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Sample records for herpes simplex type-1

  1. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  2. Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Oxford, Kristie L; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A; Cranfield, Michael R; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans.

  3. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  4. Manipulation of herpes simplex virus type 1 by dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M P; Morgan, H; Rixon, F J; Burt, J P; Pethig, R

    1998-09-16

    The frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic behaviour of an enveloped mammalian virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 is described. It is demonstrated that over the range 10 kHz-20 MHz, these viral particles, when suspended in an aqueous medium of conductivity 5 mS m(-1), can be manipulated by both positive and negative dielectrophoresis using microfabricated electrode arrays. The observed transition from positive to negative dielectrophoresis at frequencies around 4.5 MHz is in qualitative agreement with a simple model of the virus as a conducting particle surrounded by an insulating membrane.

  5. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Hilton, D A; Flament-Saillour, M; Guillon, F; Wingertsmann, L; Baudrimont, M; de Truchis, P; Keohane, C; Vital, C; Love, S; Gray, F

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex (HSV) infection of the central nervous system is uncommon in AIDS and usually has an atypical topography. This review is centred around the case of a 49-year-old homosexual patient with AIDS who died from diffuse encephalopathy. Neuropathological examination revealed necrotic and haemorrhagic changes involving both temporal lobes, insulae and cingulate gyri. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundant but inflammation was minimal. Electron microscopy confirmed characteristic herpes virus particles. Immunocyto-chemistry was positive for HSV type 1 and 2. In situ hybridization and PCR, however, were positive for HSV type 1 but excluded HSV type 2. There was associated cytomegalovirus ventriculitis but clearly separated from HSV encephalitis. There were no histological features of HIV encephalitis and HIV could not be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry or by PCR to demonstrate proviral DNA. Apoptotic neurons were numerous in areas with a severe macrophage reaction. Only two pathological cases with characteristic limbic distribution and necrotic haemorrhagic histologic have been reported previously. The rarity of these reports suggests that in advanced AIDS, the immune reaction causing a typical necrotizing encephalitis cannot be mounted. Distinction between HSV type 1 and 2 infection may be difficult by immunocytochemistry and usually requires in situ hybridization, tissue culture or PCR. In AIDS patients, HSV-1 has been identified as responsible for encephalitis whereas HSV-2 has been more responsible for myelitis. Associated productive HIV infection of the CNS was found in none of the cases. In contrast, cytomegalovirus encephalitis was found in nine of 11 cases of AIDS-associated HSV encephalitis. PMID:8930949

  6. Herpes simplex virus type 1-derived recombinant and amplicon vectors.

    PubMed

    Fraefel, Cornel; Marconi, Peggy; Epstein, Alberto L

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen whose lifestyle is based on a long-term dual interaction with the infected host, being able to establish both lytic and latent infections. The virus genome is a 153 kbp double-stranded DNA molecule encoding more than 80 genes. The interest of HSV-1 as gene transfer vector stems from its ability to infect many different cell types, both quiescent and proliferating cells, the very high packaging capacity of the virus capsid, the outstanding neurotropic adaptations that this virus has evolved, and the fact that it never integrates into the cellular chromosomes, thus avoiding the risk of insertional mutagenesis. Two types of vectors can be derived from HSV-1, recombinant vectors and amplicon vectors, and different methodologies have been developed to prepare large stocks of each type of vector. This chapter summarizes (1) the two approaches most commonly used to prepare recombinant vectors through homologous recombination, either in eukaryotic cells or in bacteria, and (2) the two methodologies currently used to generate helper-free amplicon vectors, either using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based approach or a Cre/loxP site-specific recombination strategy.

  7. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  8. Detection and genotyping of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, G; Bathelier, C; Lespiaux, V; Bali, C; Champenois, T

    1995-10-01

    A simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was developed for simultaneous detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. It was possible to detect and type HSV using two primers pairs in a simultaneous double PCR reaction, where the type of HSV present was determined on the basis of an ethidium-bromide-stained band after agarose gel electrophoresis. This PCR assay was tested on about 500 clinical specimens.

  9. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.; Person, S.; Snipes, W.

    1981-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 ..mu..g/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 ..mu..g/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell.

  10. Glycoprotein D protects mice against lethal challenge with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed Central

    Long, D; Madara, T J; Ponce de Leon, M; Cohen, G H; Montgomery, P C; Eisenberg, R J

    1984-01-01

    Glycoprotein D is a virion envelope component of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. Sets of mice were immunized with purified gD-1 or gD-2 and were challenged with a lethal dose of herpes simple virus, either type 1 or type 2. All or virtually all of the immunized mice survived challenge with either agent, whereas challenge of sham-immunized mice was almost always fatal. Serum samples taken before challenge contained gD-specific antibodies which had 50% neutralization titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:512 against homologous and heterologous virus types. We conclude that either gD-1 or gD-2 is a potential candidate for a subunit vaccine against herpetic infections. Images PMID:6319291

  11. Penile herpes simplex virus type 1 infection presenting two and a half years after Jewish ritual circumcision of an infant.

    PubMed

    Yossepowitch, Orit; Gottesman, Tamar; Schwartz, Orna; Stein, Michal; Serour, Francis; Dan, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The association between Jewish ritual circumcision and genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection has been well described. We report a case of genital herpes that first presented at the age of 2½ years. We believe that the infection was acquired asymptomatically through direct orogenital suction performed during circumcision in the newborn period.

  12. Survival of herpes simplex virus type 1 in saliva and tap water contaminating some common objects.

    PubMed

    Bardell, D

    1993-01-01

    Survival at room temperature (21-24 degrees C) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in saliva on plastic doorknobs and chrome-plated tap handles was investigated. There was no loss of infectious virus before 30 min. Between 30 and 60 min there was a 2-log drop in titre, and infectious virus could still be recovered after 2 h, the longest period tested. The marked drop in titre coincided with drying of the saliva. There was no decline in titre of infectious HSV-1 in a humid atmosphere in which the saliva remained liquid. Similar results were seen with HSV-1 in tap water on tap handles.

  13. Herpes simplex virus type-1: replication, latency, reactivation and its antiviral targets.

    PubMed

    Pires de Mello, Camilly P; Bloom, David C; Paixão, Izabel Cnp

    2016-01-01

    Infection by herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) causes several diseases, ranging from cutaneous, oral and genital infections to fatal encephalitis. Despite the availability of antiviral therapies on the market, their efficacies are incomplete, and new cases of resistant strains arise, mainly in the immunocompromised, but also recently documented in immunocompetent patients. Over the last decades a lot has been discovered about the molecular basis of infection which has been of great benefit to the investigation of new anti-HSV-1 molecules. In this review we summarize replication, latency and reactivation highlighting potential antiviral targets and new molecules described in the past several years in the literature.

  14. Concurrent herpes simplex type 1 necrotizing encephalitis, cytomegalovirus ventriculoencephalitis and cerebral lymphoma in an AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    Vital, C; Monlun, E; Vital, A; Martin-Negrier, M L; Cales, V; Leger, F; Longy-Boursier, M; Le Bras, M; Bloch, B

    1995-01-01

    Unlike cytomegalovirus (CMV) ventriculoencephalitis, herpes simplex virus type 1 necrotizing encephalitis has only rarely been observed in AIDS patients. A 40-year-old bisexual man was followed for an HIV1 infection from 1987 onwards. In June 1993 he was referred for sudden confusion, left hemiparesia and fever. The blood contained less than 10 CD4 lymphocytes/mm3. The patient remained comatose and febrile, and died 4 weeks later. In coronal sections of the brain there was necrosis of the internal parts of the left temporal lobe, necrosis of certain areas of the ventricular walls and a small tumor at the top of the right frontal lobe, which proved to be a polymorphic high-grade lymphoma. CMV ventriculoencephalitis lesions were prominent in the ventricular walls of the occipital lobes and there was a strong nuclear signal for CMV using in situ hybridization. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was shown in the nuclei and cytoplasm of certain neurons and astrocytes in the borders of the necrotized temporal lobe areas by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and electron microscopy, whereas in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for CMV were negative in such areas. Necrotizing type 1 encephalitis must not be overlooked in immunodeficient patients. PMID:7709722

  15. Novel method for genotyping clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates.

    PubMed

    Glück, Brigitte; Möbius, Susanne; Pfaff, Florian; Zell, Roland; Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Up to now, three distinct genotypes, A, B and C, of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), based on polymorphisms in the US4 and US7 genes, have been reported. Here, we propose to include an additional polymorphism of the US2 gene. The refined genotyping method was validated using 423 clinical isolates from patients with different HSV-1 diseases. The proportions of three US2 genotypes were A, 46.6%; B, 23.2%; and C, 30.2 %. Genotype A of US2 and US4/US7 showed a highly significant correlation. In addition, the frequency of genotype A was significantly higher in women than in men with herpes labialis. PMID:26280525

  16. Social Stress and the Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.; Dorne, Julianne; Berntson, Gary G.; Candelora, Jessica; Glaser, Ronald

    1998-06-01

    Psychological stress is thought to contribute to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although several animal models have been developed in an effort to reproduce different pathogenic aspects of HSV keratitis or labialis, until now, no good animal model existed in which application of a psychological laboratory stressor results in reliable reactivation of the virus. Reported herein, disruption of the social hierarchy within colonies of mice increased aggression among cohorts, activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and caused reactivation of latent HSV type 1 in greater than 40% of latently infected animals. However, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis using restraint stress did not activate the latent virus. Thus, the use of social stress in mice provides a good model in which to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie behaviorally mediated reactivation of latent herpes-viruses.

  17. Recombination in vitro between herpes simplex virus type 1 a sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, R C; Dutch, R E; Zemelman, B V; Mocarski, E S; Lehman, I R

    1992-01-01

    We have partially purified an activity from extracts of cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 that mediates recombination between repeated copies of the 317-base-pair a sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1. Recombination leads to deletion of a lacZ indicator gene situated between two directly repeated copies of the a sequence and is scored by transformation of lacZ- Escherichia coli. The two products of the reaction can be observed directly by restriction enzyme digestion and Southern blot analysis. The recombinase activity is also detectable, but at a lower level, in uninfected cell extracts. The DNA substrate must contain the two a sequences arranged in direct orientation to generate the lacZ deletion. However, when the a sequences are arranged in inverted orientation, an inversion results. A substrate with two homologous sequences of size and G + C content similar to the a sequence undergoes recombination at a much lower frequency. The reaction requires a divalent cation (Mg2+ or Mn2+) but not ATP or any other nucleoside triphosphate. The simple requirements and specificity for the a sequence suggest that the recombination may proceed by a site-specific mechanism. Images PMID:1332062

  18. Striated muscle involvement in experimental oral infection by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, María Inés; Sanjuan, Norberto A

    2013-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most frequent causes of oral infection in humans, especially during early childhood. Several experimental models have been developed to study the pathogenesis of this virus but all of them employed adult animals. In this work, we developed an experimental model that uses mice younger than 4 days old, to more closely resemble human infection. Mice were infected subcutaneously with the prototype strain McIntyre of Herpes simplex-1, and the progression of infection was studied by immunoperoxidase. All animals died within 24-72 h post-infection, while viral antigens were found in the oral epithelium, nerves and brain. The most striking result was the finding of viral antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells belonging to striated muscles. Organotypic cultures of striated muscles were performed, and viral replication was observed in them by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and viral isolation. We conclude that the infection of striated muscles is present from the onset of oral infection and, eventually, could explain some clinical observations in humans.

  19. A spectrophotometric assay for quantitative determination of kcat of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase substrates.

    PubMed

    Schelling, P; Folkers, G; Scapozza, L

    2001-08-01

    A simple method to determine the in vitro catalytic turnover constant of several substrates of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase is presented in this study. The method is based on a continuous spectroscopic enzyme-coupled assay and allows one to monitor the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase activity in the presence of unlabeled substrates. A clear correlation between the catalytic turnover constant and the rate of decrease in absorbance over time during the assay has been demonstrated. Exploiting this correlation, this method has been used to determine rapidly and precisely the catalytic turnover constant of antiviral lead compounds not readily available in the radioactive labeled form.

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies ... Herpes infections are caused by both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus ...

  1. High GC content of simple sequence repeats in Herpes simplex virus type 1 genome.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qingjian; Zhao, Xiangyan; Feng, Haiping; Tian, You; Li, Dan; Li, Mingfu; Tan, Zhongyang

    2012-05-10

    The presence, locations and composition of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome were extracted and analyzed by using the software Imperfect Microsatellite Extractor (IMEx). There were 663 mon-, 502 di-, 184 tri-, 20 tetra-, 4 penta- and 4 hexanucleotide SSRs that were observed in different distribution between coding and noncoding regions in the HSV-1 genome. G/C, GC/CG, and (GGC)(n) were predominant in mononucleotide, dinucletide, trinucleotide repeats respectively. Indeed, the results showed that GC content in simple sequence repeats was notably higher than that in entire HSV-1 genome. Our data might be helpful for studying the pathogenesis, genome structure and evolution of HSV-1.

  2. Characterization of soluble glycoprotein D-mediated herpes simplex virus type 1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvitov, Marianna; Frampton, Arthur R.; Shah, Waris A.; Wendell, Steven K.; Ozuer, Ali; Kapacee, Zoher; Goins, William F.; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C. . E-mail: glorioso@pitt.edu

    2007-04-10

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry into permissive cells involves attachment to cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and fusion of the virus envelope with the cell membrane triggered by the binding of glycoprotein D (gD) to cognate receptors. In this study, we characterized the observation that soluble forms of the gD ectodomain (sgD) can mediate entry of gD-deficient HSV-1. We examined the efficiency and receptor specificity of this activity and used sequential incubation protocols to determine the order and stability of the initial interactions required for entry. Surprisingly, virus binding to GAGs did not increase the efficiency of sgD-mediated entry and gD-deficient virus was capable of attaching to GAG-deficient cells in the absence of sgD. These observations suggested a novel binding interaction that may play a role in normal HSV infection.

  3. Herpes simplex type 1 defective interfering particles do not affect the antiviral activity of acyclovir, foscarnet and adenine arabinoside.

    PubMed

    Harmenberg, J G; Svensson, L T

    1988-03-01

    The concentration of defective interfering particles (DI-particles) of herpes simplex type 1 virus was analysed by electron microscopy and plaque titration. Fifteen consecutive passages of undiluted virus in green monkey kidney cells were followed. No relationship was found between the concentration of DI-particles and the activity of antiviral substances such as acyclovir, foscarnet and adenine arabinoside.

  4. Oligonucleotides designed to inhibit TLR9 block Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection at multiple steps.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Monica M; Gauger, Joshua J L; Brandt, Curtis R

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is an important human pathogen which requires activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) during its replication cycle. The persistent nature of HSV-1 infection, and the emergence of drug-resistant strains, highlights the importance of research to develop new antiviral agents. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a prominent role during the early antiviral response by recognizing viral nucleic acid and gene products, activating NFκB, and stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines. We demonstrate a significant effect on HSV-1 replication in ARPE-19 and Vero cells when oligonucleotides designed to inhibit TLR9 are added 2h prior to infection. A greater than 90% reduction in the yield of infectious virus was achieved at oligonucleotide concentrations of 10-20 μM. TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides prevented expression of essential immediate early herpes gene products as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. TLR9 oligonucleotides also interfered with viral attachment and entry. A TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotide containing five adjacent guanosine residues (G-ODN) exhibited virucidal activity and inhibited HSV-1 replication when added post-infection. The antiviral effect of the TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides did not depend on the presence of TLR9 protein, suggesting a mechanism of inhibition that is not TLR9 specific. TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides also reduced NFκB activity in nuclear extracts. Studies using these TLR inhibitors in the context of viral infection should be interpreted with caution.

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 infection: overview on relevant clinico-pathological features.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Paolo G; Porter, Stephen R

    2008-02-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) is a nuclear replicating enveloped virus, usually acquired through direct contact with infected lesions or body fluids (typically saliva). The prevalence of HSV-1 infection increases progressively from childhood, the seroprevalence being inversely related to socioeconomic background. Primary HSV-1 infections in children are either asymptomatic or following an incubation period of about 1 week gives rise to mucocutaneous vesicular eruptions. Herpetic gingivostomatitis typically affects the tongue, lips, gingival, buccal mucosa and the hard and soft palate. Most primary oro-facial HSV infection is caused by HSV-1, infection by HSV-2 is increasingly common. Recurrent infections, which occur at variable intervals, typically give rise to vesiculo-ulcerative lesions at mucocutaneous junctions particularly the lips (herpes labialis). Recurrent HSV-1 infection within the mouth is uncommon in otherwise healthy patients, although in immunocompromised patients, recurrent infection can be more extensive and/or aggressive. The diagnosis of common herpetic infection can usually be based upon the clinical history and presenting features. Confirmatory laboratory diagnosis is, however, required when patients are, or may be, immunocompromised.

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may be ...

  7. Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in rugby players.

    PubMed

    White, W B; Grant-Kels, J M

    1984-07-27

    Skin infections, both bacterial and viral, are endemic in contact sports such as wrestling and rugby football. In this report, we describe four cases of extensive cutaneous herpes simplex virus in players on a rugby team. All players had a prodrome of fever, malaise, and anorexia with a weight loss of 3.6 to 9.0 kg. Two players experienced ocular lesions associated with cutaneous vesicular lesions of the face. A third player, who had herpetic lesions on his lower extremity, experienced paresthesias, weakness, and intermittent urinary retention and constipation. All infected players on the team were forwards or members of the "scrum," which suggests a field-acquired infection analogous to the herpetic infections seen in wrestlers (herpes gladiatorum). Considering the serious sequelae of recurrent herpes simplex keratitis, the traumatic skin lesions in rugby football players should be cultured for herpes virus, and infected individuals should be restricted from playing until crusted lesions have disappeared. PMID:6737650

  8. First description of herpes simplex virus type 1 epididymo-orchitis: A new clinical form of herpes simplex virus infection during septic shock?

    PubMed

    Fromentin, Dr Mélanie; Gauzit, Remy; Gille, Benoit; Samama, Charles Marc

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is increasingly caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), but recurrences are less frequent than with HSV-2. Distinguishing between primary genital infection and reactivation can be difficult, but HSV-1 more often causes severe primary infections and fewer recurrences. However, as virus reactivation is common during septic shock, a severe form of HSV-1 reactivation can occur in locations other than the lungs, which remain the most common site. The case of a 79-year-old Caucasian man who presented with HSV-1 epididymo-orchitis after three episodes of severe sepsis or septic shock in the context of acute biliary necrotizing pancreatitis is described. This is the first reported case of HSV-1 epididymo-orchitis due to virus reactivation during sepsis. PMID:27672563

  9. Comparative studies of types 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus infection of cultured normal keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Su, S J; Wu, H H; Lin, Y H; Lin, H Y

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the differences in biological properties, multiplication patterns, and cytopathic effects between type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus (HSV) through the replication of HSV in cultured normal human keratinocytes. METHODS--Keratinocytes were obtained from surgical specimens of normal gingiva, cervix, trunk skin, and newborn foreskin. They were cultured in serum free, chemically defined, culture medium and infected with a pool of HSV collected from clinical specimens. RESULTS--The reproductive patterns of HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV type 2 (HSV-2) differed from each other regardless of the anatomical source of the cultured cells. This was made evident by the dissimilarity of their growth curves and cytopathic effects. The growth curve of HSV-2 showed a more or less continuously rising titre, whereas HSV-1 titres varied substantially at different time intervals. The cytopathic effects induced by HSV-1 infection took 24 more incubation hours than those induced by HSV-2 infection to manifest. During the early stages, the cytopathic changes of the two viruses looked different. However, all cultured cells, whether cultured with HSV-1 or HSV-2, eventually became small and globular in shape. The infective titres of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 were higher in infected cultured cervix than in infected cultured normal gingiva. CONCLUSIONS--These data suggest that each serotype of HSV has its own unique replication pattern in human keratinocytes regardless of the cell origin. Images PMID:7706526

  10. Inhibition of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Kinase Suppresses Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Oleg; Donovan, Kelly; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Herpes keratitis (HK) remains the leading cause of cornea-derived blindness in the developed world, despite the availability of effective antiviral drugs. Treatment toxicity and the emergence of drug resistance highlight the need for additional therapeutic approaches. This study examined ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), an apical kinase in the host DNA damage response, as a potential new target for the treatment of HK. Methods. Small molecule inhibitor of ATM (KU-55933) was used to treat herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in three experimental models: (1) in vitro—cultured human corneal epithelial cells, hTCEpi, (2) ex vivo—organotypically explanted human and rabbit corneas, and (3) in vivo—corneal infection in young C57BL/6J mice. Infection productivity was assayed by plaque assay, real-time PCR, Western blot, and disease scoring. Results. Robust ATM activation was detected in HSV-1-infected human corneal epithelial cells. Inhibition of ATM greatly suppressed viral replication in cultured cells and in explanted human and rabbit corneas, and reduced the severity of stromal keratitis in mice. The antiviral effect of KU-55933 in combination with acyclovir was additive, and KU-55933 suppressed replication of a drug-resistant HSV-1 strain. KU-55933 caused minimal toxicity, as monitored by clonogenic survival assay and fluorescein staining. Conclusions. This study identifies ATM as a potential target for the treatment of HK. ATM inhibition by KU-55933 reduces epithelial infection and stromal disease severity without producing appreciable toxicity. These findings warrant further investigations into the DNA damage response as an area for therapeutic intervention in herpetic ocular diseases. PMID:24370835

  11. Disulfide bond structure of glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed Central

    Long, D; Wilcox, W C; Abrams, W R; Cohen, G H; Eisenberg, R J

    1992-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) is a structural component of the herpes simplex virus envelope which is essential for virus penetration. The function of this protein is highly dependent on its structure, and its structure is dependent on maintenance of three intact disulfide bonds. gD contains six cysteines in its ectodomain whose spacing is conserved among all its homologs in other alphaherpesviruses as well as Marek's disease virus. For other proteins, conservation of cysteine spacing correlates with conservation of disulfide bond structure. We have now solved the disulfide bond structure of gD-1 and gD-2 of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, respectively. Two approaches were used. First, we constructed 15 double-Cys mutants of gD-1, representing all possible disulfide pairs. In each case, codons for cysteines were changed to serine. We reasoned that if two cysteines normally form a disulfide bond, double mutations which eliminate one proper bond should be less harmful to gD structure than double mutations which eliminate two disulfide bonds. The mutated genes were cloned into a eucaryotic expression vector, and the proteins were expressed in transiently transfected cells. Three double mutations, Cys-1,5, Cys-2,6, and Cys-3,4 permitted gD-1 folding, processing, transport to the cell surface, and function in virus infection, whereas 12 other double mutations each produced a malfolded and nonfunctional protein. Thus, the three functional double-Cys mutants may represent the actual partners in disulfide bond linkages. The second approach was to define the actual disulfide bond structure of gD by biochemical means. Purified native gD-2 was cleaved by CNBr and proteases, and the peptides were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Disulfide-linked peptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The results show that cysteine 1 (amino acid [aa] 66) is bonded to cysteine 5 (aa 189), cysteine 2 (aa 106) is bonded to cysteine 6 (aa 202), and cysteine 3 (aa

  12. Antiviral Effects of Blackberry Extract Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Robert J.; Wang, Chunmei; Dai, Jin; Mumper, Russell J.; Miller, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate antiviral properties of blackberry extract against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Methods HSV-infected oral epithelial (OKF6) cells and cell-free virus suspensions were treated with blackberry extract (2.24 to 1400 μg/mL) and virus yield and infectivity were quantified by direct plaque assay. Results Blackberry extract ≥ 56 μg/ml inhibited HSV-1 replication in oral epithelial cells by > 99% (p < 0.005). Concentrations ≥ 280 μg/ml were antiviral when the extract was added after virus adsorption and entry. Exposure of cell-free virus to ≥ 280 μg/ml blackberry extract for 15 minutes at room temperature was virucidal (p = 0.0002). The virucidal effects were not due to pH changes at concentrations up to 1500 μg/ml. Conclusions Blackberry extract inhibited the early stages of HSV-1 replication and had potent virucidal activity. These properties suggest that this natural fruit extract could provide advantage as a topical prophylactic/therapeutic agent for HSV infections. PMID:21827957

  13. Enhanced replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.S.; Smith, K.O. )

    1991-02-01

    The effects of DNA-damaging agents on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were assessed in vitro. Monolayers of human lung fibroblast cell lines were exposed to DNA-damaging agents (methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS), ultraviolet light (UV), or gamma radiation (GR)) at specific intervals, before or after inoculation with low levels of HSV-1. The ability of cell monolayers to support HSV-1 replication was measured by direct plaque assay and was compared with that of untreated control samples. In this system, monolayers of different cell lines infected with identical HSV-1 strains demonstrated dissimilar levels of recovery of the infectious virus. Exposure of DNA-repair-competent cell cultures to DNA-damaging agents produced time-dependent enhanced virus replication. Treatment with agent before virus inoculation significantly (p less than 0.025) increased the number of plaques by 10 to 68%, compared with untreated control cultures, while treatment with agent after virus adsorption significantly increased (p less than 0.025) the number of plaques by 7 to 15%. In a parallel series of experiments, cells deficient in DNA repair (xeroderma pigmentosum) failed to support enhanced virus replication. These results suggest that after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, fibroblasts competent in DNA repair amplify the replication of HSV-1, and that DNA-repair mechanisms that act on a variety of chromosomal lesions may be involved in the repair and biological activation of HSV-1 genomes.

  14. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).

    PubMed

    Minagawa, H; Sakuma, S; Mohri, S; Mori, R; Watanabe, T

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in mutant mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice), i.e., mice in which the differentiation of both T and B lymphocytes is severely impaired, was studied. All control (infected and not treated with antibodies or with immune spleen cells) SCID mice were dead by 17 days after intracutaneous injection in the right midflank with 1 x 10(5) PFU of a virulent HSV-1 strain, Hayashida. Immunization with an avirulent strain of HSV-1 (SKa) did not protect them from death or prolong the survival time. Tissue virus titration of infected mice killed at various times after inoculation detected infectious virus in various organs, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, brain, kidney and adrenal gland in addition to the inoculation site of the skin in SCID mice, whereas virus could be detected only in the inoculation site and the nervous tissues in euthymic BALB/c mice, and in the adrenal gland from only one out of 17 nude mice. Human gamma globulin containing neutralizing antibody against HSV-1 prolonged the survival time but did not protect SCID mice from death. Transfer of spleen cells from immunized BALB/c mice protected the infected SCID mice from death. Treatment of spleen cells with anti-Thy 1.2 monoclonal antibody and complement abolished the protection.

  15. Multifocal CNS demyelination following peripheral inoculation with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Kastrukoff, L F; Lau, A S; Kim, S U

    1987-07-01

    The peripheral inoculation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) in experimental animals induces central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating lesions, but the potential relevance of this model to multiple sclerosis is lessened by the unifocal nature of the lesion. In this study, inbred strains of mice were selected on the basis of varying resistance to mortality following lip inoculation with virus. A spectrum of CNS pathology was observed, ranging from focal collections of inflammatory cells at the trigeminal root entry zone in resistant strains (C57BL/6J), to unifocal demyelinating lesions in moderately resistant strains (BALB/cByJ), to multifocal demyelinating lesions throughout the brain in susceptible strains (A/J). Findings from viral titration studies of the CNS support a direct cytolytic effect of virus in the development of demyelinating lesions at the trigeminal root entry zone but cannot exclude an immune-mediated component. Furthermore, 50% tissue-culture-infective doses, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic studies of primary cultures of oligodendrocytes, derived from the three strains of adult mice, identify differences in resistance to HSV 1 infection in vitro, suggesting that differences at this level may also contribute to the pathological appearance. Multifocal lesions in A/J mice were first observed when the infectious virus could no longer be isolated from the CNS and may be the result of an immune-mediated process "triggered" by the acute CNS infection in susceptible strains of mice.

  16. Interaction of humic acids and humic-acid-like polymers with herpes simplex virus type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöcking, Renate; Helbig, Björn

    The study was performed in order to compare the antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) of synthetic humic-acid-like polymers to that of their low-molecular-weight basic compounds and naturally occurring humic acids (HA) in vitro. HA from peat water showed a moderate antiviral activity at a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 µg/ml. HA-like polymers, i.e. the oxidation products of caffeic acid (KOP), hydrocaffeic acid (HYKOP), chlorogenic acid (CHOP), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4-DHPOP), nordihydroguaretic acid (NOROP), gentisinic acid (GENOP), pyrogallol (PYROP) and gallic acid (GALOP), generally inhibit virus multiplication, although with different potency and selectivity. Of the substances tested, GENOP, KOP, 3,4-DHPOP and HYKOP with MEC values in the range of 2 to 10 µg/ml, proved to be the most potent HSV-1 inhibitors. Despite its lower antiviral potency (MEC 40 µg/ml), CHOP has a remarkable selectivity due to the high concentration of this polymer that is tolerated by the host cells (>640 µg/ml). As a rule, the antiviral activity of the synthetic compounds was restricted to the polymers and was not preformed in the low-molecular-weight basic compounds. This finding speaks in favour of the formation of antivirally active structures during the oxidative polymerization of phenolic compounds and, indirectly, of corresponding structural parts in different HA-type substances.

  17. Zebrafish as a new model for herpes simplex virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Javier S; Ripoll-Gomez, Jorge; Alfaro, Juan M; Sastre, Isabel; Valdivieso, Fernando

    2008-12-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly gaining ground as a disease model. However, until now, the use of this species with human pathogens has been restricted to just three bacteria; no studies involving viruses that infect humans are recorded. In this study, the zebrafish was used as a model of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the nervous system. Fish infected using viral culture supernatants showed detectable HSV-1 DNA concentrations 1-4 days after inoculation, indicating that this virus can experimentally infect and persist in this host. The kinetics of infection was dose dependent, especially in the head. Histological immunodetection of HSV-1 glycoproteins confirmed the presence of HSV-1 in the organs studied; infection led to histopathological changes. Moreover, the suppression of the immune system by cyclophosphamide and the antiviral effect of acyclovir were demonstrated. The infection of the encephalon was studied in detail, and the time course of viral colonization recorded. Immunofluorescence studies provided immunoreactive evidence of viral antigens in the encephalon and spinal cord. Viruses cleared from infected brains showed the ability to infect human neuroblastoma cells. This study is the first to demonstrate HSV-1 infection in the zebrafish and manifests the potential use of this species in herpesvirus studies.

  18. Biosafety of gene therapy vectors derived from herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Lim, Filip; Khalique, Hena; Ventosa, Maria; Baldo, Aline

    2013-12-01

    The majority of humans have been infected with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) and harbor its viral DNA in the latent form within neurons for lifetime. This, combined with the absence of serious adverse effects due to HSV-1 derived vectors in clinical trials so far, highlight the potential to use this virus to develop neuronal gene transfer vectors which are transparent to the host, allowing the effects of the transgene to act without interference from the transfer system eg., for functional genomics in basic neuroscience or gene therapy of neurological disorders. On the other hand, other HSV-1 derived vectors which also have a promising perspective in the clinic, are designed to have enhanced cytotoxicity in certain cell types, as in the case of oncolytic vectors. Understanding virus-host interactions is fundamental not only to the success of these gene therapy vectors but also with respect to identifying and minimizing biohazards associated with their use. In this review we discuss characteristics of HSV-1 and gene therapy vectors derived from this virus which are useful to consider in the context of biosafety risk assessment and risk management.

  19. Evidence for antiviral effect of nitric oxide. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication.

    PubMed Central

    Croen, K D

    1993-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of infectious pathogens, but an antiviral effect has not been reported. The impact of NO, from endogenous and exogenous sources, on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) replication was studied in vitro. HSV 1 replication in RAW 264.7 macrophages was reduced 1,806-fold in monolayers induced to make NO by activation with gamma IFN and LPS. A competitive and a noncompetitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase substantially reduced the antiviral effect of activated RAW macrophages. S-nitroso-L-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) is a donor of NO and was added to the media of infected monolayers to assess the antiviral properties of NO in the absence of gamma IFN and LPS. A single dose of S-nitroso-L-acetyl penicillamine 3 h after infection inhibited HSV 1 replication in Vero, HEp2, and RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Neither virucidal nor cytocidal effects of NO were observed under conditions that inhibited HSV 1 replication. Nitric oxide had inhibitory effects, comparable to that of gamma IFN/LPS, on protein and DNA synthesis as well as on cell replication. This report demonstrates that, among its diverse properties, NO has an antiviral effect. PMID:8390481

  20. A novel, cell-specific attenuation of a herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kienzle, T E; Chen, T M; Mrak, R E; Stroop, W G

    2001-04-01

    We have observed a cell-specific attenuation of herpes simplex virus type 1 strain 17syn+ in vivo that was dependent upon the cell type used to grow the virus. Direct corneal infection of rabbits with 17syn+ propagated in Vero cells caused 60% (6 of 10) to develop severe central nervous system (CNS) disease as evidenced by seizures and/or paralysis; all neurologically impaired rabbits died. In contrast, infection of rabbits with 17syn+ propagated in BHK-21 cells induced seizures and was fatal in 10% (1 of 10). The cell-specific attenuation of a 17syn+ occurred after one growth cycle in BHK-21 cells. To determine whether the decreased virulence of the BHK-21 cell-grown virus correlated with a less severe CNS inflammatory reaction, CNS tissues from rabbits infected with 17syn+ grown in Vero and BHK-21 cells were compared. Histopathological analyses revealed no differences in the location or severity of inflammatory lesions from rabbits infected with virus grown in either cell type. Virus-induced corneal disease was less dependent upon the cell type used to propagate the virus as there were no significant differences in the type or severity of observed corneal lesions. Possible explanations based on differences between Vero and BHK-21 cells are discussed.

  1. Recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 strains with targeted mutations relevant for aciclovir susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Brunnemann, Anne-Kathrin; Liermann, Kristin; Deinhardt-Emmer, Stefanie; Maschkowitz, Gregor; Pohlmann, Anja; Sodeik, Beate; Fickenscher, Helmut; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Krumbholz, Andi

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a novel reliable method to assess the significance of individual mutations within the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to nucleoside analogue resistance. Eleven defined single nucleotide polymorphisms that occur in the TK gene of clinical HSV-1 isolates and a fluorescence reporter were introduced into the HSV-1 strain 17+ that had been cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. The susceptibility of these different strains to aciclovir, penciclovir, brivudin, and foscarnet was determined with a modified cytopathic effect reduction assay. The strains were also tested for their aciclovir susceptibility by measuring the relative fluorescence intensity as an indicator for HSV-1 replication and by quantifying the virus yield. Our data indicate that the amino acid substitutions R41H, R106H, A118V, L139V, K219T, S276R, L298R, S345P, and V348I represent natural polymorphisms of the TK protein, whereas G61A and P84L mediate broad cross-resistance against aciclovir, penciclovir, brivudin, and susceptibility to foscarnet. This method allows the definition of the resistance genotype of otherwise unclear mutations in the TK gene of HSV-1. Thus, it provides a scientific basis for antiviral testing in clinical isolates of patients suffering from serious diseases and will facilitate testing of new antivirals against HSV-1. PMID:27426251

  2. In-vivo immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of herpes simplex virus type 1 keratitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Stephen C.; Laird, Jeffery A.; Beuerman, Roger W.

    1996-05-01

    The white-light confocal microscope offers an in vivo, cellular-level resolution view of the cornea. This instrument has proven to be a valuable research and diagnostic tool for the study of infectious keratitis. In this study, we investigate the direct visualization of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected corneal epithelium, with in vivo confocal microscopy, using HSV-1 immunofluorescent antibodies. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with McKrae strain of HSV-1 in one eye; the other eye of each rabbit was used as an uninfected control. Four days later, the rabbits were anesthetized and a cellulose sponge was applied to each cornea, and a drop of direct HSV fluorescein-tagged antibody was placed on each sponge every 3 to 5 minutes for 1 hour. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was then performed. The HSV-infected corneas showed broad regions of hyperfluorescent epithelial cells. The uninfected corneas revealed no background fluorescence. Thus, using the confocal microscope with a fluorescent cube, we were able to visualize HSV-infected corneal epithelial cells tagged with a direct fluorescent antibody. This process may prove to be a useful clinical tool for the in vivo diagnosis of HSV keratitis.

  3. A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Rovnak, Joel; Badani, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; human herpesvirus 1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) are human neurotropic alphaherpesviruses that cause lifelong infections in ganglia. Following primary infection and establishment of latency, HSV-1 reactivation typically results in herpes labialis (cold sores), but can occur frequently elsewhere on the body at the site of primary infection (e.g. whitlow), particularly at the genitals. Rarely, HSV-1 reactivation can cause encephalitis; however, a third of the cases of HSV-1 encephalitis are associated with HSV-1 primary infection. Primary VZV infection causes varicella (chickenpox) following which latent virus may reactivate decades later to produce herpes zoster (shingles), as well as an increasingly recognized number of subacute, acute and chronic neurological conditions. Following primary infection, both viruses establish a latent infection in neuronal cells in human peripheral ganglia. However, the detailed mechanisms of viral latency and reactivation have yet to be unravelled. In both cases latent viral DNA exists in an ‘end-less’ state where the ends of the virus genome are joined to form structures consistent with unit length episomes and concatemers, from which viral gene transcription is restricted. In latently infected ganglia, the most abundantly detected HSV-1 RNAs are the spliced products originating from the primary latency associated transcript (LAT). This primary LAT is an 8.3 kb unstable transcript from which two stable (1.5 and 2.0 kb) introns are spliced. Transcripts mapping to 12 VZV genes have been detected in human ganglia removed at autopsy; however, it is difficult to ascribe these as transcripts present during latent infection as early-stage virus reactivation may have transpired in the post-mortem time period in the ganglia. Nonetheless, low-level transcription of VZV ORF63 has been repeatedly detected in multiple ganglia removed as close to death as possible. There is

  4. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  5. Properties of a novel thymidine kinase induced by an acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Larder, B A; Darby, G

    1982-01-01

    The acyclovir-resistant mutant of herpes simplex virus type 1, SC16 S1, induced reduced levels of thymidine kinase activity (ca. 25% reduction) in infected cells. The activity appeared with kinetics similar to that in wild type-infected cells, and pulse-labeling experiments showed that the thymidine kinase polypeptide was synthesized at a similar rate. We showed that the enzyme was virus specific by inactivating it with antiserum raised against herpes simplex virus-infected cell proteins. The enzyme induced by the mutant had reduced electrophoretic mobility in nondenaturing gels, decreased thermal stability, and decreased affinity for several different substrates (assessed by measurement of Km values) compared with the enzyme induced by the wild type. From the data obtained we conclude that the thymidine kinase induced by the mutant has an altered specificity, probably resulting from an amino acid substitution which affects the primary binding site for nucleosides and nucleoside analogs. Images PMID:6283175

  6. Effects of mutations within the herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA encapsidation signal on packaging efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hodge, P D; Stow, N D

    2001-10-01

    The cis-acting signals required for cleavage and encapsidation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome lie within the terminally redundant region or a sequence. The a sequence is flanked by short direct repeats (DR1) containing the site of cleavage, and quasi-unique regions, Uc and Ub, occupy positions adjacent to the genomic L and S termini, respectively, such that a novel fragment, Uc-DR1-Ub, is generated upon ligation of the genomic ends. The Uc-DR1-Ub fragment can function as a minimal packaging signal, and motifs have been identified within Uc and Ub that are conserved near the ends of other herpesvirus genomes (pac2 and pac1, respectively). We have introduced deletion and substitution mutations within the pac regions of the Uc-DR1-Ub fragment and assessed their effects on DNA packaging in an amplicon-based transient transfection assay. Within pac2, mutations affecting the T tract had the greatest inhibitory effect, but deletion of sequences on either side of this element also reduced packaging, suggesting that its position relative to other sequences within the Uc-DR1-Ub fragment is likely to be important. No single region essential for DNA packaging was detected within pac1. However, mutants lacking the G tracts on either side of the pac1 T-rich motif exhibited a reduced efficiency of serial propagation, and alteration of the sequences between DR1 and the pac1 T element also resulted in defective generation of Ub-containing terminal fragments. The data are consistent with a model in which initiation and termination of packaging are specified by sequences within Uc and Ub, respectively.

  7. Phosphorylation of structural components promotes dissociation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument.

    PubMed

    Morrison, E E; Wang, Y F; Meredith, D M

    1998-09-01

    The role of phosphorylation in the dissociation of structural components of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) tegument was investigated, using an in vitro assay. Addition of physiological concentrations of ATP and magnesium to wild-type virions in the presence of detergent promoted the release of VP13/14 and VP22. VP1/2 and the UL13 protein kinase were not significantly solubilized. However, using a virus with an inactivated UL13 protein, we found that the release of VP22 was severely impaired. Addition of casein kinase II (CKII) to UL13 mutant virions promoted VP22 release. Heat inactivation of virions or addition of phosphatase inhibited the release of both proteins. Incorporation of radiolabeled ATP into the assay demonstrated the phosphorylation of VP1/2, VP13/14, VP16, and VP22. Incubation of detergent-purified, heat-inactivated capsid-tegument with recombinant kinases showed VP1/2 phosphorylation by CKII, VP13/14 phosphorylation by CKII, protein kinase A (PKA), and PKC, VP16 phosphorylation by PKA, and VP22 phosphorylation by CKII and PKC. Proteolytic mapping and phosphoamino acid analysis of phosphorylated VP22 correlated with previously published work. The phosphorylation of virion-associated VP13/14, VP16, and VP22 was demonstrated in cells infected in the presence of cycloheximide. Use of equine herpesvirus 1 in the in vitro release assay resulted in the enhanced release of VP10, the homolog of HSV-1 VP13/14. These results suggest that the dissociation of major tegument proteins from alphaherpesvirus virions in infected cells may be initiated by phosphorylation events mediated by both virion-associated and cellular kinases.

  8. Establishment of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in resistant, sensitive, and immunodeficient mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Ellison, A R; Yang, L; Voytek, C; Margolis, T P

    2000-03-01

    Productive infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 is limited by both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether these mechanisms also play a role in the establishment of latent HSV infection. First we examined the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), interferon-gamma knockout (GKO), and beige (a strain deficient in natural killer cell activity) mice following ocular inoculation with HSV. Although infection of SCID mice was invariably lethal, we consistently found latently infected neurons in the TG of these animals at 2-4 days postinoculation. HSV infection of GKO and beige mice, while not lethal, was characterized by a greater number of productively infected TG neurons and/or a delay in the time to peak productive infection compared to C57BL/6 controls. However, as assayed by both in situ hybridization for LAT expression and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) for viral DNA, we found that HSV established a latent infection in GKO and beige mice as efficiently as in C57BL/6 controls. We subsequently examined the TG of "HSV-sensitive" strains of mice (Swiss-Webster, CBA, and BALB/c) following ocular infection with HSV. At the peak of acute ganglionic infection the number of productively infected TG neurons in each of these mouse strains was about sevenfold greater than in the "HSV-resistant" strain C57BL/6, consistent with previously reported differences in susceptibility to lethal challenge with HSV. However, as assayed by both in situ hybridization for LAT and Q-PCR for viral DNA, we found that HSV established a latent infection in Swiss-Webster, CBA, and BALB/c mice as efficiently as in C57BL/6 controls. We conclude that HSV efficiently establishes latent infection in the TG of mice in the absence of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that are essential for limiting productive viral infection.

  9. Molecular association of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein E with membrane protein Us9.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Friedman, Harvey M

    2016-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein E (gE), glycoprotein I (gI), and Us9 promote efficient anterograde axonal transport of virus from the neuron cytoplasm to the axon terminus. HSV-1 and PRV gE and gI form a heterodimer that is required for anterograde transport, but an association that includes Us9 has not been demonstrated. NS-gE380 is an HSV-1 mutant that has five amino acids inserted after gE residue 380, rendering it defective in anterograde axonal transport. We demonstrated that gE, gI and Us9 form a trimolecular complex in Vero cells infected with NS-gE380 virus in which gE binds to both Us9 and gI. We detected the complex using immunoprecipitation with anti-gE or anti-gI monoclonal antibodies in the presence of ionic detergents. Under these conditions, Us9 did not associate with gE in cells infected with wild-type HSV-1; however, using a nonionic detergent, TritonX-100, an association between Us9 and gE was detected in immunoprecipitates of both wild-type and NS-gE380-infected cells. The results suggest that the interaction between Us9 and gE is weak and disrupted by ionic detergents in wild-type infected cells. We postulate that the tight interaction between Us9 and gE leads to the anterograde spread defect in the NS-gE380 virus. PMID:27568015

  10. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Bell's palsy-a current assessment of the controversy.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Peter Ge

    2010-02-01

    Bell's palsy causes about two thirds of cases of acute peripheral facial weakness. Although the majority of cases completely recover spontaneously, about 30% of cases do not and are at risk from persisting severe facial paralysis and pain. It has been suggested that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) may be the etiological agent that causes Bell's palsy. Although corticosteroid therapy is now universally recognized as improving the outcome of Bell's palsy, the question as to whether or not a combination of antiviral agents and corticosteroids result in a better rate of complete facial recovery compared with corticosteroids alone is now a highly contentious issue. The evidence obtained from laboratory studies of animals and humans that HSV-1 may be linked to facial nerve paralysis is first outlined. The discussion then focuses on the results of different clinical trials of the efficacy of antiviral agents combined with corticosteroids in increasing the rate of complete recovery in Bell's palsy. These have often given different results leading to opposite conclusions as to the efficacy of antivirals. Of three recent meta-analyses of previous trials, two concluded that antivirals produce no added benefit to corticosteroids alone in producing complete facial recovery, and one concluded that such combined therapy may be associated with additional benefit. Although it is probably not justified at the present time to treat patients with Bell's palsy with antiviral agents in addition to corticosteroids, it remains to be shown whether antivirals may be beneficial in treating patients who present with severe or complete facial paralysis.

  11. Glutamine and Leucine Provide Enhanced Protective Immunity Against Mucosal Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Lee, Hern-Ku

    2012-01-01

    Besides their role as building blocks of protein, there are growing evidences that some amino acids have roles in regulating key metabolic pathways that are necessary for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and immunity. Here, we evaluated the modulatory functions of several amino acids in protective immunity against mucosal infection of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We found that glutamine (Gln) and leucine (Leu) showed enhanced protective immunity to HSV-1 mucosal infection when two administration of Gln and single administration of Leu per day, but not when administered in combinations. Ameliorated clinical signs of HSV-1 challenged mice by the intraperitoneal administration of Gln and Leu were closely associated with viral burden and IFN-γ production in the vaginal tract at 2 and 4 days post-infection. In addition, the enhanced production of vaginal IFN-γ appeared to be caused by NK and HSV-1 antigen-specific Th1-type CD4+ T cells recruited into vaginal tract of mice treated with Gln and Leu, which indicates that IFN-γ, produced by NK and Th1-type CD4+ T cells, may be critical to control the outcome of diseases caused by HSV-1 mucosal infection. Collectively, our results indicate that intraperitoneal administration of Gln and Leu following HSV-1 mucosal infection could provide beneficial effects for the modulation of protective immunity, but dosage and frequency of administration should be carefully considered, because higher frequency and overdose of Gln and Leu, or their combined treatment, showed detrimental effects to protective immunity. PMID:23213313

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Other Pathogens are Key Causative Factors in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Harris, Steven A; Harris, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on research in epidemiology, neuropathology, molecular biology, and genetics regarding the hypothesis that pathogens interact with susceptibility genes and are causative in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sporadic AD is a complex multifactorial neurodegenerative disease with evidence indicating coexisting multi-pathogen and inflammatory etiologies. There are significant associations between AD and various pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Cytomegalovirus, and other Herpesviridae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, spirochetes, Helicobacter pylori, and various periodontal pathogens. These pathogens are able to evade destruction by the host immune system, leading to persistent infection. Bacterial and viral DNA and RNA and bacterial ligands increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and activate the innate and adaptive immune systems. Evidence demonstrates that pathogens directly and indirectly induce AD pathology, including amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, phosphorylation of tau protein, neuronal injury, and apoptosis. Chronic brain infection with HSV-1, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and spirochetes results in complex processes that interact to cause a vicious cycle of uncontrolled neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Infections such as Cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter pylori, and periodontal pathogens induce production of systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines that may cross the blood-brain barrier to promote neurodegeneration. Pathogen-induced inflammation and central nervous system accumulation of Aβ damages the blood-brain barrier, which contributes to the pathophysiology of AD. Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) enhances brain infiltration by pathogens including HSV-1 and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. ApoE4 is also associated with an increased pro-inflammatory response by the immune system. Potential antimicrobial treatments for AD are discussed, including the rationale for antiviral and antibiotic clinical trials.

  13. Silencing Status Epilepticus-Induced BDNF Expression with Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Based Amplicon Vectors.

    PubMed

    Falcicchia, Chiara; Trempat, Pascal; Binaschi, Anna; Perrier-Biollay, Coline; Roncon, Paolo; Soukupova, Marie; Berthommé, Hervé; Simonato, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to produce pro- but also anti-epileptic effects. Thus, its validity as a therapeutic target must be verified using advanced tools designed to block or to enhance its signal. The aim of this study was to develop tools to silence the BDNF signal. We generated Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) derived amplicon vectors, i.e. viral particles containing a genome of 152 kb constituted of concatameric repetitions of an expression cassette, enabling the expression of the gene of interest in multiple copies. HSV-1 based amplicon vectors are non-pathogenic and have been successfully employed in the past for gene delivery into the brain of living animals. Therefore, amplicon vectors should represent a logical choice for expressing a silencing cassette, which, in multiple copies, is expected to lead to an efficient knock-down of the target gene expression. Here, we employed two amplicon-based BDNF silencing strategies. The first, antisense, has been chosen to target and degrade the cytoplasmic mRNA pool of BDNF, whereas the second, based on the convergent transcription technology, has been chosen to repress transcription at the BDNF gene. Both these amplicon vectors proved to be effective in down-regulating BDNF expression in vitro, in BDNF-expressing mesoangioblast cells. However, only the antisense strategy was effective in vivo, after inoculation in the hippocampus in a model of status epilepticus in which BDNF mRNA levels are strongly increased. Interestingly, the knocking down of BDNF levels induced with BDNF-antisense was sufficient to produce significant behavioral effects, in spite of the fact that it was produced only in a part of a single hippocampus. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a reliable effect of amplicon vectors in knocking down gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, this approach may find broad applications in neurobiological studies.

