We conclude that RhoA/ROK plays a critical role in the basal tone in the IAS by the inhibition of MLC phosphatase via the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and CPI-17.

  20. Herbal Medicines Induced Anticholinergic Poisoning in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2016-03-18

    In the present review, the main objective was to report the incidence and causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning in Hong Kong during 1989-2012 and to emphasize the importance of pharmacovigilance, investigations and preventive measures. Relevant papers, official figures and unpublished data were obtained from Medline search, the Department of Health and the Drug and Poisons Information Bureau. In the New Territories East (where ~20% of the Hong Kong population lived), the incidence of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning during 1989-1993 was 0.09 per 100,000 population. There were no confirmed cases during 1994-1996. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence during 2000-June 2005 was 0.03 per 100,000 population. Contamination of Rhizoma Atractylodis (50%) and erroneous substitution (42%) were the main causes. The incidence during 2008-2012 was 0.06 per 100,000 population. Contamination of non-toxic herbs (50%) and erroneous substitution (41%) were the main causes. In Hong Kong, contamination of non-toxic herbs by tropane alkaloids and substitution of Flos Campsis by toxic Flos Daturae Metelis were the predominant causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning. Systematic studies along the supply chain are necessary to identify the likely sources of contamination. If erroneous substitution of Flos Campsis by Flos Daturae Metelis could be prevented, 40% of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning would not have occurred. Regular inspection of the retailer, continuing education for the staff in the herbal trade and repeated publicity measures will also be required. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines should help determine the incidence and causes of adverse reactions and monitor the effectiveness of preventive measures.

  1. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and γ-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies.

  2. Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs.

    PubMed

    Abebe, W

    2002-12-01

    The use of herbal supplements in the US has increased dramatically in recent years. These products are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the same scrutiny as conventional drugs. Patients who use herbal supplements often do so in conjunction with conventional drugs. This article is a review of potential adverse interactions between some of the commonly used herbal supplements and analgesic drugs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly aspirin, have the potential to interact with herbal supplements that are known to possess antiplatelet activity (ginkgo, garlic, ginger, bilberry, dong quai, feverfew, ginseng, turmeric, meadowsweet and willow), with those containing coumarin (chamomile, motherworth, horse chestnut, fenugreek and red clover) and with tamarind, enhancing the risk of bleeding. Acetaminophen may also interact with ginkgo and possibly with at least some of the above herbs to increase the risk of bleeding. Further, the incidences of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity may be augmented by acetaminophen when concomitantly used with the potentially hepatotoxic herbs Echinacea and kava, and with herbs containing salicylate (willow, meadowsweet), respectively. The concomitant use of opioid analgesics with the sedative herbal supplements, valerian, kava and chamomile, may lead to increased central nervous system (CNS) depression. The analgesic effect of opioids may also be inhibited by ginseng. It is suggested that health-care professionals should be more aware of the potential adverse interactions between herbal supplements and analgesic drugs, and take appropriate precautionary measures to avoid their possible occurrences. However, as most of the interaction information available is based on individual case reports, animal studies and in vitro data, further research is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions.

  3. Herbal medications and plastic surgery: a hidden danger.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arvind; Lahiri, Anindya

    2014-04-01

    Herbal medicine is a multibillion-pound industry, and surveys suggest that ~10% of the UK population uses herbal supplements concurrently with prescription medications. Patients and health care practitioners are often unaware of the adverse side effects of herbal medicines. In addition, because many of these herbal supplements are available over the counter, many patients do not disclose these when listing medications to health care providers. A 39-year-old nurse underwent an abdominoplasty with rectus sheath plication after weight loss surgery. Postoperatively, she experienced persistent drain output, and after discharge, a seroma developed requiring repeated drainage in the clinic. After scar revision 10 months later, the woman bled postoperatively, requiring suturing. Again, a seroma developed, requiring repeated drainage. It was discovered that the patient had been taking a herbal menopause supplement containing ingredients known to have anticoagulant effects. Complementary medicine is rarely taught in UK medical schools and generally not practiced in UK hospitals. Many supplements are known to have anticoagulant, cardiovascular, and sedative effects. Worryingly, questions about herbal medicines are not routinely asked in clinics, and patients do not often volunteer such information. With the number and awareness of complementary medications increasing, their usage among the population is likely to increase. The authors recommend specific questioning about the use of complementary medications and consideration of ceasing such medications before surgery. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  4. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  5. Anti-stress effects of the "tonic"Ptychopetalum olacoides (Marapuama) in mice.

    PubMed

    Piato, A L; Detanico, B C; Linck, V M; Herrmann, A P; Nunes, D S; Elisabetsky, E

    2010-03-01

    With the recognition that high levels of sustained stress are associated with the natural course of countless illnesses, effective anti-stress agents have gained importance. Improved endurance to particularly stressful periods is one of the medicinal claims for Marapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham, PO), a popular Amazonian herbal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if PO possesses anti-stress properties. To this end, an extract from PO (POEE) was evaluated on anxiety and glucose levels in mice submitted to the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) paradigm. POEE did not present anxiolytic effects, but was able to prevent (p<0.01) the UCMS-induced anxiety as assessed by the light/dark test (time spent in the lit area, POEE 100 and 300mg/kg 235.9+/-20.6s and 250.4+/-17.4s, respectively, compared to DMSO 104.7+/-24.4s). Likewise, although POEE did not induce noticeable effects on glycemia, it effectively (p<0.01) prevented the UCMS-induced hyperglycemia (POEE 100 and 300mg/kg 106.4+/-6.7mg/dl and 107.3+/-3.3mg/dl, respectively, compared to DMSO 134.6+/-5.9mg/dl). Additionally, POEE (50-200mg/kg i.p. and 800mg/kg p.o.) significantly (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) increased the time to hypoxia-induced convulsion (by 38%, 51%, 59% and 27%, respectively for i.p. and p.o. treatments). The data indicate that POEE counteracts some of the effects brought about by chronic stress. This study combined with the identified antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, as well as the claimed benefits associated with stressful periods suggest that Ptychopetalum olacoides (Marapuama) might possess adaptogen-like properties.

  6. Tonic Inhibitory Control of Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells by α5-Containing GABAA Receptors Reduces Memory Interference

    PubMed Central

    Zarnowska, Ewa D.; Benke, Dietmar; Tsvetkov, Evgeny; Sigal, Maksim; Keist, Ruth; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.; Pearce, Robert A.; Rudolph, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Interference between similar or overlapping memories formed at different times poses an important challenge on the hippocampal declarative memory system. Difficulties in managing interference are at the core of disabling cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. Computational models have suggested that, in the normal brain, the sparse activation of the dentate gyrus granule cells maintained by tonic inhibitory control enables pattern separation, an orthogonalization process that allows distinct representations of memories despite interference. To test this mechanistic hypothesis, we generated mice with significantly reduced expression of the α5-containing GABAA (α5-GABAARs) receptors selectively in the granule cells of the dentate gyrus (α5DGKO mice). α5DGKO mice had reduced tonic inhibition of the granule cells without any change in fast phasic inhibition and showed increased activation in the dentate gyrus when presented with novel stimuli. α5DGKO mice showed impairments in cognitive tasks characterized by high interference, without any deficiencies in low-interference tasks, suggesting specific impairment of pattern separation. Reduction of fast phasic inhibition in the dentate gyrus through granule cell-selective knock-out of α2-GABAARs or the knock-out of the α5-GABAARs in the downstream CA3 area did not detract from pattern separation abilities, which confirms the anatomical and molecular specificity of the findings. In addition to lending empirical support to computational hypotheses, our findings have implications for the treatment of interference-related cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly considering the availability of pharmacological agents selectively targeting α5-GABAARs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Interference between similar memories poses a significant limitation on the hippocampal declarative memory system, and impaired interference management is a cognitive symptom in many disorders. Thus, understanding

  7. Visions on the future of medical devices in spinal cord stimulation: what medical device is needed?

    PubMed

    De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Recently burst stimulation and 10 kHz stimulation have been developed as novel stimulation designs. Both appear to be superior to classical tonic stimulation in the amount of responders and the amount of pain suppression and have as an extra advantage that they are paresthesia-free. This evolution is very important as it shifts the focus of research from better targeting by developing new lead configurations to better communication with the nervous system. It can be envisioned that this is only the start of a new trend in spinal cord, brain, and peripheral nerve stimulation and that more new stimulation designs will be developed in the near future such as pseudorandom burst stimulation, pleasure stimulation, noise stimulation and reconditioning stimulation. This evolution mandates a new approach in the development of internal pulse generators, and the most obvious approach is to develop an upgradable stimulator, on which new stimulation designs can be downloaded, analogous to the apps people download on their smartphones. This will create a shift from hardware driven products to software driven stimulators.

  8. Herbal product–drug interactions mediated by induction

    PubMed Central

    Tirona, Rommel G; Bailey, David G

    2006-01-01

    Despite their common use, it is not widely recognized that herbal medicines can alter the efficacy of coadministered prescription drugs. Constituents in herbs interact with nuclear receptors to enhance metabolizing enzyme and/or transporter activity leading to reduced drug concentrations. Although St John’s wort was the first and most frequently reported source of induction-style herb–drug interactions, this knowledge has not yet changed its current availability. This type of interaction is likely to be relevant to other herbal products. Caregivers need to be aware of the issues and options for therapeutic management. PMID:16722828

  9. Cryogenic grinding technology for traditional Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shimo; Ge, Shuangyan; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Haoping; Pan, Huaiyu

    The fundamental principle of cryogenic grinding (cryogrinding) for Chinese herbal medicine is similar to that of grinding methods for conventional materials, but the compositions are very complex, containing aromatics of high volatility, oils and fats, which are easily oxidized. Using liquid nitrogen or liquid air as the cryogen, all of these thermosensitive Chinese herbal medicines can be ground below their brittle temperature. The colour and other properties of the products of cryo-grinding will not be changed and the flavour and nutrition of the medicines will not be lost.

  10. ADME properties of herbal medicines in humans: evidence, challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    He, Shu-Ming; Chan, Eli; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Herbal medicines, an important group of multicomponent therapeutics, are widely and increasignly used worldwide. Despite the popularitiy of herbal medicines, the clinical evidence that support the use of most herbal medicines is weak. Pharmacokinetic and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies have been integrated into modern drug development, but ADME studies are generally not needed for herbal remedy discovery and development. For the majority of herbal medicines, data on their ADME and pharmacokinetic properties in humans are lacking or scant. An extensive literature search indicates that there are limited data on ADME properties of herbal medicines in humans. Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1/ABCB1) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are critical determining factors for the in vivo ADME processes of herbal remedies. There are increasing ADME studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal medicines including St John's wort, milk thistle, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. For an herbal medicine, the pharmacological activity is gained when the active agents or the active metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and ADME processes of active herbal components in the body govern their target-site concentrations and thus the therapeutic responses. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their ADME profiles. To optimize the use of herbal remedies, further studies to explore their ADME properties in humans are certainly warranted.

  11. Calcium influx through N-type channels and activation of SK and TRP-like channels regulates tonic firing of neurons in rat paraventricular thalamus.

    PubMed

    Wong, Adrian Y C; Borduas, Jean-Francois; Clarke, Stephen; Lee, Kevin F H; Béïque, Jean-Claude; Bergeron, Richard

    2013-11-01

    The thalamus is a major relay and integration station in the central nervous system. While there is a large body of information on the firing and network properties of neurons contained within sensory thalamic nuclei, less is known about the neurons located in midline thalamic nuclei, which are thought to modulate arousal and homeostasis. One midline nucleus that has been implicated in mediating stress responses is the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT). Like other thalamic neurons, these neurons display two distinct firing modes, burst and tonic. In contrast to burst firing, little is known about the ionic mechanisms modulating tonic firing in these cells. Here we performed a series of whole cell recordings to characterize tonic firing in PVT neurons in acute rat brain slices. We found that PVT neurons are able to fire sustained, low-frequency, weakly accommodating trains of action potentials in response to a depolarizing stimulus. Unexpectedly, PVT neurons displayed a very high propensity to enter depolarization block, occurring at stimulus intensities that would elicit tonic firing in other thalamic neurons. The tonic firing behavior of these cells is modulated by a functional interplay between N-type Ca(2+) channels and downstream activation of small-conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (SK) channels and a transient receptor potential (TRP)-like conductance. Thus these ionic conductances endow PVT neurons with a narrow dynamic range, which may have fundamental implications for the integrative properties of this nucleus.

