Science.gov

Sample records for hermitized atmospheric diffusion

  1. Hermite-cosine-Gaussian laser beam and its propagation characteristics in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil Tanyer

    2005-08-01

    Hermite-cosine-Gaussian (HcosG) laser beams are studied. The source plane intensity of the HcosG beam is introduced and its dependence on the source parameters is examined. By application of the Fresnel diffraction integral, the average receiver intensity of HcosG beam is formulated for the case of propagation in turbulent atmosphere. The average receiver intensity is seen to reduce appropriately to various special cases. When traveling in turbulence, the HcosG beam initially experiences the merging of neighboring beam lobes, and then a TEM-type cosh-Gaussian beam is formed, temporarily leading to a plain cosh-Gaussian beam. Eventually a pure Gaussian beam results. The numerical evaluation of the normalized beam size along the propagation axis at selected mode indices indicates that relative spreading of higher-order HcosG beam modes is less than that of the lower-order counterparts. Consequently, it is possible at some propagation distances to capture more power by using higher-mode-indexed HcosG beams.

  2. Handbook on atmospheric diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)

  3. Analysis of offshore atmospheric diffusion characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraga, Kunio; Omoto, Akira; Takahashi, Keiichi; Momoi, Kazuyoshi

    1994-12-31

    Although almost all of the thermal and nuclear power stations in Japan are located on the coastline to take advantage of seawater available to condense steam, offshore siting is one of the candidates for the future plant sitting. Figures developed by Pasquill-Gifford model has been conventionally utilized in analyzing atmospheric diffusion of gaseous effluent from power plants. However, there are limitations to apply this to offshore plants because these figures are based on inland diffusion experiments and this model does not specifically take into consideration the effects of thermal capacity of seawater, its surface roughness and so on. Even in the case of coastline sitting, atmospheric diffusion of gaseous effluent might be affected by atmospheric diffusion characteristics above seawater. With this background gaseous, diffusion experiments were conducted at one of TEPCo`s (Tokyo Electric Power Company) coastline power station and empirical formula to model atmospheric diffusion above seawater has been developed.

  4. Study of atmospheric diffusion using LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torsani, J. A.; Viswanadham, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The parameters of diffusion patterns of atmospheric pollutants under different conditions were investigated for use in the Gaussian model for calculation of pollution concentration. Value for the divergence pattern of concentration distribution along the Y axis were determined using LANDSAT images. Multispectral scanner images of a point source plume having known characteristics, wind and temperature data, and cloud cover and solar elevation data provided by LANDSAT, were analyzed using the 1-100 system for image analysis. These measured values are compared with pollution transport as predicted by the Pasquill-Gifford, Juelich, and Hoegstroem atmospheric models.

  5. A Fast Hermite Transform★

    PubMed Central

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.; Park, Wooram; Taintor, Robert; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2008-01-01

    We present algorithms for fast and stable approximation of the Hermite transform of a compactly supported function on the real line, attainable via an application of a fast algebraic algorithm for computing sums associated with a three-term relation. Trade-offs between approximation in bandlimit (in the Hermite sense) and size of the support region are addressed. Numerical experiments are presented that show the feasibility and utility of our approach. Generalizations to any family of orthogonal polynomials are outlined. Applications to various problems in tomographic reconstruction, including the determination of protein structure, are discussed. PMID:20027202

  6. Is weak pseudo-Hermiticity weaker than pseudo-Hermiticity?

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafazadeh, Ali

    2006-09-15

    For a weakly pseudo-Hermitian linear operator, we give a spectral condition that ensures its pseudo-Hermiticity. This condition is always satisfied whenever the operator acts in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. Hence weak pseudo-Hermiticity and pseudo-Hermiticity are equivalent in finite-dimensions. This equivalence extends to a much larger class of operators. Quantum systems whose Hamiltonian is selected from among these operators correspond to pseudo-Hermitian quantum systems possessing certain symmetries.

  7. On Hermite Matrix Polynomials of Two Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmmash, Ghazi S.

    This study deals with the two-variable Hermite matrix polynomials, some relevant matrix functions appear interims of the two-variable Hermite matrix polynomials the relationships with Hermite matrix polynomials of one variable, Chepyshev matrix polynomials of the second kind have been obtained and expansion of the. Gegenbauer matrix polynomials as series of Hermite matrix polynomials.

  8. THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    M. WILLIAMS

    1999-08-01

    The LANL atmospheric transport and diffusion models are composed of two state-of-the-art computer codes. The first is an atmospheric wind model called HOThlAC, Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric circulations. HOTMAC generates wind and turbulence fields by solving a set of atmospheric dynamic equations. The second is an atmospheric diffusion model called RAPTAD, Random Particle Transport And Diffusion. RAPTAD uses the wind and turbulence output from HOTMAC to compute particle trajectories and concentration at any location downwind from a source. Both of these models, originally developed as research codes on supercomputers, have been modified to run on microcomputers. Because the capability of microcomputers is advancing so rapidly, the expectation is that they will eventually become as good as today's supercomputers. Now both models are run on desktop or deskside computers, such as an IBM PC/AT with an Opus Pm 350-32 bit coprocessor board and a SUN workstation. Codes have also been modified so that high level graphics, NCAR Graphics, of the output from both models are displayed on the desktop computer monitors and plotted on a laser printer. Two programs, HOTPLT and RAPLOT, produce wind vector plots of the output from HOTMAC and particle trajectory plots of the output from RAPTAD, respectively. A third CONPLT provides concentration contour plots. Section II describes step-by-step operational procedures, specifically for a SUN-4 desk side computer, on how to run main programs HOTMAC and RAPTAD, and graphics programs to display the results. Governing equations, boundary conditions and initial values of HOTMAC and RAPTAD are discussed in Section III. Finite-difference representations of the governing equations, numerical solution procedures, and a grid system are given in Section IV.

  9. Some basic mathematical methods of diffusion theory. [emphasis on atmospheric applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giere, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    An introductory treatment of the fundamentals of diffusion theory is presented, starting with molecular diffusion and leading up to the statistical methods of turbulent diffusion. A multilayer diffusion model, designed to permit concentration and dosage calculations downwind of toxic clouds from rocket vehicles, is described. The concepts and equations of diffusion are developed on an elementary level, with emphasis on atmospheric applications.

  10. Hermit to king, or hermit to all: multiple transitions to crab-like forms from hermit crab ancestors.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Tin-Yam; Ahyong, Shane T; Chu, Ka Hou

    2011-10-01

    The Anomura presents the greatest degree of morphological disparity in the decapod Crustacea, with body forms ranging from the symmetrical and asymmetrical hermit crabs to squat lobsters and king crabs. The phylogeny of the anomurans has been fraught with controversy. Recent debate has focused primarily on the phenomenon of carcinization, the evolution of crab-like form from a non-crab-like ancestor, focused chiefly on derivation of king crabs from asymmetrical hermit crabs--the "hermit to king" hypothesis. We show by phylogenetic analysis of five nuclear protein-coding gene sequences that hermit crabs have a single origin, but surprisingly, that almost all other major clades and body forms within the Anomura, are derived from within the hermit crabs. The crab-like form and squat lobster form have each evolved at least twice from separate symmetrical hermit crab ancestors. In each case, a carcinization trend can be posited via a transition series from the initial symmetrical long-tailed hermit crab form, through the intermediate squat lobster or asymmetrical hermit crab form, to the final crab-like form. Adaptation to dextral shell habitation evolved at least twice, once in an exclusively deep-water clade and once in the common ancestor of all other asymmetrical hermit crabs (from which king crabs are derived). These remarkable cases of parallelism suggest considerable phenotypic flexibility within the hermit crab ground plan, with a general tendency toward carcinization. Rather than having a separate origin from other major clades, hermit crabs have given rise to most other major anomuran body types.

  11. Summability methods for hermite functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, John P.; Moore, Dennis W.

    1986-02-01

    Many problems in equatorial oceanography can be analytically solved via series of Hermite functions, but unfortunately these expansions converge very poorly. In this note, we describe two simple tricks for accurately evaluating such series. The first, due to Moore, is to apply numerical weighting factors to the last four terms in the series. This is a special case of a more powerful technique known as the 'Euler-Abel' method which is almost as easy to apply. Our numerical examples show that both methods are very effective. The Euler-Abel method gives an error which decreases exponentially fast as N, the number of terms retained in the truncated series, increases. Moore's method only reduced the error by a factor of 0(1/ N2) in comparison to the original series, but this is more than enough for most practical purposes, and this trick is simpler and distributes the error more uniformly in latitude than the Euler-Abel transformation. A conservative rule-of-thumb is that both methods give errors too small to observe on a graph on the range |γ| ⩽ ( 1/3)(2N+1) 1/2 where N is the number of terms in the Hermite series.

  12. Urban air pollution and atmospheric diffusion research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Datong; Whitney, Joseph B.; Yap, David

    1987-11-01

    Air pollution has become a serious problem in China as a result of that country's efforts in the last 30 years to become a great industrial power. The burning of coal, which currently provides over 70% of all China's energy needs, is a major source of air pollution. Because Chinese coal is high in sulfur and ash content and because most combustion devices in China have low efficiencies, SO2 and particulate emissions are a serious problem and are comparable to or exceed those found in many countries that are much more industrialized. Although most coal is burned in North China, acid precipitation is most severe in South China because of the lack of buffering loess dust found in the former region. The Chinese government has already taken major steps to mitigate air pollution, such as relocating polluting industries, supplying coal with lower sulfur content, using gas instead of coal for residential heating, and levying fines on industries that exceed pollution standards. Atmospheric environmental impact assessment (AEIA) is also required for all major new projects. This article describes three types of mathematical diffusion models and field and wind-tunnel experiments that are used in such assessments. The Chinese authorities believe that a range of technological, managerial, locational, and behavioral changes must be effected before the air of Chinese cities can be significantly improved.

  13. Observation and interpretation of energy efficient, diffuse direct current glow discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jie Jiang, Weiman; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Li, Jing; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-08-24

    A diffuse direct-current glow discharge was realized with low energy consumption and high energy utilization efficiency at atmospheric pressure. The formation of diffuse discharge was demonstrated by examining and comparing the electrical properties and optical emissions of plasmas. In combination with theoretical derivation and calculation, we draw guidelines that appearance of nitrogen ions at low electron density is crucial to enhance the ambipolar diffusion for the expansion of discharge channel and the increasing ambipolar diffusion near the cathode plays a key role in the onset of diffuse discharge. An individual-discharge-channel expansion model is proposed to explain the diffuse discharge formation.

  14. Old and new results about relativistic Hermite polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignat, C.

    2011-09-01

    We provide new proofs of already known results as well as new results about the family of relativistic Hermite polynomials. We use essentially probabilistic tools such as moment representations, pioneered by Ismail et al., but also subordination, that allows to explicit links between Gegenbauer, usual Hermite, and relativistic Hermite polynomials.

  15. Atmospheric physics: Chorus keeps the diffuse aurora humming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Patrick T.

    2010-10-01

    The origin of the diffuse aurora, whose beauty and intensity pale beside those of the famous aurora borealis, has remained controversial. A convincing explanation for this auroral display is now at hand. See Letter p.943

  16. Diffusion of Sound Waves in a Turbulent Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard H.

    1960-01-01

    The directional and frequency diffusion of a plane monochromatic 2 sound wave in statistically homogeneous, isotropic, and stationary turbulence is analyzed theoretically. The treatment is based on the diffusion equation for the energy density of sound waves, using the scattering cross section derived by Kraichnan for the type of turbulence assumed here. A form for the frequency-wave number spectrum of the turbulence is adopted which contains the pertinent parameters of the flow and is adapted to ease of calculation. A new approach to the evaluation of the characteristic period of the flow is suggested. This spectrum is then related to the scattering cross section. Finally, a diffusion equation is derived as a small-angle scattering approximation to the rigorous transport equation. The rate of spread of the incident wave in frequency and direction is calculated, as well as the power spectrum and autocorrelation for the wave.

  17. Study of atmospheric diffusion from the LANDSAT imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanadham, Y.; Torsani, J.A.

    1982-11-20

    Detailed analyses of the LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data of the smoke plumes that originated in eastern Cabo Frio (22/sup 0/ 59'S; 42/sup 0/ 02'W) and crossed over into the Atlantic ocean are presented to illustrate how high-resolution LANDSAT imagery can aid meteorologists in evaluating specific air pollution events. The eleven LANDSAT images selected are for different months and years. Conventional interpretation techniques are applied to analyze the images with a view to arrive at certain plume characteristics. The analysis of the visible smoke plumes revealed that the plume was 130 km long and attained a maximum width of 937 m, 10 km away from the chimney emitting the effluent. The results show that diffusion is governed primarily by water and air temperature differences. With colder water, low-level air is very stable and the vertical diffusion is minimal; but water warmer than the air induces vigorous diffusion. The applicability of two empirical methods for determining the horizontal eddy diffusivity coefficient (K/sub y/) in the Gaussian plume formula was evaluated with the estimated standard deviation of the crosswind distribution of material in the plume (sigma/sub y/) from the LANDSAT imagery. Most consistent estimates for K/sub y/ are obtained from the formula based on Taylor's theory of 'diffusion by continuous moment.' K/sub y/ values of about 158 m/sup 2/ ..sigma..)/sup 1/ in quasi-neutral conditions and 49 m/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ in stable conditions are obtained from a plot of sigma/sup 2//sub y/ as a function of distance from the source. The rate of kinetic energy dissipation (epsilon) is evaluated from the diffusion parameters sigma/sub y/ and K/sub y/. The epsilon value ranges from 0.1 x 10/sup -5/ m/sup 2/ s/sup -3/ to 80.2 x 10/sup -5/ m/sup 2/ s/sup -3/ in quasi-neutral and stable stratifications.

  18. Estimation of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Parameters for Diffusion Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ulden, A. P.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    1985-11-01

    This paper gives the outline of a `meteorological preprocessor' for air pollution modeling. It is shown how significantly more information can be extracted from routinely available measurements than the traditional Pasquil stability classes and power law wind speed profiles. Also it is shown how additional special measurements-if available-can be accommodated. The methods are primarily intended for application in generally level, but not necessarily homogeneous terrain. The improved characterization of the state of the planetary boundary layer allows a more modern and probably more accurate description of diffusion. The paper is an extended version of an introductory paper presented during the `Workshop on Updating Applied Diffusion Models' Clearwater, Florida, January 1984.

  19. Tarantula and Hermit Crab Emergency Care.

    PubMed

    Marnell, Cinthia

    2016-05-01

    Tarantulas and hermit crabs are commonly kept pets and are underappreciated in veterinary medicine. Safe handling, biology and husbandry, diagnostic techniques, anesthesia, fluid therapy, disorders, and euthanasia are covered in this article. Current research is applied to these topics to keep practitioners abreast with the best medicine for these creatures. PMID:27131164

  20. Motion magnification using the Hermite transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brieva, Jorge; Moya-Albor, Ernesto; Gomez-Coronel, Sandra L.; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris; Ponce, Hiram; Mora Esquivel, Juan I.

    2015-12-01

    We present an Eulerian motion magnification technique with a spatial decomposition based on the Hermite Transform (HT). We compare our results to the approach presented in.1 We test our method in one sequence of the breathing of a newborn baby and on an MRI left ventricle sequence. Methods are compared using quantitative and qualitative metrics after the application of the motion magnification algorithm.

  1. A study of atmospheric diffusion from the LANDSAT imagery. [pollution transport over the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Viswanadham, Y.; Torsani, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT multispectral scanner data of the smoke plumes which originated in eastern Cabo Frio, Brazil and crossed over into the Atlantic Ocean, are analyzed to illustrate how high resolution LANDSAT imagery can aid meteorologists in evaluating specific air pollution events. The eleven LANDSAT images selected are for different months and years. The results show that diffusion is governed primarily by water and air temperature differences. With colder water, low level air is very stable and the vertical diffusion is minimal; but water warmer than the air induces vigorous diffusion. The applicability of three empirical methods for determining the horizontal eddy diffusivity coefficient in the Gaussian plume formula was evaluated with the estimated standard deviation of the crosswind distribution of material in the plume from the LANDSAT imagery. The vertical diffusion coefficient in stable conditions is estimated using Weinstock's formulation. These results form a data base for use in the development and validation of meso scale atmospheric diffusion models.

  2. [Factors affecting benzene diffusion from contaminated soils to the atmosphere and flux characteristics].

    PubMed

    Du, Ping; Wang, Shi-Jie; Zhao, Huan-Huan; Wu, Bin; Han, Chun-Mei; Fang, Ji-Dun; Li, Hui-Ying; Hosomi, Masaaki; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    The influencing factors of benzene diffusion fluxes from sand and black soil to atmosphere were investigated using a flux chamber (30.0 cm x 17.5 cm x 29.0 cm). In this study, the benzene diffusion fluxes were estimated by measuring the benzene concentrations both in the headspace of the chamber and in the soils of different layers. The results indicated that the soil water content played an important role in benzene diffusion fluxes. The diffusion flux showed positive correlation with the initial benzene concentration and the benzene dissolution concentration for both soil types. The changes of air flow rate from 300 to 900 mL x min(-1) and temperature from 20 degrees C to 40 degrees C resulted in increases of the benzene diffusion flux. Our study of benzene diffusion fluxes from contaminated soils will be beneficial for the predicting model, and emergency management and precautions.

  3. Wave-induced eddy diffusion coefficients in the upper atmosphere of Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, W. H.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A theory and method previously used to calculate terrestrial eddy diffusion coefficients due to instabilities in internal gravity waves have been extended to obtain wave-induced eddy diffusion coefficients in the upper atmosphere of Mars. If the Martian atmosphere is relatively dry (water vapor mixing ratio much less than .001), the effects of radiative damping are minimal for all but the longest-period waves. For greater concentrations of water vapor the effects of radiative damping are increased, but in any event it is reasonable to expect wave-induced turbulence, with eddy diffusion coefficients of the order of 10 to the 7th sq cm/sec in the Martian upper atmosphere.

  4. Modeling of TCE diffusion to the atmosphere and distribution in plant stems.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingmao; Burken, Joel

    2004-09-01

    Fate of chlorinated solvents in phytoremediation has been delineated by many discoveries made in recent years. Plant uptake, metabolism, rhizosphere degradation, accumulation, and volatilization were shown to occur to differing degrees for many organic contaminants including chlorinated solvents. Among these mechanistic findings, recent research confirmed that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) volatilize from stems and that the resulting diffusive flux to the atmosphere is related to exposure concentration and to height up the stem. A comprehensive model was developed based upon all identified fate and transport mechanisms for VOCs, including translocation in the xylem flow and diffusion. The dispersion and diffusion in the radial direction were considered as one process (effective diffusion) as the two could not be investigated individually. The mechanism-based model mathematically indicates an exponential decrease of concentrations with height. While an analytic solution for the comprehensive model was not attained, it can serve as a starting point for other modeling efforts. The comprehensive model was simplified in this work for practical application to experimentally obtained data on trichloroethylene (TCE) fate. Model output correlated well with experimental results, and effective diffusivities for TCE in plant tissues were obtained through the model calibrations. The simplified model approximated TCE concentrations in the transpiration stream as well as TCE volatilization to the atmosphere. Xylem transport, including advection, dispersion, and diffusion through cell walls with subsequent volatilization to the atmosphere, is a major fate for VOCs in phytoremediation. PMID:15461166

  5. FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE ETHYLENE DIFFUSION FLAME. (R825412)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The microstructure of an atmospheric pressure, counterflow, sooting, flat, laminar ethylene diffusion flame has been studied experimentally by withdrawing samples from within the flame using a heated quartz microprobe coupled to an online gas chromatograph/mas...

  6. Simulation of Ti diffusion into LiNbO3 in Li-rich atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Long; Zhuang, Yu-Ran; Hua, Ping-Rang; Pun, E. Y. B.

    2007-01-01

    A model is proposed for describing two-dimensional diffusion of Ti into an initially congruent LiNbO3 crystal under a Li-enriched atmosphere created by a mixed two-phase (Li3NbO4 and LiNbO3) powder at elevated temperature [vapor transport equilibration (VTE)]. The influence of VTE treatment on Ti diffusivity is considered in the model. To solve the model, four key input parameters including Li-concentration-dependent Li and Ti diffusivities and two switching times t1 and t2 were determined. Prior to solve the Ti-diffusion model, a one-dimensional VTE model is solved at first to obtain the dynamic Li2O concentration depth profile. Both the Li-diffusion and Ti-diffusion models were solved by using finite difference method. Based on secondary-ion-mass spectrometry analysis, the validity of the VTE and Ti-diffusion models as well as the numerical method employed are confirmed. After that, diffusion at 1100°C of an 8-μm-wide, 100-nm-thick Ti strip defined on the surface of a Z-cut or an X-cut substrate was simulated for the VTE duration up to 130h. Based on the numerical results, the Ti-(Li-)diffusion characteristics are discussed in the aspects of (1) the relation of depth and width profile function of Ti concentration to the VTE duration, (2) the substrate cut effect on both the Ti and Li diffusions, (3) the relation of the 1/e Ti-concentration depth and half-width to the VTE duration, and (4) the VTE duration dependence of the mean [Li ]/[Nb] ratio within the Ti-diffused layer.

  7. Simulation of Ti diffusion into LiNbO{sub 3} in Li-rich atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Delong; Zhuang Yuran; Hua Pingrang; Pun, E. Y. B.

    2007-01-01

    A model is proposed for describing two-dimensional diffusion of Ti into an initially congruent LiNbO{sub 3} crystal under a Li-enriched atmosphere created by a mixed two-phase (Li{sub 3}NbO{sub 4} and LiNbO{sub 3}) powder at elevated temperature [vapor transport equilibration (VTE)]. The influence of VTE treatment on Ti diffusivity is considered in the model. To solve the model, four key input parameters including Li-concentration-dependent Li and Ti diffusivities and two switching times t{sub 1} and t{sub 2} were determined. Prior to solve the Ti-diffusion model, a one-dimensional VTE model is solved at first to obtain the dynamic Li{sub 2}O concentration depth profile. Both the Li-diffusion and Ti-diffusion models were solved by using finite difference method. Based on secondary-ion-mass spectrometry analysis, the validity of the VTE and Ti-diffusion models as well as the numerical method employed are confirmed. After that, diffusion at 1100 deg. C of an 8-{mu}m-wide, 100-nm-thick Ti strip defined on the surface of a Z-cut or an X-cut substrate was simulated for the VTE duration up to 130 h. Based on the numerical results, the Ti-(Li-)diffusion characteristics are discussed in the aspects of (1) the relation of depth and width profile function of Ti concentration to the VTE duration, (2) the substrate cut effect on both the Ti and Li diffusions, (3) the relation of the 1/e Ti-concentration depth and half-width to the VTE duration, and (4) the VTE duration dependence of the mean [Li]/[Nb] ratio within the Ti-diffused layer.

  8. Eddy diffusion coefficient for the atmosphere of Venus from radio scintillation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, R.; Ishimaru, A.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates are obtained of the vertical mass eddy diffusion coefficient of the Venus atmosphere in the region of turbulence near 60 km on the basis of radio scintillations observed during radio occultation by the atmosphere. The structure constant estimated from Pioneer Venus orbit 18 entrance radio occultation measurements is used, under the assumption that the turbulence is generated by wind-shear, to derive a value of 40,000 sq cm/sec for the vertical mass eddy diffusion coefficient, together with an energy dissipation rate of 20 sq cm/sec and a temperature fluctuation dissipation rate of 0.001 K-squared/sec. Results are noted to fall within the range measured for the earth's troposphere, however, indicate that small-scale turbulence is probably the dominant mechanism for vertical transport near the tropopause in the Venus atmosphere.

  9. Atmospheric Escape by Magnetically Driven Wind from Gaseous Planets. II. Effects of Magnetic Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yuki A.; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2015-08-01

    We investigate roles of Alfvénic waves in the weakly ionized atmosphere of hot Jupiters by carrying out non-ideal MHD simulations with ohmic diffusion in one-dimensional magnetic flux tubes. Turbulence at the surface excites Alfvén waves, and they propagate upward to drive hot (≈ {10}4 K) outflows. The magnetic diffusion plays an important role in the dissipation of the Alfvénic waves in the weakly ionized atmosphere of hot Jupiters. The mass-loss rate of the spontaneously driven planetary wind is considerably reduced, in comparison with that obtained from ideal MHD simulations because the Alfvénic waves are severely damped at low altitudes in the atmosphere, whereas the wave heating is still important in the heating of the upper atmosphere. Dependence on the surface temperature, planetary radius, and velocity dispersion at the surface is also investigated. We find an inversion phenomenon of the transmitted wave energy flux; the energy flux carried by Alfvén waves in the upper atmosphere has a nonmonotonic correlation with the input energy flux from the surface in a certain range of the surface temperature because the resistivity is determined by the global physical properties of the atmosphere in a complicated manner. We also point out that the heating and mass loss are expected only in limited zones if the open magnetic field is confined in the limited regions.

  10. High-altitude gas releases - Transition from collisionless flow to diffusive flow in a nonuniform atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper is motivated by a need for describing high-altitude gas releases from rockets or the Space Shuttle. In the tenuous upper atmosphere, the injected gases expand from a collisionless to a collision-dominated state. The analysis presented extends the efforts of Baum (1973-1974) to include the effects of a nonuniform background atmosphere and a velocity-dependent collision frequency. The unsteady expansion of gas releases is analyzed using gas kinetic theory. The Boltzmann equation with the Krook collision integral is solved numerically. At late times (after many collisions with the background atmosphere) the solution is identical to the one given by diffusion in a nonuniform atmosphere (Bernhardt, 1979). The theoretical model predicts elongation and heating of the vapor trails due to collisions.

  11. A diffusion source for sodium and potassium in the atmospheres of Mercury and the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, Ann L.

    1990-01-01

    Deep grain-boundary diffusion and regolith diffusion through a fractured crust and regolith can account not only for the Na/K ratios observed in the Mercurian and lunar atmospheres, but the large Na abundance enhancement of Mercury over lunar levels. A hot component of Na and K at Mercury is noted to be smaller in proportion to the total abundances of these two constituents than at the moon; this hot component is consistent with a population of meteoritic substances similar to lunar ones, as well as with a surface composition which has undergone no greater K depletion than that of the moon.

  12. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION EQUATION WITH MULTIPLE SOURCES AND HEIGHT-DEPENDENT WIND SPEED AND EDDY DIFFUSIVITIES. (R825689C072)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Three-dimensional analytical solutions of the atmospheric diffusion equation with multiple sources and height-dependent wind speed and eddy diffusivities are derived in a systematic fashion. For homogeneous Neumann (total reflection), Dirichlet (total adsorpti...

  13. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION EQUATION WITH MULTIPLE SOURCES AND HEIGHT-DEPENDENT WIND SPEED AND EDDY DIFFUSIVITIES. (R825689C048)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Three-dimensional analytical solutions of the atmospheric diffusion equation with multiple sources and height-dependent wind speed and eddy diffusivities are derived in a systematic fashion. For homogeneous Neumann (total reflection), Dirichlet (total adsorpti...

  14. MAGNETIC TRANSPORT ON THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE BY LAMINAR AND TURBULENT AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Y.; Krishan, V.; Masuda, S.

    2010-09-10

    The lower solar atmosphere consists of partially ionized turbulent plasmas harboring velocity field, magnetic field, and current density fluctuations. The correlations among these small-scale fluctuations give rise to large-scale flows and magnetic fields which decisively affect all transport processes. The three-fluid system consisting of electrons, ions, and neutral particles supports nonideal effects such as the Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion. Here, we study magnetic transport by the laminar- and turbulent-scale ambipolar diffusion processes using a simple model of the magnetic induction equation. Based on a linear analysis of the induction equation, we perform a one-dimensional numerical simulation to study the laminar ambipolar effect on medium-scale magnetic field structures. The nonlinearity of the laminar ambipolar diffusion creates magnetic structures with sharp gradients in the scale of hundreds of kilometers. We expect that these can be amenable to processes such as magnetic reconnection and energy release therefrom for heating and flaring of the solar plasma. Analyzing the characteristic timescales of these processes, we find that the turbulent diffusion timescale is smaller by several orders of magnitude than the laminar diffusion timescale. The effect of the modeled turbulent ambipolar diffusion on the obtained field structures is briefly discussed.

  15. Development and field validation of a new diffusive sampler for determination of atmospheric volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özden Üzmez, Özlem; Gaga, Eftade O.; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay

    2015-04-01

    A tailor-made diffusive sampler was developed for the determination of atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the validation of the sampler was carried out under field conditions. All parts of the diffusive sampler which are reusable after a proper cleaning process were made of plastic material (delrin). The reusability of the sampler brings an important advantage considering its lower cost. Activated carbon was used as adsorbent and VOCs adsorbed on the activated carbon were analyzed by GC-MS (gas chromatography equipped with mass selective detector). A comprehensive validation study including detection limit, precision, bias, recovery, self-consistency, shelf life, storage stability, reusability was carried out in accordance with the related European standards ((EN) 13528-1 (2000) and 13528-2 (2000)). Also, a comparison was performed with some commercial diffusive samplers such as 3 M OVM 3500 and Radiello to test the performance of the new diffusive sampler in different environments such as urban area and road tunnel. Uptake rates for the measured VOCs were determined and they were evaluated together with the meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, wind speed). According to the validation results; all the parameters evaluated for the sampler comply with the related standards and this is an indication of the reliability of the sampler for the sampling of VOCs in the atmosphere.

  16. Er3+ diffusion in congruent LiNbO3 crystal in Li-enriched atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Long; Jia, Qi-Shen; Hua, Ping-Rang; Pei-Zhang, Zhang, Wen-Jun; Yang, Qing-Zhong; Liu, Hong-Li; Cui, Yu-Ming; Pun, E. Y. B.

    2007-10-01

    The thermal diffusion of Er3+ into X- and Z-cut congruent LiNbO3 crystal in Li-enriched atmosphere [i.e., vapor transport equilibration (VTE)], created by Li3NbO4-LiNbO3 two-phase powder at the temperature around 1130°C, was attempted. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to study the crystalline phase with respect to Er3+ ion and the Er3+ diffusivity. The results show that the thickness of the Er film coated should not be thicker than 10nm for an X-cut plate and 15nm for a Z-cut plate. In this case, the diffusion is complete if the duration is long enough (>150h ) and the Er3+ ions in the diffused layer still retain the LiNbO3 phase. On the other hand, if the initial thickness of the Er metal film is thicker than 10nm for the X-cut plate and 15nm for the Z-cut plate, the diffusion will be incomplete no matter how long the duration is. This is because the residual Er3+ ions form irremovable ErNbO4 grains on the surface of the crystal. SIMS analysis on an X-cut VTE (1130°C/192h) and a Z-cut VTE (1129°C/158h) crystal coated, respectively, with 10 and 15nm thick Er film reveals that the Er diffusion shows obvious anisotropy with the mean diffusion coefficients of 0.0155 and 0.0957μm2/h, respectively. The surface concentrations are 1.5×1020 and 1.0×1020at./cm3, respectively. The diffused Er3+ ions follow the stretched-exponential decay profile with a stretching factor of 1.85 and 3.5, respectively. The Li /Nb ratio in the Er-diffused layer is similar to 99.4% for the X-cut sample coated with 10nm thick Er film and 99.3% for the Z-cut crystal coated with 15nm thick Er film. The rms roughness of the diffused surface is better than 6 and 4nm for the X-cut and Z-cut samples, respectively.

  17. A preliminary analysis of atmospheric diffusion parameters in the coastal region

    SciTech Connect

    Shaojia Fan; Haiming Zhu; Xuelan Lin; Shuqin Ma

    1996-12-31

    Base on the data measured by three-axes propeller anemometers mounted on a 100m tower located in the coastal area of Guangdong, China at 10 and 75m levels and the statistical turbulence`s theory, the atmospheric diffusion parameters have been analyzed. The results indicate that, in the coastal region, the horizontal turbulence was controlled by large-scale eddies and the vertical turbulence was controlled by comparatively small-scale eddies. There is an obvious rapid change in the diffusion parameters when the sea and land breezes change their direction from sea to land and vice versa. The rapid change in lower layer is more obvious than in the upper layer.

  18. Characterisation of gaseous and particulate atmospheric pollutants in the East Mediterranean by diffusion denuder sampling lines.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Catrambone, M; Esposito, G; Lahav, D; Mamane, Y

    2009-05-01

    A field study aimed to characterize atmospheric pollutants in the gaseous and the particulate phases was conducted during the fall-winter of 2004 and the summer of 2005 in the Ashdod area, Israel. The site is influenced by both anthropogenic sources (power plants, refineries, chemical and metal industries, a cargo port, road traffic) and natural sources (sea-spray and desert dust). The use of diffusion lines--a series of annular diffusion denuders for sampling gaseous compounds followed by a cyclone and a filter pack for determining PM(2.5) composition--allowed a good daily characterization of the main inorganic compounds in both the gaseous (HCl, HNO(3), SO(2), NH(3)) and the particulate phase (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(=), NH(4)(+), and base cations). During the summer campaign two other activities were added: an intensive 3-h sampling period and the determination of PM(2.5) bulk composition. The results were interpreted on the basis of meteorological condition, especially the mixing properties of the lower atmosphere as determined by monitoring the natural radioactivity due to Radon progeny, a good proxy of the atmospheric ability to dilute pollutants. Several pollution episodes were identified and the predominance of different sources was highlighted (sea-spray, desert dust, secondary photochemical pollutants). During the summer period a considerable increase of nitric acid and particulate sulphate was observed. Secondary inorganic pollutants (nitrate, sulphate and ammonium) constituted, on the average, 57% of the fine particle fraction, organic compounds 20%, primary anthropogenic compounds 14%, natural components (sea-spray and crustal elements) 9%. The advantages of the diffusion lines in determining gaseous and particulate N- and S- inorganic compounds are discussed. PMID:18535917

  19. Characterisation of gaseous and particulate atmospheric pollutants in the East Mediterranean by diffusion denuder sampling lines.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Catrambone, M; Esposito, G; Lahav, D; Mamane, Y

    2009-05-01

    A field study aimed to characterize atmospheric pollutants in the gaseous and the particulate phases was conducted during the fall-winter of 2004 and the summer of 2005 in the Ashdod area, Israel. The site is influenced by both anthropogenic sources (power plants, refineries, chemical and metal industries, a cargo port, road traffic) and natural sources (sea-spray and desert dust). The use of diffusion lines--a series of annular diffusion denuders for sampling gaseous compounds followed by a cyclone and a filter pack for determining PM(2.5) composition--allowed a good daily characterization of the main inorganic compounds in both the gaseous (HCl, HNO(3), SO(2), NH(3)) and the particulate phase (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(=), NH(4)(+), and base cations). During the summer campaign two other activities were added: an intensive 3-h sampling period and the determination of PM(2.5) bulk composition. The results were interpreted on the basis of meteorological condition, especially the mixing properties of the lower atmosphere as determined by monitoring the natural radioactivity due to Radon progeny, a good proxy of the atmospheric ability to dilute pollutants. Several pollution episodes were identified and the predominance of different sources was highlighted (sea-spray, desert dust, secondary photochemical pollutants). During the summer period a considerable increase of nitric acid and particulate sulphate was observed. Secondary inorganic pollutants (nitrate, sulphate and ammonium) constituted, on the average, 57% of the fine particle fraction, organic compounds 20%, primary anthropogenic compounds 14%, natural components (sea-spray and crustal elements) 9%. The advantages of the diffusion lines in determining gaseous and particulate N- and S- inorganic compounds are discussed.

  20. 40Ar/39Ar systematics and argon diffusion in amber: implications for ancient earth atmospheres

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landis, G.P.; Snee, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    Argon isotope data indicate retained argon in bulk amber (matrix gas) is radiogenic [40Ar/39Ar ???32o] than the much more abundant surface absorbed argon [40Ar/39Ar ???295.5]. Neutron-induced 39Ar is retained in amber during heating experiments to 150?? -250??C, with no evidence of recoiled 39Ar found after irradiation. A maximum permissible volume diffusion coefficient of argon in amber (at ambient temperature) D???1.5 x 10-17 cm2S-1 is calculated from 39Ar retention. 40Ar/39Ar age calculations indicate Dominican Republic amber is ??? 45 Ma and North Dakota amber is ??? 89 Ma, both at least reasonable ages for the amber based upon stratigraphic and paleontological constraints and upon the small amount of radiogenic 40Ar. To date, over 300 gas analyses of ambers and resins of Cretaceous to Recent age that are geographically distributed among fifteen noted world locations identify mixtures of gases in different sites within amber (Berner and Landis, 1988). The presence of multiple mixing trends between compositionally distinct end-members gases within the same sample and evidence for retained radiogenic argon within the amber argue persuasivley against rapid exchange by diffusion of amber-contained gases with moder air. Only gas in primary bubbles entrapped between successive flows of tree resin has been interpreted as original "ancient air", which is an O2-rich end-member gas with air-like N2/Ar ratios. Gas analyses of these primary bubbles indicate atmospheric O2 levels in the Late Cretaceous of ??? 35%, and that atmospheric O2 dropped by early Tertiary time to near a present atmospheric level of 21% O2. A very low argon diffusion coefficient in amber persuasively argues for a gas in primary bubbles trapped in amber being ancient air (possibly modified only by O2 reaction with amber). ?? 1991.

  1. Polarization radiation in the planetary atmosphere delimited by a heterogeneous diffusely reflecting surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strelkov, S. A.; Sushkevich, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    Spatial frequency characteristics (SFC) and the scattering functions were studied in the two cases of a uniform horizontal layer with absolutely black bottom, and an isolated layer. The mathematical model for these examples describes the horizontal heterogeneities in a light field with regard to radiation polarization in a three dimensional planar atmosphere, delimited by a heterogeneous surface with diffuse reflection. The perturbation method was used to obtain vector transfer equations which correspond to the linear and nonlinear systems of polarization radiation transfer. The boundary value tasks for the vector transfer equation that is a parametric set and one dimensional are satisfied by the SFC of the nonlinear system, and are expressed through the SFC of linear approximation. As a consequence of the developed theory, formulas were obtained for analytical calculation of albedo in solving the task of dissemination of polarization radiation in the planetary atmosphere with uniform Lambert bottom.

  2. Scaling laws of diffusion and time intermittency generated by coherent structures in atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradisi, P.; Cesari, R.; Donateo, A.; Contini, D.; Allegrini, P.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the time intermittency of turbulent transport associated with the birth-death of self-organized coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. We apply a threshold analysis on the increments of turbulent fluctuations to extract sequences of rapid acceleration events, which is a marker of the transition between self-organized structures. The inter-event time distributions show a power-law decay ψ(τ) ~ 1/τμ, with a strong dependence of the power-law index μ on the threshold. A recently developed method based on the application of event-driven walking rules to generate different diffusion processes is applied to the experimental event sequences. At variance with the power-law index μ estimated from the inter-event time distributions, the diffusion scaling H, defined by ⟨ X2⟩ ~ t2H, is independent from the threshold. From the analysis of the diffusion scaling it can also be inferred the presence of different kind of events, i.e. genuinely transition events and spurious events, which all contribute to the diffusion process but over different time scales. The great advantage of event-driven diffusion lies in the ability of separating different regimes of the scaling H. In fact, the greatest H, corresponding to the most anomalous diffusion process, emerges in the long time range, whereas the smallest H can be seen in the short time range if the time resolution of the data is sufficiently accurate. The estimated diffusion scaling is also robust under the change of the definition of turbulent fluctuations and, under the assumption of statistically independent events, it corresponds to a self-similar point process with a well-defined power-law index μD ~ 2.1, where D denotes that μD is derived from the diffusion scaling. We argue that this renewal point process can be associated to birth and death of coherent structures and to turbulent transport near the ground, where the contribution of turbulent coherent structures becomes dominant.

  3. The Accuracy of Gravity Wave Models for a Diffusively Separated Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, M. P.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Schubert, G.

    2010-12-01

    Walterscheid and Hickey (2001) showed that the accuracy of gravity wave models for waves propagating in a diffusively separated atmosphere depends sensitively on how compositional effects are included. Gases in the thermosphere are diffusively separated, so the mean molecular weight (M) varies with altitude. Conventional models of gravity wave propagation in the thermosphere treat the atmosphere as a single gas. These models include the height variation of M while neglecting fluctuations of M due to gravity wave motions. This is equivalent to assuming an instantaneous balance between the perturbing effects of vertical motion and the restoring effects of mutual diffusion. Using a one-gas full-wave model Walterscheid and Hickey (2001) examined the two limiting cases where an instantaneous balance prevails (M’=0) and where M is conserved following a parcel (M’ reflects only vertical advection). It was found that the two limits gave significantly different results. We have recently developed a two-gas model (N2 and O) describing gravity wave motions in the thermosphere and have calculated the total gas fluctuation accounting fully for the variation of M due to both vertical advection and mutual diffusion. This model has allowed us to evaluate the accuracy of one-gas models with fixed M (M’=0) and with conserved M (dM/dt =0) for a wide range of wave parameters. We have explicitly calculated both the perturbing effects of vertical advection and the restoring effects of mutual diffusion and have compared the two competing effects. Our results show that the error in ignoring mutual diffusion can be significant and that in general it is best to assume that M is conserved following parcels rather than to assume that M’ is zero. The conservation of M is easily implemented in one-gas models. The implications for future studies of acoustic-gravity wave motions in the thermosphere are discussed. Walterscheid, R., and M. Hickey (2001), One-gas models with height

  4. 77 FR 61620 - Privacy Act of 1974; Home Equity Reverse Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT)-Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974; Home Equity Reverse Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT... system, Home Equity Reverse Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT). The modifications for the existing... Reverse Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT) Service Provider formerly HUD/HS-10, Home...

  5. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ~30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented. PMID:24182161

  6. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ~30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented.

  7. Generating diffuse discharge via repetitive nanosecond pulses and line-line electrodes in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Ge, Ya-Feng; Bin, Yu; Huang, Jia-Jia; Lin, Fo-Chan

    2013-10-01

    Diffuse discharge in atmospheric air can generate extremely high power density and large-scale non-thermal plasma. An achievable method of generating diffuse discharge is reported in this paper. Based on the resonance theory, a compact high-voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator (HRNPG) has been developed as discharge excitation source. The HRNPG mainly consists of repetitive charging circuit, Tesla transformer and sharpening switch. With the voltage lower than 1.0 kV, the primary repetitive charging circuit comprises two fast thyristors as low-voltage switches. A spiral Tesla transformer is designed to provide a peak transformation ratio of more than 100. The HRNPG prototype is capable of generating a pulse with over 100 kV peak voltage and ˜30 ns rise-time at the repetition frequency of 500 Hz. Using the copper line electrodes with a diameter of 0.4 mm, the gaps with highly non-uniform electric field are structured. With the suitable gap spacing and applied pulse, the glow-like diffuse discharge has been generated in line-type and ring-type electrode pairs. Some typical images are presented.

  8. Direct Versus Diffusive Access of High-Energy Solar Protons Into the High-Latitude Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouznetsov, Alexei; Knudsen, David; Spanswick, Emma; Donovan, Eric

    During solar proton events (SPEs), large fluxes of energetic protons spreading throughout the interplanetary medium (IPM)have access to the upper polar atmosphere where they play important roles in physical and chemical processes. We examine the relation between SPEs as detected through ionospheric absorption measured by the NORSTAR riometer network on one hand, and the proton fluxes measured outside the magnetosphere by the SOHO satellite on the other. We find a high correlation between SOHO fluxes and absorptions in some type of events (those having insignificant electron precipitation and background radio noise) and at given time intervals (within tens of hours following times of maximum flux ) but not others. By using a numerical simulation of high-energy proton propagation through the earth's magnetosphere we show that the flux of SPE particles reaching the upper atmosphere depends strongly on the angular distribution of the source population outside of the magnetosphere. Early in SP events, protons follow solar magnetic field lines and their distributions tend to be highly anisotropic(1), and the strong angular dependence decreases the correlation between IPM fluxes and polar cap absorption. As individual events evolve, flux angular distributions of IPM protons tend to be more isotropic(1) due to encounters with randomly distributed fields of magnetic clouds in the interplanetary medium (obtained closed solution of non-steady-state diffusion equation in P1-approximation allows us to estimate the dynamics of angular modulation). It is only when this diffusive isotropization occurs that we see strong correlations (correlation coefficients of up to 0.98) between IPM fluxes observed at SOHO and the polar cap absorptions observed by the NORSTAR riometers. We aim to use these observations to construct and validate a realistic transport model that will map proton fluxes originating outside the magnetosphere to those incident on the upper atmosphere, and vice versa

  9. Sustained diffusive alternating current gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Larsson, Anders; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-12-01

    Rapid transition from glow discharge to thermal arc has been a common problem in generating stable high-power non-thermal plasmas especially at ambient conditions. A sustained diffusive gliding arc discharge was generated in a large volume in atmospheric pressure air, driven by an alternating current (AC) power source. The plasma column extended beyond the water-cooled stainless steel electrodes and was stabilized by matching the flow speed of the turbulent air jet with the rated output power. Comprehensive investigations were performed using high-speed movies measured over the plasma column, synchronized with simultaneously recorded current and voltage waveforms. Dynamic details of the novel non-equilibrium discharge are revealed, which is characterized by a sinusoidal current waveform with amplitude stabilized at around 200 mA intermediate between thermal arc and glow discharge, shedding light to the governing mechanism of the sustained spark-suppressed AC gliding arc discharge.

  10. Soot Surface Oxidation in Laminar Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Kim, C. H.; Faeth, G. M.; Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor); Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Soot surface oxidation was studied experimentally in laminar hydrocarbon/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were carried out along the axes of round fuel jets burning in coflowing dry air considering acetylene-nitrogen, ethylene, propyiene-nitrogen, propane and acetylene-benzene-nitrogen in the fuel stream. Measurements were limited to the initial stages of soot oxidation (carbon consumption less than 70%) where soot oxidation occurs at the surface of primary soot particles. The following properties were measured as a function of distance above the burner exit: soot concentrations by deconvoluted laser extinction, soot temperatures by deconvoluted multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), concentrations of major stable gas species (N2, H2O, H2, O2, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H2, C2H6, C3H6, C3H8, and C6H6) by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of some radical species (H, OH, O) by deconvoluted Li/LiOH atomic absorption and flow velocities by laser velocimetry. For present test conditions, it was found that soot surface oxidation rates were not affected by fuel type, that direct rates of soot surface oxidation by O2 estimated from Nagle and Strickland-Constable (1962) were small compared to observed soot surface oxidation rates because soot surface oxidation was completed near the flame sheet where O2 concentrations were less than 3% by volume, and that soot surface oxidation rates were described by the OH soot surface oxidation mechanism with a collision efficiency of 0.14 and an uncertainty (95% confidence) of +/- 0.04 when allowing for direct soot surface oxidation by O2, which is in reasonably good agreement with earlier observations of soot surface oxidation rates in both premixed and diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure.

  11. An atmospheric air gas-liquid diffuse discharge excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in quartz container used for water sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sen; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Tang, Kai; Song, Ying

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter, we report that the air gas-liquid diffuse discharge plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse in quartz container with different bottom structures at atmospheric pressure. Optical diagnostic measurements show that bountiful chemically and biologically active species, which are beneficial for effective sterilization in some areas, are produced. Such diffuse plasmas are then used to treat drinking water containing the common microorganisms (Candida albicans and Escherichia coli). It is found that these plasmas can sterilize the microorganisms efficiently.

  12. Degradation of near infrared and shortwave infrared imager performance due to atmospheric scattering of diffuse night illumination.

    PubMed

    Vollmerhausen, Richard

    2013-07-20

    On moonless nights, airglow is the primary source of natural ground illumination in the near infrared and shortwave infrared spectral bands. Therefore, night vision imagers operating in these spectral bands view targets that are diffusely illuminated. Aerosol scattering of diffuse airglow illumination causes atmospheric path radiance and that radiance causes increased imager noise. These phenomena and their quantification are described in this paper. PMID:23872754

  13. Hourly global and diffuse radiation of Lagos, Nigeria-correlation with some atmospheric parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Chendo, M.A.C.; Maduekwe, A.A.L. )

    1994-03-01

    The influence of four climatic parameters on the hourly diffuse fraction in Lagos, Nigeria, has been studied. Using data for two years, new correlations were established. The standard error of the Liu and Jordan-type equation was reduced by 12.83% when solar elevation, ambient temperature, and relative humidity were used together as predictor variables for the entire data set. Ambient temperature and relative humidity proved to be very important variables for predicting the diffuse fraction of the solar radiation passing through the humid atmosphere of the coastal and tropic city of Lagos. Seasonal analysis carried out with the data showed improvements on the standard errors for the new seasonal correlations. In the case of the dry season, the improvement was 18.37%, whole for the wet season, this was 12.37%. Comparison with existing correlations showed that the performance of the one parameter model (namely K[sub t]), of Orgill and Hollands and Reindl, Beckman, and Duffie were very different from the Liu and Jordan-type model obtained for Lagos.

  14. Soot Formation in Laminar Acetylene/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix J

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The flame structure and soot-formation (soot nucleation and growth) properties of axisymmetric laminar coflowing jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally. Test conditions involved acetylene-nitrogen jets burning in coflowing air at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were limited to the axes of the flames and included soot concentrations, soot temperatures, soot structure, major gas species concentrations, radical species (H, OH, and O) concentrations, and gas velocities. The results show that as distance increases along the axes of the flames, detectable soot formation begins when significant H concentrations are present, and ends when acetylene concentrations become small. Species potentially associated with soot oxidation--O2, CO2, H2O, O, and OH-are present throughout the soot-formation region so that soot formation and oxidation proceed at the same time. Strong rates of soot growth compared to soot nucleation early in the soot-formation process, combined with increased rates of soot nucleation and oxidation as soot formation proceeds, causes primary soot particle diameters to reach a maximum relatively early in the soot-formation process. Aggregation of primary soot particles proceeds, however, until the final stages of soot oxidation. Present measurements of soot growth (corrected for soot oxidation) in laminar diffusion flames were consistent with earlier measurements of soot growth in laminar premixed flames and exhibited encouraging agreement with existing hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) soot growth mechanisms in the literature that were developed based on measurements within laminar premixed flames. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates in the present laminar diffusion flames also were consistent with corresponding rates measured in laminar premixed flames and yielded a crude correlation in terms of acetylene and H concentrations and the temperature.

  15. Soot Formation in Laminar Acetylene/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The flame structure and soot-formation (soot nucleation and growth) properties of axisymmetric laminar coflowing jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally. Test conditions involved acetylene-nitrogen jets burning in coflowing air at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were limited to the axes of the flames and included soot concentrations, soot temperatures, soot structure, major gas species concentrations, radical species (H, OH, and O) concentrations, and gas velocities. The results show that as distance increases along the axes of the flames, detectable soot formation begins when significant H concentrations are present, and ends when acetylene concentrations become small. Species potentially associated with soot oxidation-O2, CO2, H2O, O, and OH-are present throughout the soot-formation region so that soot formation and oxidation proceed at the same time. Strong rates of soot growth compared to soot nucleation early in the soot-formation process, combined with increased rates of soot nucleation and oxidation as soot formation proceeds, causes primary soot particle diameters to reach a maximum relatively early in the soot-formation process. Aggregation of primary soot particles proceeds, however, until the final stages of soot oxidation. Present measurements of soot growth (corrected for soot oxidation) in laminar diffusion flames were consistent with earlier measurements of soot growth in laminar premixed flames and exhibited encouraging agreement with existing hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) soot growth mechanisms in the literature that were developed based on measurements within laminar premixed flames. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates in the present laminar diffusion flames also were consistent with corresponding rates measured in laminar premixed flames and yielded a crude correlation in terms of acetylene and H concentrations and the temperature.

  16. Soot Formation in Laminar Acetylene/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor); Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The flame structure and soot-formation (soot nucleation and growth) properties of axisymmetric laminar coflowing jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally. Test conditions involved acetylene-nitrogen jets burning in coflowing air at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were limited to the axes of the flames and included soot concentrations, soot temperatures, soot structure, major gas species concentrations, radical species (H, OH, and O) concentrations, and gas velocities. The results show that as distance increases along the axes of the flames, detectable soot formation begins when significant H concentrations are present, and ends when acetylene concentrations become small. Species potentially associated with soot oxidation-O2, CO2, H2O, O, and OH-are present throughout the soot-formation region so that soot formation and oxidation proceed at the same time. Strong rates of soot growth compared to soot nucleation early in the soot-formation process, combined with increased rates of soot nucleation and oxidation as soot formation proceeds, causes primary soot particle diameters to reach a maximum relatively early in the soot-formation process. Aggregation of primary soot particles proceeds, however, until the final stages of soot oxidation. Present measurements of soot growth (corrected for soot oxidation) in laminar diffusion flames were consistent with earlier measurements of soot growth in laminar premixed flames and exhibited encouraging agreement with existing hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) soot growth mechanisms in the literature that were developed based on measurements within laminar premixed flames. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates in the present laminar diffusion flames also were consistent with corresponding rates measured in laminar premixed flames and yielded a crude correlation in terms of acetylene and H concentrations and the temperature.

  17. Diffusion in the vicinity of standard-design nuclear power plants--I. Wind-tunnel evaluation of diffusive characteristics of a simulated suburban neutral atmospheric boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Payne, A W; Snyder, W H; Binkowski, F S; Watson, J E

    1982-12-01

    A large meteorological wind tunnel was used to simulate a suburban atmospheric boundary layer. The model-prototype scale was 1:300 and the roughness length was approximately 1.0 m full scale. The model boundary layer simulated full scale dispersion from ground-level and elevated release points over surfaces of comparable roughness length. This information should prove useful in a variety of transport and diffusion studies over short to moderate downwind distances. It will be used in Part II as the baseline data set with which to compare diffusion downwind of standard-design nuclear power plants.