  14. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 entry by chloride channel inhibitors tamoxifen and NPPB

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Kai; Chen, Maoyun; Xiang, Yangfei; Ma, Kaiqi; Jin, Fujun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shaoxiang; Wang, Yifei

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • We analyze the anti-HSV potential of chloride channel inhibitors. • Tamoxifen and NPPB show anti-HSV-1 and anti-ACV-resistant HSV-1 activities. • HSV-1 infection induces intracellular chloride concentration increasing. • Tamoxifen and NPPB inhibit HSV-1 early infection. • Tamoxifen and NPPB prevent the fusion process of HSV-1. - Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is very common worldwide and can cause significant health problems from periodic skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. Appearance of drug-resistant viruses in clinical therapy has made exploring novel antiviral agents emergent. Here we show that chloride channel inhibitors, including tamoxifen and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), exhibited extensive antiviral activities toward HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV viruses. HSV-1 infection induced chloride ion influx while treatment with inhibitors reduced the increase of intracellular chloride ion concentration. Pretreatment or treatment of inhibitors at different time points during HSV-1 infection all suppressed viral RNA synthesis, protein expression and virus production. More detailed studies demonstrated that tamoxifen and NPPB acted as potent inhibitors of HSV-1 early entry step by preventing viral binding, penetration and nuclear translocation. Specifically the compounds appeared to affect viral fusion process by inhibiting virus binding to lipid rafts and interrupting calcium homeostasis. Taken together, the observation that tamoxifen and NPPB can block viral entry suggests a stronger potential for these compounds as well as other ion channel inhibitors in antiviral therapy against HSV-1, especially the compound tamoxifen is an immediately actionable drug that can be reused for treatment of HSV-1 infections.

  15. Silencing Status Epilepticus-Induced BDNF Expression with Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Based Amplicon Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Falcicchia, Chiara; Trempat, Pascal; Binaschi, Anna; Perrier-Biollay, Coline; Roncon, Paolo; Soukupova, Marie; Berthommé, Hervé; Simonato, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to produce pro- but also anti-epileptic effects. Thus, its validity as a therapeutic target must be verified using advanced tools designed to block or to enhance its signal. The aim of this study was to develop tools to silence the BDNF signal. We generated Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) derived amplicon vectors, i.e. viral particles containing a genome of 152 kb constituted of concatameric repetitions of an expression cassette, enabling the expression of the gene of interest in multiple copies. HSV-1 based amplicon vectors are non-pathogenic and have been successfully employed in the past for gene delivery into the brain of living animals. Therefore, amplicon vectors should represent a logical choice for expressing a silencing cassette, which, in multiple copies, is expected to lead to an efficient knock-down of the target gene expression. Here, we employed two amplicon-based BDNF silencing strategies. The first, antisense, has been chosen to target and degrade the cytoplasmic mRNA pool of BDNF, whereas the second, based on the convergent transcription technology, has been chosen to repress transcription at the BDNF gene. Both these amplicon vectors proved to be effective in down-regulating BDNF expression in vitro, in BDNF-expressing mesoangioblast cells. However, only the antisense strategy was effective in vivo, after inoculation in the hippocampus in a model of status epilepticus in which BDNF mRNA levels are strongly increased. Interestingly, the knocking down of BDNF levels induced with BDNF-antisense was sufficient to produce significant behavioral effects, in spite of the fact that it was produced only in a part of a single hippocampus. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a reliable effect of amplicon vectors in knocking down gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, this approach may find broad applications in neurobiological studies. PMID:26954758

  16. Gamma interferon expression during acute and latent nervous system infection by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, E M; Hinton, D R; Chen, J; Openshaw, H

    1995-01-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate a role for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. At the acute stage of infection in mice, HSV-1 replication in trigeminal ganglia and brain stem tissue was modestly but consistently enhanced in mice from which IFN-gamma was by ablated monoclonal antibody treatment and in mice genetically lacking the IFN-gamma receptor (Rgko mice). As determined by reverse transcriptase PCR, IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha transcripts were present in trigeminal ganglia during both acute and latent HSV-1 infection. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected initially in trigeminal ganglia at day 5 after HSV-1 inoculation, and these cells persisted for 6 months into latency. The T cells were focused around morphologically normal neurons that showed no signs of active infection, but many of which expressed HSV-1 latency-associated transcripts. Secreted IFN-gamma was present up to 6 months into latency in areas of the T-cell infiltration. By 9 months into latency, both the T-cell infiltrate and IFN-gamma expression had cleared, although there remained a slight increase in macrophage levels in trigeminal ganglia. In HSV-1-infected brain stem tissue, T cells and IFN-gamma expression were present at 1 month but were gone by 6 months after infection. Our hypothesis is that the persistence of T cells and the sustained IFN-gamma expression occur in response to an HSV-1 antigen(s) in the nervous system. This hypothesis is consistent with a new model of HSV-1 latency which suggests that limited HSV-1 antigen expression occurs during latency (M. Kosz-Vnenchak, J. Jacobson, D.M. Coen, and D.M. Knipe, J. Virol. 67:5383-5393, 1993). We speculate that prolonged secretion of IFN-gamma during latency may modulate a reactivated HSV-1 infection. PMID:7609058

  17. Removal of N-linked carbohydrates decreases the infectivity of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Kühn, J E; Eing, B R; Brossmer, R; Munk, K; Braun, R W

    1988-11-01

    Purified preparations of herpes simplex virus type 1 Angelotti were digested with the exoglycosidases sialidase, beta-galactosidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and alpha-mannosidase, and with the endoglycosidases Endo-H and Endo-F. It was found that treatment of virions with Endo-F specifically decreased viral infectivity by a factor of 10. This reduction in titre was not associated with any measurable differences in virus adsorption, suggesting a role of N-linked complex type oligosaccharide chains in penetration. In contrast, a reduction in titre observed upon digestion of virions with exoglycosidases could be attributed to a proteolytic contamination in these enzyme preparations. Treatment of virions with Endo-H, demonstrated to be free of proteolytic contamination, did not reduce viral infectivity. Analysis of endoglycosidase-digested virions by monospecific antibodies and immunoblotting revealed a susceptibility of all four major glycoproteins (gC, gB, gE and gD) to Endo-F, but only gB was susceptible to Endo-H treatment. In contrast, of all the exoglycosidases used only sialidase was found to be active towards native viral glycoproteins. Upon analysis of endoglycosidase-digested virions we could not find any evidence for proteolysis, degradation or altered protein composition of viral envelopes. In contrast, vigorous inhibition of glycoprotein glycosylation by tunicamycin led to the formation of physically intact virions almost completely lacking all major glycoproteins. These data show that digestion of intact virions with glycosidases allows an analysis of the functional relevance of carbohydrate residues without any obvious alterations in the virion glycoprotein composition.

  18. Inflammatory infiltration of the trigeminal ganglion after herpes simplex virus type 1 corneal infection.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, T; Tang, Q; Hendricks, R L

    1996-01-01

    Following herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea, the virus is transmitted to the trigeminal ganglion, where a brief period of virus replication is followed by establishment of a latent infection in neurons. A possible role of the immune system in regulating virus replication and maintaining latency in the sensory neurons has been suggested. We have investigated the phenotype and cytokine pattern of cells that infiltrate the A/J mouse trigeminal ganglion at various times after HSV-1 corneal infection. HSV antigen expression in the trigeminal ganglion (indicative of the viral lytic cycle) increased until day 3 postinfection (p.i.) and then diminished to undetectable levels by day 7 p.i. The period of declining HSV antigen expression. was associated with a marked increase in Mac-1+ cells. These cells did not appear to coexpress the F4/80+ (macrophage) or the CD8+ (T cell) markers, and none showed polymorphonuclear leukocyte morphology, suggesting a possible early infiltration of natural killer cells. There was also a significant increase in the trigeminal ganglion of cells expressing the gamma delta T-cell receptor, and these cells were found almost exclusively in very close association with neurons. This period was also characterized by a rapid and equivalent increase in cells expressing gamma interferon and interleukin-4. The density of the inflammatory infiltrate in the trigeminal ganglion increased until days 12 to 21 p.i., when it was predominated by CD8+, Mac-1+, and tumor necrosis factor-expressing cells, which surrounded many neurons. By day 92 p.i., the inflammatory infiltrate diminished but was heaviest in mice with active periocular skin disease. Our data are consistent with the notion that gamma interferon produced by natural killer cells and/or gamma delta T cells may play an important role in limiting HSV-1 replication in the trigeminal ganglion during the acute stage of infection. In addition, tumor necrosis factor produced by CD8

  19. Reiterated sequences within the intron of an immediate-early gene of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, R J; Umene, K; Enquist, L W

    1981-01-01

    We describe the nucleotide sequence of a herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA fragment containing the intron of the immediate-early mRNA-5 (IE mRNA-5) gene. The location of the intron within this fragment was determined by a Berk & Sharp nuclease S1 protection analysis, and by cloning and sequencing cDNA containing sequences overlapping t he IE mRNA-5 splice point. We found that the 149 base pair (bp) intron contained four copies of an identical 23 bp GC rich tandem repeat followed by a further reiteration consisting of the first 15 bp only. Images PMID:6272198

  20. Latent acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 in trigeminal ganglia of immunocompetent individuals.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Monique; van Loenen, Freek B; Meesters, Roland J W; de Graaf, Miranda; Remeijer, Lies; Luider, Theo M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2012-05-15

    Specific mutations within the hypervariable herpes simplex virus (HSV) gene thymidine kinase (TK) gene lead to acyclovir (ACV) resistance. To uncover the existence of latent ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1, we determined the genetic and functional variability of the HSV-1 TK gene pool in paired trigeminal ganglia (TG) of 5 immunocompetent individuals. The latent virus pool consisted of a donor-specific HSV-1 quasispecies, including one major ACV-sensitive (ACV(S)) and multiple phylogenetic-related minor ACV(S) and ACV(R) TK variants. Contrary to minor variants, major TK variants were shared between paired TG. The data demonstrate the coexistence of phylogenetic-related ACV(S) and ACV(R) latent HSV-1 in human TG.

  1. The a sequence is dispensable for isomerization of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome.

    PubMed

    Martin, D W; Weber, P C

    1996-12-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome consists of two components, L (long) and S (short), that invert relative to each other during productive infection to generate four equimolar isomeric forms of viral DNA. Recent studies have indicated that this genome isomerization is the result of DNA replication-mediated homologous recombination between the large inverted repeat sequences that exist in the genome, rather than site-specific recombination through the terminal repeat a sequences present at the L-S junctions. However, there has never been an unequivocal demonstration of the dispensability of the latter element for this process using a recombinant virus whose genome lacks a sequences at its L-S junctions. This is because the genetic manipulations required to generate such a viral mutant are not possible using simple marker transfer, since the cleavage and encapsidation signals of the a sequence represent essential cis-acting elements which cannot be deleted outright from the viral DNA. To circumvent this problem, a simple two-step strategy was devised by which essential cis-acting sites like the a sequence can be readily deleted from their natural loci in large viral DNA genomes. This method involved initial duplication of the element at a neutral site in the viral DNA and subsequent deletion of the element from its native site. By using this approach, the a sequence at the L-S junction was rendered dispensable for virus replication through the insertion of a second copy into the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of the viral DNA; the original copies at the L-S junctions were then successfully deleted from this virus by conventional marker transfer. The final recombinant virus, HSV-1::L-S(delta)a, was found to be capable of undergoing normal levels of genome isomerization on the basis of the presence of equimolar concentrations of restriction fragments unique to each of the four isomeric forms of the viral DNA. Interestingly, only two of these genomic isomers

  2. Autophagy is involved in anti-viral activity of pentagalloylglucose (PGG) against Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Ying; Chen, Zhen-Ping; Ju, Huai-Qiang; Komatsu, Masaaki; Ji, Yu-hua; Liu, Ge; Guo, Chao-wan; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Wang, Yi-Fei; Kitazato, Kaio

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} We showed PGG has anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and can induce autophgy. {yields} Autophagy may be a novel and important mechanism mediating PGG anti-viral activities. {yields} Inhibition of mTOR pathway is an important mechanism of induction of autophagy by PGG. -- Abstract: Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a natural polyphenolic compound with broad-spectrum anti-viral activity, however, the mechanisms underlying anti-viral activity remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the effects of PGG on anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) associated with autophagy. We found that the PGG anti-HSV-1 activity was impaired significantly in MEF-atg7{sup -/-} cells (autophagy-defective cells) derived from an atg7{sup -/-} knockout mouse. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that PGG-induced autophagosomes engulfed HSV-1 virions. The mTOR signaling pathway, an essential pathway for the regulation of autophagy, was found to be suppressed following PGG treatment. Data presented in this report demonstrated for the first time that autophagy induced following PGG treatment contributed to its anti-HSV activity in vitro.

  3. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV ... virus 1 (HSV1) is the common cause of cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. HSV2 normally ...

  4. Morphologic, immunohistochemical, immunologic, ultrastructural, and time-related study of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helle L; Norrild, Bodil

    2002-03-01

    Membrane glycoproteins of enveloped animal viruses are synthesized, processed, and transported inside infected cells. Expression of viral glycoproteins on the surface of viral particles and host cells are essential for many biologic functions. In the case of herpes simplex virus, the glycoprotein molecules may act as nucleation points for virus assembly and budding at the nuclear membrane. The temporal distribution of herpes simplex virus type 1 particles and glycoproteins in cultured human fibroblasts was studied by titration plaque assay, immunoblots, immunofluorescence light microscopy, and immunogold cryosection electron microscopy to describe the virus-cell interactions. These concordant analyses revealed significant release of infectious viral particles to the medium at 6 hours postinfection, that the capacity of the host cells to make infectious viral particles was complete at 18 hours postinfection, and that the infection brought time-related modifications of tubulin, cell morphology, and viral glycoproteins. The data presented is in accord with the theory of envelopment at the nuclear membranes containing immature glycoproteins followed by multiple deenvelopments and reenvelopments of the virus particles during the transport and maturation in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex.

  5. Comparison of the association with eczema herpeticum in the two predominant genotypes of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Umene, K; Yoshida, M; Sakaoka, H

    1996-08-01

    Eczema herpeticum, sometimes called Kaposi's varicelliform eruption, is usually caused by a disseminated herpes simplex virus infection in a patient whose underlying skin disease in atopic dermatitis. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a widespread infectious agent in human populations, is the etiologic agent of eczema herpeticum. Analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of HSV-1 strains isolated in Japan, using restriction endonucleases, revealed the presence of two predominant genotypes of F1 and F35. The number of HSV-1 strains of F1 genotype was over twice that of the F35 genotype, and the nucleotide change between F1 and F35 was estimated to be 1.5%. The question of whether the genomic difference between two predominant genotypes could influence clinical manifestations remained to be addressed. On the basis of RFLP, we determined genotypes of HSV-1 strains isolated from the patients in Japan, including those with eczema herpeticum. Two of four HSV-1 strains of F35 genotype were from patients with eczema herpeticum, whereas none of 12 HSV-1 strains of F1 genotype was from those with eczema herpeticum. Thus, the F35 genotype seemed to be associated more frequently with eczema herpeticum than the F1 genotype.

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus-Type1 (HSV-1) Impairs DNA Repair in Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    De Chiara, Giovanna; Racaniello, Mauro; Mollinari, Cristiana; Marcocci, Maria Elena; Aversa, Giorgia; Cardinale, Alessio; Giovanetti, Anna; Garaci, Enrico; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Merlo, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Several findings suggest that Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection plays a role in the neurodegenerative processes that characterize Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the underlying mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we show that HSV-1 productive infection in cortical neurons causes the accumulation of DNA lesions that include both single (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs), which are reported to be implicated in the neuronal loss observed in neurodegenerative diseases. We demonstrate that HSV-1 downregulates the expression level of Ku80, one of the main components of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), a major pathway for the repair of DSBs. We also provide data suggesting that HSV-1 drives Ku80 for proteasomal degradation and impairs NHEJ activity, leading to DSB accumulation. Since HSV-1 usually causes life-long recurrent infections, it is possible to speculate that cumulating damages, including those occurring on DNA, may contribute to virus induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration, further suggesting HSV-1 as a risk factor for neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:27803664

  7. Sodium Butyrate: a Chemical Inducer of In Vivo Reactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in the Ocular Mouse Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Donna M.; Bhattacharjee, Partha S.; Hill, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have explored the chromatin structures associated with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome during latency, particularly with regard to specific histone tail modifications such as acetylation and dimethylation. The objective of our present study was to develop a rapid systemic method of in vivo HSV-1 reactivation to further explore the changes that occur in the chromatin structures associated with HSV-1 at early time points after the initiation of HSV reactivation. We present a uniform, rapid, and reliable method of in vivo HSV-1 reactivation in mice that yields high reactivation frequencies (75 to 100%) by using sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and demonstrate that the reactivating virus can be detected at the original site of infection. PMID:17360760

  8. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection and Jewish Ritual Circumcision With Oral Suction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Leas, Brian F.; Umscheid, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Jewish ritual circumcision rarely but occasionally includes a procedure involving direct oral suction of the wound, which can expose an infant to infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). This practice has provoked international controversy in recent years, but no systematic review of the clinical literature has previously been published. We designed this review to identify and synthesize all published studies examining the association between circumcision with direct oral suction and HSV-1 infection. Our search strategy identified 6 published case series or case reports, documenting 30 cases between 1988 and 2012. Clinical findings were consistent with transmission of infection during circumcision, although the evidence base is limited by the small number of infections and incomplete case data. Published evidence suggests that circumcision with direct oral suction has resulted in severe neonatal illness and death from HSV-1 transmission, but further research is necessary to clarify the risk of infection. PMID:26407411

  9. Synthetic pregnenolone derivatives as antiviral agents against acyclovir-resistant isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1.

    PubMed

    Dávola, María Eugenia; Mazaira, Gisela I; Galigniana, Mario D; Alché, Laura E; Ramírez, Javier A; Barquero, Andrea A

    2015-10-01

    The conventional therapy for the management of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) infections mainly comprises acyclovir (ACV) and other nucleoside analogues. A common outcome of this treatment is the emergence of resistant viral strains, principally when immunosuppressed patients are involved. Thus, the development of new antiherpetic compounds remains as a central challenge. In this work we describe the synthesis and the in vitro antiherpetic activity of a new family of steroidal compounds derived from the endogenous hormone pregnenolone. Some of these derivatives showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on HSV-1 spread both on wild type and ACV-resistant strains. The results also show that these compounds seem to interfere with the late steps of the viral cycle. PMID:26259812

  10. Susceptibility of Drug-Resistant Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Strains to Essential Oils of Ginger, Thyme, Hyssop, and Sandalwood▿

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Paul; Koch, Christine; Reichling, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Acyclovir-resistant clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were analyzed in vitro for their susceptibilities to essential oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood. All essential oils exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against acyclovir-sensitive strain KOS and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 clinical isolates and reduced plaque formation significantly. PMID:17353250

  11. Cross-linking of glycoprotein oligomers during herpes simplex virus type 1 entry.

    PubMed

    Handler, C G; Cohen, G H; Eisenberg, R J

    1996-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has 10 glycoproteins in its envelope. Glycoprotein B (gB), gC, gD, gH, and gL have been implicated in virus entry. We previously used chemical cross-linking to show that these five glycoproteins were close enough to each other to be cross-linked into homodimeric and hetero-oligomeric forms; hetero-oligomers of gB-gC, gC-gD, gD-gB, gH-gL, gC-gL and gD-gL were found in purified virions. To better understand the roles of these glycoproteins in viral entry, we have modified a standard HSV penetration assay to include cross-linkers. This allowed us to examine changes in associations of viral glycoproteins during the entry process. HSV-1(KOS) was adsorbed at 4 degrees C to human neuroblastoma cells (SY5Y). The temperature was raised to 37 degrees C and cells were treated with cross-linker at various times after the temperature shift. Cytoplasmic extracts were examined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) for viral glycoproteins. We found that (i) as in virus alone, the length and concentration of the cross-linking agent affected the number of specific complexes isolated; (ii) the same glycoprotein patterns found in purified virions were also present after attachment of virions to cells; and (iii) the ability to cross-link HSV glycoproteins changed as virus penetration proceeded, e.g., gB and gD complexes which were present during attachment disappeared with increasing time, and their disappearance paralleled the kinetics of penetration. However, this phenomenon appeared to be selective since it was not observed with gC oligomers. In addition, we examined the cross-linking patterns of gB and gD in null viruses K082 and KOSgD beta. Neither of these mutants, which attach but cannot penetrate, showed changes in glycoprotein cross-linking over time. We speculate that these changes are due to conformational changes which preclude cross-linking or spatial alterations which dissociate the glycoprotein interactions during the penetration events. PMID

  12. Protective antibody therapy is associated with reduced chemokine transcripts in herpes simplex virus type 1 corneal infection.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Y H; Yan, X T; Oakes, J E; Lausch, R N

    1996-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection on the murine cornea induces an intense inflammatory response which can lead to blindness. This disease, known as herpes stromal keratitis, can be prevented by the timely passive transfer of monoclonal antibody specific for viral glycoprotein D (gD). Precisely how antibody treatment prevents excessive corneal inflammation is not known. In this study we investigated whether chemokine mRNA expression is inhibited by antibody treatment. Total cellular RNAs isolated from normal corneas and at various times after virus infection were analyzed via reverse transcription-PCR for mRNA coding for seven different chemokines. Constitutive levels of IP-10, KC, MIP-2, MCP-1, MIP-1 beta, and RANTES mRNA were detected in uninfected corneas of BALB/c mice. When the cornea was mechanically traumatized, message for all six chemokines was transiently elevated above constitutive levels. In contrast, HSV-1 infection resulted in prolonged enhanced chemokine message expression. The kinetics of mRNA accumulation was distinctive for each chemokine analyzed. MIP-1 alpha message, not detected constitutively, was not evident until day 7 postinfection. Administration of anti-HSV gD monoclonal antibody 1 day after infection was associated with reduced message for MIP-2, MCP-1, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta. IP-10, KC, and RANTES messages were not altered. Collectively, our results suggest that anti-gD treatment may protect, at least in part, by inhibiting production of chemokines believed to promote inflammation. PMID:8551595

  13. Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Croughan, W.S.; Behbehani, A.M.

    1988-02-01

    A comparative study of the different reactions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to Lysol, Listerine, bleach, rubbing alcohol, Alcide disinfectant (Alcide Corp., Westport, Conn.), and various pHs, temperatures, and UV light exposures was performed. Both types of stock virus (titers of approximately 10(6) and 10(5.5) for types 1 and 2, respectively) were inactivated by 0.5% Lysol in 5 min; by Listerine (1:1 mixtures) in 5 min; by 2000 ppm (2000 microliters/liter) of bleach in 10 min; by rubbing alcohol (1:1 mixtures) at zero time; by Alcide disinfectant (0.2 ml of virus plus 2.0 ml of Alcide) at zero time; by pHs 3, 5, and 11 in 10 min; and by a temperature of 56 degrees C in 30 min. A germicidal lamp at a distance of 48 cm failed to completely inactivate the two types in 15 min. Type 1 showed slightly more resistance to Listerine and bleach and significantly more resistance to heat; moreover, pH 9 did not affect the infectivity of either type after 10 min.

  14. Physical mapping of the herpes simplex virus type 2 nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity by using herpes simplex virus type 1 deletion clones.

    PubMed

    Wathen, M W; Hay, J

    1984-07-01

    The nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity in the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) mutant ts1348 had previously been mapped to the EcoRI-D restriction enzyme fragment of HSV-1. Eight clones with deletions representing most of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D were selected with lambda gtWES hybrids. These clones were tested for their ability to rescue the alkaline exonuclease activity of HSV-2 nuc- ts1348 virus. The sequences colinear with the HSV-2 nuc- lesion were found to map between 0.169 and 0.174 map units on the HSV-1 Patton genome, representing an 0.8-kilobase-pair region that is 12.9 to 13.7 kilobase pairs from the left end of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D.

  15. Nonthermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Suppresses Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Replication in Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Oleg; Donovan, Kelly; Limonnik, Vladimir; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Herpes keratitis (HK) is the leading cause of cornea-derived and infection-associated blindness in the developed world. Despite the availability of effective antivirals, some patients develop refractory disease, drug-resistant infection, and topical toxicity. A nonpharmaceutical treatment modality may offer a unique advantage in the management of such cases. This study investigated the antiviral effect of nonthermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, a partially ionized gas that can be applied to organic substances to produce various biological effects. Methods Human corneal epithelial cells and explanted corneas were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and exposed to culture medium treated with nonthermal DBD plasma. The extent of infection was measured by plaque assay, quantitative PCR, and Western blot. Corneal toxicity assessment was performed with fluorescein staining, histologic examination, and 8-OHdG detection. Results Application of DBD plasma–treated medium to human corneal epithelial cells and explanted corneas produced a dose-dependent reduction of the cytopathic effect, viral genome replication, and the overall production of infectious viral progeny. Toxicity studies showed lack of detrimental effects in explanted human corneas. Conclusions Nonthermal DBD plasma substantially suppresses corneal HSV-1 infection in vitro and ex vivo without causing pronounced toxicity. Translational Relevance Nonthermal plasma is a versatile tool that holds great biomedical potential for ophthalmology, where it is being investigated for wound healing and sterilization and is already in use for ocular microsurgery. The anti-HSV-1 activity of DBD plasma demonstrated here could be directly translated to the clinic for use against drug-resistant herpes keratitis. PMID:24757592

  16. Different presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and analytical study

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios; Mañanes-González, Sara; Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Cervilla, Jorge A; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1) C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2) there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3) herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention. PMID:25848282

  17. Activation of human papillomavirus type 18 gene expression by herpes simplex virus type 1 viral transactivators and a phorbol ester

    SciTech Connect

    Gius, D.; Laimins, L.A.

    1989-02-01

    Several viral trans-activators and a tumor promoter were examined for the ability to activate human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) gene expression. A plasmid containing the HPV-18 noncoding region placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was cotransfected with different herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genes into several cell lines. Both HSV-1 TIF and ICPO activated HPV-18 expression; however, activation by TIF was observed only in epithelial cells, while ICPO stimulated expression in a wide variety of cells. The element activated by both TIF and ICOP was mapped to a 229-base-pair fragment which also contains an HPV-18 epithelial cell-preferred enhancer. The inclusion of a papillomavirus E2 trans-activator with TIF and ICOP further increased HPV-18 expression. In contrast, the HSV-1 ICP4 and ICP27 genes, as well as the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat genes, were found to have no effect on HPV-18 expression. In transient assays, the addition of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) also activated HPV-18 expression. The region of HPV-18 activated by TPA was localized to a sequence which is homologous to other TPA-responsive elements.

  18. Herpes simplex virus type 1 protein IE63 affects the nuclear export of virus intron-containing transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, A; Dunlop, J; Clements, J B

    1996-01-01

    Using in situ hybridization labelling methods, we have determined that the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein IE63 (ICP27) affects the cellular localization of virus transcripts. Intronless transcripts from the IE63, UL38, and UL44 genes are rapidly exported to and accumulate in the cytoplasm throughout infection, in either the presence or absence of IE63 expression. The intron-containing transcripts from the IE110 and UL15 genes, while initially cytoplasmic, are increasingly retained in the nucleus in distinct clumps as infection proceeds, and the clumps colocalize with the redistributed small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Infections with the IE63 mutant virus 27-lacZ demonstrated that in the absence of IE63 expression, nuclear retention of intron-containing transcripts was lost. The nuclear retention of UL15 transcripts, which demonstrated both nuclear and cytoplasmic label, was not as pronounced as that of the IE110 transcripts, and we propose that this is due to the late expression of UL15. Infections with the mutant virus 110C1, in which both introns of IE110 have been precisely removed (R.D. Everett, J. Gen. Virol. 72:651-659, 1991), demonstrated IE110 transcripts in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm; thus, exon definition sequences which regulate viral RNA transport are present in the IE110 transcript. By in situ hybridization a stable population of polyadenylated RNAs was found to accumulate in the nucleus in spots, most of which were separate from the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle clumps. The IE63 protein has an involvement, either direct or indirect, in the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport of viral transcripts, a function which contrasts with the recently proposed role of herpes simplex virus type 1 Us11 in promoting the nuclear export of partially spliced or unspliced transcripts (J.-J. Diaz, M. Duc Dodon, N. Schaerer-Uthurraly, D. Simonin, K. Kindbeiter, L. Gazzolo, and J.-J. Madjar, Nature [London] 379

  19. Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP27 deletion mutants exhibit altered patterns of transcription and are DNA deficient.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, A M; McMahan, L; Schaffer, P A

    1989-01-01

    Infected cell polypeptide 27 (ICP27, alpha 27, IE63) is the 63-kilodalton product of an immediate-early gene of herpes simplex virus. Functional analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants in herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP27 demonstrated that this protein plays an essential role in virus replication (W. R. Sacks, C. C. Greene, D. P. Aschman, and P. A. Schaffer, J. Virol. 55:796-805, 1985). Because the temperature-sensitive forms of ICP27 induced by the mutants affected gene expression to differing degrees, these mutants were not suitable for establishing the ICP27 null phenotype. For this purpose we generated deletion mutants in ICP27--3dl1.2 and 5dl1.2--lacking the transcriptional start site as well as portions of the promoter and coding sequences of the gene. These mutants failed to specify ICP27-specific transcripts and proteins and were replication incompetent. The mutants induced the synthesis of greatly reduced levels of viral DNA (18% of wild-type levels) and were characterized by the overexpression of early proteins, reduced levels of gamma 1 proteins, and the absence of detectable gamma 2 proteins. The alterations in viral protein synthesis appeared to occur at the level of transcription. The phenotypic properties of the mutants were consistent with the results of transient expression assays demonstrating that ICP27 acts to down-regulate transcription of early genes and to further up-regulate transcription of late genes whose expression is induced by ICP0 and ICP4. Because ICP27 is not thought to be directly involved in viral DNA synthesis, it is likely that the reduced levels of viral DNA characteristic of deletion mutant-infected cells is a consequence of aberrant regulation of certain early genes whose products are involved in viral DNA synthesis and late genes whose products are required to stabilize viral DNA once synthesized. Taken together, these findings suggest an essential role for ICP27 in the modulation of early and late gene expression at the

  20. The RR1 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 is uniquely trans activated by ICP0 during infection.

    PubMed Central

    Desai, P; Ramakrishnan, R; Lin, Z W; Osak, B; Glorioso, J C; Levine, M

    1993-01-01

    As has been demonstrated for herpes simplex virus type 2, we show in this report that the herpes simplex virus type 1 ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (RR1) gene is trans activated in transient transfection assays by VP16 and ICP0 but not by ICP4. Deletion analysis demonstrated that responsiveness to induction to VP16 resides in an octamer/TAATGARAT sequence of the RR1 promoter and that the TATA box alone is sufficient to provide induction by ICP0. The induction of the RR1 gene by ICP0 but not by ICP4 suggested that it might be possible to identify the cis-acting element(s) responsive to ICP4 in an ICP4-inducible promoter. To this end, a series of chimeric promoters containing various portions of the regulatory sequences of the RR1 promoter and thymidine kinase (TK) promoter were constructed. The TK promoter is trans activated by both ICP0 and ICP4 in transient transfection assays and by ICP4 in infection. The data show that replacing the RR1 TATA region with the TK TATA region permits ICP4 inducibility even if the rest of the RR1 promoter elements remain intact. To test whether the RR1 gene is induced by ICP0 during infection, four mutant viruses were constructed. (i) TAATGARAT+ has the wild-type RR1 promoter driving chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and the RR2 promoter driving the lacZ gene. The RR2 gene codes for the small subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase and is expressed as a beta gene. (ii) TAATGARAT- has a triple-base change in the octamer/TAATGARAT element which renders it unresponsive to VP16 trans activation, eliminating that portion of the activation of the RR1 gene. (iii) TAATGARAT- delta alpha 0 has a deletion of the alpha 0 gene. (iv) TAATGARAT- delta alpha 4 has a deletion of the alpha 4 gene. Infections were carried out in Vero cells at a multiplicity of infection of 10 per cell; cells were assayed for CAT and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) activities and for virus yields. The first two infections gave strong CAT and beta

  1. Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 induce shutoff of host protein synthesis by different mechanisms in Friend erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Sinden, R R; Sadler, J R

    1983-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 disrupt host protein synthesis after viral infection. We have treated both viral types with agents which prevent transcription of the viral genome and used these treated viruses to infect induced Friend erythroleukemia cells. By measuring the changes in globin synthesis after infection, we have determined whether expression of the viral genome precedes the shutoff of host protein synthesis or whether the inhibitor molecule enters the cells as part of the virion. HSV-2-induced shutoff of host protein synthesis was insensitive to the effects of shortwave (254-nm) UV light and actinomycin D. Both of the treatments inhibited HSV-1-induced host protein shutoff. Likewise, treatment of HSV-1 with the cross-linking agent 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen and longwave (360-nm) UV light prevented HSV-1 from inhibiting cellular protein synthesis. Treatment of HSV-2 with 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen did not affect the ability of the virus to interfere with host protein synthesis, except at the highest doses of longwave UV light. It was determined that the highest longwave UV dosage damaged the HSV-2 virion as well as cross-linking the viral DNA. The results suggest that HSV-2 uses a virion-associated component to inhibit host protein synthesis and that HSV-1 requires the expression of the viral genome to cause cellular protein synthesis shutoff.

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2 Infection Increases Atherosclerosis Risk: Evidence Based on a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu peng; Wang, Yun; Liu, Wen; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infection with the risk of atherosclerosis (AS). Methods. A systematic literature search was performed through three electronic databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the effect of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection on AS risk. Results. 17 studies were available for meta-analysis of HSV-1 infection and AS risk and seven studies for meta-analysis of HSV-2 infection and AS risk. Subjects exposed to HSV-1 infection exhibited an increased risk of AS (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.40–2.23; P < 0.001). And consistent elevated AS risks for HSV-1 positive subjects were found in all subgroup analysis of disease type, region, male proportion, and age. HSV-2 positive subjects demonstrated significantly increased AS risk (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.13–1.67; P < 0.005). In subgroup analysis, elevated AS risks were only observed in myocardial ischemia group, male proportion >60% group, and age ≤60-year-old group. Conclusion. Our meta-analysis indicated that HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection could increase the risk of contracting AS. PMID:27195284

  3. DNA Replication Catalyzed by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Proteins Reveals Trombone Loops at the Fork*♦

    PubMed Central

    Bermek, Oya; Willcox, Smaranda; Griffith, Jack D.

    2015-01-01

    Using purified replication factors encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 and a 70-base minicircle template, we obtained robust DNA synthesis with leading strand products of >20,000 nucleotides and lagging strand fragments from 600 to 9,000 nucleotides as seen by alkaline gel electrophoresis. ICP8 was crucial for the synthesis on both strands. Visualization of the deproteinized products using electron microscopy revealed long, linear dsDNAs, and in 87%, one end, presumably the end with the 70-base circle, was single-stranded. The remaining 13% had multiple single-stranded segments separated by dsDNA segments 500 to 1,000 nucleotides in length located at one end. These features are diagnostic of the trombone mechanism of replication. Indeed, when the products were examined with the replication proteins bound, a dsDNA loop was frequently associated with the replication complex located at one end of the replicated DNA. Furthermore, the frequency of loops correlated with the fraction of DNA undergoing Okazaki fragment synthesis. PMID:25471368

  4. A sugar binding protein Cyanovirin-N blocks herpes simplex virus type-1 entry and cell fusion

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Shukla, Shripaad Y.; Shukla, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) causes significant health problems from periodic skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. It is also considered a cofactor in the development of age-related secondary glaucoma. Inhibition of HSV-1 at the stage of viral entry generates a unique opportunity for preventative and/or therapeutic intervention. Here we provide evidence that a sugar-binding antiviral protein, cyanovirin-N (CV-N), can act as a potent inhibitor of HSV-1 entry into natural target cells. Inhibition of entry was independent of HSV-1 gD receptor usage and it was observed in transformed as well as primary cell cultures. Evidence presented herein suggests that CV-N can not only block virus entry to cells but also, it is capable of significantly inhibiting membrane fusion mediated by HSV glycoproteins. While CV-N treated virions were significantly deficient in entering into cells, HSV-1 glycoproteins-expressing cells pretreated with CV-N demonstrated reduced cell-to-cell fusion and polykaryocytes formation. The observation that CV-N can block both entry as well as membrane fusion suggests a stronger potential for this compound in anti-viral therapy against HSV-1. PMID:19665490

  5. The polysulfonated compound suramin blocks adsorption and lateral difusion of herpes simplex virus type-1 in vero cells.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, J S; Rice, M; Wagner, E K

    1999-05-25

    Several polysulfonate compounds have been shown to have the potential to inhibit the replication of herpesviruses by blocking binding and penetration of the host cell. We analyzed the actions of the polysulfonate compound suramin on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and compared them with the actions of heparin. We used the expression of a reporter gene (beta-galactosidase) recombined into the latency-associated transcript region of the 17syn+ strain of HSV-1 to quickly evaluate productive cycle activity and have shown that it can be directly correlated with virus replication under the conditions used. We find that suramin, like heparin, blocks the binding of HSV-1 to the cell membrane. Also, suramin efficiently blocks the cell-to-cell spread of the virus; this effect has not been previously reported. Our control experiments demonstrate that heparin also has some effect on intercellular spread of HSV-1 but to a significantly lesser degree than does suramin. We suggest that suramin and related polysulfonate compounds have potential for developing of antiherpes treatments.

  6. A role for heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform 2 in herpes simplex virus type 1 entry and spread

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Oh, Myung-Jin; Shukla, Deepak . E-mail: dshukla@uic.edu

    2006-03-15

    Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform-2 (3-OST-2), which belongs to a family of enzymes capable of generating herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) entry and spread receptors, is predominantly expressed in human brain. Despite its unique expression pattern, the ability of 3-OST-2 to mediate HSV-1 entry and cell-to-cell fusion is not known. Our results demonstrate that expression of 3-OST-2 can render Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells susceptible to entry of wild-type and mutant strains of HSV-1. Evidence for generation of gD receptors by 3-OST-2 were suggested by gD-mediated interference assay and the ability of 3-OST-2-expressing CHO-K1 cells to preferentially bind HSV-1 gD, which could be reversed by prior treatment of cells with HS lyases (heparinases II/III). In addition, 3-OST-2-expressing CHO-K1 cells acquired the ability to fuse with cells-expressing HSV-1 glycoproteins, a phenomenon that mimics a way of viral spread in vivo. Demonstrating specificity, the cell fusion was inhibited by soluble 3-O-sulfated forms of HS, but not unmodified HS. Taken together, our results raise the possibility of a role of 3-OST-2 in the spread of HSV-1 infection in the brain.

  7. Rapid determination of antiviral drug susceptibility of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Thi, Thuong Nguyen; Deback, Claire; Malet, Isabelle; Bonnafous, Pascale; Ait-Arkoub, Zaïna; Agut, Henri

    2006-03-01

    An antiviral drug susceptibility assay of herpes simplex virus (HSV) was developed using real-time PCR quantification of intracellular viral DNA load. The number of HSV DNA copies within Vero cells after 24 h infection was strongly correlated with the number of plaques obtained after 72 h infection. Antiviral drug susceptibility of HSV was determined after virus growth for 24h by measuring the reduction of intracellular HSV DNA in the presence of increasing concentrations of either acyclovir (ACV) or foscarnet (PFA). This assay required neither preliminary titration of infectious stock nor follow-up of cytopathic effect. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) obtained with 27 isolates of HSV types 1 and 2 by using this test were significantly correlated with those obtained in parallel with plaque reduction assay taken as the reference method (r=0.91, p<0.0001 and r=0.51, p=0.009 for ACV and PFA, respectively). The threshold real-time PCR IC50s for ACV and PFA resistance did not differ according to HSV type and were determined to be 1.0 and 100 microM, respectively. The real-time PCR susceptibility assay reported here is rapid, reproducible, applicable for HSV-1 as well as HSV-2, and suitable for automation.

  8. Reducing chorioretinal viral counts with intravitreal foscarnet injections in a rabbit model of Herpes simplex virus type-1 retinitis.

    PubMed

    Morin, N J; Delorme, C; Gourde, P; Omar, R F; Désormeaux, A; Tremblay, M J; Beauchamp, D; Rousseau, A; Bergeron, M G

    1999-10-01

    The efficacy of intravitreal foscarnet injections was evaluated in a rabbit model of Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) retinitis. In untreated infected animals, viral titration revealed that the optic chiasm, vitreous and chorioretina were positive for HSV-1. On the other hand, foscarnet treatment significantly decreased the viral count in the chorioretina when compared to the untreated group. Immunolocalization of HSV in untreated infected animals clearly showed infected cells in the outer and inner layers of the retina and also in the ciliary body of the eye. Clinical examination by indirect ophthalmoscopy indicated an absence of optic nerve congestion and a lower level of vitritis in foscarnet treated animals compared to the untreated group. It is concluded that intravitreal injections of foscarnet reduced the viral titer in the chorioretina in a rabbit model of HSV-1 retinitis. This route of administration might be valuable for the treatment of CMV retinitis in AIDS patients with sight threatening lesions or intolerance to intravenous anti-CMV drugs.

  9. The morphogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 in infected parental mouse L fibroblasts and mutant gro29 cells.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helle Lone; Norrild, Bodil

    2003-11-01

    Mutants of cell lines and viruses are important biological tools. The pathway of herpesvirus particle maturation and egress are contentious issues. The mutant gro29 line of mouse L cells is defective for egress of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) virions, and a candidate for studies of virus-cell interactions. The properties of uninfected and HSV-1-infected L fibroblasts and gro29 cells investigated by protein assay, immunoblot, titration assay, immunofluorescence light microscopy and immunogold cryosection electron microscopy are reported. The ultrastructure of both HSV-1-infected L and gro29 cells confirmed primary envelopment of virions at the nuclear membranes followed by maturing multiple de-envelopments and re-envelopments in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the Golgi complex. The gro29 cells presented changed cytoskeleton, abolished egress of virions, and were defective in the trafficking of glycoproteins, giving rise to accumulation of viral particles and glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. The results suggest that gro29 cells harbour a causal underlying defect of the cytoskeleton in addition to the HSV-1-induced cytoskeletal changes.

  10. Identification of the gene encoding the 65-kilodalton DNA-binding protein of herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Parris, D.S. Institute of Virology, Glasgow ); Cross, A.; Orr, A.; Frame, M.C.; Murphy, M.; McGeoch, D.J.; Marsden, H.S. ); Haarr, L. )

    1988-03-01

    Hybrid arrest of in vitro translation was used to localize the region of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome encoding the 65-kilodalton DNA-binding protein (65K{sub DBP}) to between genome coordinates 0.592 and 0.649. Knowledge of the DNA sequence of this region allowed us to identify three open reading frames as likely candidates for the gene encoding 65K{sub DBP}. Two independent approaches were used to determine which of these three open reading frames encoded the protein. For the first approach a monoclonal antibody, MAb 6898, which reacted specifically with 65K{sub DBP}, was isolated. This antibody was used, with the techniques of hybrid arrest of in vitro translation and in vitro translation of selected mRNA, to identify the gene encoding 65K{sub DBP}. The second approach involved preparation of antisera directed against oligopeptides corresponding to regions of the predicted amino acid sequence of this gene. These antisera reacted specifically with 65K{sub DBP}, thus confirming the gene assignment.

  11. Effect of monoclonal antibodies on limited proteolysis of native glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Pereira, L.; Hampar, B.; Zweig, M.; Cohen, G.H.

    1982-02-01

    We examined the properties of 17 monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) (gD-1) and HSV-2 (gD-2). The antibodies recognized eight separate determinants of gD, based on differences in radioimmuno-precipitation and neutralization assays. The determinants were distributed as follows: three were gD-1 specific, one was gD-2 specific, and four were type common. Several type-specific and type-common determinants appeared to be involved in neutralization. We developed a procedure for examining the effect that binding of monoclonal antibody has on proteolysis of native gD-1 by Staphylococcus aureus protease V8. We showed that several different patterns of protease V8 cleavage were obtained, depending on the monoclonal antibody used. The proteolysis patterns were generally consistent with the immunological groupings. With four groups of antibodies, we found that fragments of gD-1 remained bound to antibody after V8 treatment. A 38,000-dalton fragment remained bound to antibodies in three different groups of monoclonal antibodies. This fragment appeared to contain one type-common and two type-specific determinants. A 12,000-dalton fragment remained bound to antibodies belonging to one type-common group of monoclonal antibodies. Tryptic peptide analysis revealed that the 12,000-dalton fragment represented a portion of the 38,000-dalton fragment and was enriched in a type-common arginine tryptic peptide.

  12. Analyses of herpes simplex virus type 1 latency and reactivation at the single cell level using fluorescent reporter mice.

    PubMed

    Proença, J T; Nelson, D; Nicoll, M P; Connor, V; Efstathiou, S

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes a latent infection in sensory neurons from which the virus can periodically reactivate. Whilst latency establishment is thought to result from a failure to express immediate-early genes, we have previously shown that subpopulations of the latent neuronal reservoir have undergone lytic promoter activation prior to latency establishment. In the present study, we have investigated the biological properties of such latently infected neuronal subpopulations using Ai6 fluorescent reporter mice. Using this system we have determined that prior ICP0 or TK promoter activation does not correlate with increased latent virus DNA loads within individual cells and that neurons with evidence of historical lytic cycle promoter activity exhibit a comparable frequency of reactivation to that of the general latent cell population. Comparison of viral DNA content within cells harbouring latent HSV-1 genomes and those undergoing the earliest stages of reactivation has revealed that reactivation can initiate from cells harbouring a wide range of HSV-1 genome copies, but that exiting latency is biased towards cells bearing higher latent virus DNA loads. PMID:26694770

  13. A colorimetric assay for high-throughput screening of inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 1 alkaline nuclease.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, J C; Weber, P C

    2001-06-15

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes a deoxyribonuclease that is frequently referred to as alkaline nuclease (AN) because of its elevated pH optimum. Studies with recombinant viruses which contain deletions in the HSV-1 gene encoding AN have indicated that this enzyme is required for efficient virus replication and therefore represents a potential target for novel antiviral therapies. A simple colorimetric assay for deoxyribonuclease activity employing a DNA-methyl green substrate was adapted for use in a high-throughput screen to identify small molecule inhibitors of this enzyme. This screen identified 1,2-benzoisothiazolin-3-one as a specific inhibitor of AN, since it exhibited activity against AN but was completely inactive against bovine pancreatic DNaseI. Subsequent studies revealed that this compound most likely inhibited AN by forming disulfide linkages with one or more exposed cysteine residues on the surface of the enzyme and that AN was sensitive to sulfhydryl-group-modifying reagents in general. These results demonstrated the utility of this DNA-methyl green substrate-based assay in both the rapid identification and the characterization of novel small molecule inhibitors of the AN encoded by HSV-1 and other herpesviruses.

  14. A Cationic Peptide, TAT-Cd0, Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Ocular Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Gilbert G.; Larsen, Inna V.; Gauger, Joshua; Carballo, Erica; Stern, Rebecca; Brummel, Rachel; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To test the in vivo activity of a peptide derived from the protein transducing domain of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat protein, TAT-Cd0, in a murine herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) keratitis model. Methods. The efficacy of TAT-Cd0 was assessed in a postinfection treatment model with different concentrations (1 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, 0.01 mg/mL) of the peptide in one of four delivery vehicles: artificial tears, PBS, methylcellulose, and aquaphor cream. Treatment began within 4 or 24 hours postinfection. Viral titers in the tear film were determined by plaque assay. Results. TAT-Cd0 reduced the severity of keratitis in all of the delivery vehicles tested when treatment started, 4 hours postinfection. Peptide in the tears or PBS delivery vehicle had the most significant reduction in disease severity and delayed the onset of vascularization and stromal keratitis. The percentage of mice presenting with disease was also significantly reduced and viral titers were reduced by 1 log at 24 hours postinfection in mice treated with 1 mg/mL TAT-Cd0, suggesting that inhibiting replication early is sufficient to achieve clinical effects. Lower concentrations were not effective and delaying treatment by 24 hours was also not effective. Conclusions. This study shows that TAT-Cd0 is an effective antiviral against HSV-1 strain KOS when applied shortly postinfection and that aqueous-based formulations are more suitable. PMID:23341013

  15. A Strategy for O-Glycoproteomics of Enveloped Viruses—the O-Glycoproteome of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Bagdonaite, Ieva; Nordén, Rickard; Joshi, Hiren J.; Dabelsteen, Sally; Nyström, Kristina; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y.; Olofsson, Sigvard; Wandall, Hans H.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of viral envelope proteins is important for infectivity and interaction with host immunity, however, our current knowledge of the functions of glycosylation is largely limited to N-glycosylation because it is difficult to predict and identify site-specific O-glycosylation. Here, we present a novel proteome-wide discovery strategy for O-glycosylation sites on viral envelope proteins using herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) as a model. We identified 74 O-linked glycosylation sites on 8 out of the 12 HSV-1 envelope proteins. Two of the identified glycosites found in glycoprotein B were previously implicated in virus attachment to immune cells. We show that HSV-1 infection distorts the secretory pathway and that infected cells accumulate glycoproteins with truncated O-glycans, nonetheless retaining the ability to elongate most of the surface glycans. With the use of precise gene editing, we further demonstrate that elongated O-glycans are essential for HSV-1 in human HaCaT keratinocytes, where HSV-1 produced markedly lower viral titers in HaCaT with abrogated O-glycans compared to the isogenic counterpart with normal O-glycans. The roles of O-linked glycosylation for viral entry, formation, secretion, and immune recognition are poorly understood, and the O-glycoproteomics strategy presented here now opens for unbiased discovery on all enveloped viruses. PMID:25830354

  16. Simultaneous PCR detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Orle, K A; Gates, C A; Martin, D H; Body, B A; Weiss, J B

    1996-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay with colorimetric detection was devised for the simultaneous amplification of DNA targets from Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. By using target-specific oligonucleotides in a microwell format, 298 genital ulcer swab specimens collected in New Orleans during three intervals from 1992 through 1994 were evaluated. The results of the M-PCR assay were compared with the results of dark-field microscopy and H. ducreyi culture on two different culture media. HSV culture results were available for 99 specimens collected during the third interval. Confirmatory PCR assays targeting different gene sequences for each of the three organisms were used to validate the M-PCR results. Specimens were resolved as positive for the determination of sensitivity if the reference diagnostic test was positive or if the results of both the M-PCR and the confirmatory PCR were positive. The resolved sensitivities of M-PCR for HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum were 100, 98.4, and 91%, respectively. The resolved sensitivities of HSV culture, H. ducreyi culture, and dark-field microscopy were 71.8, 74.2, and 81%, respectively. These results indicate that the M-PCR assay is more sensitive than standard diagnostic tests for the detection of HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum from genital ulcers.