  12. Tonic current through GABAA receptors and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels modulate resonance properties of rat subicular pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sah, Nirnath; Sikdar, Sujit K

    2014-07-01

    The subiculum, considered to be the output structure of the hippocampus, modulates information flow from the hippocampus to various cortical and sub-cortical areas such as the nucleus accumbens, lateral septal region, thalamus, nucleus gelatinosus, medial nucleus and mammillary nuclei. Tonic inhibitory current plays an important role in neuronal physiology and pathophysiology by modulating the electrophysiological properties of neurons. While the alterations of various electrical properties due to tonic inhibition have been studied in neurons from different regions, its influence on intrinsic subthreshold resonance in pyramidal excitatory neurons expressing hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels is not known. Using pharmacological agents, we show the involvement of α5βγ GABAA receptors in the picrotoxin-sensitive tonic current in subicular pyramidal neurons. We further investigated the contribution of tonic conductance in regulating subthreshold electrophysiological properties using current clamp and dynamic clamp experiments. We demonstrate that tonic GABAergic inhibition can actively modulate subthreshold properties, including resonance due to HCN channels, which can potentially alter the response dynamics of subicular pyramidal neurons in an oscillating neuronal network.

  13. Development of an innovative nutraceutical fermented beverage from herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) extract.

    PubMed

    Lima, Isabela Ferrari Pereira; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Parada, José Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods.

  14. Development of an Innovative Nutraceutical Fermented Beverage from Herbal Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Isabela Ferrari Pereira; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Parada, José Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) leaves are traditionally used for their stimulant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and diuretic activity, presenting as principal components polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to develop an innovative, non-dairy, functional, probiotic, fermented beverage using herbal mate extract as a natural ingredient which would also be hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective. Among different strains used, Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected as the best for fermentation. The addition of honey positively affected the development of L. acidophilus and the formulated beverage maintained microbial stability during shelf life. Key ingredients in the extract included xanthines, polyphenols and other antioxidants with potential health benefits for the consumer. Caffeine levels and antioxidant activity were also studied. Acceptable levels of caffeine and large antioxidant capacity were observed for the formulation when compared to other antioxidant beverages. An advantage of this product is the compliance to organic claims, while providing caffeine, other phyto-stimulants and antioxidant compounds without the addition of synthetic components or preservatives in the formulation. Sensorial analysis demonstrated that the beverage had good consumer acceptance in comparison to two other similar commercial beverages. Therefore, this beverage could be used as a new, non-dairy vehicle for probiotic consumption, especially by vegetarians and lactose intolerant consumers. It is expected that such a product will have good market potential in an era of functional foods. PMID:22312286

  15. Herbal use amongst multiethnic medical patients in Penang Hospital: pattern and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Saw, J T; Bahari, M B; Ang, H H; Lim, Y H

    2006-10-01

    A cross sectional survey on pattern and perception of herbal use among medical patients in Penang Hospital was conducted. Among 250 patients surveyed, 67.9% were using herbal medicine and conventional medicine concomitantly. A majority of the patients used herbs for health maintenance (51.3%) purpose. More than 90% of herbal users did not disclose herbal use to their physician and "Doctor never asked" was the major reason given (54.2%). The Chinese reported the highest rate of herbal use but was least likely to disclose. These findings are important for health professionals to ensure medication safety and recognise potential drug herb interaction.

  16. Frequency and Perceptions of Herbal Medicine use Among Hmong Americans: a Cross Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.

  17. Muscarinic Long-Term Enhancement of Tonic and Phasic GABAA Inhibition in Rat CA1 Pyramidal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Soledad; Fernández de Sevilla, David; Buño, Washington

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) regulates network operation in the hippocampus by controlling excitation and inhibition in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons (PCs), the latter through gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABA A Rs). Although, the enhancing effects of ACh on GABA A Rs have been reported (Dominguez et al., 2014, 2015), its role in regulating tonic GABAA inhibition has not been explored in depth. Therefore, we aimed at determining the effects of the activation of ACh receptors on responses mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs. Here, we show that under blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors ACh, acting through muscarinic type 1 receptors, paired with post-synaptic depolarization induced a long-term enhancement of tonic GABA A currents ( t GABA A ) and puff-evoked GABA A currents ( p GABAA). ACh combined with depolarization also potentiated IPSCs (i.e., phasic inhibition) in the same PCs, without signs of interactions of synaptic responses with p GABAA and t GABAA, suggesting the contribution of two different GABAA receptor pools. The long-term enhancement of GABAA currents and IPSCs reduced the excitability of PCs, possibly regulating plasticity and learning in behaving animals.

  18. Tonic regulation of vascular tone by nitric oxide and chloride ions in rat isolated small coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Graves, J E; Greenwood, I A; Large, W A

    2000-12-01

    We have investigated the involvement of Cl(-) in regulating vascular tone in rat isolated coronary arteries mounted on a small vessel myograph. Mechanical removal of the endothelium or inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-4) M) led to contraction of rat coronary arteries, and these contractions were sensitive to nicardipine (10(-6) M). This suggests that release of NO tonically inhibits a contractile mechanism that involves voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. In arteries contracted with L-NAME, switching the bathing solution to physiological saline solution with a reduced Cl(-) concentration potentiated the contraction. DIDS (5 x 10(-6)-3 x 10(-4) M) caused relaxation of L-NAME-induced tension (IC(50) = 55 +/- 10 microM), providing evidence for a role of Cl(-). SITS (10(-5)-5 x 10(-4) M) did not affect L-NAME-induced tension, suggesting that DIDS is not acting by inhibition of anion exchange. Mechanical removal of the endothelium led to contraction of arteries, which was sensitive to DIDS (IC(50) = 50 +/- 8 microM) and was not affected by SITS. This study suggests that, in rat coronary arteries, NO tonically suppresses a contractile mechanism that involves a Cl(-) conductance.

  19. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad inhibits tonicity-induced apoptosis in renal medullary cells.

    PubMed

    Küper, Christoph; Bartels, Helmut; Beck, Franz-X; Neuhofer, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    During antidiuresis, cell survival in the renal medulla requires cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity. We have recently found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) promotes cell survival by phosphorylation and, hence, inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad during hypertonic stress in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in vitro. Here we determine the role of COX-2-derived PGE(2) on phosphorylation of Bad and medullary apoptosis in vivo using COX-2-deficient mice. Both wild-type and COX-2-knockout mice constitutively expressed Bad in tubular epithelial cells of the renal medulla. Dehydration caused a robust increase in papillary COX-2 expression, PGE2 excretion, and Bad phosphorylation in wild-type, but not in the knockout mice. The abundance of cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, was significantly higher in papillary homogenates, especially in tubular epithelial cells of the knockout mice. Knockdown of Bad in MDCK cells decreased tonicity-induced caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, the addition of PGE2 to cells with knockdown of Bad had no effect on caspase-3 activation; however, PGE2 caused phosphorylation of Bad and substantially improved cell survival in mock-transfected cells. Thus, tonicity-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis in the renal medulla entails phosphorylation and inactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad, thereby counteracting apoptosis in renal medullary epithelial cells.

  20. Functional testing of space flight induced changes in tonic motor control by using limb-attached excitation and load devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallasch, Eugen; Kozlovskaya, Inessa

    2007-02-01

    Long term space flights induce atrophy and contractile changes on postural muscles such effecting tonic motor control. Functional testing of tonic motor control structures is a challenge because of the difficulties to deliver appropriate test forces on crew members. In this paper we propose two approaches for functional testing by using limb attached loading devices. The first approach is based on a frequency and amplitude controllable moving magnet exciter to deliver sinusoidal test forces during limb postures. The responding limb deflection is recorded by an embedded accelerometer to obtain limb impedance. The second approach is based on elastic limb loading to evoke self-excited oscillations during arm extensions. Here the contraction force at the oscillation onset provides information about limb stiffness. The rationale for both testing approaches is based on Feldman's λ-model. An arm expander based on the second approach was probed in a 6-month MIR space flight. The results obtained from the load oscillations, confirmed that this device is well suited to capture space flight induced neuromuscular changes.

  1. Enhanced astroglial GABA uptake attenuates tonic GABAA inhibition of the presympathetic hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Sudip; Jo, Ji Yoon; Lee, Sang Ung; Lee, Young Jae; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, Jung Un; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Park, Jin Bong

    2015-08-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) generates persistent tonic inhibitory currents (Itonic) and conventional inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) via activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs). We investigated the pathophysiological significance of astroglial GABA uptake in the regulation of Itonic in the PVN neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM). The Itonic of PVN-RVLM neurons were significantly reduced in heart failure (HF) compared with sham-operated (SHAM) rats. Reduced Itonic sensitivity to THIP argued for the decreased function of GABAAR δ subunits in HF, whereas similar Itonic sensitivity to benzodiazepines argued against the difference of γ2 subunit-containing GABAARs in SHAM and HF rats. HF Itonic attenuation was reversed by a nonselective GABA transporter (GAT) blocker (nipecotic acid, NPA) and a GAT-3 selective blocker, but not by a GAT-1 blocker, suggesting that astroglial GABA clearance increased in HF. Similar and minimal Itonic responses to bestrophin-1 blockade in SHAM and HF neurons further argued against a role for astroglial GABA release in HF Itonic attenuation. Finally, the NPA-induced inhibition of spontaneous firing was greater in HF than in SHAM PVN-RVLM neurons, whereas diazepam induced less inhibition of spontaneous firing in HF than in SHAM neurons. Overall, our results showed that combined with reduced GABAARs function, the enhanced astroglial GABA uptake-induced attenuation of Itonic in HF PVN-RVLM neurons explains the deficit in tonic GABAergic inhibition and increased sympathetic outflow from the PVN during heart failure.

  2. Muscarinic Long-Term Enhancement of Tonic and Phasic GABAA Inhibition in Rat CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Soledad; Fernández de Sevilla, David; Buño, Washington

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) regulates network operation in the hippocampus by controlling excitation and inhibition in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons (PCs), the latter through gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABAARs). Although, the enhancing effects of ACh on GABAARs have been reported (Dominguez et al., 2014, 2015), its role in regulating tonic GABAA inhibition has not been explored in depth. Therefore, we aimed at determining the effects of the activation of ACh receptors on responses mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs. Here, we show that under blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors ACh, acting through muscarinic type 1 receptors, paired with post-synaptic depolarization induced a long-term enhancement of tonic GABAA currents (tGABAA) and puff-evoked GABAA currents (pGABAA). ACh combined with depolarization also potentiated IPSCs (i.e., phasic inhibition) in the same PCs, without signs of interactions of synaptic responses with pGABAA and tGABAA, suggesting the contribution of two different GABAA receptor pools. The long-term enhancement of GABAA currents and IPSCs reduced the excitability of PCs, possibly regulating plasticity and learning in behaving animals. PMID:27833531

  3. Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoshu; Liew, Yuklan; Liu, Zhao Lan

    2016-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) usage is expected to increase as women suffering from menopausal symptoms are seeking alternative therapy due to concerns from the adverse effects (AEs) associated with hormone therapy (HT). Scientific evidence for their effectiveness and safety is needed. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Search methods We searched the Gynaecology and Fertility Group’s Specialised Register of controlled trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO (from inception to March 2015). Others included Current Control Trials, Citation Indexes, conference abstracts in the ISI Web of Knowledge, LILACS database, PubMed, OpenSIGLE database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI, 1999 to 2015). Other resources included reference lists of articles as well as direct contact with authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness of CHM with placebo, HT, pharmaceutical drugs, acupuncture, or another CHM formula in women over 18 years of age, and suffering from menopausal symptoms. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed 864 studies for eligibility. Data extractions were performed by them with disagreements resolved through group discussion and clarification of data or direct contact with the study authors. Data analyses were performed in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Main results We included 22 RCTs (2902 women). Participants were from different ethnic backgrounds with the majority of Chinese origin. When CHM was compared with placebo (eight RCTs), there was little or no evidence of a difference between the groups for the following pooled outcomes: hot flushes per day (MD 0.00, 95% CI −0.88 to 0.89; 2 trials, 199 women; moderate quality evidence); hot flushes per day assessed by an overall hot