  18. Hermit crabs perceive the extent of their virtual bodies.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Kohei; Asakura, Akira; Minoura, Mai; Elwood, Robert W; Gunji, Yukio-P

    2012-08-23

    A flexible body image is required by animals if they are to adapt to body changes and move effectively within a structurally complex environment. Here, we show that terrestrial hermit crabs, Coenobita rugosus, which frequently change shells, can modify walking behaviour, dependent on the shape of the shell. Hermit crabs walked along a corridor that had alternating left and right corners; if it was narrow at the corner, crabs rotated their bodies to avoid the wall, indicating an awareness of environmental obstacles. This rotation increased when a plastic plate was attached to the shell. We suggest that the shell, when extended by the plate, becomes assimilated to the hermit crab's own body. While there are cases of a tool being assimilated with the body, our result is the first example of the habitat where an animal lives and/or carries being part of a virtual body. PMID:22378741

  19. Quantification of ebullitive and diffusive methane release to atmosphere from a water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew; Gale, Deborah; Udy, James

    2011-12-01

    Accurately quantifying total freshwater storage methane release to atmosphere requires the spatial-temporal measurement of both diffusive and ebullitive emissions. Existing floating chamber techniques provide localised assessment of methane flux, however, significant errors can arise when weighting and extrapolation to the entire storage, particularly when ebullition is significant. An improved technique has been developed that compliments traditional chamber based experiments to quantify the storage-scale release of methane gas to atmosphere through ebullition using the measurements from an Optical Methane Detector (OMD) and a robotic boat. This provides a conservative estimate of the methane emission rate from ebullition along with the bubble volume distribution. It also georeferences the area of ebullition activity across entire storages at short temporal scales. An assessment on Little Nerang Dam in Queensland, Australia, demonstrated whole storage methane release significantly differed spatially and throughout the day. Total methane emission estimates showed a potential 32-fold variation in whole-of-dam rates depending on the measurement and extrapolation method and time of day used. The combined chamber and OMD technique showed that 1.8-7.0% of the surface area of Little Nerang Dam is accounting for up to 97% of total methane release to atmosphere throughout the day. Additionally, over 95% of detectable ebullition occurred in depths less than 12 m during the day and 6 m at night. This difference in spatial and temporal methane release rate distribution highlights the need to monitor significant regions of, if not the entire, water storage in order to provide an accurate estimate of ebullition rates and their contribution to annual methane emissions.

  20. Generalised Hermite-Gaussian beams and mode transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-05-01

    Generalised Hermite-Gaussian modes (gHG modes), an extended notion of Hermite-Gaussian modes (HG modes), are formed by the summation of normal HG modes with a characteristic function α, which can be used to unite conventional HG modes and Laguerre-Gaussian modes (LG modes). An infinite number of normalised orthogonal modes can thus be obtained by modulation of the function α. The gHG mode notion provides a useful tool in analysis of the deformation and transformation phenomena occurring in propagation of HG and LG modes with astigmatic perturbation.

  1. Multiresolution fusion of remotely sensed images with the Hermite transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalante-Ramirez, Boris; Lopez-Caloca, Alejandra A.; Zambrano-Gallardo, Cira F.

    2004-02-01

    The Hermite Transform is an image representation model that incorporates some important properties of visual perception such as the analysis through overlapping receptive fields and the Gaussian derivative model of early vision. It also allows the construction of pyramidal multiresolution analysis-synthesis schemes. We show how the Hermite Transform can be used to build image fusion schemes that take advantage of the fact that Gaussian derivatives are good operators for the detection of relevant image patterns at different spatial scales. These patterns are later combined in the transform coefficient domain. Applications of this fusion algorithm are shown with remote sensing images, namely LANDSAT, IKONOS, RADARSAT and SAR AeS-1 images.

  2. A GENERALIZED MATHEMATICAL SCHEME TO ANALYTICALLY SOLVE THE ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION EQUATION WITH DRY DEPOSITION. (R825689C072)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A generalized mathematical scheme is developed to simulate the turbulent dispersion of pollutants which are adsorbed or deposit to the ground. The scheme is an analytical (exact) solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation with height-dependent wind speed a...

  3. Modification of the continuous flow diffusion chamber for use in zero-gravity. [atmospheric cloud physics lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, G.

    1978-01-01

    The design philosophy and performance characteristics of the continuous flow diffusion chamber developed for use in ground-based simulation of some of the experiments planned for the atmospheric cloud physics laboratory during the first Spacelab flight are discussed. Topics covered include principle of operation, thermal control, temperature measurement, tem-powered heat exchangers, wettable metal surfaces, sample injection system, and control electronics.

  4. Soot Oxidation in Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Soot oxidation was studied experimentally in laminar hydrocarbon/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were carried out along the axes of round jets burning in coflowing air considering acetylene, ethylene, propylene and propane as fuels. Measurements were limited to the initial stages of soot oxidation (carbon consumption less than 70%) where soot oxidation mainly occurs at the surface of primary soot particles. The following properties were measured as a function of distance above the burner exit: soot concentrations by deconvoluted laser extinction, soot temperatures by deconvoluted multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), concentrations of stable major gas species (N2, H2O, H2, O2, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H2,C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, and C3H8) by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of some radical species (H, OH, O) by the deconvoluted Li/LiOH atomic absorption technique and flow velocities by laser velocimetry. It was found that soot surface oxidation rates are not particularly affected by fuel type for laminar diffusion flames and are described reasonably well by the OH surface oxidation mechanism with a collision efficiency of 0.10, (standard deviation of 0.07) with no significant effect of fuel type in this behavior; these findings are in good agreement with the classical laminar premixed flame measurements of Neoh et al. Finally, direct rates of surface oxidation by O2 were small compared to OH oxidation for present conditions, based on estimated O2 oxidation rates due to Nagle and Strickland-Constable (1962), because soot oxidation was completed near the flame sheet where O2 concentrations were less than 1.2% by volume.

  5. Soot Oxidation in Laminar Hydrocarbon/Air Diffusion Flames at Atmospheric Pressure. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, F.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Faeth, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Soot oxidation was studied experimentally in laminar hydrocarbon/air diffusion flames at atmospheric pressure. Measurements were carried out along the axes of round jets burning in coflowing air considering acetylene, ethylene, proplyene and propane as fuels. Measurements were limited to the initial stages of soot oxidation (carbon consumption less than 70%) where soot oxidation mainly occurs at the surface of primary soot particles. The following properties were measured as a function of distance above the burner exit: soot concentrations by deconvoluted laser extinction, soot temperatures by deconvoluted multiline emission, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), concentrations of stable major gas species (N2, H2O, H2, 02, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, and C3H8) by sampling and gas chromatography, concentrations of some radical species (H, OH, O) by the deconvoluted Li/LiOH atomic absorption technique and flow velocities by laser velocimetry. It was found that soot surface oxidation rates are not particularly affected by fuel type for laminar diffusion flames and are described reasonably well by the OH surface oxidation mechanism with a collision efficiency of 0.10, (standard deviation of 0.07) with no significant effect of fuel type in this behavior; these findings are in good agreement with the classical laminar premixed flame measurements of Neoh et al. Finally, direct rates of surface oxidation by O2 were small compared to OH oxidation for present conditions, based on estimated O2 oxidation rates due to Nagle and Strickland-Constable, because soot oxidation was completed near the flame sheet where O2 concentrations were less than 1.2% by volume.

  6. Evaluation of the impact of atmospheric ozone and aerosols on the horizontal global/diffuse UV Index at Livorno (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaglione, Daniele; Giulietti, Danilo; Morelli, Marco

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted at Livorno (Italy) to evaluate the impact of atmospheric aerosols and ozone on the solar UV radiation and its diffuse component at ground in clear sky conditions. Solar UV radiation has been quantified in terms of UV Index (UVI), following the ISO 17166:1999/CIE S007/E-1998 international standard. UVI has been calculated by exploiting the libRadtran radiative transfer modelling software as a function of both the Aerosols Optical Depth (AOD) and the Total Ozone Column (TOC). In particular AOD and TOC values have been remotely sensed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the NASA's EOS (Earth Observing System) satellites constellation. An experimental confirmation was also obtained by exploiting global UVI ground-based measurements from the 26/9/14 to 12/8/15 and diffuse UVI ground-based measurements from the 17/5/15 to 12/8/15. For every considered value of Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and atmospheric condition, estimates and measurements confirm that the diffuse component contributes for more than 50% on the global UV radiation. Therefore an exposure of human skin also to diffuse solar UV radiation can be potentially harmful for health and need to be accurately monitored, e.g. by exploiting innovative applications such as a mobile app with a satellite-based UV dosimeter that has been developed. Global and diffuse UVI variations due to the atmosphere are primarily caused by the TOC variations (typically cyclic): the maximum TOC variation detected by OMI in the area under study leads to a corresponding variation in global and diffuse UVI of about 50%. Aerosols in the area concerned, mainly of maritime nature, have instead weaker effects causing a maximum variation of the global and diffuse UVI respectively of 9% and 35% with an SZA of 20° and respectively of 13% and 10% with an SZA of 60°.

  7. Aggression and Food Resource Competition between Sympatric Hermit Crab Species

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Mark V.; O’Grady, Matthew; Colborn, Jeremiah; Van Ness, Kimberly; Hill, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The vertical zonation patterns of intertidal organisms have been topics of interest to marine ecologists for many years, with interspecific food competition being implicated as a contributing factor to intertidal community organization. In this study, we used behavioral bioassays to examine the potential roles that interspecific aggression and food competition have on the structuring of intertidal hermit crab assemblages. We studied two ecologically similar, sympatric hermit crab species, Clibanarius digueti [1] and Paguristes perrieri [2], which occupy adjacent zones within the intertidal region of the Gulf of California. During the search phase of foraging, C. digueti showed higher frequencies of aggressive behaviors than P. perrieri. In competition assays, C. digueti gained increased access to food resources compared to P. perrieri. The results suggest that food competition may play an important role in structuring intertidal hermit crab assemblages, and that the zonation patterns of Gulf of California hermit crab species may be the result of geographical displacement by the dominant food competitor (C. digueti). PMID:24632897

  8. Use of Terrestrial Hermit Crabs in the Study of Habituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Laurence J.

    2004-01-01

    For small colleges, the use of invertebrates in undergraduate learning laboratory experiments may be a valuable alternative to the use of vertebrate species. This article describes a habituation experiment using terrestrial hermit crabs. All of the materials required are inexpensive and readily available. What makes this experiment unique is that…

  9. Dynamics of the middle atmosphere in winter (Dynamics). Interrelation between the different variations of turbulent diffusion and ionospheric absorption originating in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencze, P.

    1989-01-01

    The turbulent diffusion coefficient was computed from the parameters of sporadic E layers using the wind shear theory of midlatitude sporadic E and models of the ionosphere as well as that of the neutral upper atmosphere. The turbulent diffusion coefficient obtained for the period of circulation disturbances associated with stratospheric warmings and for the intervals of the winter anomaly indicate changes similar to the ionospheric absorption of radio waves, in the former case decreased, in the latter case increased values. This may hit at the role of turbulent transport in the formation of these anomalies. On the basis of these findings, a seasonal variation of the turbulent diffusion coefficient having a minimum in summer and an increase of this parameter with increasing geomagnetic activity are anticipated.

  10. Surface diffuse discharge mechanism of well-aligned atmospheric pressure microplasma arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren-Wu, Zhou; Ru-Sen, Zhou; Jin-Xing, Zhuang; Jiang-Wei, Li; Mao-Dong, Chen; Xian-Hui, Zhang; Dong-Ping, Liu; Kostya (Ken, Ostrikov; Si-Ze, Yang

    2016-04-01

    A stable and homogeneous well-aligned air microplasma device for application at atmospheric pressure is designed and its electrical and optical characteristics are investigated. Current-voltage measurements and intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) images show that the well-aligned air microplasma device is able to generate a large-area and homogeneous discharge at the applied voltages ranging from 12 kV to 14 kV, with a repetition frequency of 5 kHz, which is attributed to the diffusion effect of plasma on dielectric surface. Moreover, this well-aligned microplasma device may result in the uniform and large-area surface modification of heat-sensitive PET polymers without damage, such as optimization in hydrophobicity and biocompatibility. In the biomedical field, the utility of this well-aligned microplasma device is further testified. It proves to be very efficient for the large-area and uniform inactivation of E. coli cells with a density of 103/cm2 on LB agar plate culture medium, and inactivation efficiency can reach up to 99% for 2-min treatment. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014J01025), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11275261), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2015A030313005), and the Fund from the Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, China.

  11. Study on electrical characteristics of barrier-free atmospheric air diffuse discharge generated by nanosecond pulses and long wire electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Teng, Yun; Liu, Lun; Pan, Yuan

    2014-07-15

    In room-temperature atmospheric air, the large-scale diffuse plasmas can be generated via high-voltage nanosecond pulses with short rise-time and wire electrodes. Diffuse discharge with the wire electrode length up to 110.0 cm and the discharge spacing of several centimeters has been investigated in this paper. Electrical characteristics of diffuse discharge have been analyzed by their optical photographs and measuring of the voltage and current waveforms. Experimental results show the electrode spacing, and the length of wire electrodes can influence the intensity and mode transition of diffuse discharge. The characteristic of current waveforms is that there are several current oscillation peaks at the time of applied pulsed voltage peak, and at the tail of applied pulse, the conduction current component will compensate the displacement one so that the measured current is unidirectional in diffuse discharge mode. The transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge is always with the increasing of conduction current density. As for nanosecond pulses with long tail, the long wire electrodes are help for generating non-equilibrium diffuse plasmas.

  12. The Hot Horizontal-Branch Stars in NGC288 - Effects of Diffusion and Stratification on Their Atmospheric Parameters*

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moehler, S.; Dreizler, S.; LeBlanc, F.; Khalack, V.; Michaud, G.; Richer, J.; Sweigart, Allen V.; Grundahl, F.

    2014-01-01

    Context. NGC288 is a globular cluster with a well developed blue horizontal branch covering the so-called u-jump which indicates the onset of diffusion. It is therefore well suited to study the effects of diffusion in blue horizontal branch (HB) stars. Aims. We compare observed abundances to predictions from stellar evolution models calculated with diffusion and from stratified atmospheric models. We verify the effect of using stratified model spectra to derive atmospheric parameters. In addition we investigate the nature of the overluminous blue HB stars around the u-jump. Methods. We define a new photometric index sz from uvby measurements that is gravity sensitive between 8 000K and 12 000 K. Using medium-resolution spectra and Stroemgren photometry we determine atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg) and abundances for the blue HB stars. We use both homogeneous and stratified model spectra for our spectroscopic analyses. Results. The atmospheric parameters and masses of the hot HB stars in NGC288 show a behaviour seen also in other clusters for temperatures between 9 000K and 14 000 K. Outside this temperature range, however, they follow rather the results found for such stars in (omega)Cen. The abundances derived from our observations are for most elements (except He and P) within the abundance range expected from evolutionary models that include the effects of atomic diffusion and assume a surface mixed mass of 10(exp -7) M. The abundances predicted by stratified model atmospheres are generally significantly more extreme than observed, except for Mg. The use of stratified model spectra to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities and masses moves the hotter stars to a closer agreement with canonical evolutionary predictions. Conclusions. Our results show definite promise towards solving the long-standing issue of surface gravity and mass discrepancies for hot HB stars, but there is still much work needed to arrive at a self-consistent solution.

  13. Atmospheric diffusion predictions for the exhaust effluents from the launch of a Titan 3C, December 13, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Results for the predictions with the NASA/MSFC Multilayer Diffusion Model for the dispersive transport of the Titan 3C rocket exhaust effluents for the 1857 EST launch on December 13, 1973, from the Eastern Test Range at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station are presented. An atmospheric assessment is made in support of the joint Marshall Space Flight Center, Langley Research Center, and Kennedy Space Center rocket exhaust prediction and measurement program. The predictions are primarily intended to define a monitoring grid and for a postflight assessment of the field measurements in order to improve diffusion prediction techniques.

  14. Production of atmospheric pressure diffuse nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode in air

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Dezheng; Wang Wenchun; Jia Li; Nie Dongxia; Shi Hengchao

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a bidirectional high pulse voltage with 20 ns rising time is employed to generate an atmospheric pressure diffuse dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode configuration. Both double needle and multiple needle electrode configurations nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharges are investigated. It is found that a diffuse discharge plasma with low gas temperature can be obtained, and the plasma volume increases with the increase of the pulse peak voltage, but remains almost constant with the increase of the pulse repetition rate. In addition to showing the potential application on a topographically nonuniform surface treatment of the discharge, the multiple needle-plate electrode configuration with different needle-plate electrode gaps are also employed to generate diffuse discharge plasma.

  15. Self-similar propagation of Hermite-Gauss water-wave pulses.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shenhe; Tsur, Yuval; Zhou, Jianying; Shemer, Lev; Arie, Ady

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally propagation dynamics of surface gravity water-wave pulses, having Hermite-Gauss envelopes. We show that these waves propagate self-similarly along an 18-m wave tank, preserving their general Hermite-Gauss envelopes in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. The measured surface elevation wave groups enable observing the envelope phase evolution of both nonchirped and linearly frequency chirped Hermite-Gauss pulses, hence allowing us to measure Gouy phase shifts of high-order Hermite-Gauss pulses for the first time. Finally, when increasing pulse amplitude, nonlinearity becomes essential and the second harmonic of Hermite-Gauss waves was observed. We further show that these generated second harmonic bound waves still exhibit self-similar Hermite-Gauss shapes along the tank. PMID:26871174

  16. Multigenerational Effects of Rearing Atmospheric Oxygen Level on the Tracheal Dimensions and Diffusing Capacities of Pupal and Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Klok, C Jaco; Kaiser, Alexander; Socha, John J; Lee, Wah-Keat; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-01-01

    Insects are small relative to vertebrates, and were larger in the Paleozoic when atmospheric oxygen levels were higher. The safety margin for oxygen delivery does not increase in larger insects, due to an increased mass-specific investment in the tracheal system and a greater use of convection in larger insects. Prior studies have shown that the dimensions and number of tracheal system branches varies inversely with rearing oxygen in embryonic and larval insects. Here we tested whether rearing in 10, 21, or 40 kPa atmospheric oxygen atmospheres for 5-7 generations affected the tracheal dimensions and diffusing capacities of pupal and adult Drosophila. Abdominal tracheae and pupal snorkel tracheae showed weak responses to oxygen, while leg tracheae showed strong, but imperfect compensatory changes. The diffusing capacity of leg tracheae appears closely matched to predicted oxygen transport needs by diffusion, perhaps explaining the consistent and significant responses of these tracheae to rearing oxygen. The reduced investment in tracheal structure in insects reared in higher oxygen levels may be important for conserving tissue PO2 and may provide an important mechanism for insects to invest only the space and materials necessary into respiratory structure. PMID:27343104

  17. Multigenerational Effects of Rearing Atmospheric Oxygen Level on the Tracheal Dimensions and Diffusing Capacities of Pupal and Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Klok, C Jaco; Kaiser, Alexander; Socha, John J; Lee, Wah-Keat; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-01-01

    Insects are small relative to vertebrates, and were larger in the Paleozoic when atmospheric oxygen levels were higher. The safety margin for oxygen delivery does not increase in larger insects, due to an increased mass-specific investment in the tracheal system and a greater use of convection in larger insects. Prior studies have shown that the dimensions and number of tracheal system branches varies inversely with rearing oxygen in embryonic and larval insects. Here we tested whether rearing in 10, 21, or 40 kPa atmospheric oxygen atmospheres for 5-7 generations affected the tracheal dimensions and diffusing capacities of pupal and adult Drosophila. Abdominal tracheae and pupal snorkel tracheae showed weak responses to oxygen, while leg tracheae showed strong, but imperfect compensatory changes. The diffusing capacity of leg tracheae appears closely matched to predicted oxygen transport needs by diffusion, perhaps explaining the consistent and significant responses of these tracheae to rearing oxygen. The reduced investment in tracheal structure in insects reared in higher oxygen levels may be important for conserving tissue PO2 and may provide an important mechanism for insects to invest only the space and materials necessary into respiratory structure.

  18. OBSERVATION OF DIFFUSE COSMIC AND ATMOSPHERIC GAMMA RAYS AT BALLOON ALTITUDES WITH AN ELECTRON-TRACKING COMPTON CAMERA

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Atsushi; Nonaka, Naoki; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Hironobu; Ueno, Kazuki; Hattori, Kaori; Kabuki, Shigeto; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Miuchi, Kentaro; Nagayoshi, Tsutomu; Okada, Yoko; Orito, Reiko; Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru; Mizuta, Eiichi

    2011-05-20

    We observed diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays at balloon altitudes with the Sub-MeV gamma-ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment I (SMILE-I) as the first step toward a future all-sky survey with a high sensitivity. SMILE-I employed an electron-tracking Compton camera comprised of a gaseous electron tracker as a Compton-scattering target and a scintillation camera as an absorber. The balloon carrying the SMILE-I detector was launched from the Sanriku Balloon Center of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency on 2006 September 1, and the flight lasted for 6.8 hr, including level flight for 4.1 hr at an altitude of 32-35 km. During the level flight, we successfully detected 420 downward gamma rays between 100 keV and 1 MeV at zenith angles below 60 deg. To obtain the flux of diffuse cosmic gamma rays, we first simulated their scattering in the atmosphere using Geant4, and for gamma rays detected at an atmospheric depth of 7.0 g cm{sup -2} we found that 50% and 21% of the gamma rays at energies of 150 keV and 1 MeV, respectively, were scattered in the atmosphere prior to reaching the detector. Moreover, by using Geant4 simulations and the QinetiQ atmospheric radiation model, we estimated that the detected events consisted of diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays (79%), secondary photons produced in the instrument through the interaction between cosmic rays and materials surrounding the detector (19%), and other particles (2%). The obtained growth curve was comparable to Ling's model, and the fluxes of diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays were consistent with the results of previous experiments. The expected detection sensitivity of a future SMILE experiment measuring gamma rays between 150 keV and 20 MeV was estimated from our SMILE-I results and was found to be 10 times better than that of other experiments at around 1 MeV.

  19. Observation of Diffuse Cosmic and Atmospheric Gamma Rays at Balloon Altitudes with an Electron-tracking Compton Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Atsushi; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Hironobu; Ueno, Kazuki; Hattori, Kaori; Kabuki, Shigeto; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Miuchi, Kentaro; Mizuta, Eiichi; Nagayoshi, Tsutomu; Nonaka, Naoki; Okada, Yoko; Orito, Reiko; Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Atsushi; Tanimori, Toru

    2011-05-01

    We observed diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays at balloon altitudes with the Sub-MeV gamma-ray Imaging Loaded-on-balloon Experiment I (SMILE-I) as the first step toward a future all-sky survey with a high sensitivity. SMILE-I employed an electron-tracking Compton camera comprised of a gaseous electron tracker as a Compton-scattering target and a scintillation camera as an absorber. The balloon carrying the SMILE-I detector was launched from the Sanriku Balloon Center of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency on 2006 September 1, and the flight lasted for 6.8 hr, including level flight for 4.1 hr at an altitude of 32-35 km. During the level flight, we successfully detected 420 downward gamma rays between 100 keV and 1 MeV at zenith angles below 60°. To obtain the flux of diffuse cosmic gamma rays, we first simulated their scattering in the atmosphere using Geant4, and for gamma rays detected at an atmospheric depth of 7.0 g cm-2 we found that 50% and 21% of the gamma rays at energies of 150 keV and 1 MeV, respectively, were scattered in the atmosphere prior to reaching the detector. Moreover, by using Geant4 simulations and the QinetiQ atmospheric radiation model, we estimated that the detected events consisted of diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays (79%), secondary photons produced in the instrument through the interaction between cosmic rays and materials surrounding the detector (19%), and other particles (2%). The obtained growth curve was comparable to Ling's model, and the fluxes of diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays were consistent with the results of previous experiments. The expected detection sensitivity of a future SMILE experiment measuring gamma rays between 150 keV and 20 MeV was estimated from our SMILE-I results and was found to be 10 times better than that of other experiments at around 1 MeV.

  20. Nonequilibrium ionization due to thermal diffusion and mass flows. [in solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussel-Dupre, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent calculations of diffusion coefficients are used in the continuity equation to compute ion populations of carbon in the solar transition region. Thermal diffusion causes strong departures from ionization equilibrium in the region where the temperature gradient is steepest. Mass-conserving flows are also included in our calculations. These dominate over thermal diffusion depending on the magnitude of the flows and also lead to departures from ionization equilibrium. These results have important implications for the interpretation of EUV line emission.

  1. On new inequalities of Hermite-Hadamard-Fejer type for harmonically convex functions via fractional integrals.

    PubMed

    Kunt, Mehmet; İşcan, İmdat; Yazıcı, Nazlı; Gözütok, Uğur

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, firstly, new Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for harmonically convex functions in fractional integral forms are given. Secondly, Hermite-Hadamard-Fejer inequalities for harmonically convex functions in fractional integral forms are built. Finally, an integral identity and some Hermite-Hadamard-Fejer type integral inequalities for harmonically convex functions in fractional integral forms are obtained. Some results presented here provide extensions of others given in earlier works.

  2. Type II Hermite-Pade approximation to the exponential function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijlaars, A. B. J.; Stahl, H.; van Assche, W.; Wielonsky, F.

    2007-10-01

    We obtain strong and uniform asymptotics in every domain of the complex plane for the scaled polynomials a(3nz), b(3nz), and c(3nz) where a, b, and c are the type II Hermite-Pade approximants to the exponential function of respective degrees 2n+2, 2n and 2n, defined by and as z-->0. Our analysis relies on a characterization of these polynomials in terms of a 3x3 matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem which, as a consequence of the famous Mahler relations, corresponds by a simple transformation to a similar Riemann-Hilbert problem for type I Hermite-Pade approximants. Due to this relation, the study that was performed in previous work, based on the Deift-Zhou steepest descent method for Riemann-Hilbert problems, can be reused to establish our present results.

  3. Taking refuge from modernity: 21st century hermits

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, I; Rubin, GJ; Wessely, S

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerances, such as ‘multiple chemical sensitivity’ and ‘electrosensitivity,’ can drastically affect the quality of life of those affected. A proportion of severely affected patients remove themselves from modern society, to live in isolation away from the purported causal agent of their ill health. This is not a new phenomenon; reports of hermits extend back to the 3rd century AD. We conducted a literature review of case reports relating to ancient hermits and modern day reclusion resulting from idiopathic environmental intolerance, in order to explore whether there are similarities between these two groups and whether the symptoms of these ‘illnesses of modernity’ are simply a present-day way of reaching the end-point of reclusion. Whilst there were some differences between the cases, recurring themes in ancient and modern cases included: dissatisfaction with society, a compulsion to flee, reports of a constant struggle and a feeling of fighting against the establishment. The similarities which exist between the modern-day cases and the historical hermits may provide some insight into the extreme behaviours exhibited by this population. The desire to retreat from society in order to escape from harm has existed for many centuries, but in different guises. PMID:23288087

  4. Taking refuge from modernity: 21st century hermits.

    PubMed

    Boyd, I; Rubin, Gj; Wessely, S

    2012-12-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerances, such as 'multiple chemical sensitivity' and 'electrosensitivity,' can drastically affect the quality of life of those affected. A proportion of severely affected patients remove themselves from modern society, to live in isolation away from the purported causal agent of their ill health. This is not a new phenomenon; reports of hermits extend back to the 3(rd) century AD. We conducted a literature review of case reports relating to ancient hermits and modern day reclusion resulting from idiopathic environmental intolerance, in order to explore whether there are similarities between these two groups and whether the symptoms of these 'illnesses of modernity' are simply a present-day way of reaching the end-point of reclusion. Whilst there were some differences between the cases, recurring themes in ancient and modern cases included: dissatisfaction with society, a compulsion to flee, reports of a constant struggle and a feeling of fighting against the establishment. The similarities which exist between the modern-day cases and the historical hermits may provide some insight into the extreme behaviours exhibited by this population. The desire to retreat from society in order to escape from harm has existed for many centuries, but in different guises.

  5. Er{sup 3+} diffusion in congruent LiNbO{sub 3} crystal in Li-enriched atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Delong; Jia Qishen; Hua Pingrang; Pei Zhang; Zhang Wenjun; Yang Qingzhong; Liu Hongli; Cui Yuming; Pun, E. Y. B.

    2007-10-01

    The thermal diffusion of Er{sup 3+} into X- and Z-cut congruent LiNbO{sub 3} crystal in Li-enriched atmosphere [i.e., vapor transport equilibration (VTE)], created by Li{sub 3}NbO{sub 4}-LiNbO{sub 3} two-phase powder at the temperature around 1130 deg. C, was attempted. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to study the crystalline phase with respect to Er{sup 3+} ion and the Er{sup 3+} diffusivity. The results show that the thickness of the Er film coated should not be thicker than 10 nm for an X-cut plate and 15 nm for a Z-cut plate. In this case, the diffusion is complete if the duration is long enough (>150 h) and the Er{sup 3+} ions in the diffused layer still retain the LiNbO{sub 3} phase. On the other hand, if the initial thickness of the Er metal film is thicker than 10 nm for the X-cut plate and 15 nm for the Z-cut plate, the diffusion will be incomplete no matter how long the duration is. This is because the residual Er{sup 3+} ions form irremovable ErNbO{sub 4} grains on the surface of the crystal. SIMS analysis on an X-cut VTE (1130 deg. C/192 h) and a Z-cut VTE (1129 deg. C/158 h) crystal coated, respectively, with 10 and 15 nm thick Er film reveals that the Er diffusion shows obvious anisotropy with the mean diffusion coefficients of 0.0155 and 0.0957 {mu}m{sup 2}/h, respectively. The surface concentrations are 1.5x10{sup 20} and 1.0x10{sup 20} at./cm{sup 3}, respectively. The diffused Er{sup 3+} ions follow the stretched-exponential decay profile with a stretching factor of 1.85 and 3.5, respectively. The Li/Nb ratio in the Er-diffused layer is similar to 99.4% for the X-cut sample coated with 10 nm thick Er film and 99.3% for the Z-cut crystal coated with 15 nm thick Er film. The rms roughness of the diffused surface is better than 6 and 4 nm for the X-cut and Z-cut samples, respectively.

  6. Diffusion and thermal escape of CH4 and H2 from Titan's upper atmosphere: Direct Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, O. J.; Tenishev, V.; Combi, M. R.; Nagy, A. F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    15). Snowden D., 2013a. The thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere, I: Temperature profiles from Cassini INMS observations. Icarus 226 552-582. Snowden D., 2013b. The Thermal Structure of Titan's Upper Atmosphere, II: Energetics. JGR DOI: :10.1029/. Tucker, O.J., et al., 2013. Diffusion and thermal escape of H2 from Titan's atmosphere: Monte Carlo simulations. Icarus 222, 149-158. Westlake, J.H. et al., 2011. Titan's thermospheric response to various plasma environments. J. Geophys. Res. 116, A03318.

  7. Particle pair diffusion of inertial particles such as dust in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Nadeem; Tereda, Yoseph; Usama, Syed

    2016-04-01

    The transport of particles in turbulent flows is ubiquitous in industrial applications and also in nature such as in dust storms and pollens. The mathematical equations that describe the motion of individual inertial particles (i.e. particles with weight and friction) is not fully developed yet, although simplified descriptions in specific contexts have been proposed, such as by Maxey and Riley [1]. The relative motion of groups of particles is equally important to understand, and this can usually be related to the relative motion of two particles, or pair diffusion. In 1926 Richardson [2] proposed a pioneering theory of pair diffusion of fluid particles based upon the idea of a separation dependent pair diffusivity, K(l), where l is the distance between two particles. Richardson advanced the theory based on a locality hypothesis in which only energy in the turbulent scales similar to the pair separation l is effective in further increasing the pair separation, leading to the famous 4/3-scaling, K˜ l4/3. Recent studies in turbulent particle pair diffusion [3] has suggested that both local and non-local effects govern the pair diffusion process inside the inertial subrange in high Reynolds number turbulence containing generalised power-law energy spectra, E(k)˜ k-p with 1

  8. Application of diffuse discharges of atmospheric pressure formed by runaway electrons for modification of copper and stainless steel surface

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, V. F. Shulepov, M. A.; Erofeev, M. V.

    2015-12-15

    The results of studies devoted to the influence of a runaway electron pre-ionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) formed in air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure on the surface of copper and stainless steel are presented. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses were used to obtain REP DD in different gases at high pressures in a chamber with a flat anode and a cathode possessing a small radius of curvature. This mode of discharge was implemented owing to the generation of runaway electrons and X-rays. The conditions under which the surface of copper and stainless steel was cleaned from carbon and oxidized are described.

  9. Application of diffuse discharges of atmospheric pressure formed by runaway electrons for modification of copper and stainless steel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.; Erofeev, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    The results of studies devoted to the influence of a runaway electron pre-ionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) formed in air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure on the surface of copper and stainless steel are presented. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses were used to obtain REP DD in different gases at high pressures in a chamber with a flat anode and a cathode possessing a small radius of curvature. This mode of discharge was implemented owing to the generation of runaway electrons and X-rays. The conditions under which the surface of copper and stainless steel was cleaned from carbon and oxidized are described.

  10. Electron avalanches and diffused {gamma}-mode in radio-frequency capacitively coupled atmospheric-pressure microplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D. W.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G.

    2009-07-20

    Space-, time- and wavelength-resolved optical emission profiles suggest that the helium emission at 706 nm can be used to indicate the presence of high energy electrons and estimate the sheath in helium rf discharges containing small concentration of air impurities. Furthermore, the experimental data supports the theoretical predictions of energetic electron avalanches transiting across the discharge gap in rf microdischarges and the absence of an {alpha}-mode. Nonetheless, microdischarges sustained between bare metal electrodes and operating in the {gamma}-mode can produce diffuse glowlike discharges rather than the typical radially constricted plasmas observed in millimeter-size rf atmospheric-pressure {gamma} discharges.

  11. A diffusion model for use with directional samplers. [particle dispersion in atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, D.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model for describing dispersion processes of airborne particles in the atmosphere. The process is described as a superposition of independent Brownian motion processes with drifts and a boundary at zero. It is assumed that the terrain is flat and of a homogeneous roughness. All sources are assumed to be point sources. The time dependencies of emission rates, wind speed, wind direction, and atmospheric conditions are taken into account.

  12. Eddy diffusion coefficients and the variance of the atmosphere 30-60 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Belmont, A. D.; Brown, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The results of numerical models or of new observational programs are checked by comparing them with past observations. In view of the differing analysis techniques or differing data samples, the eddy diffusivities presented here agree remarkably well with past estimates. However, in the application of K-values to two-dimensional models, the actual magnitude of the diffusivities is no more important than their spatial patterns, i.e., their gradients with height and latitude. It should thus be noted that the present patterns are often much different from those of past results.

  13. Symbiosis of sea anemones and hermit crabs: different resource utilization patterns in the Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafeiadou, Anna-Maria; Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Chintiroglou, Chariton

    2012-09-01

    The small-scale distribution and resource utilization patterns of hermit crabs living in symbiosis with sea anemones were investigated in the Aegean Sea. Four hermit crab species, occupying shells of nine gastropod species, were found in symbiosis with the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica. Shell resource utilization patterns varied among hermit crabs, with Dardanus species utilizing a wide variety of shells. The size structure of hermit crab populations also affected shell resource utilization, with small-sized individuals inhabiting a larger variety of shells. Sea anemone utilization patterns varied both among hermit crab species and among residence shells, with larger crabs and shells hosting an increased abundance and biomass of C. parasitica. The examined biometric relationships suggested that small-sized crabs carry, proportionally to their weight, heavier shells and increased anemone biomass than larger ones. Exceptions to the above patterns are related either to local resource availability or to other environmental factors.

  14. Enhancing sparsity of Hermite polynomial expansions by iterative rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiu; Lei, Huan; Baker, Nathan A.; Lin, Guang

    2016-02-01

    Compressive sensing has become a powerful addition to uncertainty quantification in recent years. This paper identifies new bases for random variables through linear mappings such that the representation of the quantity of interest is more sparse with new basis functions associated with the new random variables. This sparsity increases both the efficiency and accuracy of the compressive sensing-based uncertainty quantification method. Specifically, we consider rotation-based linear mappings which are determined iteratively for Hermite polynomial expansions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method with applications in solving stochastic partial differential equations and high-dimensional (O (100)) problems.

  15. Hermite-Padé approximation of exponential functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, A. V.; Starovoitov, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is concerned with diagonal Hermite-Padé polynomials of the first kind for the system of exponentials \\{eλ_jz\\}j=0^k with arbitrary distinct complex parameters \\{λ_k\\}j=0^k. An asymptotic formula for the remainder term is established and the location of the zeros is described. For real parameters the asymptotics are found and the extremal properties are described. The theorems obtained supplement the well-known results due to Borwein, Wielonsky, Saff, Varga and Stahl. Bibliography: 43 titles.

  16. Multi-dimensional Hermite polynomials in quantum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Pieter; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2001-08-01

    We study a class of optical circuits with vacuum input states consisting of Gaussian sources without coherent displacements such as down-converters and squeezers, together with photo-detectors and passive interferometry (beamsplitters, polarization rotations, phase-shifters, etc). We show that the outgoing state leaving the optical circuit can be expressed in terms of so-called multi-dimensional Hermite polynomials and give their recursion and orthogonality relations. We show how quantum teleportation of single-photon polarization states can be modelled using this description.

  17. Collision cross sections and diffusion parameters for H and D in atomic oxygen. [in upper earth and Venus atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Modeling the behavior of H and D in planetary exospheres requires detailed knowledge of the differential scattering cross sections for all of the important neutral-neutral and ion-neutral collision processes affecting these species over their entire ranges of interaction energies. In the upper atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and other planets as well, the interactions of H and D with atomic oxygen determine the rates of diffusion of escaping hydrogen isotopes through the thermosphere, the velocity distributions of exospheric atoms that encounter the upper thermosphere, the lifetimes of exospheric orbiters with periapsides near the exobase, and the transfer of momentum in collisions with hot O. The nature of H-O and D-O collisions and the derivation of a data base consisting of phase shifts and the differential, total, and momentum transfer cross sections for these interactions in the energy range 0.001 - 10 eV are discussed. Coefficients of mutual diffusion and thermal diffusion factors are calculated for temperatures of planetary interest.

  18. Influence of air diffusion on the OH radicals and atomic O distribution in an atmospheric Ar (bio)plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, A.; Li, L.; Britun, N.; Snyders, R.; Vanraes, P.; Leys, C.

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of samples with plasmas in biomedical applications often occurs in ambient air. Admixing air into the discharge region may severely affect the formation and destruction of the generated oxidative species. Little is known about the effects of air diffusion on the spatial distribution of OH radicals and O atoms in the afterglow of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets. In our work, these effects are investigated by performing and comparing measurements in ambient air with measurements in a controlled argon atmosphere without the admixture of air, for an argon plasma jet. The spatial distribution of OH is detected by means of laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics (LIF), whereas two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) is used for the detection of atomic O. The spatially resolved OH LIF and O TALIF show that, due to the air admixture effects, the reactive species are only concentrated in the vicinity of the central streamline of the afterglow of the jet, with a characteristic discharge diameter of ˜1.5 mm. It is shown that air diffusion has a key role in the recombination loss mechanisms of OH radicals and atomic O especially in the far afterglow region, starting up to ˜4 mm from the nozzle outlet at a low water/oxygen concentration. Furthermore, air diffusion enhances OH and O production in the core of the plasma. The higher density of active species in the discharge in ambient air is likely due to a higher electron density and a more effective electron impact dissociation of H2O and O2 caused by the increasing electrical field, when the discharge is operated in ambient air.

  19. Diffusion near buildings as determined from atmospheric tracer experiments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sagendorf, J.F.; Ricks, N.R.; Start, G.E.; Dickson, C.R.

    1980-09-01

    Data from the innermost arcs and roof top samplers of the Rancho Seco and EOCR field studies were used to examine diffusion close to a building. The minimum length plume paths were determined from each release location to each sampler position at these two test sites. Measured concentrations, normalized by source strength (C/Q), were plotted versus plume path length and an envelope containing 95% of the measured values of C/Q was determined. The curves from the two sites were similar in shape and implied three zones of diffusion. Comparisons were also made with current NRC methods for predicting maximum expected concentrations close to a building. The NRC model overestimated concentrations in all but one case. The model was generally within an order of magnitude at EOCR, and within two orders of magnitude at Rancho Seco.

  20. Climate stability for a Sellers-type model. [atmospheric diffusive energy balance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.

    1976-01-01

    We study a diffusive energy-balance climate model governed by a nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation. Three positive steady-state solutions of this equation are found; they correspond to three possible climates of our planet: an interglacial (nearly identical to the present climate), a glacial, and a completely ice-covered earth. We consider also models similar to the main one studied, and determine the number of their steady states. All the models have albedo continuously varying with latitude and temperature, and entirely diffusive horizontal heat transfer. The diffusion is taken to be nonlinear as well as linear. We investigate the stability under small perturbations of the main model's climates. A stability criterion is derived, and its application shows that the 'present climate' and the 'deep freeze' are stable, whereas the model's glacial is unstable. A variational principle is introduced to confirm the results of this stability analysis. For a sufficient decrease in solar radiation (about 2%) the glacial and interglacial solutions disappear, leaving the ice-covered earth as the only possible climate.

  1. Numerical fitting of molecular properties to Hermite Gaussians.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, G Andrés; Elking, Dennis; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Darden, Thomas A

    2007-11-29

    A procedure is presented to fit gridded molecular properties to auxiliary basis sets (ABSs) of Hermite Gaussians, analogous to the density fitting (DF) method (Dunlap; et al. J. Chem. Phys. 1979, 71, 4993). In this procedure, the ab initio calculated properties (density, electrostatic potential, and/or electric field) are fitted via a linear- or nonlinear-least-squares procedure to auxiliary basis sets (ABS). The calculated fitting coefficients from the numerical grids are shown to be more robust than analytic density fitting due to the neglect of the core contributions. The fitting coefficients are tested by calculating intermolecular Coulomb and exchange interactions for a set of dimers. It is shown that the numerical instabilities observed in DF are caused by the attempt of the ABS to fit the core contributions. In addition, this new approach allows us to reduce the number of functions required to obtain an accurate fit. This results in decreased computational cost, which is shown by calculating the Coulomb energy of a 4096 water box in periodic boundary conditions. Using atom centered Hermite Gaussians, this calculation is only 1 order of magnitude slower than conventional atom-centered point charges.

  2. Behavioral evidence illuminating the visual abilities of the terrestrial Caribbean hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xiaoge; Lee, Ji Sun; Garlick, Dennis; Jiang, Zhigang; Blaisdell, Aaron P

    2015-09-01

    Hermit crabs hide into shells when confronted with potential dangers, including images presented on a monitor. We do not know, however, what hermit crabs can see and how they perceive different objects. We examined the hiding response of the Caribbean hermit crab (Coenobita clypeatus) to various stimuli presented on a monitor in seven experiments to explore whether crabs could discriminate different properties of a threatening digital image, including color, brightness, contrast, shape and orientation. We found crabs responded differently to expanding circles presented in wavelengths of light corresponding to what humans see as red, blue, and green. "Blue" stimuli elicited the strongest hiding response (Experiments 1, 2, & 7). "Blue" was also more effective than a gray stimulus of similar brightness (Experiment 3). Hermit crabs were sensitive to the amount of contrast between a stimulus and its background rather than absolute brightness of the stimulus (Experiment 4). Moreover, we did not find evidence that crabs could discriminate orientation (Experiment 6), and mixed evidence that they could discriminate stimulus shape (Experiments 5 & 7). These results suggest that the Caribbean hermit crab is sensitive to color features, but not spatial features, of a threatening object presented on a computer screen. This is the first study to use the hiding response of the hermit crab to examine its visual ability, and demonstrates that the hiding response provides a useful behavioral approach with which to study learning and discrimination in the hermit crab. PMID:26051192

  3. Atmospheric response in aurora experiment: Observations of E and F region neutral winds in a region of postmidnight diffuse aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.; Marshall, T. R.; Mikkelsen, I. S.; Emery, B. A.; Christensen, A.; Kayser, D.; Hecht, J.; Lyons, L.; Walterscheid, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA) experiment carried out at Poker Flat, Alaska, on March 3, 1992, was to determine the response of the neutral atmosphere to the long-lived, large-scale forcing that is characteristic of the diffuse aurora in the post midnight sector. A combination of chemical release rocket wind measurements, instrumented rocket composition measurements, and ground-based optical measurements were used to characterize the response of the neutral atmosphere. The rocket measurements were made at the end of a 90-min period of strong Joule heating. We focus on the neutral wind measurements made with the rocket. The forcing was determined by running the assimilated mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) analysis procedure developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The winds expected at the latitude and longitude of the experiment were calculated using the spectral thermospheric general circulation model developed at the Danish Meteorological Institute. Comparisons of the observations and the model suggest that the neutral winds responded strongly in two height ranges. An eastward wind perturbation of approximately 100 m/s developed between 140 and 200 km altitude with a peak near 160 km. A southwestward wind with peak magnitude of approximately 150 m/s developed near 115 km altitude. The large amplitude winds at the lower altitude are particularly surprising. They appear to be associated with the upward propagating semidiurnal tide. However, the amplitude is much larger than predicted by any of the tidal models, and the shear found just below the peak in the winds was nominally unstable with a Richardson number of approximately 0.08.

  4. Contribution of emission control and atmospheric diffusion ability to the improved air quality in 2015 of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, K.

    2015-12-01

    China experiences extremely severe and frequent PM2.5 (fine particulate matters with diameters less than 2.5 µm) pollution in recent years, arousing unprecedented public concern. Tough targets have been set for three particularly smog-ridden regions: JingJinJi area, the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, requiring these regions to reduce their atmospheric levels of PM2.5 by 25%, 20% and 15% respectively by the year 2017. A lot of mitigation actions have been taken to improve the air quality in China. In January 2013, China began to deploy instruments to measure PM2.5 nationally and released hourly observational data to the public. Observed PM2.5 concentrations showed a significant decrease in 2015 comparing to that of 2014 as shown in Fig.1. Many studies have attributed this kind of air quality improvement to the effect of emission control. However, air quality not only depends on the original emission, the atmospheric abilities of contaminant transfer, spread and wet deposition play a big role in reducing the ambient air pollutants and directly determined by the occurrence of pollution episodes. Here we used the first 2 years PM2.5 observation data in China to quantify the contribution of the effect of emission control and atmospheric ability of diffusing on reducing ambient PM2.5 concentrations. We found that PM2.5 decreased by 24% in 2015 winter (Dec. 2014-Feb. 2015) comparing to that in 2014; and 12% of decrease occurred for the spring time. The inconsistent seasonal improvement of air quality is mainly due to the favorable atmospheric background in 2015, with its frequent precipitation, infrequency of surface calm wind during the wintertime.

  5. Hermit crabs in the diet of Pigeon Guillemots at Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litzow, M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Figurski, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Guillemots (Cepphus spp.) feed their chicks a diet that is almost exclusively fish. We observed Pigeon Guillemots (C. columba) at two colonies in Alaska where hermit crabs (Crustacea: Anomura) were a major part of the diet for some nestlings. Hermit crabs were delivered to three of five observed nests at one colony, comprised between 2% and 22% of the items delivered at those nests, and were the second most common food type at one nest. Hermit crabs may be an attractive prey item when lipid-rich forage fish are scarce, and crabs living in gastropod shells that have been softened by encrustations of Suberiles sponges may be vulnerable to guillemot predation.

  6. Estimates of α-pinene emissions from a loblolly pine forest using an atmospheric diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnts, Robert R.; Petersen, William B.; Seila, Robert L.; Gay, Bruce W.

    A field study was conducted to estimate the emissions of α-pinene from a pine forest without disturbing the vegetation. A tracer, sulfur hexafluoride, was released from the forest and collected downwind in order to define the dispersive characteristics of the atmosphere. Simultaneously, α-pinene concentrations were measured both upwind and downwind of the forest. A Gaussian plume dispersion algorithm incorporating hydrocarbon lose due to O 3 and OH reaction was used to estimate α-pinene emissions. Emission rates ranged from 11 to 19 μg m -2 min -1 at 37 °C.

  7. Influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 and CO18O exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, C. J.; Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S. C.; Noone, D. C.; Buenning, N. H.; Randerson, J. T.; Torn, M. S.; Welker, J.; White, J. W. C.; Vachon, R.; Farquhar, G. D.; Berry, J. A.

    2009-03-01

    This study evaluates the potential impact of clouds on ecosystem CO2 and CO2 isotope fluxes ("isofluxes") in two contrasting ecosystems (a broadleaf deciduous forest and a C4 grassland) in a region for which cloud cover, meteorological, and isotope data are available for driving the isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM). Our model results indicate a large impact of clouds on ecosystem CO2 fluxes and isofluxes. Despite lower irradiance on partly cloudy and cloudy days, predicted forest canopy photosynthesis was substantially higher than on clear, sunny days, and the highest carbon uptake was achieved on the cloudiest day. This effect was driven by a large increase in light-limited shade leaf photosynthesis following an increase in the diffuse fraction of irradiance. Photosynthetic isofluxes, by contrast, were largest on partly cloudy days, as leaf water isotopic composition was only slightly depleted and photosynthesis was enhanced, as compared to adjacent clear-sky days. On the cloudiest day, the forest exhibited intermediate isofluxes: although photosynthesis was highest on this day, leaf-to-atmosphere isofluxes were reduced from a feedback of transpiration on canopy relative humidity and leaf water. Photosynthesis and isofluxes were both reduced in the C4 grass canopy with increasing cloud cover and diffuse fraction as a result of near-constant light limitation of photosynthesis. These results suggest that some of the unexplained variation in global mean δ18O of CO2 may be driven by large-scale changes in clouds and aerosols and their impacts on diffuse radiation, photosynthesis, and relative humidity.

  8. The influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 and CO18O exhanges

    SciTech Connect

    Still, C.J.; Riley, W.J.; Biraud, S.C.; Noone, D.C.; Buenning, N.H.; Randerson, J.T.; Torn, M.S.; Welker, J.; White, J.W.C.; Vachon, R.; Farquhar, G.D.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluates the potential impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} isotope fluxes ('isofluxes') in two contrasting ecosystems (a broadleaf deciduous forest and a C{sub 4} grassland), in a region for which cloud cover, meteorological, and isotope data are available for driving the isotope-enabled land surface model, ISOLSM. Our model results indicate a large impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes and isofluxes. Despite lower irradiance on partly cloudy and cloudy days, predicted forest canopy photosynthesis was substantially higher than on clear, sunny days, and the highest carbon uptake was achieved on the cloudiest day. This effect was driven by a large increase in light-limited shade leaf photosynthesis following an increase in the diffuse fraction of irradiance. Photosynthetic isofluxes, by contrast, were largest on partly cloudy days, as leaf water isotopic composition was only slightly depleted and photosynthesis was enhanced, as compared to adjacent clear sky days. On the cloudiest day, the forest exhibited intermediate isofluxes: although photosynthesis was highest on this day, leaf-to-atmosphere isofluxes were reduced from a feedback of transpiration on canopy relative humidity and leaf water. Photosynthesis and isofluxes were both reduced in the C{sub 4} grass canopy with increasing cloud cover and diffuse fraction as a result of near-constant light limitation of photosynthesis. These results suggest that some of the unexplained variation in global mean {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2} may be driven by large-scale changes in clouds and aerosols and their impacts on diffuse radiation, photosynthesis, and relative humidity.

  9. Multivariable Hermite polynomials and phase-space dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dattoli, G.; Torre, Amalia; Lorenzutta, S.; Maino, G.; Chiccoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    The phase-space approach to classical and quantum systems demands for advanced analytical tools. Such an approach characterizes the evolution of a physical system through a set of variables, reducing to the canonically conjugate variables in the classical limit. It often happens that phase-space distributions can be written in terms of quadratic forms involving the above quoted variables. A significant analytical tool to treat these problems may come from the generalized many-variables Hermite polynomials, defined on quadratic forms in R(exp n). They form an orthonormal system in many dimensions and seem the natural tool to treat the harmonic oscillator dynamics in phase-space. In this contribution we discuss the properties of these polynomials and present some applications to physical problems.

  10. Constructive feedforward neural networks using hermite polynomial activation functions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liying; Khorasani, K

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, a constructive one-hidden-layer network is introduced where each hidden unit employs a polynomial function for its activation function that is different from other units. Specifically, both a structure level as well as a function level adaptation methodologies are utilized in constructing the network. The functional level adaptation scheme ensures that the "growing" or constructive network has different activation functions for each neuron such that the network may be able to capture the underlying input-output map more effectively. The activation functions considered consist of orthonormal Hermite polynomials. It is shown through extensive simulations that the proposed network yields improved performance when compared to networks having identical sigmoidal activation functions.

  11. Squeezed states and Hermite polynomials in a complex variable

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S. Twareque; Górska, K. Horzela, A.; Szafraniec, F. H.

    2014-01-15

    Following the lines of the recent paper of J.-P. Gazeau and F. H. Szafraniec [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 495201 (2011)], we construct here three types of coherent states, related to the Hermite polynomials in a complex variable which are orthogonal with respect to a non-rotationally invariant measure. We investigate relations between these coherent states and obtain the relationship between them and the squeezed states of quantum optics. We also obtain a second realization of the canonical coherent states in the Bargmann space of analytic functions, in terms of a squeezed basis. All this is done in the flavor of the classical approach of V. Bargmann [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 14, 187 (1961)].

  12. Hermite polynomials and representations of the unitary group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasburger, A.; Dziewa-Dawidczyk, D.

    2015-04-01

    Spaces of homogeneous complex polynomials in D variables form carrier spaces for representations of the unitary group U(D). These representations are well understood and their connections with certain families of classical orthogonal polynomials (Gegenbauer, Jacobi, and other) are widely studied. However, there is another realization for the action of the unitary group U(D) on polynomials, not necessarily homogeneous, in which Hermite polynomials in D variables play an important role. This action is related to the metaplectic (oscillator) representation, and was studied some time ago by one of the present authors (A. S.) and, independently, by A. Wünsche for D = 2. In this note we want to concentrate on the latter realization and describe its properties in a more comprehensible way.