  17. Safety, formulation, and in vitro antiviral activity of the antimicrobial peptide subtilosin against herpes simplex virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Nicolás I.; Noll, Katia Sutyak; Xu, Shiqi; Li, Ji; Huang, Qingrong; Sinko, Patrick J.; Wachsman, Mónica B.; Chikindas, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the antiviral properties of the bacteriocin subtilosin against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the safety and efficacy of a subtilosin-based nanofiber formulation were determined. High concentrations of subtilosin, the cyclical antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, were virucidal against HSV-1. Interestingly, at non-virucidal concentrations, subtilosin inhibited wild type HSV-1 and aciclovir-resistant mutants in a dose-dependent manner. Although the exact antiviral mechanism is not fully understood, time of addition experiments and western blot analysis suggest that subtilosin does not affect viral multiplication steps prior to protein synthesis. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-based subtilosin nanofibers with a width of 278 nm were produced by the electrospinning process. The retained antimicrobial activity of the subtilosin-based fibers was determined via an agar well diffusion assay. The loading capacity of the fibers was 2.4 mg subtilosin/g fiber, and loading efficiency was 31.6%. Furthermore, the nanofibers with and without incorporated subtilosin were shown to be nontoxic to human epidermal tissues using an in vitro human tissue model. Taking together these results subtilosin-based nanofibers should be further studied as a novel alternative method for treatment and/or control of HSV-1 infection. PMID:23637711

  18. Survival of herpes simplex virus type 1 on some frequently touched objects in the home and public buildings.

    PubMed

    Bardell, D

    1990-01-01

    The survival of herpes simplex virus type 1 in tissue culture fluid on doorknobs and washbasin tap handles over a 2 h period was investigated. The doorknobs were made of plastic and the taps had a chrome-plated surface. The stock virus suspension had a titre of 10(7.5) TCID50/0.1 ml, and a 0.01 ml droplet was placed on the objects. The droplets dried out after 35-40 min at room temperature (23-27 degrees C). The titre of infectious virus recovered by elution from the objects was determined at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. Infectious virus was recovered for all time periods studied. However, there was a marked drop in titre between 30 and 60 min. No differences were observed between virus placed on plastic and that on chrome-plate. Infectious virus could be isolated from skin after touching virus-contaminated doorknobs and taps with the middle finger of the right hand at all test times over a 2 h period.

  19. Antigenic cross-reactions among herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, N; Oba, D E; Hutt-Fletcher, L M

    1987-01-01

    Polyvalent rabbit antisera against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), monospecific antisera against affinity-purified HSV-2 glycoproteins gB and gG, and a panel of monoclonal antibodies against HSV and EBV proteins were used to analyze cross-reactive molecules in cells infected with the four herpesviruses. A combination of immunoprecipitation and Western blotting with these reagents was used to determine that all four viruses coded for a glycoprotein that cross-reacted with HSV-1 gB. CMV coded for proteins that cross-reacted with HSV-2 gC, gD, and gE. Both CMV and EBV coded for proteins that cross-reacted with HSV-2 gG. Antigenic counterparts to the p45 nucleocapsid protein of HSV-2 were present in HSV-1 and CMV, and counterparts of the major DNA-binding protein and the ribonucleotide reductase of HSV-1 were present in all the viruses. The EBV virion glycoprotein gp85 was immunoprecipitated by antisera to HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV. Antisera to CMV and EBV neutralized the infectivity of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 at high concentrations. This suggests that cross-reactivity between these four human herpesviruses may have pathogenic as well as evolutionary significance. Images PMID:3029407

  20. Functional Overexpression of Vomeronasal Receptors Using a Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)-Derived Amplicon

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Benjamin; Alonso, María Teresa; Zufall, Frank; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Chamero, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In mice, social behaviors such as mating and aggression are mediated by pheromones and related chemosignals. The vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects olfactory information from other individuals by sensory neurons tuned to respond to specific chemical cues. Receptors expressed by vomeronasal neurons are implicated in selective detection of these cues. Nearly 400 receptor genes have been identified in the mouse VNO, but the tuning properties of individual receptors remain poorly understood, in part due to the lack of a robust heterologous expression system. Here we develop a herpes virus-based amplicon delivery system to overexpress three types of vomeronasal receptor genes and to characterize cell responses to their proposed ligands. Through Ca2+ imaging in native VNO cells we show that virus-induced overexpression of V1rj2, V2r1b or Fpr3 caused a pronounced increase of responsivity to sulfated steroids, MHC-binding peptide or the synthetic hexapeptide W-peptide, respectively. Other related ligands were not recognized by infected individual neurons, indicating a high degree of selectivity by the overexpressed receptor. Removal of G-protein signaling eliminates Ca2+ responses, indicating that the endogenous second messenger system is essential for observing receptor activation. Our results provide a novel expression system for vomeronasal receptors that should be useful for understanding the molecular logic of VNO ligand detection. Functional expression of vomeronasal receptors and their deorphanization provides an essential requirement for deciphering the neural mechanisms controlling behavior. PMID:27195771

  1. Functional Overexpression of Vomeronasal Receptors Using a Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)-Derived Amplicon.

    PubMed

    Stein, Benjamin; Alonso, María Teresa; Zufall, Frank; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Chamero, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In mice, social behaviors such as mating and aggression are mediated by pheromones and related chemosignals. The vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects olfactory information from other individuals by sensory neurons tuned to respond to specific chemical cues. Receptors expressed by vomeronasal neurons are implicated in selective detection of these cues. Nearly 400 receptor genes have been identified in the mouse VNO, but the tuning properties of individual receptors remain poorly understood, in part due to the lack of a robust heterologous expression system. Here we develop a herpes virus-based amplicon delivery system to overexpress three types of vomeronasal receptor genes and to characterize cell responses to their proposed ligands. Through Ca2+ imaging in native VNO cells we show that virus-induced overexpression of V1rj2, V2r1b or Fpr3 caused a pronounced increase of responsivity to sulfated steroids, MHC-binding peptide or the synthetic hexapeptide W-peptide, respectively. Other related ligands were not recognized by infected individual neurons, indicating a high degree of selectivity by the overexpressed receptor. Removal of G-protein signaling eliminates Ca2+ responses, indicating that the endogenous second messenger system is essential for observing receptor activation. Our results provide a novel expression system for vomeronasal receptors that should be useful for understanding the molecular logic of VNO ligand detection. Functional expression of vomeronasal receptors and their deorphanization provides an essential requirement for deciphering the neural mechanisms controlling behavior. PMID:27195771

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcription unit promotes anatomical site-dependent establishment and reactivation from latency.

    PubMed Central

    Sawtell, N M; Thompson, R L

    1992-01-01

    Defined herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutants KOS/1 and KOS/62 (positive and negative, respectively, for latency-associated transcripts [LATs]) express the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) gene during latency. These mutants were employed to assess the functions of the latency-associated transcription unit on establishment and maintenance of and reactivation from the latent state. It was found that in the trigeminal ganglia, the frequencies of hyperthermia-induced reactivation of KOS/62 and an additional LATs- mutant (KOS/29) were reduced by at least 80%. Quantification of latently infected neurons expressing the beta-Gal gene revealed that the LATs- mutant KOS/62 established approximately 80% fewer latent infections in the trigeminal ganglia than did KOS/1 (LATs+). This reduction in establishment which is evident in the trigeminal ganglia could account for the reduced frequency of reactivation from this site. In striking contrast, both LATs- mutants reactivated with wild-type frequencies from lumbosacral ganglia. Quantification of beta-Gal-positive neurons at this site revealed that KOS/62 established as many as or more latent infections than the LATs+ virus, KOS/1. Colocalization of HSV antigen and beta-Gal suggested that the decreased establishment by LATs- mutants in trigeminal ganglia was the result of inefficient viral shutoff. Thus, one function of the HSV-1 LATs transcription unit is to promote the establishment of latency in trigeminal but not lumbosacral ganglia. Such a function may be relevant to understanding the distinct clinical recurrent disease patterns of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Images PMID:1312626

  3. Characterization of a spliced exon product of herpes simplex type-1 latency-associated transcript in productively infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Wen; Mukerjee, Ruma; Gartner, Jared J.; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G.; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M.; Fraser, Nigel W. . E-mail: nfraser@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-12-20

    The latency-associated transcripts (LATs) of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) are the only viral RNAs accumulating during latent infections in the sensory ganglia of the peripheral nervous system. The major form of LAT that accumulates in latently infected neurons is a 2 kb intron, spliced from a much less abundant 8.3 primary transcript. The spliced exon mRNA has been hard to detect. However, in this study, we have examined the spliced exon RNA in productively infected cells using ribonuclease protection (RPA), and quantitative RT-PCR (q-PCR) assays. We were able to detect the LAT exon RNA in productively infected SY5Y cells (a human neuronal cell line). The level of the LAT exon RNA was found to be approximately 5% that of the 2 kb intron RNA and thus is likely to be relatively unstable. Quantitative RT-PCR (q-PCR) assays were used to examine the LAT exon RNA and its properties. They confirmed that the LAT exon mRNA is present at a very low level in productively infected cells, compared to the levels of other viral transcripts. Furthermore, experiments showed that the LAT exon mRNA is expressed as a true late gene, and appears to be polyadenylated. In SY5Y cells, in contrast to most late viral transcripts, the LAT exon RNA was found to be mainly nuclear localized during the late stage of a productive infection. Interestingly, more LAT exon RNA was found in the cytoplasm in differentiated compared to undifferentiated SY5Y cells, suggesting the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of the LAT exon RNA and its related function may be influenced by the differentiation state of cells.

  4. Ocular avirulence of a herpes simplex virus type 1 strain is associated with heightened sensitivity to alpha/beta interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Y H; Oakes, J E; Lausch, R N

    1990-01-01

    BALB/c mice infected on the scarified cornea with herpes simplex virus type 1 strain 35 [HSV-1(35)] rarely developed ocular disease even at challenge doses as high as 10(7) PFU per eye. In contrast, HSV-1(RE) consistently induced stromal keratitis at an inoculum of 2 x 10(4) PFU. The goal of this study was to determine the reason for the difference in virulence between the two HSV strains. Both HSV-1 strains replicated to similar titers in excised corneal "buttons." However, after in vivo infection of the cornea, the growth of strain 35 was evident only during the first 24 h postinfection, whereas the replication of strain RE persisted for at least 4 days. In vitro tests revealed that HSV-1(35) was greater than 10 times more sensitive to alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) than HSV-1(RE). Both strains induced comparable serum levels of IFN after intraperitoneal inoculation. The kinetics of HSV-1(35) clearance from the eye was markedly altered by treatment with rabbit anti-IFN-alpha/beta. Virus titers exceeding 10(4) PFU per eye could be demonstrated 4 to 5 days postinfection in mice given a single inoculation of antiserum 1 h after infection. Furthermore, anti-IFN treatment in 3-week-old mice infected with HSV-1(35) led to the development of clinically apparent corneal disease which subsequently progressed to stromal keratitis in the majority of recipients. These results indicate that the striking difference in the capacity of HSV-1(35) and HSV-1(RE) to induce corneal disease was related to the inherently greater sensitivity of strain 35 to IFN-alpha/beta produced by the host in response to infection. PMID:2157880

  5. Inactivation of acyclovir-sensitive and -resistant strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 in vitro by photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Latief, Miftahul Akhyar; Ko, Ji-Ae; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Obana, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with the new porphyrin derivative TONS 504 and a light-emitting diode (LED) against acyclovir (ACV)-sensitive and -resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Methods Human FL cells infected with the viral strains were subjected to PACT with TONS 504 at various concentrations (0.01 to 10 mg/l) and irradiation at various light energies (10 to 30 J/cm2) and were then incubated for 24 h before analysis. Results Immunocytofluorescence analysis with antibodies to HSV-1 revealed that PACT eliminated HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV-1 in a manner dependent on the TONS 504 concentration and light energy. Complete eradication of both viruses was apparent at a TONS 504 concentration of 10 mg/l and light energy of 10 to 30 J/cm2 as well as at a TONS 504 concentration of 1 mg/l and light energy of 20 or 30 J/cm2. No antiviral effect was apparent with TONS 504 in the absence of irradiation or with irradiation in the absence of TONS 504. Staining of cell nuclei with 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole revealed no apparent cytotoxicity of the PACT system, a finding that was confirmed by the system’s failure to induce the release of lactate dehydrogenase from the host cells. Conclusions We conclude that our PACT system based on TONS 504 and an LED is effective for eliminating HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV-1 without a harmful effect on host cells. PMID:25999680

  6. Identification of a novel herpes simplex virus type 1 transcript and protein (AL3) expressed during latency

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Tareq; Henderson, Gail; Li, Sumin; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Carpenter, Dale; Wechsler, Steven L.; Jones, Clinton

    2009-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) is abundantly expressed in latently infected sensory neurons. In small animal models of infection, expression of the first 1.5 kb of LAT coding sequences is necessary and sufficient for wild-type reactivation from latency. The ability of LAT to inhibit apoptosis is important for reactivation from latency. Within the first 1.5 kb of LAT coding sequences and LAT promoter sequences, additional transcripts have been identified. For example, the anti-sense to LAT transcript (AL) is expressed in the opposite direction to LAT from the 5′ end of LAT and LAT promoter sequences. In addition, the upstream of LAT (UOL) transcript is expressed in the LAT direction from sequences in the LAT promoter. Further examination of the first 1.5 kb of LAT coding sequences revealed two small ORFs that are anti-sense with respect to LAT (AL2 and AL3). A transcript spanning AL3 was detected in productively infected cells, mouse neuroblastoma cells stably expressing LAT and trigeminal ganglia (TG) of latently infected mice. Peptide-specific IgG directed against AL3 specifically recognized a protein migrating near 15 kDa in cells stably transfected with LAT, mouse neuroblastoma cells transfected with a plasmid containing the AL3 ORF and TG of latently infected mice. The inability to detect the AL3 protein during productive infection may have been because the 5′ terminus of the AL3 transcript was downstream of the first in-frame methionine of the AL3 ORF during productive infection. PMID:19570955

  7. Identification and characterization of a DNA primase activity present in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Holmes, A M; Wietstock, S M; Ruyechan, W T

    1988-03-01

    A novel DNA primase activity has been identified in HeLa cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Such an activity has not been detected in mock-infected cells. The primase activity coeluted with a portion of HSV-1 DNA polymerase from single-stranded DNA agarose columns loaded with high-salt extracts derived from infected cells. This DNA primase activity could be distinguished from host HeLa cell DNA primase by several criteria. First, the pH optimum of the HSV primase was relatively broad and peaked at 8.2 to 8.7 pH units. In contrast, the pH optimum of the HeLa DNA primase was very sharp and fell between pH 7.9 and 8.2. Second, freshly isolated HSV DNA primase was less salt sensitive than the HeLa primase and was eluted from single-stranded DNA agarose at higher salt concentrations than the host primase. Third, antibodies raised against individual peptides of the calf thymus DNA polymerase:primase complex cross-reacted with the HeLa primase but did not react with the HSV DNA primase. Fourth, freshly prepared HSV DNA primase appeared to be associated with the HSV polymerase, but after storage at 4 degrees C for several weeks, the DNA primase separated from the viral DNA polymerase. Separation or decoupling could also be achieved by gel filtration of the HSV polymerase:primase. This free DNA primase had an apparent molecular size of approximately 40 kilodaltons, whereas free HeLa DNA primase had an apparent molecular size of approximately 110 kilodaltons. On the basis of these data, we believe that the novel DNA primase activity in HSV-infected cells may be virus coded and that this enzyme represents a new and important function involved in the replication of HSV DNA.

  8. Herpes simplex virus type 1-based amplicon vectors for fundamental research in neurosciences and gene therapy of neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Jerusalinsky, Diana; Baez, María Verónica; Epstein, Alberto Luis

    2012-01-01

    Somatic manipulation of the nervous system without the involvement of the germinal line appears as a powerful counterpart of the transgenic strategy. The use of viral vectors to produce specific, transient and localized knockout, knockdown, ectopic expression or overexpression of a gene, leads to the possibility of analyzing both in vitro and in vivo molecular basis of neural function. In this approach, viral particles engineered to carry transgenic sequences are delivered into discrete brain regions, to transduce cells that will express the transgenic products. Amplicons are replication-incompetent helper-dependent vectors derived from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), with several advantages that potentiate their use in neurosciences: (1) minimal toxicity: amplicons do not encode any virus proteins, are neither toxic for the infected cells nor pathogenic for the inoculated animals and elicit low levels of adaptive immune responses; (2) extensive transgene capacity to carry up to 150-kb of foreign DNA; i.e., entire genes with regulatory sequences could be delivered; (3) widespread cellular tropism: amplicons can experimentally infect several cell types including glial cells, though naturally the virus infects mainly neurons and epithelial cells; (4) since the viral genome does not integrate into cellular chromosomes there is low probability to induce insertional mutagenesis. Recent investigations on gene transfer into the brain using these vectors, have focused on gene therapy of inherited genetic diseases affecting the nervous system, such as ataxias, or on neurodegenerative disorders using experimental models of Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. Another group of studies used amplicons to investigate complex neural functions such as neuroplasticity, anxiety, learning and memory. In this short review, we summarize recent data supporting the potential of HSV-1 based amplicon vector model for gene delivery and modulation of gene expression in primary cultures

  9. Role of anisomorphic DNA conformations in the negative regulation of a herpes simplex virus type 1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Sarisky, R T; Weber, P C

    1994-11-01

    The a sequence is a bifunctional element in the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome which possesses both the signals required for the cleavage and encapsidation of replicated viral DNA and the promoter-regulatory sequences for the gene encoding the viral neurovirulence factor ICP34.5. Since the ICP34.5 promoter lacks features that are characteristic of most HSV-1 promoters, including a canonical TATA box, an initiator element, and upstream binding sites for host cell transcription factors, a mutational analysis was undertaken to identify the cis-acting elements which mediate transcription of this gene in transient transfection assays. A deletion derivative containing sequences just 83 nucleotides upstream of the second of two cap sites was found to exhibit full promoter activity. However, the presence of either of two far upstream regions, which coincided with the DR2 and DR6 tandem GC-rich repeat arrays, acted to abrogate transcriptional activity both in this segment of the ICP34.5 promoter and in a heterologous promoter construct. The DR2 and DR6 repeat arrays each possessed an unwound S1 nuclease-sensitive DNA conformation (anisomorphic DNA) whose formation was shown to be critical for mediating this transcriptional repression effect. Moreover, results from in vivo titration experiments suggested the existence of a cellular protein(s) which can mediate transcriptional repression in the ICP34.5 promoter by specifically interacting with the single-stranded regions of these tandem repeat arrays. Such DNA conformation-dependent transcriptional silencing appears to represent a novel mechanism of gene regulation in the HSV-1 life cycle.

  10. Efficient quiescent infection of normal human diploid fibroblasts with wild-type herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Robert; Walsh, Derek

    2008-10-01

    Quiescent infection of cultured cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) provides an important, amenable means of studying the molecular mechanics of a nonproductive state that mimics key aspects of in vivo latency. To date, establishing high-multiplicity nonproductive infection of human cells with wild-type HSV-1 has proven challenging. Here, we describe simple culture conditions that established a cell state in normal human diploid fibroblasts that supported efficient quiescent infection using wild-type virus and exhibited many important properties of the in vivo latent state. Despite the efficient production of immediate early (IE) proteins ICP4 and ICP22, the latter remained unprocessed, and viral late gene products were only transiently and inefficiently produced. This low level of virus activity in cultures was rapidly suppressed as the nonproductive state was established. Entry into quiescence was associated with inefficient production of the viral trans-activating protein ICP0, and the accumulation of enlarged nuclear PML structures normally dispersed during productive infection. Lytic replication was rapidly and efficiently restored by exogenous expression of HSV-1 ICP0. These findings are in agreement with previous models in which quiescence was established with HSV mutants disrupted in their expression of IE gene products that included ICP0 and, importantly, provide a means to study cellular mechanisms that repress wild-type viral functions to prevent productive replication. We discuss this model in relation to existing systems and its potential as a simple tool to study the molecular mechanisms of quiescent infection in human cells using wild-type HSV-1.

  11. Analysis of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA packaging signal mutations in the context of the viral genome.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lily; Stow, Nigel D

    2010-01-01

    The minimal signal required for the cleavage and packaging of replicated concatemeric herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA corresponds to an approximately 200-bp fragment, Uc-DR1-Ub, spanning the junction of the genomic L and S segments. Uc and Ub occupy positions adjacent to the L and S termini and contain motifs (pac2 and pac1, respectively) that are conserved near the ends of other herpesvirus genomes. We have used homologous Red/ET recombination in Escherichia coli to introduce wild-type and specifically mutated Uc-DR1-Ub fragments into an ectopic site of a cloned HSV-1 genome from which the resident packaging signals had been previously deleted. The resulting constructs were transfected into mammalian cells, and their abilities to replicate and become encapsidated, generate Uc- and Ub-containing terminal fragments, and give rise to progeny virus were assessed. In general, the results obtained agree well with previous observations made using amplicons and confirm roles for the pac2 T element in the initiation of DNA packaging and for the GC-rich motifs flanking the pac1 T element in termination. In contrast to a previous report, the sequence of the DR1 element was also crucial for DNA packaging. Following repair of the resident packaging signals in mammalian cells, recombination occurred at high frequency in progeny virus between the repaired sequences and mutated Uc-DR1-Ub inserts. This restored the ability of mutated Uc-DR1-Ub inserts to generate terminal fragments, although these were frequently larger than expected from simple repair of the original lesion.

  12. Protection against Recurrent Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Disease after Therapeutic Vaccination of Latently Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Richards, C. M.; Case, R.; Hirst, T. R.; Hill, T. J.; Williams, N. A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of therapeutic vaccination of animals latently infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to enhance protective immunity to the virus and thereby reduce the incidence and severity of recurrent ocular disease was assessed in a mouse model. Mice latently infected with HSV-1 were vaccinated intranasally with a mixture of HSV-1 glycoproteins and recombinant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (rEtxB) as an adjuvant. The systemic immune response induced was characterized by high levels of virus-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) in serum and very low levels of IgG2a. Mucosal immunity was demonstrated by high levels of IgA in eye and vaginal secretions. Proliferating T cells from lymph nodes of vaccinated animals produced higher levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) than were produced by such cells from mock-vaccinated animals. This profile suggests that vaccination of latently infected mice modulates the Th1-dominated proinflammatory response usually induced upon infection. After reactivation of latent virus by UV irradiation, vaccinated mice showed reduced viral shedding in tears as well as a reduction in the incidence of recurrent herpetic corneal epithelial disease and stromal disease compared with mock-vaccinated mice. Moreover, vaccinated mice developing recurrent ocular disease showed less severe signs and a quicker recovery rate. Spread of virus to other areas close to the eye, such as the eyelid, was also significantly reduced. Encephalitis occurred in a small percentage (11%) of mock-vaccinated mice, but vaccinated animals were completely protected from such disease. The possible immune mechanisms involved in protection against recurrent ocular herpetic disease in therapeutically vaccinated animals are discussed. PMID:12767989

  13. Genotypic Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Isolates in Immunocompromised Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Perse da Silva, Amanda; Lopes, Amanda de Oliveira; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Sion, Fernando Samuel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wagner, Sandra; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including an increased risk of developing more severe disease in HIV-infected individuals. In Brazil, there is no information about the molecular epidemiology of HSV-1 infection, especially in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to perform the genotypic characterization of HSV-1 among HIV-infected patients. A total of 214 serum samples from HIV-positive patients without HSV infection symptoms were enrolled in one of two reference hospitals for HIV infection managing in Rio de Janeiro. The gG and gI genes were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and full nucleotide sequencing of the US8 (1601 bp), UL44 (1996 bp), and UL23 (1244 bp) regions was performed. A total of 38.3% (82/214) and 32.7% (70/214) of the serum samples tested positive for gG and gI genes, respectively. RFLP analysis classified the HSV-1 as belonging to genotype A. Phylogenetic analysis of the Brazilian samples for the US8, UL44, and UL23 regions demonstrated that the nucleotide identity between Brazilian samples was higher than 97% for all genes. No acyclovir mutation was detected in the patients. The shedding of HSV in the serum samples from HIV-positive patients who were asymptomatic for HSV infection was detected in this work. This is the first report of molecular characterization of HSV-1 in Brazilian samples since there is no previous data available in the literature concerning the genotypic classification and stable distribution of Brazilian strains of HSV-1 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:26407292

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Other Pathogens are Key Causative Factors in Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Steven A.; Harris, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review focuses on research in epidemiology, neuropathology, molecular biology, and genetics regarding the hypothesis that pathogens interact with susceptibility genes and are causative in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Sporadic AD is a complex multifactorial neurodegenerative disease with evidence indicating coexisting multi-pathogen and inflammatory etiologies. There are significant associations between AD and various pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Cytomegalovirus, and other Herpesviridae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, spirochetes, Helicobacter pylori, and various periodontal pathogens. These pathogens are able to evade destruction by the host immune system, leading to persistent infection. Bacterial and viral DNA and RNA and bacterial ligands increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and activate the innate and adaptive immune systems. Evidence demonstrates that pathogens directly and indirectly induce AD pathology, including amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, phosphorylation of tau protein, neuronal injury, and apoptosis. Chronic brain infection with HSV-1, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and spirochetes results in complex processes that interact to cause a vicious cycle of uncontrolled neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Infections such as Cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter pylori, and periodontal pathogens induce production of systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines that may cross the blood-brain barrier to promote neurodegeneration. Pathogen-induced inflammation and central nervous system accumulation of Aβ damages the blood-brain barrier, which contributes to the pathophysiology of AD. Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) enhances brain infiltration by pathogens including HSV-1 and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. ApoE4 is also associated with an increased pro-inflammatory response by the immune system. Potential antimicrobial treatments for AD are discussed, including the rationale for antiviral and antibiotic clinical trials. PMID

  15. Role of the virion host shutoff (vhs) of herpes simplex virus type 1 in latency and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Strelow, L I; Leib, D A

    1995-11-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL41 gene product, virion host shutoff (vhs), has homologs among five alphaherpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, pseudorabies virus, varicella-zoster virus, and equine herpesvirus 1), suggesting a role for this protein in neurotropism. A mutant virus, termed UL41NHB, which carries a nonsense linker in the UL41 open reading frame at amino acid position 238 was generated. UL41NHB and a marker-rescued virus, UL41NHB-R, were characterized in vitro and tested for their ability to replicate in vitro and in vivo and to establish and reactivate from latency in a mouse eye model. As demonstrated by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and Northern (RNA) blotting procedures, UL41NHB encodes an appropriately truncated vhs protein and, as expected for a vhs null mutant, fails to induce the degradation of cellular glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA. The growth of UL41NHB was not significantly altered in one-step growth curves in Vero or mouse C3H/10T1/2 cells but was impaired in corneas, in trigeminal ganglia, and in brains of mice compared with the growth of KOS and UL41NHB-R. As a measure of establishment of latency, quantitative DNA PCR showed that the amount of viral DNA within trigeminal ganglia latently infected with UL41NHB was reduced by approximately 30-fold compared with that in KOS-infected ganglia and by 50-fold compared with that in UL41NHB-R-infected ganglia. Explant cocultivation studies revealed a low reactivation frequency for UL41NHB (1 of 28 ganglia, or 4%) compared with that for KOS (56 of 76, or 74%) or UL41NHB-R (13 of 20 or 65%). Taken together, these results demonstrate that vhs represents a determinant of viral pathogenesis.

  16. Expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 recombinant thymidine kinase and its application to a rapid antiviral sensitivity assay.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Lixin, Wang; Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Iizuka, Itoe; Ogata, Momoko; Tsuji, Masanori; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Morikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Saijo, Masayuki

    2011-08-01

    Antiviral-resistant herpesvirus infection has become a great concern for immunocompromised patients. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections are treated with viral thymidine kinase (vTK)-associated drugs such as acyclovir (ACV), and most ACV-resistance (ACV(r)) is due to mutations in the vTK. The standard drug sensitivity test is usually carried out by the plaque reduction assay-based method, which requires over 10 days. To shorten the time required, a novel system was developed by the concept, in which 293T cells transiently expressing recombinant vTK derived from the test sample by transfection of the cells with an expression vector were infected with vTK-deficient and ACV(r) HSV-1 (TAR), and then cultured in a maintenance medium with or without designated concentrations of ACV, ganciclovir (GCV) and brivudine (BVdU). The replication of TAR was strongly inhibited by ACV, GCV and BVdU in 293T cells expressing recombinant vTK of the ACV-sensitive HSV-1, whereas replication was not or slightly inhibited in cells expressing the recombinant vTK of highly resistant or intermediately resistant HSV-1, respectively. An inverse correlation was demonstrated in the 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) and inhibitory effects of these compounds on the replication of TAR among ACV(s) and ACV(r) HSV-1 clones. These results indicate that the EC(50)s of the vTK-associated drugs including ACV can be assumed by measuring the inhibitory effect of drugs in 293T cells expressing recombinant vTK of the target virus. The newly developed antiviral sensitivity assay system for HSV-1 makes it possible to estimate EC(50) for vTK-associated drugs, when whole vTK gene is available for use by gene amplification directly from lesion's samples or from virus isolates.

  17. Early, Active, and Specific Localization of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 gM to Nuclear Membranes▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Nagel, Claus-Henning; Sodeik, Beate; Lippé, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Thirteen different glycoproteins are incorporated into mature herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) virions. Five of them play important roles during entry, while others intervene during egress of the virus. Although HSV-1 gM is not essential in cell culture, its deletion reduces viral yields and promotes syncytium formation. Furthermore, gM is conserved among herpesviruses, is essential for several of them, and can redirect the gD and gH/gL viral glycoproteins from the cell surface to the trans-Golgi network, where gM presumably modulates final capsid envelopment. Late in infection, gM reaches the nuclear envelope and decorates perinuclear virions. This process seemingly requires UL31 and UL34 and occurs when several markers of the trans-Golgi network have relocalized to the nucleus. However, the precise mechanism of gM nuclear targeting is unclear. We now report that gM is quickly and specifically targeted to nuclear membranes in a virus-dependent manner. This occurs prior to the HSV-1-induced reorganization of the trans-Golgi network and before gM enters the secretory pathway. The presence of a high-mannose glycosylation pattern on gM further corroborated these findings. While gM was targeted to the inner nuclear membrane early in infection, its partners gD, gH, gN, VP22, UL31, and UL34 did not colocalize with gM. These data suggest that nuclear gM fulfills an early nuclear function that is independent of its known interaction partners and its function in viral egress. PMID:19812164

  18. Pentacyclic triterpenes in birch bark extract inhibit early step of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Heidary Navid, M; Laszczyk-Lauer, M N; Reichling, J; Schnitzler, P

    2014-09-25

    Antiviral agents frequently applied for treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The antiviral effect of a triterpene extract of birch bark and its major pentacyclic triterpenes, i.e. betulin, lupeol and betulinic acid against acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSV type 1 strains was examined. The cytotoxic effect of a phytochemically defined birch bark triterpene extract (TE) as well as different pentacyclic triterpenes was analyzed in cell culture, and revealed a moderate cytotoxicity on RC-37 cells. TE, betulin, lupeol and betulinic acid exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against HSV-1 in viral suspension tests with IC50 values ranging between 0.2 and 0.5 μg/ml. Infectivity of acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains was significantly reduced by all tested compounds and a direct concentration- and time-dependent antiherpetic activity could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, TE and the compounds were added at different times during the viral infection cycle. Addition of these drugs to uninfected cells prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells during intracellular replication had low effect on virus multiplication. Minor virucidal activity of triterpenes was observed, however both TE and tested compounds exhibited high anti-herpetic activity when viruses were pretreated with these drugs prior to infection. Pentacyclic triterpenes inhibit acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant clinical isolates of HSV-1 in the early phase of infection.

  19. Augmentation of T helper type 1 immune response through intestinal immunity in murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 infection by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain 06CC2.

    PubMed

    Matsusaki, Tatsuya; Takeda, Shiro; Takeshita, Masahiko; Arima, Yuo; Tsend-Ayush, Chuluunbat; Oyunsuren, Tsendesuren; Sugita, Chihiro; Yoshida, Hiroki; Watanabe, Wataru; Kurokawa, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    We previously found that Lactobacillus plantarum strain 06CC2 showed probiotic potential, and its oral administration effectively induced Th1 cytokine production and activated the Th1 immune response associated with intestinal immunity in mice. In this study, to evaluate its potential as a versatile oral adjuvant for treatment of viral infection, we assessed the immunomodulatory activity of 06CC2 on murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, in which a major immune defense system is a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction based on activation of the Th1 immune response, in relation to its oral efficacy for alleviation of herpetic symptoms. In the HSV-1 infection model, oral administration of 06CC2 (20mg/mouse) twice daily for seven days starting two days before infection was significantly effective in delaying the development of skin lesions in the early phase of infection and reducing virus yields in the brain on day 4 after infection. In addition, 06CC2 significantly augmented the DTH reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen and elevated interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes. On day 2, natural killer (NK) cell activity was significantly elevated, and the elevation was still observed on day 4. Furthermore, gene expressions of interleukin-12 receptor β2 and IFN-γ in Peyer's patches were augmented on day 4 by 06CC2 administration. Thus, 06CC2 was suggested to alleviate herpetic symptoms in mice in correlation with augmentation of the Th1 immune responses associated with NK cell activity through intestinal immunity. Strain 06CC2 may be a versatile oral adjuvant to activate Th1 immune response. PMID:27517518

  20. Construction and characterization of a herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant unable to transinduce immediate-early gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ace, C I; McKee, T A; Ryan, J M; Cameron, J M; Preston, C M

    1989-05-01

    A herpes simplex virus mutant, in1814, possessing a 12-base-pair insertion in the gene encoding the transinducing factor Vmw65 has been constructed. The insertion abolished the ability of Vmw65 to transinduce immediate-early (IE) gene expression and to form a protein-DNA complex with cell proteins and the IE-specific regulatory element TAATGAGAT. Accumulation of IE RNA 1 and 2 was reduced four- to fivefold in in1814-infected cells, but the level of IE RNA 4 was reduced only by twofold, and IE RNA 3 was unaffected. Mutant in1814 had a high particle/PFU ratio, but many of the particles, although unable to form plaques, were capable of normal participation in the early stages of infection at high multiplicity of infection. The defect of in1814 was overcome partially by transfection of a plasmid encoding the IE protein Vmw110 into cells prior to titration and by prior infection with ultraviolet light-inactivated herpes simplex virus. Mutant in1814 was essentially avirulent when injected into mice. The results demonstrate that transinduction of IE transcription by Vmw65 is important at low multiplicity of infection and in vivo but that at high multiplicity of infection the function is redundant.

  1. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 with the modified green tea polyphenol palmitoyl-epigallocatechin gallate.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Aline; Adams, Sandra D; Lee, Lee H; Murray, Sean R; Hsu, Stephen D; Hammond, Jeffrey R; Dickinson, Douglas; Chen, Ping; Chu, Tin-Chun

    2013-02-01

    Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a strong antioxidant that has previously been shown to reduce the number of plaques in HIV-infected cultured cells. Modified EGCG, palmitoyl-EGCG (p-EGCG), is of interest as a topical antiviral agent for herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infections. This study evaluated the effect of p-EGCG on HSV-infected Vero cells. Results of cell viability and cell proliferation assays indicate that p-EGCG is not toxic to cultured Vero cells and show that modification of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) with palmitate increases the effectiveness of EGCG as an antiviral agent. Furthermore, p-EGCG is a more potent inhibitor of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) than EGCG and can be topically applied to skin, one of the primary tissues infected by HSV. Viral binding assay, plaque forming assay, PCR, real-time PCR, and fluorescence microscopy were used to demonstrate that p-EGCG concentrations of 50 μM and higher block the production of infectious HSV-1 particles. p-EGCG was found to inhibit HSV-1 adsorption to Vero cells. Thus, p-EGCG may provide a novel treatment for HSV-1 infections.

  2. The combined effects of irradiation and herpes simplex virus type 1 infection on an immortal gingival cell line

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral mucosa is frequently exposed to Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and irradiation due to dental radiography. During radiotherapy for oral cancer, the surrounding clinically normal tissues are also irradiated. This prompted us to study the effects of HSV-1 infection and irradiation on viability and apoptosis of oral epithelial cells. Methods Immortal gingival keratinocyte (HMK) cells were infected with HSV-1 at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) and irradiated with 2 Gy 24 hours post infection. The cells were then harvested at 24, 72 and 144 hours post irradiation for viability assays and qRT-PCR analyses for the apoptosis-related genes caspases 3, 8, and 9, bcl-2, NFκB1, and viral gene VP16. Mann–Whitney U-test was used for statistical calculations. Results Irradiation improved the cell viability at 144 hours post irradiation (P = 0.05), which was further improved by HSV-1 infection at MOI of 0.00001 (P = 0.05). Simultaneously, the combined effects of infection at MOI of 0.0001 and irradiation resulted in upregulation in NFκB1 (P = 0.05). The combined effects of irradiation and HSV infection also significantly downregulated the expression of caspases 3, 8, and 9 at 144 hours (P = 0.05) whereas caspase 3 and 8 significantly upregulated in non-irradiated, HSV-infected cells as compared to uninfected controls (P = 0.05). Infection with 0.0001 MOI downregulated bcl-2 in non-irradiated cells but was upregulated by 27% after irradiation when compared to non-irradiated infected cells (P = 0.05). Irradiation had no effect on HSV-1 shedding or HSV gene expression at 144 hours. Conclusions HSV-1 infection may improve the viability of immortal cells after irradiation. The effect might be related to inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:25005804

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer’s disease: increasing evidence for a major role of the virus

    PubMed Central

    Itzhaki, Ruth F.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), when present in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE), has been implicated as a major factor in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is proposed that virus is normally latent in many elderly brains but reactivates periodically (as in the peripheral nervous system) under certain conditions, for example stress, immunosuppression, and peripheral infection, causing cumulative damage and eventually development of AD. Diverse approaches have provided data that explicitly support, directly or indirectly, these concepts. Several have confirmed HSV1 DNA presence in human brains, and the HSV1-APOE-ε4 association in AD. Further, studies on HSV1-infected APOE-transgenic mice have shown that APOE-e4 animals display a greater potential for viral damage. Reactivated HSV1 can cause direct and inflammatory damage, probably involving increased formation of beta amyloid (Aβ) and of AD-like tau (P-tau)—changes found to occur in HSV1-infected cell cultures. Implicating HSV1 further in AD is the discovery that HSV1 DNA is specifically localized in amyloid plaques in AD. Other relevant, harmful effects of infection include the following: dynamic interactions between HSV1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP), which would affect both viral and APP transport; induction of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in HSV1-infected astrocyte cultures, which has been linked to the likely effects of reactivation of the virus in brain. Several epidemiological studies have shown, using serological data, an association between systemic infections and cognitive decline, with HSV1 particularly implicated. Genetic studies too have linked various pathways in AD with those occurring on HSV1 infection. In relation to the potential usage of antivirals to treat AD patients, acyclovir (ACV) is effective in reducing HSV1-induced AD-like changes in cell cultures, and valacyclovir, the bioactive form of ACV, might be most effective if combined with an

  4. Completely assembled virus particles detected by transmission electron microscopy in proximal and mid-axons of neurons infected with herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 and pseudorabies virus

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jialing Lazear, Helen M. Friedman, Harvey M.

    2011-01-05

    The morphology of alphaherpesviruses during anterograde axonal transport from the neuron cell body towards the axon terminus is controversial. Reports suggest that transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) nucleocapsids and envelope proteins occurs in separate compartments and that complete virions form at varicosities or axon termini (subassembly transport model), while transport of a related alphaherpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PRV) occurs as enveloped capsids in vesicles (assembled transport model). Transmission electron microscopy of proximal and mid-axons of primary superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons was used to compare anterograde axonal transport of HSV-1, HSV-2 and PRV. SCG cell bodies were infected with HSV-1 NS and 17, HSV-2 2.12 and PRV Becker. Fully assembled virus particles were detected intracellularly within vesicles in proximal and mid-axons adjacent to microtubules after infection with each virus, indicating that assembled virions are transported anterograde within axons for all three alphaherpesviruses.

  5. Autocrine interferon-beta stimulation augments nitric oxide production by mouse macrophage J774A.1 cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, N; Ohashi, K; Ikeda, M; Kurimoto, M

    2000-01-01

    The pathogenic roles of nitric oxide (NO) in mouse models have been reported for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced pneumonia as well as endotoxin shock. We compared the mechanism of NO production induced by HSV-1 with that induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a mouse macrophage cell line, J774A.1. Both HSV-1 and LPS induced NO production as well as antiviral activity, which were attenuated by anti-interferon (IFN)-beta treatment. These results suggest that autocrine IFN-beta plays a role in NO release by J774A.1 cells stimulated with HSV-1 or LPS.

  6. A prospective study of the relationship between genital herpes and carcinoma of the uterine cervix. I. Seroepidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in women with a previous history of clinically diagnosed genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, B F

    1982-01-01

    The development of a simple, sensitive and reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the exact titration of herpes simplex virus type 1 -- and type 2 -- specific antibodies in human serum has made it possible to perform large serological HSV type-specific diagnosis of clinical cases of post and present genital HSV infections. The distribution of HSV type-specific IgG antibody in 473 sera from women with a first episode of symptomatic genital herpes (group A), 602 sera from women with a previous history of symptomatic genital herpes (group B) and 945 sera from non-selected adult Danes (controls, group C) gave the following results: 34 percent of the women in group B had antibodies only to HSV type compared to 6 and 4 percent in group A and C respectively. 64 percent of women in group A were sero-negative, while only 9 and 18 percent sero-negative were found in group B and C respectively. A majority of the sero-negative in group A seroconverted. One third developed antibodies to HSV type 1 and two thirds to HSV type 2.

  7. Acute Morphine Administration Reduces Cell-Mediated Immunity and Induces Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mojadadi, Shafi; Jamali, Abbas; Khansarinejad, Behzad; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Bamdad, Taravat

    2009-01-01

    Acute morphine administration is known to alter the course of herpes simplex virus infection. In this study, the effect of acute morphine administration on the reactivation of latent herpes was investigated in a mouse model. Because of the important role of cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in the inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) reactivation, the effect of acute morphine administration on CTL responses was also evaluated. Furthermore, lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production were evaluated for their roles in the induction of the CTL response. The findings showed that acute morphine administration significantly reduced CTL responses, lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ production. Furthermore, acute morphine administration has been shown to reactivate latent HSV-1. Previous studies have shown that cellular immune responses have important roles in the inhibition of HSV reactivation. These findings suggest that suppression of a portion of the cellular immune response after acute morphine administration may constitute one part of the mechanism that induces HSV reactivation. PMID:19403060

  8. Amino acid substitutions in the thymidine kinase gene of induced acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, Ainulkhir; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug of choice in healthcare setting to treat infections caused by herpes viruses, including, but not limited to genital herpes, cold sores, shingles and chicken pox. Acyclovir resistance has emerged significantly due to extensive use and misuse of this antiviral in human, especially in immunocompromised patients. However, it remains unclear about the amino acid substitutions in thymidine (TK) gene, which specifically confer the resistance-associated mutation in herpes simplex virus. Hence, acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 was selected at high concentration (2.0 - 4.5 μg/mL), and the TK-gene was subjected to sequencing and genotypic characterization. Genotypic sequences comparison was done using HSV-1 17 (GenBank Accesion no. X14112) for resistance-associated mutation determination whereas HSV-1 KOS, HSV-1 473/08 and HSV clinical isolates sequences were used for polymorphism-associated mutation. The result showed that amino acid substitutions at the non-conserved region (UKM-1: Gln34Lys, UKM-2: Arg32Ser & UKM-5: Arg32Cys) and ATP-binding site (UKM-3: Tyr53End & UKM-4: Ile54Leu) of the TK-gene. These discoveries play an important role to extend another dimension to the evolution of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 and suggest that selection at high ACV concentration induced ACV-resistant HSV-1 evolution. These findings also expand the knowledge on the type of mutations among acyclovir-resistant HSV-1. In conclusion, HSV-1 showed multiple strategies to exhibit acyclovir resistance, including amino acid substitutions in the TK gene.

  9. Persistent infection of BHK cells with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in the absence of specific anti-herpetic antibody.

    PubMed

    Szántó, J; Lesso, J; Lackovic, V

    1976-02-01

    Persistent infection of BHK-21 cells with 5 strains of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and a 1 strain of HSV type 2 is described. Acute infection only was obtained with two strains of type 1 and one strain of type 2. Persistent infection could not be established in HeLa and rabbit lung cells. Persistent infection of BHK cells proceeded in the absence of specific antibody. Persistently infected cells were more resistant to superinfection with homologous or heterologous HSV as compared to infection of normal BHK cells. No interferon activity was demonstrated in persistently infected cell cultures. The results of virus titration were in accordance with the demonstration of fluorescent antigen of HSV.

  10. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    PubMed Central

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus–host interaction was conducted by the same assay. Results: CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. Conclusion: The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. SUMMARY Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes

  11. Induction of bilateral retinal necrosis in mice by unilateral intracameral inoculation of a glycoprotein-C deficient clinical isolate of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Sakai, Y; Minagawa, H; Toh, Y; Ishibashi, T; Inomata, H; Mori, R

    1993-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus can cause acute retinal necrosis, a blinding retinal disease in man. A unilateral intracameral inoculation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in mice induces retinal necrosis primarily in the contralateral eye and provides an experimental model for the disease. Previous studies suggested that a major envelope glycoprotein of HSV-1, glycoprotein C (gC), is required for retinal necrosis. We studied HSV-1 strain TN-1, a gC-deficient clinical isolated from a lesion of herpetic keratitis, for its pathogenicity in mice with an intracameral inoculation of the virus and found that TN-1 could induce severe necrotizing retinitis in both inoculated and uninoculated eyes of BALB/c mice. Inoculation with a lower dose of TN-1 resulted in a unilateral necrotizing retinitis in the uninoculated eyes. Tissue virus titration of infected mice killed at various times after inoculation detected an infectious virus in various organs including the eyeballs, trigeminal ganglia, brain and adrenal glands. Anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID) was observed in TN-1-inoculated mice as well as in mice inoculated with gC-positive laboratory strain KOS 7 days postinoculation. Our findings suggested that gC of HSV-1 is not necessary for either the induction of retinal necrosis, neural spread of the virus, or ACAID.

  12. Nucleotide sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of herpes simplex virus type 2 and comparison with the type 1 counterpart.

    PubMed

    Tsurumi, T; Maeno, K; Nishiyama, Y

    1987-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 strain 186 has been determined. The gene included a 3720-bp major open reading frame capable of encoding 1240 amino acids. The predicted primary translation product had an Mr of 137,354, which was slightly larger than its HSV-1 counterpart. A comparison of the predicted functional amino acid sequences of the HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA polymerases revealed 95.5% overall amino acid homology, the value of which was the highest among those of the other known polypeptides encoded by HSV-1 and HSV-2. The functional amino acid changes were spread in the N-terminal one-third of the protein, whereas the C-terminal two-third was almost identical between the two types except a particular hydrophilic region. A highly conserved sequence of 6 aa, YGDTDS, which has been observed in DNA polymerases of HSV-1, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, and vaccinia virus, was also present at positions 889 to 894 in the C-terminal region of HSV-2 DNA polymerase.

  13. [Neonatal herpes simplex infection].

    PubMed

    van Ham-Borawitz, Veronique E J; Stam, Edo D; Welborn, Kathleen M; Sas, Theo C J

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a familiar disease with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Isolated skin-eye-mouth infection is less familiar among professionals. In this article we present two neonates with an isolated skin lesion caused by an HSV infection. Of the neonates infected with HSV, 40-45% show isolated skin-eye-mouth disease. With correct treatment, the risk of spread to the central nervous system will decrease from 50-60% to 5-10%. Typical HSV skin lesions may present at a late stage of the disease or may be masked by a secondary bacterial infection. When a neonate presents with atypical skin lesions starting 7-12 days after the birth, immediate testing for HSV and immediate treatment are required, to decrease the risk of further progression of the disease.

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, eyes, and mouth. This is a life-threatening infection that can lead to permanent brain damage or even death. Herpes simplex viruses also cause encephalitis, an infection of the brain. ...

  15. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and the immunocompromised: a clinical and autopsy study of HSE in the settings of cancer and human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Schiff, D; Rosenblum, M K

    1998-03-01

    Although herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is not regarded as an opportunistic infection, the occurrence of HSE in immunocompromised patients has been documented and the suggestion made that unusual clinical and neuropathologic features characterize the disorder in this population. To further characterize HSE as it affects the immunodeficient, the authors reviewed the clinical and pathological findings in three immunocompromised patients with autopsy-proven HSE. Two patients had cancer (one with lymphoma and another with glioblastoma multiforme), one was known to be human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive and a second was suspected of harboring underlying HIV-1 infection. Two were receiving dexamethasone at onset of HSE. All had fever, mental status changes and new, focal neurological deficits or worsening of established deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis was absent or minimal and head computerized tomographic (CT) scans, performed in all cases, were unrevealing. No patient was clinically suspected of having HSE, only one received acyclovir (for concurrent mucocutaneous herpes) and HSE played a major role in all deaths. Autopsy revealed an unusual form of HSE characterized by a noninflammatory, pseudoischemic histological presentation and the unexpected persistence of viral antigens in abundance despite survival beyond the clinical stage during which inflammatory responses usually peak and productive brain infection wanes. The incidence of HSE in the immunocompromised may be underestimated. Preexistent neurological disease, a noninflammatory CSF profile and negative CT scan may confound the diagnosis in this population, a typical clinical presentation notwithstanding. Increased clinical suspicion, the use of magnetic resonance imaging and polymerase chain reaction analysis of CSF for herpes simplex virus nucleic acid sequences may permit more rapid diagnosis and treatment. The absence of inflammatory infiltrates in some fatal cases of

  16. Herpes simplex virus type 1 helicase-primase: DNA binding and consequent protein oligomerization and primase activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Bai, Ping; Mackay, Shannon; Korza, George; Carson, John H; Kuchta, Robert D; Weller, Sandra K

    2011-01-01

    The heterotrimeric helicase-primase complex of herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1), consisting of UL5, UL8, and UL52, possesses 5' to 3' helicase, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-dependent ATPase, primase, and DNA binding activities. In this study we confirm that the UL5-UL8-UL52 complex has higher affinity for forked DNA than for ssDNA and fails to bind to fully annealed double-stranded DNA substrates. In addition, we show that a single-stranded overhang of greater than 6 nucleotides is required for efficient enzyme loading and unwinding. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and surface plasmon resonance analysis provide additional quantitative information about how the UL5-UL8-UL52 complex associates with the replication fork. Although it has previously been reported that in the absence of DNA and nucleoside triphosphates the UL5-UL8-UL52 complex exists as a monomer in solution, we now present evidence that in the presence of forked DNA and AMP-PNP, higher-order complexes can form. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal two discrete complexes with different mobilities only when helicase-primase is bound to DNA containing a single-stranded region, and surface plasmon resonance analysis confirms larger amounts of the complex bound to forked substrates than to single-overhang substrates. Furthermore, we show that primase activity exhibits a cooperative dependence on protein concentration while ATPase and helicase activities do not. Taken together, these data suggest that the primase activity of the helicase-primase requires formation of a dimer or higher-order structure while ATPase activity does not. Importantly, this provides a simple mechanism for generating a two-polymerase replisome at the replication fork.