  4. Rapid bone repair in a patient with lung cancer metastases to the spine using a novel herbal medicine: A case report.

    PubMed

    Pu, Rong; Zhao, Qianhong; Li, Zhimei; Zhang, Lingyan; Luo, Xiaolu; Zeren, Yangji; Yu, Cui; Li, Xianyong

    2016-09-01

    The prognosis of lung carcinoma with metastasis to the bone, particularly to the spine, is poor. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are established treatments for metastatic bone disease, but their effectiveness is unsatisfactory and bone repair following their use is slow and difficult. Medicine prepared from herbal extracts may be an alternative treatment option. The present study discusses the case of a 59-year-old patient diagnosed with squamous cell lung cancer (T2N3M1) in which first-line chemotherapy using docetaxel plus cisplatin failed. Heavy multiple bone metastases were detected in the T9 vertebra and sixth left rib, resulting in a high risk of pathological fracture. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) and numerical rating scale (NRS) scores of pain were 2 and 4, respectively. A second-line treatment was chosen consisting of biological intracontrol treatment (BICT) plus bisphosphonates administered over 40 days. BICT is a therapy involving the use of herbal extracts (including ginseng, herba agrimoniae, hairyvein agrimonia herb, white flower patrinia herb and arginine) and palliative care. A partial positive response was reached following use of this regimen, particularly with regard to bone repair. A computed tomography scan revealed a 90% reduction in the broken area of the rib cage and T9 vertebra. The bone repair was rapid and almost complete. In addition, growth of the primary tumor in the right pulmonary hilar and metastasis in the mediastinal lymph nodes were stabilized following treatment. ECOG and NRS scores were decreased to 1 and 0, respectively, leading to an improved quality of life. Based on these results, the present study suggests that this herbal medicine-based regimen promotes bone repair and inhibits tumor growth, with low toxicity. However, the mechanism by which herbal medicine promotes rapid bone repair is unclear. Further studies are required to determine whether cells in the tumor microenvironment are stimulated to undergo re

  5. Patterns of reoccurrence of segmental dystonia after discontinuation of deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Grips, E; Blahak, C; Capelle, H H; Bäzner, H; Weigel, R; Sedlaczek, O; Krauss, J K; Wöhrle, J C

    2007-01-01

    The pattern of reoccurrence of symptoms after discontinuation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) has not been systematically studied in dystonia. Eight patients (mean age (SD) 53.8 (14.4) years) with segmental dystonia at a mean follow‐up of 11.3 (4.2) months were studied after implantation of bilateral DBS electrodes in the internal globus pallidus using a standard video protocol and clinical rating scales, immediately and at 2 and 4 h after switching off DBS. Dystonic signs returned sequentially, with a rapid worsening of phasic and a slower worsening of tonic dystonic components. In all patients, phasic dystonic features appeared within a few minutes, whereas the tonic elements of dystonia reoccurred with a more variable delay. Differential clinical effects when withdrawing DBS might reflect its influence on different pathophysiological mechanisms in dystonia. PMID:17030588

  6. Capacity for Clinical Research on Herbal Medicines in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

  7. Traditional herbal medicines worldwide, from reappraisal to assessment in Europe.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Emiel

    2014-12-02

    Since 2004 the regulatory framework within the European Union has a specific assessment procedure for herbal medicinal products, with a medicinal use based on traditional practice. The main requirement concerning the traditional use is focussed on the period of time for medical use: at least 30 years, including 15 years in the EU. In addition to requirements for quality and safety, an evaluation of pharmacological effects or efficacy based on long-standing use, is a main objective. "Traditional Use" however encompasses European, and non-European traditional use. Outside the EU, the medicinal use of herbal substances, preparations, and combinations is well-known, with a long history, which is well-documented in the different systems of medical practice. This has been addressed by WHO, but it has been acknowledged also by European Commission that herbal products from other systems of medicine, can be subject to the procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products. This paper will focus on the possibilities, restraints, and challenges of regulatory practice in the European Union regarding these category of medicinal products.

  8. Herbal Remedies: The Design of a New Course in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouzi, Samir A.

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmacy course developed at Northeast Louisiana University School of Pharmacy trains pharmacy students in use of herbs as self-selected over-the-counter products. Emphases are on use of herbal preparations by the general public as alternative therapies, safety and efficacy of herbs and other phytomedicinals, and the pharmacist's role in…

  9. Antimicrobial effect of herbal dentifrices: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, J.; Ananthalakshmi, R.; Jeeva, J. Sathiya; Jeddy, Nadeem; Dhakshininamoorthy, Subhashini; Muthu Meenakshi, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was taken up to compare the antimicrobial effect of few herbal dentifrices against cariogenic organism such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: This study was an in vitro model using the well method of microbial culture. Colgate total was used as the positive control and distilled water as the negative control. Dentifrices were prepared in 1:1 dilution using sterile distilled water. The standard strains were inoculated and incubated for 4 h. They were then lawn cultured. Wells were made using a standard template, and the dentifrices were placed in these wells Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In case of S. mutans, the maximum antimicrobial effect among the six dentifrices was shown by Babool followed by Colgate Herbal. For L. acidophilus, the antimicrobial zone exhibited by all the six dentifrices were similar to the positive control. Conclusions: Babool and Colgate Herbal have more inhibitory effect against S. mutans than the other dentifrices of the group. Dabur Red, Colgate Herbal, and Himalaya are efficient against L. acidophilus. PMID:26538932

  10. Herbal and other complementary medicine use by Texas midwives.

    PubMed

    Bayles, Bryan P

    2007-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey sought to document complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by Texas midwives, as well as to determine whether licensed direct-entry midwives (LMs) and certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) differed significantly in their patterns of use. All respondents (n = 69) indicated that they used, recommended, or referred their clients for at least one CAM therapy during the preceding year. Ninety percent (90%) of respondents used, recommended, or referred their clients for an herbal remedy (not including homeopathic tinctures). Herbal therapies were among the top three modalities recommended for 7 of 12 (58%) clinical indications. Herbs were the most salient CAM therapy used for cervical ripening (83%), followed closely by use for nausea, vomiting, and hyperemesis (80%), and labor induction (77%). Herbal therapies also constituted 50% or more of the CAM therapies used for the following indications: anemia/iron supplementation (70%), perineal healing (66%), and anxiety/stress/fatigue (50%). LM respondents used, recommended, or referred their clients for a greater number of herbal therapies compared to CNMs. While several of the CAM modalities used or recommended by Texas midwives show potential for clinical benefit, few have been studied sufficiently to determine their efficacy or safety during pregnancy.

  11. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  12. Screening for Corticosteroid Adulterants in Korean Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung-Joon; Cho, So-Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Hwang, In Sun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Yoon, Chang-Yong; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Woo Seong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the presence of corticosteroids in illegal herbal medicines using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We collected 212 herbal medicine samples that were advertised as being effective for treatment of joint pain and bone aches. Samples were from the Korean commercial market during a span of four years (2010-2013), and the method was validated. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.47 to 15.0 ng/mL, and recoveries ranged from 80.6% to 119.5%. The intra- and interday precision ranged from 0.18% to 8.82% and from 0.09% to 8.96%, respectively. Among the samples, three samples (1.4%) were identified as adulterants. Dexamethasone was the only compound detected in the adulterated products. As the corticosteroid-adulteration of herbal medicines may become a major problem and lead to side effects, the continued development of screening procedures for herbal medicines is critical.

  13. [Inhibition of aldose reductase by Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Mao, X M; Zhang, J Q

    1993-10-01

    Seven Chinese herbal drugs were screened for experimental inhibition of lens aldose reductase activity, among which quercetin exhibited potent enzyme-inhibitory activities in vitro. Its IC50 value was 3.44 x 10(-7) mol/L. It may be helpful in the prophylaxis and treatment of diabetic complications.

  14. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era.

  15. A survey on herbal management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hamid, Nabil Mohie; Nazmy, Maiiada Hasan; Mahmoud, Ahmed Wahid; Fawzy, Michael Atef; Youssof, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this review we outline the different mechanisms mediating hepatocarcinogenesis. We also discuss possible targets of bioactive herbal agents at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis and highlight their role at each individual stage. We gathered information on the most common herbal prescriptions and extracts thought to be useful in prevention or sensitization for chemotherapy in management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The value of this topic may seem questionable compared to the promise offered for HCC management by chemotherapy and radiation. However, we would recommend the use of herbal preparations not as alternatives to common chemo /and or radiotherapy, but rather for prevention among at-risk individuals, given that drug/herb interactions are still in need of extensive clarification. The bioactive constituents of various herbs seem to be promising targets for isolation, cancer activity screening and clinical evaluation. Finally, herbal preparations may offer a cost effective protective alternative to individuals known to have a high risk for HCC and possibly other cancers, through maintaining cell integrity, reversing oxidative stress and modulating different molecular pathways in preventing carcinogenesis. PMID:21866249

  16. Radical scavenging potentials of single and combinatorial herbal formulations in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ogbuji, Agomuo C.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are involved in deleterious/beneficial biological processes. The present study sought to investigate the capacity of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of Acanthus montanus, Emilia coccinea, Hibiscus rosasinensis, and Asystasia gangetica to act as superoxide radicals (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (HP), nitric oxide radical (NOR), hydroxyl radical (HR), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical antagonists using in vitro models. The herbal extracts were single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), triple herbal formulations (THfs), and a quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The phytochemical composition and radical scavenging capacity index (SCI) of the herbal formulations were measured using standard methods. The flavonoids were the most abundant phytochemicals present in the herbal extracts. The SCI50 defined the concentration (μg/mL) of herbal formulation required to scavenge 50% of the investigated radicals. The SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf SCI50 against the radicals followed the order HR > SOR > DPPH radical > HP > NOR. Although the various herbal formulations exhibited ambivalent antioxidant activities in terms of their radical scavenging capabilities, a broad survey of the results of the present study showed that combinatorial herbal formulations (DHfs, THfs, and QHf) appeared to exhibit lower radical scavenging capacities than those of the SHfs in vitro. PMID:27114938

  17. Herbal bioactivation, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Wu; Serag, Erini S; Sneed, Kevin B; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2011-07-15

    There have been increasing reports on the adverse reactions associated with herbal consumption. For many of these adverse reactions, the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown, but bioactivation of herbal compounds to generate reactive intermediates have been implicated. This minireview updates our knowledge on metabolic activation of herbal compounds, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance. A number of studies have documented that some herbal compounds can be converted to toxic or even carcinogenic metabolites by Phase I [e.g. cytochrome P450s (CYPs)] and less frequently by Phase II enzymes. For example, aristolochic acids (AAs) in Aristolochia spp, which undergo reduction of the nitro group by hepatic CYP1A1/2 or peroxidases in extrahepatic tissues to generate highly reactive cyclic nitrenium ions. The latter can react with macromolecules (DNA and protein), resulting in activation of H-ras and myc oncogenes and gene mutation in renal cells and finally carcinogenesis of the kidneys. Teucrin A and teuchamaedryn A, two diterpenoids found in germander (Teuchrium chamaedrys) used as an adjuvant to slimming herbal supplements that caused severe hepatotoxicity, are converted by CYP3A4 to reactive epoxide which reacts with proteins such as CYP3A and epoxide hydrolase and inactivate them. Some naturally occurring alkenylbenzenes (e.g. safrole, methyleugenol and estragole) and flavonoids (e.g. quercetin) can undergo bioactivation by sequential 1-hydroxylation and sulfation, resulting in reactive intermediates capable of forming DNA adducts. Extensive pulegone metabolism generated p-cresol that is a glutathione depletory. The hepatotoxicity of kava is possibly due to intracellular glutathione depletion and/or quinone formation. Moreover, several herbal compounds including capsaicin from chili peppers, dially sulfone in garlic, methysticin and dihydromethysticin in kava, oleuropein in olive oil, and resveratrol found in grape seeds are mechanism-based (suicide