  13. Interpreting odours in hermit crabs: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricarico, Elena; Breithaupt, Thomas; Gherardi, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Odours of different sources can indicate to hermit crabs the availability of empty shells, crucial resources for the life cycle of almost all of them. Here, we compared Clibanarius erythropus and Pagurus bernhardus for the intensity of investigative behaviour exhibited towards an empty, well-fitting shell in the presence of (1) plain seawater as control and seawater conditioned by (2) dead and live snails, (3) dead and live conspecifics, (4) live predators, and (5) food. During 10 min of observation, we recorded latency (the time until the first contact with the shell), and the number and duration of shell investigation bouts. The two species behaved similarly when exposed to the odours of food, live snails, and predators, while a more intense shell investigation was induced by dead snail odour in C. erythropus and by dead or live conspecific odour in P. bernhardus. Further studies should investigate the influence of phylogeny and ecology on this interspecific difference.

  14. Niche construction drives social dependence in hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Laidre, Mark E

    2012-10-23

    Organisms can receive not only a genetic inheritance from their ancestors but also an ecological inheritance, involving modifications their ancestors made to the environment through niche construction. Ecological inheritances may persist as a legacy, potentially generating selection pressures that favor sociality. Yet, most proposed cases of sociality being impacted by an ecological inheritance come from organisms that live among close kin and were highly social before their niche construction began. Here, I show that in terrestrial hermit crabs (Coenobita compressus)--organisms that do not live with kin and reside alone, each in its own shell--niche-construction drives social dependence, such that individuals can only survive in remodeled shells handed down from conspecifics. These results suggest that niche construction can be an important initiator of evolutionary pressures to socialize, even among unrelated and otherwise asocial organisms.

  15. B-splines and Hermite-Padé approximants to the exponential function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablonnière, Paul

    2008-10-01

    This paper is the continuation of a work initiated in [P. Sablonnière, An algorithm for the computation of Hermite-Padé approximations to the exponential function: divided differences and Hermite-Padé forms. Numer. Algorithms 33 (2003) 443-452] about the computation of Hermite-Padé forms (HPF) and associated Hermite-Padé approximants (HPA) to the exponential function. We present an alternative algorithm for their computation, based on the representation of HPF in terms of integral remainders with B-splines as Peano kernels. Using the good properties of discrete B-splines, this algorithm gives rise to a great variety of representations of HPF of higher orders in terms of HPF of lower orders, and in particular of classical Padé forms. We give some examples illustrating this algorithm, in particular, another way of constructing quadratic HPF already described by different authors. Finally, we briefly study a family of cubic HPF.

  16. A new generalization of Apostol type Hermite-Genocchi polynomials and its applications.

    PubMed

    Araci, Serkan; Khan, Waseem A; Acikgoz, Mehmet; Özel, Cenap; Kumam, Poom

    2016-01-01

    By using the modified Milne-Thomson's polynomial given in Araci et al. (Appl Math Inf Sci 8(6):2803-2808, 2014), we introduce a new concept of the Apostol Hermite-Genocchi polynomials. We also perform a further investigation for aforementioned polynomial and derive some implicit summation formulae and general symmetric identities arising from different analytical means and generating functions method. The results obtained here are an extension of Hermite-Bernoulli polynomials (Pathan and Khan in Mediterr J Math 12:679-695, 2015a) and Hermite-Euler polynomials (Pathan and Khan in Mediterr J Math 2015b, doi:10.1007/s00009-015-0551-1) to Apostol type Hermite-Genocchi polynomials defined in this paper. PMID:27386309

  17. Transitions between various diffuse discharge modes in atmospheric-pressure helium in the medium-frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, J.-S.; Margot, J.; Massines, F.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate DBDs in the medium frequency range (MF, 0.3-3 MHz). More precisely, for a 2 inter-dielectric gap in helium at atmospheric pressure, the frequency is varied from 1.0 to 2.7 MHz. The generated discharge shows similarities with both the low-frequency atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) and the atmospheric pressure capacitively coupled radio-frequency (CCRF) discharge. In the frequency range under investigation, two diffuse discharge modes can be observed depending on the voltage applied between the electrodes. At low applied voltage, the discharge emissions are barely visible and are concentrated in the center of the gas gap similarly to CCRF discharges in the Ω mode where the electron density is concentrated in the bulk. Ohmic heating is the main power transfer mechanism. At higher applied voltage, the discharge emissions are 10 times more intense and are closer to the dielectric surfaces similarly to the more common radio-frequency α mode. These two discharge modes can be observed in the same experimental conditions with the amplitude of the applied voltage as sole control parameter. The gas temperature obtained from N2 impurities rotational spectrum increases from room temperature to about 500 K while the power density rises from 10-1 to 101 W cm-3 when the applied voltage is increased. In addition, when the discharge transits back and forth from the Ω to the α mode, a hysteresis is observed. The transition from the Ω to the α mode occurs abruptly with a large RMS current increase while the transition from the α to the Ω mode is rather smooth with no significant discontinuity in the RMS current.

  18. Transitions between various diffuse discharge modes in atmospheric-pressure helium in the medium-frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, J.-S.; Margot, J.; Massines, F.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate DBDs in the medium frequency range (MF, 0.3–3 MHz). More precisely, for a 2 inter-dielectric gap in helium at atmospheric pressure, the frequency is varied from 1.0 to 2.7 MHz. The generated discharge shows similarities with both the low-frequency atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) and the atmospheric pressure capacitively coupled radio-frequency (CCRF) discharge. In the frequency range under investigation, two diffuse discharge modes can be observed depending on the voltage applied between the electrodes. At low applied voltage, the discharge emissions are barely visible and are concentrated in the center of the gas gap similarly to CCRF discharges in the Ω mode where the electron density is concentrated in the bulk. Ohmic heating is the main power transfer mechanism. At higher applied voltage, the discharge emissions are 10 times more intense and are closer to the dielectric surfaces similarly to the more common radio-frequency α mode. These two discharge modes can be observed in the same experimental conditions with the amplitude of the applied voltage as sole control parameter. The gas temperature obtained from N2 impurities rotational spectrum increases from room temperature to about 500 K while the power density rises from 10‑1 to 101 W cm‑3 when the applied voltage is increased. In addition, when the discharge transits back and forth from the Ω to the α mode, a hysteresis is observed. The transition from the Ω to the α mode occurs abruptly with a large RMS current increase while the transition from the α to the Ω mode is rather smooth with no significant discontinuity in the RMS current.

  19. Distribution and shell selection by two hermit crabs in different habitats on Egyptian Red Sea Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kareem Ismail, Tarek Gad

    2010-05-01

    The present work aims to assess the spatial distribution, analyze shell utilization, shell fitness and determine the effect of coexistence of two hermit crabs Calcinus latens and Clibanarius signatus on used shell resources in various habitats on the Red Sea Coast. Also, to determine the choice of shells and investigate the shell species preference of C. latens and C. signatus in the laboratory. The hermit crabs C. latens and C. signatus were found to occupy shells of 39 gastropod species. The most commonly occupied gastropod shells are those belonging to genera Strombus, Nerita, Cerithium and Planaxis. The results showed that crab individuals utilized mainly the shell with elongate aperture. Laboratory experiments showed that two crab species preferred shells of Strombus followed by Cerithium and Nerita when offered shells of nearly similar size (optimal). Crab individuals showed a significant preference for optimal sized shells when given suboptimal shells as an alternative choice. Also, the hermit crabs avoid damaged shells when given a choice of optimal sized damaged shell and optimal sized intact one. In addition, two hermit crab species chose shells of smaller than optimal size when given a choice of damaged optimal sized shells and smaller intact ones. On the other hand, field observations showed that most crab individuals lived in adequate sized shells. The present data conclude that shell selection by hermit crabs C. latens and C. signatus depends mostly on shell internal volume, shell quality and shell aperture size than other factors, because they provide a maximum protection for hermit crabs.

  20. A model for the effective diffusion of gas or the vapor phase in a fractured media unsaturated zone driven by periodic atmospheric pressure fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, E.L.

    1997-03-01

    There is evidence for migration of tritiated water vapor through the tuff in the unsaturated zone from the buried disposal shafts located on a narrow mesa top at Area G, Los Alamos, NM. Field data are consistent with an effective in-situ vapor phase diffusion coefficient of 1.5x10{sup {minus}3} m{sup s}/s, or a factor of 60 greater than the binary diffusion coefficient for water vapor in air. A model is derived to explain this observation of anomolously large diffusion, which relates an effective vapor or gas phase diffusion coefficient in the fractured porous media to the subsurface propagation of atmospheric pressure fluctuations (barometric pumping). The near surface (unattenuated) diffusion coefficient is independent of mode period under the simplified assumptions of a complete {open_quote}mixing mechanism{close_quote} for the effective diffusion process. The unattenuated effective diffusion driven by this barometric pumping is proportional to an average media permeability times the sum of the square of pressure mode amplitudes, while the attenuation length is proportional to the squarer root of the product of permeability times mode period. There is evidence that the permeability needed to evaluate the pressure attenuation length is the in-situ value, approximately that of the matrix. The diffusion which results using Area G parameter values is negligible in the matrix but becomes large at the effective permeability of the fractured tuff matrix. The effective diffusion coefficient predicted by this model, due to pressure fluctuations and the observed fracture characteristics, is in good agreement with the observed in-situ diffusion coefficient for tritium field measurements. It is concluded that barometric pumping in combination with the enhanced permeability of the fractured media is a likely candidate to account for the observed in-field migration of vapor in the near surface unsaturated zone at Area G.

  1. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lee Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  2. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  3. Use of energy reserves in fighting hermit crabs.

    PubMed Central

    Briffa, Mark; Elwood, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    When animals engage in fights they face a series of decisions, which are based on the value of the contested resource and either their relative or their absolute fighting ability. Certain correlates of fighting ability or 'resource holding potential' such as body size are fixed but physiological correlates are expected to vary during the encounter. We examine the role of energy reserves in determining fight outcomes and parameters during 'shell fighting' in hermit crabs. During these fights, the two contestants perform very different roles of attacker and defender. We show that the balance of the total energy pool, in the form of glucose and glycogen, determines the ability of defenders to resist eviction from their shells. Low glucose in evicted defenders is not caused by depletion of energy reserves, rather mobilization of glycogen appears to be the result of a strategic decision about whether to resist effectively, based on the perceived fighting ability of the attacker. Attackers, however, always initiate the fight so such a decision for this role appears unlikely. In addition to influencing decisions and ability during fights, physiological correlates of fighting ability can in turn be influenced by strategic decisions. PMID:15101696

  4. Splitting and combining properties of an elegant Hermite-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam in Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiayi; Chen, Yahong; Liu, Lin; Liu, Xianlong; Cai, Yangjian

    2015-05-18

    Elegant Hermite-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (EHGCSM) beam was introduced in theory and generated in experiment just recently [Phys. Rev. A 91, 013823 (2015)]. In this paper, we study the propagation properties of an EHGCSM beam in turbulent atmosphere with the help of the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral. Analytical expressions for the cross-spectral density and the propagation factors of an EHGCSM beam propagating in turbulent atmosphere are derived. The statistical properties, such as the spectral intensity, the spectral degree of coherence and the propagation factors, of an EHGCSM beam in Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov turbulence are illustrated numerically. It is found that an EHGCSM beam exhibits splitting and combing properties in turbulent atmosphere, and an EHGCSM beam with large mode orders is less affected by turbulence than an EHGCSM beam with small mode orders or a Gaussian Schell-model beam or a Gaussian beam, which will be useful in free-space optical communications.

  5. Using harmonic oscillators to determine the spot size of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steely, Sidney L.

    1993-01-01

    The similarity of the functional forms of quantum mechanical harmonic oscillators and the modes of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams is illustrated. This functional similarity provides a direct correlation to investigate the spot size of large-order mode Hermite-Gaussian laser beams. The classical limits of a corresponding two-dimensional harmonic oscillator provide a definition of the spot size of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams. The classical limits of the harmonic oscillator provide integration limits for the photon probability densities of the laser beam modes to determine the fraction of photons detected therein. Mathematica is used to integrate the probability densities for large-order beam modes and to illustrate the functional similarities. The probabilities of detecting photons within the classical limits of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams asymptotically approach unity in the limit of large-order modes, in agreement with the Correspondence Principle. The classical limits for large-order modes include all of the nodes for Hermite Gaussian laser beams; Sturm's theorem provides a direct proof.

  6. Multiple tree-ring isotopes as environmental indicators of diffuse atmospheric pollution in a peri-urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucet, A.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Ouarda, T. B.; Marion, J.

    2010-12-01

    The combined analyses of tree-ring δ13C, δ18O, δ15N, 206Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/208Pb isotope ratios of three red spruce specimens from the Tantaré ecological reserve located 40 km northwest of Québec City (Canada) were studied with the aim of reconstructing environmental conditions and unravel past air-quality changes of the 1880-2007 period. To separate the tree-ring δ18O and δ13C patterns induced by natural conditions from those generated by anthropogenic perturbations, a linear regression was applied between the most explicative meteorological parameters and the isotopic series for the period of low pollution (1880 to 1909). The model equations were then applied to the most recent part of the series (1910-2007) to verify if climatic conditions have remained the main driver of the tree-ring isotopic variations. The good fit between the modeled and measured δ18O series for the entire studied period suggests that the assimilation of oxygen by red spruce trees is not significantly affected by pollution stress near Québec City. However, the deviation between the measured and modeled δ13C values for the 1944-2007 period indicates that diffuse pollution affected carbon assimilation by the investigated trees. To independently validate if atmospheric pollution could have generated the deviation between the measured and the estimated δ13C values, a linear regression was applied between the portion of the residual δ13C values and atmospheric pollution (Canadian fossil fuel proxy from 1958 to 2000). The nice fit between the modeled δ13C values from the combination of the two regression analyses based on climate and emission proxy strongly supports the hypothesis that there is a natural and an anthropogenic portion in the δ13C variations of the studied specimens. The short-term variations of the red spruce δ15N series are correlated with the instrumentally measured amounts of provincial N emissions for the 1990 to 2006 period (longest measurements

  7. Effect of dielectric material on bipolar nanosecond pulse diffuse dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai; Wang, Wenchun; Yang, Dezheng; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Zhijie

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, dielectric plates made by ceramic, quartz and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) respectively are employed to generate low gas temperature, diffuse dielectric barrier discharge plasma by using a needle-plate electrode configuration in air at atmospheric pressure. Both discharge images and the optical emission spectra are obtained while ceramic, quartz and PTFE are used as dielectric material. Plasma gas temperature is also calculated by comparing the experimental emission spectra with the best fitted spectra of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg 1-3) and N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg 0-2). The effects of different pulse peak voltages and gas gap distances on the emission intensity of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) and the plasma area on dielectric surface are investigated while ceramic, quartz and PTFE are used as dielectric material. It is found that the permittivity of dielectric material plays an important role in the discharge homogeneity, plasma gas temperature, emission spectra intensity of the discharge, etc. Dielectric with higher permittivity i.e., ceramic means brighter discharge luminosity and stronger emission spectra intensity of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) among the three dielectric materials. However, more homogeneous, larger plasma area on dielectric surface and lower plasma gas temperature can be obtained under dielectric with lower permittivity i.e., PTFE. The emission spectra intensity and plasma gas temperature of the discharge while the dielectric plate is made by quartz are smaller than that while ceramic is used as dielectric material and bigger than that when PTFE is used as dielectric material.

  8. Effect of dielectric material on bipolar nanosecond pulse diffuse dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kai; Wang, Wenchun; Yang, Dezheng; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Zhijie

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, dielectric plates made by ceramic, quartz and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) respectively are employed to generate low gas temperature, diffuse dielectric barrier discharge plasma by using a needle-plate electrode configuration in air at atmospheric pressure. Both discharge images and the optical emission spectra are obtained while ceramic, quartz and PTFE are used as dielectric material. Plasma gas temperature is also calculated by comparing the experimental emission spectra with the best fitted spectra of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg 1-3) and N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg 0-2). The effects of different pulse peak voltages and gas gap distances on the emission intensity of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) and the plasma area on dielectric surface are investigated while ceramic, quartz and PTFE are used as dielectric material. It is found that the permittivity of dielectric material plays an important role in the discharge homogeneity, plasma gas temperature, emission spectra intensity of the discharge, etc. Dielectric with higher permittivity i.e., ceramic means brighter discharge luminosity and stronger emission spectra intensity of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) among the three dielectric materials. However, more homogeneous, larger plasma area on dielectric surface and lower plasma gas temperature can be obtained under dielectric with lower permittivity i.e., PTFE. The emission spectra intensity and plasma gas temperature of the discharge while the dielectric plate is made by quartz are smaller than that while ceramic is used as dielectric material and bigger than that when PTFE is used as dielectric material.

  9. Effect of dielectric material on bipolar nanosecond pulse diffuse dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai; Wang, Wenchun; Yang, Dezheng; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Zhijie

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, dielectric plates made by ceramic, quartz and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) respectively are employed to generate low gas temperature, diffuse dielectric barrier discharge plasma by using a needle-plate electrode configuration in air at atmospheric pressure. Both discharge images and the optical emission spectra are obtained while ceramic, quartz and PTFE are used as dielectric material. Plasma gas temperature is also calculated by comparing the experimental emission spectra with the best fitted spectra of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg 1-3) and N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg 0-2). The effects of different pulse peak voltages and gas gap distances on the emission intensity of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) and the plasma area on dielectric surface are investigated while ceramic, quartz and PTFE are used as dielectric material. It is found that the permittivity of dielectric material plays an important role in the discharge homogeneity, plasma gas temperature, emission spectra intensity of the discharge, etc. Dielectric with higher permittivity i.e., ceramic means brighter discharge luminosity and stronger emission spectra intensity of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg, 0-0, 337.1 nm) among the three dielectric materials. However, more homogeneous, larger plasma area on dielectric surface and lower plasma gas temperature can be obtained under dielectric with lower permittivity i.e., PTFE. The emission spectra intensity and plasma gas temperature of the discharge while the dielectric plate is made by quartz are smaller than that while ceramic is used as dielectric material and bigger than that when PTFE is used as dielectric material. PMID:23673240

  10. Parametric studies with an atmospheric diffusion model that assesses toxic fuel hazards due to the ground clouds generated by rocket launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. B.; Grose, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Parametric studies were made with a multilayer atmospheric diffusion model to place quantitative limits on the uncertainty of predicting ground-level toxic rocket-fuel concentrations. Exhaust distributions in the ground cloud, cloud stabilized geometry, atmospheric coefficients, the effects of exhaust plume afterburning of carbon monoxide CO, assumed surface mixing-layer division in the model, and model sensitivity to different meteorological regimes were studied. Large-scale differences in ground-level predictions are quantitatively described. Cloud alongwind growth for several meteorological conditions is shown to be in error because of incorrect application of previous diffusion theory. In addition, rocket-plume calculations indicate that almost all of the rocket-motor carbon monoxide is afterburned to carbon dioxide CO2, thus reducing toxic hazards due to CO. The afterburning is also shown to have a significant effect on cloud stabilization height and on ground-level concentrations of exhaust products.

  11. Effects of tributyltin exposure in hermit crabs: Clibanarius vittatus as a model.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Bruno Sampaio; Santos, Dayana Moscardi Dos; Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de; Zara, Fernando José; Turra, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination affects the reproductive system of many species of invertebrates worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of exposure to TBT pollution on the reproduction of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus. An orthogonal experiment was designed with two treatments: contamination (with or without TBT in the food) and crab sex (males and females). The animals were reared in the laboratory for nine months, and macroscopic and histological analyses of reproductive organs were carried out after the end of the experiment. Tributyltin was recorded in exposed crabs, but no morphological alterations were detected in the gonads of males, regardless of whether they were exposed to TBT. In contrast, females exposed to TBT displayed disorganization and atrophy of their ovaries, thus directly affecting reproduction in this hermit crab species. This effect observed in female hermit crabs may harm populations located in harbor regions, where TBT concentration is high, even after the worldwide TBT ban.

  12. Efficient modeling of photonic crystals with local Hermite polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, C. R.; Li, Zehao; Albrecht, J. D.; Ram-Mohan, L. R.

    2014-04-21

    Developing compact algorithms for accurate electrodynamic calculations with minimal computational cost is an active area of research given the increasing complexity in the design of electromagnetic composite structures such as photonic crystals, metamaterials, optical interconnects, and on-chip routing. We show that electric and magnetic (EM) fields can be calculated using scalar Hermite interpolation polynomials as the numerical basis functions without having to invoke edge-based vector finite elements to suppress spurious solutions or to satisfy boundary conditions. This approach offers several fundamental advantages as evidenced through band structure solutions for periodic systems and through waveguide analysis. Compared with reciprocal space (plane wave expansion) methods for periodic systems, advantages are shown in computational costs, the ability to capture spatial complexity in the dielectric distributions, the demonstration of numerical convergence with scaling, and variational eigenfunctions free of numerical artifacts that arise from mixed-order real space basis sets or the inherent aberrations from transforming reciprocal space solutions of finite expansions. The photonic band structure of a simple crystal is used as a benchmark comparison and the ability to capture the effects of spatially complex dielectric distributions is treated using a complex pattern with highly irregular features that would stress spatial transform limits. This general method is applicable to a broad class of physical systems, e.g., to semiconducting lasers which require simultaneous modeling of transitions in quantum wells or dots together with EM cavity calculations, to modeling plasmonic structures in the presence of EM field emissions, and to on-chip propagation within monolithic integrated circuits.

  13. Efficient modeling of photonic crystals with local Hermite polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, C. R.; Li, Zehao; Albrecht, J. D.; Ram-Mohan, L. R.

    2014-04-01

    Developing compact algorithms for accurate electrodynamic calculations with minimal computational cost is an active area of research given the increasing complexity in the design of electromagnetic composite structures such as photonic crystals, metamaterials, optical interconnects, and on-chip routing. We show that electric and magnetic (EM) fields can be calculated using scalar Hermite interpolation polynomials as the numerical basis functions without having to invoke edge-based vector finite elements to suppress spurious solutions or to satisfy boundary conditions. This approach offers several fundamental advantages as evidenced through band structure solutions for periodic systems and through waveguide analysis. Compared with reciprocal space (plane wave expansion) methods for periodic systems, advantages are shown in computational costs, the ability to capture spatial complexity in the dielectric distributions, the demonstration of numerical convergence with scaling, and variational eigenfunctions free of numerical artifacts that arise from mixed-order real space basis sets or the inherent aberrations from transforming reciprocal space solutions of finite expansions. The photonic band structure of a simple crystal is used as a benchmark comparison and the ability to capture the effects of spatially complex dielectric distributions is treated using a complex pattern with highly irregular features that would stress spatial transform limits. This general method is applicable to a broad class of physical systems, e.g., to semiconducting lasers which require simultaneous modeling of transitions in quantum wells or dots together with EM cavity calculations, to modeling plasmonic structures in the presence of EM field emissions, and to on-chip propagation within monolithic integrated circuits.

  14. Do I stand out or blend in? Conspicuousness awareness and consistent behavioural differences in hermit crabs

    PubMed Central

    Briffa, Mark; Twyman, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Animals titrate their behaviour against the level of risk and an individual's conspicuousness should influence decisions such as when to flee and for how long to hide. Conspicuousness will vary with variation in substrate colour. Since hermit crabs frequently change the shells they occupy, shell colour will also influence conspicuousness and to be aware of their conspicuousness would require information on both of these factors to be integrated. Reduced boldness in high-contrast shell and substrate combinations compared with situations of low contrast indicates that hermit crabs are aware of current conspicuousness. Differences between individuals remained consistent across conspicuousness levels indicating the presence of animal personalities. PMID:20980296

  15. Scattering of a Hermite-Gaussian beam field by a chiral sphere.

    PubMed

    Yokota, M; He, S; Takenaka, T

    2001-07-01

    Scattering of a Hermite-Gaussian beam field by a chiral sphere is analyzed. A Hermite-Gaussian beam field is expressed as a superposition of multipole fields at complex-source points. Electromagnetic fields are expanded in terms of the spherical vector wave functions. The unknown expansion coefficients for the scattered field and the internal field are determined by the boundary conditions. As numerical examples, the scattered near fields of the beam incidence are calculated, and the effects of the chirality and the radius of the chiral sphere on the fields are examined. The results for a Gaussian beam incidence are also compared with those of a plane-wave incidence.

  16. Photochemical stability of CO2 in the Martian atmosphere - Reevaluation of the eddy diffusion coefficient and the role of water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimazaki, Tatsuo

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical models of CO2 photodissociation in the atmosphere of Mars are developed and analyzed, with a focus on the conditions prevailing during the Mariner 6/7 experiments. The aeronomy of Martian CO2 is reviewed; the atomic O distribution in the upper atmosphere is characterized; the construction of the basic model is described; and simulation results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The vertical eddy-diffusion coefficient corresponding to the estimated upper-atmosphere O density (1-2 percent at 135 km) is found to be about 5 x 10 to the 7th sq cm/sec, and HO(x) is found to play a significant role in catalyzing the recombination of CO and O to form CO2. The reasons why the model overpredicts the production of HO(x) and hence of CO2 are explored.

  17. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in bill size and shape of hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae): a role for ecological causation.

    PubMed

    Temeles, Ethan J; Miller, Jill S; Rifkin, Joanna L

    2010-04-12

    Unambiguous examples of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism are rare, and the best evidence involves sexual differences in trophic morphology. We show that moderate female-biased sexual dimorphism in bill curvature is the ancestral condition in hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae), and that it is greatly amplified in species such as Glaucis hirsutus and Phaethornis guy, where bills of females are 60 per cent more curved than bills of males. In contrast, bill curvature dimorphism is lost or reduced in a lineage of short-billed hermit species and in specialist Eutoxeres sicklebill hermits. In the hermits, males tend to be larger than females in the majority of species, although size dimorphism is typically small. Consistent with earlier studies of hummingbird feeding performance, both raw regressions of traits and phylogenetic independent contrasts supported the prediction that dimorphism in bill curvature of hermits is associated with longer bills. Some evidence indicates that differences between sexes of hermit hummingbirds are associated with differences in the use of food plants. We suggest that some hermit hummingbirds provide model organisms for studies of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism because their sexual dimorphism in bill curvature provides a diagnostic clue for the food plants that need to be monitored for studies of sexual differences in resource use.

  18. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in bill size and shape of hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae): a role for ecological causation

    PubMed Central

    Temeles, Ethan J.; Miller, Jill S.; Rifkin, Joanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Unambiguous examples of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism are rare, and the best evidence involves sexual differences in trophic morphology. We show that moderate female-biased sexual dimorphism in bill curvature is the ancestral condition in hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae), and that it is greatly amplified in species such as Glaucis hirsutus and Phaethornis guy, where bills of females are 60 per cent more curved than bills of males. In contrast, bill curvature dimorphism is lost or reduced in a lineage of short-billed hermit species and in specialist Eutoxeres sicklebill hermits. In the hermits, males tend to be larger than females in the majority of species, although size dimorphism is typically small. Consistent with earlier studies of hummingbird feeding performance, both raw regressions of traits and phylogenetic independent contrasts supported the prediction that dimorphism in bill curvature of hermits is associated with longer bills. Some evidence indicates that differences between sexes of hermit hummingbirds are associated with differences in the use of food plants. We suggest that some hermit hummingbirds provide model organisms for studies of ecological causation of sexual dimorphism because their sexual dimorphism in bill curvature provides a diagnostic clue for the food plants that need to be monitored for studies of sexual differences in resource use. PMID:20194168

  19. Kinematics of walking in the hermit crab, Pagurus pollicarus.

    PubMed

    Chapple, William

    2012-03-01

    Hermit crabs are decapod crustaceans that have adapted to life in gastropod shells. Among their adaptations are modifications to their thoracic appendages or pereopods. The 4th and 5th pairs are adapted for shell support; walking is performed with the 2nd and 3rd pereopods, with an alternation of diagonal pairs. During stance, the walking legs are rotated backwards in the pitch plane. Two patterns of walking were studied to compare them with walking patterns described for other decapods, a lateral gait, similar to that in many brachyurans, and a forward gait resembling macruran walking. Video sequences of free walking and restrained animals were used to obtain leg segment positions from which joint angles were calculated. Leading legs in a lateral walk generated a power stroke by flexion of MC and PD joints; CB angles often did not change during slow walks. Trailing legs exhibited extension of MC and PD with a slight levation of CB. The two joints, B/IM and CP, are aligned at 90° angles to CB, MC and PD, moving dorso-anteriorly during swing and ventro-posteriorly during stance. A forward step was more complex; during swing the leg was rotated forward (yaw) and vertically (pitch), due to the action of TC. At the beginning of stance, TC started to rotate posteriorly and laterally, CB was depressed, and MC flexed. As stance progressed and the leg was directed laterally, PD and MC extended, so that at the end of stance the dactyl tip was quite posterior. During walks of the animal out of its shell, the legs were extended more anterior-laterally and the animal often toppled over, indicating that during walking in a shell its weight stabilized the animal. An open chain kinematic model in which each segment was approximated as a rectangular solid, the dimensions of which were derived from measurements on animals, was developed to estimate the CM of the animal under different load conditions. CM was normally quite anterior; removal of the chelipeds shifted it caudally

  20. On some Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for (s, QC)-convex functions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Qi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the authors introduce a new notion "[Formula: see text]-convex function on the co-ordinates" and establish some Hermite-Hadamard type integral inequalities for [Formula: see text]-convex functions on the co-ordinates.

  1. On Generalized Continuous D Semi-Classical Hermite and Chebychev Orthogonal Polynomials of Class One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azatassou, E.; Hounkonnou, M. N.

    2002-10-01

    In this contribution, starting from the system of equations for recurrence coefficients generated by continuous D semi-classical Laguerre-Freud equations of class 1, we deduce the β constant recurrence relation coefficient γn leading to the generalized D semi-classical Hermite and Chebychev orthogonal polynomials of class 1. Various interesting cases are pointed out.

  2. [Hermit crabs (Anomura: Paguroidea) distribution patterns in the Colombian Caribbean Sea].

    PubMed

    Martínez Campos, Bibian; Hernando Campos, Néstor; Bermúdez Tobón, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Hermit crabs represent the marine life in the Colombian Caribbean, and are important for the dynamic equilibrium maintenance in ecosystems, the ecological interactions and their impact on food web stability. Generally, in order to come up with some conservation strategies, strong bio-geographical information is needed for poll cies definition. With this aim, this study analyzed the distribution patterns of hermit crabs in the Colombian Caribbean Sea. through classification and spatial ordination multivariate analyses, using historical records from years 1916 to 2006. Besides, the world distribution of Colombian species and their geographic affinity in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic were identified. The results show deep differences between coastal and continental slope faunas, and latitudinal differences in the assemblages, with the identification of three groups: Northeast. Center and Southwest. The differences in faunal composition that support these three groups were determined. Based on maps of the Colombian marine ecosystems, it was found that the main factors affecting the distribution of hermit crabs were the Caribaná slope (depth), water-mass temperature, Guajira sea-grass beds, and particular conditions of "Coralline Archipelagos" and "Darién" eco-regions. Colombian hermit crab fauna is more related to the North Atlantic and the Antilles, than to the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, geographical sub-provinces in which Colombia is included, these were found as transition zones among Northern and Austral subprovinces of the Greater Caribbean.

  3. A tutorial solution to scattering of radiation in a thin atmosphere bounded below by a diffusely reflecting, absorbing surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buglia, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    A simple tutorial method, based on a photon tracking procedure, is described to determine the spherical albedo for a thin atmosphere overlying a reflecting surface. This procedure is used to provide a physical structure with which to interpret the more detailed but highly mathematical analyses presented. The final equations are shown to be in good numerical agreement with more exact solutions for thin atmospheres.

  4. Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth's surface for cloudless atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, R.; Riordan, C.

    1984-12-01

    A new, simple model for calculating clear-sky direct and diffuse spectral irradiance on horizontal and tilted surfaces is presented. The model is based on previously reported simple algorithms and on comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer calculations and limited outdoor measurements. Equations for direct normal irradiance are outlined; and include: Raleigh scattering; aerosol scattering and absorption; water vapor absorption; and ozone and uniformly mixed gas absorption. Inputs to the model include solar zenith angle, collector tilt angle, atmospheric turbidity, amount of ozone and precipitable water vapor, surface pressure, and ground albedo. The model calculates terrestrial spectra from 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m with approximately 10 nm resolution. A major goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collector geometries using microcomputers. A listing of the computer program is provided.

  5. Some new results on electron transport in the atmosphere. [Monte Carlo calculation of penetration, diffusion, and slowing down of electron beams in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, M. J.; Seltzer, S. M.; Maeda, K.

    1972-01-01

    The penetration, diffusion and slowing down of electrons in a semi-infinite air medium has been studied by the Monte Carlo method. The results are applicable to the atmosphere at altitudes up to 300 km. Most of the results pertain to monoenergetic electron beams injected into the atmosphere at a height of 300 km, either vertically downwards or with a pitch-angle distribution isotropic over the downward hemisphere. Some results were also obtained for various initial pitch angles between 0 deg and 90 deg. Information has been generated concerning the following topics: (1) the backscattering of electrons from the atmosphere, expressed in terms of backscattering coefficients, angular distributions and energy spectra of reflected electrons, for incident energies T(o) between 2 keV and 2 MeV; (2) energy deposition by electrons as a function of the altitude, down to 80 km, for T(o) between 2 keV and 2 MeV; (3) the corresponding energy depostion by electron-produced bremsstrahlung, down to 30 km; (4) the evolution of the electron flux spectrum as function of the atmospheric depth, for T(o) between 2 keV and 20 keV. Energy deposition results are given for incident electron beams with exponential and power-exponential spectra.

  6. A three-dimensional finite element model of human atrial anatomy: New methods for cubic Hermite meshes with extraordinary vertices

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Matthew J.; Sturgeon, Gregory; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Hake, Johan; Jonas, René; Stark, Paul; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Zhang, Yongjie; Segars, W. Paul; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    High-order cubic Hermite finite elements have been valuable in modeling cardiac geometry, fiber orientations, biomechanics, and electrophysiology, but their use in solving three-dimensional problems has been limited to ventricular models with simple topologies. Here, we utilized a subdivision surface scheme and derived a generalization of the “local-to-global” derivative mapping scheme of cubic Hermite finite elements to construct bicubic and tricubic Hermite models of the human atria with extraordinary vertices from computed tomography images of a patient with atrial fibrillation. To an accuracy of 0.6 millimeters, we were able to capture the left atrial geometry with only 142 bicubic Hermite finite elements, and the right atrial geometry with only 90. The left and right atrial bicubic Hermite meshes were G1 continuous everywhere except in the one-neighborhood of extraordinary vertices, where the mean dot products of normals at adjacent elements were 0.928 and 0.925. We also constructed two biatrial tricubic Hermite models and defined fiber orientation fields in agreement with diagrammatic data from the literature using only 42 angle parameters. The meshes all have good quality metrics, uniform element sizes, and elements with aspect ratios near unity, and are shared with the public. These new methods will allow for more compact and efficient patient-specific models of human atrial and whole heart physiology. PMID:23602918

  7. Comparative brain architecture of the European shore crab Carcinus maenas (Brachyura) and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus (Anomura) with notes on other marine hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Jakob; Sombke, Andy; Seefluth, Florian; Kenning, Matthes; Hansson, Bill S; Harzsch, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus are members of the sister taxa Brachyura and Anomura (together forming the taxon Meiura) respectively. Both species share similar coastal marine habitats and thus are confronted with similar environmental conditions. This study sets out to explore variations of general brain architecture of species that live in seemingly similar habitats but belong to different major malacostracan taxa and to understand possible differences of sensory systems and related brain compartments. We examined the brains of Carcinus maenas, Pagurus bernhardus, and three other hermit crab species with immunohistochemistry against tyrosinated tubulin, f-actin, synaptic proteins, RF-amides and allatostatin. Our comparison showed that their optic neuropils within the eyestalks display strong resemblance in gross morphology as well as in detailed organization, suggesting a rather similar potential of processing visual input. Besides the well-developed visual system, the olfactory neuropils are distinct components in the brain of both C. maenas and P. bernhardus as well as the other hermit crabs, suggesting that close integration of olfactory and visual information may be useful in turbid marine environments with low visibility, as is typical for many habitats such as, e.g., the Baltic and the North Sea. Comparing the shape of the olfactory glomeruli in the anomurans showed some variations, ranging from a wedge shape to an elongate morphology. Furthermore, the tritocerebrum and the organization of the second antennae associated with the tritocerebrum seem to differ markedly in C. maenas and P. bernhardus, indicating better mechanosensory abilities in the latter close to those of other Decapoda with long second antennae, such as Astacida, Homarida, or Achelata. This aspect may also represent an adaptation to the "hermit lifestyle" in which competition for shells is a major aspect of their life history. The shore

  8. Comparative brain architecture of the European shore crab Carcinus maenas (Brachyura) and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus (Anomura) with notes on other marine hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Jakob; Sombke, Andy; Seefluth, Florian; Kenning, Matthes; Hansson, Bill S; Harzsch, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus are members of the sister taxa Brachyura and Anomura (together forming the taxon Meiura) respectively. Both species share similar coastal marine habitats and thus are confronted with similar environmental conditions. This study sets out to explore variations of general brain architecture of species that live in seemingly similar habitats but belong to different major malacostracan taxa and to understand possible differences of sensory systems and related brain compartments. We examined the brains of Carcinus maenas, Pagurus bernhardus, and three other hermit crab species with immunohistochemistry against tyrosinated tubulin, f-actin, synaptic proteins, RF-amides and allatostatin. Our comparison showed that their optic neuropils within the eyestalks display strong resemblance in gross morphology as well as in detailed organization, suggesting a rather similar potential of processing visual input. Besides the well-developed visual system, the olfactory neuropils are distinct components in the brain of both C. maenas and P. bernhardus as well as the other hermit crabs, suggesting that close integration of olfactory and visual information may be useful in turbid marine environments with low visibility, as is typical for many habitats such as, e.g., the Baltic and the North Sea. Comparing the shape of the olfactory glomeruli in the anomurans showed some variations, ranging from a wedge shape to an elongate morphology. Furthermore, the tritocerebrum and the organization of the second antennae associated with the tritocerebrum seem to differ markedly in C. maenas and P. bernhardus, indicating better mechanosensory abilities in the latter close to those of other Decapoda with long second antennae, such as Astacida, Homarida, or Achelata. This aspect may also represent an adaptation to the "hermit lifestyle" in which competition for shells is a major aspect of their life history. The shore

  9. Dynamics of the atmospheric pressure diffuse dielectric barrier discharge between cylindrical electrodes in roll-to-roll PECVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostin, Sergey A.; Welzel, Stefan; Liu, Yaoge; van der Velden-Schuermans, Bernadette; Bouwstra, Jan B.; van de Sanden, Mauritius C. M.; de Vries, Hindrik W.

    2015-07-01

    The high current diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was operated in a bi-axial cylindrical electrode configuration using nitrogen, oxygen and argon gas flow with the addition of tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursor for silica-like film deposition. The behaviour of the transient plasma was visualized by means of fast imaging from two orthogonal directions. The formation and propagation (~3 × 104 m s-1) of lateral ionization waves with the transverse light emission structure similar to the low pressure glow discharge was observed at time scales below 1 µs. Despite plasma non-uniformity at nanosecond time scale the deposition process on the web-rolled polymer results in smooth well adherent films with good film uniformity and excellent gas diffusion barrier properties. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  10. Analysis of ion mobility and diffusion in atmospheric gaseous mixtures from Monte Carlo simulation and macroscopic laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhenni, M.; Yousfi, M.; Bekstein, A.; Eichwald, O.; Merbahi, N.

    2006-11-01

    The reduced mobility and diffusion coefficients of N_{2}^{+} and O- are calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation for the gas mixtures N2-H2O (50%, 50%) and O2-N2 (80%N2, 20%O2), respectively, from measured and calculated elastic and inelastic cross sections. These mobility and longitudinal diffusion coefficients have been compared with the standard Blanc's law and with the common mean energy (CME) procedure. Good agreement between these three calculation methods was found for the mobility and diffusion of N_{2}^{+} in the N2-H2O mixture at high reduced fields where inelastic processes are relatively uninfluential. However, a strong deviation between Blanc's law and both CME procedure and our Monte Carlo calculations for the reduced mobility and the diffusion coefficient of N_{2}^{+} in this gas mixture N2-H2O was observed at low reduced fields, because inelastic processes are significant. On the contrary, for the case of the N2-O2 mixture, where inelastic processes are small over the reduced electric field range 1-8000 Td, the three calculation methods led to similar results. The elastic collision cross sections used were determined from a semi-classical JWKB approximation by using a rigid core potential model for both symmetric N_{2}^{+}/N_{2} and asymmetric N_{2}^{+}/H_{2}O , O-/O2 and O-/N2 ion-neutral systems. Moreover, the inelastic cross sections were extended to low N_{2}^{+} energies from appropriate approximations. These cross section sets were validated from the good agreement between our Monte Carlo calculated N_{2}^{+} reduced mobilities in N2 and H2O, O- in O2 and N2 and either measured values for the systems N_{2}^{+}/N_{2} and O-/O2 or physical properties of the systems N_{2}^{+}/H_{2}O and O-/N2.

  11. The effect of atmospheric sulfate reductions on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis in the United States during 1995-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Washenfelder, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been shown to influence the global carbon sink by increasing the fraction of diffuse light, which increases photosynthesis over a greater fraction of the vegetated canopy. Between 1995 and 2013, U.S. SO2 emissions declined by over 70%, coinciding with observed AOD reductions of 3.0 ± 0.6% yr-1 over the eastern U.S. In the Community Earth System Model (CESM), these trends cause diffuse light to decrease regionally by almost 0.6% yr-1, leading to declines in gross primary production (GPP) of 0.07% yr-1. Integrated over the analysis period and domain, this represents 0.5 Pg C of omitted GPP. A separate upscaling calculation that used published relationships between GPP and diffuse light agreed with the CESM model results within 20%. The agreement between simulated and data-constrained upscaling results strongly suggests that anthropogenic sulfate trends have a small impact on carbon uptake in temperate forests due to scattered light.

  12. The impact of changes in parameterizations of surface drag and vertical diffusion on the large-scale circulation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Feiyu; Liu, Zhengyu; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Shaoqing; Jacob, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) are used to analyze the sensitivity of the large-scale circulation to changes in parameterizations of orographic surface drag and vertical diffusion. Many GCMs and NWP models use enhanced turbulent mixing in stable conditions to improve simulations, while CAM5 cuts off all turbulence at high stabilities and instead employs a strong orographic surface stress parameterization, known as turbulent mountain stress (TMS). TMS completely dominates the surface stress over land and reduces the near-surface wind speeds compared to simulations without TMS. It is found that TMS is generally beneficial for the large-scale circulation as it improves zonal wind speeds, Arctic sea level pressure and zonal anomalies of the 500-hPa stream function, compared to ERA-Interim. It also alleviates atmospheric blocking frequency biases in the Northern Hemisphere. Using a scheme that instead allows for a modest increase of turbulent diffusion at higher stabilities only in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) appears to in some aspects have a similar, although much smaller, beneficial effect as TMS. Enhanced mixing throughout the atmospheric column, however, degrades the CAM5 simulation. Evaluating the simulations in comparison with detailed measurements at two locations reveals that TMS is detrimental for the PBL at the flat grassland ARM Southern Great Plains site, giving too strong wind turning and too deep PBLs. At the Sodankylä forest site, the effect of TMS is smaller due to the larger local vegetation roughness. At both sites, all simulations substantially overestimate the boundary layer ageostrophic flow.

  13. On the representation of the diffracted field of Hermite-Gaussian modes in an alien basis and the young diffraction principle

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, V.N.; Strokovskii, G.A.

    1994-10-01

    An analytical form of expansion coefficients of a diffracted field for an arbitrary Hermite-Gaussian beam in an alien Hermite-Gaussian basis is obtained. A possible physical interpretation of the well-known Young phenomenological diffraction principle and experiments on diffraction of Hermite-Gaussian beams of the lowest types (n = 0 - 5) from half-plane are discussed. The case of nearly homogenous expansion corresponding to misalignment and mismatch of optical systems is also analyzed. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Evolution of sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Hormathiidae) symbiotic with hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Luciana C; Daly, Marymegan

    2010-09-01

    Sea anemones in genera Adamsia, Calliactis and Paracalliactis (family Hormathiidae) engage in a mutualistic symbiosis with hermit crabs in which the anemone gains substrate and food in exchange for defending the crab. Some of the sea anemones also expand the living space of the crab by producing a carcinoecium, a chitinous structure that overlies the initial gastropod shell in which the hermit crab lives. The symbiosis is initiated either by the crab, or by the anemone. Although behavioral and physiological aspects of this symbiosis have been studied, interpretations cannot be generalized without an evolutionary framework. After reconstructing relationships among members of Hormathiidae using DNA sequences, we find that the association has evolved at least twice: Adamsia nests within Calliactis in a single clade, and Paracalliactis belongs to a different clade within the family. The carcinoecium and complex behavioral and anatomical features associated with the symbiosis are interpreted as having evolved at least twice within Hormathiidae and seem to be phylogenetically labile. PMID:20457262

  15. Lattice Boltzmann method for bosons and fermions and the fourth-order Hermite polynomial expansion.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Ilha, Anderson; Doria, Mauro M; Pereira, R M; Aibe, Valter Yoshihiko

    2014-04-01

    The Boltzmann equation with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator is considered for the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac equilibrium distribution functions. We show that the expansion of the microscopic velocity in terms of Hermite polynomials must be carried to the fourth order to correctly describe the energy equation. The viscosity and thermal coefficients, previously obtained by Yang et al. [Shi and Yang, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 9389 (2008); Yang and Hung, Phys. Rev. E 79, 056708 (2009)] through the Uehling-Uhlenbeck approach, are also derived here. Thus the construction of a lattice Boltzmann method for the quantum fluid is possible provided that the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac equilibrium distribution functions are expanded to fourth order in the Hermite polynomials.

  16. A Mehler-Heine-type formula for Hermite-Sobolev orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño-García, Laura; Moreno-Balcázar, Juan J.

    2003-01-01

    We consider a Sobolev inner product such as (f,g)S=[integral operator]f(x)g(x) d[mu]0(x)+[lambda][integral operator]f'(x)g'(x) d[mu]1(x), [lambda]>0,with ([mu]0,[mu]1) being a symmetrically coherent pair of measures with unbounded support. Denote by Qn the orthogonal polynomials with respect to (1) and they are so-called Hermite-Sobolev orthogonal polynomials. We give a Mehler-Heine-type formula for Qn when [mu]1 is the measure corresponding to Hermite weight on , that is, d[mu]1=e-x2 dx and as a consequence an asymptotic property of both the zeros and critical points of Qn is obtained, illustrated by numerical examples. Some remarks and numerical experiments are carried out for d[mu]0=e-x2 dx. An upper bound for Qn on is also provided in both cases.

  17. PARAMETER-FREE AUTOMATIC SOLAR ACTIVE REGION DETECTION BY HERMITE FUNCTION DECOMPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Brian J.

    2012-11-15

    We present a new method for the automated detection of sunspots and active regions (ARs) from full-disk observations of the photospheric Stokes vector. The algorithm relies on a Hermite function decomposition of observed Stokes polarization profiles as a function of position on the solar disk. This approach is unique in that it requires no user-defined tunable parameters, like intensity or magnetic field thresholds, and utilizes no information traditionally exploited by other detection schemes to signal the presence of an AR. It is truly a black-box approach, utilizing a self-consistent statistical analysis of the Hermite coefficients. We present the method and show the results of its application to Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun Vector Spectromagnetograph full-disk observations. Detection efficiency is presented for a one-month time series of daily photospheric observations, and we derive a skill-score for the method during this time period.

  18. Lattice Boltzmann method for bosons and fermions and the fourth-order Hermite polynomial expansion.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Ilha, Anderson; Doria, Mauro M; Pereira, R M; Aibe, Valter Yoshihiko

    2014-04-01

    The Boltzmann equation with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator is considered for the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac equilibrium distribution functions. We show that the expansion of the microscopic velocity in terms of Hermite polynomials must be carried to the fourth order to correctly describe the energy equation. The viscosity and thermal coefficients, previously obtained by Yang et al. [Shi and Yang, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 9389 (2008); Yang and Hung, Phys. Rev. E 79, 056708 (2009)] through the Uehling-Uhlenbeck approach, are also derived here. Thus the construction of a lattice Boltzmann method for the quantum fluid is possible provided that the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac equilibrium distribution functions are expanded to fourth order in the Hermite polynomials. PMID:24827360

  19. Computation of solar wind parameters from the OGO-5 plasma spectrometer data using Hermite polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.

    1971-01-01

    The method used to calculate the velocity, temperature, and density of the solar wind plasma is presented from spectra obtained by attitude-stabilized plasma detectors on the earth satellite OGO 5. The method, which used expansions in terms of Hermite polynomials, is very inexpensive to implement on an electronic computer compared to the least-squares and other iterative methods often used for similar problems.

  20. Multigene Molecular Systematics Confirm Species Status of Morphologically Convergent Pagurus Hermit Crabs

    PubMed Central

    Matzen da Silva, Joana; dos Santos, Antonina; Cunha, Marina R.; Costa, Filipe O.; Creer, Simon; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In spite of contemporary morphological taxonomy appraisals, apparent high morphological similarity raises uncertainty about the species status of certain Pagurus hermit crabs. This is exemplified between two European species, Pagurus excavatus (Herbst, 1791) and Pagurus alatus (Fabricius 1775), whose species status is still difficult to resolve using morphological criteria alone. Methodology/Principal Findings To address such ambiguities, we used combinations of Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods to delineate species boundaries of P. alatus and P. excavatus and formulate an intermediate Pagurus phylogenetic hypothesis, based upon single and concatenated mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I [COI]) and nuclear (16S and 28s ribosomal RNA) gene partitions. The molecular data supported the species status of P. excavatus and P. alatus and also clearly resolved two divergent clades within hermit crabs from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Conclusions/Significance Despite the abundance and prominent ecological role of hermit crabs, Pagurus, in North East Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea ecosystems, many important aspects of their taxonomy, biology, systematics and evolution remain poorly explored. The topologies presented here should be regarded as hypotheses that can be incorporated into the robust and integrated understanding of the systematic relationships within and between species of the genus Pagurus inhabiting the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:22174780

  1. Hermite Functional Link Neural Network for Solving the Van der Pol-Duffing Oscillator Equation.

    PubMed

    Mall, Susmita; Chakraverty, S

    2016-08-01

    Hermite polynomial-based functional link artificial neural network (FLANN) is proposed here to solve the Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator equation. A single-layer hermite neural network (HeNN) model is used, where a hidden layer is replaced by expansion block of input pattern using Hermite orthogonal polynomials. A feedforward neural network model with the unsupervised error backpropagation principle is used for modifying the network parameters and minimizing the computed error function. The Van der Pol-Duffing and Duffing oscillator equations may not be solved exactly. Here, approximate solutions of these types of equations have been obtained by applying the HeNN model for the first time. Three mathematical example problems and two real-life application problems of Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator equation, extracting the features of early mechanical failure signal and weak signal detection problems, are solved using the proposed HeNN method. HeNN approximate solutions have been compared with results obtained by the well known Runge-Kutta method. Computed results are depicted in term of graphs. After training the HeNN model, we may use it as a black box to get numerical results at any arbitrary point in the domain. Thus, the proposed HeNN method is efficient. The results reveal that this method is reliable and can be applied to other nonlinear problems too. PMID:27348738

  2. Hermite Functional Link Neural Network for Solving the Van der Pol-Duffing Oscillator Equation.

    PubMed

    Mall, Susmita; Chakraverty, S

    2016-08-01

    Hermite polynomial-based functional link artificial neural network (FLANN) is proposed here to solve the Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator equation. A single-layer hermite neural network (HeNN) model is used, where a hidden layer is replaced by expansion block of input pattern using Hermite orthogonal polynomials. A feedforward neural network model with the unsupervised error backpropagation principle is used for modifying the network parameters and minimizing the computed error function. The Van der Pol-Duffing and Duffing oscillator equations may not be solved exactly. Here, approximate solutions of these types of equations have been obtained by applying the HeNN model for the first time. Three mathematical example problems and two real-life application problems of Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator equation, extracting the features of early mechanical failure signal and weak signal detection problems, are solved using the proposed HeNN method. HeNN approximate solutions have been compared with results obtained by the well known Runge-Kutta method. Computed results are depicted in term of graphs. After training the HeNN model, we may use it as a black box to get numerical results at any arbitrary point in the domain. Thus, the proposed HeNN method is efficient. The results reveal that this method is reliable and can be applied to other nonlinear problems too.

  3. High-order central Hermite WENO schemes: Dimension-by-dimension moment-based reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhanjing; Li, Fengyan; Qiu, Jianxian

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a class of high-order central finite volume schemes is proposed for solving one- and two-dimensional hyperbolic conservation laws. Formulated on staggered meshes, the methods involve Hermite WENO (HWENO) spatial reconstructions, and Lax-Wendroff type discretizations or the natural continuous extension of Runge-Kutta methods in time. Differently from the central Hermite WENO methods we developed previously in Tao et al. (2015) [34], the spatial reconstructions, a core ingredient of the methods, are based on the zeroth-order and the first-order moments of the solution, and are implemented through a dimension-by-dimension strategy when the spatial dimension is higher than one. This leads to much simpler implementation of the methods in higher dimension and better cost efficiency. Meanwhile, the proposed methods have the attractive features of the general central Hermite WENO methods such as being compact in reconstruction and requiring neither flux splitting nor numerical fluxes, while being accurate and essentially non-oscillatory. A collection of one- and two-dimensional numerical examples is presented to demonstrate high resolution and robustness of the methods in capturing smooth and non-smooth solutions.

