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Sample records for heritage language fluency

  1. Heritage Language Fluency, Ethnic Identity, and School Effort of Immigrant Chinese and Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K.

    2008-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures which assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second generation Mexican adolescents. PMID:19209978

  2. Heritage language fluency, ethnic identity, and school effort of immigrant Chinese and Mexico adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures that assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second-generation Mexican adolescents.

  3. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  4. Verbal Fluency: Language or Executive Function Measure?

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Douglas M; Kealey, Tammy; Semla, Matthew; Luu, Hien; Rice, Linda; Basso, Michael R; Roper, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Measures of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency, such as FAS and Animal Fluency (Benton, Hamsher, & Sivan, 1989), are often thought to be measures of executive functioning (EF). However, some studies (Henry & Crawford, 2004a , 2004b , 2004c ) have noted there is also a language component to these tasks. The current exploratory factor-analytic study examined the underlying cognitive structure of verbal fluency. Participants were administered language and EF measures, including the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (FAS version), Animal Fluency, Boston Naming Test (BNT), Vocabulary (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III), Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST, perseverative responses), and Trail-Making Test-Part B (TMT-B). A 2-factor solution was found with the 1st factor, language, having significant loadings for BNT and Vocabulary, while the second factor was labeled EF because of significant loading from the WCST and TMT-B. Surprisingly, FAS and Animal Fluency loaded exclusively on to the language factor and not EF. The current results do not exclude EF as a determinant of verbal fluency, but they do suggest that language processing is the critical component for this task, even without significant aphasic symptoms. Thus, the results indicated that both letter (phonemic) and category (semantic) fluency are related to language, but the relationship to EF is not supported by the results.

  5. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    PubMed Central

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  6. Heritage language and linguistic theory.

    PubMed

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence.

  7. Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatie, Bruce

    1977-01-01

    An examination of the ethnic heritage and language schools in the Cleveland area and suggestions of some implications of this phenomenon for the language teaching profession. It is suggested that such ethnic language schools are a valuable resource and should be a responsibility of the profession. (AMH)

  8. Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean…

  9. Orientations to Learning German: The Effects of Language Heritage on Second-Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noels, Kimberly A.; Clement, Richard

    1989-01-01

    A study of college students' motivation for learning, and other social-psychological aspects of second language learning, found students learn German for instrumental, friendship, travel, identification/influence, and knowledge reasons. Fluency was related to motivation, and students of German heritage had higher self-confidence in the German…

  10. The Evaluation of Second Language Fluency and Foreign Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chen-Huei

    2011-01-01

    What is second language fluency? What is a foreign accent? Is it possible for an adult second language learner to speak fluently with a heavy accent or vice versa? What factors contribute to the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? What acoustic attributes correlate with the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? To answer these…

  11. The Evaluation of Second Language Fluency and Foreign Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chen-Huei

    2011-01-01

    What is second language fluency? What is a foreign accent? Is it possible for an adult second language learner to speak fluently with a heavy accent or vice versa? What factors contribute to the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? What acoustic attributes correlate with the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? To answer these…

  12. Interictal language fluency in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Howell, R A; Saling, M M; Bradley, D C; Berkovic, S F

    1994-09-01

    Mild language production difficulties, particularly in confrontation naming, have been documented previously in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE). These difficulties, however, do not seem to be reflected in the conversational speech of these patients. In order to compare speech fluency in patients with left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) experimentally, we studied global pause-to-speech ratios in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy, using cases with primary generalized epilepsy (PGE) as controls. We hypothesized that left-sides cases would exhibit longer pause durations than right-sided cases. Speech samples were elicited by asking subjects to describe five different New Yorker cartoons, with three repetitions of each description. Phonation was converted to graphic output, and pauses between 200 ms and 4000 ms were summated and divided by total phonation time. This measure did not discriminate significantly between the groups, although the LTLE group tended to pause longer than the RTLE or PGE groups. Increased variability in pause duration in the LTLE group during cycle 1 suggested that some individuals with LTLE are vulnerable to disruption when planning demands are high. A post hoc correlational analysis showed that variation in fluency was primarily explained by orthographically-based lexical retrieval, suggesting that individual differences in fluency are related to limitations in a high-level capacity relevant to the production of speech. It is unlikely that such limitations are specific to LTLE.

  13. Sea Language Our Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Wm. Ray

    1982-01-01

    Reviews several references focusing on words and phrases in the American language which have nautical origins (sailing, whaling, navigation, ship-building and others) and have since lost their nautical connections. Also includes examples from the references such as "slush fund", "posh", and "windfall." (JN)

  14. Sea Language Our Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Wm. Ray

    1982-01-01

    Reviews several references focusing on words and phrases in the American language which have nautical origins (sailing, whaling, navigation, ship-building and others) and have since lost their nautical connections. Also includes examples from the references such as "slush fund", "posh", and "windfall." (JN)

  15. Perceptions of French Fluency in Second Language Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature in second language (L2) perceived fluency has focused on English as a second language, with a primary reliance on impressions from native-speaker judges, leaving learners' self-perceptions of speech production unexplored. This study investigates the relationship between learners' and judges' perceptions of French fluency under…

  16. Semantic verbal fluency in two contrasting languages

    PubMed Central

    PEKKALA, SEIJA; GORAL, MIRA; HYUN, JUNGMOON; OBLER, LORAINE K.; ERKINJUNTTI, TIMO; ALBERT, MARTIN L.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF performance in two semantic categories (animals and clothes), in the proportions of words produced within the first half (30 seconds) of the SVF tasks, and in the variety of words produced for the categories. These similarities emerged despite the difference in the mean length of words produced in the two languages (with Finnish words being significantly longer than English words). The few differences found between the groups concerned the types and frequencies of the 10 most common words generated for the categories. It was concluded that culture and language differences do not contribute significantly to variability in SVF performance in healthy elderly people. PMID:19440894

  17. Investigating Syntactic and Lexical Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency in the Writing of Heritage Speakers of Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dengub, Evgeny

    2012-01-01

    Heritage speakers (HSs) of Russian in the United States form a very complex and diverse group of learners. Research in heritage linguistics has examined key parameters of the HSs' oral production. Important work has been done in heritage language (HL) pragmatics, morphology, and lexicon. However, very few studies have been conducted to…

  18. Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Allocation of Time to Writing Processes in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulski, Ariana; Elola, Idoia

    2011-01-01

    This study brings together previous research on writing processes and Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners to obtain a clearer picture of these learners' writing behaviors in English and Spanish. Following a cognitive-oriented framework, the study explores planning time, execution time, monitoring time, accuracy, and fluency. Twelve SHL…

  19. Similar and/or Different Writing Processes? A Study of Spanish Foreign Language and Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elola, Idoia; Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2016-01-01

    Following a cognitively-oriented framework, this study builds upon the authors' previous work (Elola and Mikulski 2013; Mikulski and Elola 2011), which analyzed writing processes (planning time, execution time, revision time), fluency, and accuracy of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners when composing in English and in Spanish. By analyzing…

  20. Similar and/or Different Writing Processes? A Study of Spanish Foreign Language and Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elola, Idoia; Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2016-01-01

    Following a cognitively-oriented framework, this study builds upon the authors' previous work (Elola and Mikulski 2013; Mikulski and Elola 2011), which analyzed writing processes (planning time, execution time, revision time), fluency, and accuracy of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners when composing in English and in Spanish. By analyzing…

  1. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  2. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  3. Fluency and Its Teaching. Modern Languages in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Marie-Noelle

    This book addresses what kind of analysis of spoken language is appropriate to the assessment and fostering of fluency at the various stages of a student's development. It is easy to define fluency in general terms, but it is difficult to discern what linguistic and paralinguistic options are involved. This book begins by exploring perceptions of…

  4. Modelling Second Language Performance: Integrating Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency, and Lexis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Complexity, accuracy, and fluency have proved useful measures of second language performance. The present article will re-examine these measures themselves, arguing that fluency needs to be rethought if it is to be measured effectively, and that the three general measures need to be supplemented by measures of lexical use. Building upon this…

  5. Subtractive Bilingualism and the Survival of the Inuit Language: Heritage-versus Second-Language Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Stephen C.; Taylor, Donald M.; Macarthur, Judy

    2000-01-01

    Examines the impact of early heritage-language education and second-language education on heritage-language and second-language development among Inuit, White, and mixed-heritage kindergarten children. Inuit children in second-language classes showed heritage language skills equal to or better than mixed-heritage children and Whites educated in…

  6. Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

  7. Toward Useful Assessment and Evaluation of Heritage Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Young-A.

    2017-01-01

    With a growing population of heritage language speakers in the United States and an increasing enrollment of heritage language learners (HLLs) in language classrooms (Beaudrie & Ducar, 2012; Carreira & Kagan, 2011), heritage language (HL) education has become a special concern within the language acquisition research community. Although…

  8. How Do Utterance Measures Predict Raters' Perceptions of Fluency in French as a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit; Johnson, Daniel Ezra

    2016-01-01

    While the research literature on second language (L2) fluency is replete with descriptions of fluency and its influence with regard to English as an additional language, little is known about what fluency features influence judgments of fluency in L2 French. This study reports the results of an investigation that analyzed the relationship between…

  9. How Do Utterance Measures Predict Raters' Perceptions of Fluency in French as a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit; Johnson, Daniel Ezra

    2016-01-01

    While the research literature on second language (L2) fluency is replete with descriptions of fluency and its influence with regard to English as an additional language, little is known about what fluency features influence judgments of fluency in L2 French. This study reports the results of an investigation that analyzed the relationship between…

  10. Learning Vietnamese as a Heritage Language in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-Ching; Ho, Hsiang-Ju; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Taiwanese Government began a campaign to encourage new immigrants to teach their native languages (heritage languages) to their children. However, these heritage languages are seldom used in cross-national families and the effectiveness of formal heritage language courses in Taiwan has yet to be explored. The present study examines…

  11. Learning Vietnamese as a Heritage Language in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-Ching; Ho, Hsiang-Ju; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Taiwanese Government began a campaign to encourage new immigrants to teach their native languages (heritage languages) to their children. However, these heritage languages are seldom used in cross-national families and the effectiveness of formal heritage language courses in Taiwan has yet to be explored. The present study examines…

  12. Maintaining Heritage Language: Perspectives of Korean Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Clara Lee

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear and explicit expectation for immigrants in the United States to learn the English language as part of their schooling, and there is too often a tacit understanding that immigrants are to lose their heritage language (HL) at the same time. Most second-generation immigrant children remain monolingual in their HL until they enter…

  13. Identity and Activism in Heritage Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Jennifer; Rabin, Lisa; Roman-Mendoza, Esperanza

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with the field of second language acquisition (SLA), where until recently sociocultural concerns were largely unaddressed (Block, 2007), identity has always been at the core of heritage language (HL) education. The present article highlights this often overlooked history and presents action research centering on a Spanish critical…

  14. An Emergentist Perspective on Heritage Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Kwak, Hye-Young; Lee, On-Soon; Lee, Miseon

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the processor has a key role to play in creating and strengthening the mapping between form and meaning that is integral to language use. Adopting an emergentist approach to heritage language acquisition, the current study considers the extent to which the operation of the processor can contribute to an account of what…

  15. Measuring Metasyntactic Ability among Heritage Language Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Daphnee; Fortier, Veronique; Foucambert, Denis

    2013-01-01

    "Metasyntactic Ability" (MSA) refers to the conscious reflection about syntactic aspects of language and the deliberate control of these aspects (Gombert, 1992). It appears from previous studies that heritage-language learners tend to demonstrate lower MSA than their monolingual counterparts (Lesaux & Siegel, 2003). In the present study, we…

  16. Identity and Activism in Heritage Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Jennifer; Rabin, Lisa; Roman-Mendoza, Esperanza

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with the field of second language acquisition (SLA), where until recently sociocultural concerns were largely unaddressed (Block, 2007), identity has always been at the core of heritage language (HL) education. The present article highlights this often overlooked history and presents action research centering on a Spanish critical…

  17. Measuring Metasyntactic Ability among Heritage Language Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Daphnee; Fortier, Veronique; Foucambert, Denis

    2013-01-01

    "Metasyntactic Ability" (MSA) refers to the conscious reflection about syntactic aspects of language and the deliberate control of these aspects (Gombert, 1992). It appears from previous studies that heritage-language learners tend to demonstrate lower MSA than their monolingual counterparts (Lesaux & Siegel, 2003). In the present study, we…

  18. Chinese Language Learning Motivation: A Comparative Study of Heritage and Non-Heritage Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaohong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes and motivation that influence heritage and non-heritage students' learning of Chinese as a second language, examining the similarities and differences among three subgroups: bilingual, heritage motivated, and non-heritage learners. The study uses the socio-educational model by Gardner (1985), the internal…

  19. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Two Contrasting Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekkala, Seija; Goral, Mira; Hyun, JungMoon; Obler, Loraine K.; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Albert, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF…

  20. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Two Contrasting Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekkala, Seija; Goral, Mira; Hyun, JungMoon; Obler, Loraine K.; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Albert, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF…

  1. Race in Conflict with Heritage: "Black" Heritage Language Speaker of Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Kumagai, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    "Heritage language speaker" is a relatively new term to denote minority language speakers who grew up in a household where the language was used or those who have a family, ancestral, or racial connection to the minority language. In research on heritage language speakers, overlap between these 2 definitions is often assumed--that is,…

  2. Race in Conflict with Heritage: "Black" Heritage Language Speaker of Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Kumagai, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    "Heritage language speaker" is a relatively new term to denote minority language speakers who grew up in a household where the language was used or those who have a family, ancestral, or racial connection to the minority language. In research on heritage language speakers, overlap between these 2 definitions is often assumed--that is,…

  3. Teaching and Learning Chinese: Heritage Language Classroom Discourse in Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores issues of teaching and learning Chinese as a heritage language in a Chinese heritage language school, the Zhonguo Saturday School, in Montreal, Quebec. With a student population of more than 1000, this school is the largest of the eight Chinese Heritage Language schools in Montreal. Students participating in this study were…

  4. Heritage Language Literacy Maintenance: A Study of Korean-American Heritage Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Catherine E.; Pyun, Danielle O.

    2014-01-01

    How heritage learners successfully maintain their heritage language (HL) and literacy is a significant topic of discussion in the field of bilingual education. This study examines what factors are most closely associated with literacy competence by inspecting Korean heritage learners' language and literacy practice patterns and their literacy…

  5. Rethinking Communicative Language Teaching: A Focus on Access to Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Segalowitz, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Although most teachers claim to practise communicative language teaching (CLT), many do not genuinely do so. In this paper, we examine some of the reasons for teachers' resistance to CLT use. We provide a theoretical analysis that focuses on one of the greatest challenges facing CLT methodology-how to promote automatic fluency within this…

  6. Blackfeet Language Coloring Book. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth, Comp.

    A part of the Blackfeet Indian Heritage Project, this coloring book features 21 pages of pictures of animal and plant life, foods, and numbers. Arranged in alphabetical order, the pictures are accompanied with their names printed in both the English and Blackfeet languages. The reverse side of each page is left blank to give the student room to…

  7. Blackfeet Language Coloring Book. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth, Comp.

    A part of the Blackfeet Indian Heritage Project, this coloring book features 21 pages of pictures of animal and plant life, foods, and numbers. Arranged in alphabetical order, the pictures are accompanied with their names printed in both the English and Blackfeet languages. The reverse side of each page is left blank to give the student room to…

  8. Heritage Language Literacy: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Joan F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of intergenerational language shift from a sociolinguistic perspective and proposes a pedagogical model for expanding the stylistic range of heritage learners, targeting the development of writing proficiency. The model proposes that the curriculum should be organized so that students initially draw on their…

  9. Language Fluency and Study Abroad Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savicki, Victor; Arrúe, Carmen; Binder, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Many study abroad programs require language proficiency, emphasize language learning, or otherwise support the development of language skills for their students. A general assumption underlying this attention to foreign language acquisition is that access to the host culture is increased as students are able to converse with host nationals using…

  10. Interaction with Heritage Language Learners in Foreign Language Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacorte, Manel; Canabal, Evelyn

    This paper examines classroom interaction between native and non-native instructors and heritage language (HL) students in regular university foreign language (FL) courses, ranging from beginning to advanced levels. After an overview of FL teaching and HL students in U.S. universities, the paper deals with three areas within classroom interaction:…

  11. Heritage Spanish Speakers' Language Learning Strategies. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Zennia

    This digest describes some of the issues involved in the Spanish language learning experiences of heritage Spanish speakers, the largest population of heritage language speakers in the United States. It describes ways in which educators can facilitate these students' language development through a better understanding of their language learning…

  12. Teaching a Heritage Language to Dialect-Speaking Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danesi, Marcel

    Issues related to school instruction in students' heritage or ancestral language are discussed, particularly in regard to dialect-speaking children or children with some degree of competence in the language. The first chapter considers similarities and differences between second language instruction and heritage language education. The findings on…

  13. A Modular Approach to Spanish for Heritage Language Learners Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llombart-Huesca, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    The current debate in second language acquisition and heritage language learning is no longer about whether communicative language teaching should include a focus on form, but rather "how" and "when" this is most effective. The proposals for Spanish for heritage language learners (HLLs) courses show a marked preference for an integrated approach…

  14. Teaching a Heritage Language to Dialect-Speaking Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danesi, Marcel

    Issues related to school instruction in students' heritage or ancestral language are discussed, particularly in regard to dialect-speaking children or children with some degree of competence in the language. The first chapter considers similarities and differences between second language instruction and heritage language education. The findings on…

  15. Tone language fluency impairs pitch discrimination.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Nguyen, Sébastien; Cummings, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval). They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in the detection of downward pitch changes, they did not differ from non-tone language speakers in their perception of upward pitch changes or in their perception of subtle time changes. Moreover, this impairment cannot be attributed to poor musical abilities since the impairment remains unchanged when individual differences in musical pitch-based processing is taken into account. Thus, the impairment appears highly specific and may reflect the influence of statistical regularities of tone languages.

  16. Educational Factors and Experiences in English Language Learner Reading Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Christina J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Reading fluency has been an area of struggle for students. Certain populations of students, such as English language learners (ELLs), have struggled even more so, affecting their overall achievement. Interventions have been implemented and studied regarding the reading fluency of ELLs, yet reading fluency has continued to be problematic in this…

  17. Educational Factors and Experiences in English Language Learner Reading Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Christina J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Reading fluency has been an area of struggle for students. Certain populations of students, such as English language learners (ELLs), have struggled even more so, affecting their overall achievement. Interventions have been implemented and studied regarding the reading fluency of ELLs, yet reading fluency has continued to be problematic in this…

  18. Heritage-culture images disrupt immigrants' second-language processing through triggering first-language interference.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Morris, Michael W; Cheng, Chi-Ying; Yap, Andy J

    2013-07-09

    For bicultural individuals, visual cues of a setting's cultural expectations can activate associated representations, switching the frames that guide their judgments. Research suggests that cultural cues may affect judgments through automatic priming, but has yet to investigate consequences for linguistic performance. The present studies investigate the proposal that heritage-culture cues hinder immigrants' second-language processing by priming first-language structures. For Chinese immigrants in the United States, speaking to a Chinese (vs. Caucasian) face reduced their English fluency, but at the same time increased their social comfort, effects that did not occur for a comparison group of European Americans (study 1). Similarly, exposure to iconic symbols of Chinese (vs. American) culture hindered Chinese immigrants' English fluency, when speaking about both culture-laden and culture-neutral topics (study 2). Finally, in both recognition (study 3) and naming tasks (study 4), Chinese icon priming increased accessibility of anomalous literal translations, indicating the intrusion of Chinese lexical structures into English processing. We discuss conceptual implications for the automaticity and adaptiveness of cultural priming and practical implications for immigrant acculturation and second-language learning.

  19. Heritage-culture images disrupt immigrants’ second-language processing through triggering first-language interference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Morris, Michael W.; Cheng, Chi-Ying; Yap, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    For bicultural individuals, visual cues of a setting’s cultural expectations can activate associated representations, switching the frames that guide their judgments. Research suggests that cultural cues may affect judgments through automatic priming, but has yet to investigate consequences for linguistic performance. The present studies investigate the proposal that heritage-culture cues hinder immigrants’ second-language processing by priming first-language structures. For Chinese immigrants in the United States, speaking to a Chinese (vs. Caucasian) face reduced their English fluency, but at the same time increased their social comfort, effects that did not occur for a comparison group of European Americans (study 1). Similarly, exposure to iconic symbols of Chinese (vs. American) culture hindered Chinese immigrants’ English fluency, when speaking about both culture-laden and culture-neutral topics (study 2). Finally, in both recognition (study 3) and naming tasks (study 4), Chinese icon priming increased accessibility of anomalous literal translations, indicating the intrusion of Chinese lexical structures into English processing. We discuss conceptual implications for the automaticity and adaptiveness of cultural priming and practical implications for immigrant acculturation and second-language learning. PMID:23776218

  20. Exploring Goals and Motivations of Maori Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Te Huia, Awanui

    2015-01-01

    Motivations of Maori heritage language learners are explored within this qualitative study. "Te reo" Maori (the Maori language) is currently classed as endangered (Reedy et al., 2011), which calls for the exploration of the motivational experiences of Maori heritage language learners. A total of 19 interviews with beginner, intermediate…

  1. The Linguistic Similarities of Spanish Heritage and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the situation of lower-proficiency heritage language learners of Spanish in terms of their linguistic similarities to second language learners. The analysis highlights grammatical and lexical features in the oral discourse of Spanish heritage and second language learners at intermediate and advanced levels of study,…

  2. Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Yun

    2006-01-01

    Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly…

  3. Marital Satisfaction and Cherokee Language Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rockey; Stoltenberg, Cal; Robbins, Sharla; Ross, J. Mike

    2002-01-01

    The Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (MSI-R; D.K. Snyder, 1997) norms were compared with scores for 162 volunteer Cherokee participants. Differences were found on the Inconsistency, Conventionalization, Global Distress, and Aggression subscales. Participants classified as fluent or nonfluent in the Cherokee language differed on the…

  4. "It's Very Complicated" Exploring Heritage Language Identity with Heritage Language Teachers in a Teacher Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyesun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of research in heritage language (HL) education, pedagogically based research that examines teacher education practice for promoting critical reflection of HL teachers is sparse. This article describes how preservice teachers working in community-based HL schools changed their views of HL identity during their…

  5. The Role of the Family in Heritage Language Use and Learning: Impact on Heritage Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo-Pfeifer, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the way children and youngsters perceive the role of family in the use and acquisition of the heritage language (HL), through two complementary means: drawings produced by children and students participating in a discussion forum. Our study reveals: (1) the convergence of perceptions that children and adolescents have about family…

  6. "It's Very Complicated" Exploring Heritage Language Identity with Heritage Language Teachers in a Teacher Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyesun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of research in heritage language (HL) education, pedagogically based research that examines teacher education practice for promoting critical reflection of HL teachers is sparse. This article describes how preservice teachers working in community-based HL schools changed their views of HL identity during their…

  7. Effects of Community Service-Learning on Heritage Language Learners' Attitudes toward Their Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascual y Cabo, Diego; Prada, Josh; Lowther Pereira, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in a community service-learning experience on Spanish heritage language learners' attitudes toward their heritage language and culture. Quantitative and qualitative data from heritage language learners demonstrated that engagement in community service-learning activities as part of the Spanish…

  8. Spanish as a Heritage Language Assessment: Successes, Failures, Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor-Mendoza, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    From its origins over three decades ago, interest in the field of Spanish as a heritage language (SHL) has grown and has produced a wealth of research. While our understanding of the sociolinguistic profile of Spanish heritage language learners has increased and we have advanced in our knowledge of the linguistic abilities and strategies Spanish…

  9. Spanish as a Heritage Language Assessment: Successes, Failures, Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor-Mendoza, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    From its origins over three decades ago, interest in the field of Spanish as a heritage language (SHL) has grown and has produced a wealth of research. While our understanding of the sociolinguistic profile of Spanish heritage language learners has increased and we have advanced in our knowledge of the linguistic abilities and strategies Spanish…

  10. Children Negotiating Korean American Ethnic Identity through Their Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Byeong-keun

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary study provides an interpretive reading of focus group interviews of four Korean American children in the Phoenix metropolitan area. It examines how these Korean American children are negotiating their ethnic identity as Korean Americans while learning Korean as a heritage language. It shows that maintaining heritage language is…

  11. The Relationship between Task Difficulty and Second Language Fluency in French: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit

    2015-01-01

    While there exists a considerable body of literature on task-based difficulty and second language (L2) fluency in English as a second language (ESL), there has been little investigation with French learners. This mixed methods study examines learner appraisals of task difficulty and their relationship to automated utterance fluency measures in…

  12. Through the Learners' Eyes: Reconceptualizing the Heritage and Non-Heritage Learner of the Less Commonly Taught Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates how learners of the less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) (i.e., Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Russian, Swahili, Yoruba) perceive their identities as heritage or non-heritage language learners. A survey of 530 college-level language learners reveals that heritage and non-heritage…

  13. Through the Learners' Eyes: Reconceptualizing the Heritage and Non-Heritage Learner of the Less Commonly Taught Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates how learners of the less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) (i.e., Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Russian, Swahili, Yoruba) perceive their identities as heritage or non-heritage language learners. A survey of 530 college-level language learners reveals that heritage and non-heritage…

  14. Misplaced Heritage Language Learners of Japanese in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguro, Susan; Moloney, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    While heritage language learners are becoming visible in the research literature as a distinct group of language learners with specific needs, existing curriculum structures in secondary schools often focus on programs either for foreign language learners or for first language learners. The study reported here examines the experiences of heritage…

  15. Misplaced Heritage Language Learners of Japanese in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguro, Susan; Moloney, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    While heritage language learners are becoming visible in the research literature as a distinct group of language learners with specific needs, existing curriculum structures in secondary schools often focus on programs either for foreign language learners or for first language learners. The study reported here examines the experiences of heritage…

  16. Heritage Languages and Community Identity Building: The Case of a Language of Lesser Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Diasporic communities formed as a result of recent migration movements face particular issues and challenges in supporting the intergenerational transmission of their heritage language through language maintenance and heritage language education (HLE) initiatives, especially when the language involved is not one that has high visibility and…

  17. Heritage Languages and Community Identity Building: The Case of a Language of Lesser Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Diasporic communities formed as a result of recent migration movements face particular issues and challenges in supporting the intergenerational transmission of their heritage language through language maintenance and heritage language education (HLE) initiatives, especially when the language involved is not one that has high visibility and…

  18. Community-Based Heritage Language Schools: A Chinese Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    English literacy skills are important in order to participate fully in public life; however, the heritage-based literacy skills learned outside of the classroom also are critical in the P-12 classroom. School teachers are important advocates for immigrant students--to preserve their first language and heritage, to integrate knowledge of their two…

  19. Tapping a National Resource: Heritage Languages in the United States. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, Richard D.; Ingold, Catherine W.