  18. Efficacy and Tolerability of an Herbal Formulation for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Peerson, Jan; Mishra, Artatrana T.; Mathukumalli, Venkata Sadasiva Rao; Konda, Poorna Rajeswari

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2. Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400 mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000 kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30 min. The primary outcome was reduction in body weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2 kg; P<.0001), BMI (2.2 kg/m2; P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9 cm; P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3 cm; P=.0001) were observed in the herbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal group versus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%, P=.01), cholesterol (13.8%, P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%, P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels, multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. PMID:23767862

  19. Reduced tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus contributes to chronic stress-induced impairments in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vallent; MacKenzie, Georgina; Hooper, Andrew; Maguire, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that stress impacts the underlying processes of learning and memory. The effects of stress on memory are thought to involve, at least in part, effects on the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable to stress. Chronic stress induces hippocampal alterations, including but not limited to dendritic atrophy and decreased neurogenesis, which are thought to contribute to chronic stress-induced hippocampal dysfunction and deficits in learning and memory. Changes in synaptic transmission, including changes in GABAergic inhibition, have been documented following chronic stress. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated shifts in EGABA in CA1 pyramidal neurons following chronic stress, compromising GABAergic transmission and increasing excitability of these neurons. Interestingly, here we demonstrate that these alterations are unique to CA1 pyramidal neurons, since we do not observe shifts in EGABA following chronic stress in dentate gyrus granule cells. Following chronic stress, there is a decrease in the expression of the GABAA receptor (GABAA R) δ subunit and tonic GABAergic inhibition in dentate gyrus granule cells, whereas there is an increase in the phasic component of GABAergic inhibition, evident by an increase in the peak amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). Given the numerous changes observed in the hippocampus following stress, it is difficult to pinpoint the pertinent contributing pathophysiological factors. Here we directly assess the impact of a reduction in tonic GABAergic inhibition of dentate gyrus granule cells on learning and memory using a mouse model with a decrease in GABAA R δ subunit expression specifically in dentate gyrus granule cells (Gabrd/Pomc mice). Reduced GABAA R δ subunit expression and function in dentate gyrus granule cells is sufficient to induce deficits in learning and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that the reduction in GABAA R δ subunit-mediated tonic inhibition

  20. CB1 receptor activation in the basolateral amygdala produces antinociception in animal models of acute and tonic nociception.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, Parisa; Parviz, Mohsen; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Javanmardi, Kazem

    2007-01-01

    1. Recent studies have suggested that the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) participates in the processing of pain information, especially noxious somatic information. Cannabinoid receptors or CB1 mRNA are expressed more in the BLA than in other nuclei of the amygdala. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether CB1 receptors in the BLA may be involved in modulating acute and/or tonic nociceptive processing. 2. Adult rats were exposed to intra-BLA microinjection of the cannabinoid receptor agonist (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo [1,2,3,-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate [WIN 55,212-2 (1, 2.5, 5 or 10 microg/side)] and subjected to the tail flick and formalin tests. 3. The rats demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in latency to withdraw from a thermal noxious stimulus in the tail flick test and a decrease in formalin-induced pain behaviours. The antinociceptive effects of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (10 microg/side) in both tests were attenuated in the presence of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist, N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3- carboxamide (AM251; 0.55 ng/side). Administration of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (0.55, 5.5, or 55.5 ng/side) alone did not alter the nociceptive thresholds in either test. Bilateral microinjection of the selective CB2 receptor antagonist N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR144528; 1 microg/side) had no effect on the antinociception produced by WIN 55,212-2, suggesting that the antinociceptive actions of WIN 55,212-2 are mediated by CB1 receptors. 4. The findings suggest the existence of a CB1-mediated inhibitory system in the BLA that, when activated, can diminish responsivity to acute and tonic noxious stimuli, but that normally has no tonic effect on the response threshold of these stimuli.

  1. Motor unit firing and its relation to tremor in the tonic vibration reflex of the decerebrate cat.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, F J; Matthews, P B; Muir, R B

    1981-01-01

    1. The discharge of single motor units has been recorded from the soleus muscle of the decerebrate cat during the tonic vibration reflex elicited isometrically, to further understanding of the tremor that is seen in the reflex contraction. The reflex was elicited by pulses of vibration of 50 micrometers amplitude at 150 Hz, and up to four units were studied concurrently. 2. Individual units fired rather regularly and at a low frequency (range 4-14 Hz). The rate of firing of any unit normally fell within the frequency band of the tremor recorded at the same time. On comparing different preparations a higher frequency of tremor was associated with a higher frequency of motor firing. 3. The responses of pairs of motor units recorded concurrently during repeated production of the reflex were compared by cross-correlation analysis; over 1000 spikes from each train were normally used for this. The major of the cross-correlograms were flat with no overt sign of any synchronization between the units other than that due to the vibration. 4. Clear indications of correlated motor unit firing could be produced deliberately by modulating the amplitude of vibration at a frequency comparable to that of the normal tremor and thereby introducing a rhythmic component into the tonic vibration reflex. 5. About 20% of the cross-correlograms obtained during normal tremor showed varying amounts of an irregular 'waviness' suggesting a possible correlation between the times of firing of a pair of units. But such waves never developed steadily throughout the period of analysis, in contrast to the comparable waves produced on modulating the vibration. Similar waves were seen on cross-correlating a motor unit with an electronic oscillator, confirming that their occurrence does not necessarily demonstrate the existence of active neural interactions. 6. It is concluded that there is no strong and widespread neural synchronizing mechanism active during the tonic vibration reflex, although the

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Chinese Herbal Formula IBS-20 In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhonghan; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Ip, Siu Po; Che, Chun-Tao; Fong, Harry H. S.; Lao, Lixing; Wu, Justin C.; Sung, Joseph J.; Berman, Brian; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Zhao, Aiping

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder and the etiology is not well understood. Currently there is no cure for IBS and no existing medication induces symptom relief in all patients. IBS-20 is a 20-herb Chinese medicinal formula that offers beneficial effects in patients with IBS; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study showed that IBS-20 potently inhibited LPS- or IFNΓ-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as classically activated macrophage marker nitric oxide synthase 2. Similarly, IBS-20 or the component herb Coptis chinensis decreased LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from JAWS II dendritic cells. IBS-20 or the component herbs also blocked or attenuated the IFNΓ-induced drop in transepithelial electric resistance, an index of permeability, in fully differentiated Caco-2 monolayer. Finally, the up-regulation of key inflammatory cytokines in inflamed colon from TNBS-treated mice was suppressed significantly by orally administrated IBS-20, including IFNΓ and IL-12p40. These data indicate that the anti-inflammatory activities of IBS-20 may contribute to the beneficial effects of the herbal extract in patients with IBS, providing a potential mechanism of action for IBS-20. In addition, IBS-20 may be a potential therapeutic agent against other Th1-dominant gut pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:22461841

  3. Treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhea with the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; MacNaughton, W K; Zhang, X J; Thompson, J H; Charbonnet, R M; Bobrowski, P; Lao, J; Trentacosti, A M; Sandoval, M

    2000-07-01

    Sangre de grado is an Amazonian herbal medicine used to facilitate the healing of gastric ulcers and to treat gastritis, diarrhea, skin lesions, and insect stings. This study was designed to evaluate the gastrointestinal applications. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats by brief serosal exposure of the fundus to acetic acid (80%). Sangre de grado was administered in drinking water at 1:1,000 and 1:10,000 dilutions from the postoperative period to day 7. Guinea pig ileum secretory responses to capsaicin, electrical field stimulation, and the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) agonist [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]substance P were examined in Ussing chambers. Sangre de grado facilitated the healing of experimental gastric ulcer, reducing myeloperoxidase activity, ulcer size, and bacterial content of the ulcer. The expression of proinflammatory genes tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 was upregulated by ulcer induction but reduced by sangre de grado treatment, particularly iNOS and IL-6. In Ussing chambers, sangre de grado impaired the secretory response to capsaicin but not to electrical field stimulation or the NK-1 agonist. We conclude that sangre de grado is a potent, cost-effective treatment for gastrointestinal ulcers and distress via antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and sensory afferent-dependent actions.

  4. Biomolecular Characterization of Putative Antidiabetic Herbal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Verena; Haselgrübler, Renate; Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Plochberger, Birgit; Borgmann, Daniela; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Winkler, Stephan M; Schröder, Klaus; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Induction of GLUT4 translocation in the absence of insulin is considered a key concept to decrease elevated blood glucose levels in diabetics. Due to the lack of pharmaceuticals that specifically increase the uptake of glucose from the blood circuit, application of natural compounds might be an alternative strategy. However, the effects and mechanisms of action remain unknown for many of those substances. For this study we investigated extracts prepared from seven different plants, which have been reported to exhibit anti-diabetic effects, for their GLUT4 translocation inducing properties. Quantitation of GLUT4 translocation was determined by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy in insulin sensitive CHO-K1 cells and adipocytes. Two extracts prepared from purslane (Portulaca oleracea) and tindora (Coccinia grandis) were found to induce GLUT4 translocation, accompanied by an increase of intracellular glucose concentrations. Our results indicate that the PI3K pathway is mainly responsible for the respective translocation process. Atomic force microscopy was used to prove complete plasma membrane insertion. Furthermore, this approach suggested a compound mediated distribution of GLUT4 molecules in the plasma membrane similar to insulin stimulated conditions. Utilizing a fluorescent actin marker, TIRF measurements indicated an impact of purslane and tindora on actin remodeling as observed in insulin treated cells. Finally, in-ovo experiments suggested a significant reduction of blood glucose levels under tindora and purslane treated conditions in a living organism. In conclusion, this study confirms the anti-diabetic properties of tindora and purslane, which stimulate GLUT4 translocation in an insulin-like manner.

  5. Biomolecular Characterization of Putative Antidiabetic Herbal Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Stadlbauer, Verena; Haselgrübler, Renate; Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Plochberger, Birgit; Borgmann, Daniela; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Winkler, Stephan M.; Schröder, Klaus; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Induction of GLUT4 translocation in the absence of insulin is considered a key concept to decrease elevated blood glucose levels in diabetics. Due to the lack of pharmaceuticals that specifically increase the uptake of glucose from the blood circuit, application of natural compounds might be an alternative strategy. However, the effects and mechanisms of action remain unknown for many of those substances. For this study we investigated extracts prepared from seven different plants, which have been reported to exhibit anti-diabetic effects, for their GLUT4 translocation inducing properties. Quantitation of GLUT4 translocation was determined by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy in insulin sensitive CHO-K1 cells and adipocytes. Two extracts prepared from purslane (Portulaca oleracea) and tindora (Coccinia grandis) were found to induce GLUT4 translocation, accompanied by an increase of intracellular glucose concentrations. Our results indicate that the PI3K pathway is mainly responsible for the respective translocation process. Atomic force microscopy was used to prove complete plasma membrane insertion. Furthermore, this approach suggested a compound mediated distribution of GLUT4 molecules in the plasma membrane similar to insulin stimulated conditions. Utilizing a fluorescent actin marker, TIRF measurements indicated an impact of purslane and tindora on actin remodeling as observed in insulin treated cells. Finally, in-ovo experiments suggested a significant reduction of blood glucose levels under tindora and purslane treated conditions in a living organism. In conclusion, this study confirms the anti-diabetic properties of tindora and purslane, which stimulate GLUT4 translocation in an insulin-like manner. PMID:26820984

  6. Herbal bioactivation: the good, the bad and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Koh, Hwee-Ling; Gao, Yihuai; Gong, Zhi-yuan; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2004-01-09