  4. Texture analysis based on the Hermite transform for image classification and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estudillo-Romero, Alfonso; Escalante-Ramirez, Boris; Savage-Carmona, Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Texture analysis has become an important task in image processing because it is used as a preprocessing stage in different research areas including medical image analysis, industrial inspection, segmentation of remote sensed imaginary, multimedia indexing and retrieval. In order to extract visual texture features a texture image analysis technique is presented based on the Hermite transform. Psychovisual evidence suggests that the Gaussian derivatives fit the receptive field profiles of mammalian visual systems. The Hermite transform describes locally basic texture features in terms of Gaussian derivatives. Multiresolution combined with several analysis orders provides detection of patterns that characterizes every texture class. The analysis of the local maximum energy direction and steering of the transformation coefficients increase the method robustness against the texture orientation. This method presents an advantage over classical filter bank design because in the latter a fixed number of orientations for the analysis has to be selected. During the training stage, a subset of the Hermite analysis filters is chosen in order to improve the inter-class separability, reduce dimensionality of the feature vectors and computational cost during the classification stage. We exhaustively evaluated the correct classification rate of real randomly selected training and testing texture subsets using several kinds of common used texture features. A comparison between different distance measurements is also presented. Results of the unsupervised real texture segmentation using this approach and comparison with previous approaches showed the benefits of our proposal.

  5. Improved retrieval of direct and diffuse downwelling surface shortwave flux in cloudless atmosphere using dynamic estimates of aerosol content and type: application to the LSA-SAF project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceamanos, X.; Carrer, D.; Roujean, J.-L.

    2014-08-01

    Downwelling surface shortwave flux (DSSF) is a key parameter to addressing many climate, meteorological, and solar energy issues. Under clear sky conditions, DSSF is particularly sensitive to the variability both in time and space of the aerosol load and chemical composition. Hitherto, this dependence has not been properly addressed by the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF), which operationally disseminates instantaneous DSSF products over the continents since 2005 considering constant aerosol conditions. In the present study, an efficient method is proposed for DSSF retrieval that will overcome the limitations of the current LSA-SAF product. This method referred to as SIRAMix (Surface Incident Radiation estimation using Aerosol Mixtures) is based upon an accurate physical parameterization coupled with a radiative transfer-based look up table of aerosol properties. SIRAMix considers a tropospheric layer composed of several major aerosol species that are conveniently mixed to reproduce real aerosol conditions as best as possible. This feature of SIRAMix allows it to provide not only accurate estimates of global DSSF but also the direct and diffuse DSSF components, which are crucial radiative terms in many climatological applications. The implementation of SIRAMix is tested in the present article using atmospheric analyses from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). DSSF estimates provided by SIRAMix are compared against instantaneous DSSF measurements taken at several ground stations belonging to several radiation measurement networks. Results show an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 23.6, 59.1, and 44.9 W m-2 for global, direct, and diffuse DSSF, respectively. These scores decrease the average RMSE obtained for the current LSA-SAF product by 18.6%, which only provides global DSSF for the time being, and, to a lesser extent, for the state of the art in the matter of DSSF retrieval (RMSE decrease of 10

  6. Contribution of CO2 and H2S emitted to the atmosphere by plume and diffuse degassing from volcanoes: the Etna volcano case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys; Giammanco, Salvatore; Sortino, Francesco; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padrón, Eleazar; López, Manuela; Donovan, Amy; Mori, Toshiya; Notsu, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    Active subaerial volcanoes often discharge large amounts of CO2 and H2S to the atmosphere, not only during eruptions but also during periods of quiescence. These gases are discharged through focused (plumes, fumaroles, etc.) and diffuse emissions. Several studies have been carried out to estimate the global contribution of CO2 and H2S emitted to the atmosphere by subaerial volcanism, but additional volcanic degassing studies will help to improve the current estimates of both CO2 and H2S discharges. In October 2008, a wide-scale survey was carried out at Mt. Etna volcano, one the world's most actively degassing volcanoes on Earth, for the assessment of the total budget of volcanic/hydrothermal discharges of CO2 and H2S, both from plume and diffuse emissions. Surface CO2 and H2S effluxes were measured by means of the accumulation chamber method at 4075 sites, covering an area of about 972.5 km2. Concurrently, plume SO2 emission at Mt. Etna was remotely measured by a car-borne Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometry (DOAS) instrument. Crater emissions of H2O, CO2 and H2S were estimated by multiplying the plume SO2 emission times the H2O/SO2, CO2/SO2 and H2S/SO2 gas plume mass ratios measured in situ using a portable multisensor. The total output of diffuse CO2 emission from Mt. Etna was estimated to be 20,000 ± 400 t day-1 with 4520 t day-1 of deep-seated CO2. Diffuse H2S output was estimated to be 400 ± 20 kg day-1, covering an area of 9.1 km2 around the summit craters of the volcano. Diffuse H2S emission on the volcano flanks was either negligible or null, probably due to scrubbing of this gas before reaching the surface. During this study, the average crater SO2 emission rate was ~2100 t day-1. Based on measured SO2 emission rates, the estimated H2O, CO2 and H2S emission rates from Etna's crater degassing were 220,000 ± 100,000, 35,000 ± 16,000 and 510 ± 240 t day-1, respectively. These high values are explained in terms of intense volcanic activity at

  7. Hermit crabs and their symbionts: Reactions to artificially induced anoxia on a sublittoral sediment bottom

    PubMed Central

    Pretterebner, Katrin; Riedel, Bettina; Zuschin, Martin; Stachowitsch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hermit crabs play an important role in the Northern Adriatic Sea due to their abundance, wide range of symbionts, and function in structuring the benthic community. Small-scale (0.25 m2) hypoxia and anoxia were experimentally generated on a sublittoral soft bottom in 24 m depth in the Gulf of Trieste. This approach successfully simulates the seasonal low dissolved oxygen (DO) events here and enabled studying the behaviour and mortality of the hermit crab Paguristes eremita. The crabs exhibited a sequence of predictable stress responses and ultimately mortality, which was correlated with five oxygen thresholds. Among the crustaceans, which are a sensitive group to oxygen depletion, P. eremita is relatively tolerant. Initially, at mild hypoxia (2.0 to 1.0 ml l− 1 DO), hermit crabs showed avoidance by moving onto better oxygenated, elevated substrata. This was accompanied by a series of responses including decreased locomotory activity, increased body movements and extension from the shell. During a moribund phase at severe hypoxia (0.5 to 0.01 ml l− 1 DO), crabs were mostly immobile in overturned shells and body movements decreased. Anoxia triggered emergence from the shell, with a brief locomotion spurt of shell-less crabs. The activity pattern of normally day-active crabs was altered during hypoxia and anoxia. Atypical interspecific interactions occurred: the crab Pisidia longimana increasingly aggregated on hermit crab shells, and a hermit crab used the emerged infaunal sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus as an elevated substrate. Response patterns varied somewhat according to shell size or symbiont type (the sponge Suberites domuncula). Mortality occurred after extended anoxia (~ 1.5 d) and increased hydrogen sulphide levels (H2S ~ 128 μmol). The relative tolerance of crabs and certain symbionts (e.g. the sea anemone Calliactis parasitica) – as potential survivors and recolonizers of affected areas – may influence and promote community recovery

  8. Simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate in ambient atmosphere by carbon-coated annular diffusion denuder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, F.; Allegrini, I.; Di Filippo, P.; Pasella, D.

    A diffusion denuder for simultaneous collection of ambient nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), based on quantitative collection on an alkaline active carbon surface, has been developed. Nitrogen dioxide yields nitrite anion whereas PAN yields nitrate which are extracted after sampling with water and analysed by ion chromatography. Laboratory and field tests concerning sorption efficiency, effect of humidity and capacity were carried out. The pre-exponential and exponent for the first term of the Gormley-Kennedy equation applied to annular geometry were estimated. It was found that for PAN the agreement between the experimental and calculated values is quite good and compatible with a "perfect sink" behaviour of carbon, whereas, in the case of NO 2, the experimental collection efficiency is lower than theory but still suitable for ambient sampling. Nitrogen oxide and ozone do not interfere in the determination. SO 2, HONO and HNO 3 which could interfere can be removed by using two diffusion denuders placed in line before the carbon denuder: one coated with tetrachloromercurate (TCM), for the removal of SO 2 and HNO 3, and the second, coated with carbonate, for the removal of HONO. The detection limit for 24 h sampling is better than 0.05 and 0.06 ppb for NO 2 and PAN, respectively. The response for NO 2 was compared during a field campaign in Milan with the corresponding integrated response of a chemiluminescence analyser, while data for PAN were compared with the integrated response of a GC-ECD technique. The results obtained are reported and discussed.

  9. Atmospheric air diffuse array-needles dielectric barrier discharge excited by positive, negative, and bipolar nanosecond pulses in large electrode gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Yang, De-zheng; Wang, Wen-chun; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen; Jiang, Peng-chao; Zhang, Shuai

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, positive, negative, and bipolar nanosecond pulses are employed to generate stable and diffuse discharge plasma using array needles-plate electrode configuration at atmospheric pressure. A comparison study of discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma vibrational temperature and rotational temperatures in three pulsed polarity discharges is carried on under different discharge conditions. It is found that bipolar pulse is beneficial to the excitation of diffuse dielectric barrier discharge, which can generate a room temperature plasma with more homogeneous and higher discharge intensity compared with unipolar discharges. Under the condition of 6 mm electrode gap distance, 26 kV pulse peak voltage, and 150 Hz pulse repetition rate, the emission intensity of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg) of the bipolar pulsed discharge is 4 times higher than the unipolar discharge (both positive and negative), while the plasma gas temperature is kept at 300 K, which is about 10-20 K lower than the unipolar discharge plasma.

  10. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature on the soil profile methane distribution and diffusion in rice-wheat rotation system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Zhaozhi; Zhang, Man; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Xuhui; Pan, Genxing; Zou, Jianwen; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the impacts of climate change on soil profile concentrations and diffusion effluxes of methane in a rice-wheat annual rotation ecosystem in Southeastern China. We initiated a field experiment with four treatments: ambient conditions (CKs), CO2 concentration elevated to ~500 μmol/mol (FACE), temperature elevated by ca. 2°C (T) and combined elevation of CO2 concentration and temperature (FACE+T). A multilevel sampling probe was designed to collect the soil gas at four different depths, namely, 7 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Methane concentrations were higher during the rice season and decreased with depth, while lower during the wheat season and increased with depth. Compared to CK, mean methane concentration was increased by 42%, 57% and 71% under the FACE, FACE+T and T treatments, respectively, at the 7 cm depth during the rice season (p<0.05). Mean methane diffusion effluxes to the 7 cm depth were positive in the rice season and negative in the wheat season, resulting in the paddy field being a source and weak sink, respectively. Moreover, mean methane diffusion effluxes in the rice season were 0.94, 1.19 and 1.42 mg C/(m2·hr) in the FACE, FACE+T and T treatments, respectively, being clearly higher than that in the CK. The results indicated that elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature could significantly increase soil profile methane concentrations and their effluxes from a rice-wheat field annual rotation ecosystem (p<0.05).

  11. The back-diffusion effect of air on the discharge characteristics of atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency glow discharges using bare metal electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Ting; Liang, Tian-Ran; Wang, Hua-Bo; Li, He-Ping; Bao, Cheng-Yu

    2007-05-01

    Radio-frequency (RF), atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas using bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, deposition, surface treatment, disinfection, sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics, including the breakdown voltage and the discharge voltage for sustaining a stable and uniform α mode discharge of the RF APGD plasmas are presented. The experiments are conducted by placing the home-made planar-type plasma generator in ambient and in a vacuum chamber, respectively, with helium as the primary plasma-forming gas. When the discharge processes occur in ambient, particularly for the lower plasma-working gas flow rates, the experimental measurements show that it is the back-diffusion effect of air in atmosphere, instead of the flow rate of the gas, that results in the obvious decrease in the breakdown voltage with increasing plasma-working gas flow rate. Further studies on the discharge characteristics, e.g. the luminous structures, the concentrations and distributions of chemically active species in plasmas, with different plasma-working gases or gas mixtures need to be conducted in future work.

  12. Absolute OH density measurements by broadband UV absorption in diffuse atmospheric-pressure He-H2O RF glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Cunge, Gilles; Sadeghi, Nader

    2012-06-01

    The measurement of radical densities in atmospheric-pressure plasmas has gained increasing importance in recent years in view of their crucial role in many applications. In this paper we present absolute OH density measurements by broadband UV absorption in diffuse atmospheric-pressure RF glow discharges in mixtures of He and H2O. The use of a 310 nm light-emitting diode as a light source and a very high resolution spectrometer (2.6 pm resolution) made the estimation of the total OH density possible by simultaneously measuring the absorption rates of different spectrally resolved rotational lines of the OH(A-X) transition. For different RF powers and water concentrations, OH densities and gas temperatures ranging between 6 × 1019and 4 × 1020 m-3 and 345 and 410 K, respectively, were obtained. The gas temperature Tg was also measured by three different methods. Tg deduced from the rotational temperature of N2(C-B) emission, nitrogen being present as a trace impurity, provided the most reliable value. The rotational temperature Tr of the ground state OH(X) presented values with a maximum deviation of 25 K compared with Tg. To obtain the gas temperature from the emission intensities of OH(A-X) rotational lines, the recorded intensities of different lines must be corrected for the effect of self-absorption inside the plasma.

  13. Improved retrieval of direct and diffuse downwelling surface shortwave flux in cloudless atmosphere using dynamic estimates of aerosol content and type: application to the LSA-SAF project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceamanos, X.; Carrer, D.; Roujean, J.-L.

    2014-03-01

    Downwelling surface shortwave flux (DSSF) is a key parameter to address many climate, meteorological, and solar energy issues. Under clear sky conditions, DSSF is particularly sensitive to the variability both in time and space of the aerosol load and chemical composition. Hitherto, this dependence has not been properly addressed by the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF), which operationally disseminates instantaneous DSSF products over the continents since 2005 considering unchanging aerosol conditions. In the present study, an efficient method is proposed for DSSF retrieval that will overcome the limitations of the current LSA-SAF product. This method referred to as SIRAMix (Surface Incident Radiation estimation using Aerosol Mixtures) is based on an accurate physical parameterization that is coupled with a radiative transfer-based look up table of aerosol properties. SIRAMix considers an aerosol layer constituted of several major aerosol species that are conveniently mixed to match real aerosol conditions. This feature of SIRAMix allows it to provide not only accurate estimates of global DSSF but also the direct and diffuse DSSF components, which are crucial radiative terms in many climatological applications. The implementation of SIRAMix is tested in the present article using atmospheric inputs from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). DSSF estimates provided by SIRAMix are compared against instantaneous DSSF measurements taken at several ground stations belonging to several radiation measurement networks. Results show an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 23.6 W m-2, 59.1 W m-2, and 44.9 W m-2 for global, direct, and diffuse DSSF, respectively. These scores decrease the average RMSE obtained for the current LSA-SAF product by 18.6%, which only provides global DSSF for the time being, and, to a lesser extent, for the state of the art in matter of DSSF retrieval (RMSE decrease of 10.9%, 6.5%, and

  14. Characteristics of the motions, turbulence intensity, diffusivity, flux of momentum and sensible heat in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, S. K.; Lordi, N. J.

    1977-01-01

    Analyses of the meteorological rocket data obtained from an experiment conducted at 3-hour intervals at 8 western meridional rocket stations are presented. Large variations in the meridional wind contribute substantially to overall turbulence in the tropical stratosphere. The solar semidiurnal component of wind oscillations in the tropics was observed to be much higher than predicted by theory, often exceeding the magnitude of the diurnal amplitude throughout the stratosphere. The observed value of the solar diurnal amplitude in the stratosphere was in line with theoretical prediction. The solar terdiurnal amplitudes for temperature, meridional and zonal winds were non-negligible and must be considered in any harmonic analysis. Phase angle variation with height was rapid for all harmonics; however, there was general agreement between predicted and observed phase angles. Because of large changes in the mean winds in the mesosphere with season, harmonic determinations are difficult. There appear to be large zonal wind changes even within the same season as mentioned previously. Turbulence diffusivity in the upper stratosphere is greater near the equator than in the mid-latitudes.

  15. Scaling of olfactory antennae of the terrestrial hermit crabs Coenobita rugosus and Coenobita perlatus during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Bantay, Roxanne M.; Nguyen, Quang V.

    2014-01-01

    Although many lineages of terrestrial crustaceans have poor olfactory capabilities, crabs in the family Coenobitidae, including the terrestrial hermit crabs in the genus Coenobita, are able to locate food and water using olfactory antennae (antennules) to capture odors from the surrounding air. Terrestrial hermit crabs begin their lives as small marine larvae and must find a suitable place to undergo metamorphosis into a juvenile form, which initiates their transition to land. Juveniles increase in size by more than an order of magnitude to reach adult size. Since odor capture is a process heavily dependent on the size and speed of the antennules and physical properties of the fluid, both the transition from water to air and the large increase in size during ontogeny could impact odor capture. In this study, we examine two species of terrestrial hermit crabs, Coenobita perlatus H. Milne-Edwards and Coenobita rugosus H. Milne-Edwards, to determine how the antennule morphometrics and kinematics of flicking change in comparison to body size during ontogeny, and how this scaling relationship could impact odor capture by using a simple model of mass transport in flow. Many features of the antennules, including the chemosensory sensilla, scaled allometrically with carapace width and increased slower than expected by isometry, resulting in relatively larger antennules on juvenile animals. Flicking speed scaled as expected with isometry. Our mass-transport model showed that allometric scaling of antennule morphometrics and kinematics leads to thinner boundary layers of attached fluid around the antennule during flicking and higher odorant capture rates as compared to antennules which scaled isometrically. There were no significant differences in morphometric or kinematic measurements between the two species. PMID:25177536

  16. Behavioral Response of Hermit Crabs (Clibanarius digueti) to Dissolved Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 induced ocean acidification is currently changing the population dynamics of marine organisms. As a result of ocean acidification, marine organisms expend extra energy on modifying behaviors. The current rate of ocean acidification will deplete the marine food chain that much of the world relies on as their major food supply. The purpose of this study was to understand whether and how ocean acidification affects the behavior of hermit crabs Clibanarius digueti. We hypothesized that an increase in carbonic acid would modify grazing and individual movement, because an increase in acidification alters the normal chemical composition of the water and potentially the niche occupancy of C. digueti. A model tidal pool experiment consisting of two tanks (control and treatment) inhabited with seven living C. digueti was set up in the Ocean Biome of Biosphere-2. Each tank was also provided with uninhabited shells: two Turbo fluctuosa and four Cerithium sp. Gaseous CO2 was dissolved into a treatment tank and measured as dissolved CO2 by using a sodium hydroxide titration method. Additionally, water conditions were characterized for UV- light and temperature. Two trials were run in this experiment with tanks and treatments interchanged in each trial. We assessed whether increased CO2 affected hermit crab shell change rate. We found that shell changes only happened among C. digueti placed under increased CO2. The information from this analysis will allow us to assess whether ocean acidification affects basic behavior in hermit crabs, which could later affect population dynamics. Bringing together all of this information will allow us to measure the effects of climate change on the behavior of C.Digueti.

  17. Contractivity-preserving explicit Hermite-Obrechkoff ODE solver of order 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen-Ba, Truong; Desjardins, Steven J.; Sharp, Philip W.; Vaillancourt, Rémi

    2013-12-01

    A new optimal, explicit, Hermite-Obrechkoff method of order 13, denoted by HO(13), that is contractivity-preserving (CP) and has nonnegative coefficients is constructed for solving nonstiff first-order initial value problems. Based on the CP conditions, the new 9-derivative HO(13) has maximum order 13. The new method usually requires significantly fewer function evaluations and significantly less CPU time than the Taylor method of order 13 and the Runge-Kutta method DP(8,7)13M to achieve the same global error when solving standard -body problems.

  18. Multidimensional Hermite-Gaussian quadrature formulae and their application to nonlinear estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcreynolds, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified technique is proposed for calculating multidimensional Hermite-Gaussian quadratures that involves taking the square root of a matrix by the Cholesky algorithm rather than computation of the eigenvectors of the matrix. Ways of reducing the dimension, number, and order of the quadratures are set forth. If the function f(x) under the integral sign is not well approximated by a low-order algebraic expression, the order of the quadrature may be reduced by factoring f(x) into an expression that is nearly algebraic and one that is Gaussian.

  19. New families of superintegrable systems from Hermite and Laguerre exceptional orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Marquette, Ian; Quesne, Christiane

    2013-04-15

    In recent years, many exceptional orthogonal polynomials (EOP) were introduced and used to construct new families of 1D exactly solvable quantum potentials, some of which are shape invariant. In this paper, we construct from Hermite and Laguerre EOP and their related quantum systems new 2D superintegrable Hamiltonians with higher-order integrals of motion and the polynomial algebras generated by their integrals of motion. We obtain the finite-dimensional unitary representations of the polynomial algebras and the corresponding energy spectrum. We also point out a new type of degeneracies of the energy levels of these systems that is associated with holes in sequences of EOP.

  20. Diffraction integral and propagation of Hermite-Gaussian modes in a linear refractive index medium.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A A; Kotlyar, V V; Zaskanov, S G

    2014-05-01

    We derive a diffraction integral to describe the paraxial propagation of an optical beam in a graded index medium with the permittivity linearly varying with the transverse coordinate. This integral transformation is irreducible to the familiar ABCD transformation. The form of the integral transformation suggests that, unlike a straight path in a homogeneous space, any paraxial optical beam will travel on a parabola bent toward the denser medium. By way of illustration, an explicit expression for the complex amplitude of a Hermite-Gaussian beam in the linear index medium is derived.

  1. Propagators of isochronous an-harmonic oscillators and Mehler formula for the exceptional Hermite polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey M.

    2015-12-01

    It is shown that fundamental solutions Kσ(x , y ; t) = < x |e  - i Hσ t | y > of the non-stationary Schrödinger equation (Green functions, or propagators) for the rational extensions of the Harmonic oscillator Hσ =Hosc + ΔVσ are expressed in terms of elementary functions only. An algorithm to calculate explicitly Kσ for an arbitrary increasing sequence of positive integers σ is given, and compact expressions for K { 1 , 2 } and K { 2 , 3 } are presented. A generalization of Mehler's formula to the case of exceptional Hermite polynomials is given.

  2. Performance evaluation of the Hermite scheme on many-core accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasato, Naohito

    2016-02-01

    We are developing a software library to calculate gravitational interaction for the Hermite scheme on parallel computing systems supported by OpenCL API. Our library is partly compatible with a standard GRAPE-6A interface and is easily usable in existing N-body codes. Since our library is based on OpenCL standard API, our library is working on many parallel computing systems such as a multi-core CPU, a GPU, and a many-core architecture. We report the performance evaluation of our library on computing platforms from various vendors.

  3. Self-focusing of Hermite-Gaussian laser beam with relativistic nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Prerana

    2015-07-31

    This paper presents an investigation of self-focusing of Hermite-Gaussian laser beams in plasma considering relativistic nonlinearity. The differential equations for beam width parameters are obtained using the usual Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin and paraxial approximations. The nonlinearity in the dielectric constant is assumed to be aroused mainly due to the relativistic mass correction of electron. To highlight the nature of focusing, graphical results of the behavior of beam-width parameters with the dimensionless distance of propagation is presented. The numerical computation is completed by using Taylor series method. The present work is helpful to understand issues related to the beam propagation in laser plasma interaction experiments.

  4. Small-displacement measurements using high-order Hermite-Gauss modes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hengxin; Liu, Kui; Liu, Zunlong; Guo, Pengliang; Zhang, Junxiang; Gao, Jiangrui

    2014-03-24

    We present a scheme for small-displacement measurements using high-order Hermite-Gauss modes and balanced homodyne detection. We demonstrate its use with experimental results of displacement measurements using fundamental transverse mode TEM{sub 00} and first order transverse mode TEM{sub 10} as signal modes. The results show a factor of 1.41 improvement in measurement precision with the TEM{sub 10} mode compared with that with the TEM{sub 00} mode. This scheme has potential applications in precision metrology, atomic force microscopy, and optical imaging.

  5. Unified operator approach for deriving Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes.

    PubMed

    Enderlein, Jörg; Pampaloni, Francesco

    2004-08-01

    A unified operator approach is described for deriving Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams by using as a starting point a plane-wave-spectrum representation of the electromagnetic field. We show that by using the plane-wave representation of the fundamental Gaussian mode as a seed function, all higher-order beam modes can be derived by acting with differential operators on this fundamental solution. The approach presented can be easily generalized to nonparaxial situations and to include vector effects of the electromagnetic field.

  6. Unified operator approach for deriving Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderlein, Jörg; Pampaloni, Francesco

    2004-08-01

    A unified operator approach is described for deriving Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams by using as a starting point a plane-wave-spectrum representation of the electromagnetic field. We show that by using the plane-wave representation of the fundamental Gaussian mode as a seed function, all higher-order beam modes can be derived by acting with differential operators on this fundamental solution. The approach presented can be easily generalized to nonparaxial situations and to include vector effects of the electromagnetic field.

  7. Efficient generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams through kinoform phase elements.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel; Sánchez-de-la-Llave, David; Arrizón, Victor

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams employing phase elements whose transmittances coincide with the phase modulations of such beams. A scaled version of the desired field appears, distorted by marginal optical noise, at the element's Fourier domain. The motivation to perform this study is that, in the context of the proposed approach, the desired beams are generated with the maximum possible efficiency. A disadvantage of the method is the distortion of the desired beams by the influence of several nondesired beam modes generated by the phase elements. We evaluate such distortion employing the root mean square deviation as a figure of merit. PMID:26479622

  8. Identification of the different diffuse dielectric barrier discharges obtained between 50 kHz to 9 MHz in Ar/NH3 at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazinette, R.; Subileau, R.; Paillol, J.; Massines, F.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the different diffuse dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) obtained in the same electrode configuration and in the same gas for an excitation frequency ranging from 50 kHz to 9 MHz. The gas mixture was argon with 133 ppm of NH3. This Penning mixture is useful to obtain both low-frequency glow DBDs (GDBDs) and diffuse radio-frequency (RF) discharges. Electrical measurements and short exposure time photographs showed that whatever the frequency, a discharge free of micro-discharge was obtained. In the same configuration, the discharge was a GDBD up to 200 kHz. For frequencies higher than 250 kHz, the discharge behavior was that of a Townsend-like discharge associated with a maximum energy transfer close to the anode and a higher power (about twice that of the GDBD). The cathode fall formation was no longer observed during the discharge current increase because of ion trapping in the gas gap by the rapid electric field oscillations. In the same configuration, the alpha RF mode was observed from 1.3 MHz. Gamma secondary electron emission gave way to electron acceleration by the cathode sheath formation. Bulk ionization was important due to the high electron collision rate at atmospheric pressure. One consequence of the transition from low-frequency to high-frequency discharge was a significant increase in the power (factor ≈30), which reached 35 W cm-3, while the breakdown voltage decreased from 900 V to less than 200 V.

  9. An Experimental Field Dataset with Buoyant, Neutral, and Dense Gas Atmospheric Releases and Model Comparisons in Low-Wind Speed (Diffusion) Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica E. Wannberg, Gustavious Williams, Patrick Sawyer, and Richard Venedam

    2010-09-01

    Aunique field dataset from a series of low–wind speed experiments, modeling efforts using three commonly used models to replicate these releases, and statistical analysis of how well these models were able to predict the plume concentrations is presented. The experiment was designed to generate a dataset to describe the behavior of gaseous plumes under low-wind conditions and the ability of current, commonly used models to predict these movements. The dataset documents the release and transport of three gases: ammonia (buoyant), ethylene (neutral), and propylene (dense) in low–wind speed (diffusion) conditions. Release rates ranged from 1 to 20 kg h21. Ammonia and ethylene had five 5-min releases each to represent puff releases and five 20-min releases each to represent plume releases. Propylene had five 5-min puffs, six 20-min plumes, and a single 30-min plume. Thirty-two separate releases ranging from 6 to 47 min were conducted, of which only 30 releases generated useful data. The data collected included release rates, atmospheric concentrations to 100 m from the release point, and local meteorological conditions. The diagnostics included nine meteorological stations on 100-m centers and 36 photoionization detectors in a radial pattern. Three current stateof- the-practice models, Aerial locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA), Emergency Prediction Information code (EPIcode), and Second-Order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF), were used to try to duplicate the measured field results. Low wind speeds are difficult to model, and all of the models had difficulty replicating the field measurements. However, the work does show that these models, if used correctly, are conservative (overpredict concentrations) and can be used for safety and emergency planning.

  10. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes by respiration and diffusion in soils and its implications for the isotopic composition of atmospheric O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angert, Alon; Luz, Boaz; Yakir, Dan

    2001-12-01

    The 18O content of atmospheric O2 is an important tracer for past changes in the biosphere and has been used to estimate changes in the balance between terrestrial and marine productivity. Its quantitative use depends on knowledge of the isotopic fractionations associated with the various O2 production and consumption processes. Here we monitored oxygen concentration and δ18O of O2 in sandy and clayey soils to evaluate in situ 18O fractionation associated with soil respiration. In the clayey soil, O2 concentrations decreased as low as 1% at 150 cm depth, and δ18O values ranged from 0‰ to - 1.6‰ relative to atmospheric O2. In the sandy soil the O2 concentration was 20.38-20.53‰, and δ18O values were -0.06 ± 0.015‰ to 0.06 ± 0.015‰ relative to atmospheric O2. Using the observed [O2] and δ18O profiles and their change with time, together with a one-box analytical model and a five-box numerical model, a mean discrimination of 12 ± 1% was estimated for the two sites (including effects of concentration and temperature gradients). This low discrimination was consistent with that determined in closed-system soil incubation experiments (8.4-16.9‰). The current understanding of the composition of air O2 attributes the magnitude of the fractionation in soil respiration to biochemical mechanisms alone (about 18‰ and 25-30‰ in cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-resistant respiration, respectively). The low discrimination we report is significantly less than in dark respiration and is explained by diffusion limitation in soil aggregates and root tissues that results in low O2 concentration in the consumption site. Soil respiration is a major component of the global oxygen uptake, and the potential contribution of low discrimination, such as observed here, to the global Dole effect should be considered in global-scale studies.

  11. Daily activity of four tropical intertidal hermit crabs from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Turra, A; Denadai, M R

    2003-08-01

    This study describes the daily activity in a simulated high tide situation of four species of hermit crabs (Pagurus criniticornis, Clibanarius antillensis, C. sclopetarius, and C. vittatus) that coexist in an intertidal flat in southeastern Brazil. Observations were done in two-hour intervals during two subsequent days (48 h) in three replicate pools with thirty crabs each. Among species (between and within genera) there was an evident variation in activity patterns, of which three could be distinguished. The circadian activity patterns of C. antillensis and C. vittatus could be characterized as evening and nocturnal, with resting peaks during the morning and afternoon. The circadian activity pattern of C. sclopetarius was characterized by two marked peaks of inactivity, corresponding to dawn and evening, which could represent an intrinsic association with the semi-lunar tidal cycles of the study area. Pagurus criniticornis showed high activity not influenced by day/night conditions during the entire observed period. These activity pattern variations of the studied hermit crabs should be taken into account in designing further experiments. More precise and accurate interspecific behavioral comparisons among species could be achieved in nocturnal experiments, the high activity period of all species.

  12. Hermite-Gaussian beams with self-forming spiral phase distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchik, Alexander A.; Muzychenko, Yana B.

    2014-05-01

    Spiral laser beams is a family of laser beams that preserve the structural stability up to scale and rotate with the propagation. Properties of spiral beams are of practical interest for laser technology, medicine and biotechnology. Researchers use a spiral beams for movement and manipulation of microparticles. Spiral beams have a complicated phase distribution in cross section. This paper describes the results of analytical and computer simulation of Hermite-Gaussian beams with self-forming spiral phase distribution. In the simulation used a laser beam consisting of the sum of the two modes HG TEMnm and TEMn1m1. The coefficients n1, n, m1, m were varied. Additional phase depending from the coefficients n, m, m1, n1 imposed on the resulting beam. As a result, formed the Hermite Gaussian beam phase distribution which takes the form of a spiral in the process of distribution. For modeling was used VirtualLab 5.0 (manufacturer LightTrans GmbH).

  13. Transition from sea to land: olfactory function and constraints in the terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus.

    PubMed

    Krång, Anna-Sara; Knaden, Markus; Steck, Kathrin; Hansson, Bill S

    2012-09-01

    The ability to identify chemical cues in the environment is essential to most animals. Apart from marine larval stages, anomuran land hermit crabs (Coenobita) have evolved different degrees of terrestriality, and thus represent an excellent opportunity to investigate adaptations of the olfactory system needed for a successful transition from aquatic to terrestrial life. Although superb processing capacities of the central olfactory system have been indicated in Coenobita and their olfactory system evidently is functional on land, virtually nothing was known about what type of odourants are detected. Here, we used electroantennogram (EAG) recordings in Coenobita clypeatus and established the olfactory response spectrum. Interestingly, different chemical groups elicited EAG responses of opposite polarity, which also appeared for Coenobita compressus and the closely related marine hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus. Furthermore, in a two-choice bioassay with C. clypeatus, we found that water vapour was critical for natural and synthetic odourants to induce attraction or repulsion. Strikingly, also the physiological response was found much greater at higher humidity in C. clypeatus, whereas no such effect appeared in the terrestrial vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. In conclusion, our results reveal that the Coenobita olfactory system is restricted to a limited number of water-soluble odourants, and that high humidity is most critical for its function.

  14. Novel Gauss-Hermite integration based Bayesian inference on optimal wavelet parameters for bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Tsui, Kwok-Leung; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Rolling element bearings are commonly used in machines to provide support for rotating shafts. Bearing failures may cause unexpected machine breakdowns and increase economic cost. To prevent machine breakdowns and reduce unnecessary economic loss, bearing faults should be detected as early as possible. Because wavelet transform can be used to highlight impulses caused by localized bearing faults, wavelet transform has been widely investigated and proven to be one of the most effective and efficient methods for bearing fault diagnosis. In this paper, a new Gauss-Hermite integration based Bayesian inference method is proposed to estimate the posterior distribution of wavelet parameters. The innovations of this paper are illustrated as follows. Firstly, a non-linear state space model of wavelet parameters is constructed to describe the relationship between wavelet parameters and hypothetical measurements. Secondly, the joint posterior probability density function of wavelet parameters and hypothetical measurements is assumed to follow a joint Gaussian distribution so as to generate Gaussian perturbations for the state space model. Thirdly, Gauss-Hermite integration is introduced to analytically predict and update moments of the joint Gaussian distribution, from which optimal wavelet parameters are derived. At last, an optimal wavelet filtering is conducted to extract bearing fault features and thus identify localized bearing faults. Two instances are investigated to illustrate how the proposed method works. Two comparisons with the fast kurtogram are used to demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve better visual inspection performances than the fast kurtogram.

  15. Individual quality and personality: bolder males are less fecund in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus

    PubMed Central

    Bridger, Danielle; Bonner, Simon J.; Briffa, Mark

    2015-01-01

    One explanation for animal personality is that different behavioural types derive from different life-history strategies. Highly productive individuals, with high growth rates and high fecundity, are assumed to live life at a fast pace showing high levels of boldness and risk taking, compared with less productive individuals. Here, we investigate among-individual differences in mean boldness (the inverse of the latency to recover from a startling stimulus) and in the consistency of boldness, in male hermit crabs in relation to two aspects of life-history investment. We assessed aerobic scope by measuring the concentration of the respiratory pigment haemocyanin, and we assessed fecundity by measuring spermatophore size. First, we found that individuals investing in large spermatophores also had high concentrations of haemocyanin. Using doubly hierarchical-generalized linear models to analyse longitudinal data on startle responses, we show that hermit crabs vary both in their mean response durations and in the consistency of their behaviour. Individual consistency was unrelated to haemocyanin concentration or spermatophore size, but mean startle response duration increased with spermatophore size. Thus, counter to expectations, it was the most risk-averse individuals, rather than the boldest and most risk prone, that were the most productive. We suggest that similar patterns should be present in other species, if the most productive individuals avoid risky behaviour. PMID:25673676

  16. Transition from sea to land: olfactory function and constraints in the terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus

    PubMed Central

    Krång, Anna-Sara; Knaden, Markus; Steck, Kathrin; Hansson, Bill S.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to identify chemical cues in the environment is essential to most animals. Apart from marine larval stages, anomuran land hermit crabs (Coenobita) have evolved different degrees of terrestriality, and thus represent an excellent opportunity to investigate adaptations of the olfactory system needed for a successful transition from aquatic to terrestrial life. Although superb processing capacities of the central olfactory system have been indicated in Coenobita and their olfactory system evidently is functional on land, virtually nothing was known about what type of odourants are detected. Here, we used electroantennogram (EAG) recordings in Coenobita clypeatus and established the olfactory response spectrum. Interestingly, different chemical groups elicited EAG responses of opposite polarity, which also appeared for Coenobita compressus and the closely related marine hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus. Furthermore, in a two-choice bioassay with C. clypeatus, we found that water vapour was critical for natural and synthetic odourants to induce attraction or repulsion. Strikingly, also the physiological response was found much greater at higher humidity in C. clypeatus, whereas no such effect appeared in the terrestrial vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. In conclusion, our results reveal that the Coenobita olfactory system is restricted to a limited number of water-soluble odourants, and that high humidity is most critical for its function. PMID:22673356

  17. VOCALIZATIONS AND ASSOCIATED BEHAVIORS OF THE SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (APHANTOCHROA CIRRHOCHLORIS) AND THE RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (GLAUCIS HIRSUTUS).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adriana R J; Smulders, Tom V; Sameshima, Koichi; Mello, Claudio V; Jarvis, Erich D

    2006-10-01

    Vocal behavior in tropical hummingbirds is a new area of study. Here, we present findings on the vocalizations and associated behaviors of two species: Sombre Hummingbird (Aphantochroa cirrhochloris) and Rufous-breasted Hermit (Glaucis hirsutus). These are the only hummingbirds in which the brain areas activated by singing have been demonstrated. They are also among the basal species of their respective subfamilies, Trochilinae and Phaethornithinae and, thus, represent early stages in the evolution of hummingbird vocal communication. We found that the two species exhibit distinctive vocalizations and behaviors. Sombre Hummingbird calls had more modulation and were often used during agonistic interactions, whereas Rufous-breasted Hermit calls had higher pitch and purer tones and were produced in less aggressive interactions. Sombre Hummingbird song was highly stereotyped in syllable structure and syntax, whereas Rufous-breasted Hermit song was highly variable. Comparative analysis points to consistent similarities in use of vocalizations by the Sombre Hummingbird and other trochilines, and by the Rufous-breasted Hermit and other phaethornithines. We hypothesize that differences in vocal behavior between hummingbird lineages arise as adaptations to their foraging strategies.

  18. VOCALIZATIONS AND ASSOCIATED BEHAVIORS OF THE SOMBRE HUMMINGBIRD (APHANTOCHROA CIRRHOCHLORIS) AND THE RUFOUS-BREASTED HERMIT (GLAUCIS HIRSUTUS)

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Adriana R. J.; Smulders, Tom V.; Sameshima, Koichi; Mello, Claudio V.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2008-01-01

    Vocal behavior in tropical hummingbirds is a new area of study. Here, we present findings on the vocalizations and associated behaviors of two species: Sombre Hummingbird (Aphantochroa cirrhochloris) and Rufous-breasted Hermit (Glaucis hirsutus). These are the only hummingbirds in which the brain areas activated by singing have been demonstrated. They are also among the basal species of their respective subfamilies, Trochilinae and Phaethornithinae and, thus, represent early stages in the evolution of hummingbird vocal communication. We found that the two species exhibit distinctive vocalizations and behaviors. Sombre Hummingbird calls had more modulation and were often used during agonistic interactions, whereas Rufous-breasted Hermit calls had higher pitch and purer tones and were produced in less aggressive interactions. Sombre Hummingbird song was highly stereotyped in syllable structure and syntax, whereas Rufous-breasted Hermit song was highly variable. Comparative analysis points to consistent similarities in use of vocalizations by the Sombre Hummingbird and other trochilines, and by the Rufous-breasted Hermit and other phaethornithines. We hypothesize that differences in vocal behavior between hummingbird lineages arise as adaptations to their foraging strategies. PMID:18802498

  19. Higher order correlation beams in atmosphere under strong turbulence conditions.

    PubMed

    Avetisyan, H; Monken, C H

    2016-02-01

    Higher order correlation beams, that is, two-photon beams obtained from the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by Hermite-Gauss or Laguerre-Gauss beams of any order, can be used to encode information in many modes, opening the possibility of quantum communication with large alphabets. In this paper we calculate, analytically, the fourth-order correlation function for the Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss coherent and partially coherent correlation beams propagating through a strong turbulent medium. We show that fourth-order correlation functions for correlation beams have, under certain conditions, expressions similar to those of intensities of classical beams and are degraded by turbulence in a similar way as the classical beams. Our results can be useful in establishing limits for the use of two-photon beams in quantum communications with larger alphabets under atmospheric turbulence.

  20. Quantum dynamics of electronic transitions with Gauss-Hermite wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Raffaele; Peluso, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    A new methodology based on the superposition of time-dependent Gauss-Hermite wave packets is developed to describe the wave function of a system in which several interacting electronic states are coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. The equations of motion for the wave function parameters are obtained by employing the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. The methodology is applied to study the quantum dynamical behaviour of model systems with two interacting electronic states characterized by a relatively large reorganization energy and a range of energy biases. The favourable scaling properties make it a promising tool for the study of the dynamics of chemico-physical processes in molecular systems.

  1. Entanglement of photons with complex spatial structure in Hermite-Laguerre-Gaussian modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jie; Ming, Yang; Chen, Zhao-xian; Hu, Wei; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2016-07-01

    Photons with complicated spatial mode structures can be applied for different quantum information tasks. Here, we show the entanglement of photons with complex singularity patterns called Hermite-Laguerre-Gaussian (HLG) modes. Measuring one photon of the entangled pairs by HLG mode basis to define its singularity pattern, we can steer the singularity structure of its partner, while the initial singularity structure of the photons is undefined. We also calculate the HLG specific quantum-correlation function. It can be used to extend the quantum key distribution protocols and to tune experiments dealing with high-order transverse modes. In addition we discuss orbital angular momentum properties of the HLG modes and summarize some features of the singularity pattern of the HLG modes with varying angle parameter.

  2. Scattering of an anisotropic sphere by an arbitrarily incident Hermite-Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Tan; Wu, Zhensen; Shang, Qingchao; Li, Zhengjun; Bai, Lu; Li, Haiying

    2016-02-01

    An analytic theory for the scattering of an off-axis Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam obliquely incident on an anisotropic sphere is developed. Based on the complex-source-point method and coordinate rotation theory, a general expansion expression for an arbitrarily incident HG beam in terms of Spherical Vector Wave Functions (SVWFs) is derived, and its convergence is numerically discussed. By introducing the Fourier transformation, the internal field expressions of the anisotropic sphere are represented. With the continuous tangential boundary conditions applied, the unknown scattering coefficients are solved. The theory and code are verified from the comparisons between the degenerated cases using our theory and those in the references. Two eigenmodes inside the uniaxial anisotropic sphere are characterized. The influences of beam mode, oblique incident angles, permittivity and permeability tensors, and sphere radius on the scattered field are analyzed numerically. The scattering intensity distributions on uniaxial anisotropic sphere in xoz and yoz plane are enantiomorphous for on-axis oblique illumination.

  3. Quantum dynamics of electronic transitions with Gauss-Hermite wave packets.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Raffaele; Peluso, Andrea

    2016-03-21

    A new methodology based on the superposition of time-dependent Gauss-Hermite wave packets is developed to describe the wave function of a system in which several interacting electronic states are coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. The equations of motion for the wave function parameters are obtained by employing the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. The methodology is applied to study the quantum dynamical behaviour of model systems with two interacting electronic states characterized by a relatively large reorganization energy and a range of energy biases. The favourable scaling properties make it a promising tool for the study of the dynamics of chemico-physical processes in molecular systems. PMID:27004857

  4. Semiclassical and quantum analysis of a free-particle Hermite wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange, P.

    2014-04-01

    In this Brief Report we discuss a solution of the free-particle Schrödinger equation in which the time and space dependence are not separable. The wave function is written as a product of exponential terms, Hermite polynomials, and a phase. The peaks in the wave function decelerate and then accelerate around t =0. We analyze this behavior within both a quantum and a semiclassical regime. We show that the acceleration does not represent true acceleration of the particle but can be related to the envelope function of the allowed classical paths. Comparison with other "accelerating" wave functions is also made. The analysis provides considerable insight into the meaning of the quantum wave function.

  5. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of entangled Hermite-Gauss modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingwen; Prabhakar, Shashi; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Roux, Filippus S.; Karimi, Ebrahim; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference is demonstrated experimentally for entangled photon pairs in the Hermite-Gauss (HG) basis. We use two Dove prisms in one of the paths of the photons to manipulate the entangled quantum state that enters the HOM interferometer. It is demonstrated that, when entangled photon pairs are in a symmetric Bell state in the Laguerre-Gauss (LG) basis, they will remain symmetric after decomposing them into the HG basis, thereby resulting in no coincidence events after the HOM interference. On the other hand, if the photon pairs are in an antisymmetric Bell state in the LG basis, then they will also be antisymmetric in the HG basis, thereby producing only coincidence events as a result of the HOM interference.

  6. Weak rappers rock more: hermit crabs assess their own agonistic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Elizabeth; Briffa, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Fighting animals use a variety of information sources to make strategic decisions. A neglected potential source of information is an individual's own performance during a fight. Surprisingly, this possibility has yet to be incorporated into the large body of theory concerning the evolution of aggressive behaviour. Here, by experimentally dampening the impact of their shell rapping behaviour, we test for the possibility that attacking hermit crabs monitor their own fight performance. Attackers with dampened raps did not show a reduction in the number of raps used. By contrast, they showed an increased frequency of a less intense agonistic behaviour, shell rocking. This change in behaviour, in attackers that are forced to rap weakly, indicates that they assess their own agonistic behaviour. PMID:26740563

  7. Analysis of repeated signals during shell fights in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus

    PubMed Central

    Briffa, M.; Elwood, R. W.; Dick, J. T. A.

    1998-01-01

    Shell exchanges between hermit crabs may occur after a period of shell rapping, when the initiating or attacking crab brings its shell rapidly and repeatedly into contact with the shell of the non-initiator or defender, in a series of bouts. There are two opposing models of hermit crab shell exchange and the function of shell rapping. The negotiation model views shell exchange as a mutualistic activity, in which the initiator supplies information about the quality of its shell via the fundamental frequency of the rapping sound. The aggression model views shell rapping as either detrimental to the defending crab, or as providing it with information about the initiator's ability or motivation to continue, or both. The negotiation model makes no predictions about the temporal pattern of rapping, but under the aggression model it would be expected that crabs that rapped more vigorously would be more likely to effect an exchange. Repeating the signal could be expected under either model. Crabs that achieve an exchange rap more vigorously, rapping is more persistent when a clear gain in shell quality may be achieved, and the vigour is greater when the relative resource-holding potential (or 'fighting ability') is high. These findings support the aggression model rather than the negotiation model. Contrary to the predictions of game theory, crabs that do not effect an exchange appear to signal that they are about to give up. The data suggest that rapping is performed repeatedly because the accumulation of all of the performances acts as a signal of stamina.

  8. Watermarked cardiac CT image segmentation using deformable models and the Hermite transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Coronel, Sandra L.; Moya-Albor, Ernesto; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris; Brieva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Medical image watermarking is an open area for research and is a solution for the protection of copyright and intellectual property. One of the main challenges of this problem is that the marked images should not differ perceptually from the original images allowing a correct diagnosis and authentication. Furthermore, we also aim at obtaining watermarked images with very little numerical distortion so that computer vision tasks such as segmentation of important anatomical structures do not be impaired or affected. We propose a preliminary watermarking application in cardiac CT images based on a perceptive approach that includes a brightness model to generate a perceptive mask and identify the image regions where the watermark detection becomes a difficult task for the human eye. We propose a normalization scheme of the image in order to improve robustness against geometric attacks. We follow a spread spectrum technique to insert an alphanumeric code, such as patient's information, within the watermark. The watermark scheme is based on the Hermite transform as a bio-inspired image representation model. In order to evaluate the numerical integrity of the image data after watermarking, we perform a segmentation task based on deformable models. The segmentation technique is based on a vector-value level sets method such that, given a curve in a specific image, and subject to some constraints, the curve can evolve in order to detect objects. In order to stimulate the curve evolution we introduce simultaneously some image features like the gray level and the steered Hermite coefficients as texture descriptors. Segmentation performance was assessed by means of the Dice index and the Hausdorff distance. We tested different mark sizes and different insertion schemes on images that were later segmented either automatic or manual by physicians.

  9. An algorithm for sleep apnea detection from single-lead ECG using Hermite basis functions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hemant; Sharma, K K

    2016-10-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for the detection of sleep apnea based on single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of the patient. In the proposed technique, each QRS complex of the ECG signal is approximated using a linear combination of the lower order Hermite basis functions. The coefficients of the Hermite expansion are then used to discriminate the apnea and normal segments along with three features based on R-R time series (mean of R-R intervals, the standard deviation of R-R intervals) and energy in the error of the QRS approximation. To perform classification between the apnea and normal segments, four different types of classifiers (K-nearest neighbor (KNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN), support vector machine (SVM), and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM)) are used in this work. In total, 70 ECG recordings from Apnea-ECG dataset are used in this study and the performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated based on the minute-by-minute (per-segment) classification, and per-recording (where the entire ECG recording of a subject is discriminated as the apnea or normal one) classification. By considering the events of apnea and hypopnea together, an accuracy of about 84% is achieved on the minute-by-minute basis classification using the LS-SVM classifier with the Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) kernel. On the other hand, an accuracy of about 97.14% is achieved for per-recording classification using the SVM, and LS-SVM classifiers. From the results, it is observed that the proposed methodology provides comparable accuracy with the methods existing in the literature at reduced computational cost due to the lesser number of features selected for the classification. PMID:27543782

  10. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  11. Atmospheric composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    The earth's atmosphere is made up of a number of gases in different relative amounts. Near sea level and up to about 90 km, the amount of these atmospheric gases in clean, relatively dry air is practically constant. Four of these gases, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, make up 99.99 percent by volume of the atmosphere. Two gases, ozone and water vapor, change in relative amounts, but the total amount of these two is very small compared to the amount of the other gases. The atmospheric composition shown in a table can be considered valid up to 90 km geometric altitude. Above 90 km, mainly because of molecular dissociation and diffusive separation, the composition changes.

  12. Hermite approximation of a hyperbolic Fokker-Planck optimality system to control a piecewise-deterministic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Masoumeh; Borzì, Alfio

    2016-07-01

    The Hermite spectral approximation of a hyperbolic Fokker-Planck (FP) optimality system arising in the control of an unbounded piecewise-deterministic process (PDP) is discussed. To control the probability density function (PDF) corresponding to the PDP process, an optimal control based on an FP strategy is considered. The resulting optimality system consists of a hyperbolic system with opposite-time orientation and an integral optimality condition equation. A Hermite spectral discretisation is investigated to approximate solutions to the optimality system in unbounded domains. It is proven that the proposed scheme satisfies the conservativity requirement of the PDFs. The spectral convergence rate of the discretisation scheme is proved and validated by numerical experiments.

  13. Hermite finite elements for high accuracy electromagnetic field calculations: A case study of homogeneous and inhomogeneous waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, C. R.; Li, Zehao; Ahheng, C. I.; Albrecht, J. D.; Ram-Mohan, L. R.

    2016-04-01

    Maxwell's vector field equations and their numerical solution represent significant challenges for physical domains with complex geometries. There are several limitations in the presently prevalent approaches to the calculation of field distributions in physical domains, in particular, with the vector finite elements. In order to quantify and resolve issues, we consider the modeling of the field equations for the prototypical examples of waveguides. We employ the finite element method with a new set of Hermite interpolation polynomials derived recently by us using group theoretic considerations. We show that (i) the approach presented here yields better accuracy by several orders of magnitude, with a smoother representation of fields than the vector finite elements for waveguide calculations. (ii) This method does not generate any spurious solutions that plague Lagrange finite elements, even though the C1 -continuous Hermite polynomials are also scalar in nature. (iii) We present solutions for propagating modes in inhomogeneous waveguides satisfying dispersion relations that can be derived directly, and investigate their behavior as the ratio of dielectric constants is varied both theoretically and numerically. Additional comparisons and advantages of the proposed method are detailed in this article. The Hermite interpolation polynomials are shown to provide a robust, accurate, and efficient means of solving Maxwell's equations in a variety of media, potentially offering a computationally inexpensive means of designing devices for optoelectronics and plasmonics of increasing complexity.

  14. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-01

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm3, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  15. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-15

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm{sup 3}, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  16. Parallel iterative solution of the Hermite Collocation equations on GPUs II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilanakis, N.; Mathioudakis, E.

    2014-03-01

    Hermite Collocation is a high order finite element method for Boundary Value Problems modelling applications in several fields of science and engineering. Application of this integration free numerical solver for the solution of linear BVPs results in a large and sparse general system of algebraic equations, suggesting the usage of an efficient iterative solver especially for realistic simulations. In part I of this work an efficient parallel algorithm of the Schur complement method coupled with Bi-Conjugate Gradient Stabilized (BiCGSTAB) iterative solver has been designed for multicore computing architectures with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). In the present work the proposed algorithm has been extended for high performance computing environments consisting of multiprocessor machines with multiple GPUs. Since this is a distributed GPU and shared CPU memory parallel architecture, a hybrid memory treatment is needed for the development of the parallel algorithm. The realization of the algorithm took place on a multiprocessor machine HP SL390 with Tesla M2070 GPUs using the OpenMP and OpenACC standards. Execution time measurements reveal the efficiency of the parallel implementation.