    This digest outlines the reasons for and challenges of developing the language skills of heritage language speakers and describes one effort to carry this out, the Heritage Languages Initiative. Specific sections address the following: developing language skills of U.S. residents; the range of language proficiencies of heritage language speakers;…

  20. Oral Fluency: The Neglected Component in the Communicative Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Marian J.; Derwing, Tracey M.; Manimtim, Linda G.; Thomson, Ron I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that current instructional ESL resources must be supplemented to facilitate the effective development of learners' oral fluency. We summarize some of the pertinent literature on L2 fluency and report the results of a survey of fluency activities (free production, rehearsal/repetition, consciousness-raising, and use of…

  1. Examining the Relations between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Matthew; Beem, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading fluency and comprehension among elementary school students (N = 171) in Grades 2, 3, and 5, all of whom were designated as English language learners (ELL) at some point in their educational careers. Although the overall relation between reading fluency and comprehension (r = 0.56) was consistent…

  2. Potential of Text-Based Internet Chats for Improving Oral Fluency in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on the positive effects of Internet chats in the second language classroom, to the best of my knowledge no studies to date have examined the effect of text-based chats on oral fluency development. This exploratory study addressed the above question by examining the oral fluency development of 34 English…

  3. Reading Development in Upper Elementary Language Minority Readers of Hebrew: The Specific Challenge of Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahar-Yames, Daphna; Prior, Anat

    2017-01-01

    We examined reading proficiency, focusing on fluency, in 56 Russian-speaking language minority (LM) students and 56 native Hebrew-speaking (NH) peers. Fifth-grade students completed measures of Hebrew reading accuracy and fluency from word to text level as well as phonological awareness (PA), RAN and vocabulary. LM students read single words less…

  4. Potential of Text-Based Internet Chats for Improving Oral Fluency in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on the positive effects of Internet chats in the second language classroom, to the best of my knowledge no studies to date have examined the effect of text-based chats on oral fluency development. This exploratory study addressed the above question by examining the oral fluency development of 34 English…

  5. Translating Pedagogies: Leveraging Students' Heritage Languages in the Literacy Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Mark B.; David, Samuel S.; Jiménez, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    We seek to understand how teachers that do not share a heritage language with their students can leverage these languages in literacy instruction. This study reports on 5 teachers' implementation of a literacy activity that uses strategic collaborative translation to facilitate middle school English language learners' (ELLs) understandings about…

  6. Computer Mediated Communication: Tools for Instructing Russian Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meskill, Carla; Anthony, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    The unique needs, goals, and constraints of heritage language learners in U.S. higher education and the multiple ways that they differ from those of second and foreign language (L2) learners have been well documented (Brisk, 2000; Chevalier, 2004; Grosjean, 1982; Kagan & Dillon, 2003). Each population uses its two languages in diverse ways, for…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Electronic Literacy and Heritage Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the electronic literacy practices of two Korean-American heritage language learners who manage Korean weblogs. Online users deliberately alter standard forms of written language and play with symbols, characters, and words to economize typing effort, mimic oral language, or convey qualities of their linguistic identity such…

  8. Heritage Language Education: Valuing the Languages, Literacies, and Cultural Competencies of Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Corinne A.; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    2017-01-01

    This article argues for the value of heritage language programs and the micro-level language policies that support them, focusing on a case study of a program in the USA to make this argument. We also argue for the importance of recognizing students' heritage languages, cultures, and individual goals and identities in mainstream school programs.…

  9. Heritage Language Education: Valuing the Languages, Literacies, and Cultural Competencies of Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Corinne A.; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    2017-01-01

    This article argues for the value of heritage language programs and the micro-level language policies that support them, focusing on a case study of a program in the USA to make this argument. We also argue for the importance of recognizing students' heritage languages, cultures, and individual goals and identities in mainstream school programs.…

  10. Second-language fluency predicts native language stroop effects: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Paola A; Gollan, Tamar H; Heaton, Robert; Grant, Igor; Cherner, Mariana

    2014-03-01

    Studies have shown reduced Stroop interference in bilinguals compared to monolinguals defined dichotomously, but no study has explored how varying degrees of second language fluency, might affect linguistic inhibitory control in the first language. We examined effects of relative English fluency on the ability to inhibit the automatic reading response on the Golden version of the Stroop Test administered in Spanish. Participants were 141 (49% male) adult native Spanish speakers from the U.S.-Mexico border region (education range = 8-20 and age range = 20-63). A language dominance index was calculated as the ratio of English words to total words produced in both languages using the Controlled Oral Word Association Test with letters PMR in Spanish and FAS in English. Greater degree of English fluency as measured by the dominance index predicted better speed on the Stroop incongruent trial independent of education effects. On the other hand, neither the dominance index nor education predicted performance on the word reading and color-naming trials. These results suggest an advantage in inhibitory control among those with greater second-language ability.

  11. Second-Language Fluency Predicts Native Language Stroop Effects: Evidence from Spanish–English Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Paola A.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Heaton, Robert; Grant, Igor; Cherner, Mariana; Group, HNRC

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown reduced Stroop interference in bilinguals compared to monolinguals defined dichotomously, but no study has explored how varying degrees of second language fluency, might affect linguistic inhibitory control in the first language. We examined effects of relative English fluency on the ability to inhibit the automatic reading response on the Golden version of the Stroop Test administered in Spanish. Participants were 141 (49% male) adult native Spanish speakers from the U.S.–Mexico border region (education range =8–20 and age range =20–63). A language dominance index was calculated as the ratio of English words to total words produced in both languages using the Controlled Oral Word Association Test with letters PMR in Spanish and FAS in English. Greater degree of English fluency as measured by the dominance index predicted better speed on the Stroop incongruent trial independent of education effects. On the other hand, neither the dominance index nor education predicted performance on the word reading and color-naming trials. These results suggest an advantage in inhibitory control among those with greater second-language ability. PMID:24622502

  12. Student Voices: The Missing Link in the Spanish Heritage Language Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducar, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Though much of the research looking at the issue of language in the Spanish heritage language field is intended to guide the Spanish heritage language teacher in the classroom, students' voices are often stifled. This article fills this gap by giving voice to students' opinions on language use in the Spanish heritage language classroom. Survey…

  13. Tapping a National Resource: Heritage Languages in the United States. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, Richard D.; Ingold, Catherine W.

    This digest discusses the unprecedented U.S. need for individuals with highly developed competencies in English and one or more other languages and the untapped language resource: heritage language speakers. Sections address the range of proficiencies of heritage language speakers, the fragility of heritage languages, the limitations of current…

  14. Effect of Spanish language immersion rotations on medical student Spanish fluency.

    PubMed

    Reuland, Daniel S; Slatt, Lisa M; Alemán, Marco A; Fernandez, Alicia; Dewalt, Darren

    2012-02-01

    The study's objective was to determine whether participation in an international health rotation in a Spanish-speaking country (immersion) is associated with improved Spanish fluency compared to participation in domestic medical Spanish coursework alone. Participants matriculated at one US medical school in the years 2004--2008. At matriculation (baseline), all had intermediate to advanced Spanish fluency based on a standardized, oral fluency test. All took didactic coursework in years 1 and 2 of medical school. Some elected to participate in a post-year 1 immersion rotation in a Spanish-speaking Latin American country. Oral fluency was reassessed using the same method in years 2 and 4 by independent evaluators who were blind to individuals' immersion participation status and prior fluency scores. The authors compared participants' likelihood of demonstrating greater Spanish fluency over baseline among those who did post-year 1 immersion versus those who did US-based coursework alone (controls). The likelihood of having greater Spanish fluency at the second-year assessment was 80% (45/56) among immersion participants, compared with 46% (21/46) for controls. The likelihood of having increased fluency at the fourth-year assessment was 65% (13/20) among those who did immersion versus 28% (7/25) for controls. Odds of having improved fluency for immersion participants remained statistically significantly higher after adjusting for baseline fluency (AOR [95%CI]=4.3 [1.7, 10.6], at year 2 and 5.1 [1.2, 21.6], at year 4). Among medical students with intermediate to advanced baseline Spanish fluency, participants in a post-year 1 Spanish language international health immersion rotation were more likely to improve their Spanish fluency than participants in US-based coursework alone.

  15. Cross-Language Transfer in English Immersion Programs in Germany: Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebauer, Sandra Kristina; Zaunbauer, Anna C. M.; Moller, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects on reading skills are of particular interest in the context of foreign language immersion programs. Although there is an extensive literature on cross-language effects on reading in general, research focusing on immersion students and including different dimensions of reading acquisition such as reading fluency and reading…

  16. Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools in Greater Cleveland: A Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatie, Bruce A.

    The two-part document provides background information on ethnic heritage and language schools (EHALS) in the United States as well as results of a survey and a directory of these schools in Cleveland, Ohio. Part I contains a rationale for community language schools, traces their evolution from the colonial period to the present, and summarizes the…

  17. Contesting "Language" as "Heritage": Negotiation of Identities in Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackledge, Adrian; Creese, Angela; Barac, Taskin; Bhatt, Arvind; Hamid, Shahela; Wei, Li; Lytra, Vally; Martin, Peter; Wu, Chao-Jung; Yagcioglu, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we question key terms which appear frequently in discussions of language teaching and learning: "language" and "heritage". The paper draws on empirical data from one of four linked case studies in a larger project funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), "Investigating Multilingualism in…

  18. Punjabi Heritage Language Schools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiwana, Ravneet Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Punjabi heritage language maintenance and development are rooted in community, identity, and, for many, faith. Various opportunities are available for maintaining linguistic ties to Punjabi (also spelled Panjabi) and for developing proficiency in the Punjabi language. They range from community-based to federally funded programs, available in…

  19. Language Teacher Subjectivities in Japan's Diaspora Strategies: Teaching My Language as Someone's Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motobayashi, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the ways in which discourses in a state-sponsored volunteer program incited transformations of individual subjectivities, focusing on a group of Japanese language teacher volunteers training in Japan to become teachers of Japanese as a heritage language for the country's diaspora (Nikkei) population in South America. As…

  20. Language Teacher Subjectivities in Japan's Diaspora Strategies: Teaching My Language as Someone's Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motobayashi, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the ways in which discourses in a state-sponsored volunteer program incited transformations of individual subjectivities, focusing on a group of Japanese language teacher volunteers training in Japan to become teachers of Japanese as a heritage language for the country's diaspora (Nikkei) population in South America. As…

  1. Heritage Languages in America: Preserving a National Resource. Language in Education: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyton, Joy Kreeft, Ed.; Ranard, Donald A., Ed.; McGinnis, Scott, Ed.

    This edited volume describes the population of heritage language speakers in the United States and outlines what needs to be done to help them develop their languages for use in academic and professional arenas. The book is divided into an introduction plus 14 chapters in 5 sections. The introduction, "Charting a New Course: Heritage Language…

  2. The Foreign Language "Crisis" in the United States: Are Heritage and Community Languages the Remedy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Terrence G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent national security concerns and global trade interests have led many to claim that there is a foreign language "crisis" in the US. Some argue that heritage and community language (HL-CL) speakers in the US constitute a resource waiting to be tapped to solve this crisis. This article addresses the issue of whether heritage and community…

  3. Science As A Second Language: Acquiring Fluency through Science Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, R.; EcoVoices Expedition Team

    2013-05-01

    exploring, solving problems, seeking answers to questions, playing, reading for pleasure, conversing, discussing, where the focus is not specifically on language development, but on the activity, which is of interest to the participant. Language Learning is a formal education process, the language arts aspect of the school day: the direct teaching of reading, writing, grammar, spelling, and speaking. Fluency results primarily from language acquisition and secondarily from language learning. We can view the problem of science education and communication as similar to language acquisition. Science Learning is a formal education process, the school science aspect of the school day: the direct teaching of standards-aligned science content. Science Acquisition is an informal process that occurs in the midst of exploring, solving problems, seeking answers to questions, playing, experimenting for pleasure, conversing, discussing, where the focus is not specifically on science content development, but on the inquiry activity, driven by the curiosity of the participant. Treating Science as a Second Language shifts the evaluation of science learning to include gauging the extent to which students choose to deepen their pursuit of science learning.

  4. Science as a Second Language: Acquiring Fluency through Science Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    , spelling, and speaking. Fluency results primarily from language acquisition and secondarily from language learning. We can view the problem of science education and communication as similar to language acquisition. Science Learning is a formal education process, the school science aspect of the school day: the direct teaching of standards-aligned science content. Science Acquisition is an informal process that occurs in the midst of exploring, solving problems, seeking answers to questions, playing, experimenting for pleasure, conversing, discussing, where the focus is not specifically on science content development, but on the inquiry activity, driven by the curiosity of the participant. Comprehensible input refers to the premise that we acquire language in the midst of activity when we understand the message; that is, when we understand what we hear or what we read or what we see. Acquisition is caused by comprehensible input as it occurs in the midst of a rich environment of language activity while doing something of interest to the learner. Providing comprehensible input is not the same as oversimplifying or "dumbing down." It is devising ways to create conditions where the interest of the learner is piqued.

  5. Category fluency in a latino sample: associations with age, education, gender, and language.

    PubMed

    Mack, Wendy J; Teng, Evelyn; Zheng, Ling; Paz, Sylvia; Chui, Helena; Varma, Rohit

    2005-07-01

    The authors know of no published studies that have evaluated the effect of Spanish- versus English-language on category fluency within a sample of United States Latinos only. As part of a pilot study for the institution of a cognitive screening program in a cohort of Latinos, we assessed category fluency (fruits, vegetables, and "other" supermarket items) in a sample of 90 self-identified Latino community residents (aged 52-84, 0-18 years of education). The primary demographic correlates of category fluency were age and education. The decrement in naming of fruits with age was limited to the older old subjects (>age 70). Relatively younger old subjects (aged 61-70) did not differ from middle-aged subjects on category fluency. Gender showed little relationship to category naming. Persons naming in Spanish named significantly fewer 'other supermarket' items, but did not differ from English speakers in the more common fluency categories of fruits and vegetables. This analysis of category fluency in an ethnically homogenous sample with a wide range of formal education provided an evaluation of the effects of chosen language free of possible confounding by cultural differences, and also provided a more complete evaluation of the influence of education on category fluency.

  6. Cultural Fantasy Narratives and Heritage Language Learning: A Case Study of Adult Heritage Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryell, Joellen E.; Clark, M. Carolyn; Pomerantz, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the case of 7 female heritage learners of Spanish who have chosen, as adults, to enroll in online Spanish language instruction at the postsecondary level. Drawing on symbolic convergence theory, it identifies a cultural fantasy metanarrative that participants collectively constructed as they made sense of their language…

  7. Differentiating Heritage and Foreign Language Learners of Spanish: Needs, Perceptions, and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgcock, John S.; Lefkowitz, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Research on heritage language (HL) development and education has characterized the unique linguistic, sociocultural, and affective profiles of heritage-language (HL) students, yet foreign-language (FL) education has only begun to understand HL students in relation to non-heritage students (Carreira & Kagan, 2011; Felix, 2008). To deepen our…

  8. In Support of a Proficiency-Based Definition of Heritage Language Learners: The Case of Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Olga

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of placing and teaching heritage speakers of immigrant languages in college-level foreign language programmes, drawing conclusions from research on heritage speakers of Russian. For pedagogical purposes, heritage speakers cannot be viewed either as native speakers of the target language or as foreign language…

  9. Understanding Teachers' Professional Identity and Beliefs in the Chinese Heritage Language School in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsu-Pai; Palmer, Deborah K.; Field, Sherry L.

    2011-01-01

    Heritage language education has come to prominence worldwide. Despite the increasing number of Chinese heritage language learners and Chinese schools in the USA, little attention has been given to teachers. This study investigated three heritage language teachers' professional identity and beliefs about curriculum and instructional practices in a…

  10. Learning Chinese as a Heritage Language in Australia and Beyond: The Role of Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of learning and retaining heritage languages are well documented in the literature. Chinese heritage language learners' commitment to their heritage language learning has gained significant research ground in social psychological and post-structural schools, with empirical evidence predominantly emerging from the North American…

  11. Differentiating Heritage and Foreign Language Learners of Spanish: Needs, Perceptions, and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgcock, John S.; Lefkowitz, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Research on heritage language (HL) development and education has characterized the unique linguistic, sociocultural, and affective profiles of heritage-language (HL) students, yet foreign-language (FL) education has only begun to understand HL students in relation to non-heritage students (Carreira & Kagan, 2011; Felix, 2008). To deepen our…

  12. The effects of second-language acquisition on verbal fluency among elderly israelis.

    PubMed

    Poreh, Amir M; Schweiger, Avraham

    2002-05-01

    The present study investigated the effect of age of second-language acquisition (Hebrew) on verbal fluency in a random sample of 196 elderly Israelis from four distinct ethnic groups. Using conventional statistics, it was shown that phonemic fluency, particularly switching, is associated with education and the age of Hebrew acquisition, while semantic fluency, particularly clustering, is associated with age. Ethnic differences were not significant after controlling for the age of Hebrew acquisition and education. Additional analyses show that the tendency of subjects to use borrowed, non-Hebrew words on the phonemic fluency task was associated with lower total scores on this task and later age of Hebrew acquisition. In contrast, the tendency to use non-Hebrew words on the semantic fluency task was associated with age and higher total scores. These findings are discussed with regard to recent functional imaging studies of bilingual subjects. Such findings indicate that native and second languages form distinct areas of activation in the dominant anterior language area, an area often associated with phonemic processing and switching, whereas an overlap of activation of various languages has been demonstrated within the posterior language areas, those that are often associated with semantic processing.

  13. Promoting Speaking Accuracy and Fluency in Foreign Language Classroom: A Closer Look at English Speaking Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinçer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas; Göksu, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the literature about teaching and learning English speaking in depth and draw main guidelines about how to increase speaking accuracy and fluency in language classrooms for both English language learners and teachers. The first section of the paper is about the general features of speaking skills. The second section…

  14. The Role of Task Type in Foreign Language Written Production: Focusing on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor; Rasekh, Abbas Eslami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two task types on foreign language written production. Particularly it addressed the issue of how three aspects of language production (i.e. fluency, complexity, and accuracy) vary among two different task types (i.e. argumentative writing task and instruction writing task). One hundred sixty…

  15. Lexical Organization in Deaf Children Who Use British Sign Language: Evidence from a Semantic Fluency Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloe R.; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Herman, Rosalind; Morgan, Gary

    2013-01-01

    We adapted the semantic fluency task into British Sign Language (BSL). In Study 1, we present data from twenty-two deaf signers aged four to fifteen. We show that the same "cognitive signatures" that characterize this task in spoken languages are also present in deaf children, for example, the semantic clustering of responses. In Study…

  16. The Development of L2 Fluency during Study Abroad: A Cross-Language Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Silvio, Francesca; Diao, Wenhao; Donovan, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Examining speech samples from 75 American university students learning 1 of 3 languages (Mandarin, Russian, and Spanish), this article reports on a study of second language (L2) learners' oral fluency development and its relationship with their gains in holistic proficiency ratings during a semester abroad. In study abroad research, there is a…

  17. Monterey Institute Makes Language Fluency a Key Part of Its International Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The Monterey Institute's International Studies curriculum is described in terms of its foreign language fluency requirements for business master's degree candidates and the school's use of language in international business negotiation training and other exercises involving foreign affairs. Illustrations reveal the school's success in educating…

  18. Psycholinguistic Approaches to Language Processing in Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Patrick A.; Zapata, Gabriela C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dearth of language-processing research addressing Spanish heritage speakers in assimilationist communities. First, we review key offline work on this population, and we then summarize the few psycholinguistic (online) studies that have already been carried out. In an attempt to encourage more such research, in the next…

  19. Maturational and Non-Maturational Factors in Heritage Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Ji Hye

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the maturational and non-maturational aspects of early bilingualism and language attrition in heritage speakers who have acquired their L1 incompletely in childhood. The study highlights the influential role of age and input dynamics in early L1 development, where the timing of reduction in L1 input and the…

  20. Heritage Language Learning for Chinese Australians: The Role of Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Heritage Language (HL) and ethnic identity has gained significant research ground in social psychological and poststructural scholarship, with empirical evidence largely emerging from the North American settings. There is little pertinent sociological work conducted outside North America. To fill this gap, this…

  1. Psycholinguistic Approaches to Language Processing in Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Patrick A.; Zapata, Gabriela C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dearth of language-processing research addressing Spanish heritage speakers in assimilationist communities. First, we review key offline work on this population, and we then summarize the few psycholinguistic (online) studies that have already been carried out. In an attempt to encourage more such research, in the next…

  2. Understanding the Heritage Language Student: Proficiency and Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Given the ever-growing number of Spanish heritage learners in both universities and colleges, the need has continued to grow for the development of placement exams that accurately measure language ability, are simple to evaluate, and are easy to administer to large numbers of students. This article analyzes the implementation of a placement exam…

  3. Teaching Russian as a Heritage Language in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protassova, Ekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Originating from many different sources, Russian as a heritage language in Finland displays a spectrum of developmental tendencies: both attrition and maintenance can be observed in various degrees. The Finnish educational system allows for the organization of bilingual pre-schools and schools when there are sufficient numbers of potential pupils.…

  4. Maturational and Non-Maturational Factors in Heritage Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Ji Hye

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the maturational and non-maturational aspects of early bilingualism and language attrition in heritage speakers who have acquired their L1 incompletely in childhood. The study highlights the influential role of age and input dynamics in early L1 development, where the timing of reduction in L1 input and the…

  5. Heritage Language Learning for Chinese Australians: The Role of Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Heritage Language (HL) and ethnic identity has gained significant research ground in social psychological and poststructural scholarship, with empirical evidence largely emerging from the North American settings. There is little pertinent sociological work conducted outside North America. To fill this gap, this…

  6. Understanding the Heritage Language Student: Proficiency and Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Given the ever-growing number of Spanish heritage learners in both universities and colleges, the need has continued to grow for the development of placement exams that accurately measure language ability, are simple to evaluate, and are easy to administer to large numbers of students. This article analyzes the implementation of a placement exam…

  7. The Role of Parents in Chinese Heritage-Language Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mengying

    2005-01-01

    This paper looks at the Chinese heritage language schools in metropolitan Phoenix area and examines what role parents of the students play in the schools. Based on semi-structured interviews, class observations and publication from the local Chinese schools, this study shows that although Chinese schools have benefited from the support of parents…

  8. Second language as a compensatory resource for maintaining verbal fluency in bilingual immigrants with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, D; Walters, J; Fine, J; Muchnik-Rozanov, Y; Paz, M; Lerner, V; Belmaker, R H; Bersudsky, Y