    It has been well established that the formation of reactive metabolites of drugs is associated with drug toxicity. Similarly, there are accumulating data suggesting the role of the formation of reactive metabolites/intermediates through bioactivation in herbal toxicity and carcinogenicity. It has been hypothesized that the resultant reactive metabolites following herbal bioactivation covalently bind to cellular proteins and DNA, leading to toxicity via multiple mechanisms such as direct cytotoxicity, oncogene activation, and hypersensitivity reactions. This is exemplified by aristolochic acids present in Aristolochia spp, undergoing reduction of the nitro group by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1/2) or peroxidases in extrahepatic tissues to reactive cyclic nitrenium ion. The latter was capable of reacting with DNA and proteins, resulting in activation of H-ras oncogene, gene mutation and finally carcinogenesis. Other examples are pulegone present in essential oils from many mint species; and teucrin A, a diterpenoid found in germander (Teuchrium chamaedrys) used as an adjuvant to slimming diets. Extensive pulegone metabolism generated p-cresol that was a glutathione depletory, and the furan ring of the diterpenoids in germander was oxidized by CYP3A4 to reactive epoxide which reacts with proteins such as CYP3A and epoxide hydrolase. On the other hand, some herbal/dietary constituents were shown to form reactive intermediates capable of irreversibly inhibiting various CYPs. The resultant metabolites lead to CYP inactivation by chemical modification of the heme, the apoprotein, or both as a result of covalent binding of modified heme to the apoprotein. Some examples include bergamottin, a furanocoumarin of grapefruit juice; capsaicin from chili peppers; glabridin, an isoflavan from licorice root; isothiocyanates found in all cruciferous vegetables; oleuropein rich in olive oil; dially sulfone found in garlic; and resveratrol, a constituent of red wine. CYPs have been

  7. Effects of herbal Epimedium on the improvement of bone metabolic disorder through the induction of osteogenic differentiation from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Rim; Lee, Ji Eun; Shim, Kyung Jun; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Ho Chul; Park, Seong Kyu; Chang, Mun Seog

    2016-01-01

    Herbal Epimedium (HE) has been commonly used as a tonic, antirheumatic agent and in the treatment of bone-associated diseases including osteoporosis. Treatment for osteoporosis is important to increase bone mass density and maintain to balance of bone remodeling. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of HE on mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (mBMMSC) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, using MTT assays, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) detection and apoptosis and differentiation assays. HE was demonstrated to inhibit the proliferation of mBMMSCs up to 45.43±3.33% and to decrease the level of PCNA expression compared with untreated cells. HE also induced late apoptosis at 24 and 48 h after treatment up to 71.93 and 67.03%, respectively, while only 14.93% of untreated cells exhibited apoptosis. By contrast, HE induced differentiation of mBMMSCs into an osteogenic lineage at the beginning of three weeks after commencement of treatment. This suggested that HE is a candidate as an inducer of osteogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and additionally has potential for use in the treatment of bone metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis. PMID:27959402

  8. Increased muscle size and strength from slow-movement, low-intensity resistance exercise and tonic force generation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuya; Tanimoto, Michiya; Ohgane, Akane; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Ishii, Naokata

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of low-intensity resistance training on muscle size and strength in older men and women. Thirty-five participants (age 59-76 yr) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and performed low-intensity (50% of 1-repetition maximum) knee-extension and -flexion exercises with either slow movement and tonic force generation (LST; 3-s eccentric, 3-s concentric, and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between repetitions) or normal speed (LN; 1-s concentric and 1-s eccentric actions with 1-s rests between repetitions) twice a week for 12 wk (2-wk preparation and 10-wk intervention). The LST significantly increased thigh-muscle thickness, as well as isometric knee-extension and -flexion strength. The LN significantly improved strength, but its hypertrophic effect was limited. These results indicate that even for older individuals, the LST can be an effective method for gaining muscle mass and strength.

  9. [Effect of aggregate state, tonicity, and level of nutrients in media on recovery of Escherichia coli bacteria from heat damage].

    PubMed

    Morozov, I I

    1996-01-01

    The influence of aggregate condition, nutrient composition and tonicity of incubation medium on recovery from damages induced by heat at 52 degrees C Escherichia coli B/r and Escherichia coli BS-1 cells was studied. The cells were shown to be recovered from heat damages only in liquid and isotonic medium. The observed increase in a number of viable organisms was not greatly depended on source of energy, plastic material and macroelements of incubation medium. The recovered cells showed increase of osmotic tolerance to hyper- and hypotonic shock similar to intact cells. No increase in survivors was observed when heated cells were incubated on solid and/or anisotonic medium. The additional cell killing and high osmosensitivity may be seen in this case. The role of the system of osmotic homeostasis, including membrane state, in the modification of cell viability and osmoresistance of heated bacterial cells was discussed on the base of the data obtained.

  10. Current Approaches to Quantifying Tonic and Reflex Autonomic Outflows Controlling Cardiovascular Function in Humans and Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Salman, Ibrahim M

    2015-11-01

    The role of the autonomic nervous system in the pathophysiology of human and experimental models of cardiovascular disease is well established. In the recent years, there have been some rapid developments in the diagnostic approaches used to assess and monitor autonomic functions. Although most of these methods are devoted for research purposes in laboratory animals, many have still found their way to routine clinical practice. To name a few, direct long-term telemetry recording of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in rodents, single-unit SNA recording using microneurography in human subjects and spectral analysis of blood pressure and heart rate in both humans and animals have recently received an overwhelming attention. In this article, we therefore provide an overview of the methods and techniques used to assess tonic and reflex autonomic functions in humans and experimental animals, highlighting current advances available and procedure description, limitations and usefulness for diagnostic purposes.

  11. [A case of Sjögren syndrome associated with multiple mononeuritis and dysautonomia including bilateral tonic pupils].

    PubMed

    Tajima, Y; Tsukishima, E; Sudo, K; Aimoto, Y; Tashiro, K

    1997-09-01

    Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is a glandular disease characterized by dry eyes and dry mouth. Extraglandular manifestations in SjS are also common, and peripheral nerve involvement has been reported in 10-20% of cases. We report a case of Sjögren syndrome with bilateral tonic pupils, dysautonomia, and multiple mononeuritis. The fact that sural nerve sections, in addition to marked loss of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, showed an increased number of infiltrating macrophages without lymphocytes and aberrant expression of HLA-DR (class II) antigen in Schwann cells was an especially interesting finding. No evidence of active vasculitis was detected. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and her condition gradually improved, as confirmed by thermography. Our findings suggested the presence of specific immunological abnormalities simultaneously involving the ciliary ganglia, autonomic ganglia, and dorsal root ganglia in this peculiar form of SjS.

  12. Glycine and GABAA receptors mediate tonic and phasic inhibitory processes that contribute to prepulse inhibition in the goldfish startle network

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Paul C. P.; Preuss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is understood as a sensorimotor gating process that attenuates sensory flow to the startle pathway during early stages (20–1000 ms) of information processing. Here, we applied in vivo electrophysiology and pharmacology to determine if PPI is mediated by glycine receptors (GlyRs) and/or GABAA receptors (GABAARs) in the goldfish auditory startle circuit. Specifically, we used selective antagonists to dissect the contributions of target receptors on sound-evoked postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) recorded in the neurons that initiate startle, the Mauthner-cells (M-cell). We found that strychnine, a GlyR antagonist, disrupted a fast-activated (5 ms) and rapidly (<50 ms) decaying (feed-forward) inhibitory process that contributes to PPI at 20 ms prepulse/pulse inter-stimulus intervals (ISI). Additionally we observed increases of the evoked postsynaptic potential (PSP) peak amplitude (+87.43 ± 21.53%, N = 9) and duration (+204 ± 48.91%, N = 9). In contrast, treatment with bicuculline, a GABAAR antagonist, caused a general reduction in PPI across all tested interstimulus intervals (ISIs) (20–500 ms). Bicuculline also increased PSP peak amplitude (+133.8 ± 10.3%, N = 5) and PSP duration (+284.95 ± 65.64%, N = 5). Treatment with either antagonist also tonically increased post-synaptic excitability in the M-cells, reflected by an increase in the magnitude of antidromically-evoked action potentials (APs) by 15.07 ± 3.21%, N = 7 and 16.23 ± 7.08%, N = 5 for strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These results suggest that GABAARs and GlyRs are functionally segregated to short- and longer-lasting sound-evoked (phasic) inhibitory processes that contribute to PPI, with the mediation of tonic inhibition by both receptor systems being critical for gain control within the M-cell startle circuit. PMID:25852486

  13. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular function in young men.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Michiya; Ishii, Naokata

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the acute and long-term effects of low-intensity resistance exercise (knee extension) with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular size and strength. This type of exercise was expected to enhance the intramuscular hypoxic environment that might be a factor for muscular hypertrophy. Twenty-four healthy young men without experience of regular exercise training were assigned into three groups (n = 8 for each) and performed the following resistance exercise regimens: low-intensity [ approximately 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM)] with slow movement and tonic force generation (3 s for eccentric and concentric actions, 1-s pause, and no relaxing phase; LST); high-intensity ( approximately 80% 1RM) with normal speed (1 s for concentric and eccentric actions, 1 s for relaxing; HN); low-intensity with normal speed (same intensity as for LST and same speed as for HN; LN). In LST and HN, the mean repetition maximum was 8RM. In LN, both intensity and amount of work were matched with those for LST. Each exercise session consisting of three sets was performed three times a week for 12 wk. In LST and HN, exercise training caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in cross-sectional area determined with MRI and isometric strength (maximal voluntary contraction) of the knee extensors, whereas no significant changes were seen in LN. Electromyographic and near-infrared spectroscopic analyses showed that one bout of LST causes sustained muscular activity and the largest muscle deoxygenation among the three types of exercise. The results suggest that intramuscular oxygen environment is important for exercise-induced muscular hypertrophy.

  14. YouTube as a potential learning tool to help distinguish tonic-clonic seizures from nonepileptic attacks.

    PubMed

    Muhammed, Louwai; Adcock, Jane E; Sen, Arjune

    2014-08-01

    Medical students are increasingly turning to the website YouTube as a learning resource. This study set out to determine whether the videos on YouTube accurately depict the type of seizures that a medical student may search for. Two consultant epileptologists independently assessed the top YouTube videos returned following searches for eight terms relating to different categories of seizures. The videos were rated for their technical quality, concordance of diagnosis with an epileptologist-assigned diagnosis, and efficacy as a learning tool for medical education. Of the 200 videos assessed, 106 (63%) met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Technical quality was generally good and only interfered with the diagnostic process in 8.5% of the videos. Of the included videos, 40.6-46.2% were judged to depict the purported diagnosis with moderate agreement between raters (75% agreement, κ=0.50). Of the videos returned after searching "tonic-clonic seizure", 28.6-35.7% were judged to show nonepileptic seizures with almost perfect interrater agreement (92.9% agreement, κ=0.84). Of the videos returned following the search "pseudoseizure", 77.8-88.9% of videos were judged to show nonepileptic seizures with substantial agreement (88.9% agreement, κ=0.61). Across all search terms, 19.8-33% of videos were judged as potentially useful as a learning resource, with fair agreement between raters (75.5% agreement, κ=0.38). These findings suggest that the majority of videos on YouTube claiming to show specific seizure subtypes are inaccurate, and YouTube should not be recommended as a learning tool for students. However, a small group of videos provides excellent demonstrations of tonic-clonic and nonepileptic seizures, which could be used by an expert teacher to demonstrate the difference between epileptic and nonepileptic seizures.