  17. Quantifying personality in the terrestrial hermit crab: different measures, different inferences.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Noelle M; Stahlman, W David; Blaisdell, Aaron P; Garlick, Dennis; Fast, Cynthia D; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2012-10-01

    There is much interest in studying animal personalities but considerable debate as to how to define and evaluate them. We assessed the utility of one proposed framework while studying personality in terrestrial hermit crabs (Coenobita clypeatus). We recorded the latency of individuals to emerge from their shells over multiple trials in four unique manipulations. We used the specific testing situations within these manipulations to define two temperament categories (shyness-boldness and exploration-avoidance). Our results identified individual behavioral consistency (i.e., personality) across repeated trials of the same situations, within both categories. Additionally, we found correlations between behaviors across contexts (traits) that suggested that the crabs had behavioral syndromes. While we found some correlations between behaviors that are supposed to measure the same temperament trait, these correlations were not inevitable. Furthermore, a principal component analysis (PCA) of our data revealed new relationships between behaviors and provided the foundation for an alternate interpretation: measured behaviors may be situation-specific, and may not reflect general personality traits at all. These results suggest that more attention must be placed on how we infer personalities from standardized methods, and that we must be careful to not force our data to fit our frameworks.

  18. Viriato: A Fourier-Hermite spectral code for strongly magnetized fluid-kinetic plasma dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, N. F.; Dorland, W.; Fazendeiro, L.; Kanekar, A.; Mallet, A.; Vilelas, M. S.; Zocco, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the algorithms and numerical methods used in Viriato, a novel fluid-kinetic code that solves two distinct sets of equations: (i) the Kinetic Reduced Electron Heating Model (KREHM) equations (Zocco and Schekochihin, 2011) (which reduce to the standard Reduced-MHD equations in the appropriate limit) and (ii) the kinetic reduced MHD (KRMHD) equations (Schekochihin et al., 2009). Two main applications of these equations are magnetized (Alfvénic) plasma turbulence and magnetic reconnection. Viriato uses operator splitting (Strang or Godunov) to separate the dynamics parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field (assumed strong). Along the magnetic field, Viriato allows for either a second-order accurate MacCormack method or, for higher accuracy, a spectral-like scheme composed of the combination of a total variation diminishing (TVD) third order Runge-Kutta method for the time derivative with a 7th order upwind scheme for the fluxes. Perpendicular to the field Viriato is pseudo-spectral, and the time integration is performed by means of an iterative predictor-corrector scheme. In addition, a distinctive feature of Viriato is its spectral representation of the parallel velocity-space dependence, achieved by means of a Hermite representation of the perturbed distribution function. A series of linear and nonlinear benchmarks and tests are presented, including a detailed analysis of 2D and 3D Orszag-Tang-type decaying turbulence, both in fluid and kinetic regimes.

  19. From one-dimensional fields to Vlasov equilibria: Theory and application of Hermite polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanson, Oliver; Neukirch, Thomas; Troscheit, Sascha; Wilson, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    We consider the theory and application of a solution method for the inverse problem in collisionless equilibria, namely that of calculating a Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium for a given macroscopic (fluid) equilibrium. Using Jeans' theorem, the equilibrium distribution functions are expressed as functions of the constants of motion, in the form of a Maxwellian multiplied by an unknown function of the canonical momenta. In this case it is possible to reduce the inverse problem to inverting Weierstrass transforms, which we achieve by using expansions over Hermite polynomials. A sufficient condition on the pressure tensor is found which guarantees the convergence and the boundedness of the candidate solution, when satisfied. This condition is obtained by elementary means, and it is clear how to put it into practice. We also argue that for a given pressure tensor for which our method applies, there always exists a positive distribution function solution for a sufficiently magnetised plasma. Illustrative examples of the use of this method with both force-free and non-force-free macroscopic equilibria are presented, including the full verification of a recently derived distribution function for the force-free Harris sheet (Allanson et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 22 (10), 2015, 102116). In the effort to model equilibria with lower values of the plasma β, solutions for the same macroscopic equilibrium in a new gauge are calculated, with numerical results presented for β_{pl}=0.05.

  20. Plastic proteans: reduced predictability in the face of predation risk in hermit crabs

    PubMed Central

    Briffa, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Variation in behaviour occurs at multiple levels, including between individuals (personality) and between situations (plasticity). Behaviour also varies within individuals, and intra-individual variation (IIV) in behaviour describes within-individual residual variance in behaviour that remains after the effects of obvious external and internal influences on behaviour have been accounted for. IIV thus describes how predictable an individual's behaviour is. Differences in predictability, between individuals and between situations, might be biologically significant. For example, behaving unpredictably under predation threat might reduce the chance of capture. Here, we investigated the duration of startle responses in hermit crabs, in the presence and absence of a predator cue. Individuals differed in startle response duration (personality) and while individuals also varied in their sensitivity to risk, mean response time was greater in the presence of a predator (plasticity). Moreover, IIV was greater in the presence of a predator, providing some of the first evidence that the facultative injection of unpredictability into behaviour might represent a strategy for dealing with risk. PMID:23985348

  1. Two-Dimensional Hermite Filters Simplify the Description of High-Order Statistics of Natural Images

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qin; Victor, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Natural image statistics play a crucial role in shaping biological visual systems, understanding their function and design principles, and designing effective computer-vision algorithms. High-order statistics are critical for conveying local features, but they are challenging to study – largely because their number and variety is large. Here, via the use of two-dimensional Hermite (TDH) functions, we identify a covert symmetry in high-order statistics of natural images that simplifies this task. This emerges from the structure of TDH functions, which are an orthogonal set of functions that are organized into a hierarchy of ranks. Specifically, we find that the shape (skewness and kurtosis) of the distribution of filter coefficients depends only on the projection of the function onto a 1-dimensional subspace specific to each rank. The characterization of natural image statistics provided by TDH filter coefficients reflects both their phase and amplitude structure, and we suggest an intuitive interpretation for the special subspace within each rank. PMID:27713838

  2. An active contour framework based on the Hermite transform for shape segmentation of cardiac MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba-J, Leiner; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2016-04-01

    Early detection of cardiac affections is fundamental to address a correct treatment that allows preserving the patient's life. Since heart disease is one of the main causes of death in most countries, analysis of cardiac images is of great value for cardiac assessment. Cardiac MR has become essential for heart evaluation. In this work we present a segmentation framework for shape analysis in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images. The method consists of an active contour model which is guided by the spectral coefficients obtained from the Hermite transform (HT) of the data. The HT is used as model to code image features of the analyzed images. Region and boundary based energies are coded using the zero and first order coefficients. An additional shape constraint based on an elliptical function is used for controlling the active contour deformations. The proposed framework is applied to the segmentation of the endocardial and epicardial boundaries of the left ventricle using MR images with short axis view. The segmentation is sequential for both regions: the endocardium is segmented followed by the epicardium. The algorithm is evaluated with several MR images at different phases of the cardiac cycle demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method. Several metrics are used for performance evaluation.

  3. Directly solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equations by Hermite WENO Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feng; Qiu, Jianxian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a class of new Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) schemes based on finite volume framework to directly solve the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. For HWENO reconstruction, both the cell average and the first moment of the solution are evolved, and for two dimensional case, HWENO reconstruction is based on a dimension-by-dimension strategy which is the first used in HWENO reconstruction. For spatial discretization, one of key points for directly solving HJ equation is the reconstruction of numerical fluxes. We follow the idea put forward by Cheng and Wang (2014) [3] to reconstruct the values of solution at Gauss-Lobatto quadrature points and numerical fluxes at the interfaces of cells, and for neither the convex nor concave Hamiltonian case, the monotone modification of numerical fluxes is added, which can guarantee the precision in the smooth region and converge to the entropy solution when derivative discontinuities come up. The third order TVD Runge-Kutta method is used for the time discretization. Extensive numerical experiments in one dimensional and two dimensional cases are performed to verify the efficiency of the methods.

  4. Viriato: a Fourier-Hermite spectral code for strongly magnetised fluid-kinetic plasma dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Nuno; Dorland, William; Fazendeiro, Luis; Kanekar, Anjor; Mallet, Alfred; Zocco, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    We report on the algorithms and numerical methods used in Viriato, a novel fluid-kinetic code that solves two distinct sets of equations: (i) the Kinetic Reduced Electron Heating Model equations [Zocco & Schekochihin, 2011] and (ii) the kinetic reduced MHD (KRMHD) equations [Schekochihin et al., 2009]. Two main applications of these equations are magnetised (Alfvnénic) plasma turbulence and magnetic reconnection. Viriato uses operator splitting to separate the dynamics parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field (assumed strong). Along the magnetic field, Viriato allows for either a second-order accurate MacCormack method or, for higher accuracy, a spectral-like scheme. Perpendicular to the field Viriato is pseudo-spectral, and the time integration is performed by means of an iterative predictor-corrector scheme. In addition, a distinctive feature of Viriato is its spectral representation of the parallel velocity-space dependence, achieved by means of a Hermite representation of the perturbed distribution function. A series of linear and nonlinear benchmarks and tests are presented, with focus on 3D decaying kinetic turbulence. Work partially supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia via Grants UID/FIS/50010/2013 and IF/00530/2013.

  5. Characterization of the occupied shells by the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Decapoda, Diogenidae) at Baixio Mirim tideflat, Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Sara R; Masunari, Setuko

    2010-12-01

    A characterization of the occupied shells by the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus was carried out. Hermit crabs were collected in the intertidal zone, during the low spring tide monthly from April 2005 to March 2006. They were sexed and their cephalothoracic shield length (CL) was measured. Shells were identified, dried, weighed and the aperture length (AL) and width (AW) were measured. 1187 crabs were collected (949 males, 216 females and 22 intersexes), which occupied 12 species of gastropod shells. Stramonita haemastoma, Olivancillaria urceus and Dorsanum moniliferum made up 96.55% of the total shell species. Male hermit crabs attained significantly larger sizes than females; therefore, males occupied a wider spectrum of shells in size and weight. A stronger correlation ratio was obtained between CL and AW of S. haemastoma. Last whorl with a rounded shape and a spacious inner area is a common feature of all shell species most frequently occupied by this hermit crab where it occurs. The successful establishment of C. vittatus at Baixio Mirim is mainly due to the appropriately shaped and wide range of size of S. haemastoma shells that were most often occupied by the hermit crabs of the studied population.

  6. Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodrum, A. W.

    1989-01-01

    GRAM series of four-dimensional atmospheric model validated by years of data. GRAM program, still available. More current are Gram 86, which includes atmospheric data from 1986 and runs on DEC VAX, and GRAM 88, which runs on IBM 3084. Program generates altitude profiles of atmospheric parameters along any simulated trajectory through atmosphere, and also useful for global circulation and diffusion studies.

  7. Notes on holotypes of hermit crabs (Decapoda: Anomura: Paguroidea) deposited in the collection of Zoological Museum of RAS (Saint-Petersburg, Russia) with remarks on hermit crab diversity along the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Marin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The holotype of Clibanarius sachalinicus Kobjakova, 1955 and Clibanarius hirsutimanus Kobjakova, 1971 in the collection of Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (Saint-Petersburg, Russia) are examined. As a result, Clibanarius hirsutimanus Kobjakova, 1971 is found to be a species of Areopaguristes nigroapiculus (Komai, 2009) while Clibanarius sachalinicus Kobjakova, 1955 is a species of Clibanarius virescens (Krauss, 1843). Remarks on a single record of Diogenes penicillatus Stimpson, 1858 from Shamora Bay (Usury Bay) of the Sea of Japan as well as current faunal list of hermit crabs from the Russian coasts of the Sea of Japan are also presented in the paper.

  8. Surface-sediment and hermit-crab contamination by butyltins in southeastern Atlantic estuaries after ban of TBT-based antifouling paints.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, B S; Santos, D M; Marchi, M R R; Zara, F J; Turra, A

    2014-05-01

    Butyltin (BT) contamination was evaluated in hermit crabs from 25 estuaries and in sediments from 13 of these estuaries along about 2,000 km of the Brazilian coast. BT contamination in hermit crabs ranged from 2.22 to 1,746 ng Sn g(-1) of DBT and 1.32 to 318 ng Sn g(-1) of TBT. In sediment samples, the concentration also varied widely, from 25 to 1,304 ng Sn g(-1) of MBT, from 7 to 158 ng Sn g(-1) of DBT, and from 8 to 565 ng Sn g(-1) of TBT. BTs are still being found in surface sediments and biota of the estuaries after the international and Brazilian bans, showing heterogeneous distribution among and within estuaries. Although hermit crabs were previously tested as an indicator of recent BT contamination, the results indicate the presence of contamination, probably from resuspension of BTs from deeper water of the estuary.

  9. Cumulative or sequential assessment during hermit crab shell fights: effects of oxygen on decision rules.

    PubMed Central

    Briffa, M; Elwood, R W

    2000-01-01

    Agonistic interactions between animals are often settled by the use of repeated signals which advertise the resource-holding potential of the sender. According to the sequential assessment game this repetition increases the accuracy with which receivers may assess the signal, but under the cumulative assessment model the repeated performances accumulate to give a signal of stamina. These models may be distinguished by the temporal pattern of signalling they predict and by the decision rules used by the contestants. Hermit crabs engage in shell fights over possession of the gastropod shells that they inhabit. During these interactions the two roles of signaller and receiver may be examined separately because they are fixed for the duration of the encounter. Attackers rap their shell against that of the defender in a series of bouts whereas defenders remain tightly withdrawn into their shells for the duration of the contest. At the end of a fight the attacker may evict the defender from its shell or decide to give up without first effecting an eviction; the decision for defenders is either to maintain a grip on its shell or to release the shell and allow itself to be evicted. We manipulated fatigue levels separately for attackers and defenders, by varying the oxygen concentration of the water that they are held in prior to fighting, and examined the effects that this has on the likelihood of each decision and on the temporal pattern of rapping. We show that the vigour of rapping and the likelihood of eviction are reduced when the attacker is subjected to low oxygen but that this treatment has no effect on rates of eviction when applied to defenders. We conclude that defenders compare the vigour of rapping with an absolute threshold rather than with a relative threshold when making their decision. The data are compatible with the cumulative assessment model and with the idea that shell rapping signals the stamina of attackers, but do not fit the predictions of the

  10. Contractivity-preserving explicit multistep Hermite-Obrechkoff series differential equation solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen-Ba, Truong; Giordano, Thierry; Vaillancourt, Rémi

    2016-04-01

    New optimal, contractivity-preserving (CP), explicit, d-derivative, k-step Hermite-Obrechkoff series methods of order p up to p=20, denoted by CP HO( d, k, p), with nonnegative coefficients are constructed. These methods are used to solve nonstiff first-order initial value problems y'=f(t,y), y(t_0)=y_0. The upper bound p_u of order p of HO( d, k, p) can reach, approximately, as high as 2.4 times the number of derivatives d. The stability regions of HO( d, k, p) have generally a good shape and grow with decreasing p-d. We, first, note that three selected CP HO methods: 4-derivative 7-step HO of order 13, denoted by HO(4, 7, 13), 5-derivative 6-step HO of order 13, denoted by HO(5, 6, 13), and 9-derivative 2-step HO of order 13, denoted by CMDAHO(13) compare favorably with Adams-Cowell of order 13, denoted by AC(13), in solving standard N-body problems over an interval of 1000 periods on the basis of the relative error of energy as a function of the CPU time. Next, the three HO methods compare positively with AC(13) in solving standard N-body problems on the basis of the growth of relative positional error and relative energy error over 10, 000 periods of integration. Finally, these three methods compare also well with P-stable methods of Cash and Franco et al. on some quasi periodic, second-order linear and nonlinear problems. The coefficients of selected HO methods are listed in the appendix.

  11. AN APPLICATION OF THE WIENER HERMITE EXPANSION TO THE NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF DARK MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, N. S.; Futamase, T.

    2012-12-01

    We apply the Wiener Hermite (WH) expansion to the nonlinear evolution of the large-scale structure and obtain an approximate expression for the matter power spectrum in the full order of the expansion. This method allows us to expand any random function in terms of an orthonormal basis in the space of random functions in such a way that the first order of the expansion expresses the Gaussian distribution, and others are the deviations from Gaussianity. It is proved that the WH expansion is mathematically equivalent to the {Gamma}-expansion approach in the renormalized perturbation theory (RPT). While exponential behavior in the high-k limit has been proved for the mass density and velocity fluctuations of dark matter in the RPT, we prove the behavior again in the context of the WH expansion using the result of the standard perturbation theory (SPT). We propose a new approximate expression for the matter power spectrum which interpolates the low-k expression corresponding to the 1-loop level in SPT and the high-k expression obtained by taking a high-k limit of the WH expansion. The validity of our prescription is specifically verified by comparing with the 2-loop solutions of the SPT. The proposed power spectrum agrees with the result of the N-body simulation with accuracy better than 1% or 2% in a range of baryon acoustic oscillation scales, where the wave number is about k = 0.2-0.4 h Mpc{sup -1} at z = 0.5-3.0. This accuracy is comparable to or slightly less than the ones in the closure theory, the fractional difference of which from the N-body result is within 1%. One merit of our method is that the computational time is very short because only single and double integrals are involved in our solution.

  12. Cylindrical particle manipulation and negative spinning using a nonparaxial Hermite-Gaussian light-sheet beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2016-10-01

    Based on the angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM), a nonparaxial solution for the Hermite-Gaussian (HG m ) light-sheet beam of any order m is derived. The beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) are expressed in a compact form and computed using the standard Simpson’s rule for numerical integration. Subsequently, the analysis is extended to evaluate the longitudinal and transverse radiation forces as well as the spin torque on an absorptive dielectric cylindrical particle in 2D without any restriction to a specific range of frequencies. The dynamics of the cylindrical particle are also examined based on Newton’s second law of motion. The numerical results show that a Rayleigh or Mie cylindrical particle can be trapped, pulled or propelled in the optical field depending on its initial position in the cross-sectional plane of the HG m light-sheet. Moreover, negative or positive axial spin torques can arise depending on the choice of the non-dimensional size parameter ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the radius of the cylinder) and the location of the absorptive cylinder in the beam. This means that the HG m light-sheet beam can induce clockwise or anti-clockwise rotations depending on its shift from the center of the cylinder. In addition, individual vortex behavior can arise in the cross-sectional plane of wave propagation. The present analysis presents an analytical model to predict the optical radiation forces and torque induced by a HG m light-sheet beam on an absorptive cylinder for applications in optical light-sheet tweezers, optical micro-machines, particle manipulation and opto-fluidics to name a few areas of research.

  13. Bayesian wavelet-based image denoising using the Gauss-Hermite expansion.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S M Mahbubur; Ahmad, M Omair; Swamy, M N S

    2008-10-01

    The probability density functions (PDFs) of the wavelet coefficients play a key role in many wavelet-based image processing algorithms, such as denoising. The conventional PDFs usually have a limited number of parameters that are calculated from the first few moments only. Consequently, such PDFs cannot be made to fit very well with the empirical PDF of the wavelet coefficients of an image. As a result, the shrinkage function utilizing any of these density functions provides a substandard denoising performance. In order for the probabilistic model of the image wavelet coefficients to be able to incorporate an appropriate number of parameters that are dependent on the higher order moments, a PDF using a series expansion in terms of the Hermite polynomials that are orthogonal with respect to the standard Gaussian weight function, is introduced. A modification in the series function is introduced so that only a finite number of terms can be used to model the image wavelet coefficients, ensuring at the same time the resulting PDF to be non-negative. It is shown that the proposed PDF matches the empirical one better than some of the standard ones, such as the generalized Gaussian or Bessel K-form PDF. A Bayesian image denoising technique is then proposed, wherein the new PDF is exploited to statistically model the subband as well as the local neighboring image wavelet coefficients. Experimental results on several test images demonstrate that the proposed denoising method, both in the subband-adaptive and locally adaptive conditions, provides a performance better than that of most of the methods that use PDFs with limited number of parameters.

  14. The mobile hermit and the city: considering links between places, objects, and identities in social psychological research on homelessness.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Darrin J; Stolte, Ottilie; Chamberlain, Kerry; Radley, Alan; Groot, Shiloh; Nikora, Linda Waimarie

    2010-06-01

    This article explores aspects of a homeless man's everyday life and his use of material objects to maintain a sense of place in the city. We are interested in the complex functions of walking, listening and reading as social practices central to how this man forges a life as a mobile hermit across physical and imagined locales. This highlights connections between physical place, use of material objects, imagination, and sense of self. Our analysis illustrates the value of paying attention to geographical locations and objects in social psychological research on homelessness. PMID:19531282

  15. Convective instability when the temperature gradient and rotation vector are oblique to gravity. II - Real fluids with effects of diffusion. [in Jupiter and Saturn atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, D. H.; Toomre, J.; Gilman, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    The linear stability analysis of Hathaway et al. (1979) is repeated for Boussinesq fluids with viscous and thermal diffusion. The fluid is confined between plane parallel boundaries and the rotation vector is oblique to gravity; this tilted rotation vector introduces a preference for roll-like disturbances whose axes are oriented north-south. The presence of a latitudinal temperature gradient produces a thermal wind shear which favors axisymmetric convective rolls if the gradient exceeds some critical value. The axisymmetric rolls are similar in many respects to the cloud bands on Jupiter provided they extend to a depth of about 15,000 km.

  16. Using quantum filters to process images of diffuse axonal injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Osorio, Mateo

    2014-06-01

    Some images corresponding to a diffuse axonal injury (DAI) are processed using several quantum filters such as Hermite Weibull and Morse. Diffuse axonal injury is a particular, common and severe case of traumatic brain injury (TBI). DAI involves global damage on microscopic scale of brain tissue and causes serious neurologic abnormalities. New imaging techniques provide excellent images showing cellular damages related to DAI. Said images can be processed with quantum filters, which accomplish high resolutions of dendritic and axonal structures both in normal and pathological state. Using the Laplacian operators from the new quantum filters, excellent edge detectors for neurofiber resolution are obtained. Image quantum processing of DAI images is made using computer algebra, specifically Maple. Quantum filter plugins construction is proposed as a future research line, which can incorporated to the ImageJ software package, making its use simpler for medical personnel.

  17. An operator splitting algorithm for the three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Liaqat Ali; Liu, Philip L.-F.

    1998-09-01

    Operator splitting algorithms are frequently used for solving the advection-diffusion equation, especially to deal with advection dominated transport problems. In this paper an operator splitting algorithm for the three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation is presented. The algorithm represents a second-order-accurate adaptation of the Holly and Preissmann scheme for three-dimensional problems. The governing equation is split into an advection equation and a diffusion equation, and they are solved by a backward method of characteristics and a finite element method, respectively. The Hermite interpolation function is used for interpolation of concentration in the advection step. The spatial gradients of concentration in the Hermite interpolation are obtained by solving equations for concentration gradients in the advection step. To make the composite algorithm efficient, only three equations for first-order concentration derivatives are solved in the diffusion step of computation. The higher-order spatial concentration gradients, necessary to advance the solution in a computational cycle, are obtained by numerical differentiations based on the available information. The simulation characteristics and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by several advection dominated transport problems.

  18. Biogeography and diversification of hermit spiders on Indian Ocean islands (Nephilidae: Nephilengys).

    PubMed

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2011-05-01

    The origin of the terrestrial biota of Madagascar and, especially, the smaller island chains of the western Indian Ocean is relatively poorly understood. Madagascar represents a mixture of Gondwanan vicariant lineages and more recent colonizers arriving via Cenozoic dispersal, mostly from Africa. Dispersal must explain the biota of the smaller islands such as the Comoros and the chain of Mascarene islands, but relatively few studies have pinpointed the source of colonizers, which may include mainland Africa, Asia, Australasia, and Madagascar. The pantropical hermit spiders (genus Nephilengys) seem to have colonized the Indian Ocean island arc stretching from Comoros through Madagascar and onto Mascarenes, and thus offer one opportunity to reveal biogeographical patterns in the Indian Ocean. We test alternative hypotheses on the colonization route of Nephilengys spiders in the Indian Ocean and simultaneously test the current taxonomical hypothesis using genetic and morphological data. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS2) markers to examine Nephilengys phylogenetic structure with samples from Africa, southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean islands of Madagascar, Mayotte, Réunion and Mauritius. We used Bayesian and parsimony methods to reconstruct phylogenies and haplotype networks, and calculated genetic distances and fixation indices. Our results suggest an African origin of Madagascar Nephilengys via Cenozoic dispersal, and subsequent colonization of the Mascarene islands from Madagascar. We find strong evidence of gene flow across Madagascar and through the neighboring islands north of it, while phylogenetic trees, haplotype networks, and fixation indices all reveal genetically isolated and divergent lineages on Mauritius and Réunion, consistent with female color morphs. These results, and the discovery of the first males from Réunion and Mauritius, in turn falsify the existing taxonomic hypothesis of a single widespread species, Nephilengys borbonica

  19. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  1. Differential tolerance of body fluid dilution in two species of tropical hermit crabs: not due to osmotic/ionic regulation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Stephen G; Coates, Mike

    2004-02-01

    The tropical intertidal hermit crabs Clibanarius taeniatus and Clibanarius virescens were examined for differences in survival and physiological responses in low salinity. We found that C. taeniatus survived better in dilute seawater than C. virescens and that these species did not differ in their abilities to regulate haemolymph osmolarity, ionic concentration of the haemolymph or body fluid volume. We also found no difference in oxygen consumption between the species when acutely exposed to a range of temperature and salinity combinations. It is concluded that the greater survival in dilute seawater by C. taeniatus compared to C. virescens is due to a greater tolerance of dilution of body fluids by C. taeniatus. Differences in tolerance to dilute seawater may influence the habitat preferences of these species within the same geographical area.

  2. Non-linear creep modeling of short-fiber composites using Hermite polynomials, hyperbolic trigonometric functions and power series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondali, Mehdi; Monfared, Vahid; Abedian, Ali

    2013-07-01

    A novel analytical model is presented for analyzing the steady-state creep in short-fiber composites under axial load utilizing the previous shear-lag theory, the imaginary fiber technique and also new approaches of Hermite polynomials, hyperbolic trigonometric functions and power series. The steady-state creep behavior of the matrix is described by an exponential law, while the fibers behave elastically. In this model, in spite of the previous researches, some unknowns such as shear stress, displacement rates, and creep strain rates are correctly determined in all regions of the unit cell without using any further assumptions. In comparison with previous analytical approaches, the results of the present work are closer to the FEM simulations. This strong method can be used in various problems in applied physics and mechanics such as elastic and plastic analysis of nano-composites.

  3. Shape extraction in fetal ultrasound images using a Hermite-based filtering approach and a point distribution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Quintero, Lorena; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris; Camargo Marín, Lisbeth; Guzmán Huerta, Mario; Arámbula Cosio, Fernando; Borboa, Héctor

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a segmentation framework applied to fetal cardiac images. One of the main problems of the segmentation in ultrasound images is the speckle pattern that makes difficult to model images features such as edges and homogeneous regions. Our approach is based on two main processes. The first one aims at enhancing the ultrasound image using a noise reduction scheme. The Hermite transform is used for this purpose. In the second process a Point Distribution Model (PDM), previously trained, is used for the segmentation of the desired object. The filtering process is then employed before the segmentation stage with the aim of improving the results. The obtained result in the filtering process is used as a way to make more robust the segmentation stage. We evaluate the proposed method in the segmentation of the left ventricle of fetal ultrasound data. Different metrics are used to validate and compare the performance with other methods applied to fetal echocardiographic images.

  4. Narrowband interference mitigation in body surface to external communication in UWB body area networks using first-order Hermite pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Deepak Kumar; Das, Susmita

    2016-06-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) is the most preferred candidate for body area networks (BAN). The higher data rate and lower multipath fading makes it highly suitable for the design of BAN. However, narrowband interference (NBI) may significantly degrade the performance of UWB. The paper presents an effective method of NBI mitigation for UWB BAN. The method uses modified Hermite pulse (MHP) in lieu of Gaussian and other pulse shapes. The spectral characteristics of the MHP make them immune to interference. The performance has been tested in various body postures in the CM4 channel model of the BAN, and further validated by transmitting medical signals like electrocardiography and MRI. The results show that MHP pulse is highly immune to NBI.

  5. Absolute, spatially resolved, in situ CO profiles in atmospheric laminar counter-flow diffusion flames using 2.3 μm TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Steven; Klein, Moritz; Kathrotia, Trupti; Riedel, Uwe; Kissel, Thilo; Dreizler, Andreas; Ebert, Volker

    2012-11-01

    We developed a new, spatially traversing, direct tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) for quantitative, calibration-free, and spatially resolved in situ measurements of CO profiles in atmospheric, laminar, non-premixed CH4/air model flames stabilized at a Tsuji counter-flow burner. The spectrometer employed a carefully characterized, room temperature distributed feedback diode laser to detect the R20 line of CO near 2,313 nm (4,324.4 cm-1), which allows to minimize spectral CH4 interference and detect CO even in very fuel-rich zones of the flame. The burner head was traversed through the 0.5 mm diameter laser beam in order to derive spatially resolved CO profiles in the only 60-mm wide CH4/air flame. Our multiple Voigt line Levenberg-Marquardt fitting algorithm and the use of highly efficient optical disturbance correction algorithms for treating transmission and background emission fluctuations as well as careful fringe interference suppression permitted to achieve a fractional optical resolution of up to 2.4 × 10-4 OD (1σ) in the flame ( T up to 1,965 K). Highly accurate, spatially resolved, absolute gas temperature profiles, needed to compute mole fraction and correct for spectroscopic temperature dependencies, were determined with a spatial resolution of 65 μm using ro-vibrational N2-CARS (Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy). With this setup we achieved temperature-dependent CO detection limits at the R20 line of 250-2,000 ppmv at peak CO concentrations of up to 4 vol.%. This permitted local CO detection with signal to noise ratios of more than 77. The CO TDLAS spectrometer was then used to determine absolute, spatially resolved in situ CO concentrations in the Tsuji flame, investigate the strain dependence of the CO Profiles and favorably compare the results to a new flame-chemistry model.

  6. Numerical and experimental study of an axisymmetric coflow laminar methane-air diffusion flame at pressures between 5 and 40 atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fengshan; Thomson, Kevin A.; Guo, Hongsheng; Smallwood, Gregory J.

    2006-08-15

    A numerical and experimental study of an axisymmetric coflow laminar methane-air diffusion flame at pressures between 5 and 40 atm was conducted to investigate the effect of pressure on the flame structure and soot formation characteristics. Experimental work was carried out in a new high-pressure combustion chamber described in a recent study [K.A. Thomson, O.L. Gulder, E.J. Weckman, R.A. Fraser, G.J. Smallwood, D.R. Snelling, Combust. Flame 140 (2005) 222-232]. Radially resolved soot volume fraction was experimentally measured using both spectral soot emission and line-of-sight attenuation techniques. Numerically, the elliptic governing equations were solved in axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates using the finite volume method. Detailed gas-phase chemistry and complex thermal and transport properties were employed in the numerical calculations. The soot model employed in this study accounts for soot nucleation and surface growth using a semiempirical acetylene-based global soot model with oxidation of soot by O{sub 2}, OH, and O taken into account. Radiative heat transfer was calculated using the discrete-ordinates method and a nine-band nongray radiative property model. Two soot surface growth submodels were investigated and the predicted pressure dependence of soot yield was compared with available experimental data. The experiment, the numerical model, and a simplified theoretical analysis found that the visible flame diameter decreases with pressure as P{sub a}{sup -0.5}. The flame-diameter-integrated soot volume fraction increases with pressure as P{sub a}{sup 1.3} between 5 and 20 atm. The assumption of a square root dependence of the soot surface growth rate on the soot particle surface area predicts the pressure dependence of soot yield in good agreement with the experimental observation. On the other hand, the assumption of linear dependence of the soot surface growth rate on the soot surface area predicts a much faster increase in the soot yield with

  7. Morphology and Histochemistry of the Aesthetasc-Associated Epidermal Glands in Terrestrial Hermit Crabs of the Genus Coenobita (Decapoda: Paguroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Carsten H. G.; Wielsch, Natalie; Hupfer, Yvonne; Svatoš, Aleš; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hansson, Bill S.

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans have successfully adapted to a variety of environments including fresh- and saltwater as well as land. Transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial lifestyle required adaptations of the sensory equipment of an animal, particularly in olfaction, where the stimulus itself changes from hydrophilic to mainly hydrophobic, air-borne molecules. Hermit crabs Coenobita spp. (Anomura, Coenobitidae) have adapted to a fully terrestrial lifestyle as adults and have been shown to rely on olfaction in order to detect distant food items. We observed that the specialized olfactory sensilla in Coenobita, named aesthetascs, are immersed in a layer of mucous-like substance. We hypothesized that the mucous is produced by antennal glands and affects functioning of the aesthetascs. Using various microscopic and histochemical techniques we proved that the mucous is produced by aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands, which we consider to be modified rosette-type aesthetasc tegumental glands known from aquatic decapods. These epidermal glands in Coenobita are multicellular exocrine organs of the recto-canal type with tubulo-acinar arrangement of the secretory cells. Two distinct populations of secretory cells were clearly distinguishable with light and electron microscopy. At least part of the secretory cells contains specific enzymes, CUB-serine proteases, which are likely to be secreted on the surface of the aesthetasc pad and take part in antimicrobial defense. Proteomic analysis of the glandular tissue corroborates the idea that the secretions of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands are involved in immune responses. We propose that the mucous covering the aesthetascs in Coenobita takes part in antimicrobial defense and at the same time provides the moisture essential for odor perception in terrestrial hermit crabs. We conclude that the morphological modifications of the aesthetasc-associated epidermal glands as well as the functional characteristics of their secretions

  8. Brain architecture in the terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae), a crustacean with a good aerial sense of smell

    PubMed Central

    Harzsch, Steffen; Hansson, Bill S

    2008-01-01

    Background During the evolutionary radiation of Crustacea, several lineages in this taxon convergently succeeded in meeting the physiological challenges connected to establishing a fully terrestrial life style. These physiological adaptations include the need for sensory organs of terrestrial species to function in air rather than in water. Previous behavioral and neuroethological studies have provided solid evidence that the land hermit crabs (Coenobitidae, Anomura) are a group of crustaceans that have evolved a good sense of aerial olfaction during the conquest of land. We wanted to study the central olfactory processing areas in the brains of these organisms and to that end analyzed the brain of Coenobita clypeatus (Herbst, 1791; Anomura, Coenobitidae), a fully terrestrial tropical hermit crab, by immunohistochemistry against synaptic proteins, serotonin, FMRFamide-related peptides, and glutamine synthetase. Results The primary olfactory centers in this species dominate the brain and are composed of many elongate olfactory glomeruli. The secondary olfactory centers that receive an input from olfactory projection neurons are almost equally large as the olfactory lobes and are organized into parallel neuropil lamellae. The architecture of the optic neuropils and those areas associated with antenna two suggest that C. clypeatus has visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusion In parallel to previous behavioral findings of a good sense of aerial olfaction in C. clypeatus, our results indicate that in fact their central olfactory pathway is most prominent, indicating that olfaction is a major sensory modality that these brains process. Interestingly, the secondary olfactory neuropils of insects, the mushroom bodies, also display a layered structure (vertical and medial lobes), superficially similar to the lamellae in the secondary olfactory centers of C. clypeatus. More detailed analyses with additional markers will be

  9. Self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh Gaussian laser beam in a magnetoplasma with ramp density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti; Wani, Manzoor Ahmad

    2013-11-15

    The early and strong self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in magnetoplasma in the presence of density ramp has been observed. Focusing and de-focusing nature of the Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter and magnetic field has been studied, and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter 'b' plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam and is very sensitive as in case of extraordinary mode. For mode indices, m = 0, 1, 2, and b = 4.00, 3.14, and 2.05, strong self-focusing is observed. Similarly in case of ordinary mode, for m = 0, 1, 2 and b = 4.00, 3.14, 2.049, respectively, strong self-focusing is reported. Further, it is seen that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For mode indices m = 0, 1, and 2, diffraction term becomes more dominant over nonlinear term for decentered parameter b=0. For selective higher values of decentered parameter in case of mode indices m=0, 1, and 2, self-focusing effect becomes strong for extraordinary mode. Also increase in the value of magnetic field enhances the self-focusing ability of the laser beam, which is very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers.

  10. The hermit crab Calcinus tibicen lives commensally on Millepora spp. in St. John, United States Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Edmunds, P. J.

    2013-03-01

    The present work describes an association between the hermit crab Calcinus tibicen and milleporine hydrocorals on shallow reefs (<6-m depth) in St. John, US Virgin Islands. In one bay, most colonies of Millepora spp. were occupied by C. tibicen in 2010 (62 %) and 2011 (50 %). In 2011, the association was common along 23 km of the coast of St. John, as well as at several locations around St. Thomas. On average, a colony of Millepora spp. harbored 4 C. tibicen within its branches, but more crabs were found on bigger colonies. During the day, large numbers of C. tibicen were found on Millepora spp., and these crabs frequently (>88 % of trials) returned to the same colony of Millepora spp. when removed and placed on adjacent surfaces. Of the C. tibicen found on Millepora spp. during the day, 48 % left their colonies at night, but most subsequently returned to the same colony as shown by the high site fidelity of tagged crabs (51 % over 5 days). A Y-maze experiment conducted in the laboratory suggested that C. tibicen could detect (and move toward) Millepora spp. on a spatial scale of about 30 cm and under a flow speed of about 5 cm s-1. When tethered on algal turf or sand, 45 % of C. tibicen disappeared over 7 days and presumably were eaten, whereas 15 % disappeared when tethered on Millepora spp. These results demonstrate that the association between C. tibicen and Millepora spp. is temporally stable and widespread, and suggest that hermit crabs seek Millepora spp. to secure a daytime refuge from predators. In the absence of negative fitness consequences for Millepora spp., but demonstrable benefits to C. tibicen, we propose that the Calcinus- Millepora association is commensal.

  11. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, Roland L.; Cannon, Theodore W.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  12. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOEpatents

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  13. Development of a coupled diffusion denuder system combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the separation and quantification of molecular iodine and the activated iodine compounds iodine monochloride and hypoiodous acid in the marine atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2009-03-01

    This study concerns the development of a coupled diffusion denuder system capable of separating and quantifying gaseous molecular iodine (I(2)) and two other highly reactive iodine species, ICl and HOI, which are collectively named activated iodine compounds (AIC). Both I(2) and AIC are key species in the atmospheric chemistry of iodine. 1,3,5-Trimethoxybenzene (1,3,5-TMB)- and alpha-cyclodextrin/(129)I(-) (alpha-CD/(129)I(-))-coated denuders proved to be suitable for the collection of gaseous AIC and I(2), respectively. The experimental collection efficiencies for AIC (tested as ICl) and I(2) agreed well with the theoretical values for gas flow rates in the range between 300 and 1800 mL min(-1). The coupled denuder system (1,3,5-TMB-coated denuder as front-denuder coupled upstream of an alpha-CD/(129)I(-)-coated denuder) was applied successfully to separate test gas mixtures of ICl and I(2) at various mixing ratios in the laboratory. The operation of both denuder systems was demonstrated to be independent of relative humidity (0-100%) and storage period (at least 2 weeks prior to and after sampling). Detection limits were achieved at sub-parts-per-trillion-by-volume (sub-pptv) level. The presented method provides a reliable and practical approach for the speciation of gaseous iodine compounds. In addition, we report for the first time ambient air measurements of AIC mixing ratios, carried out at the atmospheric research station in Mace Head, Ireland. A maximum concentration of AIC of 30.2 pptv was observed for nighttime measurements and 6.0 pptv for daytime measurements. A similar diurnal pattern was found for I(2) with an average concentration level of 23.2 pptv during daytime and 85.1 pptv during nighttime, indicating a strong correlation with AIC.

  14. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  15. FRUIT ABUNDANCE AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF WINTERING HERMIT THRUSHES (CATHARUS GUTTATUS) AND YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLERS (DENDROICA CORONATA) IN SOUTH CAROLINA.

    SciTech Connect

    KWIT, CHARLES; LEVEY, DOUGLAS, J.; GREENBERG, CATHRYN, H.; PEARSON, SCOTT, F.; MCCARTY, JOHN, P.; SARGENT, SARAH; MUMME, RONALD, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Auk 121(1):46-57, 2004 We conducted winter censuses of two short-distance migrants, Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus) and Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata), over seven years in five different habitats to determine whether their local abundances could be predicted by fruit pulp biomass. Sampled habitats were stands of upland and bottomland hardwood, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), longleaf pine (P. palustris), and young «10 years) longleaf pine. Hermit Thrush abundance, which was highest in bottomland hardwood habitats, was positively related to total dry mass of fruit pulp. Those results are consistent with the hypothesis that resource availability affects the local distribution of migrant passerines on their wintering grounds. Our results also indicate that bottomland hardwood habitats in the southeastern United States may be especially important to wintering Hermit Thrushes. Yellow-rumped Warbler abundance was correlated with ripe-fruit pulp dry mass of Myrica cerifera, a major source of winter food for that species. However, because M. cerifera pulp dry mass was confounded with habitat type, we could not distinguish the relative importance of fruit resources and habitat for Yellow- rumped Warblers. Our results underscore the importance of fruit to wintering birds. However, the overall percentage of variation in winter bird abundance explained by differences in ripe-fruit biomass was modest, indicating that other factors are also important.

  16. Ensemble Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.P.

    2002-06-24

    Prognostic atmospheric dispersion models are used to generate consequence assessments, which assist decision-makers in the event of a release from a nuclear facility. Differences in the forecast wind fields generated by various meteorological agencies, differences in the transport and diffusion models, as well as differences in the way these models treat the release source term, result in differences in the resulting plumes. Even dispersion models using the same wind fields may produce substantially different plumes. This talk will address how ensemble techniques may be used to enable atmospheric modelers to provide decision-makers with a more realistic understanding of how both the atmosphere and the models behave.

  17. Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Price, Hannah C; Mattsson, Johan; Murray, Benjamin J

    2016-07-28

    The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes-Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512

  18. Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes–Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512

  19. PROBABILISTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The observed scatter of observations about air quality model predictions stems from a combination of naturally occurring stochastic variations that are impossible for any model to explicitly simulate and variations arising from limitations in our knowledge and from imperfect inpu...

  20. Vaneless diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Y.

    The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.

  1. Overtone-based pitch selection in hermit thrush song: unexpected convergence with scale construction in human music.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Emily L; Gingras, Bruno; Endres, Dominik M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-11-18

    Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically or culturally determined. Data from animal "song" may provide new insights into this discussion. Here, by examining pitch relationships using both a simple linear regression model and a Bayesian generative model, we show that most songs of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) favor simple frequency ratios derived from the harmonic (or overtone) series. Furthermore, we show that this frequency selection results not from physical constraints governing peripheral production mechanisms but from active selection at a central level. These data provide the most rigorous empirical evidence to date of a bird song that makes use of the same mathematical principles that underlie Western and many non-Western musical scales, demonstrating surprising convergence between human and animal "song cultures." Although there is no evidence that the songs of most bird species follow the overtone series, our findings add to a small but growing body of research showing that a preference for small-integer frequency ratios is not unique to humans. These findings thus have important implications for current debates about the origins of human musical systems and may call for a reevaluation of existing theories of musical consonance based on specific human vocal characteristics.

  2. Comparing the strength of behavioural plasticity and consistency across situations: animal personalities in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus

    PubMed Central

    Briffa, Mark; Rundle, Simon D; Fryer, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Many phenotypic traits show plasticity but behaviour is often considered the ‘most plastic’ aspect of phenotype as it is likely to show the quickest response to temporal changes in conditions or ‘situation’. However, it has also been noted that constraints on sensory acuity, cognitive structure and physiological capacities place limits on behavioural plasticity. Such limits to plasticity may generate consistent differences in behaviour between individuals from the same population. It has recently been suggested that these consistent differences in individual behaviour may be adaptive and the term ‘animal personalities’ has been used to describe them. In many cases, however, a degree of both behavioural plasticity and relative consistency is probable. To understand the possible functions of animal personalities, it is necessary to determine the relative strength of each tendency and this may be achieved by comparison of statistical effect sizes for tests of difference and concordance. Here, we describe a new statistical framework for making such comparisons and investigate cross-situational plasticity and consistency in the duration of startle responses in the European hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus, in the field and the laboratory. The effect sizes of tests for behavioural consistency were greater than for tests of behavioural plasticity, indicating for the first time the presence of animal personalities in a crustacean model. PMID:18331983

  3. The Wiener-Hermite expansion applied to decaying isotropic turbulence using a renormalized time-dependent base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogge, H. D.; Meecham, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of decaying isotropic turbulence has been studied using a Wiener-Hermite expansion with a renormalized time-dependent base. The theory is largely deductive and uses no modeling approximations. It has been found that many properties of large-Reynolds-number turbulence can be calculated (at least for moderate time) using the moving-base expansion alone. Such properties found are the spectrum shape in the dissipation range, the Kolmogorov constant, and the energy cascade in the inertial subrange. Furthermore, by using a renormalization scheme, it is possible to extend the calculation to larger times and to initial conditions significantly different from the equilibrium form. If the initial spectrum is the Kolmogorov spectrum perturbed with a spike or dip in the inertial subrange, the process proceeds to eliminate the perturbation and relax to the preferred spectrum shape. The turbulence decays with the proper dissipation rate, and several other properties are found to agree with measured data. The theory is also used to calculate the energy transfer and the flatness factor of turbulence.

  4. Comparing the strength of behavioural plasticity and consistency across situations: animal personalities in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark; Rundle, Simon D; Fryer, Adam

    2008-06-01

    Many phenotypic traits show plasticity but behaviour is often considered the 'most plastic' aspect of phenotype as it is likely to show the quickest response to temporal changes in conditions or 'situation'. However, it has also been noted that constraints on sensory acuity, cognitive structure and physiological capacities place limits on behavioural plasticity. Such limits to plasticity may generate consistent differences in behaviour between individuals from the same population. It has recently been suggested that these consistent differences in individual behaviour may be adaptive and the term 'animal personalities' has been used to describe them. In many cases, however, a degree of both behavioural plasticity and relative consistency is probable. To understand the possible functions of animal personalities, it is necessary to determine the relative strength of each tendency and this may be achieved by comparison of statistical effect sizes for tests of difference and concordance. Here, we describe a new statistical framework for making such comparisons and investigate cross-situational plasticity and consistency in the duration of startle responses in the European hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus, in the field and the laboratory. The effect sizes of tests for behavioural consistency were greater than for tests of behavioural plasticity, indicating for the first time the presence of animal personalities in a crustacean model.

  5. Overtone-based pitch selection in hermit thrush song: Unexpected convergence with scale construction in human music

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, Emily L.; Gingras, Bruno; Endres, Dominik M.; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Many human musical scales, including the diatonic major scale prevalent in Western music, are built partially or entirely from intervals (ratios between adjacent frequencies) corresponding to small-integer proportions drawn from the harmonic series. Scientists have long debated the extent to which principles of scale generation in human music are biologically or culturally determined. Data from animal “song” may provide new insights into this discussion. Here, by examining pitch relationships using both a simple linear regression model and a Bayesian generative model, we show that most songs of the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) favor simple frequency ratios derived from the harmonic (or overtone) series. Furthermore, we show that this frequency selection results not from physical constraints governing peripheral production mechanisms but from active selection at a central level. These data provide the most rigorous empirical evidence to date of a bird song that makes use of the same mathematical principles that underlie Western and many non-Western musical scales, demonstrating surprising convergence between human and animal “song cultures.” Although there is no evidence that the songs of most bird species follow the overtone series, our findings add to a small but growing body of research showing that a preference for small-integer frequency ratios is not unique to humans. These findings thus have important implications for current debates about the origins of human musical systems and may call for a reevaluation of existing theories of musical consonance based on specific human vocal characteristics. PMID:25368163

  6. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  7. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  8. Ti Diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2006-12-01

    Diffusion of Ti under anhydrous conditions at 1 atmosphere and under fluid-present conditions at 1.1-1.2 GPa has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was a ZrO2- TiO2-ZrSiO4 mixture, with experiments run in Pt capsules. Diffusion experiments conducted in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source of ground TiO2, ZrSiO4 and SiO2, with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 vapor and partially melt the solid source material, yielding an assemblage of rutile + zircon + melt + vapor. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the nuclear reaction ^{48}Ti(p,Γ)^{49}V was used to measure diffusion profiles for both sets of experiments. The following Arrhenius relation was obtained for Ti diffusion normal to c over the temperature range 1350-1550C at one atmosphere: DTi = 3.3x102 exp(-754 ± 56 kJ mol-1 /RT) m2sec-1 Ti diffusivities were found to be similar for experiments run under fluid-present conditions. A fit to all of the data yields the Arrhenius relation D = 1.3x103 exp(-741 ± 46 kJ mol-1 /RT) m2sec-1. These data suggest that zircon should be extremely retentive of Ti chemical signatures, indicating that the recently developed Ti-in-zircon crystallization geothermometer (Watson and Harrison, 2005; Watson et al., 2006) will be quite robust in preserving temperatures of zircon crystallization. Titanium diffuses somewhat faster in zircon than larger tetravalent cations U, Th, and Hf, but considerably more slowly than Pb, the REE, and oxygen; hence Ti crystallization temperatures may be retained under circumstances when radiometric ages or other types of geochemical information are lost. Watson EB, Harrison TM (2005) Science 308, 841-844. Watson EB, Wark DA, Thomas JB (2006) CMP(in press).

  9. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this three year proposal are: (1) to calculate the likely diffusive flux of Ar and He from the interior of Mercury for representative crustal compositions; (2) compute a reasonable estimate of the fractional escape flux of photoions for the likely range of field conditions; and (3) to calculate the capture rate of solar wind ions into the atmosphere. The morphology of the magnetosphere in response to the solar wind and the IMF is the crucial boundary condition for the flux of ions to the surface. We have tackled problem (1) using a multipath diffusion code, and problems (2) and (3) using a combination of MHD and kinetic plasma dynamics.

  10. Programs for the approximation of real and imaginary single- and multi-valued functions by means of Hermite-Padé-approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feil, T. M.; Homeier, H. H. H.

    2004-04-01

    We present programs for the calculation and evaluation of special type Hermite-Padé-approximations. They allow the user to either numerically approximate multi-valued functions represented by a formal series expansion or to compute explicit approximants for them. The approximation scheme is based on Hermite-Padé polynomials and includes both Padé and algebraic approximants as limiting cases. The algorithm for the computation of the Hermite-Padé polynomials is based on a set of recursive equations which were derived from a generalization of continued fractions. The approximations retain their validity even on the cuts of the complex Riemann surface which allows for example the calculation of resonances in quantum mechanical problems. The programs also allow for the construction of multi-series approximations which can be more powerful than most summation methods. Program summaryTitle of program: hp.sr Catalogue identifier: ADSO Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSO Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland Licensing provisions: Persons requesting the program must sign the standard CPC non-profit use license Computer: Sun Ultra 10 Installation: Computing Center, University of Regensburg, Germany Operating System: Sun Solaris 7.0 Program language used: MapleV.5 Distribution format: tar gzip file Memory required to execute with typical data: 32 MB; the program itself needs only about 20 kB Number of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized?: no No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data etc.: 38194 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4258 Nature of physical problem: Many physical and chemical quantum systems lead to the problem of evaluating a function for which only a limited series expansion is known. These functions can be numerically approximated by summation methods even if the corresponding series is only asymptotic

  11. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure.

  12. Central projections of antennular chemosensory and mechanosensory afferents in the brain of the terrestrial hermit crab (Coenobita clypeatus; Coenobitidae, Anomura)

    PubMed Central

    Tuchina, Oksana; Koczan, Stefan; Harzsch, Steffen; Rybak, Jürgen; Wolff, Gabriella; Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Hansson, Bill S.

    2015-01-01

    The Coenobitidae (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguroidea) is a taxon of hermit crabs that includes two genera with a fully terrestrial life style as adults. Previous studies have shown that Coenobitidae have evolved a sense of spatial odor localization that is behaviorally highly relevant. Here, we examined the central olfactory pathway of these animals by analyzing central projections of the antennular nerve of Coenobita clypeatus, combining backfilling of the nerve with dextran-coupled dye, Golgi impregnations and three-dimensional reconstruction of the primary olfactory center, the antennular lobe. The principal pattern of putative olfactory sensory afferents in C. clypeatus is in many aspects similar to what have been established for aquatic decapod crustaceans, such as the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. However, there are also obvious differences that may, or may not represent adaptations related to a terrestrial lifestyle. In C. clypeatus, the antennular lobe dominates the deutocerebrum, having more than one thousand allantoid-shaped subunits. We observed two distinct patterns of sensory neuron innervation: putative olfactory afferents from the aesthetascs either supply the cap/subcap region of the subunits or they extend through its full depth. Our data also demonstrate that any one sensory axon can supply input to several subunits. Putative chemosensory (non-aesthetasc) and mechanosensory axons represent a different pathway and innervate the lateral and median antennular neuropils. Hence, we suggest that the chemosensory input in C. clypeatus might be represented via a dual pathway: aesthetascs target the antennular lobe, and bimodal sensilla target the lateral antennular neuropil and median antennular neuropil. The present data is compared to related findings in other decapod crustaceans. PMID:26236202

  13. A GIS Model Predicting Potential Distributions of a Lineage: A Test Case on Hermit Spiders (Nephilidae: Nephilengys)

    PubMed Central

    Năpăruş, Magdalena; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Background Although numerous studies model species distributions, these models are almost exclusively on single species, while studies of evolutionary lineages are preferred as they by definition study closely related species with shared history and ecology. Hermit spiders, genus Nephilengys, represent an ecologically important but relatively species-poor lineage with a globally allopatric distribution. Here, we model Nephilengys global habitat suitability based on known localities and four ecological parameters. Methodology/Principal Findings We geo-referenced 751 localities for the four most studied Nephilengys species: N. cruentata (Africa, New World), N. livida (Madagascar), N. malabarensis (S-SE Asia), and N. papuana (Australasia). For each locality we overlaid four ecological parameters: elevation, annual mean temperature, annual mean precipitation, and land cover. We used linear backward regression within ArcGIS to select two best fit parameters per species model, and ModelBuilder to map areas of high, moderate and low habitat suitability for each species within its directional distribution. For Nephilengys cruentata suitable habitats are mid elevation tropics within Africa (natural range), a large part of Brazil and the Guianas (area of synanthropic spread), and even North Africa, Mediterranean, and Arabia. Nephilengys livida is confined to its known range with suitable habitats being mid-elevation natural and cultivated lands. Nephilengys malabarensis, however, ranges across the Equator throughout Asia where the model predicts many areas of high ecological suitability in the wet tropics. Its directional distribution suggests the species may potentially spread eastwards to New Guinea where the suitable areas of N. malabarensis largely surpass those of the native N. papuana, a species that prefers dry forests of Australian (sub)tropics. Conclusions Our model is a customizable GIS tool intended to predict current and future potential distributions of globally

  14. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure. PMID:25740333

  15. Central projections of antennular chemosensory and mechanosensory afferents in the brain of the terrestrial hermit crab (Coenobita clypeatus; Coenobitidae, Anomura).