    2015-08-01

    Due to the large migrations over the past three decades, large numbers of individuals with schizophrenia are learning a second language and being seen in clinics in that second language. We conducted within-subject comparisons to clarify the contribution of clinical, linguistic and bilingual features in the first and second languages of bilinguals with schizophrenia. Ten bilingual Russian(L1) and Hebrew(L2) proficient patients, who developed clinical schizophrenia after achieving proficiency in both languages, were selected from 60 candidates referred for the study; they were resident in Israel 7-32 years with 3-10 years from immigration to diagnosis. Clinical, linguistic and fluency markers were coded in transcripts of clinical interviews. There was a trend toward more verbal productivity in the first language (L1) than the second language (L2). Clinical speech markers associated with thought disorder and cognitive impairment (blocking and topic shift) were similar in both languages. Among linguistic markers of schizophrenia, Incomplete syntax and Speech role reference were significantly more frequent in L2 than L1; Lexical repetition and Unclear reference demonstrated a trend in the same direction. For fluency phenomena, Discourse markers were more prevalent in L1 than L2, and Codeswitching was similar across languages, showing that the patients were attuned to the socio-pragmatics of language use. More frequent linguistic markers of schizophrenia in L2 show more impairment in the syntactic/semantic components of language, reflecting greater thought and cognitive dysfunction. Patients are well able to acquire a second language. Nevertheless, schizophrenia finds expression in that language. Finally, more frequent fluency markers in L1 suggests motivation to maintain fluency, evidenced in particular by codeswitched L2 lexical items, a compensatory resource. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Language and Social Identity Construction: A Study of a Russian Heritage Language Orthodox Christian School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ekaterina Leonidovna

    2012-01-01

    Grounded in discourse analytic and language socialization paradigms, this dissertation examines issues of language and social identity construction in children attending a Russian Heritage Language Orthodox Christian Saturday School in California. By conducting micro-analysis of naturally-occurring talk-in-interaction combined with longitudinal…

  10. The Effects of Heritage Language Instruction on First Language Proficiency: A Psycholinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel; Diaz, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of weekly heritage language (HL) classes on first language (L1) proficiency in speakers who arrived in the second language (L2)-dominant setting before the onset of puberty. Two groups of L1 Spanish--L2 Swedish bilingual high school students living in Sweden participated in the study. One group currently…

  11. Fluency-dependent cortical activation associated with speech production and comprehension in second language learners.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N

    2015-08-06

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Policy for Heritage Language Instruction = Politique sur l'enseignement des langues ancestrales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    Policy established by the Manitoba (Canada) provincial government to inform the development and implementation of heritage language programs is outlined. Introductory sections provide background on the history of heritage language instruction, foreign language instruction, and language of instruction in Manitoba public schools. A brief discussion…

  13. Policy for Heritage Language Instruction = Politique sur l'enseignement des langues ancestrales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    Policy established by the Manitoba (Canada) provincial government to inform the development and implementation of heritage language programs is outlined. Introductory sections provide background on the history of heritage language instruction, foreign language instruction, and language of instruction in Manitoba public schools. A brief discussion…

  14. Toward Modeling Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaghoub Zadeh, Zohreh; Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the adequacy of an expanded simple view of reading (SVR) framework for English language learners (ELLs), using mediation modeling approach. The proposed expanded SVR included reading fluency as an outcome and phonological awareness and naming speed as predictors. To test the fit of the proposed mediation model, longitudinal…

  15. Unmasking the Mystique: Utilizing Narrative Character-Playing Games to Support English Language Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killham, Jennifer E.; Saligman, Adam; Jette, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    This classroom-based action research study investigated the creative implementation of fluency instruction for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners through the use of a virtual character-playing simulation called Place Out of Time (POOT). The researchers sought to identify what supported and impeded student participation in this game-based…

  16. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  17. Does Measuring L2 Utterance Fluency Equal Measuring Overall L2 Proficiency? Evidence from Five Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between overall second language (L2) proficiency and utterance fluency measures for several L2s in order to determine whether utterance measures can be used to predict L2 proficiency. The study measured the speech rate, number of hesitations, number and length of pauses, number and length of runs, and…

  18. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  19. Language and Fluency Characteristics of Preschoolers' Multiple-Utterance Conversational Turns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined language and fluency characteristics of single-utterance (SU) and multiple-utterance (MU)conversational turns produced by 15 preschoolers who stutter and 15 nonstuttering peers. Results suggest that MU turns are demanding for young children because they evoke relatively long and complex utterances and that clinicians should…

  20. Examining Oral Reading Fluency Trajectories among English Language Learners and English Speaking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Hong, Sehee; Stage, Scott; Gerber, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Students' oral reading fluency growth from first through fourth grade was used to predict their achievement on the Stanford Achievement Test (9th ed.; SAT-9 Reading) using a latent growth model. Two conditional variables related to student status were used to determine the effects on reading performance--English language learners (ELLs) with low…

  1. Development of Oral Reading Fluency in Children with Speech or Language Impairments: A Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Catts, Hugh W.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study used piece-wise growth curve analyses to examine growth patterns in oral reading fluency for 1,991 students with speech impairments (SI) or language impairments (LI) from first through third grade. The main finding of this study was that a diagnosis of SI or LI can have a detrimental and persistent effect on early reading…

  2. Unmasking the Mystique: Utilizing Narrative Character-Playing Games to Support English Language Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killham, Jennifer E.; Saligman, Adam; Jette, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    This classroom-based action research study investigated the creative implementation of fluency instruction for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners through the use of a virtual character-playing simulation called Place Out of Time (POOT). The researchers sought to identify what supported and impeded student participation in this game-based…

  3. Parents' Attitudes toward Heritage Language Maintenance for Their Children and Their Efforts to Help Their Children Maintain the Heritage Language: A Case Study of Korean-Canadian Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Seong Man; Sarkar, Mela

    2007-01-01

    In this study we explore Korean immigrant parents' attitudes toward heritage language maintenance for their children and their efforts to help their children maintain Korean as their heritage language in Montreal. Some implications for mainstream school policies and classroom practices are touched on briefly. Data were collected from nine Korean…

  4. The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Christopher; Sprenger, Simone A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-10-01

    Fluent speech depends on the availability of well-established linguistic knowledge and routines for speech planning and articulation. A lack of speech fluency in late second-language (L2) learners may point to a deficiency of these representations, due to incomplete acquisition. Experiments on bilingual language processing have shown, however, that there are strong reasons to believe that multilingual speakers experience co-activation of the languages they speak. We have studied to what degree language co-activation affects fluency in the speech of bilinguals, comparing a monolingual German control group with two bilingual groups: 1) first-language (L1) attriters, who have fully acquired German before emigrating to an L2 English environment, and 2) immersed L2 learners of German (L1: English). We have analysed the temporal fluency and the incidence of disfluency markers (pauses, repetitions and self-corrections) in spontaneous film retellings. Our findings show that learners to speak more slowly than controls and attriters. Also, on each count, the speech of at least one of the bilingual groups contains more disfluency markers than the retellings of the control group. Generally speaking, both bilingual groups-learners and attriters-are equally (dis)fluent and significantly more disfluent than the monolingual speakers. Given that the L1 attriters are unaffected by incomplete acquisition, we interpret these findings as evidence for language competition during speech production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Oral Fluency in the Context of Second/Foreign Language Testing: Understanding the Role of Task Structure and Formulaic Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejzenberg, Roseli

    A study was planned to generate a model for testing second language education that would incorporate task types to allow the display of fluency. It is argued that the display of oral fluency can be used as a selection criterion for inclusion of test items in multitask or portfolio assessment. The following three research questions were formulated:…

  6. The Genetic Architecture of Oral Language, Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study From 7 to 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the genetic and environmental etiology underlying the development of oral language and reading skills, and the relationship between them, over a long period of developmental time spanning middle childhood and adolescence. It focuses particularly on the differential relationship between language and two different aspects of reading: reading fluency and reading comprehension. Structural equation models were applied to language and reading data at 7, 12, and 16 years from the large-scale TEDS twin study. A series of multivariate twin models show a clear patterning of oral language with reading comprehension, as distinct from reading fluency: significant but moderate genetic overlap between oral language and reading fluency (genetic correlation rg = .46–.58 at 7, 12, and 16) contrasts with very substantial genetic overlap between oral language and reading comprehension (rg = .81–.87, at 12 and 16). This pattern is even clearer in a latent factors model, fit to the data aggregated across ages, in which a single factor representing oral language and reading comprehension is correlated with—but distinct from—a second factor representing reading fluency. A distinction between oral language and reading fluency is also apparent in different developmental trajectories: While the heritability of oral language increases over the period from 7 to 12 to 16 years (from h2 = .27 to .47 to .55), the heritability of reading fluency is high and largely stable over the same period of time (h2 = .73 to .71 to .64). PMID:28541066

  7. Dimensions of L2 Performance and Proficiency: Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in SLA. Language Learning & Language Teaching. Volume 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housen, Alex, Ed.; Kuiken, Folkert, Ed.; Vedder, Ineke, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Research into complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) as basic dimensions of second language performance, proficiency and development has received increased attention in SLA. However, the larger picture in this field of research is often obscured by the breadth of scope, multiple objectives and lack of clarity as to how complexity, accuracy and…

  8. Dimensions of L2 Performance and Proficiency: Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in SLA. Language Learning & Language Teaching. Volume 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housen, Alex, Ed.; Kuiken, Folkert, Ed.; Vedder, Ineke, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Research into complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) as basic dimensions of second language performance, proficiency and development has received increased attention in SLA. However, the larger picture in this field of research is often obscured by the breadth of scope, multiple objectives and lack of clarity as to how complexity, accuracy and…

  9. Heritage Language Education and the "National Interest"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jeff Bale reviews empirical research, policy analysis, and other forms of scholarly commentary on the long-standing rationale of framing language education in service of U.S. geopolitical and economic security. This synthesis directly calls into question the commonsense view that national security and economic competitiveness are…

  10. Heritage Language Education and the "National Interest"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jeff Bale reviews empirical research, policy analysis, and other forms of scholarly commentary on the long-standing rationale of framing language education in service of U.S. geopolitical and economic security. This synthesis directly calls into question the commonsense view that national security and economic competitiveness are…

  11. Language Attitudes and Heritage Language Maintenance among Chinese Immigrant Families in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui; Slaughter-Defoe, Diana T.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates attitudes toward heritage language (HL) maintenance among Chinese immigrant parents and their second-generation children. Specific attention is given to exploring (1) what attitudes are held by the Chinese parents and children toward Chinese language maintenance in the USA, (2) what efforts are engaged in by the…

  12. "She Really Only Speaks English": Positioning, Language Ideology, and Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Klara

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from an ethnographic multiple-case study on the identity, positioning, and interactions of Spanish as a heritage language (SHL) students in regular Canadian high school Spanish classes. Interview and classroom observational data are discursively analyzed to reveal the presence of a form of language ideology that equates…

  13. Going beyond "Appropriateness": Foreign and Heritage Language Students Explore Language Use in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showstack, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    People who grow up speaking Spanish in Texas often learn a colloquial variety of Spanish at home or in their communities and have limited abilities to move between different registers in different social contexts. As heritage language (HL) learners' understanding of the value of different language varieties plays an important role in the…

  14. Meeting the Challenges of Heritage Language Education: Lessons from One School Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous backgrounds, languages and proficiencies students bring to the classroom have always been a key challenge facing schools that wish to implement heritage language programmes. In this article I describe the evolution of one high school's approach to heritage language education and some of the roadblocks they encountered in…

  15. Looking Chinese and Learning Chinese as a Heritage Language: The Role of Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2016-01-01

    The identity-language link has been widely recognised. In Heritage Language research, the complex entanglement between Chinese ethnic identity and Chinese Heritage Language has gained increasing attention in recent decades. Both social psychological and poststructural schools have offered meaningful insights into this field, but have also received…

  16. The Adult Heritage Spanish Speaker in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Phenomenography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Angela

    2009-01-01

    For heritage speakers, the Spanish classroom is not the first point of contact with their native language. Though such learners would benefit from an educational philosophy that affirms the heritage language as a springboard for learning and increased self-awareness, there has been little support for non-dominant language research in the USA. This…

  17. Learning Spanish as a Heritage Language: The Role of Sociocultural Background Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Janet S.; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2005-01-01

    This study represents a first effort to identify sociocultural background variables that predict the successful mastery of a heritage language by adult learners. While there are well-documented sociocultural models for other second language learners, thus far there are no similar published models for heritage language learners. We focused on…

  18. What Do We Know about Heritage Languages? What Do We Need to Know about Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Grace; Shin, Fay; Krashen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Heritage languages (HL) are language spoken by the children of immigrants or by those who immigrated to a country when young. The purpose of this article is to briefly review what is known about heritage language development over time and to identify some gaps in people's knowledge. In this article, the authors consider three aspects: how much HL…

  19. L2 Pragmatic Development through Conversational Interaction: Heritage Language Background and Explicitness of Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Seongmee

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates whether and how learners' heritage language (HL) background and explicitness of feedback influence second language (L2) pragmatic development of Korean referent honorifics through conversational interaction. Specifically, this study focuses on HL learners versus non-heritage language (NHL) learners and recasts versus…

  20. Looking Chinese and Learning Chinese as a Heritage Language: The Role of Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2016-01-01

    The identity-language link has been widely recognised. In Heritage Language research, the complex entanglement between Chinese ethnic identity and Chinese Heritage Language has gained increasing attention in recent decades. Both social psychological and poststructural schools have offered meaningful insights into this field, but have also received…

  1. L2 Pragmatic Development through Conversational Interaction: Heritage Language Background and Explicitness of Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Seongmee

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates whether and how learners' heritage language (HL) background and explicitness of feedback influence second language (L2) pragmatic development of Korean referent honorifics through conversational interaction. Specifically, this study focuses on HL learners versus non-heritage language (NHL) learners and recasts versus…

  2. Interactions between and among Heritage Language Learners and Second Language Learners during Collaborative Writing Activities: How Learners Attend to Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined…

  3. Interactions between and among Heritage Language Learners and Second Language Learners during Collaborative Writing Activities: How Learners Attend to Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics in the Spanish classroom between heritage language learner (HLL) dyads, second language learner (L2L) dyads, and mixed HLL-L2L dyads. Specifically, it examines oral, written and embodied discourse that informs our understanding of how learners attend to language. Analysis for this dissertation examined…

  4. Voluntary Writing in the Heritage Language: A Study of Biliterate Korean-Heritage Adolescents in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Youngjoo

    2008-01-01

    Until now, much of the research on heritage language (HL) education has focused on the use of oral language or traditional print-based texts by HL speakers who are born and raised in the U.S. In addition, many of the available studies concentrate on beginning-level HL students because few second generation immigrants reach advanced levels of…

  5. The Role of Oral Reading Fluency in ESL Reading Comprehension among Learners of Different First Language Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the construct of oral reading fluency and examines its relationship to reading comprehension among adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners of four first language (L1) backgrounds. One hundred and forty-nine adult learners of English with Arabic, Japanese, Spanish and Chinese language backgrounds participated in this…

  6. The Role of Oral Reading Fluency in ESL Reading Comprehension among Learners of Different First Language Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the construct of oral reading fluency and examines its relationship to reading comprehension among adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners of four first language (L1) backgrounds. One hundred and forty-nine adult learners of English with Arabic, Japanese, Spanish and Chinese language backgrounds participated in this…

  7. Interactive Dialogues in Language Software to Develop Speaking Fluency: A Study of Preservice English Teachers in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Joohee

    2013-01-01

    The current government in Korea, in order to encourage more fluent use of English, has shifted the focus of the English curriculum from language accuracy to language fluency by encouraging English teachers to use English as a classroom language. However, many English teachers in Korea feel burdened by this policy, mainly because they themselves…

  8. Interactive Dialogues in Language Software to Develop Speaking Fluency: A Study of Preservice English Teachers in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Joohee

    2013-01-01

    The current government in Korea, in order to encourage more fluent use of English, has shifted the focus of the English curriculum from language accuracy to language fluency by encouraging English teachers to use English as a classroom language. However, many English teachers in Korea feel burdened by this policy, mainly because they themselves…

  9. Concept-Based Teaching and Spanish Modality in Heritage Language Learners: A Vygotskyan Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Frazier, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed how six Heritage language learners at the university level gained conscious awareness and control of the concept of modality as revealed in student verbalizations (Vygotsky, 1998) throughout five different written communicative events. This work took place in the only course designed for Heritage language learners at a large…

  10. Foreign Language Anxiety and Heritage Students of Spanish: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallon, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if heritage students of Spanish experience foreign language anxiety and, if so, what levels of anxiety they experience. The data were collected using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). A total of 413 students (209 heritage students and 204 nonheritage students) participated in this…

  11. Curricular Perspectives in the Heritage Language Context: Assessing Culture and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudrie, Sara; Ducar, Cynthia; Relano-Pastor, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Spanish heritage language (SHL) programmes in post-secondary institutions must continue to redesign their curricula to accommodate the needs of a growing Latino population with a broad range of bilingual competencies. Despite the proliferation of research in heritage languages, pedagogically based research that incorporates students' voices is…

  12. From Identity to Commodity: Ideologies of Spanish in Heritage Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Jennifer; Martinez, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of language ideologies in the instructional discourse of Spanish for heritage speakers in the United States. We focus on the discourse present in prefaces and introductions to Spanish for heritage speakers textbooks published between 1970 and 2000. Whereas previous research on language ideologies in…

  13. Mi Lengua: Spanish as a Heritage Language in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roca, Ana, Ed.; Colombi, M. Cecilia, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: (1) "Insights from Research and Practice in Spanish as a Heritage Language" (M. Cecilia Colombi and Ana Roca); (2) "Toward a Theory of Heritage Language Acquisition: Spanish in the United States" (Andrew Lynch); (3) "Profiles of SNS Students in the Twenty-First Century:…

  14. Heritage Language Maintenance and Loss among the Children of Eastern European Immigrants in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesteruk, Olena

    2010-01-01

    The present study offers an in-depth look at heritage language maintenance and loss among the children of immigrant professionals from Eastern Europe residing in the USA. Based on semi-structured interviews with 50 married mothers and fathers, I explore: (1) parental attitudes related to heritage language transmission to their children; (2)…

  15. Heritage Language Reading in the University: A Survey of Students' Experiences, Strategies, and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Linda; Llosa, Lorena

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the reading experiences, strategies, and curriculum preferences of university-level heritage language students. One hundred and twenty eight students enrolled in four different heritage language programs at UCLA--Korean, Russian, Thai, and Vietnamese--completed a survey about their exposure to print, early and current reading…

  16. The Results of the National Heritage Language Survey: Implications for Teaching, Curriculum Design, and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreira, Maria; Kagan, Olga

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of heritage language learners (HLLs) across different heritage languages (HLs) and geographic regions in the United States. A general profile of HLLs emerges as a student who (1) acquired English in early childhood, after acquiring the HL; (2) has limited exposure to the HL outside the home; (3) has relatively…

  17. Concept-Based Teaching and Spanish Modality in Heritage Language Learners: A Vygotskyan Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Frazier, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed how six Heritage language learners at the university level gained conscious awareness and control of the concept of modality as revealed in student verbalizations (Vygotsky, 1998) throughout five different written communicative events. This work took place in the only course designed for Heritage language learners at a large…

  18. From Identity to Commodity: Ideologies of Spanish in Heritage Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Jennifer; Martinez, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of language ideologies in the instructional discourse of Spanish for heritage speakers in the United States. We focus on the discourse present in prefaces and introductions to Spanish for heritage speakers textbooks published between 1970 and 2000. Whereas previous research on language ideologies in…

  19. Curricular Perspectives in the Heritage Language Context: Assessing Culture and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudrie, Sara; Ducar, Cynthia; Relano-Pastor, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Spanish heritage language (SHL) programmes in post-secondary institutions must continue to redesign their curricula to accommodate the needs of a growing Latino population with a broad range of bilingual competencies. Despite the proliferation of research in heritage languages, pedagogically based research that incorporates students' voices is…

  20. Mi Lengua: Spanish as a Heritage Language in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roca, Ana, Ed.; Colombi, M. Cecilia, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: (1) "Insights from Research and Practice in Spanish as a Heritage Language" (M. Cecilia Colombi and Ana Roca); (2) "Toward a Theory of Heritage Language Acquisition: Spanish in the United States" (Andrew Lynch); (3) "Profiles of SNS Students in the Twenty-First Century:…

  1. Heritage Language Maintenance and Loss among the Children of Eastern European Immigrants in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesteruk, Olena

    2010-01-01

    The present study offers an in-depth look at heritage language maintenance and loss among the children of immigrant professionals from Eastern Europe residing in the USA. Based on semi-structured interviews with 50 married mothers and fathers, I explore: (1) parental attitudes related to heritage language transmission to their children; (2)…

  2. Errors in Inflectional Morphemes as an Index of Linguistic Competence of Korean Heritage Language Learners and American Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic competence in Korean of Korean heritage language learners (HLLs), compared to English-speaking non-heritage language learners (NHLLs) of Korean. It is unclear and controversial as to whether heritage languages learners are exposed to early but are interrupted manifest as L1 competence or share more…

  3. Errors in Inflectional Morphemes as an Index of Linguistic Competence of Korean Heritage Language Learners and American Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic competence in Korean of Korean heritage language learners (HLLs), compared to English-speaking non-heritage language learners (NHLLs) of Korean. It is unclear and controversial as to whether heritage languages learners are exposed to early but are interrupted manifest as L1 competence or share more…

  4. Language Socialisation and Korean as a Heritage Language: A Study of Hawaiian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byon, Andrew Sangpil

    2003-01-01

    Transcripts were made of teacher-student conversations in four Hawaiian classrooms in which Korean is taught as a heritage language. The study examines the use of the sentence-ending particle "yo," the meaning of the particle, the way it is used in interaction, and its sociopragmatic implication. The following research questions are…

  5. Language Socialisation and Korean as a Heritage Language: A Study of Hawaiian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byon, Andrew Sangpil

    2003-01-01

    Transcripts were made of teacher-student conversations in four Hawaiian classrooms in which Korean is taught as a heritage language. The study examines the use of the sentence-ending particle "yo," the meaning of the particle, the way it is used in interaction, and its sociopragmatic implication. The following research questions are…

  6. Oral History as an Innovative Language Teaching Technique for Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgo, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Oral history is presented in this article as an interpretative exercise for historical events in a Spanish course for heritage language learners at the university level. Through the interview of a Latino immigrant family, students re-examined the history of their own families and increased their linguistic self-esteem. They were guided to become…

  7. Confluency for Fluency in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Lucita

    This paper examines possible applications of confluent education to the foreign language classroom. The confluent approach creates an opportunity for integration of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and extrapersonal components in the process of learning. Confluent curriculum has been designed in three broad goal categories: to achieve traditional…

  8. Confluency for Fluency in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Lucita

    This paper examines possible applications of confluent education to the foreign language classroom. The confluent approach creates an opportunity for integration of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and extrapersonal components in the process of learning. Confluent curriculum has been designed in three broad goal categories: to achieve traditional…

  9. Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

    2011-01-01

    This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

  10. Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

    2011-01-01

    This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

  11. Conceptual competence as a component of second language fluency.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2009-12-01

    In this article we argue that conceptual competence should be seen as a component of second language (L2) communicative competence. Abstract concepts are highly expressed by means of metaphors, metonymies, idioms and other types of figurative language. In literature it is suggested that knowledge and appropriate use of these lexical segments are closely related to L2 mastery and therefore conceptual instruction is expected to facilitate L2 learning. To test the relationship between conceptual and L2 competence we conducted an experiment in which Modern Greek learners were encouraged to express their views on the concept of happiness. The results showed their weak performance in conveying their ideas in a coherent and acceptable manner.

  12. Who Is the Self That Teaches? A Perspective of Faculty as They Learn to Teach Spanish as a Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    Having orally proficient Spanish speaking heritage learners in a class alongside monolingual English speakers who are learning Spanish as a second language is quite the challenge: the heritage learners' ability to converse can be intimidating to the non heritage learner, but at the same time, the non heritage learner's ability to grasp the grammar…

  13. Exploring Relationships between Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension amongst English Second Language Readers in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Elizabeth J.; Spaull, Nic

    2016-01-01

    Most analyses of oral reading fluency (ORF) are based on L1 reading, and the norms that have been developed in English are based on first language reading data. This is problematic for developing countries where many children are learning in English as a second language. The aim of the present study is to model the relationship between English…

  14. The Effectiveness of Drama as an Instructional Approach for the Development of Second Language Oral Fluency, Comprehensibility, and Accentedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galante, Angelica; Thomson, Ron I.