  15. Nonthermal activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channels in abdominal viscera tonically inhibits autonomic cold-defense effectors.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Alexandre A; Turek, Victoria F; Almeida, Maria C; Burmeister, Jeffrey J; Oliveira, Daniela L; Roberts, Jennifer L; Bannon, Anthony W; Norman, Mark H; Louis, Jean-Claude; Treanor, James J S; Gavva, Narender R; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2007-07-11

    An involvement of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 channel in the regulation of body temperature (T(b)) has not been established decisively. To provide decisive evidence for such an involvement and determine its mechanisms were the aims of the present study. We synthesized a new TRPV1 antagonist, AMG0347 [(E)-N-(7-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)-3-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)acrylamide], and characterized it in vitro. We then found that this drug is the most potent TRPV1 antagonist known to increase T(b) of rats and mice and showed (by using knock-out mice) that the entire hyperthermic effect of AMG0347 is TRPV1 dependent. AMG0347-induced hyperthermia was brought about by one or both of the two major autonomic cold-defense effector mechanisms (tail-skin vasoconstriction and/or thermogenesis), but it did not involve warmth-seeking behavior. The magnitude of the hyperthermic response depended on neither T(b) nor tail-skin temperature at the time of AMG0347 administration, thus indicating that AMG0347-induced hyperthermia results from blockade of tonic TRPV1 activation by nonthermal factors. AMG0347 was no more effective in causing hyperthermia when administered into the brain (intracerebroventricularly) or spinal cord (intrathecally) than when given systemically (intravenously), which indicates a peripheral site of action. We then established that localized intra-abdominal desensitization of TRPV1 channels with intraperitoneal resiniferatoxin blocks the T(b) response to systemic AMG0347; the extent of desensitization was determined by using a comprehensive battery of functional tests. We conclude that tonic activation of TRPV1 channels in the abdominal viscera by yet unidentified nonthermal factors inhibits skin vasoconstriction and thermogenesis, thus having a suppressive effect on T(b).

  16. Effect of Tonic Pain on Motor Acquisition and Retention while Learning to Reach in a Force Field

    PubMed Central

    Lamothe, Mélanie; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Bouffard, Jason; Gagné, Martin; Bouyer, Laurent J.; Mercier, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Most patients receiving intensive rehabilitation to improve their upper limb function experience pain. Despite this, the impact of pain on the ability to learn a specific motor task is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of experimental tonic pain interferes with the acquisition and retention stages of motor learning associated with training in a reaching task. Twenty-nine healthy subjects were randomized to either a Control or Pain Group (receiving topical capsaicin cream on the upper arm during training on Day 1). On two consecutive days, subjects made ballistic movements towards two targets (NEAR/FAR) using a robotized exoskeleton. On Day 1, the task was performed without (baseline) and with a force field (adaptation). The adaptation task was repeated on Day 2. Task performance was assessed using index distance from the target at the end of the reaching movement. Motor planning was assessed using initial angle of deviation of index trajectory from a straight line to the target. Results show that tonic pain did not affect baseline reaching. Both groups improved task performance across time (p<0.001), but the Pain group showed a larger final error (under-compensation) than the Control group for the FAR target (p = 0.030) during both acquisition and retention. Moreover, a Group x Time interaction (p = 0.028) was observed on initial angle of deviation, suggesting that subjects with Pain made larger adjustments in the feedforward component of the movement over time. Interestingly, behaviour of the Pain group was very stable from the end of Day 1 (with pain) to the beginning of Day 2 (pain-free), indicating that the differences observed could not solely be explained by the impact of pain on immediate performance. This suggests that if people learn to move differently in the presence of pain, they might maintain this altered strategy over time. PMID:24911814

  17. Sex-specific tonic 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling at inhibitory inputs onto dopamine neurons of Lister Hooded rats.

    PubMed

    Melis, Miriam; De Felice, Marta; Lecca, Salvatore; Fattore, Liana; Pistis, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Addiction as a psychiatric disorder involves interaction of inherited predispositions and environmental factors. Similarly to humans, laboratory animals self-administer addictive drugs, whose appetitive properties result from activation and suppression of brain reward and aversive pathways, respectively. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) where dopamine (DA) cells are located is a key component of brain reward circuitry, whereas the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) critically regulates aversive behaviors. Reduced responses to either aversive intrinsic components of addictive drugs or to negative consequences of compulsive drug taking might contribute to vulnerability to addiction. In this regard, female Lister Hooded (LH) rats are more vulnerable than male counterparts to cannabinoid self-administration. We, therefore, took advantage of sex differences displayed by LH rats, and studied VTA DA neuronal properties to unveil functional differences. Electrophysiological properties of DA cells were examined performing either single cell extracellular recordings in anesthetized rats or whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in slices. In vivo, DA cell spontaneous activity was similar, though sex differences were observed in RMTg-induced inhibition of DA neurons. In vitro, DA cells showed similar intrinsic and synaptic properties. However, females displayed larger depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) than male LH rats. DSI, an endocannabinoid-mediated form of short term plasticity, was mediated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) activating type 1-cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. We found that sex-dependent differences in DSI magnitude were not ascribed to CB1 number and/or function, but rather to a tonic 2-AG signaling. We suggest that sex specific tonic 2-AG signaling might contribute to regulate responses to aversive intrinsic properties to cannabinoids, thus resulting in faster acquisition/initiation of cannabinoid taking and, eventually, in progression to

  18. [Analysis and identification of illegal constituents in health food products implicitly advertizing tonic or slimming effect in the National Institute of Health Sciences in Japan].

    PubMed

    Goda, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    With the prefectural governments' aid of the purchase, the Division of Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Narcotics, National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) successively has surveyed illegal constituents in health food products implicitly advertizing tonic or slimming effect since the fiscal year of 2002 (slimming type) or 2003 (tonic type). The average numbers of the analyzed products per year are about 100 (slimming type) and 150 (tonic type), respectively. We also continuously distribute standards of authentic samples of several illegal components such as N-nitrosofenfluramine (NFF) and sildenafil (SIL) to prefectural institutes and the average gross number per year is about 140. In the case of slimming type, the fact that the products containing NFF were widely sold in Japanese markets in 2002 is well known. In addition, phenolphthalein, fenfluramine, sibtramine, desdimethylsibtramine, orlistat, mazindol, Rhubarb, Senna Leaf, etc. have been found as illegal constituents. In the tonic type products, we have identified more than 20 synthetic compounds relating to the erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment drugs, SIL, vardenafil and tadalafil (TDF). Since 2005, their synthetic intermediates and the patented but non-approved PDE5 inhibitors also have been found. It should be noted that TDF was found in the shells of capsule in 2009 and that mutaprodenafil was found as pro-drug type illegal component in 2010. In this report identification method of these illegal constituents is briefly described and then analytical trend in this decade is reviewed.

  19. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-02

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply

  20. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22654403

  1. Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) as a herbal healer.

    PubMed

    Amiri Tehranizadeh, Zeinab; Baratian, Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Elaeagnus spp. is one in the family of riparian trees growing near the rivers or water corridors. In this family, Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is famous because of its medical applications. Methods: A comprehensive review was performed to extract the related data from published literature. Results: Traditionally, it has been used as an analgesic, antipyretic and diuretic herbal medicine. A large number of compounds have been derived from Russian olive and made this plant a source of flavonoids, alkaloids, minerals and vitamins. Although the purpose of most studies is to use this plant for preparation of herbal medicines and as an ingredient for drug formulation, there is no available drug dosage form commercially. Conclusion: This review aimed to provide the most important documentary information on the active components of Elaeagnus spp. and their relation to the pharmacological properties and compare them with reported medicinal effects.

  2. Lead toxicity as a result of herbal medication.

    PubMed

    Ravi Raja, A; Vishal Babu, G N; Menezes, Geraldine; Venkatesh, T

    2008-04-01

    Awareness about the toxic effects of non-essential metals is still lacking in developing countries. Lead is one among them, which ranks second in the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry' s top 20 lists of toxic metals. Some of the herbal medicines prepared from certain roots and leaves are known to contain this toxic metal at alarming levels. We have a case of a person who suffered from the toxic effects of lead such as vomiting and colicky abdominal pain after consuming a herbal remedy for Jaundice treatment. This went unrecognized initially because of the presence of multiple problems like Malaria and Renal calculi. Lead poisoning as causative factor for anemia, vomiting and colic were confirmed only when blood lead concentration was estimated. A combination of chelation therapy and nutritional supplementation was found to be useful in reducing the body lead burden.

  3. Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) as a herbal healer

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Tehranizadeh, Zeinab; Baratian, Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Elaeagnus spp. is one in the family of riparian trees growing near the rivers or water corridors. In this family, Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is famous because of its medical applications. Methods: A comprehensive review was performed to extract the related data from published literature. Results: Traditionally, it has been used as an analgesic, antipyretic and diuretic herbal medicine. A large number of compounds have been derived from Russian olive and made this plant a source of flavonoids, alkaloids, minerals and vitamins. Although the purpose of most studies is to use this plant for preparation of herbal medicines and as an ingredient for drug formulation, there is no available drug dosage form commercially. Conclusion: This review aimed to provide the most important documentary information on the active components of Elaeagnus spp. and their relation to the pharmacological properties and compare them with reported medicinal effects. PMID:27853679

  4. Phytomedicine in Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology: Clinical Trials with Herbal Remedies

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Koosha Ghazi; Inançlı, Hasan Mete; Bazazy, Nazanin; Plinkert, Peter K.; Efferth, Thomas; Sertel, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    Phytomedicine has become an important alternative treatment option for patients in the Western world, as they seek to be treated in a holistic and natural way after an unsatisfactory response to conventional drugs. Ever since herbal remedies have been introduced in the Western world, clinicians have raised concerns over their efficacy and possible side-effects. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed covering the last five years (01/07–04/12) and including 55 prospective clinical randomized control trials in the medical specialities Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology. In this review, we present evidence-based clinical data with herbal remedies and try to enlighten the question of efficacy and reliability of phytomedicine. PMID:24280678

  5. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern Cuba.

    PubMed

    Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele

    2004-02-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed.

  6. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Thomas W. A.; Borisenko, Alex V.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Background DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. Methods We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components. Results All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven–by NGS). NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components. Conclusion Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product

  7. [The medicines of herbal and animal origin in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Skaltsa, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The present study concerns an effort to present historic data on the evolution of the medicines used by the ancient Greeks from the prehippocratic period until the greco-roman times. In addition, information is given for the influence of this accumulated knowledge based on the greek traditional herbal medicines in the first editions of the Hellenic Pharmacopoeia (19th century) through the byzantin manuscripts.

  8. Case Report: Potential Arsenic Toxicosis Secondary to Herbal Kelp Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Amster, Eric; Tiwary, Asheesh; Schenker, Marc B.

    2007-01-01

    Context Medicinal use of dietary herbal supplements can cause inadvertent arsenic toxicosis. Case Presentation A 54-year-old woman was referred to the University of California, Davis, Occupational Medicine Clinic with a 2-year history of worsening alopecia and memory loss. She also reported having a rash, increasing fatigue, nausea, and vomiting, disabling her to the point where she could no longer work full-time. A thorough exposure history revealed that she took daily kelp supplements. A urine sample showed an arsenic level of 83.6 μg/g creatinine (normal < 50 μg/g creatinine). A sample from her kelp supplements contained 8.5 mg/kg (ppm) arsenic. Within weeks of discontinuing the supplements, her symptoms resolved and arsenic blood and urine levels were undetectable. Discussion To evaluate the extent of arsenic contamination in commercially available kelp, we analyzed nine samples randomly obtained from local health food stores. Eight of the nine samples showed detectable levels of arsenic higher than the Food and Drug Administration tolerance level of 0.5 to 2 ppm for certain food products. None of the supplements contained information regarding the possibility of contamination with arsenic or other heavy metals. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) has changed the way dietary herbal therapies are marketed and regulated in the United States. Less regulation of dietary herbal therapies will make inadvertent toxicities a more frequent occurrence. Relevance to Clinical Practice Clinicians should be aware of the potential for heavy metal toxicity due to chronic use of dietary herbal supplements. Inquiring about use of dietary supplements is an important element of the medical history. PMID:17450231

  9. Acute Demyelinating Disease after Oral Therapy with Herbal Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kostianovsky, Alex; Maskin, Patricio; Noriega, María M.; Soler, Cristina; Bonelli, Ignacio; Riley, Claire S.; O'Connor, Kevin C.; Saubidet, Cristi´n López; Alvarez, Paulino A.