  17. Computational rationale for the selective inhibition of the herpes simplex virus type 1 uracil-DNA glycosylase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Umraan; Crous, Werner; Naidoo, Kevin J

    2014-12-22

    The herpes simplex virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (hsvUNG) enzyme is responsible for the reactivation of the virus from latency and efficient viral replication in nerve tissue. The lack of uracil-DNA glycosylase enzyme in human neurons and the continuous deamination of cytosine create an environment where the presence of viral uracil-DNA glycosylase is a necessity for the proliferation of the virus. A series of 6-(4-alkylanilino)-uracil inhibitors has been developed that selectively and strongly binds to the hsvUNG enzyme while weakly binding to human uracil-DNA glycosylase (hUNG). Here, by using a combination of sequence and structural comparisons between the two enzymes along with free energy of binding computations and principal component analysis of the ligands, we investigate and rationalize the inhibitory effect of the 6-(4-alkylanilino)-uracil series as a function of alkyl chain length on the hsvUNG. The results of these computations corroborate the experimental finding that the inhibitor with an octyl aliphatic chain selectively binds hsvUNG best. More importantly we find that 6-(4-octylanilino)-uracil's selective inhibition of hsvUNG over hUNG is due to the combination of the solution preconfigured bent conformation of that specific chain length and the position of HIS92 (absent in hUNG) just outside hsvUNG's hydrophobic gorge lying adjacent to its uracil binding pocket. The similarities between the uracil binding pockets in hsvUNG and hUNG obfuscate an understanding of the preferential inhibition of the virus enzyme. However, the differences in the enzymes' shallow hydrophobic grooves adjacent to the binding pockets, such as the gorge we identify here, rationalizes 6-(4-alkylanilino)-uracil with an octyl chain length as an excellent pharmacophore template for hsvUNG inhibitor design.

  18. Screening of herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates for acyclovir resistance using DiviTum® assay.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas; Vödisch, Susanne; Bohn, Kathrin; Schacke, Michael; Gronowitz, Simon

    2013-03-01

    Rapid alternative methods are required to evaluate easily acyclovir (ACV) sensitivity of clinical herpes simplex virus (HSV) isolates. The objective of this study was to screen 54 ACV-sensitive and 41 ACV-resistant clinical HSV-1 isolates, well characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods, for the phosphorylation activity of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) using a commercially available and modified non-radioactive DiviTum® test on the basis of an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The ACV-sensitive HSV-1 isolates had high TK activity values between 31.5±6.4 DiviTum® Units per liter (DU/L) and 487.4±60.1 DU/L. The mean activity of all ACV-sensitive isolates was calculated as 212.3±15.7 DU/L. By contrast, the mean activity of all ACV-resistant HSV-1 isolates was significantly lower at 5.5±1.3 DU/L. Out of the 41 ACV-resistant HSV-1 isolates, 38 had no or very low phosphorylation activities of the viral TK between 0 DU/L and 9.3±3.2 DU/L. The remaining three ACV-resistant viral isolates had TK activities between 44.6±5.1 DU/L and 80.9±13.3D U/L. In conclusion, the modified DiviTum® test can be used to screen HSV-1 isolates for their sensitivity to ACV. Acyclovir-sensitive HSV-1 isolates show TK activities >30 DU/L and ACV-resistant isolates have activity values <10 DU/L. However, single ACV-resistant HSV-1 isolates can have TK activity values >30 DU/L. These strains are most likely ACV-resistant TK-altered mutants, but no evidence was provided for an alteration of the TK.

  19. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain HSZP host shutoff gene: nucleotide sequence and comparison with HSV-1 strains differing in early shutoff of host protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vojvodová, A; Matis, J; Kúdelová, M; Rajcáni, J

    1997-01-01

    The UL41 gene of the HSZP strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) defective with respect to the early shutoff of host protein synthesis was sequenced and compared with the corresponding HSV-1 strain KOS and 17 gene sequences. In comparison with strain 17, nine mutations (base changes) were HSZP specific, five KOS specific and four were common for both strains. Nine mutations caused codon changes. Three of these mapped to the nonconserved regions and the others to the conserved regions of the functional map of UL41 gene. One KOS specific mutation mapped to the region responsible for the binding of the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein to the alpha-transinducing factor (VP16). The possible relationship between mutations and host shutoff function is discussed. The nucleotide sequence data of the UL41 gene of HSZP and KOS have been submitted to the Genbank nucleotide database and have been assigned the accession numbers Z72337 and Z72338.

  20. Expression of the herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcripts does not influence latency establishment of virus mutants deficient for neuronal replication.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, M P; Efstathiou, S

    2013-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 establishes latency within neurons of the trigeminal ganglion. During latency, viral gene expression is largely restricted to the latency-associated transcripts (LATs), which, whilst not essential for any aspect of latency, function to suppress lytic gene expression and enhance the survival of virus-infected neurons. The latent cell population comprises primary-order neurons infected directly from peripheral tissues and cells infected following further virus spread within the ganglion. In order to assess the role of LAT expression on latency establishment within first-order neurons, we infected ROSA26R reporter mice with Cre recombinase-expressing recombinant viruses harbouring deletion of the thymidine kinase lytic gene and/or the core LAT promoter. We found that LAT expression did not impact on latency establishment in viruses unable to replicate in neurons, and under these conditions, it was not required for the survival of neurons between 3 and 31 days post-infection. PMID:23907392

  1. Recruitment of the transcriptional coactivator HCF-1 to viral immediate-early promoters during initiation of reactivation from latency of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Whitlow, Zackary; Kristie, Thomas M

    2009-09-01

    The transcriptional coactivator host cell factor 1 (HCF-1) is critical for the expression of immediate-early (IE) genes of the alphaherpesviruses herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus. HCF-1 may also be involved in the reactivation of these viruses from latency as it is sequestered in the cytoplasm of sensory neurons but is rapidly relocalized to the nucleus upon stimulation that results in reactivation. Here, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that HCF-1 is recruited to IE promoters of viral genomes during the initiation of reactivation, correlating with RNA polymerase II occupancy and IE expression. The data support the model whereby HCF-1 plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of HSV-1 from latency.

  2. Synthesis of 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides that inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1 host-cell interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Shu-Yi; Huang, Cheng-Yen; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Wen; Hung, Shang-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in a number of biologically important processes. Heparan sulfate, for instance, is a ubiquitously distributed polysulfated polysaccharide that is involved, among other things, in the initial step of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The virus interacts with cell-surface heparan sulfate to facilitate host-cell attachment and entry. 3-O-Sulfonated heparan sulfate has been found to function as an HSV-1 entry receptor. Achieving a complete understanding of these interactions requires the chemical synthesis of such oligosaccharides, but this remains challenging. Here, we present a convenient approach for the synthesis of two irregular 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides, making use of a key disaccharide intermediate to acquire different building blocks for the oligosaccharide chain assembly. Despite substantial structural differences, the prepared 3-O-sulfonated sugars blocked viral infection in a dosage-dependent manner with remarkable similarity to one another.

  3. Characterization of virus obtained from MDBK cells persistently infected with a variant of herpes simplex virus type 1 strain MP [HSV-1(MP)].

    PubMed

    Bartoletti, A M; Tognon, M; Manservigi, R; Mannini-Palenzona, A

    1985-03-01

    Virus clones which express glycoprotein gC (gC+) were obtained from two persistently infected (p.i.) MDBK cell lines which had been independently established by infection with HSV-1(MP)10311, a gC- syncytial (syn) variant of herpes simplex virus type 1 strain MP [HSV-1(MP)]. The gC+ revertants were syn in MDBK, HEp-2, and Vero cell lines and in primary human fibroblasts; this offers further evidence that glycoprotein gC does not inhibit cell fusion. The gC+ revertants represented from 70 to 100 percent of the virions present in the virus populations examined, thus suggesting a possible selective advantage of the gC+ revertants in this system of persistent infection.

  4. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  5. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation.

    PubMed

    Kaeley, Nidhi; Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-05-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  6. Development and comparison of a rapid isothermal nucleic acid amplification test for typing of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 on a portable fluorescence detector.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yanhong; McCarthy, Kaitlin; Kong, Huimin; Lemieux, Bertrand

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a rapid and simple molecular test, the IsoGlow HSV Typing assay, for the detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (type 1 and 2) from genital or oral lesions. Clinical samples suspended in viral transport mediums are simply diluted and then added to a helicase-dependent amplification master mix. The amplification and detection were performed on a portable fluorescence detector called the FireFly instrument. Detection of amplification products is based on end-point analysis using cycling probe technology. An internal control nucleic acid was included in the amplification master mix to monitor the presence of amplification inhibitors in the samples. Because the device has only two fluorescence detection channels, two strategies were developed and compared to detect the internal control template: internal control detected by melting curve analysis using a dual-labeled probe, versus internal control detection using end-point fluorescence release by a CPT probe at a lower temperature. Both have a total turnaround time of about 1 hour. Clinical performance relative to herpes viral culture was evaluated using 176 clinical specimens. Both formats of the IsoGlow HSV typing assay had sensitivities comparable to that of the Food and Drug Administration-cleared IsoAmp HSV (BioHelix Corp., Beverly MA) test and specificity for the two types of HSV comparable to that of ELVIS HSV (Diagnostic Hybrids, Athens, OH).

  7. Value of the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model in selecting topical antiviral formulations for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex type 1 disease.

    PubMed

    Poli, G; Dall'Ara, P; Binda, S; Santus, G; Poli, A; Cocilovo, A; Ponti, W

    2001-01-01

    Recurrent herpes simplex labialis represents a disease still difficult to treat, despite the availability of many established antiviral drugs used in clinical research since 30 years ago. Although differences between the human disease and that obtained in experimental animal suggest caution in predicting an effective clinical response from the experimental results, some of the animal models seem to be useful in optimising the topical formulation of single antiviral drugs. In the present work the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model was used to compare 5 different topical antiviral formulations with clinical promise (active molecule: 5% w/w micronized aciclovir, CAS 59277-89-3), using both roll-on and lipstick application systems. The aim being to evaluate which vehicle (water, oil, low melting and high melting fatty base) and application system (roll-on, lipstick) enhances the skin penetration and the antiviral activity of the drug, after an experimental intradermal infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). As reference, a commercial formulation (5% aciclovir ointment) was used. The cumulative results of this study showed that the formulation A, containing 5% aciclovir in an aqueous base in a roll-on application system, has the better antiviral efficacy in reducing the severity of cutaneous lesions and the viral titer; among the lipsticks preparations, the formulation D, containing 5% aciclovir in a low melting fatty base, demonstrates a very strong antiviral activity, though slightly less than formulation A. This experimental work confirms the validity of the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model as a rapid and efficient method to compare the antiviral efficacy of new formulations, with clinical promise, to optimise the topical formulation of the active antiviral drugs. PMID:11413746

  8. Value of the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model in selecting topical antiviral formulations for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex type 1 disease.

    PubMed

    Poli, G; Dall'Ara, P; Binda, S; Santus, G; Poli, A; Cocilovo, A; Ponti, W

    2001-01-01

    Recurrent herpes simplex labialis represents a disease still difficult to treat, despite the availability of many established antiviral drugs used in clinical research since 30 years ago. Although differences between the human disease and that obtained in experimental animal suggest caution in predicting an effective clinical response from the experimental results, some of the animal models seem to be useful in optimising the topical formulation of single antiviral drugs. In the present work the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model was used to compare 5 different topical antiviral formulations with clinical promise (active molecule: 5% w/w micronized aciclovir, CAS 59277-89-3), using both roll-on and lipstick application systems. The aim being to evaluate which vehicle (water, oil, low melting and high melting fatty base) and application system (roll-on, lipstick) enhances the skin penetration and the antiviral activity of the drug, after an experimental intradermal infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). As reference, a commercial formulation (5% aciclovir ointment) was used. The cumulative results of this study showed that the formulation A, containing 5% aciclovir in an aqueous base in a roll-on application system, has the better antiviral efficacy in reducing the severity of cutaneous lesions and the viral titer; among the lipsticks preparations, the formulation D, containing 5% aciclovir in a low melting fatty base, demonstrates a very strong antiviral activity, though slightly less than formulation A. This experimental work confirms the validity of the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model as a rapid and efficient method to compare the antiviral efficacy of new formulations, with clinical promise, to optimise the topical formulation of the active antiviral drugs.

  9. Differential ganciclovir-mediated cell killing by glutamine 125 mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Drake, R R; Wilbert, T N; Hinds, T A; Gilbert, K M

    1999-12-24

    The therapeutic combination of the herpesvirus simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) thymidine kinase (TK) gene and the prodrug, ganciclovir (GCV), has found great utility for the treatment of many types of cancer. After initial phosphorylation of GCV by HSV-1 TK, cellular kinases generate the toxic GCV-triphosphate metabolite that is incorporated into DNA and eventually leads to tumor cell death. The cellular and pharmacological mechanisms by which metabolites of GCV lead to cell death are still poorly defined. To begin to address these mechanisms, different mutated forms of HSV-1 TK at residue Gln-125 that have distinct substrate properties were expressed in mammalian cell lines. It was found that expression of the Asn-125 HSV-1 TK mutant in two cell lines, NIH3T3 and HCT-116, was equally effective as wild-type HSV-1 TK for metabolism and sensitivity to GCV, bystander effect killing and induction of apoptosis. The major difference between the two enzymes was the lack of deoxypyrimidine metabolism in the Asn-125 TK-expressing cells. In HCT-116 cells expressing the Glu-125 TK mutant, GCV metabolism was greatly attenuated, yet at higher GCV concentrations, cell sensitivity to the drug and bystander effect killing were diminished but still effective. Cell cycle analysis, 4', 6'-diamidine-2'-phenylindoledihydrochloride staining, and caspase 3 activation assays indicated different cell death responses in the Glu-125 TK-expressing cells as compared with the wild-type HSV-1 TK or Asn-125 TK-expressing cells. A mechanistic hypothesis to explain these results based on the differences in GCV-triphosphate metabolite levels is presented.

  10. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein G (gG) and gI genotypes in patients with different herpetic diseases during the last four decades.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas; Pfaff, Florian; Zell, Roland; Wutzler, Peter

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to genotype 375 clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) isolates collected from the German Reference Laboratory of HSV and VZV between 1973 and 2010. The method is based on the amplification and the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the glycoprotein G (gG) and gI. 45.1% of isolates were classified as genotype A, 28.5% as B, and 4.3% as C. 22.1% presented different cleavage patterns for gG and gI suggesting intergenic recombinants A/B in 7.7%, A/C in 0.5%, B/A in 9.3%, B/C in 1.9%, C/A in 1.6%, and C/B in 0.5% of isolates. Two isolates from 1982 and 2010 presented atypical gI cleavage pattern consistent with novel intragenic recombination between genotypes A and C. There were no significant differences of the prevalence of genotypes A, B as well as the recombinants A/B, B/A dependent on the age/gender of patients and the time period in which the strains were isolated. Likewise, there were no significant differences in the distribution of the genotypes A and B as etiological agents of eczema herpeticum, herpes labialis, herpes genitalis, and herpetic gingivostomatitis. The number of recombinants was not different significantly in the groups of the distinct herpetic diseases. In conclusion, the study confirms the high prevalence of recombinants in clinical HSV-1 strains. HSV-1 infections result in clinical manifestations which are independent of the gG/gI genotype and recombinants are not associated with special herpetic diseases.

  11. Close association of predominant genotype of herpes simplex virus type 1 with eczema herpeticum analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masami; Umene, Kenichi

    2003-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains belonging to the same genotype can possibly share biological properties and clinical manifestations common to the genotype. We classified previously 66 HSV-1 strains into 35 genotypes (F1-F35) using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and F1 and F35 genotypes were revealed to be predominant [Arch. Virol. 13 (1993) 29]. It was found later that the F35 genotype seemed to be closely associated with eczema herpeticum [J. Med. Virol. 49 (1996) 329]. In the present study, a convenient method was developed for classification of two predominant genotypes by RFLP of polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Using this method, genotypes of 21 strains isolated from eczema herpeticum were analyzed; seven of 21 strains (33.3%) were of F1 and five of 21 (23.8%) were of F35. Genotypes of 19 strains isolated from facial herpes other than eczema herpeticum were as follows; six of 19 (31.6%) strains were of F1 and one of 19 (5.3%) were of F35. Thus, strains belonging to F35 were appear to have been isolated more frequently from eczema herpeticum (5/21) than from facial herpes (1/19). These ratios showed a statistically significant difference. These results support the hypothesis that F35 strains is clearly associated with eczema herpeticum, in agreement with previous study. This is the first report of PCR-based approach for classification of HSV-1 strains into genotypes seeking an association of a genotype with clinical manifestation.

  12. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  13. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Human Asymptomatic CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes-Based Vaccine Protects Against Ocular Herpes in a “Humanized” HLA Transgenic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Huang, Jiawei; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A clinical vaccine that protects from ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and disease still is lacking. In the present study, preclinical vaccine trials of nine asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptides, selected from HSV-1 glycoproteins B (gB), and tegument proteins VP11/12 and VP13/14, were performed in the “humanized” HLA–transgenic rabbit (HLA-Tg rabbit) model of ocular herpes. We recently reported that these peptides are highly recognized by CD8+ T cells from “naturally” protected HSV-1–seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Methods. Mixtures of three ASYMP CD8+ T-cell peptides derived from either HSV-1 gB, VP11/12, or VP13/14 were delivered subcutaneously to different groups of HLA-Tg rabbits (n = 10) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, twice at 15-day intervals. The frequency and function of HSV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cells induced by these peptides and their protective efficacy, in terms of survival, virus replication in the eye, and ocular herpetic disease were assessed after an ocular challenge with HSV-1 (strain McKrae). Results. All mixtures elicited strong and polyfunctional IFN-γ– and TNF-α–producing CD107+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, associated with a significant reduction in death, ocular herpes infection, and disease (P < 0.015). Conclusions. The results of this preclinical trial support the screening strategy used to select the HSV-1 ASYMP CD8+ T-cell epitopes, emphasize their valuable immunogenic and protective efficacy against ocular herpes, and provide a prototype vaccine formulation that may be highly efficacious for preventing ocular herpes in humans. PMID:26098469

  14. Identification of a minimal hydrophobic domain in the herpes simplex virus type 1 scaffolding protein which is required for interaction with the major capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Hong, Z; Beaudet-Miller, M; Durkin, J; Zhang, R; Kwong, A D

    1996-01-01

    Recent biochemical and genetic studies have demonstrated that an essential step of the herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid assembly pathway involves the interaction of the major capsid protein (VP5) with either the C terminus of the scaffolding protein (VP22a, ICP35) or that of the protease (Pra, product of UL26). To better understand the nature of the interaction and to further map the sequence motif, we expressed the C-terminal 30-amino-acid peptide of ICP35 in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein (GST/CT). Purified GST/CT fusion proteins were then incubated with 35S-labeled herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cell lysates containing VP5. The interaction between GST/CT and VP5 was determined by coprecipitation of the two proteins with glutathione Sepharose beads. Our results revealed that the GST/CT fusion protein specifically interacts with VP5, suggesting that the C-terminal domain alone is sufficient for interaction with VP5. Deletion analysis of the GST/CT binding domain mapped the interaction to a minimal 12-amino-acid motif. Substitution mutations further revealed that the replacement of hydrophobic residues with charged residues in the core region of the motif abolished the interaction, suggesting that the interaction is a hydrophobic one. A chaotropic detergent, 0.1% Nonidet P-40, also abolished the interaction, further supporting the hydrophobic nature of the interaction. Computer analysis predicted that the minimal binding motif could form a strong alpha-helix structure. Most interestingly, the alpha-helix model maximizes the hydropathicity of the minimal domain so that all of the hydrophobic residues are centered around a Phe residue on one side of the alpha-helix. Mutation analysis revealed that the Phe residue is absolutely critical for the binding, since changes to Ala, Tyr, or Trp abrogated the interaction. Finally, in a peptide competition experiment, the C-terminal 25-amino-acid peptide, as well as a minimal peptide

  15. Identification of a minimal hydrophobic domain in the herpes simplex virus type 1 scaffolding protein which is required for interaction with the major capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Hong, Z; Beaudet-Miller, M; Durkin, J; Zhang, R; Kwong, A D

    1996-01-01

    Recent biochemical and genetic studies have demonstrated that an essential step of the herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid assembly pathway involves the interaction of the major capsid protein (VP5) with either the C terminus of the scaffolding protein (VP22a, ICP35) or that of the protease (Pra, product of UL26). To better understand the nature of the interaction and to further map the sequence motif, we expressed the C-terminal 30-amino-acid peptide of ICP35 in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein (GST/CT). Purified GST/CT fusion proteins were then incubated with 35S-labeled herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cell lysates containing VP5. The interaction between GST/CT and VP5 was determined by coprecipitation of the two proteins with glutathione Sepharose beads. Our results revealed that the GST/CT fusion protein specifically interacts with VP5, suggesting that the C-terminal domain alone is sufficient for interaction with VP5. Deletion analysis of the GST/CT binding domain mapped the interaction to a minimal 12-amino-acid motif. Substitution mutations further revealed that the replacement of hydrophobic residues with charged residues in the core region of the motif abolished the interaction, suggesting that the interaction is a hydrophobic one. A chaotropic detergent, 0.1% Nonidet P-40, also abolished the interaction, further supporting the hydrophobic nature of the interaction. Computer analysis predicted that the minimal binding motif could form a strong alpha-helix structure. Most interestingly, the alpha-helix model maximizes the hydropathicity of the minimal domain so that all of the hydrophobic residues are centered around a Phe residue on one side of the alpha-helix. Mutation analysis revealed that the Phe residue is absolutely critical for the binding, since changes to Ala, Tyr, or Trp abrogated the interaction. Finally, in a peptide competition experiment, the C-terminal 25-amino-acid peptide, as well as a minimal peptide

  16. A herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant disrupted for microRNA H2 with increased neurovirulence and rate of reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xianzhi; Brown, Don; Osorio, Nelson; Hsiang, Chinhui; Li, Lily; Chan, Lucas; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Wechsler, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency associated transcript (LAT) encodes several microRNAs. One of these, miR-H2, overlaps and is antisense to the ICP0 gene, and appears to decrease expression of the ICP0 protein. To determine if miR-H2 plays a role in the HSV-1 latency-reactivation cycle, we constructed a mutant, McK-ΔH2, in which this microRNA has been disrupted without altering the predicted amino acid sequence of ICP0. McK-ΔH2 produced increased amounts of ICP0. Although replication of McK-ΔH2 was similar to that of its wt McKrae parental virus in RS cells and mouse eyes, McK-ΔH2 was more neurovirulent in Swiss Webster mice than McKrae based on the percent of mice that died from herpes encephalitis following ocular infection. In addition, using a mouse TG explant model of induced reactivation, we show here for the first time that miR-H2 appears to play a role in modulating HSV-1 reactivation. Although the percent of TG from which virus reactivated by day 10 after explant was similar for McK-ΔH2, wt McKrae, and the marker rescued virus McK-ΔH2Res, at earlier times significantly more reactivation was seen with McK-ΔH2. Our results suggest that in the context of the virus, miR-H2 downregulates ICP0 and this moderates both HSV-1 neurovirulence and reactivation. PMID:25645379

  17. [Rash and fever illness caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 needs to be distinguished from hand, foot and mouth disease].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuang-Li; Liu, Jian-Feng; Sun, Qiang; Li, Jing; Li, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Ying; Wen, Xiao-Yun; Yan, Dong-Mei; Huang, Guo-Hong; Zhang, Bao-Min; Zhang, Bo; An, Hong-Qiu; Li, Hui; Xu, Wen-Bo

    2013-06-01

    An epidemic of rash and fever illnesses suspected of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Gansu Province of China in 2008, laboratory tests were performed in order to identify the pathogen that caused this epidemic. Eight clinical specimens collected from the 4 patients (each patient has throat swab and herpes fluid specimens) with rash and febrile illness, were inoculated onto RD and HEp-2 cells for virus isolation, and the viral nucleic acid was then extracted with the positive virus isolates, the dual-channel real-time reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the nucleic acid of human enterovirus (HEV) in the viral isolates at the same time. For the viral isolates with the negative results of HEV, a sequence independent single primer amplification technique (SISPA) was used for "unknown pathogen" identification. Totally, 6 viral isolates were identified as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Comprehensive analyses results of the clinical manifestations of the patients, epidemiological findings and laboratory test indicated that this epidemic of rash and febrile illness was caused by HSV-1. The differences among the gG region of 6 HSV-1 isolates at nucleotide level and amino acid level were all small, and the identities were up to 98. 8% and 97.9%, respectively, showing that this outbreak was caused by only one viral transmission chain of HSV-1. HSV-1 and other viruses that cause rash and febrile illnesses need differential diagnosis with HFMD. The etiology of rash and febrile illness is sometimes difficult to distinguish from the clinical symptoms and epidemiological data, the laboratory diagnosis is therefore critical. PMID:23895007

  18. Analysis of a herpes simplex virus type 1 LAT mutant with a deletion between the putative promoter and the 5' end of the 2.0-kilobase transcript.

    PubMed Central

    Maggioncalda, J; Mehta, A; Fraser, N W; Block, T M

    1994-01-01

    A herpes simplex virus type 1 strain 17 mutant with a deletion between genomic nucleotides 118880 and 119250 was constructed and called 17 delta Sty. The deletion removes most of a putative secondary LAT promoter (called LAPII) as well as 370 of the first 449 nucleotides of the proposed 8.5-kb transcript believed to be the precursor of 2.0-kb LAT. 17 delta Sty was shown to produce major 2.0-kb LATs in tissue culture. Moreover, trigeminal nerves from latently infected mice contained an intact 1.45- to 2.0-kb LAT as well as the minor LATs which are recognized by probes specific for regions downstream of the 2.0-kb LAT. Finally, 17 delta Sty reactivated with normal kinetics from the trigeminal ganglia of latently infected mice in the explant cocultivation assay and egressed from tissue culture cells as efficiently as wild-type virus. These results clearly show that the region deleted in 17 delta Sty is dispensable for intact 2-kb LAT production, viral egress in tissue culture, and normal reactivation from latently infected neurons in mice. Images PMID:7966571

  19. Interference of the low-pH inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain HSZP with the early shutoff function of superinfecting HSV-1 strain KOS.

    PubMed

    Matis, J; Kúdelová, M; Rajcáni, J

    1999-03-01

    In former studies, we described that the HSZP strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was defective with respect to the early shutoff of host protein synthesis but was effective at interfering with the early shutoff function of the HSV-1 strain KOS, even when heat-inactivated or neutralized by antibody. However, the HSZP strain failed to interfere when inactivated with zinc ions or purified from cells treated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose. In this study, we provide evidence that the ability of the purified low-pH inactivated (citrate buffer, pH 3.0) and gel-filtered (Sephadex G-25) HSZP virions to adsorb host cells was not significantly affected. However, their ability to induce interference with the early shutoff function of the superinfecting HSV-1 strain KOS was restricted. In comparison with native virus, up to eight times more low-pH inactivated HSZP virions were needed to interfere with the shutoff by strain KOS. The interference was not due to exclusion of strain KOS by HSZP at the level of adsorption and/or penetration. The restriction was partially overcome by treatment of the cells with polyethylene glycol after adsorption of the low-pH inactivated HSZP virions. This observation indicates that the direct fusion of the virion envelope of low-pH inactivated HSZP with the plasma cell membrane was predominantly hampered.

  20. Latent herpes simplex virus type 1 transcripts in peripheral and central nervous system tissues of mice map to similar regions of the viral genome.

    PubMed Central

    Deatly, A M; Spivack, J G; Lavi, E; O'Boyle, D R; Fraser, N W

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA and RNA have been detected in peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) tissues of latently infected mice. However, explant methods are successful in reactivating HSV-1 only from latently infected PNS tissues. In this report, latent herpesvirus infections in mouse PNS and CNS tissues were compared by in situ hybridization to determine whether the difference in reactivation was at the level of the virus or the host tissue. It was demonstrated that the HSV-1 transcripts present during latency in the mouse PNS and CNS originated from the same region of the genome, the repeats which bracket the long unique sequence. Therefore, the difference in reactivation with PNS and CNS tissues cannot be accounted for by differences in the extent of the HSV-1 genome transcribed during herpesvirus latency. Latent HSV-1 RNA was detected in the trigeminal ganglia (PNS) and the trigeminal system in the CNS from the mesencephalon to the spinal cord as well as other regions of the CNS not noted previously. Latent HSV-1 RNA was found predominantly in neurons but also in a small number of cells which could not be identified as neuronal cells. It is suggested that host differences in CNS and PNS tissues, rather than differences in latent virus transcription, may be important determinants in the HSV-1 reactivation process in explanted tissues. Images PMID:2828670

  1. Activation of Cellular Immunity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Mice by the Oral Administration of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Masahiko; Wadhwani, Ashish; Kai, Hisahiro; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Sugita, Chihiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Matsuno, Koji; Hagiwara, Akinori

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is used as a nutritive vegetable and spice. Its ethanol extract has been previously shown to be significantly effective in alleviating herpetic skin lesions in mice. In this study, we evaluated the alleviation by the aqueous extract (AqMOL) and assessed the mode of its anti-herpetic action in a murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model. AqMOL (300 mg/kg) was administered orally to HSV-1-infected mice three times daily on days 0 to 5 after infection. AqMOL significantly limited the development of herpetic skin lesions and reduced virus titers in the brain on day 4 without toxicity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen was significantly stronger in infected mice administered AqMOL and AqMOL augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes of HSV-1-infected mice at 4 days post-infection. AqMOL administration was effective in elevating the ratio of CD11b(+) and CD49b(+) subpopulations of splenocytes in infected mice. As DTH is a major host defense mechanism for intradermal HSV infection, augmentation of the DTH response by AqMOL may contribute to their efficacies against HSV-1 infection. These results provided an important insights into the mechanism by which AqMOL activates cellular immunity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26814058

  2. A System for Creating Stable Cell Lines that Express a Gene of Interest from a Bidirectional and Regulatable Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Christopher B.; Halford, William P.; Geltz, Joshua; Villamizar, Olga; Gross, Jeffrey; Embalabala, Alison; Gershburg, Edward; Wilber, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Expression systems used to study the biological function of a gene of interest can have limited utility due to three major factors: i) weak or heterogeneous gene expression; ii) poorly controlled gene expression; and iii) low efficiencies of stable integration and persistent expression. We envisioned that the ideal system should be tightly controlled and coupled with the ability to efficiently create and identify stable cell lines. Herein, we describe a system based upon a bidirectional Herpes simplex virus type 1 promoter that is naturally responsive to the VP16 transactivator and modified to permit tetracycline-regulated transcription on one side while maintaining constitutive activity on the other side. Incorporation of this element into the Sleeping Beauty transposon resulted in a novel bidirectional system with the capacity for high-efficiency stable integration. Using this system, we created stable cell lines in which expression of a gene of interest was tightly and uniformly controlled across a broad range of levels via a novel combination of doxycycline-sensitive de-repression and VP16-mediated sequence-specific induction. The unique characteristics of this system address major limitations of current methods and provide an excellent strategy to investigate the effects of gene dosing in mammalian models. PMID:25823013

  3. Volatile Organic Compound Gamma-Butyrolactone Released upon Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 Acute Infection Modulated Membrane Potential and Repressed Viral Infection in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Rochford, Kevin; Chen, Feng; Waguespack, Yan; Figliozzi, Robert W; Kharel, Madan K; Zhang, Qiaojuan; Martin-Caraballo, Miguel; Hsia, S Victor

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS). It was observed that the concentrations of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in particular changed significantly after a 24-hour infection. Since HSV-1 may establish latency in neurons after the acute infection, GBL was tested to determine if it exerts neuronal regulation of infection. The results indicated that GBL altered the resting membrane potential of differentiated LNCaP cells and promoted a non-permissive state of HSV-1 infection by repressing viral replication. These observations may provide useful clues towards understanding the complex signaling pathways that occur during the HSV-1 primary infection and establishment of viral latency. PMID:27537375

  4. An investigation of herpes simplex virus type 1 latency in a novel mouse dorsal root ganglion model suggests a role for ICP34.5 in reactivation.

    PubMed

    Mattila, R K; Harila, K; Kangas, S M; Paavilainen, H; Heape, A M; Mohr, I J; Hukkanen, V

    2015-08-01

    After a primary lytic infection at the epithelia, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enters the innervating sensory neurons and translocates to the nucleus, where it establishes a quiescent latent infection. Periodically, the virus can reactivate and the progeny viruses spread back to the epithelium. Here, we introduce an embryonic mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) culture system, which can be used to study the mechanisms that control the establishment, maintenance and reactivation from latency. Use of acyclovir is not necessary in our model. We examined different phases of the HSV-1 life cycle in DRG neurons, and showed that WT HSV-1 could establish both lytic and latent form of infection in the cells. After reactivating stimulus, the WT viruses showed all markers of true reactivation. In addition, we showed that deletion of the γ(1)34.5 gene rendered the virus incapable of reactivation, even though the virus was clearly able to replicate and persist in a quiescent form in the DRG neurons. PMID:25854552

  5. A neuroattenuated ICP34.5-deficient herpes simplex virus type 1 replicates in ependymal cells of the murine central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kesari, S; Lasner, T M; Balsara, K R; Randazzo, B P; Lee, V M; Trojanowski, J Q; Fraser, N W

    1998-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) variant 1716 is deleted in the gene encoding ICP34.5 and is neuroattenuated after intracranial inoculation of mice. Although the mechanism of attenuation is unclear, this property has been exploited to eliminate experimental brain tumours. Previously, it was shown that infectious 1716 was recoverable for up to 3 days after intracranial inoculation suggesting that there may be limited replication in the central nervous system (CNS). Here it is demonstrated that 1716 replicates in specific cell types (predominantly CNS ependymal cells) of BALB/c mice, using immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization and virus titration studies. While 1716-infected mice exhibited no overt signs of encephalitis, histological analysis showed a persistent loss of the ependymal lining. Thus, although ICP34.5-deficient viruses are neuroattenuated, they do retain the ability to replicate in and destroy the ependyma of the murine CNS. A detailed understanding of the mechanism(s) of neuroattenuation and limited replication could lead to the rational design of safe HSV vectors for cancer and gene therapy in the CNS.

  6. Easy and reliable double-immunogold labelling of herpes simplex virus type-1 infected cells using primary monoclonal antibodies and studied by cryosection electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, H L; Norrild, B

    1999-08-01

    Cell biology concerns the interactions between different cellular compartments and between the cell and the environment. The mechanisms of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) envelopment and the transport of virus particles and HSV-1 glycoproteins have not been completely investigated. It is of interest to examine the formation of complete virus particles and the cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins correlated with microtubules. The illustration of these conditions by immunocytochemistry is best done by multiple labelling techniques in the same cell. Single-staining of neighbouring serial sections or two-face double-immunolabelling methods are not technically compatible with ultrathin cryosections. The results are reported here of a simultaneous, simple and reliable immunogold double-staining technique using primary antibodies of the same species in ultrathin cryosections. Compared to other inactivation procedures, phosphate-buffered 3% paraformaldehyde plus 2% glutaraldehyde for 2 h at room temperature is an excellent and gentle method to destroy free anti-IgG binding sites on the antibodies and to prevent cross-labelling, which has proven necessary for obtaining reproducible results on cellular distribution of tubulin and viral glycoproteins gD-1 and gC-1.

  7. Enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and cytochrome P450 4B1: applications for prodrug-activating gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Steffens, S; Frank, S; Fischer, U; Heuser, C; Meyer, K L; Dobberstein, K U; Rainov, N G; Kramm, C M

    2000-05-01

    To monitor therapeutic transgene expression, we developed fusion genes of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) with two different prodrug-activating enzyme genes: herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) and rabbit cytochrome P450 4B1 (cyp4b1). Expression of the resulting fusion proteins, TK-EGFP and 4B1-EGFP, rendered transduced human and rodent glioma cells sensitive to cytotoxic treatment with the corresponding prodrugs ganciclovir and 4-ipomeanol. Ganciclovir and 4-ipomeanol sensitivity was comparable with that achieved with the native HSV-TK and CYP4B1 proteins. As shown by fluorescence microscopy, TK-EGFP was expressed predominantly intranuclearly, whereas 4B1-EGFP was detectable in the cytoplasm, thereby displaying the orthotopic subcellular distribution of the corresponding native enzymes. The fluorescence intensity correlated well with the corresponding prodrug sensitivity, as shown by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. EGFP expression was also used for the selection of stably HSV-tk-transduced cells by flow cytometric cell sorting. Resulting cell populations showed a homogeneity of fluorescence intensity similar to single-cell clones after antibiotic selection. In conclusion, tk-egfp and 4b1-egfp fusion genes are valuable tools for monitoring prodrug-activating gene therapy in living cells. EGFP fusion genes/proteins provide a simple and reproducible means for the detection, selection, and characterization of cells expressing enzyme genes for prodrug activation.

  8. Studies to show that with podophyllotoxin the early replicative stages of herpes simplex virus type 1 depend upon functional cytoplasmic microtubules.

    PubMed

    Hammonds, T R; Denyer, S P; Jackson, D E; Irving, W L

    1996-09-01

    The antiviral activity of podophyllotoxin against herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1) grown in Vero cells was studied by a simple microtitration assay. Antiviral effects were induced at similar concentrations as direct cellular toxicity, as characterised by a time-dependent loss of cell monolayer. Podophyllotoxin-mediated toxicity arises from cytoplasmic microtubular, and hence cytoskeletal, decay. Some degree of selectivity was seen for inhibition of virus replication over direct cellular toxicity. Podophyllotoxin acted against an early viral process, as an antiviral effect was still seen if drug was removed 2 h after infection. Similar effects were seen with colchicine, a classical tubulin-binding compound, but not with bromovinyldeoxyuridine. Podophyllotoxin was capable of inducing a cytoprotective effect in Vero cells, as pre-treatment of cells abrogated virus growth for up to 90 min after removal of drug. This is coincident with the repolymerisation of cellular microtubules and re-formation of the cytoskeleton. We conclude that HSV-1 relies upon a functional cellular cytoskeleton for efficient completion of an early replicative event. Such a process may be the transport of viral material to the nucleus or inhibition of the formation of intranuclear viral 'replication factories', bodies containing cytoskeletal fragments constructed after viral infection.

  9. A hybrid herpesvirus infectious vector based on Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus type 1 for gene transfer into human cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Vos, J M

    1996-12-01

    We have developed a miniviral vector, pH300, based on the human herpesviruses 1 and 4, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), carrying EBV sequences for plasmid episomal maintenance and HSV-1 sequences for amplification and packaging in multimeric form into HSV-1 capsids in the presence of a helper virus and helper cell line. A reporter gene, the bacterial lacZ gene, which expressed beta-galactosidase, was inserted into the multiple cloning site of pH300 to make pH300-lac. The packaged pH300-lac DNA was very efficient in infecting human cells in tissue culture. The pH300-lac miniviral stock was used to infect in vitro various human cell types derived from breast cancer, lung cancer, and liver cancer. Up to 95% of cells were infected and expressed beta-galactosidase activity after exposure to viral stock at a multiplicity of infection of 3. There was essentially no apparent cytotoxicity after infection of cultured cells in vitro. To test in vivo gene delivery, human liver tumor cells preimplanted subcutaneously in nude mice and injected in situ with pH300-lac showed high efficiency of ectopic gene expression. The pH300 miniviral vector is a simple and effective gene transfer system which shows potential for gene therapy of cancer and inherited diseases.

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Arming Occurs within Lymph Nodes Draining the Site of Cutaneous Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Claerwen M.; Cose, Stephen C.; Coles, Richard M.; Winterhalter, Adam C.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Heath, William R.; Carbone, Francis R.

    2000-01-01

    Various studies have shown that major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can be isolated from lymph nodes draining sites of cutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Invariably, detection of this cytolytic activity appeared to require some level of in vitro culture of the isolated lymph node cells, usually for 3 days, in the absence of exogenous viral antigen. This in vitro “resting” period was thought to represent the phase during which committed CD8+ T cells become “armed” killers after leaving the lymph nodes and prior to their entry into infected tissue as effector CTL. In this study we reexamined the issue of CTL appearance in the HSV-1 immune response and found that cytolytic activity can be isolated directly from draining lymph nodes, although at levels considerably below those found after in vitro culture. By using T-cell receptor elements that represent effective markers for class I-restricted T cells specific for an immunodominant glycoprotein B (gB) determinant from HSV-1, we show that the increase in cytotoxicity apparent after in vitro culture closely mirrors the expansion of gB-specific CTL during the same period. Taken together, our results suggest that HSV-1-specific CTL priming does not appear to require any level of cytolytic machinery arming outside the lymph node compartment despite the absence of any detectable infection within that site. PMID:10666272

  11. Volatile Organic Compound Gamma-Butyrolactone Released upon Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 Acute Infection Modulated Membrane Potential and Repressed Viral Infection in Human Neuron-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Waguespack, Yan; Figliozzi, Robert W.; Kharel, Madan K.; Zhang, Qiaojuan; Martin-Caraballo, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS). It was observed that the concentrations of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in particular changed significantly after a 24-hour infection. Since HSV-1 may establish latency in neurons after the acute infection, GBL was tested to determine if it exerts neuronal regulation of infection. The results indicated that GBL altered the resting membrane potential of differentiated LNCaP cells and promoted a non-permissive state of HSV-1 infection by repressing viral replication. These observations may provide useful clues towards understanding the complex signaling pathways that occur during the HSV-1 primary infection and establishment of viral latency. PMID:27537375

  12. Herpes simplex virus type 1-induced FasL expression in human monocytic cells and its implications for cell death, viral replication, and immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Iannello, Alexandre; Debbeche, Olfa; El Arabi, Raoudha; Samarani, Suzanne; Hamel, David; Rozenberg, Flore; Heveker, Nikolaus; Ahmad, Ali

    2011-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitously occurring pathogen that infects humans early in childhood. The virus persists as a latent infection in dorsal root ganglia, especially of the trigeminal nerve, and frequently becomes reactivated in humans under conditions of stress. Monocytic cells constitute an important component of the innate and adaptive immune responses. We show here for the first time that HSV-1 stimulates human FasL promoter and induces de novo expression of FasL on the surface of human monocytic cells, including monocytes and macrophages. This virus-induced FasL expression causes death of monocytic cells growing in suspension, but not in monolayers (e.g., macrophages). The addition of a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, as well as anti-FasL antibodies, reduced cell death but increased viral replication in the virus-infected cell cultures. We also show here for the first time that the virus-induced de novo expression of FasL on the cell surface acts as an immune evasion mechanism by causing the death of interacting human CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Our study provides novel insights on FasL expression and cell death in HSV-infected human monocytic cells and their impact on interacting immune cells.

  13. Localization of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 DNA in Latently Infected BALB/c Mice Neurons Using in situ Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Khansarinejad, Behzad; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Ghaemi, Amir; Tiraihi, Taki; Pour Beiranvand, Shahram

    2010-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) establishes a lifelong latent infection in neurons following primary infection. The existence of latent HSV-1 DNA in the trigeminal ganglia of infected BALB/c mice was examined using a direct in situ PCR technique, based on Digoxigenin-11-dUTP detection system with anti-digoxigenin-peroxidase and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) substrate. Methods: Eight-week-old male BALB/c mice were inoculated via the eye by 104 plaque forming unit of wild type Iranian isolates of HSV-1. After establishment of latency, trigeminal ganglia were removed and examined using in situ PCR to detect HSV-1 genome. Finally, the results of in situ PCR were verified by a two-round PCR method, using amplification cocktail of in situ reaction, as a template for a conventional gel base PCR. Results and Conclusion: The results suggest that a direct in situ PCR method using a peroxidase and DAB detection system is a useful means for detection of latent HSV-1 DNA in the latently infected ganglia. PMID:21079658

  14. Mutagenic analysis of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein L reveals the importance of an arginine-rich region for function

    SciTech Connect

    Klyachkin, Yuri M.; Geraghty, Robert J.

    2008-04-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoproteins H and L (gH and gL) are required for virus-induced membrane fusion. Expression of gH at the virion or infected cell surface is mediated by the chaperone-like activity of gL. We have previously shown that a region between amino acids 155 and 161 is critical for gL chaperone-like activity. Here, we conducted Ala substitution mutagenesis of residues in this region and found that substitution of Cys160, Arg156, Arg158, or Arg156/158/159 with Ala resulted in a gL mutant that bound gH but displayed a reduced ability in gH trafficking and membrane fusion. Substitution of Arg156 with another positively charged amino acid, Lys, restored function. Substitution of Arg158 with Lys restored function in gH trafficking and cell fusion but not virus entry. These results indicate that an arginine-rich region of gL is critical for function.

  15. Decreased reactivation of a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency associated transcript (LAT) mutant using the in vivo mouse UV-B model of induced reactivation

    PubMed Central

    BenMohamed, Lbachir; Osorio, Nelson; Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Simpson, Jennifer L.; Wechsler, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Blinding ocular herpetic disease in humans is due to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) reactivations from latency, rather than to primary acute infection. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that control the HSV-1 latency-reactivation cycle remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine if reactivation of the HSV-1 latency associated transcript (LAT) deletion mutant (dLAT2903) was impaired in this model, as it is in the rabbit model of induced and spontaneous reactivation and in the explant TG induced reactivation model in mice. The eyes of mice latently infected with wild type HSV-1 strain McKrae (LAT(+) virus) or dLAT2903 (LAT(−) virus) were irradiated with UV-B and reactivation was determined. We found that compared to LAT(−) virus, LAT(+) virus reactivated at a higher rate as determined by shedding of virus in tears on days 3 to 7 after UV-B treatment. Thus, the UV-B induced reactivation model of HSV-1 appears to be a useful small animal model for studying the mechanisms involved in how LAT enhances the HSV-1 reactivation phenotype. The utility of the model for investigating the immune evasion mechanisms regulating the HSV-1 latency/reactivation cycle and for testing the protective efficacy of candidate therapeutic vaccines and drugs are discussed. PMID:26002839

  16. CD4+ T Cell Migration into the Cornea is Reduced in CXCL9 Deficient but not CXCL10 Deficient Mice following Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Wuest, Todd; Farber, Joshua; Luster, Andrew; Carr, Daniel J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The role of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in the ocular immune response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection was investigated using mice deficient in either CXCL9 or CXCL10. CXCL10 but not CXCL9 deficient mice showed an increase in sensitivity to ocular virus infection as measured by an elevation in virus titer recovered in the tear film and corneal tissue. The increase in virus was associated with an increase in the expression of the chemokine CCL2 but no significant change in the infiltration of CD4+ T cells or NK cells into the corneal stroma. In contrast, a significant reduction in CD4+ T cell infiltration into the cornea was found in CXCL9 deficient mice following HSV-1 infection consistent with the absence of CXCL9 expression and reduction in expression of other chemokines including CCL3, CCL5, CXCL1, and CXCL10. Collectively, the results suggest a non-redundant role for CXCL9 and CXCL10 in response to ocular HSV-1 infection in terms of controlling virus replication and recruitment of CD4+ T cells into the cornea. PMID:17296171

  17. Identification of a complex associated with processing and polyadenylation in vitro of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase precursor RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, F; Cole, C N

    1987-01-01

    Cleavage and polyadenylation of substrate RNAs containing the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) thymidine kinase (tk) gene polyadenylation signal region were examined in HeLa cell nuclear extract. 3'-End RNA processing was accurate and efficient and required ATP and Mg2+. Cleavage, but not polyadenylation, occurred in the presence of EDTA or when ATP was replaced with 3' dATP (cordycepin) or AMP(CH2)PP, a nonhydrolyzable analog of ATP. Processing in vitro and in vivo showed the same signal element requirements: a series of substrates containing linker scanning, internal deletion, and small insertion mutations was processed with the same relative efficiencies and at the same sites in vitro and in vivo. A complex involved in 3'-end RNA processing was identified by gel mobility shift analysis. This complex formed rapidly, reached a maximum level after 20 to 30 min, and was much reduced after 2 h. Very little complex was formed at 0 degree C or with substrates lacking a polyadenylation signal. Entry of 32P-labeled tk substrate into the complex could be prevented by addition of excess 35S-labeled tk or adenovirus L3 precursor RNAs. Competition was not observed with tk RNAs lacking a complete polyadenylation signal. Images PMID:2823124

  18. Mutational analysis of sequences downstream of the TATA box of the herpes simplex virus type 1 major capsid protein (VP5/UL19) promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C J; Goodart, S A; Rice, M K; Guzowski, J F; Wagner, E K

    1993-01-01

    Transient expression assays with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) promoter/leader controlling the beta gamma (leaky-late) VP5 (UL19) mRNA encoding the major capsid protein showed that no more than 36 to 72 bases of VP5 leader are required for full-level expression. Constructs lacking the viral leader and the transcription initiation site expressed the reporter gene at about 20% of the maximum level. We confirmed this observation by using recombinant viruses in which VP5 promoter/leader deletions controlling the bacterial beta-galactosidase gene were inserted into the nonessential glycoprotein C (UL44) locus of the genome. Sequences within +36 are required for full-level expression, and removal of all leader sequences including the cap site resulted in a 10-fold decrease in reporter mRNA accumulation. The removal of the leader sequence had a measurable effect upon the kinetics of reporter mRNA accumulation, but insertion of the entire VP5 leader and cap site into a construct in which the reporter gene was controlled by the kinetically early (beta) dUTPase (UL50) promoter did not result in any significant change in the kinetics of dUTPase promoter expression. These results suggest that DNA sequences both 5' and 3' of the TATA box are important determinants of the beta gamma kinetics and levels of VP5 mRNA accumulation in the infected cell. Images PMID:8394439

  19. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the thymidine kinase of ACV-resistant HSV-1 derived from an acyclovir-sensitive herpes simplex virus type 1 strain.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Masayuki; Suzutani, Tatsuo; De Clercq, Erik; Niikura, Masahiro; Maeda, Akihiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro

    2002-12-01

    Twenty-four strains of acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were generated from the HSV-1 TAS strain by exposure to ACV, and the genotype and phenotype of the thymidine kinase (TK) from these mutants were analyzed. The TK polypeptide of the ACV(r) HSV-1 strains was examined by Western blot using an anti-HSV-1 TK rabbit serum. The sensitivity of each strain to ACV, foscarnet and cidofovir (CDV) was also determined. A single guanine (G) insertion or a single cytosine (C) deletion was detected in 12 of the 24 ACV(r) strains at the G or C homopolymer stretches within the TK gene. Genotypic analysis predicted that two thirds of the ACV(r) HSV-1 strains expressed truncated TK polypeptides, while one third expressed viral TK polypeptide with a single amino acid substitution at various sites. Western blot abnormalities in the viral TK polypeptides were identified in 21 ACV(r) strains. There was an inverse correlation between the susceptibility of the HSV-1 mutant strains to ACV and that to CDV. Nucleotide sequencing of the TK gene and Western blot analysis of the viral TK polypeptides are considered to be one of the methods for predicting virus sensitivity to ACV and CDV.