    2017-01-01

    Although the development of second language (L2) oral fluency has been widely investigated over the past several decades, there remains a paucity of research examining language instruction specifically aimed at improving this cognitive skill. In this study, the researchers investigate how instructional techniques adapted from drama can positively…

  15. Developing Oral Reading Fluency among Hispanic High School English-Language Learners: An Intervention Using Speech Recognition Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffu, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated oral reading fluency development among Hispanic high school English-language learners. Participants included 11 males and 9 females from first-year, second-year, and third-year English language arts classes. The pre-post experimental study, which was conducted during a four-week ESL summer program, included a treatment and…

  16. Reading Ability, Reading Fluency and Orthographic Skills: The Case of L1 Slovene English as a Foreign Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbeli, Florina; Pižorn, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the difference between less-skilled and skilled L1 Slovene English as foreign language (EFL) students in foreign language (L2) fluency and L2 orthographic skills; 93 less-skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students and 102 skilled Grade 7 L1 Slovene students participated in the study. The results showed that skilled readers performed…

  17. Exploring Relationships between Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension amongst English Second Language Readers in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Elizabeth J.; Spaull, Nic

    2016-01-01

    Most analyses of oral reading fluency (ORF) are based on L1 reading, and the norms that have been developed in English are based on first language reading data. This is problematic for developing countries where many children are learning in English as a second language. The aim of the present study is to model the relationship between English…

  18. The role of language proficiency, cognate status and word frequency in the assessment of Spanish–English bilinguals’ verbal fluency

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Bobb, Susan C.; Marian, Viorica

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Assessment tools are needed to accurately index performance in bilingual populations. We examine the verbal fluency task to further establish the relative sensitivities of letter and category fluency in assessing bilingual language skills in Spanish-English bilinguals. Method English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals had one minute to name words belonging to a category (e.g., animals) or starting with a letter (e.g., A). Number of words retrieved, proficiency, cognate and frequency effects were examined. Results In their dominant language (English), bilinguals and monolinguals showed similar fluency patterns, generating more words in category than letter tasks. This category advantage disappeared for bilinguals tested in their non-dominant language (Spanish). Further, bilinguals retrieved a higher percentage of cognates (e.g., lagoon-laguna) than monolinguals across tasks and languages. In particular, as proficiency increased in their non-dominant language, bilinguals were more likely to produce cognates (including cognates with lower word frequencies). Conclusion While bilinguals and monolinguals performed largely the same, bilinguals showed fine-grained differences from monolinguals in both their dominant and non-dominant languages. Based on these results, we recommend that clinicians evaluate findings from bilinguals’ verbal fluency tasks with attention to language proficiency, cognate words produced, and relative to normative data that match their clients’ language histories. PMID:27172853

  19. Developing Oral Reading Fluency among Hispanic High School English-Language Learners: An Intervention Using Speech Recognition Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffu, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated oral reading fluency development among Hispanic high school English-language learners. Participants included 11 males and 9 females from first-year, second-year, and third-year English language arts classes. The pre-post experimental study, which was conducted during a four-week ESL summer program, included a treatment and…

  20. (In)Complete Acquisition of Aspect in Second Language and Heritage Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation compares the knowledge of Russian Verbal Aspect in two types of learners enrolled in college level Russian courses: foreign language learners of Russian whose native language is English and heritage language speakers of Russian whose dominant language at the time of study is English. Russian Aspect is known to be problematic both…

  1. Exploring Korean Heritage Language Learners' Anxiety: "We Are Not Afraid of Korean!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated Korean heritage language (KHL) learners' foreign language classroom anxiety, reading anxiety and writing anxiety using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) by Saito, Garza and Horwitz and the Writing Apprehension Test (WAT) by…

  2. (In)Complete Acquisition of Aspect in Second Language and Heritage Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation compares the knowledge of Russian Verbal Aspect in two types of learners enrolled in college level Russian courses: foreign language learners of Russian whose native language is English and heritage language speakers of Russian whose dominant language at the time of study is English. Russian Aspect is known to be problematic both…

  3. The Study Abroad Experiences of Heritage Language Learners: Discourses of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Kirstin Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study highlights the complexities associated with learning a heritage language (HL) abroad, specifically with regard to identity, expectations, and beliefs about language and language learning, by examining the ways that HL learners talk about themselves. These are important topics to study because perceptions of language learning have been…

  4. Exploring Korean Heritage Language Learners' Anxiety: "We Are Not Afraid of Korean!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated Korean heritage language (KHL) learners' foreign language classroom anxiety, reading anxiety and writing anxiety using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) by Saito, Garza and Horwitz and the Writing Apprehension Test (WAT) by…

  5. Grammatical Gender in American Norwegian Heritage Language: Stability or Attrition?

    PubMed Central

    Lohndal, Terje; Westergaard, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates possible attrition/change in the gender system of Norwegian heritage language spoken in America. Based on data from 50 speakers in the Corpus of American Norwegian Speech (CANS), we show that the three-gender system is to some extent retained, although considerable overgeneralization of the masculine (the most frequent gender) is attested. This affects both feminine and neuter gender forms, while declension class markers such as the definite suffix remain unaffected. We argue that the gender category is vulnerable due to the lack of transparency of gender assignment in Norwegian. Furthermore, unlike incomplete acquisition, which may result in a somewhat different or reduced gender system, attrition is more likely to lead to general erosion, eventually leading to complete loss of gender. PMID:27014151

  6. Grammatical Gender in American Norwegian Heritage Language: Stability or Attrition?

    PubMed

    Lohndal, Terje; Westergaard, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates possible attrition/change in the gender system of Norwegian heritage language spoken in America. Based on data from 50 speakers in the Corpus of American Norwegian Speech (CANS), we show that the three-gender system is to some extent retained, although considerable overgeneralization of the masculine (the most frequent gender) is attested. This affects both feminine and neuter gender forms, while declension class markers such as the definite suffix remain unaffected. We argue that the gender category is vulnerable due to the lack of transparency of gender assignment in Norwegian. Furthermore, unlike incomplete acquisition, which may result in a somewhat different or reduced gender system, attrition is more likely to lead to general erosion, eventually leading to complete loss of gender.

  7. Written Discourse Production of Bilingual Learners of Spanish: A Comparison between Heritage and Non-Heritage Speakers as a Look to the Future of Heritage Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul Bagi, Samia

    2012-01-01

    With the purpose of understanding plausible reasons as to why Hispanics learners of Spanish, or heritage language learners (HLL), tend to obtain lower grades than their non-Hispanic counterparts (L2) in the same courses, forty-four students of Spanish (17 HLLs and 27 L2s) provided written production once a week for a period of six weeks. The data…

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Family Language Policy and Heritage Language Knowledge among Second Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mila

    2008-01-01

    The family unit and home domain have been and remain important in heritage language maintenance efforts. There are complex relationships between parental language attitudes, their application in everyday language management activities and the children's knowledge of home language vocabulary. The present large-scale study examined the family policy…

  9. Investigating language lateralization during phonological and semantic fluency tasks using functional transcranial Doppler sonography

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Payne, Heather; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a critical role in language processing, some questions remain. Here we examine the influence of overt versus covert speech production on lateralization, the relationship between lateralization and behavioural measures of language performance and the strength of lateralization across the subcomponents of language. The present study used functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) to investigate lateralization of phonological and semantic fluency during both overt and covert word generation in right-handed adults. The laterality index (LI) was left lateralized in all conditions, and there was no difference in the strength of LI between overt and covert speech. This supports the validity of using overt speech in fTCD studies, another benefit of which is a reliable measure of speech production. PMID:24875468

  10. Investigating language lateralization during phonological and semantic fluency tasks using functional transcranial Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Payne, Heather; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a critical role in language processing, some questions remain. Here we examine the influence of overt versus covert speech production on lateralization, the relationship between lateralization and behavioural measures of language performance and the strength of lateralization across the subcomponents of language. The present study used functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) to investigate lateralization of phonological and semantic fluency during both overt and covert word generation in right-handed adults. The laterality index (LI) was left lateralized in all conditions, and there was no difference in the strength of LI between overt and covert speech. This supports the validity of using overt speech in fTCD studies, another benefit of which is a reliable measure of speech production.

  11. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana; Dooley, Kevin; Henthorn, Trevor; Head, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note, is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe, and its genesis is unclear. The prevalence of AP was examined among students in an American music conservatory as a function of age of onset of musical training, ethnicity, and fluency in speaking a tone language. Taking those of East Asian ethnicity, the performance level on a test of AP was significantly higher among those who spoke a tone language very fluently compared with those who spoke a tone language fairly fluently and also compared with those who were not fluent in speaking a tone language. The performance level of this last group did not differ significantly from that of Caucasian students who spoke only nontone language. Early onset of musical training was associated with enhanced performance, but this did not interact with the effect of language. Further analyses showed that the results could not be explained by country of early music education. The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language.

  12. Writing fluency and quality in kindergarten and first grade: The role of attention, reading, transcription, and oral language

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students’ reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language component skills. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that a model including attention was better fitting than a model with only language and literacy factors. Attention, a higher-order literacy factor related to reading and spelling proficiency, and automaticity in letter-writing were uniquely and positively related to compositional fluency in kindergarten. Attention and higher-order literacy factor were predictive of both composition quality and fluency in first grade, while oral language showed unique relations with first grade writing quality. Implications for writing development and instruction are discussed. PMID:25132722

  13. Writing fluency and quality in kindergarten and first grade: The role of attention, reading, transcription, and oral language.

    PubMed

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language component skills. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that a model including attention was better fitting than a model with only language and literacy factors. Attention, a higher-order literacy factor related to reading and spelling proficiency, and automaticity in letter-writing were uniquely and positively related to compositional fluency in kindergarten. Attention and higher-order literacy factor were predictive of both composition quality and fluency in first grade, while oral language showed unique relations with first grade writing quality. Implications for writing development and instruction are discussed.

  14. Age of Onset of Bilingualism, Language Use, and the Volitional Subjunctive in Heritage Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates heritage learners' recognition of native-like and non-native-like mood selection in Spanish volitional constructions along two dimensions: age of onset of bilingualism in English (operationalized as age of arrival) and language use. Thirty-two heritage learners completed a grammaticality judgment (GJ) and an editing…

  15. The Syntax-Pragmatics Interface in Language Loss: Covert Restructuring of Aspect in Heritage Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laleko, Oksana Vladislavovna

    2010-01-01

    Heritage grammars, linguistic varieties emerging in the context of intergenerational language loss, are known to diverge from the corresponding full-fledged baseline varieties in principled and systematic ways, as typically illustrated by errors made by heritage speakers in production. This dissertation examines "covert" restructuring of aspect in…

  16. Community of Practice and Family Language Policy: Maintaining Heritage Japanese in Sydney--Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining children's heritage language (HL) is a challenging task for linguistic minorities around the world. While many Japanese heritage children in Sydney attend weekend HL schools, they typically discontinue attendance before, or during, secondary school. To date, no longitudinal study has investigated what happens to their HL maintenance…

  17. Community of Practice and Family Language Policy: Maintaining Heritage Japanese in Sydney--Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining children's heritage language (HL) is a challenging task for linguistic minorities around the world. While many Japanese heritage children in Sydney attend weekend HL schools, they typically discontinue attendance before, or during, secondary school. To date, no longitudinal study has investigated what happens to their HL maintenance…

  18. Do Language Fluency and Other Socioeconomic Factors Influence the Use of PubMed and MedlinePlus?

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, L.; Gavino, A.; Callaghan, F.; Fontelo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased usage of MedlinePlus by Spanish-speakers was observed after introduction of MedlinePlus in Spanish. This probably reflects increased usage of MEDLINE and PubMed by those with greater fluency in the language in which it is presented; but this has never been demonstrated in English speakers. Evidence that lack of English fluency deters international healthcare personnel from using PubMed could support the use of multi-language search tools like Babel-MeSH. Objectives This study aims to measure the effects of language fluency and other socioeconomic factors on PubMed MEDLINE and MedlinePlus access by international users. Methods We retrospectively reviewed server pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus from various periods of time, and analyzed them against country statistics on language fluency, GDP, literacy rate, Internet usage, medical schools, and physicians per capita, to determine whether they were associated. Results We found fluency in English to be positively associated with pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus in countries with high literacy rates. Spanish was generally found to be positively associated with pageviews of MedlinePlus en Español. The other parameters also showed varying degrees of association with pageviews. Conclusions After adjusting for the other factors investigated in this study, language fluency was a consistently significant predictor of the use of PubMed, MedlinePlus English and MedlinePlus en Español. This study may support the need for multi-language search tools and may increase access of health information resources from non-English speaking countries. PMID:23874356

  19. Do language fluency and other socioeconomic factors influence the use of PubMed and MedlinePlus?

    PubMed

    Sheets, L; Gavino, A; Callaghan, F; Fontelo, P

    2013-01-01

    Increased usage of MedlinePlus by Spanish-speakers was observed after introduction of MedlinePlus in Spanish. This probably reflects increased usage of MEDLINE and PubMed by those with greater fluency in the language in which it is presented; but this has never been demonstrated in English speakers. Evidence that lack of English fluency deters international healthcare personnel from using PubMed could support the use of multi-language search tools like Babel-MeSH. This study aims to measure the effects of language fluency and other socioeconomic factors on PubMed MEDLINE and MedlinePlus access by international users. We retrospectively reviewed server pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus from various periods of time, and analyzed them against country statistics on language fluency, GDP, literacy rate, Internet usage, medical schools, and physicians per capita, to determine whether they were associated. We found fluency in English to be positively associated with pageviews of PubMed and MedlinePlus in countries with high literacy rates. Spanish was generally found to be positively associated with pageviews of MedlinePlus en Español. The other parameters also showed varying degrees of association with pageviews. After adjusting for the other factors investigated in this study, language fluency was a consistently significant predictor of the use of PubMed, MedlinePlus English and MedlinePlus en Español. This study may support the need for multi-language search tools and may increase access of health information resources from non-English speaking countries.

  20. Effects of task language and second-language proficiency on the neural correlates of phonemic fluency in native Japanese speakers: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Greggory J; Matsuo, Koji; Hirata, Keiko; Matsubara, Toshio; Harada, Kenichiro; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Shinoda, Koh

    2017-09-27

    Data collected during a phonemic fluency task (or 'FAS test'), a standard component of neuropsychological batteries for assessment of cognitive deficits, may be language-dependent and may differ depending on second-language proficiency. The unique orthographic/phonological system of the task language, and the reported cognitive advantages inherent to bilinguals, may each influence the task's neural correlates. However, language background is not currently assessed in most studies testing phonemic fluency. Here, we used 52-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy in college-aged native-Japanese subjects to examine functional changes in oxygenated hemoglobin elicited during a phonemic fluency task performed in Japanese and in English. We found activity differences that were related to task language and second-language proficiency. Besides loci activated in the Japanese test, bilateral precentral channels were specifically recruited in the English test. Furthermore, the higher-proficiency group showed almost no increase in oxygenated hemoglobin in either language context, whereas participants with lower proficiency showed widespread increases for both contexts. We interpret precentral increases as the consequence of additional articulatory resource recruitment in a second-language context. As for the lack of such variation in the higher-proficiency group, it may reflect an advantage in nonverbal executive control in this group. Together, our results point to language background and proficiency as confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of phonemic fluency and that the adequacy of such measures in populations with varying language backgrounds needs to be considered in future studies.

  1. Languages on the screen: is film comprehension related to the viewers' fluency level and to the language in the subtitles?

    PubMed

    Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Bairstow, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    This research aimed at studying the role of subtitling in film comprehension. It focused on the languages in which the subtitles are written and on the participants' fluency levels in the languages presented in the film. In a preliminary part of the study, the most salient visual and dialogue elements of a short sequence of an English film were extracted by the means of a free recall task after showing two versions of the film (first a silent, then a dubbed-into-French version) to native French speakers. This visual and dialogue information was used in the setting of a questionnaire concerning the understanding of the film presented in the main part of the study, in which other French native speakers with beginner, intermediate, or advanced fluency levels in English were shown one of three versions of the film used in the preliminary part. Respectively, these versions had no subtitles or they included either English or French subtitles. The results indicate a global interaction between all three factors in this study: For the beginners, visual processing dropped from the version without subtitles to that with English subtitles, and even more so if French subtitles were provided, whereas the effect of film version on dialogue comprehension was the reverse. The advanced participants achieved higher comprehension for both types of information with the version without subtitles, and dialogue information processing was always better than visual information processing. The intermediate group similarly processed dialogues in a better way than visual information, but was not affected by film version. These results imply that, depending on the viewers' fluency levels, the language of subtitles can have different effects on movie information processing.

  2. Effects of fluency, oral language, and executive function on reading comprehension performance.

    PubMed

    Cutting, Laurie E; Materek, April; Cole, Carolyn A S; Levine, Terry M; Mahone, E Mark

    2009-06-01

    Reading disability (RD) typically consists of deficits in word reading accuracy and/or reading comprehension. While it is well known that word reading accuracy deficits lead to comprehension deficits (general reading disability, GRD), less is understood about neuropsychological profiles of children who exhibit adequate word reading accuracy but nevertheless develop specific reading comprehension deficits (S-RCD). Establishing the underlying neuropsychological processes associated with different RD types is essential for ultimately understanding core neurobiological bases of reading comprehension. To this end, the present study investigated isolated and contextual word fluency, oral language, and executive function on reading comprehension performance in 56 9- to 14-year-old children [21 typically developing (TD), 18 GRD, and 17 S-RCD]. Results indicated that TD and S-RCD participants read isolated words at a faster rate than participants with GRD; however, both RD groups had contextual word fluency and oral language weaknesses. Additionally, S-RCD participants showed prominent weaknesses in executive function. Implications for understanding the neuropsychological bases for reading comprehension are discussed.

  3. Is the fluency of language outputs related to individual differences in intelligence and executive function?

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Paul E; Nigg, Joel T; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2013-10-01

    There has been little research on the fluency of language production and individual difference variables, such as intelligence and executive function. In this study, we report data from 106 participants who completed a battery of standardized cognitive tasks and a sentence production task. For the sentence production task, participants were presented with two objects and a verb and their task was to formulate a sentence. Four types of disfluency were examined: filled pauses (e.g. uh, um), unfilled pauses, repetitions, and repairs. Repetitions occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then repeats the previous word/phrase, and repairs occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then starts over with a different word/phrase. Hierarchical structural equation modeling revealed a significant relationship between repair disfluencies and inhibition. Conclusions focus on the role of individual differences in cognitive ability and their role in models and theories of language production.

  4. Is the fluency of language outputs related to individual differences in intelligence and executive function?

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Nigg, Joel T.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on the fluency of language production and individual differences variables, such as intelligence and executive function. In this study, we report data from 106 participants who completed a battery of standardized cognitive tasks and a sentence production task. For the sentence production task, participants were presented with two objects and a verb and their task was to formulate a sentence. Four types of disfluency were examined: filled pauses (e.g. uh, um), unfilled pauses, repetitions, and repairs. Repetitions occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then repeats the previous word/phrase, and repairs occur when the speaker suspends articulation and then starts over with a different word/phrase. Hierarchical structural equation modeling revealed a significant relationship between repair disfluencies and inhibition. Conclusions focus on the role of individual differences in cognitive ability and their role in models and theories of language production. PMID:24018099

  5. Advocating for Critical Pedagogical Approaches to Teaching Spanish as a Heritage Language: Some Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Maite

    2011-01-01

    This article makes the case for using critical pedagogical approaches to the teaching of Spanish as a heritage language (HL). Having different language tracks is not enough: As long as HL learners hold negative linguistic attitudes about their own language variety, they will be unable and unprepared to learn successfully. First, I define who HL…

  6. The Rediscovery of Heritage and Community Language Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook; Wright, Wayne E.

    2014-01-01

    Language and cultural preservation efforts among different communities of language speakers in the United States have received increasing attention as interest in linguistic rights and globalization continues to deepen. In addition to mounting evidence of the cognitive, psychological, and academic benefits of heritage language/community language…

  7. Exploring the Role of Modality: L2-Heritage Learner Interactions in the Spanish Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    In most post-secondary Spanish language programs in the U.S., heritage language (HL) learners and second-language (L2) learners are enrolled together, in the same courses (Ingold, Rivers, Tesser, & Ashby, 2002). Nevertheless, there is scant empirical research on what actually goes on in these classrooms and what the nature of learner-learner…

  8. Hindi Heritage Language Learners' Performance during OPIs: Characteristics and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva, Gabriela Nik.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examines the oral performance of Hindi language learners during practice Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPI) conducted during workshops hosted by New York University and sponsored by STARTALK. The most salient characteristics of the heritage language learners' output are compared with the output of foreign language learners who are…

  9. Community Service and Activism in Heritage Languages, New York City, 1915-1956

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I describe the work of Leonard Covello, a New York City language educator and high school principal of the early 20th century who argued for Italian and Spanish heritage language (HL) preservation in schools. Although Covello promoted standard language Italian and Spanish in the HL classroom, he also encouraged HL students to use…

  10. Heritage Language Learners in Mixed Spanish Classes: Subtractive Practices and Perceptions of High School Spanish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Linwood J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the language ideologies and instructional practices of an entire Spanish language faculty at a high school in a new gateway state for immigration. The study examined additive and subtractive practices of teachers as they strived to teach Spanish to heritage language learners (HLLs) enrolled in mixed…

  11. Hindi Heritage Language Learners' Performance during OPIs: Characteristics and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva, Gabriela Nik.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examines the oral performance of Hindi language learners during practice Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPI) conducted during workshops hosted by New York University and sponsored by STARTALK. The most salient characteristics of the heritage language learners' output are compared with the output of foreign language learners who are…

  12. Developing Literacy in Young Speakers of Japanese as a Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Masako

    2007-01-01

    Young learners of Japanese heritage language (JHL) need a solid foundation of oral language to develop strong literacy skills. Considering the limited hours of instruction at JHL schools, oral language and literacy skills rely on a joint effort between the JHL school and parents. JHL schools that help parents understand the nuances of JHL…

  13. Community Service and Activism in Heritage Languages, New York City, 1915-1956

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I describe the work of Leonard Covello, a New York City language educator and high school principal of the early 20th century who argued for Italian and Spanish heritage language (HL) preservation in schools. Although Covello promoted standard language Italian and Spanish in the HL classroom, he also encouraged HL students to use…

  14. Exploring the Role of Modality: L2-Heritage Learner Interactions in the Spanish Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    In most post-secondary Spanish language programs in the U.S., heritage language (HL) learners and second-language (L2) learners are enrolled together, in the same courses (Ingold, Rivers, Tesser, & Ashby, 2002). Nevertheless, there is scant empirical research on what actually goes on in these classrooms and what the nature of learner-learner…

  15. Learning Modern Greek: A Comparison of Development and Identification Patterns among Heritage and Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantafillidou, Lida; Hedgcock, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Although second language (L2) research has explored connections between sociopsychological variables and L2 socialization processes, relatively few investigations have compared heritage language (HL) learners to traditional foreign language (FL) learners in the North American context. This descriptive study compares the learning and acculturation…

  16. The Rediscovery of Heritage and Community Language Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook; Wright, Wayne E.