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system demyelinating processes such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis constitute a group of diseases not completely understood in their physiopathology. Environmental and toxic insults are thought to play a role in priming autoimmunity. The aim of the present report is to describe a case of acute demyelinating disease with fatal outcome occurring 15 days after oral exposure to herbal extracts. PMID:21738505

  10. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines in Africa: Questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Souad; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2015-08-02

    In order to describe and evaluate Herbal Medicine (HM) pharmacovigilance in African countries who are members of the WHO International Programme for Drug Monitoring a survey questionnaire was sent to the national centres and national drug regulatory agencies of these countries. Data collection was carried out from October 1st to 31st December, 2014. Among the total of 39 African countries, 34 (87.2%) answered the questionnaire and 25 (64.1%) accepted to share their data in this publication. Spontaneous adverse reaction reporting for HM is voluntary in 7 (43.7%) countries. HM pharmacovigilance programmes covered suspected adverse HM reactions in 14 (87.5%) countries; HM information in 7 (43.7%) countries; HM dependence or abuse in 6 (37.5%) countries; medication errors in 5 (31.2%) countries; falsification and adulteration in 2 (each 12.5%) countries and HM-drug interactions in 1 (6.3%) country. Groups in countries encouraged to submit herbal reports were pharmacists and physicians (both n=15); nurses (n=13); herbal therapists (n=12); patients (n=11) and local manufacturers (n=8). The number of herbal reports received by most countries was very low or even insignificant. VigiFlow is used by 10 countries. Information from pharmacovigilance activities is disseminated using many means. Only five countries have regulatory status and quality control of their HM products. The participants identified a need for HM regulation, technical and training assistance, and funding as being major challenges to HM pharmacovigilance in countries. Particular attention to the development of pharmacovigilance of HM is required in Africa.

  11. Providers of herbal products in the largest US-Mexico border community.

    PubMed

    González-Stuart, Armando; Rivera, José O; Rodriguez, José C; Hughes, Harold

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed providers of herbal products in El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, México, to find out which herbal products they used, the content and place of origin of the products, and the illnesses for which the products were recommended. Providers were selected randomly from Ciudad Juárez and El Paso. Most of the herbal products sold in El Paso (98%) are from the United States, whereas most sold in Ciudad Juárez (89.6%) are from México. People in El Paso tend to consume herbal or natural supplements for weight loss or muscle enhancement; those in Ciudad Juárez use herbal products (mostly crude plants) to treat specific illnesses. Ciudad Juárez and El Paso are bordering cities; however, the herbal products consumed by their respective populations are distinct, both in content and method of use.

  12. [Application of traditional Chinese medicine reference standards in quality control of Chinese herbal pieces].

    PubMed

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.

  13. Interactions between Transporters and Herbal Medicines/Drugs: A Focus on Hepatoprotective Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijie; Li, Quansheng; He, Xin; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines and drugs are available in the clinic as potent hepatoprotective agents for the treatment of commonly occurring liver diseases. Recently, herbal medicines such as silymarin and curcumin have gained more attention and popularity for the treatment of various liver diseases because of their safety and efficacy profiles. Some of them are related to transporters for drug disposition processes, therapeutic efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions. Currently, herbal medicines and diet supplements made from natural products are widely used in patients who are being treated with conventional prescription medicines, which are related to an increasing risk of herbal-drug interactions (HDIs) and/or drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The purpose of present review is to summarize the contemporary knowledge of transporter-mediated HDIs or DDIs for herbal medicines/drugs focusing on hepatoprotective compounds. Several herbal medicines/drugs are discussed in detail in this review.

  14. Classification of herbal mixtures on the basis of some metals content using pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Suchacz, Bogdan; Wesolowski, Marek

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the content of trace elements in relation to the composition of domestic herbal mixtures. Cluster analysis, principal components analysis, and self-organizing maps were applied to identify existing relationships. The concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn in 81 samples of herbal mixtures were determined with application of FAAS. The study showed that the levels of trace elements in some herbal mixtures of the same composition were comparable. The projection of herbal samples onto topological maps of adjustable sizes allowed recognition of the identical herbal preparations characterized by dissimilar levels of trace elements. The elements which played the most important role in recognition of the herbal samples were Mn, Ni, Zn and partly Cu, Fe and Cd.

  15. Herbal medicine use in adults who experience anxiety: A qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Moran, Carmen C

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners.

  16. Authentication of Ginkgo biloba herbal dietary supplements using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P

    2014-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (known as ginkgo or maidenhair tree) is a phylogenetically isolated, charismatic, gymnosperm tree. Herbal dietary supplements, prepared from G. biloba leaves, are consumed to boost cognitive capacity via improved blood perfusion and mitochondrial function. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay was designed and validated for the authentication of G. biloba in herbal dietary supplements (n = 22; sensitivity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00; specificity = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.64-1.00). This assay was further used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled ginkgo herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America: DNA amenable to PCR could not be extracted from three (7.5%) of the 40 supplements sampled, 31 of 37 (83.8%) assayable supplements contained identifiable G. biloba DNA, and six supplements (16.2%) contained fillers without any detectable G. biloba DNA. It is hoped that this assay will be used by supplement manufacturers to ensure that their supplements contain G. biloba.

  17. Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ameh, Sunday J.; Tarfa, Florence D.; Ebeshi, Benjamin U.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort. PMID:23198140

  18. Traditional herbal management of sickle cell anemia: lessons from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Sunday J; Tarfa, Florence D; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort.

  19. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3.

  20. Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Saito, Keita; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes our research for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity obtained from a large scale screening based on superoxide radical (O(2) (•-)) scavenging activity followed by characterization of antioxidant properties. Firstly, scavenging activity against O(2) (•-) was extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method, and we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to scavenge O(2) (•-). They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit). These extracts were further examined to determine if they also scavenge hydroxyl radical ((•)OH), by applying the ESR spin-trapping method, and if they have heat resistance as a desirable characteristic feature. Experiments with the Fenton reaction and photolysis of H(2)O(2) induced by UV irradiation demonstrated that all four extracts have potent ability to directly scavenge (•)OH. Furthermore, the scavenging activities against O(2) (•-) and (•)OH of the extracts of P. granatum (peel), M. indica (kernel) and P. emblica (fruit) proved to be heat-resistant.The results of the review might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff. For instance, the four herbal extracts chosen from extensive screening possess desirable antioxidant properties. In particular, the extracts of the aforementioned three herbs are expected to be suitable for food processing in which thermal devices are used, because of their heat resistance.

  1. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in herbal products.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joseph C; Jiang, Xiuping

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in various herbal products. Twenty-nine herbal supplements (18 traditional and 11 organic products) were purchased from stores and analyzed microbiologically. Total bacterial counts were determined by pour plate and surface spreading on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were enumerated on TSA supplemented with ceftriaxone (64 microg/ml) or tetracycline (16 microg/ml). Total bacterial counts ranged from <5 to 2.9 x 10(5) CFU/g. Ceftriaxone- and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were detected in ground garlic samples at 1.1 x 10(2) CFU/g and 3.0 x 102 CFU/g, respectively. Traditional and organic onion powder samples contained tetracycline-resistant bacteria at 17 and 28 CFU/g and ceftriaxone-resistant bacteria at 35 and 2.0 x 10(3) CFU/g, respectively. Other products such as ginger, rosemary, mustard, and goldenseal contained low levels of resistant bacteria. Fifty-two isolates were further evaluated against nine antibiotics, and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was in the following order: ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, ceftriaxone, and streptomycin. Resistant bacteria were identified as Bacillus spp., Erwinia spp., and Ewingella americana. Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter cloacae, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia also were isolated. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and pathogens in these herbal products suggests that production and use of these products may need further evaluation.

  2. Herbal panacea: The need for today in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Mukut; Rishi, Rahul; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Talukdar, Pratim; Maniyar, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Among ancient civilizations, India has been known to be a rich repository of medicinal plants. Herbal extracts have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. Some plants contain phytochemicals that have effects on the body. The use of phytotherapy is staging a comeback and an era of herbal renaissance is being revolutionized all over the globe. Herbs are a class of plants that are devoid of the woody tissue characteristic of shrubs or trees and have been known for their aromatic, flavoring, and medicinal values over the past centuries. Since the birth of contemporary practices, many have turned away from herbal therapies in favor of synthetic drugs. But these synthetic medicines can alter microbiota and have several side effects. However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the naturals with the hope of safety and security. Hence, the search for alternative natural products continue. This review includes a few herbs, which can be used in dentistry as alternatives to allopathic medicines. PMID:27114947

  3. A Comprehensive Review on Pharmacotherapeutics of Herbal Bioenhancers

    PubMed Central

    Dudhatra, Ghanshyam B.; Mody, Shailesh K.; Awale, Madhavi M.; Patel, Hitesh B.; Modi, Chirag M.; Kumar, Avinash; Kamani, Divyesh R.; Chauhan, Bhavesh N.

    2012-01-01

    In India, Ayurveda has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with new means of identifying active compounds. Recent advancement in bioavailability enhancement of drugs by compounds of herbal origin has produced a revolutionary shift in the way of therapeutics. Thus, bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer-reviewed papers, consulting worldwide-accepted scientific databases from last 30 years. Herbal bioenhancers have been shown to enhance bioavailability and bioefficacy of different classes of drugs, such as antibiotics, antituberculosis, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancerous drugs at low doses. They have also improved oral absorption of nutraceuticals like vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and certain herbal compounds. Their mechanism of action is mainly through absorption process, drug metabolism, and action on drug target. This paper clearly indicates that scientific researchers and pharmaceutical industries have to give emphasis on experimental studies to find out novel active principles from such a vast array of unexploited plants having a role as a bioavailability and bioefficacy enhancer. Also, the mechanisms of action by which bioenhancer compounds exert bioenhancing effects remain to be explored. PMID:23028251

  4. Antidiarrheal efficacy and cellular mechanisms of a Thai herbal remedy.

    PubMed

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S

    2014-02-01

    Screening of herbal remedies for Cl(-) channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl(-) channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ∼50% inhibition at a 1 ∶ 50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca(2+) agonist-induced Cl(-) conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ∼ 50% inhibition at a 1 ∶ 5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl(-) inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl(-) channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries.

  5. Antidiarrheal Efficacy and Cellular Mechanisms of a Thai Herbal Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    Screening of herbal remedies for Cl− channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl− channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ∼50% inhibition at a 1∶50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca2+ agonist-induced Cl− conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ∼50% inhibition at a 1∶5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl− inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl− channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

  6. Anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic Chinese herbal medicines: A mechanistic overview

    PubMed Central

    Boye, Alex; Yang, Yan; Asenso, James; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is an integral component of complementary/alternative medicine and it is increasingly becoming the preferred therapeutic modality for the treatment of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has attested to the popularity and efficacy of indigenous herbal therapies including CHM as a first line of treatment for some diseases including liver disorders. However, the WHO and drug discovery experts have always recommended that use of indigenous herbal remedies must go hand-in-hand with the requisite mechanistic elucidation so as to constitute a system of verification of efficacy within the ethnobotanical context of use. Although many CHM experts have advanced knowledge on CHM, nonetheless, more enlightenment is needed, particularly mechanisms of action of CHMs on fibro-hepato-carcinogenesis. We, herein, provide in-depth mechanisms of the action of CHMs which have demonstrated anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic effects, in pre-clinical and clinical studies as published in PubMed and other major scientific databases. Specifically, the review brings out the important signaling pathways, and their downstream targets which are modulated at multi-level by various anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic CHMs. PMID:27366355

  7. Adverse drug reactions to herbal and synthetic expectorants.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Sieder, C; März, R

    1995-01-01

    Our knowledge relating to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of phytomedicines is highly fragmentary. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of ADRs following medication with herbal or synthetic expectorants. In a multicentre, comparative post-marketing surveillance study of more than 3000 patients with acute bronchitis, about half were treated with a herbal remedy (SinupretR) and the other half with various other expectorants. In ascending order of incidence, ADRs were noted during mono-medication of SinupretR (0.8%), Ambroxol (1.0%) and acetylcysteine (4.3%). When concomitant drugs were used, this rank order was unchanged but incidence rates were markedly increased (3.4, 6.5 and 8.2%, respectively). The most frequent ADRs were gastrointestinal symptoms. It is concluded that expectorants are associated with ADRs in roughly 1-5% of cases undergoing single drug treatment and in 3-10% when more than one medication is being used. Amongst the expectorants used in this study, the herbal preparation SinupretR is associated with the lowest incidence of ADRs.