  20. Characterization of DNA polymerase-associated acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1: mutations, sensitivity to antiviral compounds, neurovirulence, and in-vivo sensitivity to treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Xin; Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Kinoshita-Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Suzutani, Tatsuo; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) mutants were generated from plaque-purified ACV-sensitive herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by culturing the virus in Vero cells in the presence of 2-amino-7-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl) purine (S2242). Three DNA polymerase (DNApol)-associated ACV(r) HSV-1 generated under ACV selection in a previous study (Suzutani, T., Ishioka, K., De Clercq, E., et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 47, 1707-1713, 2003) were also included. The sensitivity of the mutants to other antivirals and their neurovirulence were determined. The treatment efficacy of ACV and ganciclovir (GCV) against ACV(r) HSV-1 infections was evaluated in mice. Amino acid substitutions were demonstrated in conserved regions II and III in DNApol in 5 of the 6 mutants, while the other substitution was located in non-conserved regions. DNApol-associated ACV(r) clones showed cross-resistance to foscarnet, penciclovir, and vidarabine but were sensitive or hypersensitive to GCV, brivudin, sorivudine, and spongothymidine. The ACV(r) clone with an N815S mutation in DNApol showed similar neurovirulence to that of the parent virus; however, those with other mutations showed attenuation. GCV was effective in the treatment of the ACV(r) clone with similar virulence to that of parent HSV-1, while ACV was less effective in mice. These results indicate the importance of the characterization of HSV-1 isolates for the proper treatment of HSV-1 infections exhibiting ACV-resistance.

  1. [Neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis: clinical profile versus molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Giannina; Cofré, José; Torres, J Pablo; Venegas, Gerardo; Vergara, Alejandra; Farfán, Mauricio

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a diagnostic challenge and causes high morbidity and mortality in children. Early suspicion of the disease and a rapid, safe and useful diagnostic test are relevant because up to 70% of the cases may die. We report the case of a newborn girl aged 25 days, who presented with a clinical picture that was compatible with herpes simplex encephalitis where the confirmation of the etiological diagnosis was delayed. Only by repeated real-time polymerase chain reaction it was possible to confirm the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the cerebrospinal fluid.

  2. [Ocular hypertension in herpes simplex keratouveitis].

    PubMed

    Burcea, M; Avram, Corina-Ioana; Stamate, Alina-Cristina; Malciolu, R; Oprea, S; Zemba, M

    2014-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus is one of the most common pathogens in humans, who are seropositive for the virus in 90% of the cases at the adult age. It determines reccurent infections in more than a third of the population and these infections depend on the immune response of the host. Ocular infections of newborns are due to the herpes simplex virus type 2, meanwhile type 1 is found predominantly at adults; almost all ocular structures can be affected. HSV-1 in the most frequent etiologic agent in infectious anterior uveitis (with the varicelo-zosterian virus) and it is responsible for 6-10% of all cases of anterior uveitis. More than half of the keratouveitides due to HSV will develop intraocular hypertension and open-angle secondary glaucoma, during reccurences and most of them will resolve after proper control of inflammation.

  3. Polymorphism within the herpes simplex virus (HSV) ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (ICP6) confers type specificity for recognition by HSV type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Salvucci, L A; Bonneau, R H; Tevethia, S S

    1995-01-01

    A panel of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-specific, CD8+, major histocompatibility complex class I (H-2Kb)-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clones was derived from HSV-1-immunized C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice in order to identify the HSV-1 CTL recognition epitope(s) which confers type specificity. HSV-1 x HSV-2 intertypic recombinants were used to narrow the region encoding potential CTL recognition epitopes to within 0.51 to 0.58 map units of the HSV-1 genome. Using an inhibitor of viral DNA synthesis and an ICP6 deletion mutant, the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (ICP6, RR1) was identified as a target protein for these type-specific CTL. Potential CTL recognition epitopes within RR1 were located on the basis of the peptide motif predicted to bind to the MHC class I H-2Kb molecule. A peptide corresponding to residues 822 to 829 of RR1 was shown to confer susceptibility on H-2Kb-expressing target cells to lysis by the type 1-specific CTL. On the basis of a comparison of the HSV-1 RR1 epitope (residues 822 to 829) with the homologous sequence of HSV-2 RR1 (residues 828 to 836) and by the use of amino acid substitutions within synthetic peptides, we identified HSV-1 residue 828 as being largely responsible for the type specificity exhibited by HSV-1-specific CTL. This HSV-1 RR1 epitope, when expressed in recombinant simian virus 40 large T antigen in primary C57BL/6 cells, was recognized by the HSV-1 RR1-specific CTL clones. These results indicate that an early HSV protein with enzymatic activity provides a target for HSV-specific CTL and that type specificity is dictated largely by a single amino acid. PMID:7529328

  4. Natural remedies for Herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Gaby, Alan R

    2006-06-01

    Herpes simplex is a common viral infection of the skin or mucous membranes. The lesions caused by this infection are often painful, burning, or pruritic, and tend to recur in most patients. Short-term treatment with acyclovir can accelerate the healing of an acute outbreak, and continuous acyclovir therapy is often prescribed for people with frequent recurrences. While this drug can reduce the recurrence rate by 60-90 percent, it can also cause a wide array of side effects, including renal failure, hepatitis, and anaphylaxis. Safe and effective alternatives are therefore needed. There is evidence that certain dietary modifications and natural substances may be useful for treating active Herpes simplex lesions or preventing recurrences. Treatments discussed include lysine, vitamin C, zinc, vitamin E, adenosine monophosphate, and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

  5. The Bipolar Filaments Formed by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 SSB/Recombination Protein (ICP8) Suggest a Mechanism for DNA Annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Makhov, A.M.; Simon, M.; Sen, A.; Yu, X.; Griffith, J. D.; Egelman, E. H.

    2009-02-20

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes a multifunctional protein, ICP8, which serves both as a single-strand binding protein and as a recombinase, catalyzing reactions involved in replication and recombination of the viral genome. In the presence of divalent ions and at low temperature, previous electron microscopic studies showed that ICP8 will form long left-handed helical filaments. Here, electron microscopic image reconstruction reveals that the filaments are bipolar, with an asymmetric unit containing two subunits of ICP8 that constitute a symmetrical dimer. This organization of the filament has been confirmed using scanning transmission electron microscopy. The pitch of the filaments is {approx} 250 {angstrom}, with {approx} 6.2 dimers per turn. Docking of a crystal structure of ICP8 into the reconstructed filament shows that the C-terminal domain of ICP8, attached to the body of the subunit by a flexible linker containing {approx} 10 residues, is packed into a pocket in the body of a neighboring subunit in the crystal in a similar manner as in the filament. However, the interactions between the large N-terminal domains are quite different in the filament from that observed in the crystal. A previously proposed model for ICP8 binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), based upon the crystal structure, leads to a model for a continuous strand of ssDNA near the filament axis. The bipolar nature of the ICP8 filaments means that a second strand of ssDNA would be running through this filament in the opposite orientation, and this provides a potential mechanism for how ICP8 anneals complementary ssDNA into double-stranded DNA, where each strand runs in opposite directions.

  6. Contribution of Endocytic Motifs in the Cytoplasmic Tail of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein B to Virus Replication and Cell-Cell Fusion▿

    PubMed Central

    Beitia Ortiz de Zarate, Igor; Cantero-Aguilar, Lilia; Longo, Magalie; Berlioz-Torrent, Clarisse; Rozenberg, Flore

    2007-01-01

    The use of endocytic pathways by viral glycoproteins is thought to play various functions during viral infection. We previously showed in transfection assays that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB) is transported from the cell surface back to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and that two motifs of gB cytoplasmic tail, YTQV and LL, function distinctly in this process. To investigate the role of each of these gB trafficking signals in HSV-1 infection, we constructed recombinant viruses in which each motif was rendered nonfunctional by alanine mutagenesis. In infected cells, wild-type gB was internalized from the cell surface and concentrated in the TGN. Disruption of YTQV abolished internalization of gB during infection, whereas disruption of LL induced accumulation of internalized gB in early recycling endosomes and impaired its return to the TGN. The growth of both recombinants was moderately diminished. Moreover, the fusion phenotype of cells infected with the gB recombinants differed from that of cells infected with the wild-type virus. Cells infected with the YTQV-mutated virus displayed reduced cell-cell fusion, whereas giant syncytia were observed in cells infected with the LL-mutated virus. Furthermore, blocking gB internalization or impairing gB recycling to the cell surface, using drugs or a transdominant negative form of Rab11, significantly reduced cell-cell fusion. These results favor a role for endocytosis in virus replication and suggest that gB intracellular trafficking is involved in the regulation of cell-cell fusion. PMID:17913800

  7. An Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV1) Encoding the HIV-1 Tat Protein Protects Mice from a Deadly Mucosal HSV1 Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sicurella, Mariaconcetta; Nicoli, Francesco; Gallerani, Eleonora; Volpi, Ilaria; Berto, Elena; Finessi, Valentina; Destro, Federica; Manservigi, Roberto; Cafaro, Aurelio; Ensoli, Barbara; Caputo, Antonella; Gavioli, Riccardo; Marconi, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat). In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ), induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1 infection and

  8. Effect of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 on surface expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, S R; Rice, P L; Kloszewski, E D; Anderson, R W; Thompson, D L; Tevethia, S S

    1985-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) generated in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice in response to infection with the serologically distinct herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2) were cross-reactive against target cells infected with either serotype. However, HSV-2-infected cells were shown to be much less susceptible to CTL-mediated lysis, and analysis through the use of HSV-1 X HSV-2 intertypic recombinants mapped the reduced susceptibility to a region contained within 0.82 to 1.00 map units of the HSV-2 genome. The study reported here was undertaken to determine the possible reasons for the reduced susceptibility of HSV-2-infected cells to lysis by CTL. Competition for the specific lysis of labeled HSV-1-infected cells by either HSV-1- or HSV-2-infected, unlabeled inhibitor cells and frequency analysis of the CTL precursor able to recognize HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected cells suggested that the reduced susceptibility of HSV-2-infected cells to lysis could be explained, at least in part, by reduced levels of target cell recognition. A determination of the surface expression of the critical elements involved in target cell recognition by CTL following infection with HSV-1 or HSV-2 revealed that all the major HSV-specific glycoprotein species were expressed. Infection with both HSV-1 and HSV-2 caused a reduction in the expression of the class I H-2 antigens. However, this reduction was much greater following infection with HSV-2. This suggested that one important factor contributing to reduced lysis of HSV-2-infected cells may be the altered or reduced expression of the class I H-2 self-antigens. PMID:2999432

  9. The acidic amino-terminal region of herpes simplex virus type 1 alpha protein ICP27 is required for an essential lytic function.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, S A; Lam, V; Knipe, D M

    1993-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) alpha protein ICP27 regulates the transition between the delayed-early and late phases of the viral infection. Previous genetic analyses have suggested that the important functional domains of ICP27 map to its carboxyl-terminal half. One striking feature of the primary sequence of ICP27, however, is an extremely acidic region near its amino terminus. To determine whether this region is required for ICP27 function, we deleted the sequences in the ICP27 gene which encode it (codons 12 through 63). In transient expression assays, the deletion mutant was unable to efficiently repress the expression of a cotransfected reporter gene or to efficiently complement the growth of d27-1, an HSV-1 ICP27 null mutant. These results suggested that the acidic region of ICP27 is involved in a regulatory function required for lytic growth. To test this possibility further, we introduced the mutant allele into the HSV-1 genome by marker transfer. Two independently derived isolates of the mutant virus, designated d1-2a and d1-2b, were recovered and analyzed. Both isolates were defective for growth in Vero cells, exhibiting a 100-fold reduction in virus yield compared with the wild-type infection. Vero cells infected with the d1-2 isolates showed a three- to eightfold reduction in viral DNA replication, a moderate reduction in the expression of viral gamma genes, and a delay in the repression of beta genes. The phenotype of the d1-2 isolates differs substantially from the phenotypes of previously isolated ICP27 mutants, which show much more severe defects in viral gene expression. Our results demonstrate that the amino-terminal half of ICP27 participates in its regulatory activities in both infected and transfected cells. Images PMID:8383210

  10. ICP47 mediates viral neuroinvasiveness by induction of TAP protein following intravenous inoculation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Javier S; Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Sastre, Isabel; Valdivieso, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) expresses an immediate-early protein, ICP47, that blocks the major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation pathway by binding to the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP). The result is the virus' evasion of the immune system. Although the interaction between ICP47 and TAP has been examined in vitro, this paper is the first to report their interaction in vivo. In C57BL/6 adult female mice, ICP47-defective virus (Delta ICP47, F strain) was less able to invade the organs studied than was wild-type HSV-1 F strain, showing that ICP47 influences general invasiveness. However, the neuroinvasiveness of the Delta ICP47 virus was recovered in TAP-deficient mice, indicating that the TAP-ICP47 interaction is specific to neural tissues. HSV-1 F strain showed no significant differences in their invasiveness in TAP-deficient and wild-type mice. Therefore, although ICP47 appears to be essential for invasion, the presence of TAP appears not to be crucial. Western blotting showed TAP1 expression to increase by at least fourfold in the brains and adrenal glands of infected mice. This suggests that TAP plays an important role in the host defense system. This increased expression may be particularly important in the encephalon since the baseline protein levels of this organ are low (ratio adrenal protein level/encephalon protein level > 100). However, Delta ICP47 virus provoked no significant increase in the brain TAP1 levels of wild-type mice because it could not invade this organ. These results suggest that ICP47 plays a role in infection, and that TAP1 production is regulated during viral challenge.

  11. Expression of hepatitis B virus S gene by herpes simplex virus type 1 vectors carrying alpha- and beta-regulated gene chimeras.

    PubMed

    Shih, M F; Arsenakis, M; Tiollais, P; Roizman, B

    1984-09-01

    The domain of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) S gene specifying the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and comprising 25 base pairs of the 5'-transcribed noncoding region, the structural gene sequences, and the 3'-noncoding gene sequences including the polyadenylylation site was fused to the promoter-regulatory regions of the beta-thymidine kinase and of the alpha 4 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The chimeric constructs were then inserted into the HSV-1 genome and specifically into the thymidine kinase gene by homologous recombination through flanking sequences. Cells infected with recombinants carrying the chimeric genes produced and excreted the HBsAg into the extracellular medium for at least 12 hr concurrently with the multiplication of the HSV-1 vector. The temporal patterns of expression and the observation that HBV S gene linked to the HSV-1 alpha promoter-regulatory region was regulated as an HSV-1 alpha gene indicate that the HBsAg gene chimeras inserted into the virus were regulated as viral genes. The HBsAg banded in isopycnic CsCl density gradients at a density of 1.17 g/cm3. Electron microscopic studies revealed that HBsAg harvested from the extracellular medium and banded in CsCl density gradients contained spherical particles 15-22 nm in diameter, characteristic of empty HBV envelopes. The results indicate that HSV-1 is a suitable vector for the expression of foreign genes placed under the control of HSV promoter-regulatory regions.

  12. Functional relevance of specific interactions between herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP4 and sequences from the promoter-regulatory domain of the viral thymidine kinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Imbalzano, A N; Shepard, A A; DeLuca, N A

    1990-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 immediate-early regulatory protein ICP4 is required for induced expression of HSV early and late genes, yet the mechanism by which this occurs is not known. We examined the promoter and flanking sequences of the HSV early gene that encodes thymidine kinase for the ability to interact specifically with ICP4 in gel retardation assays. Protein-DNA complexes containing ICP4 were observed with several distinct regions flanking the tk promoter. cis-Acting elements that interact with cellular transcription factors were apparently not required for these interactions to form. Purified ICP4 formed protein-DNA complexes with fragments from these regions, and Southwestern (DNA-protein blot) analysis indicated that the interaction between ICP4 and these sequences can be direct. None of the tk sequences that interact with ICP4 contains a consensus binding site for ICP4 (S. W. Faber and K. W. Wilcox, Nucleic Acids Res. 14:6067-6083, 1986), reflecting the ability of ICP4 to interact with more than one DNA sequence. A mutated ICP4 protein expressed from the viral genome that retains the ability to bind to a consensus binding site but does not bind specifically to the identified sites flanking the tk promoter results in induced transcription of the tk gene. These data support hypotheses for ICP4-mediated transactivation of the tk promoter in Vero cells that do not require the intrinsic ability of ICP4 to bind specifically in or near the promoter of the tk gene. Images PMID:2159535

  13. Protective Mucosal Immunity to Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Mice by Using Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin B Subunit as an Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Richards, C. M.; Aman, A. T.; Hirst, T. R.; Hill, T. J.; Williams, N. A.

    2001-01-01

    The potential of nontoxic recombinant B subunits of cholera toxin (rCtxB) and its close relative Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (rEtxB) to act as mucosal adjuvants for intranasal immunization with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoproteins was assessed. Doses of 10 μg of rEtxB or above with 10 μg of HSV-1 glycoproteins elicited high serum and mucosal anti-HSV-1 titers comparable with that obtained using CtxB (10 μg) with a trace (0.5 μg) of whole toxin (Ctx-CtxB). By contrast, doses of rCtxB up to 100 μg elicited only meager anti-HSV-1 responses. As for Ctx-CtxB, rEtxB resulted in a Th2-biased immune response with high immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)/IgG2a antibody ratios and production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-10 as well as gamma interferon by proliferating T cells. The protective efficacy of the immune response induced using rEtxB as an adjuvant was assessed following ocular challenge of immunized and mock-immunized mice. Epithelial disease was observed in both groups, but the immunized mice recovered by day 6 whereas mock-immunized mice developed more severe corneal disease leading to stromal keratitis. In addition, a significant reduction in the incidence of lid disease and zosteriform spread was observed in immunized animals and there was no encephalitis compared with 95% encephalitis in mock-immunized mice. The potential of such mucosal adjuvants for use in human vaccines against pathogens such as HSV-1 is discussed. PMID:11160664

  14. Processing of N-linked oligosaccharides from precursor- to mature-form herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gC.

    PubMed Central

    Serafini-Cessi, F; Dall'Olio, F; Pereira, L; Campadelli-Fiume, G

    1984-01-01

    Immature and mature forms of glycoprotein gC were purified by immunoadsorbent from herpes simplex virus type 1-infected BHK cells labeled with [3H]mannose for a 20-min pulse or for 11 h followed by a 3-h chase. The nature of N-asparagine-linked oligosaccharides carried by the immature form, pgC (molecular weight = 92,000), and the mature gC (molecular weight = 120,000) has been investigated. All pronase-digested glycopeptides of pgC were susceptible to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H treatment; thus they have a high-mannose structure. Using thin-layer chromatography to separate endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-cleaved oligosaccharides, polymannosyl chains of different sizes, ranging from Man9GlcNAc to Man5GlcNAc, were separated. The major components were Man8GlcNAc and Man7GlcNAc, suggesting that pgC labeled in a 20-min pulse represents the form of glycoprotein already routed to the Golgi apparatus. Analysis of glycopeptides of mature gC showed that the majority (95%) of N-linked glycans were converted to complex-type glycans. Ion-exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and leucoagglutinin-agarose revealed that diantennary and triantennary glycans predominated, whereas tetrantennary chains were not present. Parts of the di- and triantennary chains were not fully sialylated. The high heterogeneity of complex-type chains found in mature gC may be related to the high number of N-glycosylation sites of the glycoprotein as predicted by DNA sequencing studies (Frink et al., J. Virol. 45:634-647, 1983). Images PMID:6088806

  15. The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 UL3 Transcript Starts within the UL3 Open Reading Frame and Encodes a 224-Amino-Acid Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Nancy S.

    2007-01-01

    Several different herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) and vectors are being explored as therapeutic products for use in the treatment of cancer and neurological disorders. The viral strain and the combination of mutant viral genes that ultimately may serve as a safe and optimal backbone for such products are still being explored. The large genome size and complexity of the viral life cycle make such determinations difficult, because the significance of differences between proposed products is difficult to evaluate. For example, we previously reported that two lineages of γ34.5-deleted HSVs used in clinical studies differ from each other in the size of the UL3 protein expressed (M. J. Dambach et al., Mol. Ther. 13:891-898, 2006). Because the function of UL3 is not known and UL3 gene expression is poorly understood, the significance of such a difference cannot be predicted. Here, I begin to address the function of UL3 by investigating UL3 gene expression. I report that the transcript start site of UL3 mRNA isolated from HSV type 1 (HSV-1)-infected cells maps to a position downstream of the predicted translation start site. By constructing and characterizing the recombinant virus CB8116, which has a mutation in the first in-frame start codon of this UL3 transcript, I demonstrated that UL3 protein translation initiates at the second in-frame start codon of the UL3 open reading frame. This information adds to the body of basic knowledge of HSV-1 biology that forms the foundation for our current understanding of HSV-based products. Future research on HSV-1 biology will facilitate the rational design and evaluation of future generations of therapeutic viruses. PMID:17626086

  16. Defective herpes simplex virus type 1 vectors harboring gag, pol, and env genes can be used to rescue defective retrovirus vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Savard, N; Cosset, F L; Epstein, A L

    1997-01-01

    A retroviral packaging transcription unit was constructed in which the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) gag-pol and env genes are expressed under the control of herpesvirus regulatory sequences. This transcription unit, lacking long terminal repeats, primer binding sites, and most of the retrovirus packaging signal but retaining both retroviral donor and acceptor splice sites, was cloned into a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicon plasmid, and amplicon vectors (the gag-pol-env [GPE] vectors) were generated by using a defective HSV-1 vector as helper virus. The GPE vector population was used to infect human TE671 cells (ATCC CRL 8805), harboring a lacZ provirus (TE-lac2 cells), and supernatants of infected cells were collected and filtered at different times after infection. These supernatants were found to contain infectious ecotropic lacZ retroviral particles, as shown both by reverse transcription-PCR and by their ability to transduce a beta-galactosidase activity to murine NIH 3T3 cells but not to human TE671 cells. The titer of retroviral vectors released by GPE vector-infected TE-lac2 cells increased with the dose of infectious amplicon particles. Retrovirus vector production was inhibited by superinfection with helper virus, indicating that helper virus coinfection negatively interfered with retrovirus production. Induction of retrovirus vectors by GPE vectors was neutralized by anti-HSV-1 but not by anti-MoMLV antiserum, while transduction of beta-galactosidase activity to NIH 3T3 cells by supernatants of GPE vector-infected TE-lac2 cells was neutralized by anti-MoMLV antiserum. These results demonstrate that HSV-1 GPE amplicon vectors can rescue defective lacZ retrovirus vectors and suggest that they could be used as a sort of launching ramp to fire defective retrovirus vectors from within virtually any in vitro or in vivo cell type containing defective retroviral vectors. PMID:9094692

  17. In vitro inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication by Mentha suaveolens essential oil and its main component piperitenone oxide.

    PubMed

    Civitelli, Livia; Panella, Simona; Marcocci, Maria Elena; De Petris, Alberto; Garzoli, Stefania; Pepi, Federico; Vavala, Elisabetta; Ragno, Rino; Nencioni, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Angiolella, Letizia

    2014-05-15

    Several essential oils exert in vitro activity against bacteria and viruses and, among these latter, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is known to develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Thus, the effects of the essential oil derived from Mentha suaveolens (EOMS) and its active principle piperitenone oxide (PEO) were tested in in vitro experimental model of infection with HSV-1. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined at 5.1μg/ml and 1.4μg/ml for EOMS and PEO, respectively. Australian tea tree oil (TTO) was used as control, revealing an IC50 of 13.2μg/ml. Moreover, a synergistic action against HSV-1 was observed when each oil was added in combination with acyclovir. In order to find out the mechanism of action, EOMS, PEO and TTO were added to the cells at different times during the virus life-cycle. Results obtained by yield reduction assay indicated that the antiviral activity of both compounds was principally due to an effect after viral adsorption. Indeed, no reduction of virus yield was observed when cells were treated during viral adsorption or pre-treated before viral infection. In particular, PEO exerted a strong inhibitory effect by interfering with a late step of HSV-1 life-cycle. HSV-1 infection is known to induce a pro-oxidative state with depletion of the main intracellular antioxidant glutathione and this redox change in the cell is important for viral replication. Interestingly, the treatment with PEO corrected this deficit, thus suggesting that the compound could interfere with some redox-sensitive cellular pathways exploited for viral replication. Overall our data suggest that both EOMS and PEO could be considered good candidates for novel anti-HSV-1 strategies, and need further exploration to better characterize the targets underlying their inhibition.

  18. Reactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in the Mouse Trigeminal Ganglion: an In Vivo Study of Virus Antigen and Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Shimeld, Carolyn; Easty, David L.; Hill, Terry J.

    1999-01-01

    Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) was induced by UV irradiation of the corneas of latently infected mice. Immunocytochemistry was used to monitor the dynamics of cytokine (interleukin-2 [IL-2], IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and viral antigen production in the TG and the adjacent central nervous system on days 1 to 4, 6, 7, and 10 after irradiation. UV irradiation induced increased expression of IL-6 and TNF-α from satellite cells in uninfected TG. In latently infected TG, prior to reactivation, all satellite cells were TNF-α+ and most were also IL-6+. Reactivation, evidenced by HSV-1 antigens and/or infiltrating immune cells, occurred in 28 of 45 (62%) TG samples. Viral antigens were present in the TG in neurons, often disintegrating on days 2 to 6 after irradiation. Infected neurons were usually surrounded by satellite cells and the foci of immune cells producing TNF-α and/or IL-6. IL-4+ cells were detected as early as day 3 and were more numerous by day 10 (a very few IL-2+ and/or IFN-γ+ cells were seen at this time). No IL-10 was detected at any time. Our observations indicate that UV irradiation of the cornea may modulate cytokine production by satellite cells. We confirm that neurons are the site of reactivation and that they probably do not survive this event. The predominance of TNF-α and IL-6 following reactivation parallels primary infection in the TG and suggests a role in viral clearance. The presence of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-6) indicates a role for antibody. Thus, several clearance mechanisms may be at work. PMID:9971753

  19. Intracellular Cre-Mediated Deletion of the Unique Packaging Signal Carried by a Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Recombinant and Its Relationship to the Cleavage-Packaging Process

    PubMed Central

    Logvinoff, Carine; Epstein, Alberto L.

    2000-01-01

    To gain further insight on the function of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) packaging signal (a sequence), we constructed a recombinant virus containing a unique a sequence, which was flanked by two loxP sites in parallel orientation. The phenotype of this recombinant, named HSV-1 LaL, was studied in cell lines which either express or do not express Cre recombinase. Although LaL virus multiplication was only slightly reduced in standard cell lines, its growth was strongly inhibited in Cre-expressing cells. In these cells, a sequences were detected mostly in low-molecular-weight DNA circles, indicating that they had been excised from virus DNA by site-specific recombination. Deletion of the a sequences from the viral genome resulted in the accumulation of uncleaved replication intermediates, as observed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. B-type capsids also accumulated in these cells, as shown both by electron microscopy and by sucrose gradient sedimentation. Further examination of the status of a sequences in Cre-expressing cells indicated that high-level amplification of this sequence can occur in the absence of the cleavage-packaging process. Moreover, the amplified a signals in small circular DNA molecules remained uncleaved, indicating that these molecules were not able to efficiently interact with the cleavage-packaging machinery. The cleavage-packaging machinery and the structural proteins required to assemble virions were, however, functional in HSV-1 LaL-infected Cre-expressing cells, since this system could be used to package plasmid DNA harboring an origin of virus replication and one normal a signal. This is the first study in which accumulation both of uncleaved replication intermediates and of B capsids has been obtained in the presence of the full set of proteins required to package virus DNA. PMID:10954540

  20. Overexpression in bacterial and identification in infected cells of the pseudorabies virus protein homologous to herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP18.5.

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, N E; Enquist, L W

    1991-01-01

    The ICP18.5 gene (UL28) of herpes simplex virus type 1 is a member of a well-conserved gene family among herpesviruses and is thought to play a role in localization of viral glycoproteins. We have cloned, sequenced, and expressed the entire pseudorabies virus (PRV) ICP18.5 open reading frame in Escherichia coli as a Cro-ICP18.5 fusion protein. Rabbit antiserum against Cro-ICP18.5 immunoprecipitated a 79-kDa protein from PRV-infected cells as well as a 79-kDa protein from in vitro translation of a T7 RNA polymerase transcript of the ICP18.5 gene. ICP18.5 could be detected in infected cells by 2 h postinfection. Analysis by indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that ICP18.5 became associated with the nucleus. Subcellular fractionation confirmed that ICP18.5 synthesized during a pulse-chase experiment appeared in the nuclear fraction with time and was stable for at least 2.5 h after synthesis. Pulse-chase analysis revealed that ICP18.5 was synthesized as a monomer during a 2-min pulse labeling but formed faster sedimenting complexes which were sensitive to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment. The majority of ICP18.5 appeared in complexes with an antigenically unrelated 70-kDa protein. Immunoblot analysis of total infected-cell extracts using polyvalent anti-ICP18.5 serum demonstrated that a 74-kDa cellular protein in addition to the 79-kDa ICP18.5 was detected. This cellular protein was present at similar levels in uninfected cells and in PRV-infected cells at least 12 h into the infectious cycle. Images PMID:1645790

  1. Transcriptional activation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL38 promoter conferred by the cis-acting downstream activation sequence is mediated by a cellular transcription factor.

    PubMed Central

    Guzowski, J F; Singh, J; Wagner, E K

    1994-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 strict late (gamma) UL38 promoter contains three cis-acting transcriptional elements: a TATA box, a specific initiator element, and the downstream activation sequence (DAS). DAS is located between positions +20 and +33 within the 5' untranslated leader region and strongly influences transcript levels during productive infection. In this communication, we further characterize DAS and investigate its mechanism of action. DAS function has a strict spacing requirement, and DAS contains an essential 6-bp core element. A similarly positioned element from the gamma gC gene (UL44) has partial DAS function within the UL38 promoter context, and the promoter controlling expression of the gamma US11 transcript contains an identically located element with functional and sequence similarity to UL38 DAS. These data suggest that downstream elements are a common feature of many HSV gamma promoters. Results with recombinant viruses containing modifications of the TATA box or initiator element of the UL38 promoter suggest that DAS functions to increase transcription initiation and not the efficiency of transcription elongation. In vitro transcription assays using uninfected HeLa nuclear extracts show that, as in productive infection with recombinant viruses, the deletion of DAS from the UL38 promoter dramatically decreases RNA expression. Finally, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and UV cross-linking experiments show that DAS DNA forms a specific, stable complex with a cellular protein (the DAS-binding factor) of approximately 35 kDa. These data strongly suggest that the interaction of cellular DAS-binding factor with DAS is required for efficient expression of UL38 and other HSV late genes. Images PMID:7966567

  2. APP processing induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) yields several APP fragments in human and rat neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    De Chiara, Giovanna; Marcocci, Maria Elena; Civitelli, Livia; Argnani, Rafaela; Piacentini, Roberto; Ripoli, Cristian; Manservigi, Roberto; Grassi, Claudio; Garaci, Enrico; Palamara, Anna Teresa

    2010-11-15

    Lifelong latent infections of the trigeminal ganglion by the neurotropic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are characterized by periodic reactivation. During these episodes, newly produced virions may also reach the central nervous system (CNS), causing productive but generally asymptomatic infections. Epidemiological and experimental findings suggest that HSV-1 might contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder is related to an overproduction of amyloid beta (Aβ) and other neurotoxic peptides, which occurs during amyloidogenic endoproteolytic processing of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP). The aim of our study was to identify the effects of productive HSV-1 infection on APP processing in neuronal cells. We found that infection of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and rat cortical neurons is followed by multiple cleavages of APP, which result in the intra- and/or extra-cellular accumulation of various neurotoxic species. These include: i) APP fragments (APP-Fs) of 35 and 45 kDa (APP-F35 and APP-F45) that comprise portions of Aβ; ii) N-terminal APP-Fs that are secreted; iii) intracellular C-terminal APP-Fs; and iv) Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42). Western blot analysis of infected-cell lysates treated with formic acid suggests that APP-F35 may be an Aβ oligomer. The multiple cleavages of APP that occur in infected cells are produced in part by known components of the amyloidogenic APP processing pathway, i.e., host-cell β-secretase, γ-secretase, and caspase-3-like enzymes. These findings demonstrate that HSV-1 infection of neuronal cells can generate multiple APP fragments with well-documented neurotoxic potentials. It is tempting to speculate that intra- and extracellular accumulation of these species in the CNS resulting from repeated HSV-1 reactivation could, in the presence of other risk factors, play a co-factorial role in the development of AD.

  3. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement.

  4. A Systematic Analysis of Host Factors Reveals a Med23-Interferon-λ Regulatory Axis against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Samantha J.; Koegl, Manfred; Boutell, Chris; Zenner, Helen L.; Crump, Colin M.; Pica, Francesca; Gonzalez, Orland; Friedel, Caroline C.; Barry, Gerald; Martin, Kim; Craigon, Marie H.; Chen, Rui; Kaza, Lakshmi N.; Fossum, Even; Fazakerley, John K.; Efstathiou, Stacey; Volpi, Antonio; Zimmer, Ralf; Ghazal, Peter; Haas, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus causing vesicular oral or genital skin lesions, meningitis and other diseases particularly harmful in immunocompromised individuals. To comprehensively investigate the complex interaction between HSV-1 and its host we combined two genome-scale screens for host factors (HFs) involved in virus replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen for protein interactions and a RNA interference (RNAi) screen with a druggable genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) library confirmed existing and identified novel HFs which functionally influence HSV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses found the 358 HFs were enriched for several pathways and multi-protein complexes. Of particular interest was the identification of Med23 as a strongly anti-viral component of the largely pro-viral Mediator complex, which links specific transcription factors to RNA polymerase II. The anti-viral effect of Med23 on HSV-1 replication was confirmed in gain-of-function gene overexpression experiments, and this inhibitory effect was specific to HSV-1, as a range of other viruses including Vaccinia virus and Semliki Forest virus were unaffected by Med23 depletion. We found Med23 significantly upregulated expression of the type III interferon family (IFN-λ) at the mRNA and protein level by directly interacting with the transcription factor IRF7. The synergistic effect of Med23 and IRF7 on IFN-λ induction suggests this is the major transcription factor for IFN-λ expression. Genotypic analysis of patients suffering recurrent orofacial HSV-1 outbreaks, previously shown to be deficient in IFN-λ secretion, found a significant correlation with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IFN-λ3 (IL28b) promoter strongly linked to Hepatitis C disease and treatment outcome. This paper describes a link between Med23 and IFN-λ, provides evidence for the crucial role of IFN-λ in HSV-1 immune control, and highlights the power of integrative genome-scale approaches to

  5. Local expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-2 correlates with protection against corneal scarring after ocular challenge of vaccinated mice with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasi, H; Wechsler, S L; Kaiwar, R; Nesburn, A B; Hofman, F M

    1995-01-01

    To correlate specific local immune responses with protection from corneal scarring, we examined immune cell infiltrates in the cornea after ocular challenge of vaccinated mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). This is the first report to examine corneal infiltrates following ocular challenge of a vaccinated mouse rather than following infection of a naive mouse. Mice were vaccinated systemically with vaccines that following ocular challenge with HSV-1 resulted in (i) complete protection against corneal disease (KOS, an avirulent strain of HSV-1); (ii) partial protection, resulting in moderate corneal disease (baculovirus-expressed HSV-1 glycoprotein E [gE]); and (iii) no protection, resulting in severe corneal disease (mock vaccine). Infiltration into the cornea of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and cells containing various lymphokines was monitored on days 0, 1, 3, 7, and 10 postchallenge by immunocytochemistry of corneal sections. Prior to ocular challenge, no eye disease or corneal infiltrates were detected in any mice. KOS-vaccinated mice developed high HSV-1 neutralizing antibody titers (> 1:640) in serum. After ocular challenge, they were completely protected against death, developed no corneal disease, and had no detectable virus in their tear films at any time examined. In response to the ocular challenge, these mice developed high local levels of infiltrating CD4+ T cells and cells containing interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In contrast, only low levels of infiltrating CD8+ T cells were found, and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-containing cells were not present until day 10. gE-vaccinated mice developed neutralizing antibody titers in serum almost as high as those of the KOS-vaccinated mice (> 1:320). After ocular challenge, they were also completely protected against death. However, the gE-vaccinated mice developed low levels of corneal disease and virus was detected in one-third of their eyes

  6. Molecular basis of the glycoprotein C-negative phenotypes of herpes simplex virus type 1 mutants selected with a virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Homa, F L; Purifoy, D J; Glorioso, J C; Levine, M

    1986-01-01

    Previously (Holland et al., J. Virol. 52:566-574, 1984; Kikuchi et al., J. Virol. 52:806-815, 1984) we described the isolation and partial characterization of over 100 herpes simplex virus type 1 mutants which were resistant to neutralization by a pool of glycoprotein C- (gC) specific monoclonal antibodies. The genetic basis for the inability of several of these gC- mutants to express an immunoreactive envelope form of gC is reported here. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of the gC gene of the six mutants gC-3, gC-8, gC-49, gC-53, gC-85, and synLD70, which secrete truncated gC polypeptides, with that of the wild-type KOS 321 gC gene revealed that these mutant phenotypes were caused by frameshift or nonsense mutations, resulting in premature termination of gC translation. Secretion of the gC polypeptide from cells infected with these mutants was due to the lack of a functional transmembrane anchor sequence. The six secretor mutants were tested for suppression of amber mutations in mixed infection with a simian virus 40 amber suppressor vector. Mutant gC-85 was suppressed and produced a wild-type-sized membrane-bound gC. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the six gC deletion mutants gC-5, gC-13, gC-21, gC-39, gC-46, and gC-98 revealed that they carried identical deletions which removed 1,702 base pairs of the gC gene. The deletion, which was internal to the gC gene, removed the entire gC coding sequence and accounted for the novel 1.1-kilobase mRNA previously seen in infections with these mutants. The mutant gC-44 was previously shown to produce a membrane-bound gC protein indistinguishable in molecular weight from wild-type gC. This mutant differed from wild-type virus in that it had reduced reactivity with virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the gC gene of mutant gC-44 demonstrated a point mutation which changed amino acid 329 of gC from a serine to a phenylalanine. Images PMID:3009845

  7. Herpes simplex virus type 1 VP26 is not essential for replication in cell culture but influences production of infectious virus in the nervous system of infected mice.

    PubMed

    Desai, P; DeLuca, N A; Person, S

    1998-07-20

    VP26 is the smallest capsid protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 and is encoded by the UL35 open reading frame. It resides on the outer capsid surface, interacting with VP5 in a one to one stoichiometry in the hexons that comprise capsids. A null mutation in the gene encoding VP26 was generated and transferred into the KOS genome. Recombinant viruses were isolated on Vero cells, which indicated that the absence of VP26 was not required for growth of the virus in cell culture. This was confirmed by the characterization of the VP26 null mutant, designated K delta 26Z. The yield of virus from K delta 26Z-infected Vero cells was decreased only twofold relative to wild-type-infected cells, as judged by the burst size. All three types of capsids (A, B, and C) were observed after sedimentation analysis of K delta 26Z-infected cell extracts. These capsids were similar in composition to wild-type capsids except for the absence of VP26. The mouse ocular model was used to determine if VP26 played a major role in vivo. The yield of the mutant virus relative to wild-type virus was decreased twofold in the eye; however, the mutant virus yields were decreased 30- to 100-fold in the trigeminal ganglia. Reactivation of the mutant virus as determined by cocultivation assays was also reduced. To determine the effect of VP26 on capsid translocation, the VP26 null mutation was transferred into a virus specifiying a thymidine kinase mutation that by itself is transported to the trigeminal ganglia but whose DNA is not replicated in the ganglia. Using quantitative PCR assays the number of viral genomes detected in the ganglia was similar in the presence or the absence of VP26. Therefore, VP26 does not appear to aid in the translocation of the virus capsid from the mouse eye to the trigeminal ganglia but is important for infectious virus production in the ganglia.

  8. Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 replication and packaging is entirely supported by a herpes simplex virus type 1 amplicon expressing Rep and Cap.

    PubMed Central

    Conway, J E; Zolotukhin, S; Muzyczka, N; Hayward, G S; Byrne, B J

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 2 (rAAV) vectors have recently been shown to have great utility as gene transfer agents both in vitro and in vivo. One of the problems associated with the use of rAAV vectors has been the difficulty of large-scale vector production. Low-efficiency plasmid transfection of the rAAV vector and complementing AAV type 2 (AAV-2) functions (rep and cap) followed by superinfection with adenovirus has been the standard approach to rAAV production. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the ability of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicon expressing AAV-2 Rep and Cap to support replication and packaging of rAAV vectors. HSV-1 amplicon vectors were constructed which contain the AAV-2 rep and cap genes under control of their native promoters (p5, p19, and p40). An HSV-1 amplicon vector, HSV-RC/KOS or HSV-RC/d27, was generated by supplying helper functions with either wild-type HSV-1 (KOS strain) or the ICP27-deleted mutant of HSV-1, d27-1, respectively. Replication of the amplicon stocks is not inhibited by the presence of AAV-2 Rep proteins, which highlights important differences between HSV-1 and adenovirus replication and the mechanism of providing helper function for productive AAV infection. Coinfection of rAAV and HSV-RC/KOS resulted in the replication and amplification of rAAV genomes. Similarly, rescue and replication of rAAV genomes occurred when rAAV vector plasmids were transfected into cells followed by HSV-RC/KOS infection and when two rAAV proviral cell lines were infected with HSV-RC/KOS or HSV-RC/d27. Production of infectious rAAV by rescue from two rAAV proviral cell lines has also been achieved with HSV-RC/KOS and HSV-RC/d27. The particle titer of rAAV produced with HSV-RC/d27 is equal to that achieved by supplying rep and cap by transfection followed by adenovirus superinfection. Importantly, no detectable wild-type AAV-2 is generated with this approach. These results demonstrate

  9. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing.

  10. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing. PMID:26160820

  11. Characterization of herpes simplex virus type 1 L-particle assembly and egress in hippocampal neurones by electron cryo-tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ibiricu, Iosune; Maurer, Ulrike E; Grünewald, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Visualizing virus–host interactions in situ inside infected cells by electron cryo-tomography provides unperturbed snapshots of the infection process. Here we focus on the assembly and egress pathway of herpesviruses. Cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1 produce and release not only infective virions but also non-infectious light particles (L-particles). L-particles are devoid of viral capsids and genomes. In this study, we analysed L-particle assembly and egress pathways in cultured dissociated hippocampus neurones by electron cryo-tomography. Virion and L-particle formation occurred in close proximity, suggesting shared assembly and exit pathways. Clathrin-like coats were occasionally associated with L-particle and virion assembly sites. Further, we compared the three-dimensional ultrastructure of intracellular and extracellular L-particles and quantified their diameters and the abundance of inclusion bodies contained. PMID:23253400

  12. Synergistic activity of amenamevir (ASP2151) with nucleoside analogs against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Chono, Koji; Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2013-02-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase complex inhibitor with antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus HSV-1, HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). To assess combination therapy of ASP2151 with existing antiherpes agents against HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV, we conducted in vitro and in vivo studies of two-drug combinations. The combination activity effect of ASP2151 with nucleoside analogs acyclovir (ACV), penciclovir (PCV), or vidarabine (VDB) was tested via plaque-reduction assay and MTS assay, and the data were analyzed using isobolograms and response surface modeling. In vivo combination therapy of ASP2151 with valaciclovir (VACV) was studied in an HSV-1-infected zosteriform spread mouse model. The antiviral activity of ASP2151 combined with ACV and PCV against ACV-susceptible HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV showed a statistically significant synergistic effect (P<0.05). ASP2151 with VDB was observed to have additive effects against ACV-susceptible HSV-2 and synergistic effects against VZV. In the mouse model of zosteriform spread, the inhibition of disease progression via combination therapy was more potent than that of either drugs as monotherapy (P<0.05). These results indicate that the combination therapies of ASP2151 with ACV and PCV have synergistic antiherpes effects against HSV and VZV infections and may be feasible in case of severe disease, such as herpes encephalitis or in patients with immunosuppression.

  13. Complex of the herpes simplex virus type 1 origin binding protein UL9 with DNA as a platform for the design of a new type of antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Bazhulina, N P; Surovaya, A N; Gursky, Y G; Andronova, V L; Moiseeva, E D; Nikitin, Capital A Cyrillic M; Golovkin, M V; Galegov, G А; Grokhovsky, S L; Gursky, G V

    2014-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 origin-binding protein, OBP, is a DNA helicase encoded by the UL9 gene. The protein binds in a sequence-specific manner to the viral origins of replication, two OriS sites and one OriL site. In order to search for efficient inhibitors of the OBP activity, we have obtained a recombinant origin-binding protein expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The UL9 gene has been amplified by PCR and inserted into a modified plasmid pET14 between NdeI and KpnI sites. The recombinant protein binds to Box I and Box II sequences and possesses helicase and ATPase activities. In the presence of ATP and viral protein ICP8 (single-strand DNA-binding protein), the initiator protein induces unwinding of the minimal OriS duplex (≈80 bp). The protein also binds to a single-stranded DNA (OriS*) containing a stable Box I-Box III hairpin and an unstable AT-rich hairpin at the 3'-end. In the present work, new minor groove binding ligands have been synthesized which are capable to inhibit the development of virus-induced cytopathic effect in cultured Vero cells. Studies on binding of these compounds to DNA and synthetic oligonucleotides have been performed by fluorescence methods, gel mobility shift analysis and footprinting assays. Footprinting studies have revealed that Pt-bis-netropsin and related molecules exhibit preferences for binding to the AT-spacer in OriS. The drugs stabilize structure of the AT-rich region and inhibit the fluctuation opening of AT-base pairs which is a prerequisite to unwinding of DNA by OBP. Kinetics of ATP-dependent unwinding of OriS in the presence and absence of netropsin derivatives have been studied by measuring the efficiency of Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorophores attached to 5'- and 3'- ends of an oligonucleotide in the minimal OriS duplex. The results are consistent with the suggestion that OBP is the DNA Holiday junction (HJ) binding helicase. The protein induces conformation changes (bending

  14. Herpes simplex virus infection during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa; Gardella, Carolyn

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes in pregnancy continues to cause significant maternal morbidity, with an increasing number of infections being due to oral-labial transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1. Near delivery, primary infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2 carry the highest risk of neonatal herpes infection, which is a rare but potentially devastating disease for otherwise healthy newborns. Prevention efforts have been limited by lack of an effective intervention for preventing primary infections and the unclear role of routine serologic testing.

  15. Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kukhanova, M K; Korovina, A N; Kochetkov, S N

    2014-12-01

    WHO reports that 90% of human population is infected by different types of herpesviruses, which develop latency or cause oral and genital herpes, conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, and other diseases. Herpesvirus almost always accompanies HIV-infection and complicates AIDS treatment. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most wide spread viruses from the Herpesviridae family. HSV virion, genome structure, replication mechanisms, antiherpes drug development strategies, including design of prodrugs, and mutations causing ACV-resistance in clinical HSV isolates are discussed in this review. PMID:25749169

  16. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection.

  17. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  18. Anti-glycoprotein D monoclonal antibody protects against herpes simplex virus type 1-induced diseases in mice functionally depleted of selected T-cell subsets or asialo GM1+ cells.

    PubMed Central

    Staats, H F; Oakes, J E; Lausch, R N

    1991-01-01

    Passive transfer of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for glycoprotein D (gD) is highly effective in preventing the development of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced stromal keratitis. In the present study, we investigated whether animals which had been functionally depleted of T-cell subsets or asialo GM1+ cells would continue to be responsive to MAb therapy. BALB/c mice were depleted of CD4+, CD8+, or asialo GM1+ cells by treatment with anti-L3T4, anti-Lyt 2.2, or anti-asialo GM1 antibodies, respectively. Functional depletion of CD4+ cells was documented by the loss of delayed-type hypersensitivity responsiveness, while CD8+ cell depletion was accompanied by abrogation of cytotoxic lymphocyte activity. Anti-asialo GM1 treatment led to the loss of natural killer cell lytic activity. Mice depleted of the desired cell population and infected on the scarified cornea with herpes simplex virus type 1 uniformly developed necrotizing stromal keratitis by 3 weeks postinfection. A single inoculation of anti-gD MAb (55 micrograms) given intraperitoneally 24 h postinfection strongly protected hosts depleted of CD4+ cells against stromal keratitis. Likewise, antibody treatment in CD8+ or asialo GM1+ cell-depleted hosts was as therapeutically effective as that seen in non-cell-depleted mice. We also observed that in cell-depleted mice, the virus spread into the central nervous system and caused encephalitis. The CD4+ cell-depleted mice were the most severely affected, as 100% developed fatal disease. Anti-gD MAb treatment successfully protected all (32 of 32) CD4+-, CD8+-, or asialo GM1(+)-depleted hosts against encephalitis. We therefore conclude that antibody-mediated prevention of stromal keratitis and encephalitis does not require the obligatory participation of CD4+, CD8+, or asialo GM1+ cells. However, when mice were simultaneously depleted of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets, antibody treatment could not prevent fatal encephalitis. Thus, antibody can compensate for

  19. Preventing herpes simplex virus in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide. Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected genitally with HSV, and most of them are unaware of this. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is HSV disease in the newborn. Although neonatal HSV infections remain uncommon, due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, HSV infection in the newborn is often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. This review summarizes the epidemiology and management of neonatal HSV infections and discusses strategies to prevent HSV infection in the newborn.

  20. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Two Fatal Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hader, W.; Bayatpour, M.; Dempster, G.; Rozdilsky, B.