    2014-01-01

    Language and cultural preservation efforts among different communities of language speakers in the United States have received increasing attention as interest in linguistic rights and globalization continues to deepen. In addition to mounting evidence of the cognitive, psychological, and academic benefits of heritage language/community language…

  17. Advocating for Critical Pedagogical Approaches to Teaching Spanish as a Heritage Language: Some Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Maite

    2011-01-01

    This article makes the case for using critical pedagogical approaches to the teaching of Spanish as a heritage language (HL). Having different language tracks is not enough: As long as HL learners hold negative linguistic attitudes about their own language variety, they will be unable and unprepared to learn successfully. First, I define who HL…

  18. Reading the World through Words: Cultural Themes in Heritage Chinese Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the social and cultural knowledge embedded in the textbooks for language and literacy education in a Chinese heritage language school, the Zhonguo School, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It examines how Chinese language arts textbooks introduce the child reader to cultural knowledge considered legitimate and valued in China as…

  19. Developing Literacy in Young Speakers of Japanese as a Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Masako

    2007-01-01

    Young learners of Japanese heritage language (JHL) need a solid foundation of oral language to develop strong literacy skills. Considering the limited hours of instruction at JHL schools, oral language and literacy skills rely on a joint effort between the JHL school and parents. JHL schools that help parents understand the nuances of JHL…

  20. Ainu as a Heritage Language of Japan: History, Current State and Future of Ainu Language Policy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeter, Jennifer Louise; Okazaki, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Ainu is the heritage language of the indigenous people of present-day southern Sakhalin, the Kurile Islands, present-day Hokkaido, and northeastern Honshu (mainland Japan). The UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (2009) considered the Ainu language critically endangered with only 15 speakers remaining. This article…

  1. Ainu as a Heritage Language of Japan: History, Current State and Future of Ainu Language Policy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeter, Jennifer Louise; Okazaki, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Ainu is the heritage language of the indigenous people of present-day southern Sakhalin, the Kurile Islands, present-day Hokkaido, and northeastern Honshu (mainland Japan). The UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (2009) considered the Ainu language critically endangered with only 15 speakers remaining. This article…

  2. Language-specific cortical activation patterns for verbal fluency tasks in Japanese as assessed by multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dan, Haruka; Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Oguro, Keiji; Yokota, Hidenori; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Watanabe, Eiju

    2013-08-01

    In Japan, verbal fluency tasks are commonly utilized as a standard paradigm for neuropsychological testing of cognitive and linguistic abilities. The Japanese "letter fluency task" is a mora/letter fluency task based on the phonological and orthographical characteristics of the Japanese language. Whether there are similar activation patterns across languages or a Japanese-specific mora/letter fluency pattern is not certain. We investigated the neural correlates of overt mora/letter and category fluency tasks in healthy Japanese. The category fluency task activated the bilateral fronto-temporal language-related regions with left-superior lateralization, while the mora/letter fluency task led to wider activation including the inferior parietal regions (left and right supramarginal gyrus). Specific bilateral supramarginal activation during the mora/letter fluency task in Japanese was distinct from that of similar letter fluency tasks in syllable-alphabet-based languages: this might be due to the requirement of additional phonological processing and working memory, or due to increased cognitive load in general. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving Latino, English Language Learners' Reading Fluency: The Effects of Small-Group and One-on-One Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Sarah G.; Begeny, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Reading fluency is a critical yet commonly neglected component of early reading instruction. For the large percentage of English language learners (ELLs) who are struggling with or at risk for reading difficulties, there is insufficient research available to help educators implement time-efficient interventions with these students. Using an…

  4. Building Language Blocks in L2 Japanese: Chunk Learning and the Development of Complexity and Fluency in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study examined the development of complexity and fluency of second language (L2) spoken production among L2 learners who received extensive practice on grammatical chunks as constituent units of discourse. Twenty-two students enrolled in an elementary Japanese course at a U.S. university received classroom instruction on 40 grammatical…

  5. Assessing Phonemic Fluency in Multilingual Contexts: Letter Selection Methodology and Demographically Stratified Norms for Three South African Language Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Carey, Paul D.; Baufeldt, Angela L.; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Conradie, Simone; Dowling, Tessa; Stein, Dan J.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Because of their global clinical utility, phonemic fluency tests are frequently incorporated into neuropsychological assessment batteries. However, in heterogeneous societies their use is complicated by the lack of careful attention to using letters of equivalent difficulty across languages, and the paucity of norms stratified by relevant…

  6. Whole Language Instruction vs. Phonics Instruction: Effect on Reading Fluency and Spelling Accuracy of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Krissy; Feng, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of whole language instruction versus phonics instruction for improving reading fluency and spelling accuracy. The participants were the first grade students in the researcher's general education classroom of a non-Title I school. Stratified sampling was used to randomly divide…

  7. Assessing Phonemic Fluency in Multilingual Contexts: Letter Selection Methodology and Demographically Stratified Norms for Three South African Language Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Carey, Paul D.; Baufeldt, Angela L.; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Conradie, Simone; Dowling, Tessa; Stein, Dan J.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Because of their global clinical utility, phonemic fluency tests are frequently incorporated into neuropsychological assessment batteries. However, in heterogeneous societies their use is complicated by the lack of careful attention to using letters of equivalent difficulty across languages, and the paucity of norms stratified by relevant…

  8. Using Object-Based Activities and an Online Inquiry Platform to Support Learners' Engagement with Their Heritage Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charitonos, Koula; Charalampidi, Marina; Scanlon, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Heritage language education is distinct from the field of second language acquisition due to having the concept of identity always at its core (Leeman, Rabin, & Roman-Mendoza, 2012). This paper draws on this concept and presents an action research study focusing on the teaching and learning of Greek as a heritage language in the context of…

  9. "What about Me? I'm Not Like Chinese but I'm Not Like American": Heritage-Language Learning and Identity of Mixed-Heritage Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines heritage-language (HL) experience and identity of 12 adults of mixed-heritage backgrounds through in-depth autobiographical interviews. Each participant has an English-speaking American parent and an HL (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, or Vietnamese)-speaking immigrant parent. The interviews explored each participant's…

  10. Facilitating English-Language Learners' Oral Reading Fluency with Digital Pen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Tan, Chia-Chen; Lo, Bey-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is an indicator of overall reading competence. Many studies have claimed that repeated reading can promote oral reading fluency. Currently, novel Web- or computer-based reading technologies offer interactive digital materials that promote English oral reading fluency using the repeated reading strategy; however, paper-based…

  11. Facilitating English-Language Learners' Oral Reading Fluency with Digital Pen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Tan, Chia-Chen; Lo, Bey-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is an indicator of overall reading competence. Many studies have claimed that repeated reading can promote oral reading fluency. Currently, novel Web- or computer-based reading technologies offer interactive digital materials that promote English oral reading fluency using the repeated reading strategy; however, paper-based…

  12. Spanish Heritage Language Programs: A Snapshot of Current Programs in the Southwestern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudrie, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation into current Spanish heritage language (SHL) course offerings and their content in 4-year public and private universities in the American Southwest. Prior research has indicated that the number of language departments in the United States offering SHL courses remains small (18 and 17.8%,…

  13. The Effects of Instruction on Linguistic Development in Spanish Heritage Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potowski, Kim; Jegerski, Jill; Morgan-Short, Kara

    2009-01-01

    The current study compared the effects of two second language (L2) instruction types--processing instruction (VanPatten, 2004) and traditional output-based instruction--on the development of the Spanish past subjunctive among U.S. Spanish heritage language speakers and traditional L2 learners. After exposure to instruction, both the heritage…

  14. How Similar Are Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers? Spanish Clitics and Word Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of heritage speakers, many of whom possess incomplete knowledge of their family language, suggest that these speakers may be linguistically superior to second language (L2) learners only in phonology but not in morphosyntax. This study reexamines this claim by focusing on knowledge of clitic pronouns and word order in 24 L2 learners…

  15. The Wor(l)d is a Collage: Multi-Performance by Chinese Heritage Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Agnes Weiyun

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the simultaneous use of English and Chinese by speakers of Chinese as a heritage language (CHL). It focuses on spontaneous, dynamic, and high-density mixing of the two languages within the smallest building block of a speaking turn: the turn constructional unit (TCU). Drawing upon data from different age and proficiency groups,…

  16. Emerging Literacy in Spanish among Hispanic Heritage Language University Students in the USA: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, Marta; Belpoliti, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study identifies some lexical aspects of the emerging writing skills in Spanish among receptive English/Spanish bilingual students with little or no exposure to formal study of the home language upon entering a Spanish Heritage Language Program at a large public university in the Southwestern United States. The 200+ essays analyzed in…

  17. Heritage Language Development: Preserving a Mythic Past or Envisioning the Future of Canadian Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardado, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article, part of a larger study, examines three middle-class, Hispanic Canadian families' conceptualizations of language, culture, and identity. Via an analysis of interview data, the findings indicate that the parents assigned diverse meanings to heritage language development (HLD) and held high expectations for their children's formation of…

  18. Language Learning, Heritage, and Literacy in the USA: The Case of Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehlaoui, Abdelilah Salim

    2008-01-01

    Over 3 million people speak Arabic as a first language in the USA and almost all of them are native-born Americans. Efforts in recent decades to provide support, at both local and governmental levels, for the teaching of Arabic as a heritage language are described. Reflecting on the development of his own personal literacies and his teaching…

  19. Emerging Literacy in Spanish among Hispanic Heritage Language University Students in the USA: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, Marta; Belpoliti, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study identifies some lexical aspects of the emerging writing skills in Spanish among receptive English/Spanish bilingual students with little or no exposure to formal study of the home language upon entering a Spanish Heritage Language Program at a large public university in the Southwestern United States. The 200+ essays analyzed in…

  20. Autochthonous Heritage Languages and Social Media: Writing and Bilingual Practices in Low German on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reershemius, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how speakers of an autochthonous heritage language (AHL) make use of digital media, through the example of Low German, a regional language used by a decreasing number of speakers mainly in northern Germany. The focus of the analysis is on Web 2.0 and its interactive potential for individual speakers. The study therefore…

  1. How Similar Are Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers? Spanish Clitics and Word Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of heritage speakers, many of whom possess incomplete knowledge of their family language, suggest that these speakers may be linguistically superior to second language (L2) learners only in phonology but not in morphosyntax. This study reexamines this claim by focusing on knowledge of clitic pronouns and word order in 24 L2 learners…

  2. Heritage Language Learners in Linguistics Courses: At a Major (but Fixable) Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Maite

    2014-01-01

    Most heritage language learners (HLLs) of Spanish cannot produce grammatical terminology, simple grammatical analysis, and/or simple grammatical items on demand. Possible causes are: the naturalistic manner in which language was acquired, lack of opportunities to learn basic concepts in beginning courses (because they were skipped), or the belief…

  3. The Metapragmatic Regimentation of Heritage Language Use in Hispanic Canadian Caregiver-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardado, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the linguistic tools employed by Hispanic Canadian families in their language socialization efforts of fostering sustained heritage language (HL) use. The article is based on data collected during a 1½-year ethnography, and focuses on the metapragmatic devices used in daily interactions. Utilizing analytic tools from the…

  4. Family Interaction and Engagement with the Heritage Language: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I closely examine spontaneous interactions between members of a tri-generation Italian American family. I argue that members show different language preferences and differing attitudes towards the family's multilingual identity but that they all demonstrate a degree of "engagement" with the heritage language. Phenomena that…

  5. The Wor(l)d is a Collage: Multi-Performance by Chinese Heritage Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Agnes Weiyun

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the simultaneous use of English and Chinese by speakers of Chinese as a heritage language (CHL). It focuses on spontaneous, dynamic, and high-density mixing of the two languages within the smallest building block of a speaking turn: the turn constructional unit (TCU). Drawing upon data from different age and proficiency groups,…

  6. Heritage Language Development: Preserving a Mythic Past or Envisioning the Future of Canadian Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardado, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article, part of a larger study, examines three middle-class, Hispanic Canadian families' conceptualizations of language, culture, and identity. Via an analysis of interview data, the findings indicate that the parents assigned diverse meanings to heritage language development (HLD) and held high expectations for their children's formation of…

  7. Developing CALL for Heritage Languages: "The 7 Keys of the Dragon"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revithiadou, Anthi; Kourtis-Kazoullis, Vasilia; Soukalopoulou, Maria; Konstantoudakis, Konstantinos; Zarras, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present an interactive extensible software, "The 7 Keys of the Dragon," for the teaching/learning of Albanian and Russian to students that attend primary and secondary education in Greece with the respective languages as their heritage languages. We address the key challenges we encountered during the conceptualization…

  8. Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…

  9. Service-Learning as a Means of Vocabulary Learning for Second Language and Heritage Language Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocaimaza-Hatch, C. Cecilia; Walls, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Service-Learning (SL) has been defined as an experiential teaching methodology. Through SL, students participate in activities that benefit their community and enhance their learning experience. In the current study, Spanish as a second language (L2) and heritage language learners (HLLs) engaged in a SL project in which they translated English…

  10. Service-Learning as a Means of Vocabulary Learning for Second Language and Heritage Language Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocaimaza-Hatch, C. Cecilia; Walls, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Service-Learning (SL) has been defined as an experiential teaching methodology. Through SL, students participate in activities that benefit their community and enhance their learning experience. In the current study, Spanish as a second language (L2) and heritage language learners (HLLs) engaged in a SL project in which they translated English…

  11. Impact of Home Language and Literacy Support on English-Chinese Biliteracy Acquisition among Chinese Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chan; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Studies on monolingual children have shown that home language and literacy support is crucial in children's early literacy acquisition. However, such support has not been examined as thoroughly among bilingual children, including heritage speakers. This study investigated the effect of home language and literacy support on important precursors of…

  12. Impact of Home Language and Literacy Support on English-Chinese Biliteracy Acquisition among Chinese Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chan; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Studies on monolingual children have shown that home language and literacy support is crucial in children's early literacy acquisition. However, such support has not been examined as thoroughly among bilingual children, including heritage speakers. This study investigated the effect of home language and literacy support on important precursors of…

  13. Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…

  14. Contesting Heritage: Language, Legitimacy, and Schooling at a Weekend Japanese-Language School in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Lee, Kiri

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have shown that the maintenance of a minority language has positive effects on the minority students' view of self, educational attainment, and career opportunities (Cho 2000; Wright and Taylor 1995). In the research for this article, however, we found that such a focus on the effects of heritage-language education on the students is…

  15. Contesting Heritage: Language, Legitimacy, and Schooling at a Weekend Japanese-Language School in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Lee, Kiri

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have shown that the maintenance of a minority language has positive effects on the minority students' view of self, educational attainment, and career opportunities (Cho 2000; Wright and Taylor 1995). In the research for this article, however, we found that such a focus on the effects of heritage-language education on the students is…

  16. Early Heritage-Language Education and the Abrupt Shift to a Dominant-Language Classroom: Impact on the Personal and Collective Esteem of Inuit Children in Arctic Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bougie, Evelyne; Wright, Stephen C.; Taylor, Donald M.

    2003-01-01

    This research explored the impact of the abrupt shift from heritage-language to dominant-language education on Inuit children's personal and collective self-esteem. Specifically, the following question was addressed: will early heritage-language education serve as an inoculation against the potential negative impact of being submerged in a…

  17. Early Heritage-Language Education and the Abrupt Shift to a Dominant-Language Classroom: Impact on the Personal and Collective Esteem of Inuit Children in Arctic Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bougie, Evelyne; Wright, Stephen C.; Taylor, Donald M.

    2003-01-01

    This research explored the impact of the abrupt shift from heritage-language to dominant-language education on Inuit children's personal and collective self-esteem. Specifically, the following question was addressed: will early heritage-language education serve as an inoculation against the potential negative impact of being submerged in a…

  18. Longitudinal Prediction of 1st and 2nd Grade English Oral Reading Fluency in English Language Learners: Which Early Reading and Language Skills Are Better Predictors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solari, Emily J.; Aceves, Terese C.; Higareda, Ignacio; Richards-Tutor, Cara; Filippini, Alexis L.; Gerber, Michael M.; Leafstedt, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between Spanish and English early literacy skills in kindergarten and first grade, and English oral reading fluency at the end of first and second grade in a sample of 150 Spanish-speaking English language learners. Students were assessed in kindergarten, first, and second grades on a broad bilingual academic…

  19. Longitudinal Prediction of 1st and 2nd Grade English Oral Reading Fluency in English Language Learners: Which Early Reading and Language Skills Are Better Predictors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solari, Emily J.; Aceves, Terese C.; Higareda, Ignacio; Richards-Tutor, Cara; Filippini, Alexis L.; Gerber, Michael M.; Leafstedt, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between Spanish and English early literacy skills in kindergarten and first grade, and English oral reading fluency at the end of first and second grade in a sample of 150 Spanish-speaking English language learners. Students were assessed in kindergarten, first, and second grades on a broad bilingual academic…

  20. Perceived and Actual Competence and Ethnic Identity in Heritage Language Learning: A Case of Korean-American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook; Kim, In-sop

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature has explored issues surrounding the maintenance and development of a minority heritage language among immigrants and their children in relation to their ethnic identities in multi-ethnic societies. However, most of the studies either have alluded to heritage learners' language competence by way of their attitudes and…

  1. Home Literacy Environment and Word Knowledge Development: A Study of Young Learners of Chinese as a Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    This study examined young Heritage Language (HL) learners' home literacy environment and its impact on HL word-knowledge development, focusing on a group of Chinese-English bilingual children learning to read in Chinese as a Heritage Language in the United States. A home literacy survey revealed that parents mostly used HL to talk to children,…

  2. East Asian Heritage Language Education for a Plurilingual Reality in the United States: Practices, Potholes, and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guofang; Wen, Keying

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research about East Asian (mainly Chinese, Korean, and Japanese) heritage language (HL) teaching and learning in three contexts--the home, community heritage language schools, and programs in U.S. K-12 schools--this article discusses the challenges that East Asian subethnic groups face in improving HL education in each context.…

  3. Heritage Language Maintenance and Cultural Identity Formation: The Case of Korean Immigrant Parents and Their Children in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boh Young

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the beliefs and attitudes that Korean immigrant parents and their children in the USA hold about their heritage language. Data were collected through interviews. This study addresses how parents' perspectives and their actual heritage language practices with their children influence their children's cultural identity and…

  4. Heritage Language Maintenance and Cultural Identity Formation: The Case of Korean Immigrant Parents and Their Children in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boh Young

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the beliefs and attitudes that Korean immigrant parents and their children in the USA hold about their heritage language. Data were collected through interviews. This study addresses how parents' perspectives and their actual heritage language practices with their children influence their children's cultural identity and…

  5. Perceived and Actual Competence and Ethnic Identity in Heritage Language Learning: A Case of Korean-American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook; Kim, In-sop

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature has explored issues surrounding the maintenance and development of a minority heritage language among immigrants and their children in relation to their ethnic identities in multi-ethnic societies. However, most of the studies either have alluded to heritage learners' language competence by way of their attitudes and…

  6. Issues of Motivation and Identity Positioning: Two Teachers' Motivational Practices for Engaging Immigrant Children in Learning Heritage Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates two Korean heritage language teachers' motivational practices in relation to their identity positioning as heritage language (HL) teachers. Constant-comparative analyses of teachers' interviews and classroom practices showed that the two teachers' identity positioning as HL teachers was partially shaped by their earlier…

  7. East Asian Heritage Language Education for a Plurilingual Reality in the United States: Practices, Potholes, and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guofang; Wen, Keying

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research about East Asian (mainly Chinese, Korean, and Japanese) heritage language (HL) teaching and learning in three contexts--the home, community heritage language schools, and programs in U.S. K-12 schools--this article discusses the challenges that East Asian subethnic groups face in improving HL education in each context.…

  8. Developmental Changes in the Nature of Language Proficiency and Reading Fluency Paint a More Complex View of Reading Comprehension in ELL and EL1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva, Esther; Farnia, Fataneh

    2012-01-01

    We examined theoretical issues concerning the development of reading fluency and language proficiency in 390 English Language Learners (ELLs,) and 149 monolingual, English-as-a-first language (EL1) students. The extent to which performance on these constructs in Grade 5 (i.e., concurrent predictors) contributes to reading comprehension in the…

  9. Effect of Language Proficiency and Executive Control on Verbal Fluency Performance in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their…

  10. Effect of Language Proficiency and Executive Control on Verbal Fluency Performance in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their…

  11. Does Foreign Language Writing Benefit from Increased Lexical Fluency? Evidence from a Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Amos; Oostdam, Ron; van Schooten, Erik

    2011-01-01

    We report a classroom experiment directed at increasing lexical fluency in writing. Participants were 107 Dutch students in bilingual (EFL) education (Grades 10 and 11). According to current theories of writing such fluency allows writers to devote more attention to higher order aspects of text production, such as idea generation, selection and…

  12. Heritage Language Education without Inheriting Hegemonic Ideologies: Shifting Perspectives on "Korea" in a Weekend Japanese-Language School in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Lee, Kiri

    2016-01-01

    Learning a heritage language can be celebrated to enhance marginalized groups' self-esteem, but a heritage can also encompass ideologies prevalent in the groups' original homeland. Based on ethnographic fieldwork (2007-2011) at a weekend Japanese-language school in the United States, this article investigates how ideologies on race politics…

  13. Heritage Language Education without Inheriting Hegemonic Ideologies: Shifting Perspectives on "Korea" in a Weekend Japanese-Language School in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Lee, Kiri

    2016-01-01

    Learning a heritage language can be celebrated to enhance marginalized groups' self-esteem, but a heritage can also encompass ideologies prevalent in the groups' original homeland. Based on ethnographic fieldwork (2007-2011) at a weekend Japanese-language school in the United States, this article investigates how ideologies on race politics…

  14. Multilingual Awareness and Heritage Language Education: Children's Multimodal Representations of Their Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo-Pfeifer, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyse visual narratives of multilingual children, in order to acknowledge their self-perception as multilingual selves. Through the analysis of drawings produced by children enrolled in Portuguese as heritage language (PHL) classes in Germany, we analyse how bi-/multilingual children perceive their multilingual repertoires…

  15. Co-Ethnic Network, Social Class, and Heritage Language Maintenance among Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…

  16. Heritage-Language Literacy Practices: A Case Study of Three Japanese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Kumi; Lee, Jin Sook

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the heritage-language (HL) literacy practices of three Japanese American families residing in a predominantly Anglo and Latino community. Through interviews and observations, this study investigates Japanese children's HL-literacy practices, parental attitudes toward HL literacy, and challenges in HL-literacy development in…

  17. Lessons about Respect and Affect in a Korean Heritage Language School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Adrienne

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the ideologies and practices surrounding respect at a Korean American heritage language school in California. It illustrates the interaction between locally circulating metadiscourses about children's dispositions, intentions, and identities and the enforcement of classroom norms of respect. In some cases, teachers accommodated…

  18. Coming into an Inheritance: Family Support and Chinese Heritage Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Dooley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The critical role that family plays in Chinese Heritage Language learning (CHLL) has gained increasing attention from psychological, political and sociological scholarships. Guided by Bourdieu's notion of "habitus", our mixed methods sociological study firstly addresses the need for quantitative evidence on the relationship between…

  19. Inquiry-Based Projects in the Spanish Heritage Language Classroom: Connecting Culture and Community through Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belpoliti, Flavia; Fairclough, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and implementation of inquiry-based cultural projects in a Spanish Heritage Language (SHL) Program. Four different inquiry-based curricula are described to illustrate how university students in an SHL program advance their knowledge of Spanish while carrying out research to understand Hispanic cultures. First-,…

  20. The Influence of Heritage Language and Public Schools on Chinese American Children's Biliteracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Chang

    2010-01-01

    This article investigated four Chinese American students' biliteracy development in two contexts: their heritage language school and public school. Data were collected through participant observations, audio-recorded classroom interactions, student work samples, and semistructured interviews. Findings demonstrated how literacy instruction across…

  1. Critical Pedagogy beyond the Classroom Walls: Community Service-Learning and Spanish Heritage Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Jennifer; Rabin, Lisa; Roman-Mendoza, Esperanza

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a critical service-learning initiative in which college students of Spanish taught in an after-school Spanish class for young heritage language (HL) speakers at a local elementary school. We contextualize the program within broad curricular revisions made to the undergraduate Spanish program in recent years, explaining how…

  2. Interactive Patterns in Paired Discussions between Chinese Heritage and Chinese Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    Having acquired some degree of oral proficiency but low (or non-existent) literacy, the learning of Chinese heritage learners' (CHLs) learning needs are different from those of Chinese foreign language learners (CFLs), who have learned Chinese only in the classroom setting. Although researchers have advocated for a separate curriculum for…

  3. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  4. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  5. A Twice-Told Tale: Voices of Resistance in a Borderlands Spanish Heritage Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmer, Kimberly Adilia

    2013-01-01

    Drawn from a two-year critical ethnography, the author explores how Mexican-origin students in a U.S. southwest charter high school resisted Spanish heritage language instruction. Resistance was rooted in students' perception that their teacher unfairly characterized their linguistic and social identities. Students also constructed their…

  6. Classroom Has a Heart: Teachers and Students Affective Alignment in a Persian Heritage Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atoofi, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigated how the teachers and students at a Persian heritage language class acknowledged and modified their affective behavior based on the affective feedback they received from one another. The notion that interactants can modify their affective output in such fashion is referred in the literature as affective alignment…

  7. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  8. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  9. A Twice-Told Tale: Voices of Resistance in a Borderlands Spanish Heritage Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmer, Kimberly Adilia

    2013-01-01

    Drawn from a two-year critical ethnography, the author explores how Mexican-origin students in a U.S. southwest charter high school resisted Spanish heritage language instruction. Resistance was rooted in students' perception that their teacher unfairly characterized their linguistic and social identities. Students also constructed their…

  10. Multilingual Gendered Identities: Female Undergraduate Students in London Talk about Heritage Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Sian

    2008-01-01

    In this article I explore how a group of female university students, mostly British Asian and in their late teens and early twenties, perform femininities in talk about heritage languages. I argue that analysis of this talk reveals ways in which the participants enact "culturally intelligible" gendered subject positions. This frequently…

  11. Three Korean Heritage Language Teachers' Identities, Their Identification of Their Students, and Their Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Miseon

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the instructional focuses and practices of three Korean heritage language (HL) teachers in community-based HL schools related not only to their constructed identities as HL teachers, but also to their students. Constant-comparative analyses of interviews and classroom observations across the three teacher cases showed that each…

  12. Classroom Has a Heart: Teachers and Students Affective Alignment in a Persian Heritage Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atoofi, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigated how the teachers and students at a Persian heritage language class acknowledged and modified their affective behavior based on the affective feedback they received from one another. The notion that interactants can modify their affective output in such fashion is referred in the literature as affective alignment…

  13. Korean Heritage Language Education in the United States: The Current State, Opportunities, and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook; Shin, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    The idea for this special issue of the "Heritage Language Journal" on Korean grew out of a symposium on "Bilingualism and Biculturalism in the Korean American Community" at the 2005 International Association of Applied Linguistics (AILA) conference in Wisconsin, Madison organized by Jin Sook Lee and Adrienne Lo. The broad participation and…