  8. Herbal teas and populace health care in tropical China.

    PubMed

    Hu, S Y

    1997-01-01

    Commercial Chinese herbal tea is the development of the populace in tropical and subtropical China consequential to their fight against infectious diseases and their struggle to explore local plants to relieve fever, to alleviate pain, to restore strength and to modulate immunity against viral epidemics. From these ethnomedical experiences, two types of herbal teas were commercialized, namely, liangcha and medicated teas. Liangcha refers to a ready-made decoction infused from wild plants served in simple stores in cities and towns. Medicated teas are parcelled material prepared from crude drugs with or without tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Ktze,), sold in colorful boxes and bags to people for use at home. Investigations of liangcha were made in Hong Kong and Macao, and studies for medicated teas were done from samples obtained in Chinese stores at Boston. A total of 127 source species of these herbal teas were identified and arranged in two alphabetical lists by the botanical names, each followed by an English common name in parenthesis, part used, frequency in samples, and family. External recognizing characters of medicated teas, discussions of problems encountered in identifying source species, relevant toxicities, and potential new vegetal pharmaceutical resources are given.

  9. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  10. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  11. Chinese Herbal Therapy for Chronic Tension-Type Headache

    PubMed Central

    Tong, YanQing; Yu, LiXiang; Sun, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of Chinese herbal therapy on chronic tension-type headache. Method. 132 patients with chronic tension-type headache were enrolled in the study. All patients filled in headache questionnaire at baseline phase and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after baseline. As an alternative therapeutic method, the patients were orally administrated Chinese herbal concoction for ten days. Therapeutic effects were evaluated during 12 weeks of followup. Result. In the primary outcome analysis, mean headache scores were significantly lower in the group. Scores fell by 25%–40% during 12 weeks of followup. Patients fared significantly well for most secondary outcome measures. From baseline to 4–12 weeks of followup, the number of days with headache decreased by 6.8–9.5 days. Duration of each attack also significantly (P < 0.05) shortened from 5.3 hours at 4 weeks to 4.9 hours after 8 weeks of followup. Days with medication per four weeks at followup were lower than those at the baseline. The differences were significant (P < 0.05, 0.01) for all end points. Days with medication fell by 56.6% at 12 weeks. Conclusion. The study has provided evidence that Chinese herbal therapy can be clinically useful for the treatment of chronic tension-type headache. PMID:26175793

  12. Exposure to trauma-relevant pictures is associated with tachycardia in victims who had experienced an intense peritraumatic defensive response: the tonic immobility

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rita de Cassia S.; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Fernandes Jr, Orlando; Mocaiber, Izabela; Souza, Gabriela G. L.; David, Isabel de Paula A.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2014-01-01

    Tonic immobility is an involuntary, last-ditch defensive reaction characterized by physical inactivity in a context of inescapable threat that has been described in many species, including humans. The occurrence of this defensive response is a predictor of the severity of psychiatric disorders and may be considered as an index of an intense reaction to a traumatic event. Here, we investigated whether the retrospective reports of peritraumatic tonic immobility reaction in participants exposed to a traumatic event would modify their cardiac responses to pictures related to their trauma. Using a questionnaire of life-threating events, we selected students who experienced violent crime as their most intense trauma and students who had never experienced a violent crime trauma, but experienced other traumatic events. All participants completed a questionnaire that estimated the intensity of tonic immobility during their most intense trauma. Electrocardiographic recordings were collected during exposure to pictures. Participants viewed emotional pictures (human attack with guns) and neutral pictures. These emotional stimuli were selected to be trauma-relevant to the violent crime group and non trauma-relevant to the no violent crime trauma group. Violent crime group showed a positive correlation between heart rate changes after viewing trauma-related pictures and tonic immobility scores. We observed that low tonic immobility scores were associated with bradycardia and high scores with tachycardia in response to trauma-relevant pictures. For the no violent crime group, no significant correlation was detected. These results suggest that the relevance of the stimuli and the magnitude of the defensive response during a previous trauma event were important factors triggering more intense defensive responses. PMID:25566169

  13. Spice: A New Legal Herbal Mixture Abused by Young Active Duty Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Spice: A New “Legal” Herbal Mixture Abused by Young Active Duty Military Personnel Vikhyat S. Bebarta, MD Sasha Ramirez, DO Shawn M. Varney, MD...ABSTRACT. Spice is an herbal mixture smoked for euphoria and mixed with synthetic cannabinoids that are undetected on urine drug screens. Spice use has...drug paraphernalia. Spice is a new herbal mixture that is increasingly used in the military. Expected effects are similar to cannabis, but may include

  14. Evaluating the Bone Tissue Regeneration Capability of the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang from a Molecular Biology Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Kao, Shung-Te; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Large bone defects are a considerable challenge to reconstructive surgeons. Numerous traditional Chinese herbal medicines have been used to repair and regenerate bone tissue. This study investigated the bone regeneration potential of Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction prepared from Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), from a molecular biology perspective. The optimal ratio of RA and RAS used in DBT for osteoblast culture was obtained by colorimetric and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays. Moreover, the optimal concentration of DBT for bone cell culture was also determined by colorimetric, ALP activity, nodule formation, Western blotting, wound-healing, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays. Consequently, the most appropriate weight ratio of RA to RAS for the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts was 5 : 1. Moreover, the most effective concentration of DBT was 1,000 μg/mL, which significantly increased the number of osteoblasts, intracellular ALP levels, and nodule numbers, while inhibiting osteoclast activity. Additionally, 1,000 μg/mL of DBT was able to stimulate p-ERK and p-JNK signal pathway. Therefore, DBT is highly promising for use in accelerating fracture healing in the middle or late healing periods. PMID:25295277

  15. The Effect of Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Herbal Remedy PADMA 28 on Immunological Angiogenesis and Granulocytes Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M.; Skopiński, Piotr; Zdanowski, Robert; Lewicki, Sławomir; Kocik, Janusz; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Stankiewicz, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    PADMA 28 is a herbal multicompound remedy that originates from traditional Tibetan medicine and possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, angioprotecting, and wound healing properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of this remedy on immunological angiogenesis and granulocytes metabolic activity in Balb/c mice. Mice were fed daily, for seven days, with 5.8 mg of PADMA (calculated from recommended human daily dose) or 0.085 mg (dose in the range of active doses of other herbal extracts studied by us previously). Results. Highly significant increase of newly formed blood vessels number in ex vivo cutaneous lymphocyte-induced angiogenesis test (LIA) after grafting of Balb/c splenocytes from both dosage groups to F1 hybrids (Balb/c × C3H); increase of blood lymphocytes and granulocytes number only in mice fed with lower dose of remedy; and significant suppression of metabolic activity (chemiluminescence test) of blood granulocytes in mice fed with higher dose of PADMA. Conclusion. PADMA 28 behaves as a good stimulator of physiological angiogenesis, but for this purpose it should be used in substantially lower doses than recommended by producers for avoiding the deterioration of granulocyte function. PMID:23864768

  16. Do Herbal Formulas Influence the International Normalized Ratio of Patients Taking Warfarin? A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsu-Yuan; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Park, Seong-Uk; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Warfarin is a common anticoagulant agent for cardiovascular diseases, and it is known to interact with several foods and drugs. Several studies report an interaction between warfarin and herbal medicines; however, the influence of herbal medicines on the international normalized ratio (INR) is still controversial. We investigated the influence of herbal formulas on INR of patients taking warfarin. We searched electronic medical records of inpatients for INR results. Then, we compared the changes in INR and any adverse events between the group taking herbal formulas and warfarin (herbal group) and another group taking warfarin only (nonherbal group). Eighty-six patients were included; 45 patients were assigned to the herbal group and 41 patients to the nonherbal group. The herbal group had taken the same dose of warfarin for a longer period. The nonherbal group had a slightly higher mean INR value than the herbal group. The ratio of INR less than 2 and greater than 3, the ratio of INR that increased or decreased by one or more compared to the initial INR, and the ratio of adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups. It is suggested that use of herbal formulas may not influence INR value. PMID:25861354

  17. Assessment of Pharmacists Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Herbal Drug Information Services

    PubMed Central

    Atavwoda, Abere Tavs; Gabriel, Aina Ayodele

    2012-01-01

    Rational: Research suggests that increased consumption of herbal drugs is raising important public health concerns such as safety issues that may involve adverse effects and herb-drug interactions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of Pharmacists in herbal drug information dissemination. Method: We investigated the demographics, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding herbal drug information and regulatory laws among Pharmacists living in the six (6) States that constitute the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. A total of 300 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to Pharmacists aged 21 years and above. Findings: About half of the respondents (48.72 %) were Hospital based Pharmacists. Knowledge of herbal drugs was 46.33 % while 64 .0 % showed positive attitude towards its use. Most of the information on herbal drugs were sourced from the internet (23.08 %) while 53.48 % were aware of the laws and regulations controlling herbal drugs in Nigeria. 88.64 % were in favour of the establishment of a National Herbal Drug Research and Development Agency and 55.68 % strongly agreeing to the setting up of a Herbal Drug Information Centre. Conclusion: The availability of herbal drug information services will not only enhance the performance of the Pharmacists, but will also add value to the life of the patients. PMID:24826042

  18. Herbal Medicine in Mexico: A Cause of Hepatotoxicity. A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia-Correa, Bárbara; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, herbal products are commonly used as therapeutic tools. The analysis of several publications reveals that there are dozens of different herbs and herbal products used for different reasons, some of which have been implicated in causing toxic liver disease. However, methodological aspects limit the attribution of causality, and the precise incidence and clinical manifestations of herb-induced liver injury have not been well characterized. This review outlines the history of traditional herbal medicine in Mexico, critically summarizes the mechanisms and adverse effects of commonly used herbal plants, and examines the regulatory issues regarding the legal use of these products. PMID:26891292

  19. Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Germany is a country with a high use of herbal medicinal products. Population-based data on the use of herbal medicinal products among children are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, patterns and determinants of herbal medicine use among children and adolescents in Germany. Methods As data base served the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a representative population based survey conducted 2003–2006 by the Robert Koch Institute. 17,450 boys and girls aged 0–17 years provided information on drug use in the preceding seven days. Herbal medicinal products were defined according to the European and German drug laws. SPSS Complex Sample method was used to estimate prevalence rates and factors associated with herbal medicine use. Results The prevalence rate of herbal medicinal product use amounts to 5.8% (95% confidence interval 5.3-6.3%). Use of herbal medicine declines along with increasing age and shows no difference between boys and girls in younger age groups. Teenage girls are more likely to use herbal medicines than teenage boys. Two thirds of herbal medicines are used for the treatment of coughs and colds; nearly half of herbal medicines are prescribed by medical doctors. Determinants of herbal medicinal product use are younger age, residing in South Germany, having a poor health status, having no immigration background and coming from a higher social class family. Children’s and parents-related health behavior is not found to be associated with herbal medicine use after adjusting for social class. Conclusions Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 17 years in Germany is widely spread and shows relatively higher rates compared to international data. This study provides a reference on the use of herbal medicinal products for policy-makers, health professionals and parents. Further studies are needed to investigate the

  20. Herbal remedies of street vendors for some urino-genital diseases.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R K

    1992-01-01

    The herbal vendors are the mobile tribal medicinement seen on the busy streets of many Indian cities selling crude medicinal plants and their products. They prescribe herbal treatment for several diseases, a skill they inherited from their forefathers through several generations of experience. They claim to have specific herbal remedies for the complete cure of some urino - genital disorders such as dysuria, hematuria, s