    1967-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of the first two reported cases of herpes simplex encephalitis occurring in Saskatchewan are presented. The clinical history of an acute onset, an early organic mental syndrome followed by coma, neurologic disturbances, rapid progression and death suggests the diagnosis. The acute, diffuse, inflammatory process with predominant involvement of the temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres and the presence of intranuclear inclusions in nerve and glial cells are illustrated. The viral particles were found in electron micrographs from the brain tissue of both patients. The definitive diagnosis was established by the isolation, from postmortem brain tissue, of the herpes simplex virus, which was grown in tissue culture and shown to be pathogenic in suckling mice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 7Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4290725

  1. Detection of Vero Cells Infected with Herpes Simplex Types 1 and 2 and Varicella Zoster Viruses Using Raman Spectroscopy and Advanced Statistical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Huleihel, Mahmoud; Shufan, Elad; Zeiri, Leila; Salman, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Of the eight members of the herpes family of viruses, HSV1, HSV2, and varicella zoster are the most common and are mainly involved in cutaneous disorders. These viruses usually are not life-threatening, but in some cases they might cause serious infections to the eyes and the brain that can lead to blindness and possibly death. An effective drug (acyclovir and its derivatives) is available against these viruses. Therefore, early detection and identification of these viral infections is highly important for an effective treatment. Raman spectroscopy, which has been widely used in the past years in medicine and biology, was used as a powerful spectroscopic tool for the detection and identification of these viral infections in cell culture, due to its sensitivity, rapidity and reliability. Our results showed that it was possible to differentiate, with a 97% identification success rate, the uninfected Vero cells that served as a control, from the Vero cells that were infected with HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV. For that, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was performed on the Raman spectra after principal component analysis (PCA) with a leave one out (LOO) approach. Raman spectroscopy in tandem with PCA and LDA enable to differentiate among the different herpes viral infections of Vero cells in time span of few minutes with high accuracy rate. Understanding cell molecular changes due to herpes viral infections using Raman spectroscopy may help in early detection and effective treatment. PMID:27078266

  2. Valacyclovir for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pouplin, Thomas; Pouplin, Julie Nguyen; Van Toi, Pham; Lindegardh, Niklas; Rogier van Doorn, H.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Török, M. Estée; Chau, Tran Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    The recommended treatment for herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains intravenous acyclovir. In resource-poor countries, however, intravenous formulations are usually unavailable or unaffordable. We report the penetration of acyclovir into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with HSE, treated with the oral prodrug valacyclovir at 1,000 mg three times daily. The oral therapy achieved adequate acyclovir concentrations in the CSF and may be an acceptable early treatment for suspected HSE in resource-limited settings. PMID:21576427

  3. [Diagnostic pitfall: herpes simplex recidivans on the finger].

    PubMed

    Weisenseel, Peter; Sander, Erika; Prinz, Jörg

    2003-11-01

    Herpes simplex recidivans is one of the most common dermatological infections. In typical (perioral, labial or genital) localization, the diagnosis is simple and often made by the patient. In atypical locations, the disease may be misdiagnosed by the physician. A 28-year-old patient presented with recurrent herpes simplex virus exacerbations on his left index finger, accompanied by neuralgic pains and lymphadenitis. He had been misdiagnosed by a variety of specialists for several years and had often been unable to work. The diagnosis of recurrent herpes simplex was made by the patient's history and the clinical symptoms and was confirmed by the detection of Herpes simplex virus-specific DNA by PCR.

  4. Isolation of the major herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-specific glycoprotein by hydroxylapatite chromatography and its use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for titration of human HSV-1-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, B F; Grauballe, P C

    1979-12-01

    A 131,000 molecular weight herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein designated antigen number 6 (Ag-6) was previously shown to possess almost exclusively HSV-1-specific antigenic sites. Fused rocket and crossed immunoelectrophoresis of fractions obtained from hydroxylapatite chromatography of crude HSV-1 antigen (Triton X-100-solubilized, infected tissue culture cells) showed that a subfraction of Ag-6 could be separated from the other HSV antigens. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the isolated Ag-6 showed that sera from rabbits infected with HSV-1 and HSV-1 human antisera contained antibodies to Ag-6, whereas sera from HSV-2-infected rabbits and sera from patients with primary HSV-2 infections did not react with Ag-6. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of 852 human sera for antibodies to HSV type-common glycoproteins, Ag-6, and HSV 2-specific antigens showed that 139 sera which reacted negatively with HSV type-common glycoproteins also did not react with Ag-6 with HSV-2 specific antigens. The 713 sera reacting positively to HSV type-common antigens either reacted with Ag-6 (328 sera) or with HSV-2-specific antigens (31 sera) or both (354 sera). This means that Ag-6 might be useful in large-scale human serology for the detection of past infection with HSV-1, irrespective of whether or not past infection with HSV-2 has occurred.

  5. Inhibition of herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 infections by Oximacro(®), a cranberry extract with a high content of A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs-A).

    PubMed

    Terlizzi, Maria Elena; Occhipinti, Andrea; Luganini, Anna; Maffei, Massimo E; Gribaudo, Giorgio

    2016-08-01

    In the absence of efficient preventive vaccines, topical microbicides offer an attractive alternative in the prevention of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infections. Because of their recognized anti-adhesive activity against bacterial pathogens, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) extracts may represent a natural source of new antiviral microbicides. However, few studies have addressed the applications of cranberry extract as a direct-acting antiviral agent. Here, we report on the ability of the novel cranberry extract Oximacro(®) and its purified A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs-A), to inhibit HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication in vitro. Analysis of the mode of action revealed that Oximacro(®) prevents adsorption of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to target cells. Further mechanistic studies confirmed that Oximacro(®) and its PACs-A target the viral envelope glycoproteins gD and gB, thus resulting in the loss of infectivity of HSV particles. Moreover, Oximacro(®) completely retained its anti-HSV activity even at acidic pHs (3.0 and 4.0) and in the presence of 10% human serum proteins; conditions that mimic the physiological properties of the vagina - a potential therapeutic location for Oximacro(®). Taken together, these findings indicate Oximacro(®) as an attractive candidate for the development of novel microbicides of natural origin for the prevention of HSV infections. PMID:27321663

  6. Gamma Interferon (IFN-γ) Receptor Null-Mutant Mice Are More Susceptible to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection than IFN-γ Ligand Null-Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, Edouard; Tanamachi, Becky; Openshaw, Harry; Mann, Jeff; Clarke, Ken

    1999-01-01

    Mouse strains with null mutations in the gamma interferon gene (Ifng) or the gamma interferon receptor gene (Ifngr) have been engineered. The use of these strains as animal models of viral and bacterial infections has enhanced our understanding of the role of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in the host immune response. However, direct comparisons between Ifng−/− (GKO) and Ifngr−/− (RGKO) mice have been problematic because previously available strains of these mice have had different genetic backgrounds (i.e., C57BL/6 and BALB/c for GKO mice and 129/Sv//Ev for RGKO mice). To enable direct comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections in GKO and RGKO mice, we introduced the IFN-γ null mutation into the 129/Sv//Ev background. We report that, after HSV-1 inoculation, mortality was significantly greater in RGKO mice than in GKO mice (38 versus 23%, P = 0.0001). Similarly, the mortality from vaccinia virus challenge was significantly greater in RGKO mice than in GKO mice. With differences in genetic background excluded as a confounding issue, these results are consistent with the existence of an alternative ligand(s) for the IFN-γ receptor that is also capable of mediating protection against viral challenge. PMID:10233988

  7. Bone marrow transplantation in a child with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome latently infected with acyclovir-resistant (ACV(r)) herpes simplex virus type 1: emergence of foscarnet-resistant virus originating from the ACV(r) virus.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Masayuki; Yasuda, Yukiharu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kato, Shunichi; Suzutani, Tatsuo; De Clercq, Erik; Niikura, Masahiro; Maeda, Akihiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2002-09-01

    A human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed in a 13-year-old patient with the congenital immunodeficiency syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The patient had a history of acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections prior to BMT. After BMT, the skin lesions caused by HSV-1 relapsed on the face and genito-anal areas. Ganciclovir (GCV) therapy was initiated, but the mucocutaneous lesions worsened. An HSV-1 isolate recovered from the lesions during this episode was resistant to both ACV and GCV. The ACV(r) isolate was confirmed to have the same mutation in the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene as that of the previously isolated ACV(r) isolates from the patient. After treatment switch to foscarnet (PFA), there was a satisfactory remission but not a complete recovery. Although the mucocutaneous lesions improved, a PFA-resistant (PFA(r)) HSV-1 was isolated 1 month after the start of PFA therapy. The PFA(r) HSV-1 isolate coded for the same mutation in the viral TK gene as the ACV(r) HSV-1 isolates. Furthermore, the PFA(r) isolate also expressed a mutated viral DNA polymerase (DNA pol) with an amino acid (Gly) substitution for Val at position 715. This is the first report on the clinical course of a BMT-associated ACV(r) HSV-1 infection that subsequently developed resistance to foscarnet as well.

  8. Long-term observation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in a child with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and a possible reactivation mechanism for thymidine kinase-negative HSV-1 in humans.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections in a child with congenital immunodeficiency syndrome were observed over a 10-year period. The child suffered from recurrent and severe HSV-1 mucocutaneous infections. He frequently suffered from acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) HSV-1 infection in the later phase of his life, especially after the episode of ACV(r) HSV-1 infection. Virological analyses on the HSV-1 isolates recovered from this patient revealed that all the ACV(r) HSV-1 isolates were thymidine kinase (TK)-negative (TK(-)) due to a single cytosine (C) deletion within the 4-C residues (positions 1061 to 1064) in the TK gene, indicating that the recurrent TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 infections throughout the patient's life were due to the identical ACV(r) HSV-1 strain. Furthermore, it was found that the ACV-sensitive (ACV(s)) isolate recovered from the skin lesions that appeared between the episodes of ACV(r) infection at the ages of 8 and 9 contained ACV(r) HSV-1 with the same mutation in the TK gene. These results indicate that, although TK activity is required for reactivation of TK(+)/ACV(s) HSV-1 from latency and TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 is unable to reactivate from latency, the TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 strain isolated herein reactivated in this patient, possibly by using the TK activity induced by the latently co-infected TK(+)/ACV(s) HSV-1.

  9. Recent progress in herpes simplex virus immunobiology and vaccine research.

    PubMed

    Koelle, David M; Corey, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) cause prevalent, chronic infections that have serious outcomes in some individuals. Neonatal herpes may occur when the infant traverses the cervix during maternal genital herpes. Genital herpes is a major risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. Considerable efforts have been made to design and test vaccines for HSV, focusing on genital infection with HSV-2. Several protein subunit vaccines based on HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins have reached advanced-phase clinical trials. These antigens were chosen because they are the targets of neutralizing-antibody responses and because they elicit cellular immunity. Encouraging results have been reported in studies of treatment of HSV-seronegative women with a vaccine consisting of truncated glycoprotein D of HSV-2 and a novel adjuvant. Because most sexual HSV transmission occurs during asymptomatic shedding, it is important to evaluate the impact of vaccination on HSV-2 infection, clinically apparent genital herpes, and HSV shedding among vaccine recipients who acquire infection. There are several other attractive formats, including subunit vaccines that target cellular immune responses, live attenuated virus strains, and mutant strains that undergo incomplete lytic replication. HSV vaccines have also been evaluated for the immunotherapy of established HSV infection. PMID:12525427

  10. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed.

  11. Zebrafish: modeling for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Thessicar Evadney; Jones, Kevin S; Dale, Rodney M; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2014-02-01

    For many years, zebrafish have been the prototypical model for studies in developmental biology. In recent years, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study infectious diseases, including viral infections. Experiments conducted with herpes simplex virus type-1 in adult zebrafish or in embryo models are encouraging as they establish proof of concept with viral-host tropism and possible screening of antiviral compounds. In addition, the presence of human homologs of viral entry receptors in zebrafish such as 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate, nectins, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14-like receptor bring strong rationale for virologists to test their in vivo significance in viral entry in a zebrafish model and compare the structure-function basis of virus zebrafish receptor interaction for viral entry. On the other end, a zebrafish model is already being used for studying inflammation and angiogenesis, with or without genetic manipulations, and therefore can be exploited to study viral infection-associated pathologies. The major advantage with zebrafish is low cost, easy breeding and maintenance, rapid lifecycle, and a transparent nature, which allows visualizing dissemination of fluorescently labeled virus infection in real time either at a localized region or the whole body. Further, the availability of multiple transgenic lines that express fluorescently tagged immune cells for in vivo imaging of virus infected animals is extremely attractive. In addition, a fully developed immune system and potential for receptor-specific knockouts further advocate the use of zebrafish as a new tool to study viral infections. In this review, we focus on expanding the potential of zebrafish model system in understanding human infectious diseases and future benefits.

  12. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed. Images PMID:2828686

  13. Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

    2014-12-01

    No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines.

  14. Herpes simplex virus type 1 VP22-mediated intercellular delivery of PTEN increases the antitumor activity of PTEN in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xian; Li, Tingting; Xia, Yifan; Lei, Jun; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lijuan

    2016-05-01

    In the past decade, studies have revealed that the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein, a tumor suppressor, comprises a potential biological marker and therapeutic target for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). As such, the delivery of the PTEN gene represents a powerful strategy for ESCC therapy. The tegument protein VP22 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been reported to act as a transporter of heterologous proteins across the host cell membrane, thereby enhancing the biological functions of these proteins. In the present study, the intercellular delivery and antitumor activity of the fusion protein PTEN-VP22 were examined in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line Eca109 both in vitro and in vivo. VP22-mediated PTEN intercellular delivery was confirmed in the Eca109 cells by western blot analysis and by quantitation of immunofluorescence. VP22 alone did not exert antiproliferative effects or induce cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, blockage of the Akt and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathways, tumor growth inhibition, or antiangiogenic effects in Eca109 cells. However, compared with PTEN alone, PTEN-VP22 exerted significantly higher antiproliferative effects and induced cell cycle arrest at G1 stage, apoptosis and antiangiogenic effects in Eca109 cells. Together, our findings demonstrate that VP22 alone does not exert antitumor activity directly; however, this protein mediates the intercellular delivery of PTEN and thereby increases its intracellular concentration to achieve a therapeutic steady state, leading to an overall increase in the antitumor activity of PTEN. This study provides further experimental data to confirm the potential of VP22-based intercellular delivery strategies for enhancing the efficacy of gene therapy for cancer treatment.

  15. Immunization with a replication-deficient mutant of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induces a CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response and confers a level of protection comparable to that of wild-type HSV-1.

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, M A; Bonneau, R H; Knipe, D M; Tevethia, S S

    1997-01-01

    Replication-deficient viruses provide an attractive alternative to conventional approaches used in the induction of antiviral immunity. We have quantitatively evaluated both the primary and memory cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses elicited by immunization with a replication-deficient mutant of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). In addition, we have examined the potential role of these CTL in protection against HSV infection. Using bulk culture analysis and limiting-dilution analysis, we have shown that a replication-deficient virus, d301, generates a strong primary CTL response that is comparable to the response induced by the wild type-strain, KOS1.1. Furthermore, the CTL induced by d301 immunization recognized the immunodominant, H-2Kb-restricted, CTL recognition epitope gB498-505 to a level similar to that for CTL from KOS1.1-immunized mice. The memory CTL response evoked by d301 was strong and persistent, even though the frequencies of CTL were slightly lower than the frequencies of CTL induced by KOS1.1. Adoptive transfer studies indicated that both the CD8+ and the CD4+ T-cell responses generated by immunization with d301 and KOS1.1 were able to limit the extent of a cutaneous HSV infection to comparable levels. Overall, these results indicate that viral replication is not necessary to elicit a potent and durable HSV-specific immune response and suggest that replication-deficient viruses may be effective in eliciting protection against viral pathogens. PMID:9094625

  16. Stepwise identification of HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitope peptides from herpes simplex virus type 1 genome boosted by a StepRank scheme.

    PubMed

    Bi, Jianjun; Song, Rengang; Yang, Huilan; Li, Bingling; Fan, Jianyong; Liu, Zhongrong; Long, Chaoqin

    2011-01-01

    Identification of immunodominant epitopes is the first step in the rational design of peptide vaccines aimed at T-cell immunity. To date, however, it is yet a great challenge for accurately predicting the potent epitope peptides from a pool of large-scale candidates with an efficient manner. In this study, a method that we named StepRank has been developed for the reliable and rapid prediction of binding capabilities/affinities between proteins and genome-wide peptides. In this procedure, instead of single strategy used in most traditional epitope identification algorithms, four steps with different purposes and thus different computational demands are employed in turn to screen the large-scale peptide candidates that are normally generated from, for example, pathogenic genome. The steps 1 and 2 aim at qualitative exclusion of typical nonbinders by using empirical rule and linear statistical approach, while the steps 3 and 4 focus on quantitative examination and prediction of the interaction energy profile and binding affinity of peptide to target protein via quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and structure-based free energy analysis. We exemplify this method through its application to binding predictions of the peptide segments derived from the 76 known open-reading frames (ORFs) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome with or without affinity to human major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecule HLA-A*0201, and find that the predictive results are well compatible with the classical anchor residue theory and perfectly match for the extended motif pattern of MHC I-binding peptides. The putative epitopes are further confirmed by comparisons with 11 experimentally measured HLA-A*0201-restrcited peptides from the HSV-1 glycoproteins D and K. We expect that this well-designed scheme can be applied in the computational screening of other viral genomes as well. PMID:21072852

  17. Tracking the Spread of a lacZ-Tagged Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 between the Eye and the Nervous System of the Mouse: Comparison of Primary and Recurrent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shimeld, Carolyn; Efstathiou, Stacey; Hill, Terry

    2001-01-01

    The spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) during primary ocular infection and after reactivation of latent infection in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) was examined in the mouse using a genetically modified virus containing the lacZ reporter gene under the control of the immediate-early 110 promoter. Whole tissue mounts of the eye and lids, their sensory nerves, and TG with the attached dorsal root entry zone (DRE) into the central nervous system (CNS) were stained for β-galactosidase. Sixteen hours after inoculation of the cornea by scarification, staining was found in the scarified epithelium of the cornea and in the unscarified conjunctiva. By 24 h, staining was also seen in a few TG neurons and by 96 h their number had greatly increased and their distribution was more widespread. Stained cells (identified as Schwann cells by their staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] or S-100) in the TG were first seen close to stained neurons at 40 h, and by 48 h lines of such cells extended partway toward the periphery and toward the DRE. By 72 h, these lines had reached the periphery and the DRE where the adjacent CNS was also stained. In the cornea, stained cells with the morphology and arrangement of Schwann cells were seen from 40 to 120 h. After reactivation of latent infection, 10 of 22 samples had positively stained neurons. In eight samples, corneal and lid epithelial cells were stained. No stained Schwann cells were seen in the TG; however, branched networks of such cells were present in the cornea and the lids. This detailed sequential analysis has provided new information on the involvement of Schwann cells in the pathogenesis of primary and recurrent HSV-1 disease in the TG and the cornea. PMID:11333907

  18. Addition of a C-Terminal Cysteine Improves the Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Activity of a Peptide Containing the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 TAT Protein Transduction Domain▿

    PubMed Central

    Bultmann, Hermann; Teuton, Jeremy; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that peptides containing the protein transduction domain (PTD) of the human immunodeficiency virus tat protein (GRKKRRQRRR) were effective inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry (H. Bultmann and C. R. Brandt, J. Biol. Chem. 277:36018-36023, 2002). We now show that the addition of a single cysteine residue to the C terminus of the TAT PTD (TAT-C peptide) improves the antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2. The principle effect of adding the cysteine was to enable the peptide to inactivate virions and to induce a state of resistance to infection in cells pretreated with peptide. The TAT-C peptide acted extracellularly, immediately blocked entry of adsorbed virus, prevented VP16 translocation to the nucleus, and blocked syncytium formation and cell-cell spread. Thus, TAT-C peptides are fusion inhibitors. The induction of the resistance of cells to infection was rapid, recovered with a half-life of 5 to 6 h, and could be reinduced by peptide treatment. TAT-C bound to heparan sulfate but was a poor competitor for viral attachment. The antiviral activity depended on the net positive charge of the peptide but not on chirality, and a free sulfhydryl group was not essential for antiviral activity because TAT-C dimers were at least as effective as monomers. The unique combination of antiviral activities and low toxicity combine to make TAT-C a strong candidate for further development as a drug to block HSV infection. PMID:17261627

  19. Chronic active destructive herpes simplex encephalitis with recovery of viral DNA 12 years after disease onset.

    PubMed

    Asenbauer, B; McEntagart, M; King, M D; Gallagher, P; Burke, M; Farrell, M A

    1998-06-01

    Acute herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) carries significant morbidity and mortality even after early treatment with antiviral agents (7). As well as causing acute neurological disease, Herpes viruses are associated with relapsing--remitting (Varicella--Zoster, Epstein-Barr) and chronic (Rasmussen encephalitis) disease processes (1). A two-year-old girl developed acute HSE which was followed by a 10-year neurologic illness characterised by asymmetric spastic tetraparesis, pseudobulbar palsy, the opercular syndrome of Foix-Chavany-Marie (4) and seizures. The neurological signs remained static until the child died suddenly 12 years after disease onset. Neuropathologic examination demonstrated active chronic encephalitis. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA was recovered from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brain tissue. This case provides additional evidence for the development of chronic neurological disease attributable to persistence of herpes simplex virus type 1. PMID:9706620

  20. [Genetic susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, F

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but severe complication of frequent and mostly benign infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although rapid and sensitive diagnosis tools and active antiviral drugs are available, HSE morbidity/mortality levels remain unsatisfactory. Molecular and cellular determinants of HSE are incompletely understood. The rarity and severity of the disease have suggested an increased susceptibility of some subjects to HSV infection. Numerous experimental studies have investigated the respective role of host and viral factors in HSE. The results of these studies have illustrated the major role of the innate immune response, in particular interferons (IFNs), in limiting access of the virus into and/or virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS). In a few children with HSE, specific defects of the immune innate response have been identified, which impair the IFN-α/β and IFN-λ production of fibroblasts and/or neurons infected with HSV and render these cells more permissive to infection. The mutations affect proteins involved in the IFN pathway induced by stimulation of the TLR3 receptor. The patients' susceptibility to infection is restricted to HSV CNS invasion, underlining the major role of TLR3 in CNS protection against viral infection. The incomplete clinical penetrance of these molecular defects suggests that other factors (age, infectious dose) are involved in HSE. Whether pathogenesis of adult HSE is similar has not been investigated.

  1. Selective language aphasia from herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ku, A; Lachmann, E A; Nagler, W

    1996-09-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old right-handed Chinese/English bilingual patient who developed herpes simplex encephalitis involving the left temporal lobe, with resultant aphasia. His native language was Mandarin, but he had received extensive training in English for 6 years after moving to the United States and was fluent in English. One week after admission, he could not speak, comprehend, repeat, name, read, or write in English, but he had relative preservation of most of these facilities in Mandarin. He could not write in Mandarin, and his syntax was simplified. Two months later, along with intensive bilingual speech therapy, his reading, writing, and naming in English had almost recovered.

  2. The C-terminal repressor region of herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP27 is required for the redistribution of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles and splicing factor SC35; however, these alterations are not sufficient to inhibit host cell splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Sandri-Goldin, R M; Hibbard, M K; Hardwicke, M A

    1995-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection results in a reorganization of antigens associated with the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs), resulting in the formation of prominent clusters near the nuclear periphery. In this study, we show that the immediate-early protein ICP27, which is involved in the impairment of host cell splicing and in the changes in the distribution of snRNPs, is also required for reassorting the SR domain splicing factor SC35. Other viral processes, such as adsorption and penetration, shutoff of host protein synthesis, early and late gene expression, and DNA replication, do not appear to play a role in changing the staining pattern of splicing antigens. Furthermore, the C-terminal repressor region of ICP27, which is required for the inhibitory effects on splicing, also is involved in redistributing the snRNPs and SC35. During infection or transfection with five different repressor mutants, the speckled staining pattern characteristic of uninfected cells was seen and the level of a spliced target mRNA was not reduced. Infections in the presence of activator mutants showed a redistributed snRNP pattern and a decreased accumulation of spliced target mRNA. Moreover, two arginine-rich regions in the N-terminal half of ICP27 were not required for the redistribution of snRNPs or SC35. Substitution of these regions with a lysine-rich sequence from simian virus 40 large-T antigen resulted in a redistribution of splicing antigens. Unexpectedly, a repressor mutant with a ts phenotype showed a redistributed staining pattern like that seen with wild-type infected cells. During infections with this ts mutant, splicing was not inhibited, as shown in this and previous studies, confirming its repressor phenotype. Furthermore, both the mutant and the wild-type protein colocalized with snRNPs. Therefore, the redistribution of snRNPs and SC35 correlates with ICP27-mediated impairment of host cell splicing, but these alterations are not sufficient to

  3. Primary herpes simplex virus infection mimicking cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; White, Catherine; Higgins, Stephen Peter

    2015-06-02

    We report the case of an 18-year-old woman presenting with ulceration of the cervix caused by primary type 2 herpes simplex infection in the absence of skin lesions. The differential diagnosis included cervical cancer and we referred the patient for urgent colposcopy. However, laboratory tests proved the viral aetiology of the cervical ulceration and the cervix had healed completely 3 weeks later. The case highlights the need to consider herpes simplex infection in the differential diagnosis of ulceration of the cervix even when there are no cutaneous signs of herpes.

  4. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Esther; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Sonda, Sabrina; Kaech, Andres; Lucas, Miriam S.; Ackermann, Mathias; Wild, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  5. Replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, J.; Fink, C. G.; Skinner, G. R.; Thomas, G. H.; Jordan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture was investigated. The temporal profile of virus replication was related to the initial virus inoculum; high input inocula induced a rapid increase in virus titre while lower multiplicities induced a more slow-rising increase in virus titre. Our evidence suggested that explants were capable of initiating and supporting virus replication for at least 2 weeks following establishment of the culture. Virus yields were optimal when explants were cultured at 37 degrees and in serum-supplemented medium. Explants also supported the replication of type 1 herpes simplex virus and a "non-human" herpes simplex virus (pseudo-rabies virus). The optimal conditions for replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical explants have been established and will provide a model permitting precise investigation of lytic or other virus-cervical cell interactions and their possible relationship to herpes virus-induced pre-invasive carcinoma of this organ. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:183806

  6. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

    1997-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

  7. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V.; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines—generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89–174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11–2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE. PMID:27224245

  8. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Nada; Bereczky-Veress, Biborka; Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines-generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89-174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11-2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE.

  9. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors’ binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules. PMID:26927159

  10. New concepts in herpes simplex virus vaccine development: notes from the battlefield.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Gargi; Chentoufi, Aziz A; Nesburn, Anthony B; Wechsler, Steven L; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2009-08-01

    The recent discovery that T cells recognize different sets of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 epitopes from seropositive symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals might lead to a fundamental immunologic advance in vaccine development against herpes infection and diseases. The newly introduced needle-free mucosal (i.e., topical ocular and intravaginal) lipopeptide vaccines provide a novel strategy that might target ocular and genital herpes and possibly provide 'heterologous protection' from HIV-1. Indeed, mucosal self-adjuvanting lipopeptide vaccines are easy to manufacture, simple to characterize, extremely pure, cost-effective, highly immunogenic and safe. In this review, we bring together recent published and unpublished data that illuminates the status of epitope-based herpes vaccine development and present an overview of our recent approach to an 'asymptomatic epitope'-based lipopeptide vaccine.

  11. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David C.; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. IMPORTANCE The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate

  12. Mollaret's meningitis and herpes simplex virus type 2 infections.

    PubMed

    Farazmand, P; Woolley, P D; Kinghorn, G R

    2011-06-01

    Benign recurrent aseptic meningitis is a rare disorder described by Mollaret in 1944. When initially described, this form of aseptic meningitis had no identifiable infecting agent. New sophisticated diagnostic tools have now identified herpes simplex type 2 virus as the most commonly isolated agent. Antiviral treatment has been used successfully for prophylaxis and treatment.

  13. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus disease in a professional population.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S L; Rowe, N H; Drach, J C; Shipman, C; Young, S K

    1981-01-01

    By virtue of occupation, dentists are frequently exposed to the herpes simplex virus. The risk of infection by the virus was evaluated by assessing disease experience as shown by history compared with the results of complement fixing or antibody titration tests, or both.

  14. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  19. [Herpes simplex virus hepatitis; rare in immunocompetent patients].

    PubMed

    Ozokcu, Leyla; de Bruijckere, Leo M; Jansen, Jan; van den Berge, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman was referred with fever and abdominal pain with peritoneal irritation. A diagnostic laparoscopy showed hepatic lesions. Histopathological investigation of the liver biopsy showed hepatitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). The patient was treated with acyclovir and recovered well. HSV is a rare cause of viral hepatitis and has a high mortality rate.

  20. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  1. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  2. Selective in vitro replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP34.5 null mutants in primary human CNS tumours--evaluation of a potentially effective clinical therapy.

    PubMed Central

    McKie, E. A.; MacLean, A. R.; Lewis, A. D.; Cruickshank, G.; Rampling, R.; Barnett, S. C.; Kennedy, P. G.; Brown, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Primary tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) are an important cause of cancer-related deaths in adults and children. CNS tumours are mostly glial cell in origin and are predominantly astrocytomas. Conventional therapy of high-grade gliomas includes maximal resection followed by radiation treatment. The addition of adjuvant chemotherapy provides little improvement in survival time and hence assessment of novel therapies is imperative. We have evaluated the potential therapeutic use of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) mutant 1716 in the treatment of primary brain tumours. The mutant is deleted in the RL1 gene and fails to produce the virulence factor ICP34.5. 1716 replication was analysed in both established human glioma cell lines and in primary cell cultures derived from human tumour biopsy material. In the majority of cultures, virus replication occurred and consequential cell death resulted. In the minority of tumour cell lines which are non-permissive for mutant replication, premature shut-off of host cell protein synthesis was induced in response to lack of expression of ICP34.5. Hence RL1-negative mutants have the distinct advantage of providing a double hit phenomenon whereby cell death could occur by either pathway. Moreover, 1716, by virtue of its ability to replicate selectively within a tumour cell, has the potential to deliver a 'suicide' gene product to the required site immediately. It is our opinion that HSV which fails to express ICP34.5 could provide an effective tumour therapy. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8795577

  3. The Virucidal EB Peptide Protects Host Cells from Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in the Presence of Serum Albumin and Aggregates Proteins in a Detergent-Like Manner▿

    PubMed Central

    Bultmann, Hermann; Girdaukas, Gary; Kwon, Glen S.; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2010-01-01

    The linear cationic amphiphilic EB peptide, derived from the FGF4 signal sequence, was previously shown to be virucidal and to block herpes simplex type I (HSV-1) entry (H. Bultmann, J. S. Busse, and C. R. Brandt, J. Virol. 75:2634–2645, 2001). Here we show that cells treated with EB (RRKKAAVALLPAVLLALLAP) for less than 5 min are also protected from infection with HSV-1. Though protection was lost over a period of 5 to 8 h, it was reinduced as rapidly as during the initial treatment. Below a 20 μM concentration of EB, cells gained protection in a serum-dependent manner, requiring bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a cofactor. Above 40 μM, EB coprecipitated with BSA under hypotonic conditions. Coprecipitates retained antiviral activity and released active peptide. NaCl (≥0.3 M) blocked coprecipitation without interfering with antiviral activity. As shown for β-galactosidase, EB below 20 μM acted as an enzyme inhibitor, whereas above 40 to 100 μM EB, β-galactosidase was precipitated as was BSA or other unrelated proteins. Pyrene fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that in the course of protein aggregation, EB acted like a cationic surfactant and self associated in a process resembling micelle formation. Both antiviral activity and protein aggregation did not depend on stereospecific EB interactions but depended strongly on the sequence of the peptide's hydrophobic tail. EB resembles natural antimicrobial peptides, such as melittin, but when acting in a nonspecific detergent-like manner, it primarily seems to target proteins. PMID:20643896

  4. Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

  5. Purified herpes simplex type 1 glycoprotein D (gD) genetically fused with the type 16 human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein enhances antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses and confers protective antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Porchia, Bruna F M M; Diniz, Mariana O; Cariri, Francisco A M O; Santana, Vinícius C; Amorim, Jaime H; Balan, Andrea; Braga, Catarina J M; Ferreira, Luís Carlos S

    2011-12-01

    Type 1 herpes virus (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) enhances antigen-specific immune responses, particularly CD8(+) T cell responses, in mice immunized with DNA vaccines encoding hybrid proteins genetically fused with the target antigen at a site near the C-terminal end. These effects are attributed to the interaction of gD with the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) and the concomitant blockade of a coinhibitory mechanism mediated by the B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA). However, questions concerning the requirement for endogenous synthesis of the antigen or the adjuvant/antigen fusion itself have not been addressed so far. In the present study, we investigated these points using purified recombinant gDs, genetically fused or not with type 16 papilloma virus (HPV-16) E7 oncoprotein. Soluble recombinant gDs, but not denatured forms, retained the ability to bind surface-exposed cellular receptors of HVEM-expressing U937 cells. In addition, in vivo administration of the recombinant proteins, particularly gD genetically fused with E7 (gDE7), promoted the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. More relevantly, mice immunized with the gDE7 protein developed complete preventive and partial therapeutic antitumor protection, as measured in mice following the implantation of TC-1 cells expressing HPV-16 oncoproteins. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the T cell adjuvant effects of the HSV-1 gD protein did not require endogenous synthesis and could be demonstrated in mice immunized with purified recombinant proteins.

  6. Acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in children: reactivation of an undiagnosed latent neonatal herpes infection.

    PubMed

    Grose, Charles

    2012-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is known to cause acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The availability of HSV-2-specific polymerase chain reaction tests for diagnostic analysis has greatly increased our ability to discriminate ARN caused by HSV-2 from ARN caused by either herpes simplex virus type 1 or varicella zoster virus (VZV). Of great interest, HSV-2 appears to be the most common cause of viral ARN in children and adolescents. Although a few children with ARN are known to have had neonatally acquired herpes infection, most children lack a history of known herpes disease. Thus, the origin of the HSV-2 infection is a mystery. The hypothesis of this review is that HSV-2 ARN in children and adolescents may be the first sign of a previously undiagnosed and asymptomatic neonatal HSV-2 infection, which has reactivated several years later from latency in a cranial nerve and entered the retina. The review brings together 7 previously published ARN cases, plus one new case is added. Thus, this review also expands the spectrum of complications from neonatal HSV-2 infection.

  7. The challenges and opportunities for the development of a T-cell epitope-based herpes simplex vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-11-28

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) infections have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a billion individuals worldwide. HSV-1 infections are predominant than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries, their development has been difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One "common denominator" among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or a whole viral protein, which contain both "pathogenic symptomatic" and "protective asymptomatic" antigens and epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate developing "asymptomatic" epitope-based sub-unit vaccine strategies that selectively incorporate "protective asymptomatic" epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized by effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (TEM cells) from "naturally" protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models of ocular and genital herpes. We review the role of animal models in herpes vaccine development and discuss their current status, challenges, and prospects.

  8. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  9. Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Leone, Peter A.; Bernstein, David I.; Wald, Anna; Levin, Myron J.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Gorfinkel, Iris; Morrow, Rhoda L. Ashley; Ewell, Marian G.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Dubin, Gary; Heineman, Thomas C.; Schulte, Joann M.; Deal, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 μg of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20. Results The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], −29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (−8%; 95% CI, −59 to 26). Conclusions In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.) PMID:22216840

  10. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis of the Parietal Lobe: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Lara; Moisi, Marc; Rostad, Steven; Umeh, Randle; Zwillman, Michael E; Tubbs, R. Shane; Page, Jeni; Newell, David W.; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with a history of breast cancer and hypertension presented with a rare case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) isolated to her left parietal lobe. The patient’s first biopsy was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I/II antigens, but less than two weeks later, the patient tested positive on repeat biopsy. This initial failure to detect the virus and the similarities between HSE and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) suggests repeat testing for HSV in the presence of ICH. Due to the frequency of patients with extra temporal HSE, a diagnosis of HSE should be more readily considered, particularly when a patient may not be improving and a concrete diagnosis has not been solidified. PMID:27774355

  11. Herpes simplex virus bronchiolitis in a cannabis user

    PubMed Central

    Libraty, Daniel H.; Bocelli, Lisa; Fraire, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) lower respiratory tract infections in adults are uncommon. We present a case of HSV bronchiolitis and pneumonitis in an immunocompetent individual, likely linked to chronic habitual marijuana use and a herpetic orolabial ulcer. The case serves as a reminder to consider HSV as a potential unusual cause of lower respiratory tract infection/inflammation in individuals with chronic habitual marijuana use. PMID:26912481

  12. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. ); Murray, R.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO )

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  13. Evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Joel O; Smith, Martin D; Smith, Davey M; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-09-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus-host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses.

  14. Isolation of herpes simplex viruses by chick embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Akter, T; Tabassum, S; Jahan, M; Nessa, A; Islam, M N; Giasuddin, M

    2013-04-01

    The chick embryo is a versatile host system in diagnostic virology, especially for isolation of herpes simplex viruses. In this study, samples obtained from 57 clinically diagnosed patients with active herpetic lesions (35 genital & 22 non-genital) were cultured by chick embryo method for isolation of herpes simplex virus. After inoculation onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-11 days old chick embryo, typical CAM reactions (pocks) appeared in 23(40.3%) samples after 3 days. CAM reactions were identified and typed by direct fluorescence antibody test and 22(95.6%) of 23 isolates gave positive results. Of this, 9(40.9%) were HSV-1 & 13(59.1%) were HSV-2. HSV-1 was isolated from 8(36.4%) of non-genital samples and from 1(7.1%) genital sample. HSV-2 was isolated from 13(92.8%) of genital samples, but none were isolated from non-genital samples. High isolation rate was obtained from vesicular stage of both non-genital (71.5%) and genital (57.1%) samples and from early lesions (sampled within 72 hours) of non-genital (50%) and genital (52.9%) specimen. The chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo it is a simple, cheap and efficient method of cultivation of some viruses, including HSV. Thus, in settings where cell culture facilities are not available, it can be used for the isolation of herpes simplex viruses from clinical samples.

  15. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus-1 following epilepsy surgery☆

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Crippa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; de Paola, Luciano; de Souza, Luciana Paula; Noronha, Lucia; Torres, Luis Fernando Bleggi; Koneski, Julio A.S.; Pessa, Luis Felipe Cavalli; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo; Vidal, Luine Rosele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study reports a case of encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), following surgical manipulation of the site of a primary infection. Methods Herpes simplex virus-1 infection was confirmed by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Results The patient was an 11-year-old girl who required temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. She had meningoencephalitis due to HSV at the age of 20 months, and she was treated with acyclovir. Three years later, the patient developed uncontrolled seizures that became more frequent and changed in character at 11 years of age. On the 12th postoperative day, she developed fever and seizures, and she was diagnosed with HSV-1 by positive CSF PCR. She was treated with acyclovir (30 mg/kg/day for 21 days). In this report, we describe the patient and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The authors stress the potential risk of reactivation of HSV encephalitis after intracranial surgery. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis must be considered in neurosurgical patients who develop postoperative seizures and fever. PMID:26543809

  16. Herpes simplex virus: isolation, cytopathological characterization and antiviral sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa, Carlos; Hattori, Lilian Yumi; Galhardi, Ligia Carla Faccin; Lopes, Nayara; Bomfim, Wesley Andrade; de Cândido, Ligyana Korki; de Azevedo, Elbens Marcos Minoreli; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an endemic disease and it is estimated that 6095% of the adult population are infected with symptoms that are usually self-limiting, though they can be serious, extensive and prolonged in immunocompromised individuals, highlighted by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The study of the wild-type HSV strains based on the cytopathogenic features and its antiviral sensitivity are important in the establishment of an antivirogram for controlling the infection. OBJECTIVE This study sought to isolate and examine the cytopathological characteristics of circulating strains of the Herpes simplex virus, from clinical specimens and their sensitivity to commercially available antiherpesvirus drugs, acyclovir, phosphonophormic acid and trifluridine. METHODS Herpes simplex virus isolation, cytopathological features and antiviral sensitivity assays were performed in cell culture by tissue culture infectious dose or plaque forming unit assay. RESULTS From twenty-two clinical specimens, we isolated and adapted nine strains. Overall, the cytopathic effect was detected 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and the presence of syncytia was remarkable 48 h p.i., observed after cell staining. Out of eight isolates, four developed plaques of varying sizes. All the isolates were sensitive to acyclovir, phosphonophormic and trifluridine, with the percentage of virus inhibition (%VI) ranging from 49.7-100%. CONCLUSIONS The methodology for HSV isolation and characterization is a straightforward approach, but the drug sensitivity test, regarded as being of great practical importance, needs to be better understood. PMID:24937819

  17. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  18. The Challenges and Opportunities for Development of a T-Cell Epitope-Based Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a half billion individuals worldwide. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. HSV-1 infections are more prevalent than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. While genital herpes in mainly caused by HSV-2 infections, in recent years, there is an increase in the proportion of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 infections in young adults, which reach 50% in some western societies. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries their development has been notoriously difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One “common denominator” among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or whole viral proteins, which contain both pathogenic “symptomatic” and protective “asymptomatic” antigens/epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate that using an “asymptomatic” epitope-based vaccine strategy that selectively incorporates protective epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized, in vitro, by effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells from “naturally” protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect, in vivo, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models from ocular and genital herpes infections and diseases, could be the answer to many of the scientific challenges facing HSV vaccine

  19. Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

  20. Topical application of polyethylenimine as a candidate for novel prophylactic therapeutics against genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kyoko; Onoue, Hiroki; Sasaki, Kohei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Kumar, Penmetcha K R; Gopinath, Subash C B; Maitani, Yoshie; Kai, Takashi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause genital herpes, which can enhance the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus. The development of anti-HSV agents with novel mechanisms of action is urgently required in the topical therapy of genital herpes. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-HSV effects of Epomin SP-012(®), a highly cationic polyethylenimine, were evaluated. When the in vitro antiviral effects of SP-012 were assessed, this compound showed potent activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2. It inhibited the attachment of HSV-2 to host cells and cell-to-cell spread of infection in a concentration-dependent manner and exerted a virucidal effect. No SP-012-resistant HSV-2 was found when the virus was successively passaged in the presence of SP-012. In a mouse genital herpes model, topically administered SP-012 inhibited the progression of the disease caused by HSV infection. These data illustrate that SP-012 may be a novel class of HSV inhibitor that would be acceptable for long-term topical application.

  1. Identification of a novel latency-specific splice donor signal within the herpes simplex virus type 1 2.0-kilobase latency-associated transcript (LAT): translation inhibition of LAT open reading frames by the intron within the 2.0-kilobase LAT.

    PubMed

    Spivack, J G; Woods, G M; Fraser, N W

    1991-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 establishes latent infection in trigeminal ganglia of mice infected via the eye. A family of three colinear viral transcripts (LATs), 2.0, 1.5, and 1.45 kb, is present in latently infected ganglia. To characterize these LATs, lambda gt10 cDNA libraries were constructed with RNAs isolated from the trigeminal ganglia of latently infected mice. A series of recombinant bacteriophage were isolated containing cDNA inserts covering 1.7 kb of the 2.0-kb LAT. Splice junctions of the smaller LATs and the 3' end of the 2.0-kb LAT were identified by sequence analysis of RNA polymerase chain reaction products. No splice acceptor site, which does not support the hypotheses that the 2.0-kb LAT is an intron. However, the data are consistent with the possibility of a short leader sequence or multiple LAT transcription start sites. To generate the smaller 1.5- and 1.45-kb LATs, there is a 559-nucleotide intron spliced from the 2.0-kb LAT in strain F and a 556-nucleotide intron in strain 17+. The nucleotide sequences at the 5' and 3' ends of these introns are characteristic of spliced transcripts from eukaryotic protein-encoding genes, with one significant difference; i.e., the 5' end of the LAT intron is GC instead of the consensus sequence GT. This splice donor sequence is conserved in herpes simplex virus type 1 strains F, 17+, and KOS. Processing of the 2.0-kb LAT to form the spliced LATs preserves two open reading frames (ORFs) at the 3' end of the LATs; no new ORFs are created. Splicing of the LATs positions a 276-nucleotide leader sequence close to these ORFs and removes an intron that inhibits their translation in vitro. The novel 5' structure of the intron within the 2.0-kb LAT may be part of a control mechanism for transcription processing that results in splicing of the LATs only in sensory neurons during latent infection and reactivation but not during the viral replication cycle.

  2. The Dynamics of HCF-1 Modulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Chromatin during Initiation of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection of herpes simplex virus is dependent upon chromatin modulation by the cellular coactivator host cell factor-1 (HCF-1). This review focuses on the multiple chromatin modulation components associated with HCF-1 and the chromatin-related dynamics mediated by this coactivator that lead to the initiation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate early gene expression. PMID:23698399

  3. Charles Bonnet syndrome after herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömer Faruk; Ince, Hülya; Taşdemir, Haydar Ali; Özyürek, Hamit

    2012-04-01

    Visual impairment associated with Charles Bonnet syndrome is rarely reported in childhood. We describe a child who presented with visual hallucinations and postinfectious bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis. The patient had undergone acyclovir therapy for 3 weeks because of herpes encephalitis. Four days after therapy was completed, he experienced visual impairment in both eyes. He manifested a bilateral decrease in visual acuity, with normal funduscopic findings. The patient experienced visual hallucinations for about 1 week, and then experienced total loss of vision. During his hallucinations, the patient did not exhibit behavioral changes or cognitive impairment. The visual hallucinations included unfamiliar children hiding under his bed, and he spoke to someone whom he did not know. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral optic nerve hyperintensity on T(2)-weighted and contrast-enhanced images. The patient received corticosteroid therapy for his retrobulbar optic neuritis, and his vision returned to normal after 1 month. Although rare, visual impairment can be associated with complex visual hallucinations indicative of Charles Bonnet syndrome.

  4. Immunological study of the aqueous humor in ocular herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Denis, J

    1976-01-01

    (1) Isolation of herpetic virus and immunological studies of the serum and aqueous humor are two complementary methods of investigation in the diagnosis of ocular herpes simplex infection, their relative value depending on the clinical situation. (2) Of the different immunological techniques that of antibody titration by the hemagglutination method is an easy, sensitive test, but only if the Goldmann-Witner ratio is calculated. By this technique, the diagnosis of herpetic infection can be made in unusual clinical presentations or old cases in which all specificity had disappeared.

  5. [Virus-induced anorectal diseases. Condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex].

    PubMed

    Wienert, V

    2004-03-01

    Genital warts (condylomata acuminata) are very common sexually transmitted infections which may be present in perianal, anal and rarely rectal sites. Their incidence in the population is about 0.1%. As a rule, the diagnosis is simple and can be made by inspection; some variants pose a diagnostic challenge. The therapy is not uniform; it must be adjusted to the clinical manifestations and can be conservative or operative. Herpes simplex infections are also common; they too may be transferred by sexual intercourse and then commonly appear in the perianal skin and the rectal mucosa. While the clinical diagnosis is often difficult, the treatment is simple and effective.

  6. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/μL, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration

  7. Mutations in the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase gene can confer resistance to 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine.

    PubMed Central

    Coen, D M; Furman, P A; Gelep, P T; Schaffer, P A

    1982-01-01

    Mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 resistant to the antiviral drug 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (araA) have been isolated and characterized. AraA-resistant mutants can be isolated readily and appear at an appreciable frequency in low-passage stocks of wild-type virus. Of 13 newly isolated mutants, at least 11 were also resistant to phosphonoacetic acid (PAA). Of four previously described PAA-resistant mutants, two exhibited substantial araA resistance. The araA resistance phenotype of one of these mutants, PAAr5, has been mapped to the HpaI-B fragment of herpes simplex virus DNA by marker transfer, and araA resistance behaved in marker transfer experiments as if it were closely linked to PAA resistance, a recognized marker for the viral DNA polymerase locus. PAAr5 induced viral DNA polymerase activity which was much less susceptible to inhibition by the triphosphate derivative of araA than was wild-type DNA polymerase. These genetic and biochemical data indicate that the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase gene is a locus which, when mutated, can confer resistance to araA and thus that the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase is a target for this antiviral drug. PMID:6284981

  8. Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Astani, Akram; Navid, Mojdeh Heidary; Schnitzler, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23 µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro.

  9. Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

  10. Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus isolated from genital herpes lesions to ASP2151, a novel helicase-primase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Weinberg, Adriana; Chono, Koji; Takakura, Shoji; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase inhibitor against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus. To evaluate the anti-HSV activity of ASP2151, susceptibility testing was performed on viruses isolated from patients participating in a placebo- and valacyclovir-controlled proof-of-concept phase II study for recurrent genital herpes. A total of 156 HSV strains were isolated prior to the dosing of patients, and no preexisting variants with less susceptibility to ASP2151 or acyclovir (ACV) were detected. ASP2151 inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication with mean 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) of 0.043 and 0.069 μM, whereas ACV exhibited mean EC(50)s of 2.1 and 3.2 μM, respectively. Notably, the susceptibilities of HSV isolates to ASP2151 and ACV were not altered after dosing with the antiviral agents. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ASP2151 inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates more potently than ACV, and HSV resistant to this novel helicase-primase inhibitor as well as ACV may not easily emerge in short-term treatment for recurrent genital herpes patients.

  11. Susceptibility of Herpes Simplex Virus Isolated from Genital Herpes Lesions to ASP2151, a Novel Helicase-Primase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Weinberg, Adriana; Chono, Koji; Takakura, Shoji; Kontani, Toru

    2012-01-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase inhibitor against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus. To evaluate the anti-HSV activity of ASP2151, susceptibility testing was performed on viruses isolated from patients participating in a placebo- and valacyclovir-controlled proof-of-concept phase II study for recurrent genital herpes. A total of 156 HSV strains were isolated prior to the dosing of patients, and no preexisting variants with less susceptibility to ASP2151 or acyclovir (ACV) were detected. ASP2151 inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication with mean 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 0.043 and 0.069 μM, whereas ACV exhibited mean EC50s of 2.1 and 3.2 μM, respectively. Notably, the susceptibilities of HSV isolates to ASP2151 and ACV were not altered after dosing with the antiviral agents. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ASP2151 inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates more potently than ACV, and HSV resistant to this novel helicase-primase inhibitor as well as ACV may not easily emerge in short-term treatment for recurrent genital herpes patients. PMID:22526302

  12. Unusual Initial Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus as Inguinal Lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Sarah A.; Strickler, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy. PMID:25815228

  13. Unusual initial presentation of herpes simplex virus as inguinal lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sarah A; Strickler, John G

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy.