  14. Listening to Teacher Lore: The Challenges and Resources of Korean Heritage Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyong; Bang, Yoo-Seon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study on the experiences of four Korean heritage language teachers in the United States, specifically the challenges they face and the resources they draw upon for their teaching. We situate our work within the conceptual framework of teacher lore (Ayers & Schubert, 1994) that accentuates the importance of putting…

  15. Heritage Language Education and Investment among Asian American Middle Schoolers: Insights from a Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ming-Hsuan; Lee, Kathy; Leung, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates Mandarin learning experiences of Chinese American teenagers from working-class families. Drawing on a subset of data from a larger ethnographic study, we focus on 14 middle schoolers who studied Mandarin as a heritage language at a socially engaging school with Mandarin as part of its official curriculum. The data highlight…

  16. Inquiry-Based Projects in the Spanish Heritage Language Classroom: Connecting Culture and Community through Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belpoliti, Flavia; Fairclough, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and implementation of inquiry-based cultural projects in a Spanish Heritage Language (SHL) Program. Four different inquiry-based curricula are described to illustrate how university students in an SHL program advance their knowledge of Spanish while carrying out research to understand Hispanic cultures. First-,…

  17. The Relationships among Heritage Language Proficiency, Ethnic Identity, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Shu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    With the trend toward globalization and the continual change of the ethnic composition of the U.S. population, there is increasing awareness in the U.S. that not every child is raised in an English-only family. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationships among heritage language proficiency, ethnic identity, and self-esteem in the…

  18. Listening to Teacher Lore: The Challenges and Resources of Korean Heritage Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyong; Bang, Yoo-Seon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study on the experiences of four Korean heritage language teachers in the United States, specifically the challenges they face and the resources they draw upon for their teaching. We situate our work within the conceptual framework of teacher lore (Ayers & Schubert, 1994) that accentuates the importance of putting…

  19. A Meta-Analysis of the Correlation between Heritage Language and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between heritage language (HL) and ethnic identity has gained increasing scholarly attention over the past decades. Numerous quantitative studies have investigated and vindicated this interaction within certain contexts. Nevertheless, quantitative evidence on this interaction across contexts is absent to date. The current…

  20. Institutional Representations of "Spanish" and "Spanglish": Managing Competing Discourses in Heritage Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showstack, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined how one instructor navigated between two competing discourses in an intermediate Spanish heritage language (HL) classroom: on the one hand, teaching "Standard Spanish" to help students achieve professional success, and legitimizing home linguistic practices on the other. In addition to expressing both…

  1. Transactional Associations between Supportive Family Climate and Young Children's Heritage Language Proficiency in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Heejung; Tsai, Kim M.; Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Heritage language (HL) proficiency confers developmental benefits; however, the onset of HL loss is observed among many young children from immigrant families. In this longitudinal study, transactional associations between children's HL proficiency and supportive family climate were examined in Chinese immigrant families with pre-school-aged…

  2. Towards a Theoretical Framework of Heritage Language Literacy and Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo-Philip, Stephanie Wing-Yan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing mainly on Pierre Bourdieu's notions of symbolic capital, Bakhtin's concept of voice and heteroglossia in the novel, and Gee's theory of Discourses and the term third space as applied in education, I construct a theoretical framework for heritage language (HL) literacy and identity processes. I propose that HL literacy acquisition be viewed…

  3. Voices from the Margin: Developing a Profile of Chinese Heritage Language Learners in the FL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weger-Guntharp, Heather

    2006-01-01

    While defining a heritage language (HL) learner is problematic, it is critical for how HL issues are framed. Underrepresented in the discussion are those learners who identify the HL as key to their development of self identity while having limited exposure to the HL in the home environment. This study investigates such students in the context of…

  4. Heritage Language Acquisition and Maintenance: Home Literacy Practices of Japanese-Speaking Families in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomura, Takako; Caidi, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we examine the case of Japanese-speaking families in Canada and their experiences with teaching a heritage language at home, along with the uses and perceived usefulness of public library resources, collections, and services in the process. Methods: We interviewed fourteen mothers who speak Japanese to their children.…

  5. Multilingual Gendered Identities: Female Undergraduate Students in London Talk about Heritage Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Sian

    2008-01-01

    In this article I explore how a group of female university students, mostly British Asian and in their late teens and early twenties, perform femininities in talk about heritage languages. I argue that analysis of this talk reveals ways in which the participants enact "culturally intelligible" gendered subject positions. This frequently…

  6. Three Korean Heritage Language Teachers' Identities, Their Identification of Their Students, and Their Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Miseon

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the instructional focuses and practices of three Korean heritage language (HL) teachers in community-based HL schools related not only to their constructed identities as HL teachers, but also to their students. Constant-comparative analyses of interviews and classroom observations across the three teacher cases showed that each…

  7. Heritage Language Education and Investment among Asian American Middle Schoolers: Insights from a Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ming-Hsuan; Lee, Kathy; Leung, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates Mandarin learning experiences of Chinese American teenagers from working-class families. Drawing on a subset of data from a larger ethnographic study, we focus on 14 middle schoolers who studied Mandarin as a heritage language at a socially engaging school with Mandarin as part of its official curriculum. The data highlight…

  8. Hyphenated Identities of Korean Heritage Language Learners: Marginalization, Colonial Discourses and Internalized Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jeeweon

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the data collected through classroom observations, participants' written journals, and in-depth interviews, this study examines the hyphenated identity constructions of 1.5- ("ilcem osey") and 2nd-generation heritage language learners. The study observes that ethnic and racial exclusion in a White dominant society was more…

  9. Coming into an Inheritance: Family Support and Chinese Heritage Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Dooley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The critical role that family plays in Chinese Heritage Language learning (CHLL) has gained increasing attention from psychological, political and sociological scholarships. Guided by Bourdieu's notion of "habitus", our mixed methods sociological study firstly addresses the need for quantitative evidence on the relationship between…

  10. Heritage-Language Literacy Practices: A Case Study of Three Japanese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Kumi; Lee, Jin Sook

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the heritage-language (HL) literacy practices of three Japanese American families residing in a predominantly Anglo and Latino community. Through interviews and observations, this study investigates Japanese children's HL-literacy practices, parental attitudes toward HL literacy, and challenges in HL-literacy development in…

  11. The Effects of Japanese Heritage Language Maintenance on Scholastic Verbal and Academic Achievement in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Setsue

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of the maintenance of Japanese as a heritage language on English and overall academic achievement. The interrelationships among Japanese oral and writing proficiency, SAT I Verbal, SAT I, and high school grade point average (GPA) were examined. The participants were 31 second generation Japanese-American…

  12. Immigrant Adolescents Investing in Korean Heritage Language: Exploring Motivation, Identities, and Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the perspectives of seven immigrant adolescents on aspects of their lives that informed their determined and autonomous motivations to learn Korean as a heritage language (HL) in the United States. Constant comparative analyses of interview data showed that, although all of the students experienced determined motivations…

  13. Luce Pathways Project: A Pilot Project for Heritage Language Speakers of Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori; Fernandez, Hector

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development process of a project for heritage language speakers of Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, and Japanese at a high-enrollment community college in the northeast United States. This pilot project, funded by the Henry Luce Foundation, aimed to empower minority group students through active reinforcement of students'…

  14. Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools in America. Studies in American Folklife, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradunas, Elena; Topping, Brett, Ed.

    This book reports the findings of the Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools Project undertaken by the American Folklife Center in 1982. Twenty-one researchers used participant observation to study ethnic schools in different parts of the United States. The project studied schools that correspond to Fishman's classification of ethnic education…

  15. Heritage Language Maintenance and Education in the Greek Sociolinguistic Context: Albanian Immigrant Parents' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gkaintartzi, Anastasia; Kiliari, Angeliki; Tsokalidou, Roula

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents data from two studies--a nationwide quantitative research and an ethnographic study--on immigrant parents' perspectives about heritage language maintenance and education in Greek state schools. The quantitative data come from a large-scale questionnaire survey, which aimed at the investigation of the needs and requirements for…

  16. Co-Ethnic Network, Social Class, and Heritage Language Maintenance among Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…

  17. Critical Pedagogy beyond the Classroom Walls: Community Service-Learning and Spanish Heritage Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Jennifer; Rabin, Lisa; Roman-Mendoza, Esperanza

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a critical service-learning initiative in which college students of Spanish taught in an after-school Spanish class for young heritage language (HL) speakers at a local elementary school. We contextualize the program within broad curricular revisions made to the undergraduate Spanish program in recent years, explaining how…

  18. Luce Pathways Project: A Pilot Project for Heritage Language Speakers of Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori; Fernandez, Hector

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development process of a project for heritage language speakers of Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, and Japanese at a high-enrollment community college in the northeast United States. This pilot project, funded by the Henry Luce Foundation, aimed to empower minority group students through active reinforcement of students'…

  19. Voices from the Margin: Developing a Profile of Chinese Heritage Language Learners in the FL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weger-Guntharp, Heather

    2006-01-01

    While defining a heritage language (HL) learner is problematic, it is critical for how HL issues are framed. Underrepresented in the discussion are those learners who identify the HL as key to their development of self identity while having limited exposure to the HL in the home environment. This study investigates such students in the context of…

  20. Hyphenated Identities of Korean Heritage Language Learners: Marginalization, Colonial Discourses and Internalized Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jeeweon

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the data collected through classroom observations, participants' written journals, and in-depth interviews, this study examines the hyphenated identity constructions of 1.5- ("ilcem osey") and 2nd-generation heritage language learners. The study observes that ethnic and racial exclusion in a White dominant society was more…

  1. Multilingual Awareness and Heritage Language Education: Children's Multimodal Representations of Their Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo-Pfeifer, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyse visual narratives of multilingual children, in order to acknowledge their self-perception as multilingual selves. Through the analysis of drawings produced by children enrolled in Portuguese as heritage language (PHL) classes in Germany, we analyse how bi-/multilingual children perceive their multilingual repertoires…

  2. Towards a Theoretical Framework of Heritage Language Literacy and Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo-Philip, Stephanie Wing-Yan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing mainly on Pierre Bourdieu's notions of symbolic capital, Bakhtin's concept of voice and heteroglossia in the novel, and Gee's theory of Discourses and the term third space as applied in education, I construct a theoretical framework for heritage language (HL) literacy and identity processes. I propose that HL literacy acquisition be viewed…

  3. Heritage Language Maintenance and Japanese Identity Formation: What Role Can Schooling and Ethnic Community Contact Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of schooling and ethnic community contact in ethnolinguistic and cultural identity construction and heritage language maintenance through the surveys and narratives of three groups of Japanese-English bilingual youths and their parents in Sydney, Australia, as a part of a larger longitudinal study from childhood. The…

  4. Language Placement and Beyond: Guidelines for the Design and Implementation of a Computerized Spanish Heritage Language Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudrie, Sara M.; Ducar, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the design, implementation, and analysis of a computerized Spanish heritage language (SHL) placement exam. The exam created by the authors exemplifies how to design a simple yet effective placement exam with limited resources. It is suggested that an SHL placement exam should be developed in-house due not only to the diversity…

  5. Demographics of Adult Heritage Language Speakers in the United States: Differences by Region and Language and Their Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Heritage language (HL) speakers have received scholarly attention in recent years as an interdisciplinary research theme, but relatively less attention has been paid to their demographics. Existing studies of HL speakers' demographics often focus on young children in areas of high immigrant concentration (i.e., California, Florida, and New York);…

  6. Demographics of Adult Heritage Language Speakers in the United States: Differences by Region and Language and Their Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Heritage language (HL) speakers have received scholarly attention in recent years as an interdisciplinary research theme, but relatively less attention has been paid to their demographics. Existing studies of HL speakers' demographics often focus on young children in areas of high immigrant concentration (i.e., California, Florida, and New York);…

  7. "Why Won't You Speak to Me in Gaelic?" Authenticity, Integration, and the Heritage Language Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Timothy Currie

    2013-01-01

    The last speakers of an endangered language often include many individuals who have acquired less than full productive proficiency in the language, language users Nancy Dorian (1977) called semi-speakers. When these individuals enter formal education and seek to learn or relearn their endangered heritage language, they are often frustrated by…

  8. "Why Won't You Speak to Me in Gaelic?" Authenticity, Integration, and the Heritage Language Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Timothy Currie

    2013-01-01

    The last speakers of an endangered language often include many individuals who have acquired less than full productive proficiency in the language, language users Nancy Dorian (1977) called semi-speakers. When these individuals enter formal education and seek to learn or relearn their endangered heritage language, they are often frustrated by…

  9. Language Ideologies and Bilingual Education: A Korean-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an ethnographic record of an ongoing journey during which I have tried to understand the kinds of language ideologies that my students and I have constructed about the Korean language. My students are mainly Korean-American university students who have never successfully achieved native fluency in their heritage language, although…

  10. Language Ideologies and Bilingual Education: A Korean-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an ethnographic record of an ongoing journey during which I have tried to understand the kinds of language ideologies that my students and I have constructed about the Korean language. My students are mainly Korean-American university students who have never successfully achieved native fluency in their heritage language, although…

  11. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  12. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  13. A View from Within: A Case Study of Chinese Heritage Community Language Schools in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xueying, Ed.

    A collection of essays on Chinese heritage community language schools in the United States addresses these topics: the schools, their curricula, and organization (Theresa Hsu Chao); school administration and management (Chao, Lydia Chen, Edward Chang); academic curriculum (Pay-Fen Serena Wang); non-heritage Chinese learners: practices and…

  14. Exploring the Growth of Text-Reading Fluency in Upper-Elementary English Language Learners during Instruction Based on Repeated Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Katharine Staub

    2011-01-01

    For the large population of school-age English language learners in California and the United States, the challenge of learning a second language while learning academic content is formidable. Learning to read English skillfully is key to their success. Reading instruction focused on development of oral text-reading fluency has shown strong…

  15. How Long Does It Take to Learn a Second Language?: Applying the "10,000-Hour Rule" as a Model for Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This study applies the model of expertise developed by Ericsson et al (2007) to second and foreign language learning. Ericsson et al posits that in order to achieve expertise (as they define it) requires 10,000 or longer of "intense training". Applying this model to language learning, equating an expert level of competence with fluency, various…

  16. Through the Eyes and from the Mouths of Young Heritage-Language Learners: How Children Feel and Think about Their Two Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Maureen; Geva, Esther

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the affective responses and beliefs school-aged heritage-language learners (HLLs) hold regarding learning their two languages. Sixty-three HLLs in grades 3 and 4 were presented with pictorial scenarios involving activities across five language and literacy domains in their HL and second language (English). Children were asked…

  17. Is Thinking Aloud Reactive when Writing in the Heritage Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanguas, Inigo; Lado, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Critics argue that requiring subjects to verbalize their thoughts while completing certain language tasks increases the participants' cognitive load and impairs their final performance (e.g., Jourdenais, 2001). Despite the importance of this claim for language instructors, few studies have produced contradicting evidence after an empirical study…

  18. Is Thinking Aloud Reactive when Writing in the Heritage Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanguas, Inigo; Lado, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Critics argue that requiring subjects to verbalize their thoughts while completing certain language tasks increases the participants' cognitive load and impairs their final performance (e.g., Jourdenais, 2001). Despite the importance of this claim for language instructors, few studies have produced contradicting evidence after an empirical study…

  19. Fluency Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Although reading fluency has been dismissed and overlooked as an important component of effective reading instruction, the author makes that case that fluency continues to be essential for success in learning to read. Moreover, many students who struggle in reading manifest difficulties in reading fluency. After defining reading fluency, the…

  20. Semantic and phonological fluency in children with Down syndrome: atypical organization of language or less efficient retrieval strategies?

    PubMed

    Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2008-07-01

    In this study the verbal fluency procedure was used to investigate the organization of semantic and phonological representations in children with Down syndrome (DS) and typically developing children, matched pairwise for receptive vocabulary age. Productivity was found to be significantly reduced in the DS group in both the semantic and the phonological tasks. However, group differences in the number of clusters as opposed to cluster size suggest that this may reflect less efficient retrieval strategies rather than differences in the organization of linguistic representations. Together the findings point to executive deficits in Down syndrome rather than deviant language processes.

  1. Second and Third Generation Heritage Language Speakers: HL Scholarship's Relevance to the Research Needs and Future Directions of TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Debra

    2007-01-01

    A growing population of English Language Learners (ELLs) is U.S.-born, a phenomenon that raises new questions for Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). This paper proposes the need for an improved understanding of how the research literature on heritage language speakers can inform ESL education. (Contains 1 figure and 5 notes.)

  2. The Role of Heritage Language Development in the Ethnic Identity and Family Relationships of Adolescents from Immigrant Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Janet S.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of immigrant-background adolescents' heritage language (HL) proficiency and use of the language on parent-adolescent relationships and ethnic identity was investigated in a sample of 414 adolescents from Latin American and Asian backgrounds. HL proficiency, but not language use, was positively associated with the quality of…

  3. Perspectives vs. Reality of Heritage Language Development: Voices from Second-Generation Korean-American High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Little empirical research has examined the cause of language shift or the factors related to the heritage language (HL) development of language minority groups. This study investigates the factors that facilitate or inhibit the HL development of second-generation Korean Americans, with a focus on adolescent HL learners, who go through phases in…

  4. Effect of language proficiency and executive control on verbal fluency performance in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their self-rated English proficiency but differed in levels of receptive and expressive vocabulary. We hypothesized that the difference between the two bilingual groups in vocabulary and between the monolingual and bilingual groups in executive control would lead to differences in performance on the category and letter fluency tests and dissociate the roles of vocabulary knowledge and executive control in verbal production. Bilinguals and monolinguals performed equivalently in category fluency, but the high-vocabulary bilingual group outperformed both monolinguals and low-vocabulary bilinguals in letter fluency. An analysis of the retrieval time-course functions in letter fluency showed dissociable effects of resources available at the initiation of the trial, considered to reflect vocabulary size, and ability to monitor and retrieve new items using a novel phonemic-based word searching strategy, considered to reflect executive control. The difference in slope of the best-fitting curves reflected enhanced executive control for both bilingual groups compared to monolinguals, whereas the difference in the starting point of the logarithmic functions reflected higher levels of vocabulary for high-vocabulary bilinguals and monolinguals compared to low-vocabulary bilinguals. The results are discussed in terms of the contributions of linguistic resources and executive control to verbal performance.

  5. Aspects of Fluency in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uppstad, Per Henning; Solheim, Oddny Judith

    2007-01-01

    The notion of "fluency" is most often associated with spoken-language phenomena such as stuttering. The present article investigates the relevance of considering fluency in writing. The basic argument for raising this question is empirical--it follows from a focus on difficulties in written and spoken language as manifestations of different…

  6. Adjusting Expectations: The Study of Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2009-01-01

    It is a good practice to try to understand matters at hand by first stepping back and adopting an historical perspective, which I will begin this review by doing. Next, I will take up the challenges that each of the authors in the articles in this volume has presented for the study of complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) in second language…

  7. Isolated left posterior insular infarction and convergent roles in verbal fluency, language, memory, and executive function.

    PubMed

    Julayanont, Parunyou; Ruthirago, Doungporn; DeToledo, John C

    2016-07-01

    The posterior insular cortex-a complex structure interconnecting various brain regions for different functions-is a rare location for ischemic stroke. We report a patient with isolated left posterior insular infarction who presented with multiple cognitive impairment, including impairment in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency.

  8. Can a "Shouting" Digital Game Help Learners Develop Oral Fluency in a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Jennica; Cardoso, Walcir; Waddington, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of oral fluency in a Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) environment that uses a "shouting" digital game as a pedagogical tool: Spaceteam ESL4. Spaceteam ESL is a game for mobile devices that involves time-sensitive aural exchanges among players (English learners), with great potential to promote…

  9. The acquisition of reading fluency in an orthographically transparent language (Italian): an eye movement longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria; Zeri, Fabrizio; Spinelli, Donatella; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally the acquisition of reading fluency in a shallow orthography from the very beginning using eye movement recordings. The development of reading fluency is easier to examine in shallow (such as German, Finnish, or Italian) rather than in opaque (such as English or French) orthographies because the former limit the presence of speed-accuracy trade-offs at early stages of acquisition. To date, only cross-sectional eye movement studies of reading development are available. One normally developing child was assessed at the very beginning of first grade and at the end of the first, second, and fifth grades. Eye movement parameters during reading, reading speed and accuracy in a standard reading test, and vocal reaction time at onset to single words varying in length were measured. Reading fluency improved dramatically during the first grade and progressively less thereafter: the word-length effect decreased abruptly by the end of the first grade and then less onwards. The rate of improvement closely followed a power function. This pattern held for standard reading tests, various eye movement parameters during reading, and vocal reaction times to single word onset. These longitudinal observations indicate the rapid acquisition of reading fluency in a transparent orthography showing that the largest changes occurred within the first year of education.

  10. Morphological Errors in Spanish Second Language Learners and Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    Morphological variability and the source of these errors have been intensely debated in SLA. A recurrent finding is that postpuberty second language (L2) learners often omit or use the wrong affix for nominal and verbal inflections in oral production but less so in written tasks. According to the missing surface inflection hypothesis, L2 learners…

  11. Orientations to Learning German: Heritage Language Background and Motivational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noels, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how two motivational substrates may be differentially important depending upon the learner's language background. Students registered in German classes (N = 99) completed a questionnaire that assessed (a) their intrinsic, extrinsic, integrative, and instrumental reasons for learning German; (b) their feelings of autonomy,…

  12. Morphological Errors in Spanish Second Language Learners and Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    Morphological variability and the source of these errors have been intensely debated in SLA. A recurrent finding is that postpuberty second language (L2) learners often omit or use the wrong affix for nominal and verbal inflections in oral production but less so in written tasks. According to the missing surface inflection hypothesis, L2 learners…

  13. Reducing Korean Heritage Language Learners' Orthographic Errors: The Contribution of Online and In-Class Dictation and Form-Focused Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung; Lee-Smith, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Heritage learners comprise a substantial proportion of second language learners, including L2 Korean learners. Previous studies have shown that the vast majority of heritage language learners display weakness in orthographic accuracy. Due to their previous extended exposure to oral discourse and limited experience in written language, heritage…

  14. Parents Can Guide Children through the World of Two Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, Mary Jane

    2005-01-01

    Many parents in the United States who speak and value a language other than English feel torn-between wanting their children to develop age-appropriate fluency and literacy in the language of their heritage, and wanting their children to acquire English as quickly and flawlessly as possible. When parents support communication in and acquisition of…

  15. Increasing Fluency in L2 Writing with Singing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alisaari, Jenni; Heikkola, Leena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Fluency is an essential part of a language learner's skills. Despite various studies on fluency, little is known about the effects of different pedagogical methods on the development of written fluency. In this paper, we examine how different pedagogical methods affect the development of second language learners' written fluency. Participants in…

  16. Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency as Properties of Language Performance: The Development of the Multiple Subsystems over Time and in Relation to Each Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vercellotti, Mary Lou

    2012-01-01

    Applied linguists have identified three components of second language (L2) performance: complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) to measure L2 development. Many studies researching CAF found trade-off effects (in which a higher performance in one component corresponds to lower performance in another) during tasks, often in online oral language…

  17. Reading Comprehension Level and Development in Native and Language Minority Adolescent Low Achievers: Roles of Linguistic and Metacognitive Knowledge and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal design, we measured 50 low-achieving adolescents' reading comprehension development from Grades 7 to 9. There were 24 native Dutch and 26 language minority students. In addition, we assessed the roles of (a) linguistic knowledge, (b) metacognitive knowledge, and (c) reading fluency in predicting both the level and growth of…

  18. Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency as Properties of Language Performance: The Development of the Multiple Subsystems over Time and in Relation to Each Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vercellotti, Mary Lou

    2012-01-01

    Applied linguists have identified three components of second language (L2) performance: complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) to measure L2 development. Many studies researching CAF found trade-off effects (in which a higher performance in one component corresponds to lower performance in another) during tasks, often in online oral language…

  19. Developmental Links of Very Early Phonological and Language Skills to Second Grade Reading Outcomes: Strong to Accuracy but Only Minor to Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puolakanaho, Anne; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined second grade reading accuracy and fluency and their associations via letter knowledge to phonological and language predictors assessed at 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 years in children in the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. Structural equation modeling showed that a developmentally highly stable factor (early phonological and…

  20. Institutional Dimensions of Cultural Bias on the Texas-Mexico Border: Linguistic Insecurity among Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Glenn A.; Petrucci, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study measures linguistic insecurity among college level heritage language (HL) learners along the Texas-Mexico border. We measured students' self-reported confidence in speaking and writing in English and in Spanish and analyzed students' perception of instruction in both languages. We argue that high levels of linguistic insecurity…

  1. What Role Can Community Contact Play in Heritage Language Literacy Development? Japanese-English Bilingual Children in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2012-01-01