    PubMed

    Tuchina, Oksana; Koczan, Stefan; Harzsch, Steffen; Rybak, Jürgen; Wolff, Gabriella; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hansson, Bill S

    2015-01-01

    The Coenobitidae (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguroidea) is a taxon of hermit crabs that includes two genera with a fully terrestrial life style as adults. Previous studies have shown that Coenobitidae have evolved a sense of spatial odor localization that is behaviorally highly relevant. Here, we examined the central olfactory pathway of these animals by analyzing central projections of the antennular nerve of Coenobita clypeatus, combining backfilling of the nerve with dextran-coupled dye, Golgi impregnations and three-dimensional reconstruction of the primary olfactory center, the antennular lobe. The principal pattern of putative olfactory sensory afferents in C. clypeatus is in many aspects similar to what have been established for aquatic decapod crustaceans, such as the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. However, there are also obvious differences that may, or may not represent adaptations related to a terrestrial lifestyle. In C. clypeatus, the antennular lobe dominates the deutocerebrum, having more than one thousand allantoid-shaped subunits. We observed two distinct patterns of sensory neuron innervation: putative olfactory afferents from the aesthetascs either supply the cap/subcap region of the subunits or they extend through its full depth. Our data also demonstrate that any one sensory axon can supply input to several subunits. Putative chemosensory (non-aesthetasc) and mechanosensory axons represent a different pathway and innervate the lateral and median antennular neuropils. Hence, we suggest that the chemosensory input in C. clypeatus might be represented via a dual pathway: aesthetascs target the antennular lobe, and bimodal sensilla target the lateral antennular neuropil and median antennular neuropil. The present data is compared to related findings in other decapod crustaceans. PMID:26236202

  16. U-Pb Zircon Geochronology of Hermit's Peak Batholith Granite, Northern New Mexico: Implications for Tectonic Quiescence at 1.4 GA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindline, J.; Cedillo, D. N.; Romero, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Hermit's Peak batholith, a Proterozoic metamorphic-plutonic massif in the southern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, is located in the transition zone between the Yavapai and Mazatzal Precambrian provinces. We conducted zircon geochronology at the University of Arizona's LaserChron Center on granitic phases within the Hermit's Peak batholith to establish the timing of granite magmatism relative to Proterozoic orogenesis. Two analyses (core and rim) of more than 20 zircon crystals were incorporated into a final age calculation for each sample. Within the batholith, early granitoid intrusions form centimeter- to meter-wide coarse-grained tabular sheets and layers within Paleoproterozoic host rock gneisses. The intrusions were deformed during isoclinal folding along with their host rocks, suggesting that the early granites are pre- or syntectonic with contractional deformation associated with Yavapai-Mazatzal collision. These granites show a fine- to medium-grained anhedral granular texture with quartz microstructures indicative of dynamic strain and solid state deformation, including undulose extinction, subgrain development, and serrated grain boundaries. All zircon crystals are euhedral with aspect ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 and lengths ranging from 100-300 μm. Cathodoluminescence imaging shows that most crystals have oscillatory zonation indicating they are igneous in origin. Elemental U/Th ratios are all low (<10) indicating an igneous origin as well. Most crystals show a bright rim (high U) suggesting a late-stage fluid interaction. However, there was no discordance between core and rim age analyses. The granitic gneiss yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 1.705 ± 0.017 Ga placing its emplacement prior to or early in the Mazatzal orogeny. A small (< 1.0 km2) nonfoliated coarse-grained anhedral granular granite intrudes the granitic gneiss. All zircon crystals are euhedral with aspect ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 and lengths ranging from 100-300 μm. Cathodoluminescence

  17. Additional records of the pagurid hermit crab genus Trichopagurus de Saint Laurent, 1968 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura), with description of a new species from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    The pagurid hermit crab genus Trichopagurus de Saint Laurent, 1968 is currently represented by three shallow water spe- cies from the tropical Indo-West Pacific region. In this paper, three species of the genus, including one new species, are reported. Trichopagurus tenuidactylus n. sp. is described on the basis of a single ovigerous female from the Bohol Sea, the Philippines, and compared with two close relatives, T. asper Komai & Poupin, 2012 and T. macrochela Komai & Os- awa, 2005. New locality records are provided for T. macrochela (the Philippines) and T. trichophthalinus (Forest, 1954) (Taiwan and Marianas). An identification key to the four species of the genus is presented.

  18. Jupiter's outer atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brice, N. M.

    1973-01-01

    The current state of the theory of Jupiter's outer atmosphere is briefly reviewed. The similarities and dissimilarities between the terrestrial and Jovian upper atmospheres are discussed, including the interaction of the solar wind with the planetary magnetic fields. Estimates of Jovian parameters are given, including magnetosphere and auroral zone sizes, ionospheric conductivity, energy inputs, and solar wind parameters at Jupiter. The influence of the large centrifugal force on the cold plasma distribution is considered. The Jovian Van Allen belt is attributed to solar wind particles diffused in toward the planet by dynamo electric fields from ionospheric neutral winds, and the consequences of this theory are indicated.

  19. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  20. Relativistic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  1. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  2. Relativistic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  3. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  4. Diffusion of Ca and Mg in Calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, R.T.; Fisler, D.K.

    1999-02-10

    The self-diffusion of Ca and the tracer diffusion of Mg in calcite have been experimentally measured using isotopic tracers of {sup 25}Mg and {sup 44}Ca. Natural single crystals of calcite were coated with a thermally-sputtered oxide thin film and then annealed in a CO{sub 2} gas at one atmosphere total pressure and temperatures from 550 to 800 C. Diffusion coefficient values were derived from the depth profiles obtained by ion microprobe analysis. The resultant activation energies for Mg tracer diffusion and Ca self-diffusion are respectively: E{sub a}(Mg) = 284 {+-} 74 kJ/mol and E{sub a}(Ca) = 271 {+-} 80 kJ/mol. For the temperature ranges in these experiments, the diffusion of Mg is faster than Ca. The results are generally consistent in magnitude with divalent cation diffusion rates obtained in previous studies and provide a means of interpreting the thermal histories of carbonate minerals, the mechanism of dolomitization, and other diffusion-controlled processes. The results indicate that cation diffusion in calcite is relatively slow and cations are the rate-limiting diffusing species for the deformation of calcite and carbonate rocks. Application of the calcite-dolomite geothermometer to metamorphic assemblages will be constrained by cation diffusion and cooling rates. The direct measurement of Mg tracer diffusion in calcite indicates that dolomitization is unlikely to be accomplished by Mg diffusion in the solid state but by a recrystallization process.

  5. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  6. Trade-offs between predator avoidance and electric shock avoidance in hermit crabs demonstrate a non-reflexive response to noxious stimuli consistent with prediction of pain.

    PubMed

    Magee, Barry; Elwood, Robert W

    2016-09-01

    Arthropods have long been thought to respond to noxious stimuli by reflex reaction. One way of testing if this is true is to provide the animal with a way to avoid the stimulus but to vary the potential cost of avoidance. If avoidance varies with potential cost then a decision making process is evident and the behaviour is not a mere reflex. Here we examine the responses of hermit crabs to electric shock within their shell when also exposed to predator or non-predator odours or to no odour. The electric shocks start with low voltage but increase in voltage with each repetition to determine how odour affects the voltage at which the shell is abandoned. There was no treatment effect on the voltage at which hermit crabs left their shells, however, those exposed to predator odours were less likely to evacuate their shells compared with no odour or low concentrations of non-predator odour. However, highly concentrated non-predator also inhibited evacuation. The data show that these crabs trade-off avoidance of electric shock with predator avoidance. They are thus not responding purely by reflex and the data are thus consistent with predictions of pain but do not prove pain.

  7. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  8. A quantitative determination of air-water heat fluxes in Hermit Lake, New Hampshire under varying meteorological conditions, time of day, and time of year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyper, Nicholas D.

    An extensive heat flux study is performed at Hermit Lake, New Hampshire from May 26, 2010 till November 7, 2010 to determine the effects of the five individual heat fluxes on Hermit Lake and the surrounding amphibian community. Hermit Lake was chosen due to the relatively long meteorological observations record within the White Mountains of New Hampshire, a new lakeside meteorological station, and ongoing phenology studies of the surrounding eco-system. Utilizing meteorological data from the lakeside weather station and moored water temperature sensors, the incident (Qi), blackbody ( Qbnet ), latent (Qe), sensible (Q s), and net (Qn) heat fluxes are calculated. The incident heat flux is the dominate term in the net flux, accounting for 93% of the variance found in Qn and producing a heat gain of ˜ 19x108 J m-2 throughout the period of study. This large gain produces a net gain of heat in the lake until October 1, 2010, where gains by Qi are offset by the large combined losses of Qbnet , Qs, and Qe thereby producing a gradual decline of heat within the lake. The latent and blackbody heat fluxes produce the largest losses of heat in the net heat flux with a total losses of ˜ -8x108 J m-2 and ˜ -7x108 J m-2, respectively. The sensible heat flux is negligible, producing a total minimal loss of ˜ -1x108 J m-2. Overall the net heat produces a net gain of heat of 2x108 J m-2 throughout the study period. Frog calls indicative of breeding are recorded from May 26, 2010 until August 16, 2010. The spring peeper, American toad, and green frog each produced enough actively calling days to be compared to air temperature, surface water temperature, and wind speed data, as well as data from the five heat fluxes. Linear regression analysis reveals that certain water temperature thresholds affect the calling activities of the spring peeper and green frog, while higher wind speeds have a dramatic effect on the calling activities of both the green frog and American toad. All three

  9. Numerical studies of three-dimensional stochastic Darcy's equation and stochastic advection-diffusion-dispersion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Guang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we solve the three-dimensional stochastic Darcy's equation and stochastic advection-diffusion-dispersion equation using a probabilistic collocation method (PCM) on sparse grids. Karhunen-Lo\\`{e}ve (KL) decomposition is employed to represent the three-dimensional log hydraulic conductivity $Y=\\ln K_s$. The numerical examples which demonstrate the convergence of PCM are presented. It appears that the faster convergence rate in the variance can be obtained by using the Jacobi-chaos representing the truncated Gaussian distributions than using the Hermite-chaos for the Gaussian distribution. The effect of dispersion coefficient on the mean and standard deviation of the hydraulic head and solute concentration is investigated. Additionally, we also study how the statistical properties of the hydraulic head and solute concentration vary while using different types of random distributions and different standard deviations of random hydraulic conductivity.

  10. Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Strobel, D. F.; Moses, J. I.; Waite, J. H.; Crovisier, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Roble, R. G.

    This paper summarizes the understanding of aeronomy of neutral atmospheres in the solar system, discussing most planets as well as Saturn's moon Titan and comets. The thermal structure and energy balance is compared, highlighting the principal reasons for discrepancies amongst the atmospheres, a combination of atmospheric composition, heliocentric distance and other external energy sources not common to all. The composition of atmospheres is discussed in terms of vertical structure, chemistry and evolution. The final section compares dynamics in the upper atmospheres of most planets and highlights the importance of vertical dynamical coupling as well as magnetospheric forcing in auroral regions, where present. It is shown that a first order understanding of neutral atmospheres has emerged over the past decades, thanks to the combined effects of spacecraft and Earth-based observations as well as advances in theoretical modeling capabilities. Key gaps in our understanding are highlighted which ultimately call for a more comprehensive programme of observation and laboratory measurements.

  11. Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Strobel, D. F.; Moses, J. I.; Waite, J. H.; Crovisier, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Roble, R. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper summarizes the understanding of aeronomy of neutral atmospheres in the solar system, discussing most planets as well as Saturn’s moon Titan and comets. The thermal structure and energy balance is compared, highlighting the principal reasons for discrepancies amongst the atmospheres, a combination of atmospheric composition, heliocentric distance and other external energy sources not common to all. The composition of atmospheres is discussed in terms of vertical structure, chemistry and evolution. The final section compares dynamics in the upper atmospheres of most planets and highlights the importance of vertical dynamical coupling as well as magnetospheric forcing in auroral regions, where present. It is shown that a first order understanding of neutral atmospheres has emerged over the past decades, thanks to the combined effects of spacecraft and Earth-based observations as well as advances in theoretical modeling capabilities. Key gaps in our understanding are highlighted which ultimately call for a more comprehensive programme of observation and laboratory measurements.

  12. Atmospheric neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korff, S. A.; Mendell, R. B.; Merker, M.; Light, E. S.; Verschell, H. J.; Sandie, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    Contributions to fast neutron measurements in the atmosphere are outlined. The results of a calculation to determine the production, distribution and final disappearance of atmospheric neutrons over the entire spectrum are presented. An attempt is made to answer questions that relate to processes such as neutron escape from the atmosphere and C-14 production. In addition, since variations of secondary neutrons can be related to variations in the primary radiation, comment on the modulation of both radiation components is made.

  13. Atmospheric Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of extending the atmospheric observation from space is discussed. Observations of the earth's limb from GEO at microwave frequencies, global mapping of ozone, charged particle precipitation, photochemical reactions, spectral emissions from the atmosphere, microwave measurements, and radio probing of the atmosphere and ionosphere, which were not feasible prior to the availability of the shuttle because of the antenna limitations, may be readily carried out from the space stations.

  14. Generation of high-order Hermite-Gaussian modes in end-pumped solid-state lasers for square vortex array laser beam generation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Chun; Chen, Yun-Ting; Tsai, Ko-Fan; Otsuka, Kenju

    2012-03-26

    This study reports the first systematic approach to the excitation of all high-order Hermite-Gaussian modes (HGMs) in end-pumped solid-state lasers. This study uses a metal-wire-inserted laser resonator accompanied with the "off axis pumping" approach. This study presents numerical analysis of the excitation of HGMs in end-pumped solid-state lasers and experimentally generated HGM patterns. This study also experimentally demonstrates the generation of an square vortex array laser beams by passing specific high-order HGMs (HGn,n + 1 or HGn + 1,n modes) through a Dove prism-embedded unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer [Optics Express 16, 19934-19949]. The resulting square vortex array laser beams with embedded vortexes aligned in a square array can be applied to multi-spot dark optical traps in the future. PMID:22453395

  15. A new species of the genus Peltogaster Rathke, 1842 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Peltogastridae) parasitizing the hermit crab Pagurixus boninensis (Melin, 1939) from the Bonin Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryuta; Naruse, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    A new rhizocephalan species, Peltogaster unigibba n. sp., is described from the host hermit crab, Pagurixus boninensis (Melin, 1939), from the Bonin Islands, Japan. Of the16 known species of Peltogaster now currently recognised, P. unigibba n. sp., and P. contorta Boschma, 1958 share a left lobe that projects beyond the mantle aperture. The two species can be distinguished from one another by the position of the opening of the mantle aperture. The new species most closely resembles P. naushonensis Reinhard, 1946 in its internal structure, but clearly differs in the relative length of the colleteric glands. Peltogaster unigibba n. sp. represents the first record of a rhizocephalan from the oceanic Bonin Islands, and the second record of a rhizocephalan from an oceanic island in the northern hemisphere. PMID:27470799

  16. A Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for controllable high-order Hermite-Gaussian modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun; He, Yu; Bai, Sheng-Chuang; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Kaminskii, Alexander A.

    2016-09-01

    A nanosecond, high peak power, passively Q-switched laser for controllable Hermite-Gaussian (HG) modes has been achieved by manipulating the saturated inversion population inside the gain medium. The stable HG modes are generated in a Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser by applying a tilted pump beam. The asymmetrical saturated inversion population distribution inside the Nd:YVO4 crystal for desirable HG modes is manipulated by choosing the proper pump beam diameter and varying pump power. A HG9,8 mode passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser with average output power of 265 mW has been obtained. Laser pulses with a pulse width of 7.3 ns and peak power of over 1.7 kW working at 21 kHz have been generated in the passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser.

  17. Generation of high-order Hermite-Gaussian modes in end-pumped solid-state lasers for square vortex array laser beam generation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Chun; Chen, Yun-Ting; Tsai, Ko-Fan; Otsuka, Kenju

    2012-03-26

    This study reports the first systematic approach to the excitation of all high-order Hermite-Gaussian modes (HGMs) in end-pumped solid-state lasers. This study uses a metal-wire-inserted laser resonator accompanied with the "off axis pumping" approach. This study presents numerical analysis of the excitation of HGMs in end-pumped solid-state lasers and experimentally generated HGM patterns. This study also experimentally demonstrates the generation of an square vortex array laser beams by passing specific high-order HGMs (HGn,n + 1 or HGn + 1,n modes) through a Dove prism-embedded unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer [Optics Express 16, 19934-19949]. The resulting square vortex array laser beams with embedded vortexes aligned in a square array can be applied to multi-spot dark optical traps in the future.

  18. Atmospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sloane, C.S. ); Tesche, T.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the predictive strength of atmospheric models. The book covers all of the major important atmospheric areas, including large scale models for ozone depletion and global warming, regional scale models for urban smog (ozone and visibility impairment) and acid rain, as well as accompanying models of cloud processes and biofeedbacks.

  19. The Atmosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1983-01-01

    The composition and dynamics of the earth's atmosphere are discussed, considering the atmosphere's role in distributing the energy of solar radiation received by the earth. Models of this activity which help to explain climates of the past and predict those of the future are also considered. (JN)

  20. Physics of planetary atmospheres and ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    The traditional atmospheric regions, the distinction between homosphere and heterosphere, and changing atmospheric composition are discussed. The validity of the barometric law based on a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, for the major part of a planetary atmosphere and its breakdown in the exosphere due to escape of atmospheric particles is considered. The formation and maintenance of photochemical and diffusion-controlled ionospheric layers are treated. Their applicability to planetary ionospheres is dealt with. The spatial extent of magnetic and nonmagnetic planet ionospheres is investigated. Thermal and nonthermal processes responsible for the mass loss of planetary atmospheres are surveyed.

  1. Multispectral Resource Sampler (MRS): Proof of concept study on atmospheric corrections. Determinations of atmospheric optical parameters using the multispectral resource sampler atmospheric optical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine which mathematical algorithms should be used in the calculation of atmospheric optical parameters using the Multispectral Resource Sampler (MRS) sensor. A simulation of the MRS sensor was performed using a radiative-transfer model. The simulation provides the spectral radiance at the satellite sensor in terms of various atmospheric parameters, such as optical thickness, solar zenith angle, nadir view angle, relative azimuth angle, bi-directional reflectance of the target, background albedo, and wavelength. Atmospheric correction algorithms were also developed for the determination of the total spectral optical thickness of the atmosphere for: (1) homogeneous (horizontal) hazy atmospheres with diffuse targets; (2) inhomogeneous (horizontal) hazy atmospheres with diffuse targets; and (3) homogeneous (horizontal) hazy atmospheres with non-diffuse targets.

  2. NIST Diffusion Data Center

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Diffusion Data Center (Web, free access)   The NIST Diffusion Data Center is a collection of over 14,100 international papers, theses, and government reports on diffusion published before 1980.

  3. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  4. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  5. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  6. Modeling diffusion in foamed polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Ippalapalli, Sandeep; Ranaprathapan, A Dileep; Singh, Sachchida N; Harikrishnan, G

    2013-04-15

    Two-way multicomponent diffusion processes in polymeric nanocomposite foams, where the condensed phase is nanoscopically reinforced with impermeable fillers, are investigated. The diffusion process involves simultaneous outward permeation of the components of the dispersed gas phase and inward diffusion of atmospheric air. The transient variation in thermal conductivity of foam is used as the macroscopic property to track the compositional variations of the dispersed gases due to the diffusion process. In the continuum approach adopted, the unsteady-state diffusion process is combined with tortuosity theory. The simulations conducted at ambient temperature reveal distinct regimes of diffusion processes in the nanocomposite foams owing to the reduction in the gas-transport rate induced by nanofillers. Simulations at a higher temperature are also conducted and the predictions are compared with experimentally determined thermal conductivities under accelerated diffusion conditions for polyurethane foams reinforced with clay nanoplatelets of varying individual lamellar dimensions. Intermittent measurements of foam thermal conductivity are performed while the accelerated diffusion proceeded. The predictions under accelerated diffusion conditions show good agreement with experimentally measured thermal conductivities for nanocomposite foams reinforced with low and medium aspect-ratios fillers. The model shows higher deviations for foams with fillers that have a high aspect ratio.

  7. Diffusing Diffusivity: A Model for Anomalous, yet Brownian, Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubynsky, Mykyta V.; Slater, Gary W.

    2014-08-01

    Wang et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 15160 (2009)] have found that in several systems the linear time dependence of the mean-square displacement (MSD) of diffusing colloidal particles, typical of normal diffusion, is accompanied by a non-Gaussian displacement distribution G(x ,t), with roughly exponential tails at short times, a situation they termed "anomalous yet Brownian" diffusion. The diversity of systems in which this is observed calls for a generic model. We present such a model where there is diffusivity memory but no direction memory in the particle trajectory, and we show that it leads to both a linear MSD and a non-Gaussian G(x ,t) at short times. In our model, the diffusivity is undergoing a (perhaps biased) random walk, hence the expression "diffusing diffusivity". G(x ,t) is predicted to be exactly exponential at short times if the distribution of diffusivities is itself exponential, but an exponential remains a good fit for a variety of diffusivity distributions. Moreover, our generic model can be modified to produce subdiffusion.

  8. Seasonal, anthropogenic, air mass, and meteorological influences on the atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs): Evidence for the importance of diffuse combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.G.M.; Green, N.J.L.; Lohmann, R.; Jones, K.C.

    1999-09-01

    Sampling programs were undertaken to establish air polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) concentrations at a semirural site on the northwest coast of England in autumn and summer and to investigate factors causing their variability. Changing source inputs, meteorological parameters, air masses, and the impact of a festival when it is customary to light fireworks and bonfires were investigated. Various lines of evidence from the study point to diffuse, combustion-related sources being a major influence on ambient air concentrations. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were generally associated with air masses that had originated and moved over land, particularly during periods of low ambient temperature. Low concentrations were associated with air masses that had arrived from the Atlantic Ocean/Irish Sea to the west of the sampling site and had little or no contact with urban/industrialized areas. Concentrations in the autumn months were 2 to 10 times higher than those found in the summer.

  9. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  10. Combined diffusion coefficients for a mixture of three ionized gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. N.; Murphy, A. B.; Li, H. P.; Xia, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    The combined diffusion coefficient method has been demonstrated to greatly simplify the treatment of diffusion in the modelling of thermal plasmas in gas mixtures without loss of accuracy. In this paper, an extension of this method to allow treatment of diffusion of a three-gas mixture has been achieved, provided that the gases are homonuclear and do not react with each other, and satisfy local chemical equilibrium. Formulas for the combined diffusion coefficients are presented, and combined diffusion coefficients for different mixtures of helium, argon and carbon at temperatures up to 30 000 K and at atmosphere pressure are calculated as an example.

  11. Nitrogen Chemistry in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In Titan's upper atmosphere N2 is dissociated to N by solar UV and high energy electrons. This flux of N provides for interesting organic chemistry in the lower atmosphere of Titan. Previously the main pathway for the loss of this N was thought to be the formation of HCN, followed by diffusion of this HCN to lower altitudes leading ultimately to condensation. However, recent laboratory simulations of organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere suggest that formation of the organic haze may be an important sink for atmospheric N. Because estimates of the eddy diffusion profile on Titan have been based on the HCN profile, inclusion of this additional sink for N will affect estimates for all transport processes in Titan's atmosphere. This and other implications of this sink for the N balance on Titan are considered.

  12. Atmospheric radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Harshvardhan, M.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Studies of atmospheric radiative processes are summarized for the period 1987-1990. Topics discussed include radiation modeling; clouds and radiation; radiative effects in dynamics and climate; radiation budget and aerosol effects; and gaseous absorption, particulate scattering and surface reflection. It is concluded that the key developments of the period are a defining of the radiative forcing to the climate system by trace gases and clouds, the recognition that cloud microphysics and morphology need to be incorporated not only into radiation models but also climate models, and the isolation of a few important unsolved theoretical problems in atmospheric radiation.

  13. Atmospheric Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    With its Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), half of the Ralph instrument, New Horizons captured several pictures of mesoscale gravity waves in Jupiter's equatorial atmosphere. Buoyancy waves of this type are seen frequently on Earth - for example, they can be caused when air flows over a mountain and a regular cloud pattern forms downstream. In Jupiter's case there are no mountains, but if conditions in the atmosphere are just right, it is possible to form long trains of these small waves. The source of the wave excitation seems to lie deep in Jupiter's atmosphere, below the visible cloud layers at depths corresponding to pressures 10 times that at Earth's surface. The New Horizons measurements showed that the waves move about 100 meters per second faster than surrounding clouds; this is about 25% of the speed of sound on Earth and is much greater than current models of these waves predict. Scientists can 'read' the speed and patterns these waves to learn more about activity and stability in the atmospheric layers below.

  14. Atmospheric humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water vapor plays a critical role in earth's atmosphere. It helps to maintain a habitable surface temperature through absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and it transfers trmendous amounts of energy from the tropics toward the poles by absorbing latent heat during evaporation and subsequently...

  15. Noble gas diffusion in silicate liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalberti, J.; Burnard, P.; Laporte, D.

    2013-12-01

    Fractionated noble gas relative abundances (Ne/Ar, Kr/Ar and Xe/Ar) and isotopic compositions (40Ar/36Ar, 38Ar/36Ar, 20Ne/22Ne, 21Ne/22Ne) are found in volcanic materials, notably in pumices (1-3). This has generally been interpreted as fractionation resulting from diffusion. However, there is some disagreement as to whether this fractionation occurs during high temperature magmatic processes (3) or due to diffusion of air into solidified pyroclastic deposits (2). We show that differences in relative noble gas diffusivities (e.g. D4He vs D40Ar, where D is the diffusivity) and isotopic diffusivities (e.g. D40Ar vs D36Ar) reduce at high temperatures (Fig). These results predict minimal fractionation of noble gases during magmatic processes. However, it is important to note that these diffusivities were measured in silicate glasses; the relative noble diffusivities in silicate liquids are poorly known. We have developed a new experimental protocol which will to determine the diffusivities of the noble gases and their isotopes in the liquid state. A graphite crucible c. 0.3 mm diameter and c. 20mm deep is filled with powdered glass of the desired composition, heated to 1773 K for 15 minutes and quenched to form a glass cylinder within the crucible. The crucible is then placed in a low pressure (1 bar) controlled atmosphere vertical furnace and heated at high temperatures (1673-1773K) for 2 hours in a pure N2 atmosphere. At this point noble gases (He and Ar) are introduced into the furnace and allowed to diffuse into the cylinder of liquid for durations of between 30 and 90. After quenching, the glass cylinder, preserving its' diffusion profile, is sawed into c. 1mm thick discs which are measured by conventional noble gas mass spectrometry for noble gas abundances (He, Ar) and isotopes (40,38,36Ar). The results will be presented at the conference. References 1 Kaneoka, I. Earth Planet Sci Letts 48, 284-292 (1980). 2 Pinti, D. L., Wada, N. & Matsuda, J. J. Volcan

  16. The population structure of two sympatric hermit-crab species on a subtidal rocky shore of an island in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Daniel J M; Cobo, Valter J; De Aquino, Mariana A B; Fransozo, Adilson

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this investigation was to characterize the population structure and shell occupancy of two sympatric hermit-crab species, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae. The study was undertaken at Couves Island on the southeastern coast of Brazil, from March 2010 through February 2011, on subtidal rocky bottoms. Specimens were collected by SCUBA diving sessions. A total of 195 individuals of P. brevidactylus and 132 of P. tortugae were examined. Both populations showed unimodal size-frequency distributions, which were non-normal for P. brevidactylus and normal for P. tortugae. The median size of P. brevidactylus was significantly smaller than P. tortugae; in both species, males were significantly larger than females. For both, juveniles and ovigerous females were recorded in all size classes and in almost the entire sampling period. No significant departures from the 1:1 sex ratio were detected, although some size classes were skewed. Overlaps in shell occupation were recorded. Pagurus brevidactylus and P. tortugae showed similar population features; they reached sexual maturity at small sizes, and the nearly year-round presence of young and ovigerous females suggests continuous reproduction. These inter-specific interactions involving resource partitioning suggest a regulatory process that is probably part of the equilibrium strategy of these populations. PMID:25590715

  17. The population structure of two sympatric hermit-crab species on a subtidal rocky shore of an island in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Daniel J M; Cobo, Valter J; De Aquino, Mariana A B; Fransozo, Adilson

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this investigation was to characterize the population structure and shell occupancy of two sympatric hermit-crab species, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae. The study was undertaken at Couves Island on the southeastern coast of Brazil, from March 2010 through February 2011, on subtidal rocky bottoms. Specimens were collected by SCUBA diving sessions. A total of 195 individuals of P. brevidactylus and 132 of P. tortugae were examined. Both populations showed unimodal size-frequency distributions, which were non-normal for P. brevidactylus and normal for P. tortugae. The median size of P. brevidactylus was significantly smaller than P. tortugae; in both species, males were significantly larger than females. For both, juveniles and ovigerous females were recorded in all size classes and in almost the entire sampling period. No significant departures from the 1:1 sex ratio were detected, although some size classes were skewed. Overlaps in shell occupation were recorded. Pagurus brevidactylus and P. tortugae showed similar population features; they reached sexual maturity at small sizes, and the nearly year-round presence of young and ovigerous females suggests continuous reproduction. These inter-specific interactions involving resource partitioning suggest a regulatory process that is probably part of the equilibrium strategy of these populations.

  18. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  19. A hyperbolic equation for turbulent diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, Sandip; Keller, Joseph B.

    2000-09-01

    A hyperbolic equation, analogous to the telegrapher's equation in one dimension, is introduced to describe turbulent diffusion of a passive additive in a turbulent flow. The predictions of this equation, and those of the usual advection-diffusion equation, are compared with data on smoke plumes in the atmosphere and on heat flow in a wind tunnel. The predictions of the hyperbolic equation fit the data at all distances from the source, whereas those of the advection-diffusion equation fit only at large distances. The hyperbolic equation is derived from an integrodifferential equation for the mean concentration which allows it to vary rapidly. If the mean concentration varies sufficiently slowly compared with the correlation time of the turbulence, the hyperbolic equation reduces to the advection-diffusion equation. However, if the mean concentration varies very rapidly, the hyperbolic equation should be replaced by the integrodifferential equation.

  20. Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, John

    2004-12-01

    In his book, John Green presents a unique personal insight into the fundamentals of fluid mechanics and atmospheric dynamics. Generations of students have benefited from his lectures, and this book, many years in the making, is the result of his wide teaching and research experience. The theory of fluid flow has developed to such an extent that very complex mathematics and models are currently used to describe it, but many of the fundamental results follow from relatively simple considerations: these classic principles are derived here in a novel, distinctive, and at times even idiosyncratic, way. The book is an introduction to fluid mechanics in the atmosphere for students and researchers that are already familiar with the subject, but who wish to extend their knowledge and philosophy beyond the currently popular development of conventional undergraduate instruction.

  1. Hybrid Diffusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Chien; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion measurements in the human central nervous system are complex to characterize and a broad spectrum of methods have been proposed. In this study, a comprehensive diffusion encoding and analysis approach, Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI), is described. The HYDI encoding scheme is composed of multiple concentric “shells” of constant diffusion-weighting, which may be used to characterize the signal behavior with low, moderate and high diffusion-weighting. HYDI facilitates the application of multiple data-analyses strategies including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multi-exponential diffusion measurements, diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) and q-ball imaging (QBI). These different analysis strategies may provide complementary information. DTI measures (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy) may be estimated from either data in the inner shells or the entire HYDI data. Fast and slow diffusivities were estimated using a nonlinear least-squares bi-exponential fit on geometric means of the HYDI shells. DSI measurements from the entire HYDI data yield empirical model-independent diffusion information and are well-suited for characterizing tissue regions with complex diffusion behavior. DSI measurements were characterized using the zero displacement probability and the mean squared displacement. The outermost HYDI shell was analyzed using QBI analysis to estimate the orientation distribution function (ODF), which is useful for characterizing the directions of multiple fiber groups within a voxel. In this study, a HYDI encoding scheme with 102 diffusion-weighted measurements was obtained over most of the human cerebrum in under 30 minutes. PMID:17481920

  2. Earth surface-atmosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppmann, R.; Fiedler, F.

    2003-04-01

    The German Atmospheric Research Program (AFO2000) consists of 155 scientific contributions organised in 25 joint projects, 11 individual projects and 5 young scientist groups. The overall aim of AFO2000 is to improve the understanding of the atmospheric system, to develop and supply instruments for environmental policy, and to support young scientists in the field of atmospheric research. 10 of these projects investigate transport processes between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. Biogenic emissions of trace gases and their influence on the chemistry in the lower atmosphere are studied in detail by field experiments at selected forest sites in Germany and by simulation experiments. Together with numerical simulations and elaborated emission inventories the results will be used to estimate changes in emissions due to land use changes and climatic changes. To understand the observed distributions of trace gases in the atmosphere chemical mechanisms are studied, which lead to the transformation of these compounds. It is necessary to integrate individual processes within complex models in order to detect unknown interactions and be able to make forecasts on future developments . Fluxes of aerosol and gases from the soil to the lower atmosphere are also investigated. Research activities address the different contributions to these fluxes from urban and rural areas by vertical soundings in the lower troposphere and by remote sensing. Complementary to these activities model simulations over differently sized areas are also performed. A further focus of these projects are quantitative descriptions of transport and turbulent diffusion of trace compounds, moisture, momentum, and energy in the atmosphere above different landscapes. Therefore additional flow structures induced by heterogeneous land use and terrain relief are studied in detail. To investigate these transport processes innovative measurement systems, ground based stations (anchor stations) and also modern

  3. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  4. Updating applied diffusion models

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, J.C.

    1985-11-01

    Most diffusion models currently used in air quality applications are substantially out of date with understanding of turbulence and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency, the American Meteorological Society organized a workshop to help improve the basis of such models, their physics and hopefuly their performance. Reviews and recommendations were made on models in three areas: diffusion in the convective boundary layer (CBL), diffusion in the stabe boundary layer (SBL), and model uncertainty.

  5. Diffusion Strategy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, James R.; Sanders, John R.

    A methodology is presented for planning and managing the spread of educational innovations. The first portion of the guide develops a theoretical framework for diffusion which summarizes and capitalizes on the latest marketing and on the latest marketing and diffusion research findings. Major stages in the diffusion paradigm discussed include…

  6. Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrank, Mary R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and…

  7. Atmospheric science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Ackerman, Thomas; Clarke, Antony; Goodman, Jindra; Levin, Zev; Tomasko, Martin; Toon, O. Brian; Whitten, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The following types of experiments for a proposed Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility are described: (1) growth of liquid water drop populations; (2) coalescence; (3) drop breakup; (4) breakup of freezing drops; (5) ice nucleation for large aerosols or bacteria; (6) scavenging of gases, for example, SO2 oxidation; (7) phoretic forces, i.e., thermophoresis versus diffusiophoresis; (8) Rayleigh bursting of drops; (9) charge separation due to collisions of rimed and unrimed ice; (10) charged drop dynamics; (11) growth of particles in other planetary atmospheres; and (12) freezing and liquid-liquid evaporation. The required capabilities and desired hardware for the facility are detailed.

  8. Sunlight Diffusing Tent for Lunar Worksite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleson, Blair; Clark, Todd; Deese, Todd; Gentry, Ernest; Samad, Abdul

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to provide a solution to problems astronauts encounter with sunlight on the lunar surface. Due to the absence of an atmosphere the Moon is subjected to intense sunlight creating problems with color and contrast. This problem can be overcome by providing a way to reduce intensity and diffuse the light in a working environment. The solution to the problem utilizes an umbrella, tent-like structure covered with a diffusing material. The design takes into account structural materials, stresses, fabrics, and deployment.

  9. Li diffusion in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2010-09-01

    Diffusion of Li under anhydrous conditions at 1 atm and under fluid-present elevated pressure (1.0-1.2 GPa) conditions has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was ground natural spodumene, which was sealed under vacuum in silica glass capsules with polished slabs of zircon. An experiment using a Dy-bearing source was also conducted to evaluate possible rate-limiting effects on Li diffusion of slow-diffusing REE+3 that might provide charge balance. Diffusion experiments performed in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source consisting of a powdered mixture of spodumene, quartz and zircon with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 fluid. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the resonant nuclear reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be was used to measure diffusion profiles for the experiments. The following Arrhenius parameters were obtained for Li diffusion normal to the c-axis over the temperature range 703-1.151°C at 1 atm for experiments run with the spodumene source: D_{text{Li}} = 7.17 × 10^{ - 7} { exp }( - 275 ± 11 {text{kJmol}}^{ - 1} /{text{RT}}){text{m}}2 {text{s}}^{ - 1}. Diffusivities are similar for transport parallel to the c-axis, indicating little anisotropy for Li diffusion in zircon. Similar Li diffusivities were also found for experiments run under fluid-present conditions and for the experiment run with the Dy-bearing source. Li diffusion is considerably faster than diffusion of other cations in zircon, with a smaller activation energy for diffusion. Although Li diffusion in zircon is comparatively rapid, zircons will be moderately retentive of Li signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures, but they are unlikely to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism.

  10. Spectralon diffuser calibration for MERIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olij, Carina; Schaarsberg, Jos G.; Werij, Henri G.; Zoutman, Erik; Baudin, Gilles; Chommeloux, Beatrice; Bezy, Jean-Loup; Gourmelon, Georges

    1997-12-01

    One of the key payload instruments of ESA's ENVISAT polar platform is the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS), aiming at improved knowledge of our planet in the fields of bio-optical oceanography, and atmospheric and land surface processes. MERIS, which is built under responsibility of Aerospatiale, will monitor the solar irradiation scattered by the Earth by employing five cameras which simultaneously record data in 15 visible and near-infrared programmable spectral bands with very low degree of polarization sensitivity. The combined field-of-view of the five cameras spans a range of 68.5 degrees. Crucial for obtaining the desired high accuracy during a four-years lifetime, is the on- board calibration unit. This calibration unit contains a set of Spectralon diffusers, which were manufactured having in mind excellent in-flight stability as well as spectral and spatial uniformity. Preflight calibration of the Spectralon diffusers was carried out at TNO-TPD. This calibration includes the measurement of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for applicable angles and wavelengths, i.e., while varying angle of incidence, angle of observation, observation area on the elongated diffusers, wavelength and polarization. The diffuser calibration was performed in a class 100 cleanroom. For these measurements the TPD calibration facility, which is described in detail, has been adapted, so that it now has five geometrical degrees of freedom. Detectors have been optimized to minimize stray light. Due to extensive commissioning of the calibration setup the absolute error (1 sigma) of these measurements amounts to less than 0.5%; relative errors are in the 0.3 - 0.4% range.

  11. Hermite WENO limiting for multi-moment finite-volume methods using the ADER-DT time discretization for 1-D systems of conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Matthew R.

    2014-11-24

    New Hermite Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (HWENO) interpolants are developed and investigated within the Multi-Moment Finite-Volume (MMFV) formulation using the ADER-DT time discretization. Whereas traditional WENO methods interpolate pointwise, function-based WENO methods explicitly form a non-oscillatory, high-order polynomial over the cell in question. This study chooses a function-based approach and details how fast convergence to optimal weights for smooth flow is ensured. Methods of sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-order accuracy are developed. We compare these against traditional single-moment WENO methods of fifth-, seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-order accuracy to compare against more familiar methods from literature. The new HWENO methods improve upon existing HWENO methods (1) by giving a better resolution of unreinforced contact discontinuities and (2) by only needing a single HWENO polynomial to update both the cell mean value and cell mean derivative. Test cases to validate and assess these methods include 1-D linear transport, the 1-D inviscid Burger's equation, and the 1-D inviscid Euler equations. Smooth and non-smooth flows are used for evaluation. These HWENO methods performed better than comparable literature-standard WENO methods for all regimes of discontinuity and smoothness in all tests herein. They exhibit improved optimal accuracy due to the use of derivatives, and they collapse to solutions similar to typical WENO methods when limiting is required. The study concludes that the new HWENO methods are robust and effective when used in the ADER-DT MMFV framework. Finally, these results are intended to demonstrate capability rather than exhaust all possible implementations.

  12. Hermite WENO limiting for multi-moment finite-volume methods using the ADER-DT time discretization for 1-D systems of conservation laws

    DOE PAGES

    Norman, Matthew R.

    2014-11-24

    New Hermite Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (HWENO) interpolants are developed and investigated within the Multi-Moment Finite-Volume (MMFV) formulation using the ADER-DT time discretization. Whereas traditional WENO methods interpolate pointwise, function-based WENO methods explicitly form a non-oscillatory, high-order polynomial over the cell in question. This study chooses a function-based approach and details how fast convergence to optimal weights for smooth flow is ensured. Methods of sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-order accuracy are developed. We compare these against traditional single-moment WENO methods of fifth-, seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-order accuracy to compare against more familiar methods from literature. The new HWENO methods improve upon existingmore » HWENO methods (1) by giving a better resolution of unreinforced contact discontinuities and (2) by only needing a single HWENO polynomial to update both the cell mean value and cell mean derivative. Test cases to validate and assess these methods include 1-D linear transport, the 1-D inviscid Burger's equation, and the 1-D inviscid Euler equations. Smooth and non-smooth flows are used for evaluation. These HWENO methods performed better than comparable literature-standard WENO methods for all regimes of discontinuity and smoothness in all tests herein. They exhibit improved optimal accuracy due to the use of derivatives, and they collapse to solutions similar to typical WENO methods when limiting is required. The study concludes that the new HWENO methods are robust and effective when used in the ADER-DT MMFV framework. Finally, these results are intended to demonstrate capability rather than exhaust all possible implementations.« less

  13. Atmospheric Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embleton, Tony F. W.; Daigle, Gilles A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviewed here is the current state of knowledge with respect to each basic mechanism of sound propagation in the atmosphere and how each mechanism changes the spectral or temporal characteristics of the sound received at a distance from the source. Some of the basic processes affecting sound wave propagation which are present in any situation are discussed. They are geometrical spreading, molecular absorption, and turbulent scattering. In geometrical spreading, sound levels decrease with increasing distance from the source; there is no frequency dependence. In molecular absorption, sound energy is converted into heat as the sound wave propagates through the air; there is a strong dependence on frequency. In turbulent scattering, local variations in wind velocity and temperature induce fluctuations in phase and amplitude of the sound waves as they propagate through an inhomogeneous medium; there is a moderate dependence on frequency.

  14. An asteroseismic test of diffusion theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.

    The helium-atmosphere (DB) white dwarfs are commonly thought to be the descendants of the hotter PG 1159 stars, which initially have uniform He/C/O atmospheres. In this evolutionary scenario, diffusion builds a pure He surface layer which gradually thickens as the star cools. In the temperature range of the pulsating DB white dwarfs (T_eff˜ 25,000 K) this transformation is still taking place, allowing asteroseismic tests of the theory. Objective global fitting of our updated double-layered envelope models to recent observations of the pulsating DB star CBS 114, and to existing observations of the slightly cooler star GD 358, lead to determinations of the envelope masses and pure He surface layers that qualitatively agree with the expectations of diffusion theory. These results provide new asteroseismic evidence supporting one of the central assumptions of spectral evolution theory, linking the DB white dwarfs to PG 1159 stars.

  15. Updating applied diffusion models

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Most diffusion models currently used in air-quality applications are substantially out of date with understanding of turbulence and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency, the American Meteorological Society organized a workshop to help improve the basis of such models, their physics and hopefully their performance. Reviews and recommendations were made on models in three areas: diffusion in the convective boundary layer (CBL), diffusion in the stable boundary layer (SBL), and model uncertainty. Progress has been made in all areas, but it is most significant and ready for application to practical models in the case of the CBL. This has resulted from a clear understanding of the vertical structure and diffusion in the CBL, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments, numerical simulations, and field observations. Understanding of turbulence structure and diffusion in the SBL is less complete and not yet ready for general use in applications.

  16. Gaseous diffusion system

    DOEpatents

    Garrett, George A.; Shacter, John

    1978-01-01

    1. A gaseous diffusion system comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of said diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof.

  17. Diffusion of an instantaneous cluster of particles in homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, H.; Dinar, N.

    In this work we study the diffusion of instantaneous puffs vs the diffusion of continuous plumes. The model which we use is a Lagrangian model for the motion of N particles suggested by Kaplan and Dinar (1988, J. compt. Phys. 79, 317-335). This model is based on the approach of Richardson to the relative diffusion which states that the instantaneous relative velocity of particles is a function of their instantaneous separation. Results show that the diffusion of a puff is slower than that of a continuous source. We find that the puff evolves more slowly than in the analytic model of Lee and Stone (1983, Atmospheric Environment17, 2477-2481), since in their model diffusion is influenced only by the initial conditions. The effect of the source size on the diffusion rate is studied as well.

  18. Inner zone and slot electron radial diffusion revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. P.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Guild, T. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Turner, D. L.; Blake, J. B.; Clemmons, J. H.; Roeder, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    Using recent data from NASA's Van Allen Probes, we estimate the quiet time radial diffusion coefficients for electrons in the inner radiation belt (L < 3) with energies from ~50 to 750 keV. The observations are consistent with dynamics dominated by pitch angle scattering and radial diffusion. We use a coordinate system in which these two modes of diffusion are separable. Then we integrate phase space density over pitch angle to obtain a "bundle content" that is invariant to pitch angle scattering, except for atmospheric loss. We estimate the effective radial diffusion coefficient from the temporal and radial variation of the bundle content. We show that our diffusion coefficients agree well with previously determined values obtained in the 1960s and 1970s and follow the form one expects for radial diffusion caused by exponentially decaying impulses in the large-scale electrostatic potential.

  19. Inpainting using airy diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara

    2015-09-01

    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  20. Multicomponent diffusion revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, S. H.

    2006-07-01

    The derivation of the multicomponent diffusion law is revisited. Following Furry [Am. J. Phys. 16, 63 (1948)], Williams [Am. J. Phys. 26, 467 (1958); Combustion Theory, 2nd ed. (Benjamin/Cummings , Menlo Park, CA,1985)] heuristically rederived the classical kinetic theory results using macroscopic equations, and pointed out that the dynamics of the mixture fluid had been assumed inviscid. This paper generalizes the derivation, shows that the inviscid assumption can easily be relaxed to add a new term to the classical diffusion law, and the thermal diffusion term can also be easily recovered. The nonuniqueness of the multicomponent diffusion coefficient matrix is emphasized and discussed.

  1. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  2. Atmospheric electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In the last three years the focus was on the information contained in the lightning measurement, which is independent of other meteorological measurements that can be made from space. The characteristics of lightning activity in mesoscale convective systems were quantified. A strong relationship was found between lightning activity and surface rainfall. It is shown that lightning provides a precursor signature for wet microbursts (the strong downdrafts that produce windshears hazardous to aircraft) and that the lightning signature is a direct consequence of storm evolution. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) collaborated with NASA scientists in the preliminary analysis and scientific justification for the design and deployment of an optical instrument which can detect lightning from geostationary orbit. Science proposals for the NASA mesoscale science program and for the Tethered Satellite System were reviewed. The weather forecasting research and unmanned space vehicles. Software was written to ingest and analyze the lightning ground strike data on the MSFC McIDAS system. The capabilities which were developed have a wide application to a number of problems associated with the operational impacts of electrical discharge within the atmosphere.

  3. Origins of the Earth's Diffuse Auroral Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Binbin; Thorne, Richard M.; Zhang, Xiaojia; Bortnik, Jacob; Pu, Zuyin; Xie, Lun; Hu, Ze-jun; Han, Desheng; Shi, Run; Zhou, Chen; Gu, Xudong

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's diffuse auroral precipitation provides the major source of energy input into the nightside upper atmosphere and acts as an essential linkage of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Resonant wave-particle interactions play a dominant role in the scattering of injected plasma sheet electrons, leading to the diffuse auroral precipitation. We review the recent advances in understanding the origin of the diffuse aurora and in quantifying the exact roles of various magnetospheric waves in producing the global distribution of diffuse auroral precipitation and its variability with the geomagnetic activity. Combined scattering by upper-and lower-band chorus accounts for the most intense inner magnetospheric electron diffuse auroral precipitation on the nightside. Dayside chorus can be responsible for the weaker dayside electron diffuse auroral precipitation. Pulsating auroras, the dynamic auroral structures embedded in the diffuse aurora, can be mainly caused by modulation of the excitation of lower band chorus due to macroscopic density variations in the magnetosphere. Electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves are an important or even dominant cause for the nightside electron diffuse auroral precipitation beyond {˜}8Re and can also contribute to the occurrence of the pulsating aurora at high L-shells. Scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves could quite possibly be the leading candidate responsible for the ion precipitation (especially the reversed-type events of the energy-latitude dispersion) in the regions of the central plasma sheet and ring current. We conclude the review with a summary of current understanding, outstanding questions, and a number of suggestions for future research.

  4. Atmospheric correction of high resolution land surface images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, D. J.; Martonchik, J. V.; Danielson, E. D.; Bruegge, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms to correct for atmospheric-scattering effects in high-spatial resolution land-surface images require the ability to perform rapid and accurate computations of the top-of-atmosphere diffuse radiance field for arbitrarily general surface reflectance distributions (which may be both heterogeneous and non-Lambertian) and atmospheric models. Using three-dimensional radiative transfer (3DRT) theory algorithms are being developed. The methodology used to perform the 3DRT calculations is described. It is shown how these calculations are used to perform atmospheric corrections, and the sensitivity of the retrieved surface reflectances to atmospheric structural parameters is illustrated.

  5. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Calogero, Simone; Velten, Hermano E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br

    2013-11-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field φ which we identify with the dark energy component of the universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter σ. The standard ΛCDM model can be recovered by setting σ = 0. If diffusion takes place (σ > 0) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the universe may serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum P(k). The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.

  6. Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongjian; Acton, Scott T

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides the derivation of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), a diffusion method tailored to ultrasonic and radar imaging applications. SRAD is the edge-sensitive diffusion for speckled images, in the same way that conventional anisotropic diffusion is the edge-sensitive diffusion for images corrupted with additive noise. We first show that the Lee and Frost filters can be cast as partial differential equations, and then we derive SRAD by allowing edge-sensitive anisotropic diffusion within this context. Just as the Lee and Frost filters utilize the coefficient of variation in adaptive filtering, SRAD exploits the instantaneous coefficient of variation, which is shown to be a function of the local gradient magnitude and Laplacian operators. We validate the new algorithm using both synthetic and real linear scan ultrasonic imagery of the carotid artery. We also demonstrate the algorithm performance with real SAR data. The performance measures obtained by means of computer simulation of carotid artery images are compared with three existing speckle reduction schemes. In the presence of speckle noise, speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion excels over the traditional speckle removal filters and over the conventional anisotropic diffusion method in terms of mean preservation, variance reduction, and edge localization.

  7. Galactic Diffuse Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Digel, Seth W.; /SLAC

    2007-10-25

    Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar nucleons and photons make the Milky Way a bright, diffuse source of high-energy {gamma}-rays. Observationally, the results from EGRET, COMPTEL, and OSSE have now been extended to higher energies by ground-based experiments, with detections of diffuse emission in the Galactic center reported by H.E.S.S. in the range above 100 GeV and of diffuse emission in Cygnus by MILAGRO in the TeV range. In the range above 100 keV, INTEGRAL SPI has found that diffuse emission remains after point sources are accounted for. I will summarize current knowledge of diffuse {gamma}-ray emission from the Milky Way and review some open issues related to the diffuse emission -- some old, like the distribution of cosmic-ray sources and the origin of the 'excess' of GeV emission observed by EGRET, and some recently recognized, like the amount and distribution of molecular hydrogen not traced by CO emission -- and anticipate some of the advances that will be possible with the Large Area Telescope on GLAST. We plan to develop an accurate physical model for the diffuse emission, which will be useful for detecting and accurately characterizing emission from Galactic point sources as well as any Galactic diffuse emission from exotic processes, and for studying the unresolved extragalactic emission.