  14. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Varun K.; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J.; Quigley, Brian C.; Farris, Alton B.; Norvell, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. Methods: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results: A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Conclusions: Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease. PMID:27759636

  15. Herpes simplex virus type 2 in Brazil: seroepidemiologic survey.

    PubMed

    Da Rosa-Santos, O L; Gonçalves Da Silva, A; Pereira, A C

    1996-11-01

    The incidence of genital herpes is increasing worldwide and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital ulcerations among sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Findings are reported from an assessment of the prevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in low- and high-risk populations in Brazil. 155 voluntary blood donors and 85 HIV-seropositive homosexual and promiscuous heterosexual men were screened with ELISA for infection with HSV-2 during February-August 1994. 20 highly active prostitutes were also studied during May-July 1994. The subjects were of mean age 30 years, 70% were sexually active at the time of the study, and 6.55% used condoms. Antibodies to HSV-2 were detected in 29.1% of the blood donors, 73% of the HIV-seropositive men, and 72% of the overall high-risk group. Only 10%, however, admitted to ever having episodes of genital herpes. HSV-2 infection was significantly and independently associated with years of sexual activity, history of previous STDs, number of sex partners in the previous month, number of pregnancies, number of induced abortions, and the percentage of sex acts involving receptive anal intercourse. Routine screening for HSV-2 infection should be considered in populations at high risk for STDs.

  16. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  17. Limb hypoplasia resulting from intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carola, D; Skibo, M; Cannon, S; Cam, K M; Hyde, P; Aghai, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus, although very rare, has devastating effects on multiple organ systems in the fetus and can lead to in utero fetal demise. Neonates born following intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection commonly manifest with cutaneous lesions, ocular damage and/or brain abnormalities. We describe the case of a dichorionic, diamniotic twin gestation complicated by intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection. This infection led to the fetal demise of twin A and a very uncommon presentation of limb hypoplasia in twin B.

  18. ELISA for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-specific antibodies in human sera using HSV type 1 and type 2 polyspecific antigens blocked with type-heterologous rabbit antibodies.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, B F; Grauballe, P C

    1979-08-01

    Crude antigenic preparations made from rabbit cornea cells infected with either HSV type 1 or type 2 could be used in ELISA for titration of HSV type-specific antibodies in human sera. After immunochemical binding of the crude HSV antigens in microtitre wells by use of type-homologous rabbit antibodies, type-common antigenic sties were blocked with type-heterologous rabbit antibodies. Titration of human sera in this system showed that high concentrations of type heterologous rabbit antibodies were capable of completely blocking type-common antigenic sites, while leaving type-specific antigenic sites unblocked and capable of reacting with human antibodies. Thus HSV type-specific antibodies in human sera could be measured in ELISA without the use of purified typespecific antigens.

  19. Basal Autophagy Is Required for Herpes simplex Virus-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which plays an important role in regulating plethora of infections. The role of autophagy in Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is unknown. Here, we found that HSV-2 does not allow induction of an autophagic response to infection, but maintains basal autophagy levels mostly unchanged during productive infection. Thus, we investigated the importance of basal autophagy for HSV-2 infection, using pharmacological autophagy suppression or cells genetically deficient in an autophagy-essential gene (ATG5). Interference with basal autophagy flux in cells significantly reduced viral replication and diminished the infection. These results indicate that basal autophagy plays an indispensable role required for a productive infection. Importantly, this study draws a sharp distinction between induced and basal autophagy, where the former acts as a viral clearance mechanism abrogating infection, while the latter supports infection. PMID:26248741

  20. Anaerobic bacteria and herpes simplex virus in genital ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; Barton, I G; Duerden, B I

    1985-01-01

    Of 91 patients with genital ulceration, herpes simplex virus was isolated from 52 (57%) and Haemophilus ducreyi from 12 (13%); none had syphilis. The difference in incidence of other aerobes in patients and controls was not significant. Anaerobes, predominantly Bacteroides spp, were isolated from a large proportion (77%) of men and women patients with ulcers but from few control men. The most common anaerobic species were B asaccharolyticus and B ureolyticus, with fewer isolates of the melaninogenicus/oralis group. The bacterial flora of herpetic and non-herpetic ulcers were similar, but Candida albicans was isolated significantly more often from non-herpetic ulcers. Anaerobic bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital ulcers. PMID:2984108

  1. Lytic Promoters Express Protein during Herpes Simplex Virus Latency

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tiffany A.; Tscharke, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has provided the prototype for viral latency with previously well-defined acute or lytic and latent phases. More recently, the deep quiescence of HSV latency has been questioned with evidence that lytic genes can be transcribed in this state. However, to date the only evidence that these transcripts might be translated has come from immunological studies that show activated T cells persist in the nervous system during latency. Here we use a highly sensitive Cre-marking model to show that lytic and latent phases are less clearly defined in two significant ways. First, around half of the HSV spread leading to latently infected sites occurred beyond the initial acute infection and second, we show direct evidence that lytic promoters can drive protein expression during latency. PMID:27348812

  2. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  3. Immunological Aspects of Acute and Recurrent Herpes Simplex Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) belongs to the major causes of visual morbidity worldwide and available methods of treatment remain unsatisfactory. Primary infection occurs usually early in life and is often asymptomatic. Chronic visual impairment and visual loss are caused by corneal scaring, thinning, and vascularization connected with recurrent HSV infections. The pathogenesis of herpetic keratitis is complex and is still not fully understood. According to the current knowledge, corneal scarring and vascularization are the result of chronic inflammatory reaction against HSV antigens. In this review we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immunities in acute and recurrent HSV ocular infection and present the potential future targets for novel therapeutical options based on immune interventions. PMID:25276842

  4. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  5. Disseminated herpes simplex infection during pregnancy, rare but important to recognise.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Nawar Younis; Uriel, Alison; Mammen, Catherine; Bonington, Alec

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy is a rare, but potentially fatal condition. We present a case where prompt treatment with intravenous acyclovir resulted in a successful outcome for both mother and baby.

  6. Relationship of herpes simplex encephalitis and transcranial direct current stimulation--a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanbin; Xiao, Juan; Song, Haiqing; Wang, Ralph; Hussain, Mohammed; Song, Weiqun

    2015-04-01

    We report a rare case of relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis in a-37-year-old patient which was previously confirmed by positive polymerase chain reaction, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type1 IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and characterized on MRI. During the first admission, he was treated with continuous acyclovir treatment for one month with clinical improvement except for residual aphasia, for which he received a course of outpatient transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A constant current of 1.2 mA was applied for 20 min twice daily. After the 4th day the patient was found to be irritable and uncooperative by staff and family members. A subsequent MRI showed significant deterioration of the lesion on comparison to the first MRI which led to discontinuation of tDCS.The relatively rapid exacerbation of HSV in only a few days is unusual. Our aim is to discuss if tDCS is related to HSV relapse and in doing so highlight possible mechanisms.

  7. RNA polymerase II is aberrantly phosphorylated and localized to viral replication compartments following herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, S A; Long, M C; Lam, V; Spencer, C A

    1994-01-01

    During lytic infection, herpes simplex virus subverts the host cell RNA polymerase II transcription machinery to efficiently express its own genome while repressing the expression of most cellular genes. The mechanism by which RNA polymerase II is directed to the viral delayed-early and late genes is still unresolved. We report here that RNA polymerase II is preferentially localized to viral replication compartments early after infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Concurrent with recruitment of RNA polymerase II into viral compartments is a rapid and aberrant phosphorylation of the large subunit carboxy-terminal domain (CTD). Aberrant phosphorylation of the CTD requires early viral gene expression but is not dependent on viral DNA replication or on the formation of viral replication compartments. Localization of RNA polymerase II and modifications to the CTD may be instrumental in favoring transcription of viral genes and repressing specific transcription of cellular genes. Images PMID:8289400

  8. Herpes simplex virus infections in neonates and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, David W

    2005-10-01

    Of the commonly considered congenital infections, those caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), syphilis, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are frequently (CMV, HSV) or exclusively (syphilis) acquired sexually by the mother, with subsequent transmission to the developing fetus. Of the other commonly considered congenital infections, including rubella and toxoplasma infections, the mother is exposed to the infectious agent via interpersonal or environmental contacts. Unlike each of these other pathogens, which are transmitted transplacentally to the developing fetus following maternal infection though, HSV usually is transmitted perinatally as the neonate is exposed to the virus during passage through an infected birth canal. This difference in timing of acquisition of infection has had important consequence in the therapeutic advances achieved during the last 30 years in the management of neonatal HSV infections. Because the time period between the acquisition of infection and initiation of effective antiviral therapy is shorter in neonatal herpes than in congenital toxoplasmosis or CMV infections, the outcomes of therapy have the potential to be markedly different. This article will summarize the current state of neonatal HSV disease presentation, diagnosis, and management. PMID:16210107

  9. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  10. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibody Mediated Neurologic Relapse Post Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Sarah; Walsh, Aoibhinn; King, Mary D; Lynch, Bryan; Webb, David; Twomey, Eilish; Ronan Leahy, T; Butler, Karina; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Despite the advent of antiviral therapy, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains a devastating condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurologic relapse after initial improvement is generally attributed to herpes simplex virus reactivation. In 2013, inflammation caused by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies was reported in association with cases of neurologic relapse after herpes simplex encephalitis. We present 3 such cases and discuss diagnostic and management dilemmas.

  11. Association of Herpes Zoster and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Yeh, Su-Yin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of our study was to determine the association of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and the risk of herpes zoster (HZ). Methods In this cohort study, we selected 4736 patients with T1DM registered in the Catastrophic Illness Patient Database who received insulin therapy before 2003 and 18944 participants without DM who were selected by frequency matched based on sex and age. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to measure the hazard ratios (HRs) of HZ in the T1DM group compared with that in the non-T1DM group. Results Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that the adjusted HR of HZ was 2.38 times higher for patients in the T1DM group (95% CI = 1.77–3.19) than for those in the non-T1DM group. According to diabetes severity, mild and serious T1DM patients were associated with a higher risk of HZ (adjusted HR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.67–3.05; and adjusted HR = 5.08, 95% CI = 2.66–9.71, respectively) than subjects without T1DM. Conclusion Patients with T1DM are at a higher risk of HZ than those without T1DM. PMID:27171477

  12. 3'-Amino thymidine affinity matrix for the purification of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Tung, P. P.; Respass, J.; Summers, W. C.

    1996-01-01

    A simple procedure for preparation of an affinity resin with 3'-amino thymidine linked to the carboxyl residues on 6-amino-hexanoic agarose is described. We have used this column for a rapid and simple purification of the thymidine kinase encoded by the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome. This resin has two major advantages over the most widely use used resin made with thymidine-p-nitrophenyl phosphate: first it is easily obtainable, and second, it is not subject to destruction by phosphodiesterases. The two resins are very similar in behavior and the resin made with amino thymidine has allowed us to prepare large quantities of highly purified HSV TK for crystallization studies. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9436293

  13. Cell-mediated immunity against herpes simplex induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Lawman, M J; Rouse, B T; Courtney, R J; Walker, R D

    1980-01-01

    The conditions required for the induction of both primary cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vivo and secondary CTL in vitro against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected cells were defined. Primary CTL responses occurred only in mice exposed to infectious HSV-1. These responses, which were shown to be mediated by T lymphocytes, peaked at 1 week and had disappeared by 2 weeks after infection. The level of primary cytotoxicity was enhanced by treatment of mice with cyclophosphamide before infection. Secondary in vitro CTL responses were more pronounced and were induced by some forms of inactivated virus as well as by infectious HSV-1. Thus, both ultraviolet light- and glutaraldehyde-inactivated preparations of HSV-1 induced CTL, but heat-inactivated and detergent-extracted antigens failed to do so. The reasons for the differing efficiency of infectious and noninfectious HSV-1 for induction of CTL are discussed. PMID:6244225

  14. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces egress channels through marginalized host chromatin.

    PubMed

    Myllys, Markko; Ruokolainen, Visa; Aho, Vesa; Smith, Elizabeth A; Hakanen, Satu; Peri, Piritta; Salvetti, Anna; Timonen, Jussi; Hukkanen, Veijo; Larabell, Carolyn A; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2016-01-01

    Lytic infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induces profound modification of the cell nucleus including formation of a viral replication compartment and chromatin marginalization into the nuclear periphery. We used three-dimensional soft X-ray tomography, combined with cryogenic fluorescence, confocal and electron microscopy, to analyse the transformation of peripheral chromatin during HSV-1 infection. Our data showed an increased presence of low-density gaps in the marginalized chromatin at late infection. Advanced data analysis indicated the formation of virus-nucleocapsid-sized (or wider) channels extending through the compacted chromatin of the host. Importantly, confocal and electron microscopy analysis showed that these gaps frequently contained viral nucleocapsids. These results demonstrated that HSV-1 infection induces the formation of channels penetrating the compacted layer of cellular chromatin and allowing for the passage of progeny viruses to the nuclear envelope, their site of nuclear egress. PMID:27349677

  15. A further study on relationships between herpes simplex virus and Bovid herpesvirus-2.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, G; Ferrari, M; Frigeri, F; Aldrovandi, V

    1990-04-01

    Calves exposed by intravenous or intradermal inoculation with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), types 1 and 2, remained clinically normal and HSV was not recovered from nasal secretion nor blood samples. However, the clinical response of calves pre-inoculated with HSV, to Bovid herpesvirus-2 (BH-2) challenge infection was much milder than that in the challenge control calves, and the titer of BHV-2 by skin titration underwent a significant (2-2.5 log units) reduction in the HSV pre-inoculated calves. Inoculation of calves with live HSV provided a much greater protection against BHV-2 challenge infection compared with the results of previous experiments in which a Triton X100-inactivated HSV antigen was used. It was speculated that the possibility of HSV replicating in cattle must still be considered an open question.

  16. Herpes simplex induced necrotizing tonsillitis in an immunocompromised patient with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Laura; Vos, Xander G; Löwenberg, Mark

    2016-02-16

    We here present the case of a 22-year-old female of Suriname ethnicity with ulcerative colitis who received treatment with mercaptopurine and infliximab. She presented herself with a severe necrotizing tonsillitis due to herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Combination therapy consisting of immunomodulators and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents is increasingly being used. Anti-TNF therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing serious infections, and especially patients receiving combination treatment with thiopurines are at an increased risk. We here show that HSV infections can cause a severe tonsillitis in immunocompromised patients. Early recognition is essential when there is no improvement with initial antibiotic therapy within the first 24 to 72 h. HSV infections should be in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients presenting with a necrotizing tonsillitis and can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Early treatment with antiviral agents should be considered especially if antibiotic treatment fails in such patients. PMID:26881193

  17. Concurrent meningococcal and herpes simplex infection in a non-immunocompromised child

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Jasmin; Walsh, Hannah; Sanapala, Swathi; Syed, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    A previously well 11-month-old infant presented with lethargy, a blanching rash, vomiting and diarrhoea. She was diagnosed with suspected gastroenteritis and discharged. The patient deteriorated and re-presented 24 h later with lumbar puncture (LP) confirming Neisseria meningitidis. Following an initial good response to ceftriaxone, the patient then developed a blistering facial rash on day 3 for which topical aciclovir was started with no improvement. She subsequently developed fever and redeveloped a rising C reactive protein (CRP). A CT of the head on day 6 was normal, however a repeat LP on day 7 showed persistently raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), white cell count (WCC), high proteins and low CSF glucose. A CSF viral PCR confirmed concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 for which parenteral aciclovir was started. The patient responded well to bacterial and viral anti-infective treatments and was subsequently discharged on day 16 with no neurological sequelae. PMID:24810444

  18. High Efficiency Latency and Activation of Herpes Simplex Virus in Human Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigdahl, Brian L.; Scheck, Adrienne C.; de Clercq, Erik; Rapp, Fred

    1982-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) exists in humans in a latent form that can be activated. To characterize the molecular basis of the cell-virus interactions and to analyze the state of the latent HSV genome, an in vitro model system was established. In this system a large fraction of the latently infected cells contain an HSV genome that can be activated. Cell survival was reduced minimally after repression of high multiplicity HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection of human fibroblast cells with (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in combination with human leukocyte interferon (IFN-α ). A minimum of 1 to 3 percent of the surviving cells contained an HSV genome that could be activated either by human cytomegalovirus superinfection or reduction in incubation temperature.

  19. Recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis: selective impairment of specific semantic categories with neuroradiological correlation.

    PubMed Central

    Pietrini, V; Nertempi, P; Vaglia, A; Revello, M G; Pinna, V; Ferro-Milone, F

    1988-01-01

    The clinical, neuropsychological and neuroradiological features of two patients affected by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis are described. An experimental study for the assessment of naming, recognition and description displayed in one patient a persistent significant impairment in naming living things. The other patient showed a failing "semantic memory" for the same categories, although a significant impairment emerged only for plants. In both patients, the late neuroradiological sequelae were localised mainly in the inferior and middle gyri of the left temporal lobe and in the left-side insula. In one patient, the right-side insula was also involved. The selective cerebral damage induced by HSV-1 is stressed and a correlation between the neuroradiological and neuropsychological findings is attempted. The stereotyped anatomical and neuropsychological changes lead to the belief that the virus may recognise, within the limbic system, particular cellular "strains" on the basis of their molecular specificity. Images PMID:3225585

  20. Antiviral activity of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles against herpes simplex virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Swapnil; Ingle, Avinash; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra; Falanga, Annarita; Incoronato, Novella; Russo, Luigi; Galdiero, Stefania; Galdiero, Massimilano

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between silver nanoparticles and viruses is attracting great interest due to the potential antiviral activity of these particles, and is the subject of much research effort in the treatment of infectious diseases. In this work, we demonstrate that silver nanoparticles undergo a size-dependent interaction with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and with human parainfluenza virus type 3. We show that production of silver nanoparticles from different fungi is feasible, and their antiviral activity is dependent on the production system used. Silver nanoparticles are capable of reducing viral infectivity, probably by blocking interaction of the virus with the cell, which might depend on the size and zeta potential of the silver nanoparticles. Smaller-sized nanoparticles were able to inhibit the infectivity of the viruses analyzed. PMID:24235828

  1. Herpes simplex virus vaccine: protection from stomatitis, ganglionitis, encephalitis and latency.

    PubMed

    Kitces, E N; Payne, W J; Morahan, P S; Tew, J G; Murray, B K

    1978-01-01

    A mouse model system was developed for studying the pathogenesis of oral infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 and the protection offered by prior immunization with a nucleic acid-free vaccine. Of non-immunized mice, 95-100% developed ulcerative lesions 3-5 days following application of virus to abraded oral epithelial surfaces. Infection of the ipsilateral sensory (trigeminal) ganglion and the cerebellum occurred by day 2 and sequentially progressed to the contralateral ganglion by day 4 and to the cerebrum by day 5. Prior immunization of mice with an inactivated virus vaccine, and most importantly, with a vaccine free of nucleic acid, protected mice from subsequent oral virus infection. Protection was demonstrated by: (i) reduction in the incidence and severity of primary oral lesions; (ii) a decrease in the number of mice with acute ganglionic infection or dying of encephalitis; and (iii) a reduction in the incidence of latent trigeminal ganglionic infection.

  2. Efficacy of a virion envelope herpes simplex virus vaccine against experimental skin infections in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Klein, R J; Buimovici-Klein, E; Moser, H; Moucha, R; Hilfenhaus, J

    1981-01-01

    Hairless mice were immunized with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) envelope antigen (EAG), EAG in association with polyriboinosinic . polyribocytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine complexed with carboxymethylcellulose (PICLC), and inactivated purified HSV-1 (VAG). After 2 weeks the mice were challenged by a percutaneous HSV-1 infection in the orofacial (OF) or lumbosacral (LS) skin area. Following immunization a consistent cell-mediated immune response was observed in all immunized mice, although the humoral immune response was very low, or not detectable. After challenge, a marked secondary humoral and cell-mediated immune response developed in all immunized mice, and the animals were protected against the development of skin lesions and the fatal outcome of infection. However, the establishment of latent infections in the sensory ganglia was not prevented by the immunization procedure.

  3. The herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed

    Kwong, A D; Frenkel, N

    1989-11-01

    The virion host shutoff (vhs) function of herpes simplex virus (HSV) limits the expression of genes in the infected cells by destabilizing both host and viral mRNAs. vhs function mutants have been isolated which are defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, the half-life of viral mRNAs is significantly longer in cells infected with the vhs-1 mutant virus than in cells infected with the wild-type (wt) virus. Recent data have shown that the vhs-1 mutation resides within the open reading frame UL41. We have analyzed the shutoff of host protein synthesis in cells infected with a mixture of the wt HSV-1 (KOS) and the vhs-1 mutant virus. The results of these experiments revealed that (i) the wt virus shutoff activity requires a threshold level of input virions per cell and (ii) the mutant vhs-1 virus protein can irreversibly block the wt virus shutoff activity. These results are consistent with a stoichiometric model in which the wt vhs protein interacts with a cellular factor which controls the half-life of cell mRNA. This wt virus interaction results in the destabilization of both host and viral mRNAs. In contrast, the mutant vhs function interacts with the cellular factor irreversibly, resulting in the increased half-life of both host and viral mRNAs.

  4. Inhibitors of nucleotidyltransferase superfamily enzymes suppress herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Tavis, John E; Wang, Hong; Tollefson, Ann E; Ying, Baoling; Korom, Maria; Cheng, Xiaohong; Cao, Feng; Davis, Katie L; Wold, William S M; Morrison, Lynda A

    2014-12-01

    Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious human diseases. Herpesvirus DNA replication depends on multiple processes typically catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS) enzymes. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibitors of NTS enzymes would suppress replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. Eight of 42 NTS inhibitors suppressed HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 replication by >10-fold at 5 μM, with suppression at 50 μM reaching ∼1 million-fold. Five compounds in two chemical families inhibited HSV replication in Vero and human foreskin fibroblast cells as well as the approved drug acyclovir did. The compounds had 50% effective concentration values as low as 0.22 μM with negligible cytotoxicity in the assays employed. The inhibitors suppressed accumulation of viral genomes and infectious particles and blocked events in the viral replication cycle before and during viral DNA replication. Acyclovir-resistant mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 remained highly sensitive to the NTS inhibitors. Five of six NTS inhibitors of the HSVs also blocked replication of another herpesvirus pathogen, human cytomegalovirus. Therefore, NTS enzyme inhibitors are promising candidates for new herpesvirus treatments that may have broad efficacy against members of the herpesvirus family.

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus.

    PubMed

    Levin, Myron J; Weinberg, Adriana; Schmid, D Scott

    2016-06-01

    The most common specimens from immunocompromised patients that are analyzed for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are from skin lesions. Many types of assays are applicable to these samples, but some, such as virus isolation and direct fluorescent antibody testing, are useful only in the early phases of the lesions. In contrast, nucleic acid (NA) detection methods, which generally have superior sensitivity and specificity, can be applied to skin lesions at any stage of progression. NA methods are also the best choice, and sometimes the only choice, for detecting HSV or VZV in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous or vitreous humor, and from mucosal surfaces. NA methods provide the best performance when reliability and speed (within 24 hours) are considered together. They readily distinguish the type of HSV detected or the source of VZV detected (wild type or vaccine strain). Nucleic acid detection methods are constantly being improved with respect to speed and ease of performance. Broader applications are under study, such as the use of quantitative results of viral load for prognosis and to assess the efficacy of antiviral therapy. PMID:27337486

  6. Subassemblies and Asymmetry in Assembly of Herpes Simplex Virus Procapsid

    PubMed Central

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Newcomb, William W.; Cheng, Naiqian; Winkler, Dennis C.; Fontana, Juan; Heymann, J. Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsid is a massive particle (~200 MDa; 1,250-Å diameter) with T=16 icosahedral symmetry. It initially assembles as a procapsid with ~4,000 protein subunits of 11 different kinds. The procapsid undergoes major changes in structure and composition as it matures, a process driven by proteolysis and expulsion of the internal scaffolding protein. Assembly also relies on an external scaffolding protein, the triplex, an α2β heterotrimer that coordinates neighboring capsomers in the procapsid and becomes a stabilizing clamp in the mature capsid. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate its assembly, we developed a novel isolation procedure for the metastable procapsid and collected a large set of cryo-electron microscopy data. In addition to procapsids, these preparations contain maturation intermediates, which were distinguished by classifying the images and calculating a three-dimensional reconstruction for each class. Appraisal of the procapsid structure led to a new model for assembly; in it, the protomer (assembly unit) consists of one triplex, surrounded by three major capsid protein (MCP) subunits. The model exploits the triplexes’ departure from 3-fold symmetry to explain the highly skewed MCP hexamers, the triplex orientations at each 3-fold site, and the T=16 architecture. These observations also yielded new insights into maturation. PMID:26443463

  7. A Mucosal Vaccination Approach for Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, Rebecca S.; Ace, Christopher I.; Levchenko, Tatyana; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Selin, Liisa K.; Nie, Siwei; Guberski, Dennis L.; Yang, Kejian

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 1 out of every 5 Americans is infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Efforts in developing a potent vaccine for HSV-2 have shown limited success. Here we describe a heterologous vaccination strategy for HSV-2 based on an intramuscular DNA prime followed by a liposome-encapsulated antigen boost delivered intranasally. Both portions of the vaccine express the immunogenic HSV-2 glycoprotein D. In female Balb/c mice, this heterologous immunisation regimen stimulated high titers of serum neutralising antibodies, a DNA priming dose dependent T helper type response, enhanced mucosal immune responses and potent protective immunity at the portal of entry for the virus: the vaginal cavity. A clear synergistic effect on immune responses and protection from infection was seen using this heterologous immunisation approach. Suboptimal DNA prime (0.5 μg) followed by the liposome boost resulted in an 80% survival rate when mice were infected 2 weeks after immunisation. A higher dose of DNA priming (5 μg) followed by the liposome boost resulted in sterilising immunity in 80% of mice. The vaccine induced durable protection in mice, demonstrated by a 60% survival rate when lethal infections were performed 20 weeks after the immunization primed with 0.5μg of DNA vaccine. PMID:21134447

  8. An unusual presentation of herpes simplex encephalitis with negative PCR.

    PubMed

    Buerger, Kelly J; Zerr, Kayleigh; Salazar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with acute right-sided hemiparesis and epilepsia partialis continua in association with fever and confusion. Initial workup revealed possible cerebritis in the left medial frontal lobe without involvement of the temporal lobes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed minimal lymphocytic pleocytosis but negative real-time herpes simplex virus (HSV) PCR. Acyclovir was discontinued on day 5 due to a negative infectious workup and clinical improvement. On day 9 his condition deteriorated and he was transferred to a higher level of acuity for advanced supportive care. Worsening encephalopathy and refractory status epilepticus ensued despite medical care. Repeat CSF analysis showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis with negative real-time HSV PCR. Brain MRI revealed progression of cortical enhancement. Immunosuppressive therapy and plasma exchange were attempted without clinical response. On day 24, another lumbar puncture showed only mild lymphocytic pleocytosis. Brain MRI showed involvement of the right medial temporal lobe. Subsequently, acyclovir was resumed. The HSV-1 PCR result was positive on day 30. Unfortunately, the patient expired.

  9. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2) replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of ({sup 3}H)-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells.

  10. Intracerebral propagation of Alzheimer's disease: strengthening evidence of a herpes simplex virus etiology

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Melvyn J.; Lukiw, Walter J.; Kammerman, Eli M.; Hill, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A faulty human protein, abnormally phosphorylated tau, was recently publicized to spread “like a virus” from neuron to neuron in Alzheimer patients' brains. For several decades, we have been amassing arguments showing that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), not p-tau, propagates this inter-neuronal, trans-synaptic pathological cascade. Methods We reiterate convincing data from our own (and other) laboratories, reviewing the first anatomic foothold neurofibrillary tangles gain in brainstem and/or entorhinal cortex; the chronic immunosurveillance cellularity of the trigeminal ganglia wherein HSV-1 awakens from latency to reactivate; the inabilities of p-tau protein's physical properties to promote it to jump synapses; the amino-acid homology between human p-tau and VP22, a key target for phosphorylation by HSV serine/threonine-protein kinase UL13; and the exosomic secretion of HSV-1-infected cells' L-particles, attesting to the cell-to-cell passage of microRNAs of herpes viruses. Results The now-maturing construct that reactivated HSV-1 best accounts for the intracerebral propagation of AD changes in the human brain should at last seem highly attractive. This hypothesis might even explain statins' apparent mechanism in some studies for lowering AD incidence. Conclusion Provided that funding agencies will quickly ignite a new realm of investigation, the rejuvenated enthusiasm for testing this optimistic construct holds incalculable potential for rapid, efficacious clinical application, through already available and relatively safe anti-viral therapeutics. PMID:23159044

  11. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    1995-07-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

  12. Prevalence of Intrathecal Acyclovir Resistant Virus in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Patients.

    PubMed

    Mitterreiter, Johanna G; Titulaer, Maarten J; van Nierop, Gijsbert P; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; Aron, Georgina I; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Verjans, Georges M G M; Ouwendijk, Werner J D

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a life-threatening complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Acyclovir (ACV) is the antiviral treatment of choice, but may lead to emergence of ACV-resistant (ACVR) HSV due to mutations in the viral UL23 gene encoding for the ACV-targeted thymidine kinase (TK) protein. Here, we determined the prevalence of intrathecal ACVR-associated HSV TK mutations in HSE patients and compared TK genotypes of sequential HSV isolates in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blister fluid of mucosal HSV lesions. Clinical samples were obtained from 12 HSE patients, encompassing 4 HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and 8 HSV-2 encephalitis patients. HSV DNA load was determined by real-time PCR and complete HSV TK gene sequences were obtained by nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. All HSV-1 HSE patients contained viral TK mutations encompassing 30 unique nucleotide and 13 distinct amino acid mutations. By contrast, a total of 5 unique nucleotide and 4 distinct amino acid changes were detected in 7 of 8 HSV-2 patients. Detected mutations were identified as natural polymorphisms located in non-conserved HSV TK gene regions. ACV therapy did not induce the emergence of ACVR-associated HSV TK mutations in consecutive CSF and mucocutaneous samples of 5 individual patients. Phenotypic susceptibility analysis of these mucocutaneous HSV isolates demonstrated ACV-sensitive virus in 2 HSV-1 HSE patients, whereas in two HSV-2 HSE patients ACVR virus was detected in the absence of known ACVR-associated TK mutations. In conclusion, we did not detect intrathecal ACVR-associated TK mutations in HSV isolates obtained from 12 HSE patients.

  13. Prevalence of Intrathecal Acyclovir Resistant Virus in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Patients.

    PubMed

    Mitterreiter, Johanna G; Titulaer, Maarten J; van Nierop, Gijsbert P; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; Aron, Georgina I; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Verjans, Georges M G M; Ouwendijk, Werner J D

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a life-threatening complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Acyclovir (ACV) is the antiviral treatment of choice, but may lead to emergence of ACV-resistant (ACVR) HSV due to mutations in the viral UL23 gene encoding for the ACV-targeted thymidine kinase (TK) protein. Here, we determined the prevalence of intrathecal ACVR-associated HSV TK mutations in HSE patients and compared TK genotypes of sequential HSV isolates in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blister fluid of mucosal HSV lesions. Clinical samples were obtained from 12 HSE patients, encompassing 4 HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and 8 HSV-2 encephalitis patients. HSV DNA load was determined by real-time PCR and complete HSV TK gene sequences were obtained by nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. All HSV-1 HSE patients contained viral TK mutations encompassing 30 unique nucleotide and 13 distinct amino acid mutations. By contrast, a total of 5 unique nucleotide and 4 distinct amino acid changes were detected in 7 of 8 HSV-2 patients. Detected mutations were identified as natural polymorphisms located in non-conserved HSV TK gene regions. ACV therapy did not induce the emergence of ACVR-associated HSV TK mutations in consecutive CSF and mucocutaneous samples of 5 individual patients. Phenotypic susceptibility analysis of these mucocutaneous HSV isolates demonstrated ACV-sensitive virus in 2 HSV-1 HSE patients, whereas in two HSV-2 HSE patients ACVR virus was detected in the absence of known ACVR-associated TK mutations. In conclusion, we did not detect intrathecal ACVR-associated TK mutations in HSV isolates obtained from 12 HSE patients. PMID:27171421

  14. Prevalence of Intrathecal Acyclovir Resistant Virus in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mitterreiter, Johanna G.; Titulaer, Maarten J.; van Nierop, Gijsbert P.; van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Aron, Georgina I.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Verjans, Georges M. G. M.; Ouwendijk, Werner J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a life-threatening complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Acyclovir (ACV) is the antiviral treatment of choice, but may lead to emergence of ACV-resistant (ACVR) HSV due to mutations in the viral UL23 gene encoding for the ACV-targeted thymidine kinase (TK) protein. Here, we determined the prevalence of intrathecal ACVR–associated HSV TK mutations in HSE patients and compared TK genotypes of sequential HSV isolates in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blister fluid of mucosal HSV lesions. Clinical samples were obtained from 12 HSE patients, encompassing 4 HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and 8 HSV-2 encephalitis patients. HSV DNA load was determined by real-time PCR and complete HSV TK gene sequences were obtained by nested PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. All HSV-1 HSE patients contained viral TK mutations encompassing 30 unique nucleotide and 13 distinct amino acid mutations. By contrast, a total of 5 unique nucleotide and 4 distinct amino acid changes were detected in 7 of 8 HSV-2 patients. Detected mutations were identified as natural polymorphisms located in non-conserved HSV TK gene regions. ACV therapy did not induce the emergence of ACVR-associated HSV TK mutations in consecutive CSF and mucocutaneous samples of 5 individual patients. Phenotypic susceptibility analysis of these mucocutaneous HSV isolates demonstrated ACV-sensitive virus in 2 HSV-1 HSE patients, whereas in two HSV-2 HSE patients ACVR virus was detected in the absence of known ACVR-associated TK mutations. In conclusion, we did not detect intrathecal ACVR-associated TK mutations in HSV isolates obtained from 12 HSE patients. PMID:27171421

  15. Comparison of Herpes simplex virus plaque development after viral treatment with anti-DNA or antilipid agents

    SciTech Connect

    Coohill, T.P.; Babich, M.; Taylor, W.D.; Snipes, W.

    1980-06-01

    The plaque development of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) is slower for viruses treated with two anti-DNA agents: ultraviolet radiation (uv) or n-acetoxy-2-acetyl-aminofluorene. For HSV treated with three antimembrane agents - butylated hydroxytoluene, acridine plus near uv radiation, or ether - the plaque development time is the same as for untreated viruses. These differences hold even for viruses that survived treatment that lowered viability below the 1% level. Gamma ray inactivation of HSV produces no change in plaque development even though this agent is believed to preferentially affect viral DNA.

  16. Herpes simplex encephalitis in Iceland 1987-2011.

    PubMed

    Dagsdóttir, Heiður Mist; Sigurðardóttir, Bryndís; Gottfreðsson, Magnús; Kristjánsson, Már; Löve, Arthur; Baldvinsdóttir, Guðrún Erna; Guðmundsson, Sigurður

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a serious disease with 10-20% mortality and high rate of neuropsychiatric sequelae. This study is a long-term, nationwide study in a single country, Iceland. Clinical data were obtained from patient records and from DNA PCR and antibody assays of CSF. Diagnosis of HSE was classified as definite, possible or rejected based on symptoms, as well as virological, laboratory and brain imaging criteria. A total of 30 definite cases of HSE were identified during the 25 year period 1987-2011 corresponding to incidence of 4.3 cases/106 inhabitants/year. Males were 57% of all patients, median age 50 years (range, 0-85). Fever (97%), cognitive deficits (79%), impaired consciousness (79% with GCS < 13), headache (55%) and seizures (55%) were the most common symptoms. Brain lesions were found in 24 patients (80%) by MRI or CT. All patients received intravenous acyclovir for a mean duration of 20 days. Three patients (10%) died within one year and 21/28 pts (75%) had a Karnofsky performance score of <70% with memory loss (59%), dysphasia (44%), frontal symptoms (44%) and seizures (30%) as the most frequent sequelae. Mean delay from onset of symptoms to treatment was 6 days; this was associated with adverse outcome. In conclusion, the incidence of `HSE is higher than recently reported in a national registry study from Sweden. Despite advances in rapid diagnosis and availability of treatment of HSE, approximately three of every four patients die or are left with serious neurological impairment. PMID:25279315

  17. Dynasore Disrupts Trafficking of Herpes Simplex Virus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mues, Mascha B.; Cheshenko, Natalia; Wilson, Duncan W.; Gunther-Cummins, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of the GTPase activity of dynamin, inhibits the entry of several viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), but its impact on other steps in the viral life cycle has not been delineated. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that dynamin is required for viral protein trafficking and thus has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on HSV infection. Dynasore inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection of human epithelial and neuronal cells, including primary genital tract cells and human fetal neurons and astrocytes. Similar results were obtained when cells were transfected with a plasmid expressing dominant negative dynamin. Kinetic studies demonstrated that dynasore reduced the number of viral capsids reaching the nuclear pore if added at the time of viral entry and that, when added as late as 8 h postentry, dynasore blocked the transport of newly synthesized viral proteins from the nucleus to the cytosol. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated that treatment with dynasore prevented the colocalization of VP5 and dynamin. This resulted in a reduction in the number of viral capsids isolated from sucrose gradients. Fewer capsids were observed by electron microscopy in dynasore-treated cells than in control-treated cells. There were also reductions in infectious progeny released into culture supernatants and in cell-to-cell spread. Together, these findings suggest that targeting dynamin-HSV interactions may provide a new strategy for HSV treatment and prevention. IMPORTANCE HSV infections remain a global health problem associated with significant morbidity, particularly in neonates and immunocompromised hosts, highlighting the need for novel approaches to treatment and prevention. The current studies indicate that dynamin plays a role in multiple steps in the viral life cycle and provides a new target for antiviral therapy. Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of dynamin, has pleiotropic effects on HSV-1 and HSV-2

  18. Purification and structural characterization of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, G.E.; Baker, S.A.; Merajver, S.D.; Coligan, J.E.; Levine, M.; Glorioso, J.C.; Nairn, R.

    1987-01-27

    Purification of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C (gC) in microgram amounts yielded sufficient material for an analysis of its secondary structure. Purification was facilitated by using the mutant virus gC-3, which bears a point mutation that interrupts the putative hydrophobic membrane anchor sequence, causing the secretion of gC-3 protein into the cell culture medium. gC-3 protein was purified by size fractionation of concentrated culture medium from infected cells on a gel filtration column of Sephacryl S-200, followed by immunoaffinity chromatography on a column constructed of gC-specific monoclonal antibodies cross-linked to a protein A-Sepharose CL-4B matrix. Purified gC-3 had a molecular weight of 130,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the size expected for gC, was reactive with gC-specific monoclonal antibodies in protein immunoblots, and contained amino acid sequences characteristic of gC as determined by radiochemical amino acid microsequence analyses. Polyclonal antisera obtained from a rabbit immunized with gC-3 reacted with wild-type gC in immunoprecipitation, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoelectroblot (western blot) assays. Deglycosylation by treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid reduced the molecular weight of gC-3 by approximately 35%. Analyses of both native and deglycosylated gC-3 by Raman spectroscopy showed that the native molecule consists of about 17%..cap alpha..-helix, 24% ..beta..-sheet, and 60% disordered secondary structures, whereas deglycosylated gC-3 consists of about 8% ..cap alpha..-helix, 10% ..beta..-sheet, 81% disordered structures. These data were in good agreement with the 11% ..cap alpha..-helix, 18% ..beta..-sheet, 61% ..beta..-turn, and 9% disordered structures calculated from Chou-Fasman analysis of the primary sequence of gC-3.

  19. Recurrent meningitis attributable to herpes simplex virus-2 in a child.

    PubMed

    Moustaki, Maria; Sharifi, Fariba; Stasinopoulou, Anastasia; Fretzayas, Andrew; Karpathios, Themistocles

    2010-05-01

    A boy manifested episodes of recurrent meningitis that were attributed to herpes simplex virus-2 infection. He presented no concurrent or previous history of involvement of the genitourinary system. He exhibited headaches, dizziness, photophobia, loss of balance, and vomiting. He underwent three episodes of aseptic meningitis. The herpes simplex virus-2 etiology was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of the cerebrospinal fluid in the last two episodes. After the third occurrence, he was treated with acyclovir. Five years have elapsed since then, without the recurrence of aseptic meningitis.

  20. Herpes simplex-like infection in a bottlenose dolphin stranded in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Esperón, F; Fernández, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2008-08-19

    A bottlenose dolphin, stranded in the Canary Islands in 2001 exhibited non-suppurative encephalitis. No molecular detection of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) was found, but a herpesviral-specific band of 250 bp was detected in the lung and brain. The sequenced herpesviral PCR product was compared with GenBank sequences, obtaining 98% homology (p-distance of 0.02) with Human herpesvirus 1 (herpes simplex virus 1 or HSV-1). This is the first report of a herpes simplex-like infection in a stranded dolphin. PMID:18828564

  1. Herpes simplex virus infections. New treatment approaches make early diagnosis even more important.

    PubMed

    Nadelman, C M; Newcomer, V D

    2000-03-01

    The herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2 cause problems for millions of people worldwide. Infections range from simple cold sores and fever blisters to severe central nervous system disorders. Development of effective antiviral medications has made prompt recognition important in primary care practice. Appropriate therapy can significantly reduce both medical and psychosocial ramifications of herpes infections and can greatly improve the quality of life for many patients.

  2. Cutaneous neonatal herpes simplex virus infection type 2: a case report*

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Freitas, Lívia Karlla Marinho; Drago, Marion Guimarães; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; do Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdo

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal herpes is a serious condition. Newborns can be contaminated in utero via transplacental hematogenic transmission, upon delivery (the most frequent route), or during the postnatal period (indirect transmission). Optimal management requires prompt and accurate recognition, particularly in newborns, in order to prevent complications. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice, but its implementation is often delayed while awaiting test results, such as PCR and serology. Cytology for diagnostic purposes is rarely used in dermatology, despite the quick and reliable results. We report a case of neonatal herpes caused by type 2 herpes simplex virus diagnosed by cytology. PMID:27192523

  3. Mutation of single hydrophobic residue I27, L35, F39, L58, L65, L67, or L71 in the N terminus of VP5 abolishes interaction with the scaffold protein and prevents closure of herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid shells.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jewell N; Sexton, Gerry L; McCaffery, J Michael; Desai, Prashant

    2003-04-01

    Protein-protein interactions drive the assembly of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid. A key interaction occurs between the C-terminal tail of the scaffold protein (pre-22a) and the major capsid protein (VP5). Previously (Z. Hong, M. Beaudet-Miller, J. Durkin, R. Zhang, and A. D. Kwong, J. Virol. 70:533-540, 1996) it was shown that the minimal domain in the scaffold protein necessary for this interaction was composed of a hydrophobic amphipathic helix. The goal of this study was to identify the hydrophobic residues in VP5 important for this bimolecular interaction. Results from the genetic analysis of second-site revertant virus mutants identified the importance of the N terminus of VP5 for the interaction with the scaffold protein. This allowed us to focus our efforts on a small region of this large polypeptide. Twenty-four hydrophobic residues, starting at L23 and ending at F84, were mutated to alanine. All the mutants were first screened for interaction with pre-22a in the yeast two-hybrid assay. From this in vitro assay, seven residues, I27, L35, F39, L58, L65, L67, and L71, that eliminated the interaction when mutated were identified. All 24 mutants were introduced into the virus genome with a genetic marker rescue/marker transfer system. For this system, viruses and cell lines that greatly facilitated the introduction of the mutants into the genome were made. The same seven mutants that abolished interaction of VP5 with pre-22a resulted in an absolute requirement for wild-type VP5 for growth of the viruses. The viruses encoding these mutations in VP5 were capable of forming capsid shells comprised of VP5, VP19C, VP23, and VP26, but the closure of these shells into an icosahedral structure was prevented. Mutation at L75 did not affect the ability of this protein to interact with pre-22a, as judged from the in vitro assay, but this mutation specified a lethal effect for virus growth and abolished the formation of any detectable assembled structure

  4. Molecular and serologic diagnostic approaches; the prevalence of herpes simplex in idiopathic men infertile

    PubMed Central

    Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA

  5. Highly reliable heterologous system for evaluating resistance of clinical herpes simplex virus isolates to nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Bestman-Smith, J; Schmit, I; Papadopoulou, B; Boivin, G

    2001-04-01

    Clinical resistance of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 to acyclovir (ACV) is usually caused by the presence of point mutations within the coding region of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene. The distinction between viral TK mutations involved in ACV resistance or part of viral polymorphism can be difficult to evaluate with current methodologies based on transfection and homologous recombination. We have developed and validated a new heterologous system based on the expression of the viral TK gene by the protozoan parasite Leishmania, normally devoid of TK activity. The viral TK genes from 5 ACV-susceptible and 13 ACV-resistant clinical HSV isolates and from the reference strains MS2 (type 2) and KOS (type 1) were transfected as part of an episomal expression vector in Leishmania. The susceptibility of TK-recombinant parasites to ganciclovir (GCV), a closely related nucleoside analogue, was evaluated by a simple measurement of the absorbance of Leishmania cultures grown in the presence of the drug. Expression of the TK gene from ACV-susceptible clinical isolates resulted in Leishmania susceptibility to GCV, whereas expression of a TK gene with frameshift mutations or nucleotide substitutions from ACV-resistant isolates gave rise to parasites with high levels of GCV resistance. The expression of the HSV TK gene in Leishmania provides an easy, reliable, and sensitive assay for evaluating HSV susceptibility to nucleoside analogues and for assessing the role of specific viral TK mutations.

  6. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  7. Condoms do not cover everything: an unusual presentation of herpes simplex virus-2 infection.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, R R; van der Meijden, W I

    2007-04-01

    We report on a patient who presented with an unusual manifestation of primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Furthermore, this case again shows that even the correct use of a condom has limited protecting value. We emphasize the usefulness of informing patients carefully about transmission risks of HSV. PMID:17509182

  8. [Fatal fulminating hepatitis due to Herpes simplex virus type 2 in a young immunocompetent female].

    PubMed

    Chauveau, E; Martin, J; Saliba, F; Nicolas, X; Richecoeur, M; Klotz, F

    1999-01-01

    Fulminant herpes simplex viral hepatitis is uncommon in immunocompetent subjects. A 24-year-old woman presenting hepatomegaly with fever was hospitalized after returning from a trip to southern Africa. The patient was neither pregnant nor immunocompromised. Because of recent tropical travel, differential diagnosis included alphabetic hepatotropic virus infection, yellow fever, African hemorrhagic fever, and arbovirus infection. After ruling out other common viral etiologies, a definitive diagnosis of herpes simplex viral infection was made on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings showing high fever, leukopenia, and thrombopenia; of histological examination of the native liver after transplantation showing non-inflammatory confluent focal hemorrhagic necrosis; and on serologic tests demonstrating seroconversion for herpes simplex virus type 2. Outcome after transplantation was rapidly fatal but the death was not directly related to infection. The most likely etiology of fulminant hepatitis in a young woman returning from travel in a tropical area is hepatitis virus B or hepatitis virus E in cases involving pregnancy. However herpes simplex virus should be included in differential diagnosis even in immunocompetent subjects.

  9. Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24-/-cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in d...

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  11. Double encephalitis with herpes simplex virus type II and cytomegalovirus in an elder Chinese: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chaobiao; Chen, Shaoxian; Lin, Qi; Zhou, Houshi; Huang, Chuming; Lin, Jiyuan; Xie, Weihang; Chen, Kai; Zhou, Dongming; Ma, Wan; Ma, Feiyu; Xu, Haiyun

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a rare disease. In adults, most of the reported cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are seen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of 67-year-old Chinese male with the coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II (HSV-II). He had no history of being treated with immunosuppressants, showed symptoms of psychosis and was scored 109 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. This patient presented with a rare case of coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II with psychotic symptoms. PMID:26586947

  12. [Postoperative therapy after penetrating keratoplasty in herpes simplex keratitis].

    PubMed

    Süveges, Ildikó; Füst, Ágnes; Imre, László

    2013-12-29

    Bevezetés: A herpes simplex vírus által okozott szaruhártya-gyulladás a leggyakoribb oka a cornea centrumában kialakuló hegnek, amely látásvesztést okozhat. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célul tűzték ki a perforáló keratoplasztika eredményességének felmérését a szisztémás antiherpeses és immunszuppresszív terápia alkalmazásának tükrében. Módszer: Perforáló keratoplasztikán átesett 12 betegen végezték a retrospektív randomizált vizsgálatot. A műtéti beavatkozásig eltelt idő az első keratitis megjelenésétől számítva átlag 18 év volt (5–40 év). A műtéti indikáció 9 esetben a látás javítása, 3 esetben a cornea perforációjának megelőzése volt. Szisztémás kezelésként 9 beteg herpeszvírus elleni (acyclovir) és immunszuppresszív (mycophenolat mofetil), 2 beteg csak herpeszvírus elleni kezelést kapott, egy betegnél nem alkalmaztak szisztémás terápiát. Az átlagos követési idő 53,1 hónap volt (16–84 hó). Eredmények: A látásjavító célú 9 műtét közül 8 esetben a transzplantátum átlátszóan, ereződés nélkül gyógyult. Mind a 8 beteg acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil kezelésben részesült. Egy esetben – amikor a beteg szisztémás kezelést nem kapott – recidíva és rejectio is fellépett. Az akut gyulladásos tünetekben végzett műtétek közül egyben gyógyult a transzplantátum átlátszóan, recidíva- és rejectiomentesen; a beteg acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil terápiában részesült. Két esetben recidíva és rejectio is fellépett. Ezek közül egyben a beteg acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil, egyben csak acyclovirkezelést kapott. A látóélesség minden esetben javult, 3 esetben a látást egyéb tényezők befolyásolták. Következtetések: A szisztémás acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil terápia sikerrel alkalmazható herpes simplex keratitisben végzett perforáló keratoplasztikák után. Az acyclovir csökkenti a recidívák számát, a

  13. Anti-heparan Sulfate Peptides That Block Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Liu, Jian; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Shukla, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) and its highly modified form, 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS), contribute strongly to herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection in vitro. Here we report results from a random M13-phage display library screening to isolate 12-mer peptides that bind specifically to HS, 3-OS HS, and block HSV-1 entry. The screening identified representative candidates from two-different groups of anti-HS peptides with high positive charge densities. Group 1, represented by G1 peptide (LRSRTKIIRIRH), belongs to a class with alternating charges (XRXRXKXXRXRX), and group 2, represented by G2 peptide (MPRRRRIRRRQK), shows repetitive charges (XXRRRRXRRRXK). Viral entry and glycoprotein D binding assays together with fluorescent microscopy data indicated that both G1 and G2 were potent in blocking HSV-1 entry into primary cultures of human corneal fibroblasts and CHO-K1 cells transiently expressing different glycoprotein D receptors. Interestingly, G2 peptide isolated against 3-OS HS displayed wider ability to inhibit entry of clinically relevant strains of HSV-1 and some divergent members of herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus and human herpesvirus-8. To identify functional residues within G1 and G2, we performed point mutations and alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Several arginine and a lysine residues were needed for anti-HSV-1 activity, suggesting the importance of the positively charged residues in virus-cell binding and virus-induced membrane fusion. In vivo administration of G1 or G2 peptide as a prophylactic eye drop completely blocked HSV-1 spread in the mouse cornea as evident by immunohistochemistry. This result also highlights an in vivo significance of HS and 3-OS HS during ocular herpes infection. PMID:21596749

  14. [Use of the nested polymerase chain reaction in the differential diagnosis of human herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A; Al'tshuler, M L; Severin, S E

    2003-02-01

    Herpes is one of the most widespread human viral pathologies. The article depicts a special modification of polymerized chain reaction--(PCR)--(referred to as "nested"), which has a higher sensitivity, specificity and reliability as compared to the ordinary PCR, and which is designed to detect the herpes viruses. The method was initially tested at purified preparation of viral DNA, and later--at clinical materials obtained from patients and healthy donors. Secretions from the urogenital tract (smears), scrapes from the urogenital tracts and urinal cellular samples were examined in patients. Herpes simplex was detected in all cases. As for the healthy people, the identical examinations produced in them mainly the negative findings. Therefore, the nested PCR is a simple, sensitive and effective instrument in the diagnostics and prevention of herpes; it can be recommended for a comprehensive usage in medical practice.