    When linguistic minority parents wish to develop and maintain their children's literacy in heritage languages (HLs), what can they do to help? How and to what extent do the individual contexts of language use and background affect the development and maintenance of HL literacy, compared with the sociocultural context of community? What are the…

  2. Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

  3. Institutional Dimensions of Cultural Bias on the Texas-Mexico Border: Linguistic Insecurity among Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Glenn A.; Petrucci, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study measures linguistic insecurity among college level heritage language (HL) learners along the Texas-Mexico border. We measured students' self-reported confidence in speaking and writing in English and in Spanish and analyzed students' perception of instruction in both languages. We argue that high levels of linguistic insecurity…

  4. Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

  5. Latinas' heritage language as a source of resiliency: impact on academic achievement in STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Alma D.; Gallard Martínez, Alejandro José; Brkich, Katie Lynn; Flores, Belinda Bustos; Claeys, Lorena; Pitts, Wesley

    2017-03-01

    This article highlights how the preservation of heritage languages is essential in the construction of three Georgia Latina participants' cultural identities and the creation of support networks that allow them to develop resiliency and achieve academically. We conceptualize resiliency as a strategy developed by the Latina participants using contextually mitigating factors during their STEM education. The findings presented in this manuscript are part of a larger, ongoing study of Latina resiliency and their paths to success in STEM fields in two states: Georgia and Texas. Following James Spradley's guidelines, data were collected via three separate semi-structured interviews with each participant. Intrinsic, multiple case studies were used to find both commonalities and differences, as well as to deepen our understanding of the role of the participants' heritage language in their development of resiliency in each particular case. The findings presented here were not part of a preconceived research hypothesis, but rather a theme that emerged while analyzing data collected in the state of Georgia. Georgia is not home to a long-established Hispanic/Latino population, but rather is part of the New Latino Diaspora (Wortham, Murillo and Hamann in Education in the new Latino diaspora: policy and the politics of identity. Ablex Publishing, New York, 2002), and therefore local natives do not necessarily perceive Latino immigrants and the Spanish language either as long-standing or permanent features of the state. In fact, in response to the growing diversity of the state during the past generation, Georgia has implemented multiple educational policies hostile toward immigrants and linguistic diversity (Beck and Allexsaht-Snider in Education in the new Latino diaspora: policy and the politics of identity. Ablex Press, Westport, 2002). Our findings suggest that the Latina participants' heritage languages allow them to engage in cultural traditions, encouraged by their

  6. Dominant Language Transfer in Adult Second Language Learners and Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    The effects of language transfer have been amply documented in second language (L2) acquisition and, to a lesser extent, in the language contact/loss literature (Cook, 2003). In both cases, the stronger and often dominant language encroaches into the structure of the less dominant language in systematic ways. But are transfer effects in these two…

  7. Dominant Language Transfer in Adult Second Language Learners and Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    The effects of language transfer have been amply documented in second language (L2) acquisition and, to a lesser extent, in the language contact/loss literature (Cook, 2003). In both cases, the stronger and often dominant language encroaches into the structure of the less dominant language in systematic ways. But are transfer effects in these two…

  8. Stakeholder Views on the Roles, Challenges, and Future Prospects of Korean and Chinese Heritage Language-Community Language Schools in Phoenix: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Byeong-keun; Liu, Na

    2011-01-01

    This study examines stakeholders' perspectives on Korean and Chinese heritage language and community language (HL-CL) schools and education in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area, Arizona. It investigates and compares the roles, major challenges, and future prospects of Korean and Chinese HL-CL schools as viewed by principals, teachers, and parents. To…

  9. Elevating "Low" Language for High Stakes: A Case for Critical, Community-Based Learning in a Medical Spanish for Heritage Learners Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Glenn; Schwartz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Critical approaches to Spanish heritage language (SHL) pedagogy have called for more meaningful engagement with heritage language communities (Leeman, 2005). In a recent survey, furthermore, SHL students expressed a desire for more community-based activities in SHL curricula (Beaudrie, Ducar, & Relano-Pastor, 2009). This paper reports on the…

  10. Elevating "Low" Language for High Stakes: A Case for Critical, Community-Based Learning in a Medical Spanish for Heritage Learners Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Glenn; Schwartz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Critical approaches to Spanish heritage language (SHL) pedagogy have called for more meaningful engagement with heritage language communities (Leeman, 2005). In a recent survey, furthermore, SHL students expressed a desire for more community-based activities in SHL curricula (Beaudrie, Ducar, & Relano-Pastor, 2009). This paper reports on the…

  11. Temporal auditory processing at 17 months of age is associated with preliterate language comprehension and later word reading fluency: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    van Zuijen, Titia L; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A M; Been, Pieter; Maurits, Natasha M; Krikhaar, Evelien; van Driel, Joram; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-10-18

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with auditory processing deficits. We investigate whether temporal auditory processing is compromised in young children at-risk for dyslexia and whether it is associated with later language and reading skills. We recorded EEG from 17 months-old children with or without familial risk for dyslexia to investigate whether their auditory system was able to detect a temporal change in a tone pattern. The children were followed longitudinally and performed an intelligence- and language development test at ages 4 and 4.5 years. Literacy related skills were measured at the beginning of second grade, and word- and pseudo-word reading fluency were measured at the end of second grade. The EEG responses showed that control children could detect the temporal change as indicated by a mismatch response (MMR). The MMR was not observed in at-risk children. Furthermore, the fronto-central MMR amplitude correlated with preliterate language comprehension and with later word reading fluency, but not with phonological awareness. We conclude that temporal auditory processing differentiates young children at risk for dyslexia from controls and is a precursor of preliterate language comprehension and reading fluency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Language Maintenance in a Multilingual Family: Informal Heritage Language Lessons in Parent-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheirkhah, Mina; Cekaite, Asta

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores language socialization patterns in a Persian-Kurdish family in Sweden and examines how "one-parent, one-language" family language policies are instantiated and negotiated in parent-child interactions. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic observations of family interactions, as well as…

  13. Language Maintenance in a Multilingual Family: Informal Heritage Language Lessons in Parent-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheirkhah, Mina; Cekaite, Asta

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores language socialization patterns in a Persian-Kurdish family in Sweden and examines how "one-parent, one-language" family language policies are instantiated and negotiated in parent-child interactions. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic observations of family interactions, as well as…

  14. "Perezhivanija" Discovered through Narrative Analysis: Emotive and Motivational Foci in Parent's Diverse Heritage Language and Cultural Sustaining in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaeff, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Extensive linguistic research and theorising relating to maintaining the family heritage, as bilingual or multilingual family in differing language contexts, is currently available. Substantial research beneficially explores approaches to multilingual parenting, outcomes for individuals through parent and child perspectives, among linguistic and…

  15. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  16. Is There a Place for Heritage Languages in the Promotion of an Intercultural and Multilingual Education in the Portuguese Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faneca, Rosa Maria; Araújo e Sá, Maria Helena; Melo-Pfeifer, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a case study aimed at researching the multilingual repertoires of young people from a linguistic and cultural minority. Further, it analyzes the role of and the place given to heritage languages (HL) in the development of a multilingual and intercultural competence in schools. In the scope of the study mentioned above, a…

  17. Teaching Strategies: "What If I Don't Speak It?" Classroom Strategies to Nurture Students' Heritage Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Janka; Giambo, Debra; Szecsi, Tunde

    2013-01-01

    Is it an asset or a burden to be bilingual? Although bilingualism is appreciated by many people worldwide, immigrant families often struggle with the maintenance of their heritage language (HL) and culture. In the United States. For example, the HL in most families is completely lost within three generations (Fishman, 1991). The loss of a child's…

  18. The Effects of the Sociocultural Context on Heritage Language Literacy: Japanese-English Bilingual Children in Sydney

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriyama, Kaya

    2011-01-01

    What factors support linguistic minority children in developing and maintaining literacy in their heritage languages (HLs)? Very few quantitative studies have explored the role of sociocultural factors, especially in the development and maintenance of HL literacy. This paper addresses this gap by examining how the sociocultural context affects…

  19. The Use and Role of Pop Culture in Heritage Language Learning: A Study of Advanced Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jayoung; Yi, Youngjoo

    2012-01-01

    Despite the important use of pop culture in many instructional settings, its use in the heritage language (HL) classroom remains largely unexplored. Thus, this article reports findings from classroom-based qualitative research that examined the use and role of pop culture in advanced Korean HL learners' literacy engagement and identity…

  20. Realities, Rewards, and Risks of Heritage-Language Education: Perspectives from Japanese Immigrant Parents in a Midwestern Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, R.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic case study describes how three Japanese immigrant parents in a midsize urban community in the Midwest viewed heritage-language education in relation to their children's socioemotional development as bicultural Americans. The literature review offers a comparative and historical analysis of Japanese schools in the diaspora to…

  1. The Use and Role of Pop Culture in Heritage Language Learning: A Study of Advanced Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jayoung; Yi, Youngjoo

    2012-01-01

    Despite the important use of pop culture in many instructional settings, its use in the heritage language (HL) classroom remains largely unexplored. Thus, this article reports findings from classroom-based qualitative research that examined the use and role of pop culture in advanced Korean HL learners' literacy engagement and identity…

  2. Is There a Place for Heritage Languages in the Promotion of an Intercultural and Multilingual Education in the Portuguese Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faneca, Rosa Maria; Araújo e Sá, Maria Helena; Melo-Pfeifer, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a case study aimed at researching the multilingual repertoires of young people from a linguistic and cultural minority. Further, it analyzes the role of and the place given to heritage languages (HL) in the development of a multilingual and intercultural competence in schools. In the scope of the study mentioned above, a…

  3. "There Is No Space for Being German": Portraits of Willing and Reluctant Heritage Language Learners of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressler, Roswita

    2010-01-01

    Some heritage language learners (HLLs) are comfortable identifying themselves as such, while others are decidedly reluctant to adopt this term (Pino & Pino, 2000). HLLs in this paper are defined as those students having a parent or grandparent who speaks German or those who have spent a significant part of their childhood in a German-speaking…

  4. Teaching Strategies: "What If I Don't Speak It?" Classroom Strategies to Nurture Students' Heritage Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilagyi, Janka; Giambo, Debra; Szecsi, Tunde

    2013-01-01

    Is it an asset or a burden to be bilingual? Although bilingualism is appreciated by many people worldwide, immigrant families often struggle with the maintenance of their heritage language (HL) and culture. In the United States. For example, the HL in most families is completely lost within three generations (Fishman, 1991). The loss of a child's…

  5. Immigrant Mothers' Beliefs and Transnational Strategies for Their Children's Heritage Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Jungmin

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates immigrant mothers' beliefs and practices toward supporting maintenance of their children's heritage language (HL) in the context of transnationalism. The data are primarily drawn from formal and informal interviews and observations of six mothers who immigrated to the United States from Japan and Korea. The…

  6. Using TPR-Storytelling To Develop Fluency and Literacy in Native American Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantoni, Gina P.

    This paper discusses total physical response storytelling (TPR-S) as a promising approach to teaching a Native American language to Native students who have not learned it at home. TPR-S is an extension of James Asher's TPR immersion approach to teaching second languages. It has become very popular with indigenous teachers because it allows…

  7. Language Non-Selective Syntactic Activation in Early Bilinguals: The Role of Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bilinguals presented with words in one of their languages spontaneously and automatically activate lexical representations from their other language. However, such effects, found in varied experimental contexts, both in behavioural and psychophysiological investigations, have been essentially limited to the…

  8. Language Non-Selective Syntactic Activation in Early Bilinguals: The Role of Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bilinguals presented with words in one of their languages spontaneously and automatically activate lexical representations from their other language. However, such effects, found in varied experimental contexts, both in behavioural and psychophysiological investigations, have been essentially limited to the…

  9. Verbal fluency tests: Developing a new model of administration and scoring for Spanish language.

    PubMed

    Olabarrieta-Landa, Laiene; Torre, Esther Landa; López-Mugartza, Juan Carlos; Bialystok, Ellen; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-09-16

    To conduct a literature review of the administration and scoring criteria used in normative studies of verbal fluency tests (VFT), and to propose a new model for the administration and scoring of phonological, semantic, and action VFT for use in Spanish-speakers. A literature search was performed using four databases Dialnet, ProQuest (PsycINFO, PsycArticles), Science Direct (Elsevier), and PubMed and 47 articles met the following criteria: 1) articles which contained normative data of phonological, semantic, or action VFT, 2) published between 2000 and 2015, 3) published in English or Spanish, 4) used healthy population. Of 2087 citations retrieved, 47 eligible studies were reviewed. The majority of the studies have been conducted in the USA, and with English and Spanish speakers. Only 12 studies provided the instruction, and 23 clearly describe the scoring guidelines. Moreover, among the studies that provided these information important discrepancies were found. Therefore, a new administration and scoring guidelines are presented, which may resolve this problem and be utilized in Spanish speaking countries. This review showed that still there is no consensus regarding the administration and scoring of VFT. A new method of administration and scoring is presented that can be use with Spanish-speakers.

  10. Selection, Language Heritage, and the Earnings Trajectories of Black Immigrants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Tod G.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean surpass the earnings of U.S.-born blacks approximately one decade after arriving in the United States. Using data from the 1980–2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005–2007 American Community Surveys on U.S.-born black and non-Hispanic white men as well as black immigrant men from all the major sending regions of the world, I evaluate whether selective migration and language heritage of immigrants’ birth countries account for the documented earnings crossover. I validate the earnings pattern of black immigrants documented in previous studies, but I also find that the earnings of most arrival cohorts of immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean, after residing in the United States for more than 20 years, are projected to converge with or slightly overtake those of U.S.-born black internal migrants. The findings also show three arrival cohorts of black immigrants from English-speaking African countries are projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born black internal migrants. No arrival cohort of black immigrants is projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Birth-region analysis shows that black immigrants from English-speaking countries experience more rapid earnings growth than immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. The arrival-cohort and birth-region variation in earnings documented in this study suggest that selective migration and language heritage of black immigrants’ birth countries are important determinants of their initial earnings and earnings trajectories in the United States. PMID:24854004

  11. Selection, language heritage, and the earnings trajectories of black immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Tod G

    2014-06-01

    Research suggests that immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean surpass the earnings of U.S.-born blacks approximately one decade after arriving in the United States. Using data from the 1980-2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005-2007 American Community Surveys on U.S.-born black and non-Hispanic white men as well as black immigrant men from all the major sending regions of the world, I evaluate whether selective migration and language heritage of immigrants' birth countries account for the documented earnings crossover. I validate the earnings pattern of black immigrants documented in previous studies, but I also find that the earnings of most arrival cohorts of immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean, after residing in the United States for more than 20 years, are projected to converge with or slightly overtake those of U.S.-born black internal migrants. The findings also show three arrival cohorts of black immigrants from English-speaking African countries are projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born black internal migrants. No arrival cohort of black immigrants is projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Birth-region analysis shows that black immigrants from English-speaking countries experience more rapid earnings growth than immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. The arrival-cohort and birth-region variation in earnings documented in this study suggest that selective migration and language heritage of black immigrants' birth countries are important determinants of their initial earnings and earnings trajectories in the United States.

  12. Validating a Test of Second Language Written Lexical Retrieval: a New Measure of Fluency in Written Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snellings, P.; van Gelderen, A.; de Glopper, K.

    2004-01-01

    Lexical retrieval is an essential subprocess of language production and crucial in fluent writing and speaking. In this study we discuss a new measure of the speed of written lexical retrieval in a second language, the Written Productive Translation Task (WPTT). In contrast to Picture Naming tasks, the WPTT is not restricted to concrete nouns and…

  13. Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency from the Perspective of Psycholinguistic Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towell, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter, which is written from the perspective of psycholinguistic SLA research, is to establish a possible relationship between representations, processes and mechanisms of second language learning and knowledge as defined from within psycholinguistic SLA on the one hand, and the more behavioural performance outcomes such as…

  14. Pathways to Fluency: Examining the Link between Language Reclassication Policies and Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura E.; Betts, Julian R.; Chavez, Belen; Zau, Andrew C.; Bachofer, Karen Volz

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25 percent of the students attending California's K-12 public schools are English Learners (ELs). Their EL designation is intended to last only as long as they need supplemental language support to succeed in school. Because outcomes for students reclassified as English proficient are much better than for students who remain ELs,…

  15. Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency from the Perspective of Psycholinguistic Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towell, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter, which is written from the perspective of psycholinguistic SLA research, is to establish a possible relationship between representations, processes and mechanisms of second language learning and knowledge as defined from within psycholinguistic SLA on the one hand, and the more behavioural performance outcomes such as…

  16. Pathways to Fluency: Examining the Link between Language Reclassication Policies and Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura E.; Betts, Julian R.; Chavez, Belen; Zau, Andrew C.; Bachofer, Karen Volz

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25 percent of the students attending California's K-12 public schools are English Learners (ELs). Their EL designation is intended to last only as long as they need supplemental language support to succeed in school. Because outcomes for students reclassified as English proficient are much better than for students who remain ELs,…

  17. Pathways to Fluency: Examining the Link between Language Reclassification Policies and Student Success. Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura E.; Betts, Julian R.; Chavez, Belen; Zau, Andrew C.; Bachofer, Karen Volz

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25 percent of the students attending California's K-12 public schools are English Learners (ELs). Their EL designation is intended to last only as long as they need supplemental language support to succeed in school. Because outcomes for students reclassified as English proficient are much better than for students who remain ELs,…

  18. The role of age of acquisition and language usage in early, high-proficient bilinguals: an fMRI study during verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin; Paulesu, Eraldo; Brambati, Simona; Scifo, Paola; Cappa, Stefano F; Fazio, Ferruccio

    2003-07-01

    We assessed the effects of age of acquisition and language exposure on the cerebral correlates of lexical retrieval in high-proficient, early-acquisition bilinguals. Functional MRI was used to study Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who acquired either Spanish or Catalan as a first language in the first years of life. Subjects were exposed to the second language at 3 years of age, and have used both languages in daily life since then. Subjects had a comparable level of proficiency in the comprehension of both languages. Lexical retrieval with the verbal fluency task resulted in the well-established pattern of left hemispheric activation centered on the inferior frontal region. The effect of age of acquisition was assessed by dividing the subjects into two groups, on the basis of the language acquired first (Catalan-born or Spanish-born bilinguals). Functional comparisons indicated that less extensive brain activation was associated with lexical retrieval in the language acquired earlier in life. The two groups were also different in language usage/exposure, as assessed with a specific questionnaire; in particular, the exposure to the second language (Spanish) was less intensive in the case of Catalans. This was reflected in a significant interaction, indicating a more extensive activation in Catalans during production in Spanish. Overall, these results indicate that, during a production task, both age of acquisition and language exposure affect the pattern of brain activation in bilinguals, even if both languages are acquired early and with a comparable level of proficiency.

  19. Ensuring Proper Competency in the Host Language: Contrasting Formula and the Place of Heritage Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Background Context: In most immigrant-receiving societies, an important question, both for researchers and policy makers, has been the weighing of the relative efficiency of different formulas in the learning of the host language by immigrant students, especially the potential impact of specific services on social integration and the role of…

  20. Ensuring Proper Competency in the Host Language: Contrasting Formula and the Place of Heritage Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Background Context: In most immigrant-receiving societies, an important question, both for researchers and policy makers, has been the weighing of the relative efficiency of different formulas in the learning of the host language by immigrant students, especially the potential impact of specific services on social integration and the role of…

  1. More than use it or lose it: the number-of-speakers effect on heritage language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Tamar H; Starr, Jennie; Ferreira, Victor S

    2015-02-01

    Acquiring a heritage language (HL), a minority language spoken primarily at home, is often a major step toward achieving bilingualism. Two studies examined factors that promote HL proficiency. Chinese-English and Spanish-English undergraduates and Hebrew-English children named pictures in both their languages, and they or their parents completed language history questionnaires. HL picture-naming ability correlated positively with the number of different HL speakers participants spoke to as children, independently of each language's frequency of use, and without negatively affecting English picture-naming ability. HL performance increased also when primary caregivers had lower English proficiency, with later English age of acquisition, and (in children) with increased age. These results suggest a prescription for increasing bilingual proficiency is regular interaction with multiple HL speakers. Responsible cognitive mechanisms could include greater variety of words used by different speakers, representational robustness from exposure to variations in form, or multiple retrieval cues, perhaps analogous to contextual diversity effects.

  2. Assessing the Language Proficiency of Tribal Heritage Language Learners: Issues and Concerns for American Indian Pueblo Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Among American Indian Pueblo tribes, community-based language revitalisation initiatives have been established in response to a growing language shift towards English. This has been most prominent among school age children, prompting some tribes to extend tribal language programmes into local public schools. For centuries, the transmission of…

  3. Enhancing the reading fluency and comprehension of children with reading disabilities in an orthographically transparent language.

    PubMed

    Snellings, Patrick; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F; Blok, Henk

    2009-01-01

    Breznitz (2006) demonstrated that Hebrew-speaking adults with reading disabilities benefited from a training in which reading rate was experimentally manipulated. In the present study, the authors examine whether silent reading training enhances the sentence reading rate and comprehension of children with reading disabilities and whether results found in Hebrew equally apply to an orthographically transparent language. Training results of 59 Dutch children with reading disabilities and normally achieving children show that children with reading disabilities are able to increase their sentence reading rate with high comprehension levels when pushed to do so with accelerated reading training. Posttest results show that transfer to routine reading is less strong for both accelerated and unaccelerated reading. Only accelerated training allows children with reading disabilities to read at high speed while maintaining high comprehension levels.

  4. The Relationship between L1 Fluency and L2 Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ronald I.; Rossiter, Marian J.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in the study of second language (L2) fluency is the extent to which temporal characteristics of speakers' first language (L1) productions predict the same characteristics in the L2. A close relationship between a speaker's L1 and L2 temporal characteristics would suggest that fluency is governed by an underlying trait. This…

  5. Early Language Experience Facilitates the Processing of Gender Agreement in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Davidson, Justin; De La Fuente, Israel; Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We examined how age of acquisition in Spanish heritage speakers and L2 learners interacts with implicitness vs. explicitness of tasks in gender processing of canonical and non-canonical ending nouns. Twenty-three Spanish native speakers, 29 heritage speakers, and 33 proficiency-matched L2 learners completed three on-line spoken word recognition…

  6. Early Language Experience Facilitates the Processing of Gender Agreement in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Davidson, Justin; De La Fuente, Israel; Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We examined how age of acquisition in Spanish heritage speakers and L2 learners interacts with implicitness vs. explicitness of tasks in gender processing of canonical and non-canonical ending nouns. Twenty-three Spanish native speakers, 29 heritage speakers, and 33 proficiency-matched L2 learners completed three on-line spoken word recognition…

  7. Writing Fluency and Quality in Kindergarten and First Grade: The Role of Attention, Reading, Transcription, and Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language…

  8. Uses and Functions of Formulaic Sequences in Second-Language Speech: An Exploration of the Foundations of Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David

    2006-01-01

    Formulaic sequences are fixed combinations of words that have a range of functions and uses in speech production and communication, and seem to be cognitively stored and retrieved by speakers as if they were single words. They can facilitate fluency in speech by making pauses shorter and less frequent, and allowing longer runs of speech between…

  9. The Effects of Two Reading Interventions with Small-Groups of Second Grade English Language Learners on Fluency and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Cristina Sarahi

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the HELPS-SG curriculum and a small group repeated reading (RR) intervention on oral reading fluency and comprehension. The participants of this study were 42 second-grade ELL's who attended an elementary school in the southwestern United States. The participants were either a…

  10. Writing Fluency and Quality in Kindergarten and First Grade: The Role of Attention, Reading, Transcription, and Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language…

  11. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  12. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  13. A Pilot Study of Service-Learning in a Spanish Heritage Speaker Course: Community Engagement, Identity, and Language in the Chicago Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrov, Lisa Amor

    2013-01-01

    This article presents research findings from a pilot study of the use of service-learning in an intermediate-high class ("Spanish Language and Culture for Heritage Speakers") in the fall semesters of 2010 and 2011. Students reported gains in the areas of communication skills, dispositional learning, language, identity formation, and…

  14. Multilingual Identity Development and Negotiation Amongst Heritage Language Learners: A Study of East European-American Schoolchildren in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Corinne A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research in the field of heritage language (HL) acquisition has focused on the connection between frequency of language use and HL speakers' connection to and maintenance of their HL. This dissertation introduces the concept of positioning through discourse into the study of HLs to show evidence that while frequency of HL use contributes…

  15. Multilingual Identity Development and Negotiation Amongst Heritage Language Learners: A Study of East European-American Schoolchildren in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Corinne A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research in the field of heritage language (HL) acquisition has focused on the connection between frequency of language use and HL speakers' connection to and maintenance of their HL. This dissertation introduces the concept of positioning through discourse into the study of HLs to show evidence that while frequency of HL use contributes…

  16. A Pilot Study of Service-Learning in a Spanish Heritage Speaker Course: Community Engagement, Identity, and Language in the Chicago Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrov, Lisa Amor

    2013-01-01

    This article presents research findings from a pilot study of the use of service-learning in an intermediate-high class ("Spanish Language and Culture for Heritage Speakers") in the fall semesters of 2010 and 2011. Students reported gains in the areas of communication skills, dispositional learning, language, identity formation, and…

  17. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27630590

  18. Workplace in fluency management: factoring the workplace into fluency management.

    PubMed

    Cassar, M C; Neilson, M D

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses competency-based standards and guidelines for the involvement of speech-language pathologists in the workplace of clients who stutter. It advocates broadening customary practices in stuttering treatment and suggests that speech-language pathologists should extend their scope of service delivery to the workplace. It presents a sequence for the collaborative involvement of the employer and other workplace members and proposes strategies for evaluating workplace based fluency programs. Issues of fluency management, transfer, maintenance, and efficacy are discussed in the workplace context. Also addressed is workplace communication as well as such factors as stereotypes, discrimination, and resistance to change which may impinge on workplace intervention. It is argued that structured intervention, transfer, and generalization within a collaborative workplace framework facilitates best practice for the fluency clinician and more appropriate outcomes for the diversity of clients who stutter.