  8. Investigating Diffusion with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon S.; Windelborn, Augden F.

    2013-01-01

    The activities described here allow students to explore the concept of diffusion with the use of common equipment such as computers, webcams and analysis software. The procedure includes taking a series of digital pictures of a container of water with a webcam as a dye slowly diffuses. At known time points, measurements of the pixel densities…

  9. Anatomy of Particle Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringuier, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses particle diffusion from a thermodynamic standpoint. The main goal of the paper is to highlight the conceptual connection between particle diffusion, which belongs to non-equilibrium statistical physics, and mechanics, which deals with particle motion, at the level of third-year university courses. We start out from the fact…

  10. Combustor diffuser interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Ram; Thorp, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    Advances in gas turbine engine performance are achieved by using compressor systems with high stage loading and low part count, which result in high exit Mach numbers. The diffuser and combustor systems in such engines should be optimized to reduce system pressure loss and to maximize the engine thrust-to-weight ratio and minimize length. The state-of-the-art combustor-diffuser systems do not meet these requirements. Detailed understanding of the combustor-diffuser flow field interaction is required for designing advanced gas turbine engines. An experimental study of the combustor-diffuser interaction (CDI) is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of analytical models applicable to a wide variety of diffuser designs. The CDI program consists of four technical phases: Literature Search; Baseline Configuration; Parametric Configurations; and Performance Configurations. Phase 2 of the program is in progress.

  11. Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.

    PubMed

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous. PMID:21867316

  12. Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.

    PubMed

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.

  13. Neuropeptide complexity in the crustacean central olfactory pathway: immunolocalization of A-type allatostatins and RFamide-like peptides in the brain of a terrestrial hermit crab

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the olfactory system of malacostracan crustaceans, axonal input from olfactory receptor neurons associated with aesthetascs on the animal’s first pair of antennae target primary processing centers in the median brain, the olfactory lobes. The olfactory lobes are divided into cone-shaped synaptic areas, the olfactory glomeruli where afferents interact with local olfactory interneurons and olfactory projection neurons. The local olfactory interneurons display a large diversity of neurotransmitter phenotypes including biogenic amines and neuropeptides. Furthermore, the malacostracan olfactory glomeruli are regionalized into cap, subcap, and base regions and these compartments are defined by the projection patterns of the afferent olfactory receptor neurons, the local olfactory interneurons, and the olfactory projection neurons. We wanted to know how neurons expressing A-type allatostatins (A-ASTs; synonym dip-allatostatins) integrate into this system, a large family of neuropeptides that share the C-terminal motif –YXFGLamide. Results We used an antiserum that was raised against the A-type Diploptera punctata (Dip)-allatostatin I to analyse the distribution of this peptide in the brain of a terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae). Allatostatin A-like immunoreactivity (ASTir) was widely distributed in the animal’s brain, including the visual system, central complex and olfactory system. We focussed our analysis on the central olfactory pathway in which ASTir was abundant in the primary processing centers, the olfactory lobes, and also in the secondary centers, the hemiellipsoid bodies. In the olfactory lobes, we further explored the spatial relationship of olfactory interneurons with ASTir to interneurons that synthesize RFamide-like peptides. We found that these two peptides are present in distinct populations of local olfactory interneurons and that their synaptic fields within the olfactory glomeruli are also mostly

  14. The Jovian Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael (Editor); Travis, Larry D. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A conference on the atmosphere of Jupiter produced papers in the areas of thermal and ortho-para hydrogen structure, clouds and chemistry, atmospheric structure, global dynamics, synoptic features and processes, atmospheric dynamics, and future spaceflight opportunities. A session on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune was included, and the atmosphere of Saturn was discussed in several papers.

  15. The Photosynthetic Trade-off Between Direct and Diffuse Light, the Problem with Diffuse Fraction and a Proposed Solution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stine, A.; Swann, A. L. S.; Huybers, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in atmospheric scatterers change the light environment at the surface both by decreasing total solar illumination and by converting direct radiation to diffuse radiation. In general, diffuse light is more efficient at driving photosynthesis than direct light, leading to disagreements in the net effect of changes in scattering on terrestrial photosynthesis, particularly in the context of large explosive volcanic eruptions. Standard analytical approaches for treating the trade-off between direct and diffuse radiation compare the changes in light against the fraction of light which is diffuse. Here we show that use of diffuse fraction as the independent variable in light trade-off calculations leads to results that are generally biased because the dependent variable (be it direct, diffuse or total radiation) functionally covaries with the independent variable, irrespective of the physical relationship between direct and diffuse radiation. This bias appears to dominate the results of published calculations. We develop a new method for quantifying the trade-off between direct and diffuse radiation on photosynthesis that is not subject to this artifact and demonstrate its use at four Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites.

  16. Helium Diffusion in Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    Diffusion of helium has been characterized in natural Fe-bearing olivine (~Fo90) and synthetic forsterite. Polished, oriented slabs of olivine were implanted with 3He, at 100 keV at a dose of 5x1015/cm2 or at 3.0 MeV at a dose of 1x1016/cm2. A set of experiments on the implanted olivine were run in 1-atm furnaces. In addition to the one-atm experiments, experiments on implanted samples were also run at higher pressures (2.6 and 2.7 GPa) to assess the potential effects of pressure on He diffusion and the applicability of the measured diffusivities in describing He transport in the mantle. The high-pressure experiments were conducted in a piston-cylinder apparatus using an "ultra-soft" pressure cell, with the diffusion sample directly surrounded by AgCl. 3He distributions following experiments were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the reaction 3He(d,p)4He. This direct profiling method permits us to evaluate anisotropy of diffusion, which cannot be easily assessed using bulk-release methods. For diffusion in forsterite parallel to c we obtain the following Arrhenius relation over the temperatures 250-950°C: D = 3.91x10-6exp(-159 ± 4 kJ mol-1/RT) m2/sec. The data define a single Arrhenius line spanning more than 7 orders of magnitude in D and 700°C in temperature. Diffusion parallel to a appears slightly slower, yielding an activation energy for diffusion of 135 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 3.73x10-8 m2/sec. Diffusion parallel to b is slower than diffusion parallel to a (by about two-thirds of a log unit); for this orientation an activation energy of 138 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 1.34x10-8 m2/sec are obtained. This anisotropy is broadly consistent with observations for diffusion of Ni and Fe-Mg in olivine. Diffusion in Fe-bearing olivine (transport parallel to b) agrees within uncertainty with findings for He diffusion in forsterite. The higher-pressure experiments yield diffusivities in agreement with those from the 1-atm

  17. Atmosphere of Mars: Mariner IV Models Compared.

    PubMed

    Fjeldbo, G; Fjeldbo, W C; Eshleman, V R

    1966-09-23

    Three classes of models for the atmosphere of Mars differ in identifying the main ionospheric layer measured by Mariner IV as being analogous to a terrestrial F(2), F(1), or E layer. At an altitude of several hundred kilometers, the relative atmospheric mass densities for these models (in the order named) are approximately 1, 10(2), and 10(4), and the temperatures are roughly 100 degrees , 200 degrees , and 400 degrees K. Theory and observation are in best agreement for an F, s model, for which photodissociation of CO(2), and diffusive separation result in an atomic-oxygen upper atmosphere, with O(+) being the principal ion in the isothermal topside of the ionosphere. The mesopause temperature minimum would be at or below the freezing point of CO(2), and dry ice particles would be expected to form. However, an F(1) model, with molecular ions in a mixed and warmer upper atmosphere, might result if photodissociation and diffusive separation are markedly less than would be expected from analogy with Earth's upper atmosphere. The E model proposed by Chamberlain and McElroy appears very unlikely; it is not compatible with the measured ionization profile unless rather unlikely assumptions are made about the values, and changes with height, of the effective recombination coefficient and the average ion mass. Moreover our theoretical heat-budget computations for the atmospheric region probed by Mariner IV indicate markedly lower temperatures and temperature gradients than were obtained for the E model. PMID:17749730

  18. Atmosphere of Mars: Mariner IV Models Compared.

    PubMed

    Fjeldbo, G; Fjeldbo, W C; Eshleman, V R

    1966-09-23

    Three classes of models for the atmosphere of Mars differ in identifying the main ionospheric layer measured by Mariner IV as being analogous to a terrestrial F(2), F(1), or E layer. At an altitude of several hundred kilometers, the relative atmospheric mass densities for these models (in the order named) are approximately 1, 10(2), and 10(4), and the temperatures are roughly 100 degrees , 200 degrees , and 400 degrees K. Theory and observation are in best agreement for an F, s model, for which photodissociation of CO(2), and diffusive separation result in an atomic-oxygen upper atmosphere, with O(+) being the principal ion in the isothermal topside of the ionosphere. The mesopause temperature minimum would be at or below the freezing point of CO(2), and dry ice particles would be expected to form. However, an F(1) model, with molecular ions in a mixed and warmer upper atmosphere, might result if photodissociation and diffusive separation are markedly less than would be expected from analogy with Earth's upper atmosphere. The E model proposed by Chamberlain and McElroy appears very unlikely; it is not compatible with the measured ionization profile unless rather unlikely assumptions are made about the values, and changes with height, of the effective recombination coefficient and the average ion mass. Moreover our theoretical heat-budget computations for the atmospheric region probed by Mariner IV indicate markedly lower temperatures and temperature gradients than were obtained for the E model.

  19. The electron diffusion coefficient in Jupiter's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T.; Northrop, T.; Baxter, R.; Hess, W.; Lojko, M.

    1974-01-01

    A steady-state model of Jupiter's electron radiation belt is developed. The model includes injection from the solar wind, radial diffusion, energy degradation by synchrotron radiation, and absorption at Jupiter's surface. A diffusion coefficient of the form D sub RR/R sub J squared = k times R to the m-th power is assumed, and then observed data on synchrotron radiation are used to fit the model. The free parameters determined from this fit are m = 1.95 plus or minus 0.5, k = 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 x 10 to the 9th power per sec, and the magnetic moment of injected particles equals 770 plus or minus 300 MeV/G. The value of m shows quite clearly that the diffusion is not caused by magnetic pumping by a variable solar wind or by a fluctuating convection electric field. The process might be field line exchange driven by atmospheric-ionospheric winds; our diffusion coefficient has roughly the same radial dependence but is considerably smaller in magnitude than the upper bound diffusion coefficients recently suggested for this process by Brice and McDonough (1973) and Jacques and Davis (1972).

  20. Radon in atmospheric studies: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, M.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of the isotopes of radon in space and time, their physical characteristics, and their behavior in the dynamics of the atmosphere have presented challenges for many decades. /sup 220/Rn, /sup 222/Rn and their daughters furnish a unique set of tracers for the study of transport and mixing processes in the atmosphere. Appropriate applications of turbulent diffusion theory yield general agreement with measured profiles. Diurnal and seasonal variations follow patterns set by consideration of atmospheric stability. /sup 222/Rn has been used successfully in recent studies of nocturnal drainage winds and cumulus convection. Good results have been obtained using /sup 222/Rn and its long-lived /sup 210/Pb daughter as tracers in the study of continent-to-ocean and ocean-to-continent air mass trajectories, /sup 220/Rn (thoron) because of its short half-life of only 55 seconds has been used to measure turbulent diffusion within the first few meters of the earth's surface and to study the influence of meteorological variables on the rate of exhalation from the ground. Radon daughters attach readily to atmospheric particulate matter which makes it possible to study these aerosols with respect to size spectra, attachment characteristics, removal by gravitation and precipitation, and residence times in the troposphere. The importance of ionization by radon and its daughters in the lower atmosphere and its effect on atmospheric electrical parameters is well known. Knowledge of the mobility and other characteristics of radon daughter ions has led to applications in the study of atmospheric electrical environments under fair weather and thunderstorm conditions and in the formation of condensation nuclei. The availability of increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and atmospheric measurement systems can be expected to add much to our understanding of radon and its daughters as trace components of the atmospheric environment in the years ahead.

  1. Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Feng

    Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early

  2. Tungsten diffusion in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    De Luca, A.; Texier, M.; Burle, N.; Oison, V.; Pichaud, B.; Portavoce, A.; Grosjean, C.

    2014-01-07

    Two doses (10{sup 13} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}) of tungsten (W) atoms were implanted in different Si(001) wafers in order to study W diffusion in Si. The samples were annealed or oxidized at temperatures between 776 and 960 °C. The diffusion profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and defect formation was studied by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. W is shown to reduce Si recrystallization after implantation and to exhibit, in the temperature range investigated, a solubility limit close to 0.15%–0.2%, which is higher than the solubility limit of usual metallic impurities in Si. W diffusion exhibits unusual linear diffusion profiles with a maximum concentration always located at the Si surface, slower kinetics than other metals in Si, and promotes vacancy accumulation close to the Si surface, with the formation of hollow cavities in the case of the higher W dose. In addition, Si self-interstitial injection during oxidation is shown to promote W-Si clustering. Taking into account these observations, a diffusion model based on the simultaneous diffusion of interstitial W atoms and W-Si atomic pairs is proposed since usual models used to model diffusion of metallic impurities and dopants in Si cannot reproduce experimental observations.

  3. Tungsten diffusion in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Van Orman, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion of tungsten has been characterized in synthetic forsterite and natural olivine (Fo90) under dry conditions. The source of diffusant was a mixture of magnesium tungstate and olivine powders. Experiments were prepared by sealing the source material and polished olivine under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers to buffer at NNO or IW. Prepared capsules were annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 45 min to several weeks, at temperatures from 1050 to 1450 °C. Tungsten distributions in the olivine were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for W diffusion in forsterite: D=1.0×10-8exp(-365±28 kJ mol/RT) m s Diffusivities for the synthetic forsterite and natural Fe-bearing olivine are similar, and tungsten diffusion in olivine shows little dependence on crystallographic orientation or oxygen fugacity. The slow diffusivities measured for W in olivine indicate that Hf-W ages in olivine-metal systems will close to diffusive exchange at higher temperatures than other chronometers commonly used in cosmochronology, and that tungsten isotopic signatures will be less likely to be reset by subsequent thermal events.

  4. Diffusion Flame Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, V. R.

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated. A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.

  5. Diffusion Flame Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath R.

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm) (Fig. 1, left). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated (Fig. 1, right). A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.

  6. Inner zone electron radial diffusion coefficients - An update with Van Allen Probes MagEIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul; Fennell, Joseph; Guild, Timothy; Mazur, Joseph; Claudepierre, Seth; Clemmons, James; Turner, Drew; Blake, Bernard; Roeder, James

    2016-07-01

    Using MagEIS data from NASA's recent Van Allen Probes mission, we estimate the quiet-time radial diffusion coefficients for electrons in the inner radiation belt and slot, for energies up to ~700 keV. We provide observational evidence that energy diffusion is negligible. The main dynamic processes, then, are radial diffusion and elastic pitch angle scattering. We use a coordinate system in which these two modes of diffusion are separable. Then we integrate over pitch angle to obtain a field line content whose dynamics consist of radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere. We estimate the loss timescale from periods of exponential decay in the time series. We then estimate the radial diffusion coefficient from the temporal and radial variation of the field line content. We show that our diffusion coefficients agree well with previously determined values. Our coefficients are consistent with diffusion by electrostatic impulses, whereas outer zone radial diffusion is thought to be dominated by electromagnetic fluctuations.

  7. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  8. Multinomial Diffusion Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, Ariel I.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a novel stochastic, space/time discrete representation of particle diffusion (e.g. Brownian motion) based on discrete probability distributions. We show that in the limit of both very small time step and large concentration, our description is equivalent to the space/time continuous stochastic diffusion equation. Being discrete in both time and space, our model can be used as an extremely accurate, efficient, and stable stochastic finite-difference diffusion algorithm when concentrations are so small that computationally expensive particle-based methods are usually needed. Through numerical simulations, we show that our method can generate realizations that capture the statistical properties of particle simulations. While our method converges converges to both the correct ensemble mean and ensemble variance very quickly with decreasing time step, but for small concentration, the stochastic diffusion PDE does not, even for very small time steps.

  9. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This is an important part of lung testing , because ... gases do not move normally across the lung tissues into the blood vessels of the lung. This ...

  10. Investigating diffusion with technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon S.; Windelborn, Augden F.

    2013-07-01

    The activities described here allow students to explore the concept of diffusion with the use of common equipment such as computers, webcams and analysis software. The procedure includes taking a series of digital pictures of a container of water with a webcam as a dye slowly diffuses. At known time points, measurements of the pixel densities (darkness) of the digital pictures are recorded and then plotted on a graph. The resulting graph of darkness versus time allows students to see the results of diffusion of the dye over time. Through modification of the basic lesson plan, students are able to investigate the influence of a variety of variables on diffusion. Furthermore, students are able to expand the boundaries of their thinking by formulating hypotheses and testing their hypotheses through experimentation. As a result, students acquire a relevant science experience through taking measurements, organizing data into tables, analysing data and drawing conclusions.

  11. Hydrogen Diffusion in Forsterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, S.; Mackwell, S.

    2002-12-01

    Physical and chemical properties of Earth's mantle are readily modified by interaction with volatiles, such as water. Thus, characterization of solubility and kinetics of incorporation for water in nominally anhydrous minerals is important in order to understand the behavior of Earth's interior under hydrous conditions. Experimental studies on the olivine-water system indicate that significant amounts of OH can dissolve within olivine as point defects (Bell and Rossman, 1992; Kohlstedt et al. 1996). Extending Kohlstedt and Mackwell's (1998) work, our study concerns the kinetics of hydrogen transport in the iron-free olivine-water system. This study is based on hydrogenation of forsterite samples during piston-cylinder and TZM cold-seal vessel experiments. We use infrared analyses in order to constrain the speciation of the mobile water-derived defects in forsterite single-crystal sample, and the rates of diffusion of such species under uppermost mantle conditions (0.2 to 1.5 GPa, 900 to 1100° C). Hydrogen defect transport in single crystals of forsterite is investigated for diffusion parallel to each crystallographic axis. Defect diffusivities are obtained by fitting a diffusion law to the OH content as a function of position in the sample. Our current results indicate that incorporation of hydroxyl species into iron-free olivine is a one-stage process with hydrogen diffusion linked to magnesium vacancy self-diffusion DV, such that DV = D~/3 = 10-12 m2/s at 1000° C parallel to [001], where D~ represents the chemical diffusivity. Those diffusion rates are slightly lower than in iron-bearing olivine for the same incorporation mechanism. The different concentration profiles show a clear anisotropy of diffusion, with fastest diffusion parallel to [001] as in iron-bearing olivine. Thus, while hydrogen solubilities are dependent on iron content, the rate of incorporation of water-derived species in olivine is not strongly coupled to the concentration of iron. This

  12. Nodal Diffusion & Transport Theory

    1992-02-19

    DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality (concentration, buckling, and dimension search) problems in 1, 2, and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular, and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion theory coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and regionwise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, upscattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated.

  13. Gas diffusion and physical property investigations for polar firn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, A. C.; Albert, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Improved understanding of physical and gas transport properties of firn and their controls on interstitial gas diffusion would inform ice core interpretation and snow/atmosphere exchange processes. In particular, gas diffusivity is relevant in the important calculation of gas age/ice age differences, but extensive direct measurements of gas diffusivity of firn have not been made. This paper describes an investigation that relates gas diffusivity and permeability based on measurements of the physical properties of firn over a wide range of density. Gas diffusivity and permeability measurements were made on a set of homogeneous samples from varying depths between the surface and pore close-off at Summit, Greenland. Microstructural properties were obtained using Micro-CT measurements. Correlations between our findings and firn densification processes are examined.

  14. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  15. On the effects of downstream boundary conditions on diffusive flood routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Wei-Hao; Aldama, Alvaro A.; Smith, James A.

    The advection-diffusion (AD) equation is widely used to represent flood wave propagation in waterways. Laplace transform methods are employed to obtain the exact solution of a nonhomogeneous AD equation with spatially varied initial condition and time dependent Dirichlet boundary conditions. Numerical inversion of the Laplace transform is employed to solve the AD equation with Neumann and Robin boundary conditions specified at the downstream end of a finite reach of channel. The Neumann boundary condition is specified by the assumption that water level remains constant at the downstream boundary, that is, by a mass conservation version. This is a special case of the general condition that is obtained by plugging a steady rating curve into the continuity equation. Backwater effects are assessed by analyzing response functions of flood wave movement in a semi-infinite channel and of a finite channel with the general condition prescribed as the downstream boundary condition. The Robin boundary condition, however, is derived on the basis of momentum conservation through the stage-discharge relationship. To investigate backwater effects a simple parameterized inflow hydrograph, based on Hermite polynomials, is introduced. The inflow flood hydrograph is completely determined, given three parameters: the time to peak tp, the base time tb, and the peak discharge Qp. Comparisons between backwater effects associated with the Neumann and the Robin boundary conditions are made.

  16. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-14

    Rigorous numerical description of multi-species diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication for imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multi-species diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multi-species diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multi-species U(VI) diffusion under steady-state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that a fully coupled diffusion model can be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model, which considers difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be rigorously enforced, if necessary, by adding an artificial kinetic reaction term induced by the charge separation. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from US Department of Energy's Hanford 300A where intragrain diffusion is a rate-limiting process controlling U(VI) adsorption and desorption. The grain-scale reactive diffusion model was able to describe U(VI) adsorption/desorption kinetics that has been described using a semi-empirical, multi-rate model

  17. Diffusional limits to the consumption of atmospheric methane by soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Net transport of atmospheric gases into and out of soil systems is primarily controlled by diffusion along gas partial pressure gradients. Gas fluxes between soil and the atmosphere can therefore be estimated by a generalization of the equation for ordinary gaseous diffusion in porous unsaturated media. Consumption of CH4 by methylotrophic bacteria in the top several centimeters of soil causes the uptake of atmospheric CH4 by aerated soils. The capacity of the methylotrophs to consume CH4 commonly exceeds the potential of CH4 to diffuse from the atmosphere to the consumers. The maximum rate of uptake of atmospheric CH4 by soil is, therefore, limited by diffusion and can be calculated from soil physical properties and the CH4 concentration gradient. The CH4 concentration versus depth profile is theoretically described by the equation for gaseous diffusion with homogeneous chemical reaction in porous unsaturated media. This allows for calculation of the in situ rate of CH4 consumption within specified depth intervals.

  18. The earth's atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W. (Editor); Devries, L. L.

    1972-01-01

    Topics discussed include the effects of solar radiation on the heat balance of the earth and its atmosphere, the physicomathematical models of the atmosphere and the computational schemes used in numerical investigations of the general circulation of the atmosphere, the effects of atmospheric turbulence on aeronautical systems, te chemistry of different regions of the atmosphere, the use of hot-filament and cold-cathode vacuum gauges to measure upper-atmosphere densities, methods of determining the air density at heights near a satellite's perigee by analyzing changes in its orbit, and an evaluation of various atmospheric models in the 100- to 1000-km altitude range.

  19. On Hermit Crabs and Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Flynn, Laland, Kendal and Kendal's article (this issue) plays a valuable role in two ways. First, it demonstrates how developmental psychology can learn lessons from the latest research on developmental niche construction within evolutionary biology. Secondly, for those psychologists whose main focus is the cognitive mechanisms by which humans…

  20. Hermit Points on a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  1. Anomalous Diffusion Near Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Synchro-betatron resonances can lead to emittance growth and the loss of luminosity. We consider the detailed dynamics of a bunch near such a low order resonance driven by crossing angles at the collision points. We characterize the nature of diffusion and find that it is anomalous and sub-diffusive. This affects both the shape of the beam distribution and the time scales for growth. Predictions of a simplified anomalous diffusion model are compared with direct simulations. Transport of particles near resonances is still not a well understood phenomenon. Often, without justification, phase space motion is assumed to be a normal diffusion process although at least one case of anomalous diffusion in beam dynamics has been reported [1]. Here we will focus on the motion near synchro-betatron resonances which can be excited by several means, including beams crossing at an angle at the collision points as in the LHC. We will consider low order resonances which couple the horizontal and longitudinal planes, both for simplicity and to observe large effects over short time scales. While the tunes we consider are not practical for a collider, nonetheless the transport mechanisms we uncover are also likely to operate at higher order resonances.

  2. Modeling the atmospheric chemistry of TICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, Michael V.; Burns, Douglas S.; Chynwat, Veeradej; Moore, William; Plitz, Angela; Rottmann, Shawn; Hearn, John

    2009-05-01

    An atmospheric chemistry model that describes the behavior and disposition of environmentally hazardous compounds discharged into the atmosphere was coupled with the transport and diffusion model, SCIPUFF. The atmospheric chemistry model was developed by reducing a detailed atmospheric chemistry mechanism to a simple empirical effective degradation rate term (keff) that is a function of important meteorological parameters such as solar flux, temperature, and cloud cover. Empirically derived keff functions that describe the degradation of target toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) were derived by statistically analyzing data generated from the detailed chemistry mechanism run over a wide range of (typical) atmospheric conditions. To assess and identify areas to improve the developed atmospheric chemistry model, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed to (1) quantify the sensitivity of the model output (TIC concentrations) with respect to changes in the input parameters and (2) improve, where necessary, the quality of the input data based on sensitivity results. The model predictions were evaluated against experimental data. Chamber data were used to remove the complexities of dispersion in the atmosphere.

  3. Crustal diffusion of gases out of mercury and the moon

    SciTech Connect

    Killen, R.M. )

    1989-02-01

    The author has calculated an upper limit to the rate of diffusion of sodium and potassium out of Mercury and the Moon and have compared the resulting flux to that required to maintain the known exospheres. He finds that diffusion rates are inadequate by 12 orders of magnitude on the Moon and 9 orders of magnitude on Mercury for diffusion out of orthoclase minerals. Diffusion will be more rapid out of pure glass by 5 to 6 orders of magnitude and out of shocked basalt by an amount depending on the microstructure of the mineral. The observed abundance and distribution of volatiles in small glass spherules on the Moon indicates that diffusion is very inefficient after solidification and cooling. At Mercury, the limitation on sodium flux to the atmosphere is shown to be the rate at which new regolith is created. The discrepancy between the observed column abundance of sodium in the Mercurean atmosphere and the known sources may indicate that either Mercury's crust has a larger volatile content than the Moon or that a recycling mechanism exists in the Mercurean atmosphere which is not present for the Moon.

  4. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    DOEpatents

    Nierenberg, William A.; Pontius, Rex B.

    1976-08-10

    1. The method of testing the separation efficiency of porous permeable membranes which comprises causing a stream of a gaseous mixture to flow into contact with one face of a finely porous permeable membrane under such conditions that a major fraction of the mixture diffuses through the membrane, maintaining a rectangular cross section of the gaseous stream so flowing past said membrane, continuously recirculating the gas that diffuses through said membrane and continuously withdrawing the gas that does not diffuse through said membrane and maintaining the volume of said recirculating gas constant by continuously introducing into said continuously recirculating gas stream a mass of gas equivalent to that which is continuously withdrawn from said gas stream and comparing the concentrations of the light component in the entering gas, the withdrawn gas and the recirculated gas in order to determine the efficiency of said membrane.

  5. Maintaining the Na atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Morgan, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The possible sources of the Na atmosphere of Mercury are calculatively studied. The likely structure, composition, and temperature of the planet's upper crust is examined along with the probable flux of Na from depth by grain boundary diffusion and by Knudsen flow. The creation of fresh regolith is considered along with mechanisms for supplying Na from the surface to the exosphere. The implications of the calculations for the probable abundances in the regolith are discussed.

  6. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH‑ = U4+ + O2‑ + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  7. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH- = U4+ + O2- + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  8. Atmospheric scattering corrections to solar radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, M. A.; Deepak, A.

    1979-01-01

    Whenever a solar radiometer is used to measure direct solar radiation, some diffuse sky radiation invariably enters the detector's field of view along with the direct beam. Therefore, the atmospheric optical depth obtained by the use of Bouguer's transmission law (also called Beer-Lambert's law), that is valid only for direct radiation, needs to be corrected by taking account of the scattered radiation. This paper discusses the correction factors needed to account for the diffuse (i,e., singly and multiply scattered) radiation and the algorithms developed for retrieving aerosol size distribution from such measurements. For a radiometer with a small field of view (half-cone angle of less than 5 deg) and relatively clear skies (optical depths less than 0.4), it is shown that the total diffuse contribution represents approximately 1% of the total intensity.

  9. Laminar Premixed and Diffusion Flames (Ground-Based Study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Lin, K.-C.; Sunderland, P. B.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ground-based studies of soot processes in laminar flames proceeded in two phases, considering laminar premixed flames and laminar diffusion flames, in turn. The test arrangement for laminar premixed flames involved round flat flame burners directed vertically upward at atmospheric pressure. The test arrangement for laminar jet diffusion flames involved a round fuel port directed vertically upward with various hydrocarbon fuels burning at atmospheric pressure in air. In both cases, coflow was used to prevent flame oscillations and measurements were limited to the flame axes. The measurements were sufficient to resolve soot nucleation, growth and oxidation rates, as well as the properties of the environment needed to evaluate mechanisms of these processes. The experimental methods used were also designed to maintain capabilities for experimental methods used in corresponding space-based experiments. This section of the report will be limited to consideration of flame structure for both premixed and diffusion flames.

  10. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-01

    Rigorous numerical description of multispecies diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication in imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multispecies diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multispecies diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multispecies U(VI) diffusion under a steady state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that for multispecies U(VI) diffusion under transient chemical conditions, a fully coupled diffusion model could be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model when the diffusion coefficient for each chemical component was properly selected. The component-based diffusion model considers the difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be enforced, if necessary, by adding a secondary migration term resulting from model simplification. The effect of ion activity coefficient gradients on multispecies diffusion is also discussed. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford 300A

  11. The Impact of Diffuse Light on Terrestrial Carbon Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, S. J.; Bohrer, G.; Steiner, A. L.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Fotis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Clouds and aerosols influence the strength of the terrestrial carbon sink by changing environmental conditions that control rates of photosynthesis and ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP). Although clouds and aerosols can reduce GPP by lowering the amount of light entering ecosystems, they also create scattered, diffuse light that can penetrate deeper into plant canopies. This can potentially increase lower-canopy light absorption and photosynthesis, sometimes enough to compensate for any decreases in upper canopy photosynthesis under reduced light levels. To identify how strongly diffuse light influences ecosystem GPP, we analyze the relationship between diffuse light and GPP at Ameriflux sites with at least 3 years of diffuse photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and GPP data. We also compare the effects of diffuse light across deciduous broadleaf forests, mixed forests, croplands, and grasslands. Preliminary results show a positive relationship between diffuse PAR and GPP, with the magnitude of the relationship dependent on zenith angle and vegetation type. The relationship remains positive for low zenith angles after taking into account the effect of direct light availability on GPP. Additionally, we use NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to analyze how the diffuse light effect on GPP changes under high cloud and aerosol optical depths. Quantifying the effects of diffuse light on GPP for different ecosystem types and determining how they change under different atmospheric conditions will expand our understanding of how changing cloud and aerosol conditions may alter local ecosystem carbon cycling and the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink.

  12. Estimating Vertical Diffusion Coefficients By Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culkowski, Walter M.; Swisher, Searle D.

    1973-01-01

    The Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory at Oak Ridge, Tennessee has been conducting routine probing of the lower troposphere and comparing the results with those obtained with turbidity photometers and a distant suspended particulate station. The change in scale height, K (sub z) divided by v (sub s), with time permits the vertical turbulence coefficient K (sub z) to be estimated if v (sub s) is known or assumed. Extremely high monthly correlations of turbidity versus the log of backscatter at 100 meters have been obtained. In addition, high correlations of suspended particulate matter at Chattanooga and Oak Ridge suggest that the bulk of particulate matter is of natural, rather than industrial, origin.

  13. Discovery of diffuse aurora on Mars.

    PubMed

    Schneider, N M; Deighan, J I; Jain, S K; Stiepen, A; Stewart, A I F; Larson, D; Mitchell, D L; Mazelle, C; Lee, C O; Lillis, R J; Evans, J S; Brain, D; Stevens, M H; McClintock, W E; Chaffin, M S; Crismani, M; Holsclaw, G M; Lefevre, F; Lo, D Y; Clarke, J T; Montmessin, F; Jakosky, B M

    2015-11-01

    Planetary auroras reveal the complex interplay between an atmosphere and the surrounding plasma environment. We report the discovery of low-altitude, diffuse auroras spanning much of Mars' northern hemisphere, coincident with a solar energetic particle outburst. The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph, a remote sensing instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft, detected auroral emission in virtually all nightside observations for ~5 days, spanning nearly all geographic longitudes. Emission extended down to ~60 kilometer (km) altitude (1 microbar), deeper than confirmed at any other planet. Solar energetic particles were observed up to 200 kilo--electron volts; these particles are capable of penetrating down to the 60 km altitude. Given minimal magnetic fields over most of the planet, Mars is likely to exhibit auroras more globally than Earth. PMID:26542577

  14. Discovery of diffuse aurora on Mars.

    PubMed

    Schneider, N M; Deighan, J I; Jain, S K; Stiepen, A; Stewart, A I F; Larson, D; Mitchell, D L; Mazelle, C; Lee, C O; Lillis, R J; Evans, J S; Brain, D; Stevens, M H; McClintock, W E; Chaffin, M S; Crismani, M; Holsclaw, G M; Lefevre, F; Lo, D Y; Clarke, J T; Montmessin, F; Jakosky, B M

    2015-11-01

    Planetary auroras reveal the complex interplay between an atmosphere and the surrounding plasma environment. We report the discovery of low-altitude, diffuse auroras spanning much of Mars' northern hemisphere, coincident with a solar energetic particle outburst. The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph, a remote sensing instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft, detected auroral emission in virtually all nightside observations for ~5 days, spanning nearly all geographic longitudes. Emission extended down to ~60 kilometer (km) altitude (1 microbar), deeper than confirmed at any other planet. Solar energetic particles were observed up to 200 kilo--electron volts; these particles are capable of penetrating down to the 60 km altitude. Given minimal magnetic fields over most of the planet, Mars is likely to exhibit auroras more globally than Earth.

  15. Advanced Atmospheric Modeling for Emergency Response.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Jerome D.; O'Steen, B. Lance; Addis, Robert P.

    1995-03-01

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models are an important part of emergency response systems for industrial facilities that have the potential to release significant quantities of toxic or radioactive material into the atmosphere. An advanced atmospheric transport and diffusion modeling system for emergency response and environmental applications, based upon a three-dimensional mesoscale model, has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site so that complex, time-dependent flow fields not explicitly measured can be routinely simulated. To overcome some of the current computational demands of mesoscale models, two operational procedures for the advanced atmospheric transport and diffusion modeling system are described including 1) a semiprognostic calculation to produce high-resolution wind fields for local pollutant transport in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site and 2) a fully prognostic calculation to produce a regional wind field encompassing the southeastern United States for larger-scale pollutant problems. Local and regional observations and large-scale model output are used by the mesoscale model for the initial conditions, lateral boundary conditions, and four-dimensional data assimilation procedure. This paper describes the current status of the modeling system and presents two case studies demonstrating the capabilities of both modes of operation. While the results from the case studies shown in this paper are preliminary and certainly not definitive, they do suggest that the mesoscale model has the potential for improving the prognostic capabilities of atmospheric modeling for emergency response at the Savannah River Site. Long-term model evaluation will be required to determine under what conditions significant forecast errors exist.

  16. Radiant extinction of gaseous diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, Arvind; Agrawal, Sanjay; Shamim, Tariq; Pickett, Kent; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Baum, Howard R.

    1995-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal-gravity and microgravity flames have been reported during droplet combustion, flame spread over solids, candle flames, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence time and higher concentration of combustion products create a thermochemical environment which changes the flame chemistry. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored under normal gravity, become very important and sometimes even controlling. This is particularly true for conditions at extinction of a microgravity diffusion flame. Under normal-gravity, the buoyant flow, which may be characterized by the strain rate, assists the diffusion process to transport the fuel and oxidizer to the combustion zone and remove the hot combustion products from it. These are essential functions for the survival of the flame which needs fuel and oxidizer. Thus, as the strain rate is increased, the diffusion flame which is 'weak' (reduced burning rate per unit flame area) at low strain rates is initially 'strengthened' and eventually it may be 'blown-out'. Most of the previous research on diffusion flame extinction has been conducted at the high strain rate 'blow-off' limit. The literature substantially lacks information on low strain rate, radiation-induced, extinction of diffusion flames. At the low strain rates encountered in microgravity, flame radiation is enhanced due to: (1) build-up of combustion products in the flame zone which increases the gas radiation, and (2) low strain rates provide sufficient residence time for substantial amounts of soot to form which further increases the flame radiation. It is expected that this radiative heat loss will extinguish the already 'weak' diffusion flame under certain conditions. Identifying these conditions (ambient atmosphere, fuel flow rate, fuel

  17. Osmosis and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.

  18. Thermodynamics of diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matuszak, Daniel

    Diffusion is the migration of molecules in the reference frame of a system's center of mass and it is a physical process that occurs in all chemical and biological systems. Diffusion generally involves intermolecular interactions that lead to clustering, adsorption, and phase transitions; as such, it is difficult to describe theoretically on a molecular level in systems containing both intermolecular repulsions and attractions. This work describes a simple thermodynamic approach that accounts for intermolecular attractions and repulsions (much like how the van der Waals equation does) to model and help provide an understanding of diffusion. The approach is an extension of the equilibrium Lattice Density Functional Theory of Aranovich and Donohue; it was developed with Mason and Lonsdale's guidelines on how to construct and test a transport theory. In the framework of lattice fluids, this new approach gives (a) correct equilibrium limits, (b) Fickian behavior for non-interacting systems, (c) correct departures from Fickian behavior in non-ideal systems, (d) the correct Maxwell-Stefan formulation, (e) symmetry behavior upon re-labeling species, (f) reasonable non-equilibrium phase behavior, (g) agreement with Molecular Dynamics simulations, (h) agreement with the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, (i) a vanishing diffusive flux at the critical point, and (j) other qualitatively-correct behaviors when applied to problems in porous membranes and in packed beds.

  19. Water vapor diffusion membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, F. F., Jr.; Smith, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The program is reported, which was designed to define the membrane technology of the vapor diffusion water recovery process and to test this technology using commercially available or experimental membranes. One membrane was selected, on the basis of the defined technology, and was subjected to a 30-day demonstration trial.

  20. Stellar atmospheric structural patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The thermodynamics of stellar atmospheres is discussed. Particular attention is given to the relation between theoretical modeling and empirical evidence. The characteristics of distinctive atmospheric regions and their radical structures are discussed.

  1. Our shared atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our atmosphere is a precious and fascinating resource, providing air to breath, shielding us from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV), and maintaining a comfortable climate. Since the industrial revolution, people have significantly altered the composition of the atmosphere throu...

  2. The Atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. E. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Topics considered at the conference included the dynamics, structure, chemistry, and evolution of the Venus atmosphere, as well as cloud physics and motion. Infrared, ultraviolet, and radio occultation methods of analysis are discussed, and atmospheric models are described.

  3. The atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars is essentially a pure carbon dioxide atmosphere that contains a small and seasonably varying amount of water vapor. A number of minor constituents which arise from the interactions of solar radiation with water vapor and carbon dioxide include carbon monoxide, atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, ozone, and atomic hydrogen. At the surface of Mars the atmospheric pressure is less than one hundredth of the pressure at the surface of the earth. Extensive cloud systems appear on Mars. The structure of the lower Martian atmosphere is discussed together with variations in the lower atmosphere and the characteristics of the upper atmosphere. Reactions of photochemistry are considered along with the atmospheric escape and interactions between the atmosphere and the polar caps.

  4. Soot formation and temperature structure in small methane-oxygen diffusion flames at subcritical and supercritical pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Hyun I.; Guelder, Oemer L.

    2010-06-15

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the characteristics of laminar methane-oxygen diffusion flames up to 100 atmospheres. The influence of pressure on soot formation and on the structure of the temperature field was investigated over the pressure range of 10-90 atmospheres in a high-pressure combustion chamber using a non-intrusive, line-of-sight spectral soot emission diagnostic technique. Two distinct zones characterized the appearance of a methane and pure oxygen diffusion flame: an inner luminous zone similar to the methane-air diffusion flames, and an outer diffusion flame zone which is mostly blue. The flame height, marked by the visible soot radiation emission, was reduced by over 50% over the pressure range of 10-100 atmospheres. Between 10 and 40 atmospheres, the soot levels increased with increasing pressure; however, above 40 atmospheres the soot concentrations decreased with increasing pressure. (author)

  5. An Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory for the Space Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.; Anderson, J.; Schrick, B.; Ellsworth, C.; Davis, M.

    1976-01-01

    Results of research and engineering analyses to date show that it is feasible to develop and fly on the first Spacelab mission a multipurpose laboratory in which experiments can be performed on the microphysical processes in atmospheric clouds. The paper presents a series of tables on the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory, with attention given to experiment classes, the preliminary equipment list (particle generators, optical and imaging devices, particle detectors and characterizers, etc.), initial equipment (scientific equipment subsystems and flight support subsystems), and scientific functional requirements (the expansion chamber, the continuous flow diffusion chamber, the static diffusion chamber, the humidifier, and particle generators).

  6. Atmospheric-pressure-plasma nitriding of titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimitsu, Yuki; Ichiki, Ryuta; Kasamura, Kotaro; Yoshida, Masashi; Akamine, Shuichi; Kanazawa, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric-pressure-plasma nitriding of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has been achieved by using a pulsed-arc plasma jet with a N2/H2 gas mixture, where the plasma jet plume is sprayed onto the titanium surface under atmospheric pressure. We successfully formed a titanium nitride layer on the sample surface. Moreover, the diffusion layer was also formed, the hardness of which was increased from that of as-received titanium. The nitride layer growth was found to be diffusion-controlled, as in other conventional nitriding methods.

  7. Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian; Jensen, R. V. Skougaard; Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    2010-10-04

    Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

  8. Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence, and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations but share the same core physical principle – light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., the biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation, and lastly imaging contrast. PMID:24860804

  9. Diffusive flux of methane from warm wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, T.R.; Burke, R.A.; Sackett, W.M. )

    1988-12-01

    Diffusion of methane across the air-water interface from several wetland environments in south Florida was estimated from measured surface water concentrations using an empirically derived gas exchange model. The flux from the Everglades sawgrass marsh system varied widely, ranging from 0.18 + or{minus}0.21 mol CH{sub 4}/sq m/yr for densely vegetated regions to 2.01 + or{minus}0.88 for sparsely vegetated, calcitic mud areas. Despite brackish salinities, a strong methane flux, 1.87 + or{minus}0.63 mol CH{sub 4}/sq m/yr, was estimated for an organic-rich mangrove pond near Florida Bay. The diffusive flux accounted for 23, 36, and 13% of the total amount of CH{sub 4} emitted to the atmosphere from these environments, respectively. The average dissolved methane concentration for an organic-rich forested swamp was the highest of any site at 12.6 microM; however, the calculated diffusive flux from this location, 2.57 + or{minus}1.88 mol CH{sub 4}/sq m/yr, was diminished by an extensive plant canopy that sheltered the air-water interface from the wind. The mean diffusive flux from four freshwater lakes, 0.77 + or{minus}0.73 mol CH{sub 4}/sq m/yr, demonstrated little temperature dependence. The mean diffusive flux for an urbanized, subtropical estuary was 0.06 + or{minus}0.05 mol CH{sub 4}/sq m/yr.

  10. Atmospheric Nitrogen Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K. U.; Sokolsky, Pierre; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence. The nitrogen fluorescence yield from air shower electrons depends on the atmospheric composition. We will discuss the uncertainties in the fluorescence yield form electrons in the real atmosphere and describe a concept for a small balloon payload to measure the atmospheric fluorescence yield as a function of attitude.

  11. Magnetic effects in hot Jupiter atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, T. M.; Komacek, T. D.

    2014-10-20

    We present magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the atmospheres of hot Jupiters ranging in temperature from 1100 to 1800 K. Magnetic effects are negligible in atmospheres with temperatures ≲1400 K. At higher temperatures winds are variable and, in many cases, mean equatorial flows can become westward, opposite to their hydrodynamic counterparts. Ohmic dissipation peaks at temperatures ∼1500-1600 K, depending on field strength, with maximum values ∼10{sup 18} W at 10 bars, substantially lower than previous estimates. Based on the limited parameter study done, this value cannot be increased substantially with increasing winds, higher temperatures, higher field strengths, different boundary conditions, or lower diffusivities. Although not resolved in these simulations, there is modest evidence that a magnetic buoyancy instability may proceed in hot atmospheres.

  12. A white dwarf with an oxygen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kepler, S O; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Stars born with masses below around 10 solar masses end their lives as white dwarf stars. Their atmospheres are dominated by the lightest elements because gravitational diffusion brings the lightest element to the surface. We report the discovery of a white dwarf with an atmosphere completely dominated by oxygen, SDSS J124043.01+671034.68. After oxygen, the next most abundant elements in its atmosphere are neon and magnesium, but these are lower by a factor of ≥25 by number. The fact that no hydrogen or helium are observed is surprising. Oxygen, neon, and magnesium are the products of carbon burning, which occurs in stars at the high-mass end of pre-white dwarf formation. This star, a possible oxygen-neon white dwarf, will provide a rare observational test of the evolutionary paths toward white dwarfs. PMID:27034367

  13. A white dwarf with an oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Stars born with masses below around 10 solar masses end their lives as white dwarf stars. Their atmospheres are dominated by the lightest elements because gravitational diffusion brings the lightest element to the surface. We report the discovery of a white dwarf with an atmosphere completely dominated by oxygen, SDSS J124043.01+671034.68. After oxygen, the next most abundant elements in its atmosphere are neon and magnesium, but these are lower by a factor of ≥25 by number. The fact that no hydrogen or helium are observed is surprising. Oxygen, neon, and magnesium are the products of carbon burning, which occurs in stars at the high-mass end of pre-white dwarf formation. This star, a possible oxygen-neon white dwarf, will provide a rare observational test of the evolutionary paths toward white dwarfs.

  14. A white dwarf with an oxygen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kepler, S O; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Stars born with masses below around 10 solar masses end their lives as white dwarf stars. Their atmospheres are dominated by the lightest elements because gravitational diffusion brings the lightest element to the surface. We report the discovery of a white dwarf with an atmosphere completely dominated by oxygen, SDSS J124043.01+671034.68. After oxygen, the next most abundant elements in its atmosphere are neon and magnesium, but these are lower by a factor of ≥25 by number. The fact that no hydrogen or helium are observed is surprising. Oxygen, neon, and magnesium are the products of carbon burning, which occurs in stars at the high-mass end of pre-white dwarf formation. This star, a possible oxygen-neon white dwarf, will provide a rare observational test of the evolutionary paths toward white dwarfs.

  15. Impact of layering and microstructure on gas diffusion through snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelsky, A. N.; Albert, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding relationships between snow structure and gas transport properties in seasonal snow is crucial for correctly quantifying gas fluxes through the snow. Wintertime soil respiration of CO2 has been estimated to significantly contribute to the carbon budget, but CO2 must first diffuse through the snowpack before being released to the atmosphere. The snowpack is not homogeneous; the structure varies both in space and in time, which can have profound impacts on the snow diffusivity. Former assessments of gas flux in seasonal snow apply empirical relations based on single, fixed conditions, which limits the accuracy of the assessment results. In this presentation we report on laboratory measurements through snow and firn samples that have various metamorphic properties. Diffusion coefficients determined from the measurements are used to investigate the impact of layering and inhomogeneous structure on diffusion rates on larger scales, through multidimensional numerical simulations.

  16. Asteroseismic tests of element diffusion in solar type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Théado, S.; Vauclair, S.; Castro, M.; Charpinet, S.; Dolez, N.

    2005-07-01

    Following the success of helioseismology, asteroseismology is now becoming a fundamental tool for penetrating the secrets of the internal structure of stars. In preparation of this new era in stellar physics, we study the effects of element diffusion on the computed frequencies of stellar oscillation modes for main-sequence solar-type stars. As the observed stars will be constrained by their atmospheric parameters, stellar models were computed with different physical inputs (whether including element diffusion or not) and iterated in order to fit the same observables (effective temperature, luminosity, surface chemical composition). The theoretical oscillation frequencies of these models were derived and compared. The results show that diffusion alters the internal structure of the models and their oscillation frequencies in a significant way. Although observational uncertainties in stellar external parameters are still important, comparisons between oscillation frequencies observed with the future space mission COROT and theoretically computed ones might provide evidence for diffusion processes in solar type stars.

  17. Chemical stratification in white dwarf atmospheres and envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, D.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical arguments supporting a new mechanism maintaining a homogeneously mixed composition in white dwarf atmospheres with traces of helium are presented. Diffusion time scales, meridional circulation, mass loss, accretion of interstellar matter, convection, and radiative levitation are discussed. Theoretically, layered envelopes, with hydrogen on top of helium and an abundance profile in the transition layer determined by diffusion equilibrium, are expected. In cases with observed helium and hydrogen in the atmosphere this means that the total hydrogen mass must be very small. The empirical evidence for such atmospheres are assessed, using a new grid of model atmospheres with stratified element abundances and applying it to typical mixed abundance cases at the hot end of the white dwarf temperature sequence.

  18. PERFORMANCE OF A NEW DIFFUSIVE SAMPLER FOR HG0 DETERMINATION IN THE TROPOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury behaves uniquely in the atmosphere due to its volatility and long lifetime. The existing methods for measuring atmospheric mercury are either expensive or labour intensive. The present paper presents a new measurement technique, the diffusive sampler, that is portable, in...

  19. The Effect of Gravity Waves on Jupiter's Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelle, R. V.; Young, L. A.; Young, R. E.

    1998-09-01

    The temperature profile of Jupiter's middle atmosphere exhibits numerous fluctuations that are likely the manifestation of gravity waves. The amplitude of the temperature perturbations are large enough for non-linear effects on the wave propagation, the interaction among waves, and the interaction between waves and the background atmosphere to be important. As a consequence wave propagation and dissipation affects the energy balance, momentum balance, and diffusion of trace species in the middle atmosphere. We adapt theories for wave-wave interaction developed for the terrestrial atmosphere to Jupiter's atmosphere and extend them to include dissipation by molecular viscosity and thermal conduction. Although definitive conclusions are limited by our knowledge of the wave spectrum on Jupiter, we find that wave-wave interactions in the presence of these molecular effects can explain the observed levels of turbulent mixing and dynamical heating in the middle atmosphere.

  20. Plasma ion heating of an SO2 atmosphere on Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. E.

    1989-10-01

    The Jovian plasma-ion heating of any atmospheric gas over Io is shown to be important for determining the temperature structure and the location of the exobase and for limiting diffusive separation in Io's atmosphere. This is used, along with the plasma supply rate, to estimate an average column of gas over the trailing hemisphere of about 3 x 10 to the 16th SO2/sq cm with exobase at about 1.4 Io radii.

  1. Nonisothermal Pluto atmosphere models

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.; Yelle, R.V.; Lunine, J.I. )

    1990-03-01

    The present thermal profile calculation for a Pluto atmosphere model characterized by a high number fraction of CH4 molecules encompasses atmospheric heating by solar UV flux absorption and conductive transport cooling to the surface of Pluto. The stellar occultation curve predicted for an atmosphere of several-microbar surface pressures (which entail the existence of a substantial temperature gradient close to the surface) agrees with observations and implies that the normal and tangential optical depth of the atmosphere is almost negligible. The minimum period for atmospheric methane depletion is calculated to be 30 years. 29 refs.

  2. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-12-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion.

  3. Turbo fluid machinery and diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, T.

    1984-01-01

    The general theory behind turbo devices and diffusers is explained. Problems and the state of research on basic equations of flow and experimental and measuring methods are discussed. Conventional centrifugation-type compressor and fan diffusers are considered in detail.

  4. Diffuse UV Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Murthy, J.

    2012-01-01

    The diffuse UV sky is expected to glow with significant amounts of starlight that is scattered from the interstellar dust. The albedo and scattering pattern of the dust in the ultraviolet are both well established, and are both fairly independent of wavelength from 912 Å to 3000 Å. We present 1943 Voyager spectra of the diffuse cosmic background radiation from 500 Å to 1200 Å, and we compare their brightnesses, and their distribution on the sky, to those observed (Murthy et al., ApJ 724, 1389, 2010) from the GALEX mission at longer wavelengths (1530 Å). Significant differences appear, suggesting that background radiation components in addition to dust-scattered starlight may be present in both spectral regions.

  5. Nonlocal electrical diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; Olivares-Peregrino, V. H.; Benavides-Cruz, M.; Calderón-Ramón, C.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis and modeling of the electrical diffusion equation using the fractional calculus approach. This alternative representation for the current density is expressed in terms of the Caputo derivatives, the order for the space domain is 0<β≤1 and for the time domain is 0<γ≤2. We present solutions for the full fractional equation involving space and time fractional derivatives using numerical methods based on Fourier variable separation. The case with spatial fractional derivatives leads to Levy flight type phenomena, while the time fractional equation is related to sub- or super diffusion. We show that the mathematical concept of fractional derivatives can be useful to understand the behavior of semiconductors, the design of solar panels, electrochemical phenomena and the description of anomalous complex processes.

  6. Diffusion dans les liquides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianoux, A. J.

    2003-09-01

    Après une brève introduction qui rappelle les concepts détaillés dans le cours de M. Bée, nous présentons un aperçu de trois de nos travaux sur l'étude de la diffusion. Tout d'abord la dynamique de l'eau, dans son état normal ou surfondu, révèle la complexité apportée par le réseau de liaisons hydrogène. Ensuite l'effet du confinement sur la dynamique de l'eau sera étudié dans le cas de la membrane Nafion. Enfin la diffusion dans les phases nématique et smectique A d'un cristal liquide permet d'obtenir la valeur du potentiel qui maintient les couches dans la phase smectique.

  7. Orientability and Diffusion Maps

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Amit; Wu, Hau-tieng

    2010-01-01

    One of the main objectives in the analysis of a high dimensional large data set is to learn its geometric and topological structure. Even though the data itself is parameterized as a point cloud in a high dimensional ambient space ℝp, the correlation between parameters often suggests the “manifold assumption” that the data points are distributed on (or near) a low dimensional Riemannian manifold ℳd embedded in ℝp, with d ≪ p. We introduce an algorithm that determines the orientability of the intrinsic manifold given a sufficiently large number of sampled data points. If the manifold is orientable, then our algorithm also provides an alternative procedure for computing the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian that are important in the diffusion map framework for reducing the dimensionality of the data. If the manifold is non-orientable, then we provide a modified diffusion mapping of its orientable double covering. PMID:21765628

  8. Galactic Diffuse Polarized Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretti, Ettore

    2011-12-01

    Diffuse polarized emission by synchrotron is a key tool to investigate magnetic fields in the Milky Way, particularly the ordered component of the large scale structure. Key observables are the synchrotron emission itself and the RM is by Faraday rotation. In this paper the main properties of the radio polarized diffuse emission and its use to investigate magnetic fields will be reviewed along with our current understanding of the galactic magnetic field and the data sets available. We will then focus on the future perspective discussing RM-synthesis - the new powerful instrument devised to unlock the information encoded in such an emission - and the surveys currently in progress like S-PASS and GMIMS.