  19. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development. PMID:26435550

  20. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)-how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development.

  1. Cross-Language Transfer of Word Reading Accuracy and Word Reading Fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals: Script-Universal and Script-Specific Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of word reading accuracy and word reading fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants included 51 Spanish-English and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals. Both groups of children completed parallel measures of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading accuracy,…

  2. Cross-Language Transfer of Word Reading Accuracy and Word Reading Fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals: Script-Universal and Script-Specific Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of word reading accuracy and word reading fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants included 51 Spanish-English and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals. Both groups of children completed parallel measures of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading accuracy,…

  3. Exploring Utterance and Cognitive Fluency of L1 and L2 English Speakers: Temporal Measures and Stimulated Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    Although fluency constitutes an essential component of second language (L2) proficiency, there are mixed results and gaps in the literature on how L2 speakers' fluency differs from fluent speech production in a first language (L1). The research reported in this article investigated utterance fluency and cognitive fluency of L1 English…

  4. Developing Reading Fluency in EFL: How Assisted Repeated Reading and Extensive Reading Affect Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Etsuo; Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko; Gorsuch, Greta J.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however,…

  5. The Family Fluency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a larger study on developing children's reading fluency in the classroom, a program was introduced to help parents understand the importance of fluency and participate in fluency-related activities with children at home. The Family Fluency Program included activities similar to those that the children were doing in school, with some…

  6. The Family Fluency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a larger study on developing children's reading fluency in the classroom, a program was introduced to help parents understand the importance of fluency and participate in fluency-related activities with children at home. The Family Fluency Program included activities similar to those that the children were doing in school, with some…

  7. Reanalysis in Adult Heritage Language: New Evidence in Support of Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polinsky, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study presents and analyzes the comprehension of relative clauses in child and adult speakers of Russian, comparing monolingual controls with Russian heritage speakers (HSs) who are English-dominant. Monolingual and bilingual children demonstrate full adultlike mastery of relative clauses. Adult HSs, however, are significantly different from…

  8. Heritage Language Development: Understanding the Roles of Ethnic Identity and Saturday School Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinen, Kiyomi; Tucker, G. Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of 31 Japanese-American adolescents enrolled in a Saturday Japanese heritage school (JHL) in Los Angeles. The study examined the relationship of the participants' sense of ethnic identity, attitudes toward the JHL school and self-assessed proficiency in Japanese. The major finding of the study, consistent with…

  9. Is Grammar Instruction Beneficial for Heritage Language Learners? Dative Case Marking in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Bowles, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Spanish heritage speakers have been shown to have incomplete knowledge of dative case marking with both animate direct objects (also known as differential object marking (DOM) or "a-personal") and dative experiencers with "gustar"-psych verbs in oral and written modes (Montrul, 2004; Montrul & Bowles, in press). In general, Spanish objects that…

  10. Is Grammar Instruction Beneficial for Heritage Language Learners? Dative Case Marking in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Bowles, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Spanish heritage speakers have been shown to have incomplete knowledge of dative case marking with both animate direct objects (also known as differential object marking (DOM) or "a-personal") and dative experiencers with "gustar"-psych verbs in oral and written modes (Montrul, 2004; Montrul & Bowles, in press). In general, Spanish objects that…

  11. Drawing on Students' Experiences, Cultures and Languages to Develop English Language Writing: Perspectives from Three Lao Heritage Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souryasack, Rassamichanh; Lee, Jin Sook

    2007-01-01

    Lao students have not fared well in the American educational system. Raised in a home culture that emphasizes and values the oral tradition, the acquisition of academic writing skills has been especially problematic even for U.S.-born students of Lao heritage. Recognizing that writing is a critical component for academic success, this study…

  12. Does Emotional Arousal Influence Swearing Fluency?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Richard; Zile, Amy

    2017-01-16

    This study assessed the effect of experimentally manipulated emotional arousal on swearing fluency. We hypothesised that swear word generation would be increased with raised emotional arousal. The emotional arousal of 60 participants was manipulated by having them play a first-person shooter video game or, as a control, a golf video game, in a randomised order. A behavioural measure of swearing fluency based on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test was employed. Successful experimental manipulation was indicated by raised State Hostility Questionnaire scores after playing the shooter game. Swearing fluency was significantly greater after playing the shooter game compared with the golf game. Validity of the swearing fluency task was demonstrated via positive correlations with self-reported swearing fluency and daily swearing frequency. In certain instances swearing may represent a form of emotional expression. This finding will inform debates around the acceptability of using taboo language.

  13. Educator Assessment: Accent as a Measure of Fluency in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Patricia Lavon; Allen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This analysis examines Arizona's English fluency evaluation initiative, which aims to address the fluency standards for teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs) set forth in the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. The authors deploy a sociolinguistic framework to consider what components of teachers' language are being evaluated by the policy,…

  14. Developing Reading Fluency: A Study of Extensive Reading in EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwahori, Yurika

    2008-01-01

    Due to the great interest of practitioners on reading fluency in first language (L1) and second language (L2) English classroom settings, fluency has become a hot topic. A number of studies have suggested that an extensive reading (ER) program can lead to improvement of L2 learners' reading rate; however, studies about high school students are…

  15. Educator Assessment: Accent as a Measure of Fluency in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Patricia Lavon; Allen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This analysis examines Arizona's English fluency evaluation initiative, which aims to address the fluency standards for teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs) set forth in the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. The authors deploy a sociolinguistic framework to consider what components of teachers' language are being evaluated by the policy,…

  16. The Relationship between Letter Fluency Measures and Arabic GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated two widely-used early literacy skill's indicators in reflecting growth in first-grade language achievement skills. It compared two curriculum-based assessments of letter knowledge: Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) and Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) in the Arabic language. A sample of 125 first-grade students, 100 average readers and…

  17. Specialty Board on Fluency Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Start Your Search Read the Newsletter Who are Board Certified Specialists in Fluency? Board Certified Specialists in ... Board of Fluency and Fluency Disorders. How can Board Certified Specialists in Fluency help? Board Certified Specialists ...

  18. Textbook Activities among Heritage and Non-Heritage Portuguese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Glaucia V.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past four decades, scholars have debated the pedagogical and sociolinguistic needs of heritage language learners. It is widely accepted that these learners present several characteristics that are different from those of foreign (or non-heritage) language learners. However, scholars have also pointed to similarities between the two groups…

  19. Investigating Heritage Language and Culture Links: An Indo-Canadian Hindu Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Nootan; Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although it is commonly believed that language and culture are inexorably linked, the precise nature of this relationship remains elusive. This study investigated the hypothesis that a loss in language signals a loss in culture if language is considered a central value. This hypothesis was investigated by rating the Hindi and English proficiency…

  20. Investigating Heritage Language and Culture Links: An Indo-Canadian Hindu Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Nootan; Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although it is commonly believed that language and culture are inexorably linked, the precise nature of this relationship remains elusive. This study investigated the hypothesis that a loss in language signals a loss in culture if language is considered a central value. This hypothesis was investigated by rating the Hindi and English proficiency…

  1. Speaking Spanish like a Boy Scout: Language Socialization, Resistance, and Reproduction in a Heritage Language Scout Troop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardado, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of the language socialization of Spanish-speaking families in a Scout group in Metro Vancouver. Using tools of discourse analysis, the article examines the language use patterns of the participants, particularly focusing on the language ideologies to which they oriented themselves and the identities indexed…

  2. The Genetic Architecture of Oral Language, Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study from 7 to 16 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosto, Maria G.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Harlaar, Nicole; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the genetic and environmental etiology underlying the development of oral language and reading skills, and the relationship between them, over a long period of developmental time spanning middle childhood and adolescence. It focuses particularly on the differential relationship between language and two different aspects of…

  3. Evidence for Long-Term Cross-Language Repetition Priming in Low Fluency Chinese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li; Mo, Lei; Wang, Ruiming; Luo, Xueying; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have found that proficiency in a second language affects how the meanings of words are accessed. Support for this hypothesis is based on data from explicit memory tasks with bilingual participants who know two languages that are relatively similar phonologically and orthographically (e.g., Dutch-English, French-English). The…

  4. Evidence for Long-Term Cross-Language Repetition Priming in Low Fluency Chinese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li; Mo, Lei; Wang, Ruiming; Luo, Xueying; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have found that proficiency in a second language affects how the meanings of words are accessed. Support for this hypothesis is based on data from explicit memory tasks with bilingual participants who know two languages that are relatively similar phonologically and orthographically (e.g., Dutch-English, French-English). The…

  5. Assessing Basic Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a variety of ways to formatively assess basic fact fluency. The define fluency, raise some issues related to timed testing, and then share a collection of classroom-tested ideas for authentic fact fluency assessment. This article encourages teachers to try a variety of alternative assessments from this sampling,…

  6. Hispanic Heritage Language Speakers in the United States: Linguistic Exclusion in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreffler, Sandra B.

    2007-01-01

    The Hispanic population of the United States is quite diverse and with each passing year, due to (im)migration patterns, more and more students are entering language classrooms with some degree of familiarity with the language. However, because of the tendency toward intergenerational loss of Spanish, the linguistic proficiency covers the…

  7. Bilingual Vocabulary Knowledge and Arrival Age among Japanese Heritage Language Students at "Hoshuukoo"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines bilingual vocabulary knowledge in relation to arrival age among first language (L1) Japanese students attending "hoshuukoo" (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. It also examines the relationship between L1 Japanese and English as a second language (L2), as…

  8. Measuring Implicit and Explicit Linguistic Knowledge: What Can Heritage Language Learners Contribute?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Although claims about explicit and implicit language knowledge are central to many debates in SLA, little research has been dedicated to measuring the two knowledge types (R. Ellis, 2004, 2005). The purpose of this study was to validate the use of the battery of tests reported in Ellis (2005) to measure implicit and explicit language knowledge.…

  9. Khmer as a Heritage Language in the United States: Historical Sketch, Current Realities, and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wayne E.

    2010-01-01

    Cambodian Americans are a fairly recent language minority group in the United States; most families arrived in the United States as refugees during the 1980s. Over the past 30 years, there has been great concern in the community regarding the maintenance loss of their native Khmer language. This article provides an historical and contemporary…

  10. Heritage Language Socialization Practices in Secular Yiddish Educational Contexts: The Creation of a Metalinguistic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avineri, Netta Rose

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation develops a theoretical and empirical framework for the model of metalinguistic community, a community of positioned social actors engaged primarily in discourse about language and cultural symbols tied to language. Building upon the notions of speech community (Duranti, 1994; Gumperz, 1968; Morgan, 2004), linguistic community…

  11. Hispanic Heritage Language Speakers in the United States: Linguistic Exclusion in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreffler, Sandra B.

    2007-01-01

    The Hispanic population of the United States is quite diverse and with each passing year, due to (im)migration patterns, more and more students are entering language classrooms with some degree of familiarity with the language. However, because of the tendency toward intergenerational loss of Spanish, the linguistic proficiency covers the…

  12. Internationalizing General Education from within: Raising the Visibility of Heritage Language Students in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidova, Evguenia

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the findings of a pilot project conducted in 2008-2009 as a partnership between University Studies, Portland State University's interdisciplinary general education program, and the University's Russian Flagship Language Partner Program. The project proposes a new approach of integrating non-English speakers' language skills,…

  13. Khmer as a Heritage Language in the United States: Historical Sketch, Current Realities, and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wayne E.

    2010-01-01

    Cambodian Americans are a fairly recent language minority group in the United States; most families arrived in the United States as refugees during the 1980s. Over the past 30 years, there has been great concern in the community regarding the maintenance loss of their native Khmer language. This article provides an historical and contemporary…

  14. Heritage Language Socialization Practices in Secular Yiddish Educational Contexts: The Creation of a Metalinguistic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avineri, Netta Rose

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation develops a theoretical and empirical framework for the model of metalinguistic community, a community of positioned social actors engaged primarily in discourse about language and cultural symbols tied to language. Building upon the notions of speech community (Duranti, 1994; Gumperz, 1968; Morgan, 2004), linguistic community…

  15. Bilingual Vocabulary Knowledge and Arrival Age among Japanese Heritage Language Students at "Hoshuukoo"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines bilingual vocabulary knowledge in relation to arrival age among first language (L1) Japanese students attending "hoshuukoo" (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. It also examines the relationship between L1 Japanese and English as a second language (L2), as…

  16. Sindhi Studies: 1947-1967. A Review of Sindhi Language and Society. Heritage Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khubchandani, Lachman M., Comp.

    This monograph was originally a chapter from a 14-volume series, "Current Trends in Linguistics," that presented reviews of research pertaining to language and society worldwide. This publication provides access to researchers of the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent, focusing on the Sindhi language. Chapter 1, "Sindhi Studies:…

  17. Measuring Implicit and Explicit Linguistic Knowledge: What Can Heritage Language Learners Contribute?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Although claims about explicit and implicit language knowledge are central to many debates in SLA, little research has been dedicated to measuring the two knowledge types (R. Ellis, 2004, 2005). The purpose of this study was to validate the use of the battery of tests reported in Ellis (2005) to measure implicit and explicit language knowledge.…

  18. L'enseignement des langues d'origne a l'ecole publique en Ontario et au Quebec: Politiques et enjeu (Heritage Language Instruction in Public Schools in Quebec and Ontario: Official Policy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Marie

    1991-01-01

    Represents a comparative analysis of the instructional policies for heritage language programs in Ontario and Quebec. It is concluded that the differences in the programs reflect a distinct difference between the two provinces with relation to interethnic relations. (VWL)

  19. Rhetorical and Lexico-Grammatical Features of Argumentative Writing in Spanish as a Heritage Language and as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Sofia M.

    2011-01-01

    Student academic writing in higher education is a central component of language programs whose purpose is to promote advanced literacy in the target language. At this level, students are required to produce texts that are analytical-argumentative in nature. This type of genre requires writers to formulate an interpretative statement or thesis and…

  20. Rhetorical and Lexico-Grammatical Features of Argumentative Writing in Spanish as a Heritage Language and as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Sofia M.

    2011-01-01

    Student academic writing in higher education is a central component of language programs whose purpose is to promote advanced literacy in the target language. At this level, students are required to produce texts that are analytical-argumentative in nature. This type of genre requires writers to formulate an interpretative statement or thesis and…

  1. Issues in bilingualism and heritage language maintenance: perspectives of minority-language mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Yu, Betty

    2013-02-01

    The author investigated the language practices of 10 bilingual, Chinese/English-speaking, immigrant mothers with their children with autism spectrum disorders. The aim was to understand (a) the nature of the language practices, (b) their constraints, and (c) their impact. The author employed in-depth phenomenological interviews with thematic and narrative analyses to yield themes. Interviewees reported that they adopted language practices perceived to be advantageous to intervention access and wellness. They valued Chinese language but did not pursue its use if it was believed to hinder the children's overall development of English acquisition. All of the mothers believed that bilingualism made learning more challenging. Many believed that it caused confusion or exacerbated disabilities. These deficit views of bilingualism were commonly reinforced by professionals. All of the mothers were motivated to help their children learn English but had no assistance to do so. Practices were sustainable only when they were aligned with families' preferred communication patterns. There is an urgent need for practitioners to be better informed about issues related to intergenerational language practices in minority-language families. Language use between parents and children is a complex matter that is unique to each family. Parents need to be supported to make language use decisions that are self-enhancing and congruent with their families' needs.

  2. Issues in Bilingualism and Heritage Language Maintenance: Perspectives of Minority-Language Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The author investigated the language practices of 10 bilingual, Chinese/English-speaking, immigrant mothers with their children with autism spectrum disorders. The aim was to understand (a) the nature of the language practices, (b) their constraints, and (c) their impact. Method: The author employed in-depth phenomenological interviews…

  3. Effects of Two Foreign Language Methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling, on Beginning-Level Students' Achievement, Fluency, and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical studies exist comparing the effectiveness of the two prevalent foreign language methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS), at helping students achieve second language acquisition. In turn, the purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to…

  4. Effects of Two Foreign Language Methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling, on Beginning-Level Students' Achievement, Fluency, and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical studies exist comparing the effectiveness of the two prevalent foreign language methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS), at helping students achieve second language acquisition. In turn, the purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to…

  5. Effects of a Cross-Age Peer Tutoring Intervention on English Language Oral Reading Fluency in a Belizean Grade School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sytsma, Marcia Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A cross-age peer tutoring program was implemented in a small rural school in west central Belize, Central America. All students at the school were native Spanish speakers, and all general instruction was conducted in English. The program was devised to supplement existing reading and language arts instruction at all grade levels. Progress of both…

  6. Effects of a Cross-Age Peer Tutoring Intervention on English Language Oral Reading Fluency in a Belizean Grade School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sytsma, Marcia Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A cross-age peer tutoring program was implemented in a small rural school in west central Belize, Central America. All students at the school were native Spanish speakers, and all general instruction was conducted in English. The program was devised to supplement existing reading and language arts instruction at all grade levels. Progress of both…

  7. The Role of Task Structure in Oral Fluency Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejzenberg, Roseli

    This study sought to develop a description of second language fluency, based on the concept that the microcontext of the testing task and the resulting psycholinguistic demands on speech production affect the nature of the discourse produced so that different tasks have differential impact on an individual's display of fluency. It investigated how…

  8. Behavioral Fluency: A New Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Discusses fluency-based instruction based on Skinner's research on response rate measures and Precision Teaching. Topics addressed include learning outcomes associated with fluency; fluency and overlearning; implications for instructional design; examples of fluency-based education and training; and strategies for marketing fluency-based…

  9. Native Speakers' Perceptions of Fluency and Accent in L2 Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinget, Anne-France; Bosker, Hans Rutger; Quené, Hugo; de Jong, Nivja H.

    2014-01-01

    Oral fluency and foreign accent distinguish L2 from L1 speech production. In language testing practices, both fluency and accent are usually assessed by raters. This study investigates what exactly native raters of fluency and accent take into account when judging L2. Our aim is to explore the relationship between objectively measured temporal,…

  10. Native Speakers' Perceptions of Fluency and Accent in L2 Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinget, Anne-France; Bosker, Hans Rutger; Quené, Hugo; de Jong, Nivja H.

    2014-01-01

    Oral fluency and foreign accent distinguish L2 from L1 speech production. In language testing practices, both fluency and accent are usually assessed by raters. This study investigates what exactly native raters of fluency and accent take into account when judging L2. Our aim is to explore the relationship between objectively measured temporal,…

  11. Hebrew as Heritage: The Work of Language in Religious and Communal Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avni, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    While Hebrew education maintains a dominant position in Jewish educational contexts, little research has looked at what the practice of Hebrew language education looks like on a daily basis. Drawing from an 18-month ethnography of junior high school students attending a private non-Orthodox all day school, this article critically examines the ways…

  12. A Pilot Project To Include Culture in the Spanish Business Language Curriculum for Heritage Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Frank

    The Spanish-speaking population is the third-largest language group worldwide, hence Spanish and Hispanic cultures are of major interest in the business sector. At the University of Texas, San Antonio, a course in "Spanish for Special Purposes: Business" integrates culture into the curriculum. Most students taking the course are…

  13. Heritage Languages at Upper Secondary Level in South Australia: A Struggle for Legitimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Antonio; Scarino, Angela

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how more than 40 languages gained and retained legitimacy as subjects for graduation from upper secondary schooling and for tertiary entrance selection in the South Australian educational system. Essentially the process required conforming with administrative, curriculum and community structures and fitting the mould of…

  14. Language and Culture: Heritage and Horizons. Reports of the Working Committees, Northeast Conference, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Inc., Madison, CT.

    This volume contains the reports of the working committees of the 1976 Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. The introduction traces the patterns of immigration in North America from the colonial period to the twentieth century. Sections entitled Origins, Cultural Pluralism, and Contributions deal with the settlement patterns…

  15. "Glued to the Family": The Role of Familism in Heritage Language Development Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardado, Martin; Becker, Ava

    2014-01-01

    This article, part of a larger ethnographic study, examines how a family's affective ties to the country of origin and to relatives still residing there supported their Spanish language development and maintenance efforts in Vancouver, Canada. Drawing on data from participant observation and interviews, the article analyses the parents' diverse…

  16. "Glued to the Family": The Role of Familism in Heritage Language Development Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardado, Martin; Becker, Ava

    2014-01-01

    This article, part of a larger ethnographic study, examines how a family's affective ties to the country of origin and to relatives still residing there supported their Spanish language development and maintenance efforts in Vancouver, Canada. Drawing on data from participant observation and interviews, the article analyses the parents' diverse…

  17. Languages and Intercultural Relations: Considerations for a Unit on Our Italian Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Gaetano, Armand L.

    A review of historically and sociologically significant cultural interrelations between Italy and its language and the world commences with a historical sketch from the Roman period. The author examines reasons for the rebirth of interest in Italian culture and suggests that the best approach to developing an appreciation of the culture is the…

  18. A comprehensive analysis of verbal fluency deficit in geriatric schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bowie, C R; Harvey, P D; Moriarty, P J; Parrella, M; White, L; Davis, K L

    2004-03-01

    Deficits in verbal fluency are common in schizophrenia and may provide keys to some of the abnormalities in the semantic system in schizophrenia. While a number of studies have outlined the severity and implications of verbal fluency deficits in younger schizophrenia patients, these findings have not yet been extended to older patients with schizophrenia. In this study, 392 older (age >/= 50) patients with schizophrenia were administered phonological and semantic (i.e., category) fluency examinations, as well as tests of learning, memory, language, and praxic skills, and rated for clinical symptoms and functional status. When compared to normative standards, 82% of the patients were impaired in semantic fluency and 83% were impaired in phonological fluency. Both semantic and phonological fluency impairment were significantly correlated with other cognitive variables, total scores on the functional status measure, and with the social and self-care subscales. Scores were uncorrelated with the severity of psychosis, but were correlated with the severity of negative symptoms. Furthermore, the severity of poverty of speech (a clinical measure of verbal underproductivity) was moderate in magnitude and failed to enter as a predictor of verbal fluency, indicating that impaired fluency scores are not simply an artifact of general underproductivity or mutism. The findings support conclusions from studies with younger schizophrenia patients that suggest that verbal fluency impairment is a consequence of a disorganized semantic system. Verbal fluency impairment remains common and functionally relevant in schizophrenia patients in late life.

  19. Cross-cultural differences in beliefs and practices that affect the language spoken to children: mothers with Indian and Western heritage.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Noreen; Johnston, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists often advise families about interaction patterns that will facilitate language learning. This advice is typically based on research with North American families of European heritage and may not be culturally suited for non-Western families. The goal of the project was to identify differences in the beliefs and practices of Indian and Euro-Canadian mothers that would affect patterns of talk to children. A total of 47 Indian mothers and 51 Euro-Canadian mothers of preschool age children completed a written survey concerning child-rearing practices and beliefs, especially those about talk to children. Discriminant analyses indicated clear cross-cultural differences and produced functions that could predict group membership with a 96% accuracy rate. Items contributing most to these functions concerned the importance of family, perceptions of language learning, children's use of language in family and society, and interactions surrounding text. Speech-language pathologists who wish to adapt their services for families of Indian heritage should remember the centrality of the family, the likelihood that there will be less emphasis on early independence and achievement, and the preference for direct instruction.

  20. Syntactic Reflexes of Emerging Optionality in Spanish as a Heritage Language: The Case of Dative-Experiencer Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascual y Cabo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to current trends of heritage speaker bilingualism research by examining the syntax of so-called Spanish dative-experiencer predicates ("gustar"-like verbs). Building on previous findings (e.g., Silva-Corvalán 1994; Toribio and Nye 2006), it is hypothesized that Spanish heritage speakers can project an optional…