  9. Thermal diffusivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gfroerer, Tim; Phillips, Ryan; Rossi, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The tip of a rod is heated with a torch and brought into contact with the center of a metal sheet. A thermal camera is then used to image the temperature profile of the surface as a function of time. The infrared camera is capable of recording radiometric data with 1 mK resolution in nearly 105 pixels, so thermal diffusion can be monitored with unprecedented precision. With a frame rate of approximately 10 Hz, the pace of the data acquisition minimizes the loss of accuracy due to inevitable cooling mechanisms. We report diffusivity constants equal to 1.23 ± 0.06 cm2/s in copper and 0.70 ± 0.05 cm2/s in aluminum. The behavior is modeled with a straightforward but oddly under-utilized one-dimensional finite difference method.

  10. Mass transport by diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, James K.

    1987-01-01

    For the purpose of determining diffusion coefficients as required for electrodeposition studies and other applications, a diaphragm cell and an isothermal water bath were constructed. the calibration of the system is discussed. On the basis of three calibration runs on the diaphram cell, researchers concluded that the cell constant beta equals 0.12 cm -2 . Other calibration runs in progress should permit the cell constant to be determined with an accuracy of one percent.

  11. Peridynamic thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Oterkus, Selda; Madenci, Erdogan; Agwai, Abigail

    2014-05-15

    This study presents the derivation of ordinary state-based peridynamic heat conduction equation based on the Lagrangian formalism. The peridynamic heat conduction parameters are related to those of the classical theory. An explicit time stepping scheme is adopted for numerical solution of various benchmark problems with known solutions. It paves the way for applying the peridynamic theory to other physical fields such as neutronic diffusion and electrical potential distribution.

  12. Random diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Mazenko, Gene F

    2008-09-01

    We study the random diffusion model. This is a continuum model for a conserved scalar density field varphi driven by diffusive dynamics. The interesting feature of the dynamics is that the bare diffusion coefficient D is density dependent. In the simplest case, D=D[over ]+D_{1}deltavarphi , where D[over ] is the constant average diffusion constant. In the case where the driving effective Hamiltonian is quadratic, the model can be treated using perturbation theory in terms of the single nonlinear coupling D1 . We develop perturbation theory to fourth order in D1 . The are two ways of analyzing this perturbation theory. In one approach, developed by Kawasaki, at one-loop order one finds mode-coupling theory with an ergodic-nonergodic transition. An alternative more direct interpretation at one-loop order leads to a slowing down as the nonlinear coupling increases. Eventually one hits a critical coupling where the time decay becomes algebraic. Near this critical coupling a weak peak develops at a wave number well above the peak at q=0 associated with the conservation law. The width of this peak in Fourier space decreases with time and can be identified with a characteristic kinetic length which grows with a power law in time. For stronger coupling the system becomes metastable and then unstable. At two-loop order it is shown that the ergodic-nonergodic transition is not supported. It is demonstrated that the critical properties of the direct approach survive, going to higher order in perturbation theory.

  13. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  14. Thermal diffusivity of seasonal snow determined from temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldroyd, H. J.; Higgins, C. W.; Huwald, H.; Selker, J. S.; Parlange, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Thermal diffusivity of snow is an important thermodynamic property associated with key hydrological phenomena such as snow melt and heat and water vapor exchange with the atmosphere. Direct determination of snow thermal diffusivity requires coupled point measurements of thermal conductivity and density, which continually change due to snow metamorphism. Traditional methods for determining these two quantities are generally limited by temporal resolution. In this study we present a method to determine the thermal diffusivity of snow with high temporal resolution using snow temperature profile measurements. High resolution (between 2.5 and 10 cm at 1 min) temperature measurements from the seasonal snow pack at the Plaine-Morte glacier in Switzerland are used as initial conditions and Neumann (heat flux) boundary conditions to numerically solve the one-dimensional heat equation and iteratively optimize for thermal diffusivity. The implementation of Neumann boundary conditions and a t-test, ensuring statistical significance between solutions of varied thermal diffusivity, are important to help constrain thermal diffusivity such that spurious high and low values as seen with Dirichlet (temperature) boundary conditions are reduced. The results show that time resolved thermal diffusivity can be determined from temperature measurements of seasonal snow and support density-based empirical parameterizations for thermal conductivity.

  15. Solute diffusion in liquid metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N.

    1973-01-01

    A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.

  16. Defect reactions in gallium antimonide studied by zinc and self-diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunder, Kirsten; Bracht, Hartmut

    2007-12-01

    Extrinsic diffusion of zinc (Zn) in gallium antimonide (GaSb) under Ga-rich conditions was analyzed on the basis of the kick-out and the dissociative diffusion mechanism. It is concluded that the changeover of interstitial Zn to substitutional gallium (Ga) sites is mainly mediated by Ga interstitials ( IGa). Fitting of the Zn profiles provides the relative contributions of IGa to Ga diffusion. This contribution is lower than the directly measured Ga diffusion coefficient indicating that Ga diffusion in GaSb is rather mediated by Ga vacancies than by Ga interstitials even under Ga-rich conditions. This finding supports transformation reactions between native point defects that are confirmed by first-principles total-energy calculations. In addition Ga and Sb diffusion experiments under H22 atmosphere were performed to reconcile the controversial data on self-diffusion in GaSb published by Weiler et al. and Bracht et al.

  17. Percolation of interaction diffusing particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1990-01-01

    The connectivity properties of systems of diffusing interacting particles with the blind and myopic diffusion rules are studied. It is found that the blind rule case is equivalent to the lattice gas with J = 0 in all dimensions. The connectivity properties of blind rule diffusion are described by random site percolation due to the fact that the density on neighboring sites is uncorrelated.

  18. Atmospheric Correction for Satellite Ocean Color Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, Curtis D.; Werdell, Jeremy; Franz, Bryan; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Bailey, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This tutorial is an introduction to atmospheric correction in general and also documentation of the atmospheric correction algorithms currently implemented by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) for processing ocean color data from satellite-borne sensors such as MODIS and VIIRS. The intended audience is graduate students or others who are encountering this topic for the first time. The tutorial is in two parts. Part I discusses the generic atmospheric correction problem. The magnitude and nature of the problem are first illustrated with numerical results generated by a coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer model. That code allow the various contributions (Rayleigh and aerosol path radiance, surface reflectance, water-leaving radiance, etc.) to the topof- the-atmosphere (TOA) radiance to be separated out. Particular attention is then paid to the definition, calculation, and interpretation of the so-called "exact normalized water-leaving radiance" and its equivalent reflectance. Part I ends with chapters on the calculation of direct and diffuse atmospheric transmittances, and on how vicarious calibration is performed. Part II then describes one by one the particular algorithms currently used by the OBPG to effect the various steps of the atmospheric correction process, viz. the corrections for absorption and scattering by gases and aerosols, Sun and sky reflectance by the sea surface and whitecaps, and finally corrections for sensor out-of-band response and polarization effects. One goal of the tutorial-guided by teaching needs- is to distill the results of dozens of papers published over several decades of research in atmospheric correction for ocean color remote sensing.

  19. MAVEN Imaging UV Spectrograph Results on the Mars Atmosphere and Atmospheric Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Michael; Schneider, Nick; McClintock, Bill; Stewart, Ian; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Clarke, John; Holsclaw, Greg; Montmessin, Franck; Lefevre, Franck; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Stiepen, Arnaud; Crismani, Matteo; Mayyasi, Majd; Evans, Scott; Stevens, Mike; Yelle, Roger; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) is one of nine science instruments aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft, whose payload is dedicated to exploring the upper atmosphere of Mars and understanding the magnitude and drivers of Mars' atmospheric escape rate. IUVS uses ultraviolet light to investigate the lower and upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. The instrument is among the most powerful spectrographs sent to another planet, with several key capabilities: (1) separate Far-UV & Mid-UV channels for stray light control, (2) a high resolution echelle mode to resolve deuterium and hydrogen emission, (3) internal instrument pointing and scanning capabilities to allow complete mapping and nearly continuous operation, and (4) optimization for airglow studies. IUVS, along with other MAVEN instruments, obtains a comprehensive picture of the current state of the Mars upper atmosphere and ionosphere and the processes that control atmospheric escape. We present an overview of selected IUVS results, including (1) the discovery of diffuse aurora at Mars, and its contrast with previously detected discrete aurora localized near crustal magnetic fields; (2) widespread detection of mesospheric clouds; (3) Significant seasonal and short-timescale variability in thermospheric composition; (4) Global ozone maps spanning six months of seasonal evolution; and (5) mapping of the Mars H and O coronas, deriving the escape rates of H and O and their variability. This last is of particular importance for understanding the long term evolution of Mars and its atmosphere, with the observed preset escape of H potentially capable of removing a large fraction of Mars' initial water inventory, and the differential escape of O relative to H potentially providing a net source of oxidizing power to the atmosphere and planet at present, in contrast with a photochemical theory that predicts stoichiometrically balanced escape. The atmospheric and escape

  20. Understanding Coupling of Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation with Climatic Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Lubna

    Global solar radiation data is very important for wide variety of applications and scientific studies. However, this data is not readily available because of the cost of measuring equipment and the tedious maintenance and calibration requirements. Wide variety of models have been introduced by researchers to estimate and/or predict the global solar radiations and its components (direct and diffuse radiation) using other readily obtainable atmospheric parameters. The goal of this research is to understand the coupling of global and diffuse solar radiation with climatic variability, by investigating the relationships between these radiations and atmospheric parameters. For this purpose, we applied multilinear regression analysis on the data of National Solar Radiation Database 1991--2010 Update. The analysis showed that the main atmospheric parameters that affect the amount of global radiation received on earth's surface are cloud cover and relative humidity. Global radiation correlates negatively with both variables. Linear models are excellent approximations for the relationship between atmospheric parameters and global radiation. A linear model with the predictors total cloud cover, relative humidity, and extraterrestrial radiation is able to explain around 98% of the variability in global radiation. For diffuse radiation, the analysis showed that the main atmospheric parameters that affect the amount received on earth's surface are cloud cover and aerosol optical depth. Diffuse radiation correlates positively with both variables. Linear models are very good approximations for the relationship between atmospheric parameters and diffuse radiation. A linear model with the predictors total cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, and extraterrestrial radiation is able to explain around 91% of the variability in diffuse radiation. Prediction analysis showed that the linear models we fitted were able to predict diffuse radiation with efficiency of test adjusted R2 values

  1. Particle diffusion in a spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Levinton, F.M.; Yamada, M.

    1988-01-01

    The local carbon particle diffusion coefficient was measured in the Proto S-1/C spheromak using a test particle injection scheme. When the plasma was not in a force-free Taylor state, and when there were pressure gradients in the plasma, the particle diffusion was five times that predicted by Bohm and was consistent with collisional drift wave diffusion. The diffusion appears to be driven by correlations of the fluctuating electric field and density. During the decay phase of the discharge when the plasma was in the Taylor state, the diffusion coefficient of the carbon was classical. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Atmospheric Electricity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, G.; Farrell, W.

    2011-10-01

    The atmosphere of Mars is one compelling example in our solar system that should possess active electrical processes, where dust storms are known to occur on local, regional, and global scales. Laboratory experiments and simulations all indicate that these events are expected to generate substantial quasi-static electric fields via triboelectric (i.e., frictional) charging, perhaps up to the breakdown potential of the Martian atmosphere. However current observations of potential electrical activity on Mars from both ground-based and orbital platforms have yielded conflicting results. If present, significant atmospheric electricity could be an important source of atmospheric chemistry on Mars, and thus impact our understanding of the evolution of the atmosphere and its past or present astrobiological potential. Here we review the current state of understanding regarding atmospheric electricity on Mars, and discuss its implications pending the results of future measurements.

  3. Community Atmosphere Model

    2004-10-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is an atmospheric general circulation model that solves equations for atmospheric dynamics and physics. CAM is an outgrowth of the Community Climate Model at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and was developed as a joint collaborative effort between NCAR and several DOE laboratories, including LLNL. CAM contains several alternative approaches for advancing the atmospheric dynamics. One of these approaches uses a finite-volume method originally developed by personnel atmore » NASNGSFC, We have developed a scalable version of the finite-volume solver for massively parallel computing systems. FV-CAM is meant to be used in conjunction with the Community Atmosphere Model. It is not stand-alone.« less

  4. Pluto's atmosphere near perihelion

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.M. )

    1989-11-01

    A recent stellar occultation has confirmed predictions that Pluto has an atmosphere which is sufficiently thick to uniformly envelope the planet and to extend far above the surface. Pluto's atmosphere consists of methane and perhaps other volatile gases at temperatures below their freezing points; it should regulate the surface temperature of its volatile ices to a globally uniform value. As Pluto approaches and passes through perihelion, a seasonal maximum in the atmospheric bulk and a corresponding minimum in the exposed volatile ice abundance is expected to occur. The lag in maximum atmospheric bulk relative to perihelion will be diagnostic of the surface thermal properties. An estimate of Pluto's atmospheric bulk may result if a global darkening (resulting from the disappearance of the seasonally deposited frosts) occurs before the time of maximum atmospheric bulk. The ice deposited shortly after perihelion may be diagnostic of the composition of Pluto's volatile reservoir.

  5. Diffuse, Warm Ionized Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past decade, new high-sensitivity observations have significantly advanced our knowledge of the diffuse, ionized gas in spiral galaxies. This component of the interstellar medium, often referred to as Warm Ionized Medium (WIM) or Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG), plays an important role in the complex stellar-interstellar matter and energy cycle. In examining the distribution and physical properties of this gas, we learn not only about the conditions of the medium but also about processes providing heating and ionization in the halos of spiral galaxies. For the Milky Way, three new Hα surveys are available providing large sky coverage, arc-minute spatial resolution, and the ability to kinematically resolve this prominent optical emission line. These new, global views show that the Warm Ionized Medium of the Galaxy is ubiquitous as previously suspected, is rich with filamentary structure down to current resolution limits, and can be traced into the halo at large distances from the Galactic plane. Observations of additional optical emission lines are beginning to probe the physical conditions of the WIM. Early results suggest variations in the temperature and ionization state of the gas which are not adequately explained by Lyman continuum stellar photoionization alone. In parallel with this intensive work in the Milky Way have been numerous studies about the diffuse, ionized gas in other spiral galaxies. Here, deep, face-on spiral investigations provide some of the best maps of the global DIG distribution in a galaxy and begin to allow a probe of the local link between star formation and the powering of ionized gas. In addition, ionized gas has been traced out to impressive distances (z > 3 kpc) in edge-on spirals, revealing out large-scale changes in the physical conditions and kinematics of galactic halos.

  6. Energy balance and plume dynamics in Triton's lower atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Yelle, R.V.; Lunine, J.I.; Hunten, D.M. )

    1991-02-01

    The present study of the thermal balance-affecting relationships among Triton lower atmosphere thermal conduction, eddy mixing, condensation, and radiative heating indicates that, while the temperature gradient is negative in the lower atmosphere, it becomes positive at higher altitudes due to the downward conduction of ionospheric heat. This temperature profile is essentially consistent with radio-occultation experiment data; the geyser-like plumes observed by Voyager suggest that the Trioton atmosphere's convective and conductive regions join near 10-km altitude, and that the values inferred for the eddy diffusion and heat-transport coefficients indicate a profile reminiscent of the earth's. 28 refs.

  7. Energy balance and plume dynamics in Triton's lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yelle, Roger V.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Hunten, Donald M.

    1991-01-01

    The present study of the thermal balance-affecting relationships among Triton lower atmosphere thermal conduction, eddy mixing, condensation, and radiative heating indicates that, while the temperature gradient is negative in the lower atmosphere, it becomes positive at higher altitudes due to the downward conduction of ionospheric heat. This temperature profile is essentially consistent with radio-occultation experiment data; the geyser-like plumes observed by Voyager suggest that the Trioton atmosphere's convective and conductive regions join near 10-km altitude, and that the values inferred for the eddy diffusion and heat-transport coefficients indicate a profile reminiscent of the earth's.

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigations of upper atmosphere dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, R. G.; Edwards, H. D.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of the significant contributions made to the understanding of the dynamics of the Earth's upper atmosphere is presented, including the addition of winds and diffusion to the semi-empirical Global Reference Atmospheric Model developed for the design phase of the Space Shuttle, reviews of turbulence in the lower thermosphere, the dynamics of the equatorial mesopause, stratospheric warming effects on mesopause level dynamics, and the relevance of these studies to the proposed Middle Atmosphere Program (1982-85). A chronological bibliography, with abstracts of all papers published, is also included.

  9. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland

    2004-05-14

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P

  10. Accelerated stochastic diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr

    1990-07-01

    We give a purely probabilistic demonstration that all effects of non-random (external, conservative) forces on the diffusion process can be encoded in the Nelson ansatz for the second Newton law. Each random path of the process together with a probabilistic weight carries a phase accumulation (complex valued) weight. Random path summation (integration) of these weights leads to the transition probability density and transition amplitude respectively between two spatial points in a given time interval. The Bohm-Vigier, Fenyes-Nelson-Guerra and Feynman descriptions of the quantum particle behaviours are in fact equivalent.

  11. Turbulent forced diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Arpaci, V.S.; Li, C.Y.

    1995-07-01

    It is the purpose of this study to introduce a turbulent microscale appropriate for forced diffusion flames and to propose models for fuel consumption and skin friction in terms of this scale. The study consists of four sections. Following the introduction, Section 2 recapitulates the laminar theories of reacting boundary layers in terms of dimensional arguments and proposes models for fuel consumption and skin friction. Section 3 extends these arguments by introducing a microscale appropriate for turbulent flames and, in terms of this scale, develops models for fuel consumption and skin friction, correlates the experimental data on skin friction, and Section 4 concludes the study.

  12. Diffusion from solid cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Nestor, C.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The problem considered is the diffusion of material from a solid cylinder initially containng a uniform concentration and immersed in a well-stirred bath which maintains the external concentration at zero. The Fourier-Bessel series form of the fraction of the original material removed from the cylinder as a function of time converges very slowly for small time. An alternate form was obtained, which converges reasonably rapidly for small time. The convergence acceleration method of P. Wynn was also used to provide an efficient method for computation. Numerical examples and program listings are included.

  13. Vapor Diffusion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA and VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham

  14. Vapor Diffusion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA-2) was developed by the University of Alabama in Birmingham for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the original VDA, a protein solution and a precipitant are extruded by two plungers onto the tip of a small syringe and allowed to evaporate, raising the concentration and prompting protein molecules to crystallize. In the VDA-2 version, a third plunger was added to mix the two solutions before returning the mix to the syringe tip. The principal investigator is Dr. Larry Delucas of the University of Alabama in Birmingham.

  15. Oscillations in stellar atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A. E.; Fontenla, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized.

  16. Sources of atmospheric ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Michaels, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The information available on factors that influence emissions from the principal societal sources of ammonia to the atmosphere, namely combustion processes, volatilization of farm animal wastes, and volatilization of fertilizers, is reviewed. Emission factors are established for each major source of atmospheric ammonia. The factors are then multiplied by appropriate source characterization descriptors to obtain calculated fluxes of ammonia to the atmosphere on a state-by-state basis for the United States.

  17. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  18. Atmospheres from Within

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Thomas; Abshire, James; Clancy, Todd; Fry, Ghee; Gustafson, Bo; Hecht, Michael; Kostiuk, Theodor; Rall, Jonathan; Reuter, Dennis; Sheldon, Robert

    1996-01-01

    In this review of atmospheric investigations from planetary surfaces, a wide variety of measurement and instrument techniques relevant to atmospheric studies from future planetary lander missions are discussed. The diversity of planetary surface environments within the solar system precludes complete or highly specific coverage, but lander investigations for Mars and cometary missions are presented as specific cases that represent the broad range of atmospheric-surface boundaries and that also correspond to high priority goals for future national and international lander missions.

  19. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP, volume 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A. (Editor); Edwards, B. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics related to investigations of the middle atmosphere are discussed. Numerical weather prediction, performance characteristics of weather profiling radars, determination of gravity wave and turbulence parameters, case studies of gravity-wave propagation, turbulence and diffusion due to gravity waves, the climatology of gravity waves, mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar, antenna arrays, and data management techniques are among the topics discussed.

  20. On non-local transport processes in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macneice, P.

    1992-01-01

    We review two mechanisms which can lend a non-local character to energy transport in the solar atmosphere, heat flux propagating in the form of collisionless electrons, and non-equilibrium ionization of hydrogen driven by ambipolar diffusion. Application of these processes to modelling of the lower transition region and upper chromosphere is considered.

  1. Radiant Extinction of Gaseous Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berhan, Sean; Atreya, Arvind; Everest, David; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    1999-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu-g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and mu-g flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames, flame spread over solids, droplet combustion, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (1) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation; and (2) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the "weak" (low burning rate per unit flame area) mu-g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in mu-g will burn indefinitely. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the mu-g experiments and modeling because: (1) It reduces the complexity by making the problem one

  2. Unsteady Spherical Diffusion Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, Arvind; Berhan, S.; Chernovsky, M.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2001-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu-g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and (mu-g) flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames, flame spread over solids, droplet combustion, and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (i) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation, and (ii) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the "weak" (low burning rate per unit flame area) mu-g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in mu-g will burn indefinitely. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the mu-g experiments and modeling because: (i) It reduces the complexity by making the problem one

  3. Radiant Extinction Of Gaseous Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berhan, S.; Chernovsky, M.; Atreya, A.; Baum, Howard R.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2003-01-01

    The absence of buoyancy-induced flows in microgravity (mu:g) and the resulting increase in the reactant residence time significantly alters the fundamentals of many combustion processes. Substantial differences between normal gravity (ng) and :g flames have been reported in experiments on candle flames [1, 2], flame spread over solids [3, 4], droplet combustion [5,6], and others. These differences are more basic than just in the visible flame shape. Longer residence times and higher concentration of combustion products in the flame zone create a thermochemical environment that changes the flame chemistry and the heat and mass transfer processes. Processes such as flame radiation, that are often ignored in ng, become very important and sometimes even controlling. Furthermore, microgravity conditions considerably enhance flame radiation by: (i) the build-up of combustion products in the high-temperature reaction zone which increases the gas radiation, and (ii) longer residence times make conditions appropriate for substantial amounts of soot to form which is also responsible for radiative heat loss. Thus, it is anticipated that radiative heat loss may eventually extinguish the Aweak@ (low burning rate per unit flame area) :g diffusion flame. Yet, space shuttle experiments on candle flames show that in an infinite ambient atmosphere, the hemispherical candle flame in :g will burn indefinitely [1]. This may be because of the coupling between the fuel production rate and the flame via the heat-feedback mechanism for candle flames, flames over solids and fuel droplet flames. Thus, to focus only on the gas-phase phenomena leading to radiative extinction, aerodynamically stabilized gaseous diffusion flames are examined. This enables independent control of the fuel flow rate to help identify conditions under which radiative extinction occurs. Also, spherical geometry is chosen for the :g experiments and modeling because: (i) It reduces the complexity by making the problem

  4. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    DOEpatents

    Nierenberg, William A.

    1976-08-10

    1. A diffuser separator apparatus which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage, each of said channels having an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports, at least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels being a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels having a different cross sectional area, means for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series, a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area.

  5. Diffusing obesity myths.

    PubMed

    Ramos Salas, X; Forhan, M; Sharma, A M

    2014-06-01

    Misinformation or myths about obesity can lead to weight bias and obesity stigma. Counteracting myths with facts and evidence has been shown to be effective educational tools to increase an individuals' knowledge about a certain condition and to reduce stigma.The purpose of this study was to identify common obesity myths within the healthcare and public domains and to develop evidence-based counterarguments to diffuse them. An online search of grey literature, media and public health information sources was conducted to identify common obesity myths. A list of 10 obesity myths was developed and reviewed by obesity experts and key opinion leaders. Counterarguments were developed using current research evidence and validated by obesity experts. A survey of obesity experts and health professionals was conducted to determine the usability and potential effectiveness of the myth-fact messages to reduce weight bias. A total of 754 individuals responded to the request to complete the survey. Of those who responded, 464 (61.5%) completed the survey. All 10 obesity myths were identified to be deeply pervasive within Canadian healthcare and public domains. Although the myth-fact messages were endorsed, respondents also indicated that they would likely not be sufficient to reduce weight bias. Diffusing deeply pervasive obesity myths will require multilevel approaches. PMID:25826775

  6. Sampling diffusive transition paths

    SciTech Connect

    F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

    2006-10-12

    We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

  7. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Anisotropic thermal diffusion in magnetized plasmas is an important physical phenomena for a diverse set of physical conditions ranging from astrophysical plasmas to MFE and ICF. Yet numerically simulating this phenomenon accurately poses significant challenges when the computational mesh is misaligned with respect to the magnetic field. Particularly when the temperature gradients are unresolved, one frequently finds entropy violating solutions with heat flowing from cold to hot zones for χ∥ /χ⊥ >=102 which is substantially smaller than the range of interest which can reach 1010 or higher. In this talk we present a new implicit algorithm for solving the anisotropic thermal diffusion equations and demonstrate its characteristics on what has become a fairly standard set of test problems in the literature. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2013-5687A.

  8. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening and medical emergency that can be caused by numerous disorders and presents with hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Early bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is usually required to confirm the diagnosis and rule out infection. Most cases of DAH are caused by capillaritis associated with systemic autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, but DAH may also result from coagulation disorders, drugs, inhaled toxins, or transplantation. The diagnosis of DAH relies on clinical suspicion combined with laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings. Early recognition is crucial, because prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary for survival. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents remain the gold standard. In patients with DAH, biopsy of involved sites can help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. This article aims to provide a general review of the causes and clinical presentation of DAH and to recommend a diagnostic approach and a management plan for the most common causes. PMID:23678356

  9. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Park, Moo Suk

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening and medical emergency that can be caused by numerous disorders and presents with hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Early bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is usually required to confirm the diagnosis and rule out infection. Most cases of DAH are caused by capillaritis associated with systemic autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, but DAH may also result from coagulation disorders, drugs, inhaled toxins, or transplantation. The diagnosis of DAH relies on clinical suspicion combined with laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings. Early recognition is crucial, because prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary for survival. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents remain the gold standard. In patients with DAH, biopsy of involved sites can help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. This article aims to provide a general review of the causes and clinical presentation of DAH and to recommend a diagnostic approach and a management plan for the most common causes.

  10. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    It has been reported that the most predominant constituents of coal extract are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Yet the experimental values of diffusivity in ethyl acetate for the most of these materials were not available in the literature. Thus, the diffusion coefficients of some of these materials were measured to increase an understanding of the diffusional behavior of coal macromolecules. In an earlier quarterly report, the authors reported the diffusion coefficients of some model coal molecules determined using their diffusion cell with polycarbonate membranes. Subsequently, they have found that these polycarbonate membranes are semi-permeable to some of the model compounds, so that the measured diffusion flux was greater than that through the pores alone. This extra solute flux could result in over estimation of the diffusion coefficients, therefore, they have now re-measured these diffusivities using polyester, rather than polycarbonate, membranes. The polyester material is not permeable to the solute molecules, except through the open pore area. Thus the only diffusion flux is that through the pores, resulting in correct diffusion coefficients as reported herein. The detailed results are presented in the body of this report. Finally in the last section the authors discuss a slight departure in methodology of some of their earlier planned work. This change will have a positive beneficial impact on the results and speed-up the collection of configurational diffusion data in actual tortuous porous media. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Geologic emissions of methane to the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Etiope, Giuseppe; Klusman, Ronald W

    2002-12-01

    The atmospheric methane budget is commonly defined assuming that major sources derive from the biosphere (wetlands, rice paddies, animals, termites) and that fossil, radiocarbon-free CH4 emission is due to and mediated by anthropogenic activity (natural gas production and distribution, and coal mining). However, the amount of radiocarbon-free CH4 in the atmosphere, estimated at approximately 20% of atmospheric CH4, is higher than the estimates from statistical data of CH4 emission from fossil fuel related anthropogenic sources. This work documents that significant amounts of "old" methane, produced within the Earth crust, can be released naturally into the atmosphere through gas permeable faults and fractured rocks. Major geologic emissions of methane are related to hydrocarbon production in sedimentary basins (biogenic and thermogenic methane) and, subordinately, to inorganic reactions (Fischer-Tropsch type) in geothermal systems. Geologic CH4 emissions include diffuse fluxes over wide areas, or microseepage, on the order of 10(0)-10(2) mg m(-2) day(-1), and localised flows and gas vents, on the order of 10(2) t y(-1), both on land and on the seafloor. Mud volcanoes producing flows of up to 10(3) t y(-1) represent the largest visible expression of geologic methane emission. Several studies have indicated that methanotrophic consumption in soil may be insufficient to consume all leaking geologic CH4 and positive fluxes into the atmosphere can take place in dry or seasonally cold environments. Unsaturated soils have generally been considered a major sink for atmospheric methane, and never a continuous, intermittent, or localised source to the atmosphere. Although geologic CH4 sources need to be quantified more accurately, a preliminary global estimate indicates that there are likely more than enough sources to provide the amount of methane required to account for the suspected missing source of fossil CH4.

  12. The Harrison Diffusion Kinetics Regimes in Solute Grain Boundary Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Belova, Irina; Fiedler, T; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Murch, Prof. Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the limits of the principal Harrison kinetics regimes (Type-A, B and C) for grain boundary diffusion is very important for the correct analysis of the depth profiles in a tracer diffusion experiment. These regimes for self-diffusion have been extensively studied in the past by making use of the phenomenological Lattice Monte Carlo (LMC) method with the result that the limits are now well established. The relationship of those self-diffusion limits to the corresponding ones for solute diffusion in the presence of solute segregation to the grain boundaries remains unclear. In the present study, the influence of solute segregation on the limits is investigated with the LMC method for the well-known parallel grain boundary slab model by showing the equivalence of two diffusion models. It is shown which diffusion parameters are useful for identifying the limits of the Harrison kinetics regimes for solute grain boundary diffusion. It is also shown how the measured segregation factor from the diffusion experiment in the Harrison Type-B kinetics regime may differ from the global segregation factor.

  13. Diffusing Diffusivity: Survival in a Crowded Rearranging and Bounded Domain.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit; Sebastian, Kizhakeyil L

    2016-09-01

    We consider a particle diffusing in a bounded, crowded, rearranging medium. The rearrangement happens on a time scale longer than the typical time scale of diffusion of the particle; as a result, effectively, the diffusion coefficient of the particle varies as a stochastic function of time. What is the probability that the particle will survive within the bounded region, given that it is absorbed the first time it hits the boundary of the region in which it diffuses? This question is of great interest in a variety of chemical and biological problems. If the diffusion coefficient is a constant, then analytical solutions for a variety of cases are available in the literature. However, there is no solution available for the case in which the diffusion coefficient is a random function of time. We discuss a class of models for which it is possible to find analytical solutions to the problem. We illustrate the method for a circular, two-dimensional region, but our methods are easy to apply to diffusion in arbitrary dimensions and spherical/rectangular regions. Our solution shows that if the dimension of the region is large, then only the average value of the diffusion coefficient determines the survival probability. However, for smaller-sized regions, one would be able to see the effects of the stochasticity of the diffusion coefficient. We also give generalizations of the results to N dimensions. PMID:27478982

  14. Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice cyrstals suspended in the air. The study of clouds touches on many facets of armospheric science. The chemistry of clouds is tied to the chemistry of the surrounding atmosphere.

  15. Evolution of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Theories on the origin of the Earth atmosphere and chemical composition are presented. The role of oxygenic photosynthesis on the determination of the Earth's origin is discussed. The research suggests that further analysis of the geologic record is needed to more accurately estimate the history of atmospheric oxygen.

  16. MODIS Atmospheric Data Handler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Fitzpatrick, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Atmosphere Data Handler software converts the HDF data to ASCII format, and outputs: (1) atmospheric profiles of temperature and dew point and (2) total precipitable water. Quality-control data are also considered in the export procedure.

  17. Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Christopher T.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Striegl, Rob; Stonestrom, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in the unsaturated zone affects contaminant flux and remediation, interpretation of groundwater travel times from atmospheric tracers, and mass budgets of environmentally important gases. Although unsaturated zone transport of gases is commonly treated as dominated by diffusion, the characteristics of transport in deep layered sediments remain uncertain. In this study, we use a multimodel approach to analyze results of a gas-tracer (SF6) test to clarify characteristics of gas transport in deep unsaturated alluvium. Thirty-five separate models with distinct diffusivity structures were calibrated to the tracer-test data and were compared on the basis of Akaike Information Criteria estimates of posterior model probability. Models included analytical and numerical solutions. Analytical models provided estimates of bulk-scale apparent diffusivities at the scale of tens of meters. Numerical models provided information on local-scale diffusivities and feasible lithological features producing the observed tracer breakthrough curves. The combined approaches indicate significant anisotropy of bulk-scale diffusivity, likely associated with high-diffusivity layers. Both approaches indicated that diffusivities in some intervals were greater than expected from standard models relating porosity to diffusivity. High apparent diffusivities and anisotropic diffusivity structures were consistent with previous observations at the study site of rapid lateral transport and limited vertical spreading of gas-phase contaminants. Additional processes such as advective oscillations may be involved. These results indicate that gases in deep, layered unsaturated zone sediments can spread laterally more quickly, and produce higher peak concentrations, than predicted by homogeneous, isotropic diffusion models.

  18. Delinating Thermohaline Double-Diffusive Rayleigh Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, T.; Walther, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liedl, R.

    2013-12-01

    In natural systems, convective flow induced from density differences may occur in near-coastal aquifers, atmospheric boundary layers, oceanic streams or within the earth crust. Whether an initially stable, diffusive regime evolves into a convective (stable or chaotic) regime, or vice versa, depends on the system's framing boundary conditions. A conventional parameter to express the relation between diffusive and convective forces of such a density-driven regime is Rayleigh number (Ra). While most systems are mainly dominated by only a single significant driving force (i.e. only temperature or salinity), some systems need to consider two boundary processes (e.g. deep, thus warm, haline flow in porous media). In that case, a two-dimensional, 'double-diffusive' Rayleigh system can be defined. Nield (1998) postulated a boundary between diffusive and convective regime at RaT + RaC = 4pi^2 in the first quadrant (Q1), with Rayleigh numbers for temperature and concentration respectively. The boundary in the forth quadrant (Q4) could not exactly be determined, yet the approximate position estimated. Simulations with HydroGeoSphere (Therrien, 2010) using a vertical, quadratic, homogeneous, isotropic setup confirmed the existence of the 4pi^2-boundary and revealed additional regimes (diffusive, single-roll, double-roll, chaotic) in Q1. Also, non-chaotic, oscillating patterns could be identified in Q4. More detailed investigations with OpenGeoSys (Kolditz, 2012) confirmed the preceding HGS results, and, using a 1:10-scaled domain (height:length), uncovered even more distinctive regimes (diffusive, minimum ten roles, supposely up to 25 roles, and chaotic?) in Q1, while again, oscillating patterns were found in the transition zone between diffusive and chaotic regimes in Q4. Output of numerical simulations from Q1 and Q4 show the mentioned regimes (diffusive, stable-convective, stable-oscillatory, chaotic) while results are displayed in context of a possible delination between

  19. Is anomalous transport diffusive

    SciTech Connect

    Rewoldt, G.

    1989-09-01

    It has often been assumed that the anomalous transport from saturated plasma instabilities is diffusive'' in the sense that the particle flux, {Gamma}, the electron energy flux, q{sub e}, and the ion energy flux, q{sub i}, can be written in forms that are linear in the density gradient, dn/dr, the electron temperature gradient, dT{sub e}/dr, and the ion temperature gradient dT{sub i}/dr. In the simplest form, {Gamma} = {minus} D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr), q{sub e} = {minus} D{sub e}{sup e}n(dT{sub e}/dr), and q{sub i} = {minus}D{sub i}{sup i}n(dT{sub i}/dr). A possible generalization of this is to include so-called off-diagonal'' terms, with {Gamma} = nV{sub n} {minus} D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr) {minus} D{sub n}{sup e}(n/T{sub e})(dT{sub e}/dr) {minus} D{sub n}{sup i}(n/T{sub i})(dT{sub i}/dr), with corresponding forms for the energy fluxes. Here, general results for the quasilinear particle and energy fluxes, resulting from tokamak linear microinstabilities, are evaluated to assess the relative importance of the diagonal and the off-diagonal terms. A further possible generatlization is to include also contributions to the fluxes from higher powers of the gradients, specifically quadratic'' contributions proportional to (dn/dr){sup 2}, (dn/dr)(dT{sub e}/dr), and so on. A procedure is described for evaluating the corresponding coefficients, and results are presented for illustrative realistic tokamak cases. Qualitatively, it is found that the off-diagonal diffusion coefficients can be as big as the diagonal ones, and that the quadratic terms can be larger than the linear ones. The results thus strongly suggest that the commonly used diffusive'' approximation with only diagonal terms, {Gamma} = {minus}D{sub n}{sup n}(dn/dr), and correspondingly for the energy fluxes, is not adequate in practice. 9 refs., 1 tabs.

  20. Apoplastic diffusion barriers in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nawrath, Christiane; Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J; Kunst, Ljerka

    2013-12-27

    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented.

  1. Apoplastic Diffusion Barriers in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus Benni; Geldner, Niko; Reina-Pinto, José J.; Kunst, Ljerka

    2013-01-01

    During the development of Arabidopsis and other land plants, diffusion barriers are formed in the apoplast of specialized tissues within a variety of plant organs. While the cuticle of the epidermis is the primary diffusion barrier in the shoot, the Casparian strips and suberin lamellae of the endodermis and the periderm represent the diffusion barriers in the root. Different classes of molecules contribute to the formation of extracellular diffusion barriers in an organ- and tissue-specific manner. Cutin and wax are the major components of the cuticle, lignin forms the early Casparian strip, and suberin is deposited in the stage II endodermis and the periderm. The current status of our understanding of the relationships between the chemical structure, ultrastructure and physiological functions of plant diffusion barriers is discussed. Specific aspects of the synthesis of diffusion barrier components and protocols that can be used for the assessment of barrier function and important barrier properties are also presented. PMID:24465172

  2. Osmosis and diffusion conceptual assessment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Kathleen M; Williams, Kathy S; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified from the previously published Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (DODT) and some newly developed items. The ODCA, a validated instrument containing fewer items than the DODT and emphasizing different content areas within the realm of osmosis and diffusion, better aligns with our curriculum. Creation of the ODCA involved removal of six DODT item pairs, modification of another six DODT item pairs, and development of three new item pairs addressing basic osmosis and diffusion concepts. Responses to ODCA items testing the same concepts as the DODT were remarkably similar to responses to the DODT collected from students 15 yr earlier, suggesting that student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis remains elusive.

  3. Development of electromagnetic cascades in the atmosphere including the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, R. E.; Stephens, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical solutions have been obtained for the one-dimensional atmospheric electromagnetic cascade diffusion equations, including the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal and screening effects. Spectra produced by primary gamma rays of various energies are given at a number of deths in the atmosphere.

  4. Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Kimberly A.; Hatch, Courtney D.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-07-01

    Aerosols represent an important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Because aerosols are composed of solid and liquid particles of varying chemical complexity, size, and phase, large challenges exist in understanding how they impact climate, health, and the chemistry of the atmosphere. Only through the integration of field, laboratory, and modeling analysis can we begin to unravel the roles atmospheric aerosols play in these global processes. In this article, we provide a brief review of the current state of the science in the analysis of atmospheric aerosols and some important challenges that need to be overcome before they can become fully integrated. It is clear that only when these areas are effectively bridged can we fully understand the impact that atmospheric aerosols have on our environment and the Earth's system at the level of scientific certainty necessary to design and implement sound environmental policies.

  5. The atmosphere below. (Videotape)

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    In this educational `Liftoff to Learning` video series, astronauts from the STS-45 Space Shuttle Mission (Kathy Sullivan, Byron Lichtenberg, Brian Duffy, Mike Foale, David Leestma, Charlie Bolden, and Dirk Frimont) explain and discuss the Earths atmosphere, its needs, the changes occurring within it, the importance of ozone, and some of the reasons behind the ozone depletion in the Earths atmosphere. The questions of: (1) what is ozone; (2) what has happened to the ozone layer in the atmosphere; and (3) what exactly does ozone do in the atmosphere, are answered. Different chemicals and their reactions with ozone are discussed. Computer animation and graphics show how these chemical reactions affect the atmosphere and how the ozone hole looks and develops at the south pole during its winter season appearance.

  6. Atmospheric Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric fluorescence from these showers. Accurate knowledge of the conversion from atmospheric fluorescence to energy loss by ionizing particles in the atmosphere is key to this technique. In this paper we discuss a small balloon-borne instrument to make the first in situ measurements versus altitude of the atmospheric fluorescence yield. The instrument can also be used in the lab to investigate the dependence of the fluorescence yield in air on temperature, pressure and the concentrations of other gases that present in the atmosphere. The results can be used to explore environmental effects on and improve the accuracy of cosmic ray energy measurements for existing ground-based experiments and future space-based experiments.

  7. The atmosphere below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    In this educational 'Liftoff to Learning' video series, astronauts from the STS-45 Space Shuttle Mission (Kathy Sullivan, Byron Lichtenberg, Brian Duffy, Mike Foale, David Leestma, Charlie Bolden, and Dirk Frimont) explain and discuss the Earths atmosphere, its needs, the changes occurring within it, the importance of ozone, and some of the reasons behind the ozone depletion in the Earths atmosphere. The questions of: (1) what is ozone; (2) what has happened to the ozone layer in the atmosphere; and (3) what exactly does ozone do in the atmosphere, are answered. Different chemicals and their reactions with ozone are discussed. Computer animation and graphics show how these chemical reactions affect the atmosphere and how the ozone hole looks and develops at the south pole during its winter season appearance.

  8. Geochemical cycles of atmospheric gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. C. G.; Drever, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The processes that control the atmosphere and atmospheric changes are reviewed. The geochemical cycles of water vapor, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and minor atmospheric constituents are examined. Changes in atmospheric chemistry with time are discussed using evidence from the rock record and analysis of the present atmosphere. The role of biological evolution in the history of the atmosphere and projected changes in the future atmosphere are considered.

  9. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber

    DOEpatents

    Maitland, Duncan J.

    2002-01-01

    A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

  10. Diffusion Coefficients in White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumon, D.; Starrett, C. E.; Daligault, J.

    2015-06-01

    Models of diffusion in white dwarfs universally rely on the coefficients calculated by Paquette et al. (1986). We present new calculations of diffusion coefficients based on an advanced microscopic theory of dense plasmas and a numerical simulation approach that intrinsically accounts for multiple collisions. Our method is validated against a state-of-the-art method and we present results for the diffusion of carbon ions in a helium plasma.

  11. Effective Diffusion Coefficient and Controlling Process of P Diffusion in Si Based on the Pair Diffusion Models of Vacancy and Interstitial Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Masayuki; Morooka, Masami; Takahashi, Manabu; Tomokage, Hajime

    2000-05-01

    Based on the pair diffusion models of vacancy and interstitial (V and I) mechanisms, the V and I components of effective P diffusion coefficient, DP^+,Veff and DP^+,Ieff, and the controlling process of P diffusion in Si are obtained. Assuming that the I mechanism is dominant, not only the I- concentration, CI^-, but also its gradient, d CI^-/d λ , is effective on DP^+,Ieff at high CP^+. DP^+,Ieff is large at d CI^-/d λ <0 and small at d CI^-/d λ >0. P+ and I- are generated by the dissociation of P-I pair. When excess I- thus generated is removed, d CI^-/d λ <0 is obtained. d CI^-/d λ <0 is also obtained by the decrease in quasi self-interstitial formation energy. Several diffusion models simulate the P diffusion profile well under an inert atmosphere. Applying the controlling process to them, the reason why they simulate the P profile well is investigated. Because all of them simulate the P profile well, it is difficult to conclude which model is correct. It is suggested that it is possible to conclude which model is correct from the P profile under oxidation at CP^+s >1× 1020 cm-3 (s: surface).

  12. Measurement of effective gas diffusion coefficients of catalyst layers of PEM fuel cells with a Loschmidt diffusion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Zhou, Jianqin; Astrath, Nelson G. C.; Navessin, Titichai; Liu, Zhong-Sheng (Simon); Lei, Chao; Rohling, Jurandir H.; Bessarabov, Dmitri; Knights, Shanna; Ye, Siyu

    In this work, using an in-house made Loschmidt diffusion cell, we measure the effective coefficient of dry gas (O 2-N 2) diffusion in cathode catalyst layers of PEM fuel cells at 25 °C and 1 atmosphere. The thicknesses of the catalyst layers under investigation are from 6 to 29 μm. Each catalyst layer is deposited on an Al 2O 3 membrane substrate by an automated spray coater. Diffusion signal processing procedure is developed to deduce the effective diffusion coefficient, which is found to be (1.47 ± 0.05) × 10 -7 m 2 s -1 for the catalyst layers. Porosity and pore size distribution of the catalyst layers are also measured using Hg porosimetry. The diffusion resistance of the interface between the catalyst layer and the substrate is found to be negligible. The experimental results show that the O 2-N 2 diffusion in the catalyst layers is dominated by the Knudsen effect.

  13. Atomic diffusion and observations of pulsating A stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Atomic diffusion - important in many contexts in stellar astrophysics and an important thread running through this meeting - is most spectacularly observable in the atmospheres of some A stars. The magnetic Ap stars and the non-magnetic Am stars show directly abundance anomalies caused by gravitational settling and radiative levitation. Over the last decade spectroscopic studies have begun to provide maps of abundance distributions in the magnetic Ap stars in three dimensions. Interestingly, high radial overtone p-mode pulsations in roAp stars have also given three-dimensional views of the stellar atmospheres with studies of rotational and line profile variations of pulsation amplitudes and phases. These detailed looks at the effects of microscopic atmospheric changes in the strongly non-LTE and magnetic upper atmospheric layers of Ap stars provide perhaps the most exciting challenge to atomic diffusion theory in terms of detailed explanation and prediction. Am stars were at one time thought not to pulsate because of gravitational settling of He from the He ii ionization zone that provides the κ-mechanism driving for δ Sct pulsations in A stars. In the last few years we have found with SuperWASP and Kepler observations that many Am stars do pulsate. More than half of all A stars pulsate at Kepler micromagnitude precision, yet there is a subset of A stars that truly do not pulsate at that level. Are these Am stars with the strongest signature of atomic diffusion? Is atomic diffusion the reason for the pulsational stability of these stars? The answers are not yet known.

  14. Diffusion in Jammed Particle Packs.

    PubMed

    Bolintineanu, Dan S; Grest, Gary S; Lechman, Jeremy B; Silbert, Leonardo E

    2015-08-21

    Using random walk simulations we explore diffusive transport through monodisperse sphere packings over a range of packing fractions ϕ in the vicinity of the jamming transition at ϕ(c). Various diffusion properties are computed over several orders of magnitude in both time and packing pressure. Two well-separated regimes of normal "Fickian" diffusion, where the mean squared displacement is linear in time, are observed. The first corresponds to diffusion inside individual spheres, while the latter is the long-time bulk diffusion. The intermediate anomalous diffusion regime and the long-time value of the diffusion coefficient are both shown to be controlled by particle contacts, which in turn depend on proximity to ϕ(c). The time required to recover normal diffusion t* scales as (ϕ-ϕ(c))(-0.5) and the long-time diffusivity D(∞)∼(ϕ-ϕ(c))0.5, or D(∞)∼1/t*. It is shown that the distribution of mean first passage times associated with the escape of random walkers between neighboring particles controls both t* and D(∞) in the limit ϕ→ϕ(c).

  15. Enthalpy Diffusion in Multicomponent Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, A W

    2009-01-20

    The conclusions of this paper are: (1) Enthalpy diffusion preserves the second law. (2) Euler solvers will not produce correct temperatures in mixing regions. (3) Navier-Stokes solvers will only produce correct temperatures if q{sub d} is included. (4) Errors from neglecting enthalpy diffusion are most severe when differences in molecular weights are large. (5) In addition to temperature, enthalpy diffusion affects density, dilatation and other fields in subtle ways. (6) Reacting flow simulations that neglect the term are a dubious proposition. (7) Turbulence models for RANS and LES closures should preserve consistency between energy and species diffusion.

  16. Diffusion in Jammed Particle Packs.

    PubMed

    Bolintineanu, Dan S; Grest, Gary S; Lechman, Jeremy B; Silbert, Leonardo E

    2015-08-21

    Using random walk simulations we explore diffusive transport through monodisperse sphere packings over a range of packing fractions ϕ in the vicinity of the jamming transition at ϕ(c). Various diffusion properties are computed over several orders of magnitude in both time and packing pressure. Two well-separated regimes of normal "Fickian" diffusion, where the mean squared displacement is linear in time, are observed. The first corresponds to diffusion inside individual spheres, while the latter is the long-time bulk diffusion. The intermediate anomalous diffusion regime and the long-time value of the diffusion coefficient are both shown to be controlled by particle contacts, which in turn depend on proximity to ϕ(c). The time required to recover normal diffusion t* scales as (ϕ-ϕ(c))(-0.5) and the long-time diffusivity D(∞)∼(ϕ-ϕ(c))0.5, or D(∞)∼1/t*. It is shown that the distribution of mean first passage times associated with the escape of random walkers between neighboring particles controls both t* and D(∞) in the limit ϕ→ϕ(c). PMID:26340211

  17. Energy spectra of high energy atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsui, K.; Minorikawa, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on high energy neutrinos ( or = 1 TeV), a new calculation of atmospheric neutrino intensities was carried out taking into account EMC effects observed in P-A collisions by accelerator, recent measurement of primary cosmic ray spectrum and results of cosmic ray muon spectrum and charge ratio. Other features of the present calculation are (1) taking into account kinematics of three body decays of kaons and charm particles in diffusion equations and (2) taking into account energy dependence of kaon production.

  18. Disequilibrium in planetary atmospheres and the search for habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoncini, E.

    It has long been observed that Earth's atmosphere is uniquely far from its thermochemical equilibrium state in terms of its chemical composition. Studying this state of disequilibrium is important for its potential role in the detection of life on other suitable planets \\citep{Lovelock_1965,Kleidon_2010,Simoncini_2015}. We developed a methodology to calculate the extent of atmospheric chemical disequilibrium\\citep{Simoncini_2015,Kondepudi_1996}. This tool allows us to understand, on a thermodynamic basis, how life affected - and still affects - geochemical processes on Earth, and if other planetary atmospheres are habitable or have a disequilibrium similar to the Earth's one. A new computational framework called KROME has been applied to atmospheric models in order to give a correct computation of reactions´ kinetics \\citep{Grassi_2015}. In this work we present a first computation of the extent of disequilibrium for the present Earth atmosphere, considering the specific contribution of the different atmospheric processes, such as thermochemical reactions, eddy diffusion, photochemistry, deposition, and the effect of the biosphere. We then assess the effect of life on atmospheric disequilibrium of the Earth and provide a useful discussion about how the study of atmospheric disequilibrium can help in finding habitable (exo)planets. We finally compare the chemical disequilibrium of Earth and Mars atmospheres, for present and early conditions.

  19. Atomic Diffusion, Mixing, and Element Abundances in Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauclair, S.

    2013-12-01

    Atomic diffusion is now recognized as a standard process working in stars, and gravitational settling is introduced in most stellar evolution codes. Helioseismology proved the importance of the downward diffusion of helium and heavy elements below the solar convective zone. However, in more massive stars, the effect of selective radiative accelerations cannot be neglected. It has been known for a long time that the resulting atomic levitation may, in some cases, lead to abundance variations in stellar atmospheres, as observed in the so-called chemically peculiar stars. But this was only part of the story. We have now discovered that, when acting on important elements like iron or nickel, radiative levitation may also lead to global macroscopic effects inside stars, like extra convective zones, wave excitation by the κ-mechanism, and double-diffusive mixing processes like fingering (thermohaline) convection. This paper presents some links between these processes and their consequences.

  20. Influence of cloud optical thickness on surface diffuse light and carbon uptake in forests and croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, S. J.; Steiner, A. L.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Accurately modeling atmospheric CO2 removal by terrestrial ecosystems requires an understanding of how atmospheric conditions change the rate of photosynthesis across major vegetation types. Diffuse light, which is created from interactions between incident solar radiation and atmospheric aerosols and clouds, has been postulated to increase carbon uptake in terrestrial ecosystems. To determine how cloud conditions affect carbon uptake through its influence on diffuse light, we quantify the relationship between cloud optical thickness, which indicates surface light attenuation by clouds, and surface diffuse light. We then examine the relationship between cloud optical thickness and gross primary productivity (GPP) to determine whether cloud properties could modulate GPP in temperate ecosystems. Surface diffuse light and GPP data are obtained from publically available Ameriflux data (Mead Crop sites, University of Michigan Biological Station, Morgan Monroe, and Howland Forest) and cloud optical thickness data over the Ameriflux sites are retrieved from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spetroradiometer. We compare the response of GPP to cloud optical thickness between croplands and forests, as well as within ecosystem types to determine ecosystem-specific responses and the role of plant community composition on ecosystem-level GPP under varying cloud conditions. By linking atmospheric cloud properties to surface light conditions and ecosystem carbon fluxes, we refine understanding of land-atmosphere carbon cycling and how changes in atmospheric cloud conditions may influence the future of the land carbon sink.