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus Sepsis in a Young Woman with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Hofmann, Jörg; Kredel, Lea Isabell; Holzem, Christina; Kühl, Anja A; Taube, Eliane T; Schubert, Stefan; Siegmund, Britta; Epple, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a herpes simplex virus-1 [HSV-1] sepsis with severe herpes hepatitis in a young female treated with triple immunosuppressive therapy [adalimumab, azathioprine, prednisolone] for refractory Crohn's disease [CD]. The patient presented with high fever, generalised abdominal tenderness, strongly elevated transaminases, coagulopathy, and pancytopenia. Comprehensive diagnostics including blood HSV-1 polymerase chain reaction [PCR], liver biopsy, and immunohistochemistry revealed the diagnosis of fulminant herpes hepatitis. HSV-1 positivity of cutaneous lesions proved the disseminated nature of the infection. Early treatment with intravenous acyclovir led to a rapid improvement of the patient's condition and resulted in a full recovery of her liver function. This is the first reported case of HSV-sepsis in a patient with CD. Physicians treating inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] patients with combined immunosuppressive therapy should be aware of the possibility of herpes hepatitis, and early empirical antiviral therapy should be considered in immunosuppressed patients presenting with fever and severe anicteric hepatitis.

  16. Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Anna; Narayana, Srinivasulu; Browne, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus have been described in HIV. We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2.

  17. Stimulation of the herpes simplex virus type I protease by antichaeotrophic salts.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, G; DiIanni, C L; O'Boyle, D R; Stevens, J; Weinheimer, S P; Deckman, I C; Matusick-Kumar, L; Colonno, R J

    1995-12-15

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 protease is expressed as an 80,000-dalton polypeptide, encoded within the 635-amino acid open reading frame of the UL26 gene. The two known protein substrates for this enzyme are the protease itself and the capsid assembly protein ICP35 (Liu, F., and Roizman, B. (1991) J. Virol. 65, 5149-5156). In this report we describe the use of a rapid and quantitative assay for characterizing the protease. The assay uses a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the COOH-terminal cleavage site of ICP35 as the substrate (GST-56). The protease consists of N0, the NH2-terminal 247 amino acid catalytic domain of the UL26 gene product, also expressed as a GST fusion protein. Upon cleavage with N0, a single 25-mer peptide is released from GST-56, which is soluble in trichloroacetic acid. Using this assay, the protease displayed a pH optimum between 7 and 9 but most importantly had an absolute requirement for high concentrations of an antichaeotrophic agent. Strong salting out salts such as Na2SO4 and KPO4 (> or = 1 M) stimulated activity, whereas NaCl and KCl had no effect. The degree of stimulation by 1.25 M Na2SO4 and KPO4 were 100-150- and 200-300-fold, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate, the protease was shown to bind the dye in the presence of 1.25 M Na2SO4 or KPO4, but not at low ionic strength or in the presence of 1.25 or 2.2 M NaCl. This binding was most likely at the protease active site because a high affinity cleavage site peptide, but not a control peptide, could displace the dye. In addition to cleaving GST-56, the herpes simplex virus type I protease also cleaved the purified 56-mer peptide. Circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy showed the peptide to be primarily random coil under physiological conditions, suggesting that antichaeotrophic agents affect the conformation of the substrate as well as the protease.

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus and Interferon Signaling Induce Novel Autophagic Clusters in Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Katzenell, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong infection in the neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG), cycling between productive infection and latency. Neuronal antiviral responses are driven by type I interferon (IFN) and are crucial to controlling HSV-1 virulence. Autophagy also plays a role in this neuronal antiviral response, but the mechanism remains obscure. In this study, HSV-1 infection of murine TG neurons triggered unusual clusters of autophagosomes, predominantly in neurons lacking detectable HSV-1 antigen. Treatment of neurons with IFN-β induced a similar response, and cluster formation by infection or IFN treatment was dependent upon an intact IFN-signaling pathway. The autophagic clusters were decorated with both ISG15, an essential effecter of the antiviral response, and p62, a selective autophagy receptor. The autophagic clusters were not induced by rapamycin or starvation, consistent with a process of selective autophagy. While clusters were triggered by other neurotropic herpesviruses, infection with unrelated viruses failed to induce this response. Following ocular infection in vivo, clusters formed exclusively in the infected ophthalmic branch of the TG. Taken together, our results show that infection with HSV and antiviral signaling in TG neurons produce an unorthodox autophagic response. This autophagic clustering is associated with antiviral signaling, the presence of viral genome, and the absence of HSV protein expression and may therefore represent an important neuronal response to HSV infection and the establishment of latency. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous virus and a significant cause of morbidity and some mortality. It is the causative agent of benign cold sores, but it can also cause blindness and life-threatening encephalitis. The success of HSV-1 is largely due to its ability to establish lifelong latent infections in neurons and to occasionally reactivate. The exact mechanisms by which

  19. Structural analysis of herpes simplex virus by optical super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Laine, Romain F; Albecka, Anna; van de Linde, Sebastian; Rees, Eric J; Crump, Colin M; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is one of the most widespread pathogens among humans. Although the structure of HSV-1 has been extensively investigated, the precise organization of tegument and envelope proteins remains elusive. Here we use super-resolution imaging by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) in combination with a model-based analysis of single-molecule localization data, to determine the position of protein layers within virus particles. We resolve different protein layers within individual HSV-1 particles using multi-colour dSTORM imaging and discriminate envelope-anchored glycoproteins from tegument proteins, both in purified virions and in virions present in infected cells. Precise characterization of HSV-1 structure was achieved by particle averaging of purified viruses and model-based analysis of the radial distribution of the tegument proteins VP16, VP1/2 and pUL37, and envelope protein gD. From this data, we propose a model of the protein organization inside the tegument.

  20. Activity of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide against herpes simplex viruses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huheihel, Mahmoud; Ishanu, Vladimir; Tal, Jacov; Arad, Shoshana Malis

    2002-01-01

    The cell wall sulfated polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. exhibited impressive antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (rats and rabbits). Depending on the concentration, this polysaccharide completely inhibited or slowed down the development of the cytopathic effect in HSV-infected cells, but did not show any cytotoxic effects on vero cells even when a concentration as high as 250 microg/ml was used. There was indirect evidence for a strong interaction between the polysaccharide and HSV and a weak interaction with the cell surface. When tested in vivo, Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide conferred significant and efficient protection against HSV-1 infection: at a concentration as low as 100 microg/ml, it prevented the appearance and development of symptoms of HSV-1 infection in rats and rabbits. The polysaccharide did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in vivo.

  1. Asymptomatic vaginal herpes simplex virus infections in mice: virology and pathohistology.

    PubMed

    Podlech, J; Hengerer, F; Fleck, M; Eray, K; D Falke

    1996-01-01

    One of the causes of genital tract infections in humans are herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2). Although primary and recurrent infections can be clinically apparent and in part very serious, many infections are asymptomatic and result only in temporary genital shedding of virus (recurrences). During our investigations of vaginitis, strain IES of HSV-1 produced an asymptomatic infection. Replication in the murine vaginal (vag.) epithelium as well as antibody formation after vag. infection was comparable to those of survivors after infection with highly virulent strains. Titration of liver, spleen, ovaries, adrenal glands spinal cord, or brain after vag. IES infection revealed no virus, whereas after i.p. infection virus could be demonstrated in many organs examined. Histological examination with a DNA probe (in situ hybridisation), HSV antibodies (immunohistochemistry), and haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed only small focal HSV lesions of the vaginal epithelium in early stages of the infection, never exceeding to the subepithelial tissue. Severe infiltrations and ulcerations after infection with highly virulent strains (17syn +, ER-) could never be demonstrated after IES vag. infection. Identical replication rates of both groups of HSV despite much greater areas of epithelial necrosis with the virulent strains may be explained by the large number of virus inactivating granulocytes induced by the virulent strains, thus inactivating the hypothetical higher virus load.

  2. Anti herpes simplex-1 activity of a standard extract of Zataria multiflora Boiss.

    PubMed

    Arabzadeh, Ali Mohammad; Ansari-Dogaheh, Mehdi; Sharififar, Fariba; Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Heidarbeigi, Mahnaz

    2013-02-15

    In Rosmarinic Acid (RA) is a phenolic acid which has many biological activities such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory and anti viral effects. In the present study, we have studied the anti Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) effect of methanolic extract of Zataria multiflora which has been standardized on the basis of RA content. Methanolic extract of Zatria multiflora was prepared by maceration method. RA content of plant extract was measured by spectrophotometry method using the calibration curve of RA. Maximum non Toxic Concentration (MNTC) of the plant was determined by neutral red method. MNTC and lower serial dilutions of extract were examined in vitro on vero cells for their effect against HSV-1 using a plaque reduction assay. Acyclovir was used as positive control. Time-dependent antiviral effect of Z. multiflora was studied by adding the extract to HSV-1 infected vero cells at different stages of infection. The percentage of RA was determined as 2.2% in Z. multiflora. This plant was effective in all used concentrations and significantly reduced plaque formation up to 100% at concentrations of 800 and 1000 microg mL(-1). Clearly Z. multiflora revealed both a time and concentration inhibition. It seems that the presence of rosmarinic acid would be a determining factor for anti HSV activity of Z. multiflora.

  3. Herpes simplex virus-cell interactions studied by immunogold cryosection electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helle Lone; Norrild, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    A technique is presented for high-resolution postembedding immunolocalization of one or two (or several) antigens in the same ultrathin cryosection using primary monoclonal antibodies from the same species. The optimized three-layer indirect immunogold-labeled cryosection electron microscopy described is recommended for studies of virus-cell interactions, because: (1) it is a simple and reproducible method; (2) colloidal gold markers are electron-dense, stable, and easy to recognize; (3) the membraneous ultrastructure and immunolabeling are well preserved; (4) immunolabeling is less in the two-layer method; (5) silver-enhanced gold particles vary in size and shape; (6) it is possible to demonstrate herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins gC-1 and gD-1 in the nuclear membranes and gC-1- and gD-1-labeled viral particles in the perinuclear space and to observe virions in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi area. The use of buffered 3% paraformaldehyde plus 2% glutaraldehyde for 2 h at room temperature effectively destroys free anti-IgG binding sites on the secondary antibodies in double-labeling immunogold cryosection electron microscopy and is recommended because: (1) inactivation is obtained through buffered primary fixative; (2) the method is simple and reproducible; (3) cross-labeling is effectively avoided; (4) silver-intensification, high temperature, and methyl cellulose cover of ultrathin cryosections are avoided between the staining sequences; and (5) ultrastructure and antigenicity are well preserved.

  4. Toxicity studies in thymidine kinase-deficient herpes simplex virus therapy for malignant astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, W W; Tan, J; Redekop, G J; Goldie, J H

    1996-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that genetically engineered thymidine kinase (tk)-defective herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can effectively and selectively destroy gliomas in animal models. The consequences of viral infection and tumor regression must be characterized before this therapy can be applied in human trials. To study the potential for long-term toxicity, immunocompetent rats harboring 9L gliosarcomas were injected intratumorally with a tk-defective HSV-1, KOS-SB, at titers that previously have been demonstrated to cause tumor regression. In animals surviving 3 months or longer following viral treatment, there was no evidence of persistent infection or inflammation in peritumoral brain tissue or in remote systemic organs studied with routine histological and immunocytochemical analyses. Polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for HSV-1 detected HSV-1 DNA in peritumoral tissue only in animals sacrificed within 3 months of viral injection. There was no evidence of HSV-1 DNA in systemic tissues at any time after treatment. We conclude that stereotactic intratumoral injection of tk-deficient HSV can be attempted for the treatment of brain tumors without risk of systemic infection or significant toxicity to normal brain or remote proliferating tissues. PMID:8814171

  5. The herpes simplex virus 1 U{sub S}3 regulates phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, Peter; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Sonda, Sabrina; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Ackermann, Mathias; Tobler, Kurt

    2012-10-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear and Golgi membranes for envelopment by phospholipid bilayers. In the absence of U{sub S}3, nuclear membranes form multiple folds harboring virions that suggests disturbance in membrane turnover. Therefore, we investigated phospholipid metabolism in cells infected with the U{sub S}3 deletion mutant R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), and quantified membranes involved in viral envelopment. We report that (i) [{sup 3}H]-choline incorporation into nuclear membranes and cytoplasmic membranes was enhanced peaking at 12 or 20 h post inoculation with wild type HSV-1 and R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), respectively, (ii) the surface area of nuclear membranes increased until 24 h of R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection forming folds that equaled {approx}45% of the nuclear surface, (iii) the surface area of viral envelopes between nuclear membranes equaled {approx}2400 R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) virions per cell, and (iv) during R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection, the Golgi complex expanded dramatically. The data indicate that U{sub S}3 plays a significant role in regulation of membrane biosynthesis.

  6. Structural analysis of herpes simplex virus by optical super-resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Romain F.; Albecka, Anna; van de Linde, Sebastian; Rees, Eric J.; Crump, Colin M.; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is one of the most widespread pathogens among humans. Although the structure of HSV-1 has been extensively investigated, the precise organization of tegument and envelope proteins remains elusive. Here we use super-resolution imaging by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) in combination with a model-based analysis of single-molecule localization data, to determine the position of protein layers within virus particles. We resolve different protein layers within individual HSV-1 particles using multi-colour dSTORM imaging and discriminate envelope-anchored glycoproteins from tegument proteins, both in purified virions and in virions present in infected cells. Precise characterization of HSV-1 structure was achieved by particle averaging of purified viruses and model-based analysis of the radial distribution of the tegument proteins VP16, VP1/2 and pUL37, and envelope protein gD. From this data, we propose a model of the protein organization inside the tegument.

  7. Cytotoxic T cells against herpes simplex virus in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hamzaoui, K; Kahan, A; Ayed, K; Hamza, M

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 36 patients with Behçet's disease (20 in remission and 16 in active phase) were stimulated in vitro with herpes simplex virus and then tested for their ability to generate cytotoxic T cell responses to the virus. Significant cytotoxic responses were found. CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations from the patients in remission generated specific cytotoxic activity against autologous target cells. These observations suggested that CD4+ and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells may have an important host response in herpes virus infection in Behçet's disease. PMID:2168823

  8. Tumour-like presentations of anogenital herpes simplex in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Ranu, H; Lee, J; Chio, M; Sen, P

    2011-04-01

    Genital and perianal ulcers seen in patients with HIV are commonly due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. While it is well known that the characteristic presentation of HSV is a vesicular rash or crops of erosions, the clinical presentation of genital HSV infection in HIV is varied and can assume vegetative, hypertrophic, condyloma-like, nodular, ulcerative and tumour-like nodules or plaques. These unusual presentations often lead to a delayed diagnosis. We describe five immunocompromised HIV-positive patients with CD4 counts ranging from 114 to 326 cells/μL with unusual presentations of anogenital herpes.

  9. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

    1987-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

  10. Herpes simplex virus-2 infection. An emerging disease?

    PubMed

    Schomogyi, M; Wald, A; Corey, L

    1998-03-01

    Genital herpes infections continue to increase in the world. As outlined previously, several factors play a role in the continued transmission of genital herpes worldwide. Reducing the medical consequences of HSV-2 infection will not be easy. It is also sobering to realize that widespread penetration of HSV-2 into the population had preceded the spread of sexually acquired HIV in most countries. The biological rationale for a connection between HIV and HSV continues to be strengthened. Currently, a specific program to decrease the transmission of genital herpes does not exist. Recent studies with antiviral agents indicate the potential of these compounds to reduce shedding in HIV-negative and in HIV-positive persons and potentially may be useful in preventing some aspects of HSV transmission. Advances in laboratory techniques to assist in the diagnosis of genital herpes infections have added to our knowledge of the natural history and epidemiology of infection. Because of imperfect laboratory tests, negative results do not always indicate lack of infection; this has important public health implications. Large numbers of unrecognized symptomatic cases and frequent asymptomatic shedding are the likely source of continued genital HSV-2 transmission. Solutions for reducing the transmission of genital herpes range from simple, such as counseling patients regarding symptoms and signs of genital herpes and the frequency of subclinical shedding, to complex and expensive, such as screening high risk populations (e.g., STD clinic attendees) for HSV-2 infection. Chronic antiviral therapy may be indicated in HSV-2 seropositive persons without monogamous relationships as they are at risk to transmit HSV to multiple persons. The authors' aim in this review is to provoke discussion of such a control program and to raise the consciousness of the feasibility of instituting control measures for selected populations. We hope to elicit pilot programs designed to reduce the morbidity

  11. Production of a fragment of glycoprotein G of herpes simplex virus type 2 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Ji Feng; Yu, Hua; Si, Guo Jing; Hu, Jun; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes. Glycoprotein G (gG) is a prototype antigen for type-specific serodiagnosis distinguishing between HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 infections. As immunological diagnosis kits for accurate differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies can be expensive, there is a need to develop a convenient, sensitive, specific and cost-effective serodiagnostic kit. METHODS We successfully expressed a fragment of gG comprising residues 321–580 of HSV-2 with histidine tag (gG321–580His) in a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, which had an antigenicity similar to its native counterpart. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using gG321–580His as the diagnostic antigen and evaluated by comparison with a commercial HerpeSelect 2 ELISA immunoglobulin G kit as reference. RESULTS In testing 318 field serum samples, the diagnostic relative sensitivity and specificity of the developed gG321–580His-ELISA test in qualitative comparison with the commercial kit were 93.81% and 96.74%, respectively, and the accuracy was 94.65%. CONCLUSION The study indicates that gG321–580His has a high diagnostic potential for HSV-2 virus serodiagnosis in humans. PMID:25532518

  12. Application of low-intensity laser in the treatment of Herpes simplex recidivans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We made our aim to investigate the effect of the low intensive laser with λ=630 nm in the visible red spectrum of light at Herpes simplex treatment. For this purpose we carried out a clinical research upon 62 persons with Herpes simplex lesions which have been divided into two groups of 31 persons. At the first group the effect of laser with power density 100 mW/cm2 +/- 5 mW/cm2 and time of exposure 3 min. on field was traced out. At the second group the low intensive laser with the same characteristics has been used but in combination with the patent medicine Granofurin H as a photosensibilizer. The clinical approbations of this method showed high therapeutical effectiveness. The obtained results showed that at both groups there is an expressed anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect and at the second group with the use of Granofurin H the reconvalescent period is shorter.

  13. Engineered herpes simplex virus expressing IL-12 in the treatment of experimental murine brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jacqueline N.; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Love, Cammy E.; Randall, Suzanne; Whitley, Richard J.; Markert, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Genetically engineered, neuroattenuated herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) expressing various cytokines can improve survival when used in the treatment of experimental brain tumors. These attenuated viruses have both copies of γ134.5 deleted. Recently, we demonstrated increased survival of C57BL/6 mice bearing syngeneic GL-261 gliomas when treated with an engineered HSV expressing IL-4, as compared with treatment with the parent construct (γ134.5−) alone or with a virus expressing IL-10. Herein, we report construction of a conditionally replication-competent mutant expressing both subunits of mIL-12 (M002) and its evaluation in a syngeneic neuroblastoma murine model. IL-12 induces a helper T cell subset type 1 response, which may induce more durable antitumor effects. In vitro studies showed that, when infected with M002, both Vero cells and murine Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells produced physiologically relevant levels of IL-12 heterodimers, as determined by ELISA. M002 was cytotoxic for Neuro-2a cells and human glioma cell lines U251MG and D54MG. Neurotoxicity studies, as defined by plaque-forming units/LD50, performed in HSV-1-sensitive A/J strain mice found that M002 was not toxic even at high doses. When evaluated in an intracranial syngeneic neuroblastoma murine model, median survival of M002-treated animals was significantly longer than the median survival of animals treated with R3659, the parent γ134.5− mutant lacking any cytokine gene insert. Immunohistochemical analysis of M002-treated tumors identified a pronounced influx of CD4+ T cells and macrophages as well as CD8+ cells when compared with an analysis of R3659-treated tumors. We conclude that M002 produced a survival benefit via oncolytic effects combined with immunologic effects meditated by helper T cells of subset type 1. PMID:10681459

  14. Effects of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 on herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus replication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; McGrath, M. S.; Hanks, D.; Erickson, S.; Pulliam, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the direct effect of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 (dmPGA1) on the replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). dmPGA1 significantly inhibited viral replication in both HSV and HIV infection systems at concentrations of dmPGA1 that did not adversely alter cellular DNA synthesis. The 50% inhibitory concentration (ID50) for several HSV type 1 (HSV-1) strains ranged from 3.8 to 5.6 micrograms/ml for Vero cells and from 4.6 to 7.3 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. The ID50s for two HSV-2 strains varied from 3.8 to 4.5 micrograms/ml for Vero cells; the ID50 was 5.7 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. We found that closely related prostaglandins did not have the same effect on the replication of HSV; dmPGE2 and dmPGA2 caused up to a 60% increase in HSV replication compared with that in untreated virus-infected cells. HIV-1 replication in acutely infected T cells (VB line) and chronically infected macrophages was assessed by quantitative decreases in p24 concentration. The effective ID50s were 2.5 micrograms/ml for VB cells acutely infected with HIV-1 and 5.2 micrograms/m for chronically infected macrophages. dmPGA1 has an unusual broad-spectrum antiviral activity against both HSV and HIV-1 in vitro and offers a new class of potential therapeutic agents for in vivo use.

  15. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmus, K R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days

  16. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmus, K R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days

  17. Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Padma, P; Pramod, N P; Thyagarajan, S P; Khosa, R L

    1998-05-01

    Annona muricata (Annonaceae) and Petunia nyctaginiflora (Solanaceae) were screened for their activity against Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and clinical isolate (obtained from the human keratitis lesion). We have looked at the ability of extract(s) to inhibit the cytopathic effect of HSV-1 on vero cells as indicative of anti-HSV-1 potential. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanolic extract of A. muricata and aqueous extract of P. nyctaginiflora was found to be 1 mg/ml.

  18. Ascending in utero herpes simplex virus infection in an initially healthy-appearing premature infant.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Morven S; Popek, Edwina J; Wise, Brittany; Hatzenbuehler, Lindsay; Arunachalam, Athis R; Hair, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    The usual route of acquisition for intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is transplacental. We evaluated a premature infant with in utero acquisition of HSV resulting from ascending infection. Histopathologic evidence of chronic chorioamnionitis and positive staining with immunohistochemistry for HSV in the placenta and umbilical cord established the diagnosis. The clinical presentation was also of interest in that the infant was initially healthy appearing.

  19. Genome Sequence of the Anterograde-Spread-Defective Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain MacIntyre

    PubMed Central

    Tafuri, Yolanda R.; Parsons, Lance; Shreve, Jacob T.; Engel, Esteban A.; Enquist, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    We used paired-end Illumina deep sequencing and de novo assembly to determine the genome sequence of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain MacIntyre (aka McIntyre). The MacIntyre strain originated from the brain of a patient with lethal HSV encephalitis and has a unique limitation in its neuronal spread, moving solely in the retrograde direction. PMID:25395637

  20. Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant. PMID:19023806

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Adult: A Fatal Outcome due to Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Poley, Rachel A.; Snowdon, Jaime F.; Howes, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To present a case of a healthy 41-year-old female who developed fulminant hepatic failure leading to death. The cause of hepatic failure identified on postmortem exam was herpes simplex virus hepatitis. Design. Observation of a single patient. Setting. Intensive care unit of a tertiary care university teaching hospital in Canada. Patient. 41-year-old previously healthy female presenting with a nonspecific viral illness and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Intervention. The patient was treated with intravenous fluids and broad-spectrum antibiotics. On the second day of admission, she was found to have elevated transaminases, and, over 48 hours, she progressed to fulminant liver failure with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, refractory lactic acidosis, and shock. She progressed to respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. She was started on N-acetylcysteine, a bicarbonate infusion, hemodialysis, and multiple vasopressors and inotropes. Measurements and Main Results. Despite treatment, the patient died roughly 70 hours after her initial presentation to hospital. Her postmortem liver biopsy revealed herpes simplex virus hepatitis as her cause of death. Conclusions. Herpes simplex virus must be considered in all patients presenting with liver failure of unknown cause. If suspected, prompt treatment with acyclovir should be initiated. PMID:24826316

  2. Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant.

  3. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir for the treatment of primary genital herpes simplex: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinder, Melissa; Wright, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The current guidelines for the treatment of primary herpes simplex in the Genito-urinary department in Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, recommend valaciclovir as a first-line medication. This is a prodrug of aciclovir, which has been used for many years as a treatment for primary herpes simplex virus. The basis of the recommendation largely relates to valaciclovir being more bioavailable than aciclovir. However, there is no evidence to suggest this has an effect on overall outcome with regard to symptom control and viral shedding. The purpose of the service evaluation was to discover if significant cost savings could be made by changing the prescribing policy to make aciclovir the drug of choice for primary herpes simplex virus. Based on 160 patients receiving valaciclovir (500 mg BD) during April 2013 and March 2014, if they had been treated with aciclovir (400 mg TDS) instead, a saving of £828.80 (66% reduction) could have been made.

  4. Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis by ELISA Using Antipeptide Antibodies Against Type-Common Epitopes of Glycoprotein B of Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Shradha S; Chandak, Nitin H; Baheti, Neeraj N; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) represents one of the most severe infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). As effective antiviral drugs are available, an early, rapid, and reliable diagnosis has become important. The objective of this article was to develop a sensitive ELISA protocol for herpes simplex viruses (HSV) antigen detection and quantitation by assessing the usefulness of antipeptide antibodies against potential peptides of HSV glycoprotein B (gB). A total of 180 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of HSE and non-HSE patients were analyzed using a panel of antipeptide antibodies against synthetic peptides of HSV glycoprotein gB. The cases of confirmed and suspected HSE showed 80% and 51% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide QLHDLRF and 77% and 53% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide MKALYPLTT, respectively for the detection of HSV antigen in CSF. The concentration of HSV antigen was found to be higher in confirmed HSE as compared to suspected HSE group and the viral load correlated well with antigen concentration obtained using the two antipeptides in CSF of confirmed HSE group. This is the first article describing the use of antibodies obtained against synthetic peptides derived from HSV in diagnostics of HSE using patients' CSF samples.

  5. Immunological Signaling During Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Cytomegalovirus Vaginal Shedding After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment.

    PubMed

    Nason, Martha C; Patel, Eshan U; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Prodger, Jessica L; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Tobian, Aaron A R; Gianella, Sara; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kaul, Rupert; Gray, Ronald H; Quinn, Thomas C; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J; Redd, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation. PMID:27191006

  6. Immunological Signaling During Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Cytomegalovirus Vaginal Shedding After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment.

    PubMed

    Nason, Martha C; Patel, Eshan U; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Prodger, Jessica L; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Tobian, Aaron A R; Gianella, Sara; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kaul, Rupert; Gray, Ronald H; Quinn, Thomas C; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J; Redd, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation.

  7. Immunological Signaling During Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Cytomegalovirus Vaginal Shedding After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Martha C.; Patel, Eshan U.; Kirkpatrick, Allison R.; Prodger, Jessica L.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Gianella, Sara; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kaul, Rupert; Gray, Ronald H.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J.; Redd, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation. PMID:27191006

  8. Localization and synthesis of an antigenic determinant of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D that stimulates the production of neutralizing antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, G.H.; Dietzschold, B.; Ponce de Leon, M.; Long, D.; Golub, E.; Varrichio, A.; Pereira, L.; Eisenberg, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    An antigenic determinant capable of inducing type-common herpes simplex virus (HSV)-neutralizing antibodies has been located on glycoprotein D (gD) of HSV type 1 (HSV-1). A peptide of 16 amino acids corresponding to residues 8 to 23 of the mature glycoprotein (residues 33 to 48 of the predicted gD-1 sequence) was synthesized. This peptide reacted with an anti-gD monoclonal antibody (group VII) previously shown to neutralize the infectivity of HSV-1 and HSV-2. The peptide was also recognized by polyclonal antibodies prepared against purified gD-1 but was less reactive with anti-gD2 sera. Sera from animals immunized with the synthetic peptide reacted with native gD and neutralized both HSV-1 and HSV-2.

  9. Early decompressive hemicraniectomy in fulminant herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Maraite, N; Mataigne, F; Pieri, V; Dang, T; Diederich, N J

    2010-01-01

    Herpes encephalitis can be a life-threatening condition, despite early instauration of acyclovir treatment. In particular patients may succumb to rapidly progressive cerebral oedema. We report a 66-year patient with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 6 and incipient uncus herniation of the right temporal lobe on the third day. Decompressive hemicraniectomy was immediately performed. The long-term outcome was satisfactory with unassisted gait and a Barthel Index score of 70 after 9 months.

  10. Early decompressive hemicraniectomy in fulminant herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Maraite, N; Mataigne, F; Pieri, V; Dang, T; Diederich, N J

    2009-01-01

    Herpes encephalitis can be a life-threatening condition, despite early instauration of acyclovir treatment. In particular patients may succumb to rapidly progressive cerebral oedema. We report a 66-year patient with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 6 and incipient uncus herniation of the right temporal lobe on the third day. Decompressive hemicraniectomy was immediately performed. The long-term outcome was satisfactory with unassisted gait and a Barthel Index score of 70 after 9 months.

  11. [Japanese guidelines for the management of herpes simplex encephalitis; comparison with those from the International Management Herpes Forum].

    PubMed

    Shoji, Hiroshi

    2006-11-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is still recognized as a severe sporadic encephalitis, although the mortality and morbidity rates have been decreased to 10% and 30%, respectively. This disease is diagnosed using clinical symptoms, CSF, EEG, CT, MRI, and virologic tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA). Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for HSE. However, the early symptoms of this disease are various, and the laboratory diagnostic criteria are unclear to the non-specialist. In 2005, Japanese guidelines for the management of HSE have been issued via two sets of Workshops at the Japanese Neuroinfectious Disease Congress. The diagnostic and therapeutic criteria were discussed in comparison with those from the International Management Herpes Forum (IMHF) in 2004. For a definitive diagnosis, CSF PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV) is recommended, and the detection rate has been reported to be 60 to 80% within the 7th day of the illness. In the IMHF, the PCR method has also been the primary method for early diagnosis and for monitoring the therapy. Further, quantitative real-time PCR has become available for measuring the effectiveness of aciclovir therapy. To measure HSV antibody levels, complement antibody (CF), neutralizing antibody (NT), or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or EIA) are available. Significant elevation of EIA IgG or intrathecal HSV antibody production should be shown, although these antibody responses often appear two weeks after the onset of HSE. Regarding anti-herpesvirus drugs, in both Japanese and IMHF guidelines aciclovir is consistent with the first choice, and it is recommended that its administration would be started as soon as HSE is suspected on the basis of clinical pictures, CT * MRI, EEG, or CSF findings. However, antiviral therapy may be discontinued if a negative CSF HSV PCR is obtained at > 72 hours after onset. A recent Japanese study shows the efficacy of a combination

  12. Reversible nerve damage and corneal pathology in murine herpes simplex stromal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hongmin; Rowe, Alexander M; Lathrop, Kira L; Harvey, Stephen A K; Hendricks, Robert L

    2014-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) shedding from sensory neurons can trigger recurrent bouts of herpes stromal keratitis (HSK), an inflammatory response that leads to progressive corneal scarring and blindness. A mouse model of HSK is often used to delineate immunopathogenic mechanisms and bears many of the characteristics of human disease, but it tends to be more chronic and severe than human HSK. Loss of blink reflex (BR) in human HSK is common and due to a dramatic retraction of corneal sensory nerve termini in the epithelium and the nerve plexus at the epithelial/stromal interface. However, the relationship between loss of BR due to nerve damage and corneal pathology associated with HSK remains largely unexplored. Here, we show a similar retraction of corneal nerves in mice with HSK. Indeed, we show that much of the HSK-associated corneal inflammation in mice is actually attributable to damage to the corneal nerves and accompanying loss of BR and can be prevented or ameliorated by tarsorrhaphy (suturing eyelids closed), a clinical procedure commonly used to prevent corneal exposure and desiccation. In addition, we show that HSK-associated nerve retraction, loss of BR, and severe pathology all are reversible and regulated by CD4(+) T cells. Thus, defining immunopathogenic mechanisms of HSK in the mouse model will necessitate distinguishing mechanisms associated with the immunopathologic response to the virus from those associated with loss of corneal sensation. Based on our findings, investigation of a possible contribution of nerve damage and BR loss to human HSK also appears warranted. Importance: HSK in humans is a potentially blinding disease characterized by recurrent inflammation and progressive scarring triggered by viral release from corneal nerves. Corneal nerve damage is a known component of HSK, but the causes and consequences of HSK-associated nerve damage remain obscure. We show that desiccation of the corneal surface due to nerve damage and

  13. Evidence for translational regulation by the herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff protein.

    PubMed

    Saffran, Holly A; Read, G Sullivan; Smiley, James R

    2010-06-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) virion host shutoff protein (vhs) encoded by gene UL41 is an mRNA-specific RNase that triggers accelerated degradation of host and viral mRNAs in infected cells. We report here that vhs is also able to modulate reporter gene expression without greatly altering the levels of the target mRNA in transient-transfection assays conducted in HeLa cells. We monitored the effects of vhs on a panel of bicistronic reporter constructs bearing a variety of internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) located between two test cistrons. As expected, vhs inhibited the expression of the 5' cistrons of all of these constructs; however, the response of the 3' cistron varied with the IRES: expression driven from the wild-type EMCV IRES was strongly suppressed, while expression controlled by a mutant EMCV IRES and the cellular ApaF1, BiP, and DAP5 IRES elements was strongly activated. In addition, several HSV type 1 (HSV-1) 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequences also served as positive vhs response elements in this assay. IRES activation was also observed in 293 and HepG2 cells, but no such response was observed in Vero cells. Mutational analysis has yet to uncouple the ability of vhs to activate 3' cistron expression from its shutoff activity. Remarkably, repression of 5' cistron expression could be observed under conditions where the levels of the reporter RNA were not correspondingly reduced. These data provide strong evidence that vhs can modulate gene expression at the level of translation and that it is able to activate cap-independent translation through specific cis-acting elements.

  14. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff (vhs) activity alters periocular disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Ackland-Berglund, C E; Leib, D A

    2000-04-01

    During lytic infection, the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein of herpes simplex virus (HSV) mediates the rapid degradation of RNA and shutoff of host protein synthesis. In mice, HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants lacking vhs activity are profoundly attenuated. HSV-2 has significantly higher vhs activity than HSV-1, eliciting a faster and more complete shutoff. To examine further the role of vhs activity in pathogenesis, we generated an intertypic recombinant virus (KOSV2) in which the vhs open reading frame of HSV-1 strain KOS was replaced with that of HSV-2 strain 333. KOSV2 and a marker-rescued virus, KOSV2R, were characterized in cell culture and tested in an in vivo mouse eye model of latency and pathogenesis. The RNA degradation kinetics of KOSV2 was identical to that of HSV-2 333, and both showed vhs activity significantly higher than that of KOS. This demonstrated that the fast vhs-mediated degradation phenotype of 333 had been conferred upon KOS. The growth of KOSV2 was comparable to that of KOS, 333, and KOSV2R in cell culture, murine corneas, and trigeminal ganglia and had a reactivation frequency similar to those of KOS and KOSV2R from explanted latently infected trigeminal ganglia. There was, however, significantly reduced blepharitis and viral replication within the periocular skin of KOSV2-infected mice compared to mice infected with either KOS or KOSV2R. Taken together, these data demonstrate that heightened vhs activity, in the context of HSV-1 infection, leads to increased viral clearance from the skin of mice and that the replication of virus in the skin is a determining factor for blepharitis. These data also suggest a role for vhs in modulating host responses to HSV infection.

  15. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 2 virion host shutoff (vhs) mutants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracy J; Morrison, Lynda A; Leib, David A

    2002-03-01

    During lytic infection, the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein mediates the rapid degradation of mRNA and the shutoff of host protein synthesis. In vivo, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutants lacking vhs activity are profoundly attenuated. Homologs of vhs exist in all of the neurotropic herpesviruses, and the goal of this study was to determine the virulence of HSV-2 mutants lacking vhs. Two HSV-2 recombinants were used in this study: 333-vhsB, which has a lacZ cassette inserted into the N terminus of vhs, and 333d41, which has a 939-bp deletion in vhs. As expected, both 333-vhsB and 333d41 failed to induce the cellular RNA degradation characteristic of HSV. Corneal, vaginal, and intracerebral routes of infection were used to study pathogenesis. Both viruses grew to significantly lower titers in the corneas, trigeminal ganglia, vaginas, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cords, and brains of mice than wild-type and rescue viruses, with a correspondingly reduced induction of disease. Both viruses, however, reactivated efficiently from explanted trigeminal ganglia, showing that vhs is dispensable for reactivation. The lethality of 333d41 following peripheral infection of mice, however, was significantly higher than that of 333-vhsB, suggesting that some of the attenuation of 333-vhsB may be due to the presence of a lacZ cassette in the vhs locus. Taken together, these data show that vhs represents an important determinant of HSV-2 pathogenesis and have implications for the design of HSV-2 recombinants and vaccines.

  16. Evidence for a novel regulatory pathway for herpes simplex virus gene expression in trigeminal ganglion neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Kosz-Vnenchak, M; Jacobson, J; Coen, D M; Knipe, D M

    1993-01-01

    Thymidine kinase (TK)-negative (TK-) mutant strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) show reduced expression of alpha and beta viral genes during acute infection of trigeminal ganglion neurons following corneal infection (M. Kosz-Vnenchak, D. M. Coen, and D. M. Knipe, J. Virol. 64:5396-5402, 1990). It was surprising that a defect in a beta gene product would lead to decreased alpha and beta gene expression, given the regulatory pathways demonstrated for HSV infection of cultured cells. In this study, we have examined viral gene expression during reactivation from latent infection in explanted trigeminal ganglion tissue. In explant reactivation studies with wild-type virus, we observed viral productive gene expression over the first 48 h of explant incubation occurring in a temporal order (alpha, beta, gamma) similar to that in cultured cells. This occurred predominantly in latency-associated transcript-positive neurons but was limited to a fraction of these cells. In contrast, TK- mutant viruses showed greatly reduced alpha and beta gene expression upon explant of latently infected trigeminal ganglion tissue. An inhibitor of viral TK or an inhibitor of viral DNA polymerase greatly decreased viral lytic gene expression in trigeminal ganglion tissue latently infected with wild-type virus and explanted in culture. These results indicate that the regulatory mechanisms governing HSV gene expression are different in trigeminal ganglion neurons and cultured cells. We present a new model for viral gene expression in trigeminal ganglion neurons with implications for the nature of the decision process between latent infection and productive infection by HSV. Images PMID:8394454

  17. Effect of black tea extract on herpes simplex virus-1 infection of cultured cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation was to determine if black tea extract (BTE), consisting primarily of flavanol compounds called theaflavins, could inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection in cultured A549 (human epithelial) and Vero cells. Methods The effect of BTE both on A549 and Vero cultured cells and on HSV-1 was assessed by using phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy, and cell viability and proliferation assays. After establishing the maximum non-cytotoxic concentration of BTE, A549 and Vero cells and HSV-1 virions were treated with varying concentrations of BTE, respectively. A549 and Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) insert at the UL46 gene. The effect of infectivity was determined by viral DNA extraction followed by PCR, plaque assays, adsorption assays, and electrophoresis of PCR products. Results BTE was not cytotoxic to A549 and Vero cells, as confirmed by cell viability and proliferation assays, in which BTE treated groups paralleled the positive control group. For both cell lines, plaque assays and fluorescent microscopy indicated an inverse relationship between BTE concentration (from 0.14 μM – 1.4 mM) and HSV-1 infectivity. Specifically, PCR and electrophoresis showed a reduction in the viral genome following treatment with BTE. In addition, there was a noticeable decrease in the amount of viral plaques for BTE treated samples in the adsorption assays. Conclusions BTE consisting primarily of theaflavins is not cytotoxic and can reduce or block the production of infectious HSV-1 virions in cultured A549 and Vero cells, thus inhibiting the infectivity of the virus by interfering in the attachment, penetration and viral DNA replication of HSV-1 particles. These findings indicate that BTE enriched with theaflavins has the potential to be developed as a safe, therapeutic antiviral agent to prevent the spread of HSV-1. PMID:23777309

  18. Intratypic and intertypic specificity of lymphocytes involved in the recognition of herpes simplex virus glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, V C; Rice, P L; Tevethia, S S

    1982-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) were generated in C57BL/6 mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) (strains KOS, 17, HFEM, and mP) and HSV-2 (strains 186, G, and GP6). Effector lymphocytes were tested for cytotoxicity against syngeneic HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected cells in a 5-h 51Cr release assay. HSV-1 strain HFEM was found to induce CTL efficiently only when 100-fold more virus was used as compared with HSV-1 strains KOS, 17, and mP. All HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains induced cross-reactive populations of CTL. CTL generated by HSV-1 KOS and HSV-2 186 also demonstrated cross-reactivity in an ear-swelling model for delayed-type hypersensitivity. Lymphocytes generated by all HSV-2 strains were highly efficient at lysing HSV-1-infected target cells. However, HSV-2-infected target cells were found to be less susceptible to lysis by either HSV-1 or HSV-2 CTL than were HSV-1-infected target cells. The lowered susceptibility of HSV-2-infected cells was not due to an inefficient infection of BL/6 WT-3 cells as measured by standard growth assays and infectious center assays. Varying the multiplicity of infection or the time of infection did not increase the susceptibility of HSV-2-infected target cells to lysis by CTL. Increasing the effector-to-target-cell ratio resulted in an increased lysis of both HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected target cells by CTL, but the level of HSV-2-infected target cell lysis still did not approach the level of HSV-1-infected target cell lysis. HSV-2-infected cells were as efficient as HSV-1-infected cells in the cold cell competition assay employed in reducing the lysis of 51Cr-labeled, HSV-1-infected target cells. In addition, HSV-2-infected cells were susceptible to lysis by HSV-immune serum and complement. PMID:6286488

  19. A clinical pilot study of lignin--ascorbic acid combination treatment of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Blanca Silvia Gonzalez; Yamamoto, Masaji; Utsumi, Katsuaki; Aratsu, Chiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Antiviral drugs as well as natural remedies have been used to reduce symptoms and the rate of recurrences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, a common disease. To evaluate anti-HSV-1 activity of a pine cone lignin and ascorbic acid treatment, a clinical pilot study was carried out. Forty-eight healthy patients of both genders between 4 and 61 years old (mean: 31+/-16 years), with active lesions of HSV-1, took part in the study. According to the HSV-1 stage at the presentation, the patients were classified into the prodromic (16 patients), erythema (11 patients), papule edema (1 patient), vesicle/pustule (13 patients) and ulcer stages (7 patients). One mg of lignin-ascorbic acid tablet or solution was orally administered three times daily for a month. Clinical evaluations were made daily the first week and at least three times a week during the second week after the onset and every six months during the subsequent year to identify recurrence episodes. The patients who began the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment within the first 48 hours of symptom onset did not develop HSV-1 characteristic lesions, whereas those patients who began the treatment later experienced a shorter duration of cold sore lesions and a decrease in the symptoms compared with previous episodes. The majority of the patients reported the reduction in the severity of symptoms and the reduction in the recurrence episodes after the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment compared with previous episodes, suggesting its possible applicability for the prevention and treatment of HSV-1 infection. PMID:20023248

  20. Biotin-avidin-amplified enzyme immunoassay for detection of herpes simplex virus antigen in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Adler-Storthz, K; Kendall, C; Kennedy, R C; Henkel, R D; Dreesman, G R

    1983-12-01

    A biotin-avidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (B-A ELISA) has been developed to detect herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antigens in clinical specimens. The test was designed as a solid-phase, double-antibody, sandwich assay in which plates were coated with a polyclonal rabbit immunoglobulin G anti-HSV reagent, and the sandwich antibody was a biotin-labeled mouse immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody that reacts with a common antigen associated with HSV-1 and HSV-2. The test can be completed in 4 h if antibody-coated plates are available. The detection limit of the B-A ELISA, determined by titration of virus stocks, was found to be approximately 90 PFU or 6 X 10(3) physical particles of either HSV-1 or HSV-2 per 50 microliter of virus stock. The following results were obtained in a study in which swabs were taken from a variety of lesions and assayed for infectivity in tissue culture and by B-A ELISA. Of 421 suspected HSV lesions tested, 69 were positive by both tests and 159 were negative by both tests. A total of 122 were positive by B-A ELISA but negative for infectivity. Seventy-one were negative by B-A ELISA but contained infectious virus. The HSV specificity of the assay was substantiated by partial blocking of reactivity with rabbit immunoglobulin G anti-HSV and by the absence of reactivity with a nonspecific biotin-labeled mouse immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody.

  1. Zinc Salts Inactivate Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Arens, Max; Travis, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Using a standard plaque assay and clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV), we have tested the ability of zinc salts to inactivate HSV. Virus was treated by incubation at 37°C with zinc salts in morpholinepropanesulfonic acid-buffered culture medium and was then diluted and plated onto CV-1 cells for detection and quantitation of remaining infectious virus. Of 10 randomly chosen clinical isolates (five HSV type 1 [HSV-1] isolates and five HSV-2 isolates), seven were inactivated >98% by treatment in vitro with 50 mM zinc gluconate for 2 h and nine were inactivated >97% by treatment with zinc lactate. The effect was concentration dependent. With an HSV-1 isolate, 50 mM zinc gluconate or zinc lactate caused 100% inactivation, 15 mM caused 98 to 99% inactivation, and 5 mM caused 63 to 86% inactivation. With an HSV-2 isolate, 50 and 15 mM zinc gluconate caused 30% inactivation and 5 and 1 mM caused less than 9% inactivation, whereas 50 and 15 mM zinc lactate caused greater than 92% inactivation and 5 and 1 mM caused 37 and 26% inactivation, respectively. The ability of the zinc salts to inactivate HSV was not related to pH in the pH range of 6.1 to 7.6 since inactivation by zinc gluconate or zinc lactate in that pH range was 99.7 to 100% with a 2-h treatment with 50 mM zinc salt. Short (5-min) treatments of selected isolates with zinc gluconate, zinc lactate, zinc acetate, or zinc sulfate yielded inactivation rates of 0 to 55%. PMID:10790094

  2. PCR for Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Alternative Acceptance Criteria for Diagnostic Workup

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Roberto; de Egea, Viviana; Usubillaga, Rafael; Muñoz, Patricia; Bouza, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The determination of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection using a PCR assay is one of the most commonly requested tests for analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), although only a very low proportion of results are positive. A previously reported study showed that selecting only those CSF samples with >5 leukocytes/mm3 or a protein level of >50 mg/dl was adequate for the diagnostic workup. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of alternative acceptance criteria based on elevated CSF white blood cell counts (>10 cells/mm3). We analyzed all requests for HSV PCR received between January 2008 and December 2011. CSF samples were accepted for analysis if they had >10 cells/mm3 or if the sample was from an immunocompromised patient or a child aged <2 years. In order to evaluate our selection criteria, we identified those CSF samples with a leukocyte count of 5 to 10 cells/mm3 or protein levels of >50 mg/dl in order to test them for HSV type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) DNA. During the study period, 466 CSF samples were submitted to the microbiology laboratory for HSV PCR. Of these, 268 (57.5%) were rejected, and 198 (42.5%) were tested according to our routine criteria. Of the tested samples, 11 (5.5%) were positive for HSV DNA (7 for HSV-1 and 4 for HSV-2). Of the 268 rejected specimens, 74 met the criteria of >5 cells/mm3 and/or protein levels of >50 mg/dl. Of these, 70 (94.6%) were available for analysis. None of the samples yielded a positive HSV PCR result. Acceptance criteria based on CSF leukocyte counts, host immune status, and age can help to streamline the application of HSV PCR without reducing sensitivity. PMID:23804382

  3. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Modulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Against Mucosal Infection of Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Patil, Ajit Mahadev

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are the most common cause of genital ulceration in humans worldwide. Typically, HSV-1 and 2 infections via mucosal route result in a lifelong latent infection after peripheral replication in mucosal tissues, thereby providing potential transmission to neighbor hosts in response to reactivation. To break the transmission cycle, immunoprophylactics and therapeutic strategies must be focused on prevention of infection or reduction of infectivity at mucosal sites. Currently, our understanding of the immune responses against mucosal infection of HSV remains intricate and involves a balance between innate signaling pathways and the adaptive immune responses. Numerous studies have demonstrated that HSV mucosal infection induces type I interferons (IFN) via recognition of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and activates multiple immune cell populations, including NK cells, conventional dendritic cells (DCs), and plasmacytoid DCs. This innate immune response is required not only for the early control of viral replication at mucosal sites, but also for establishing adaptive immune responses against HSV antigens. Although the contribution of humoral immune response is controversial, CD4+ Th1 T cells producing IFN-γ are believed to play an important role in eradicating virus from the hosts. In addition, the recent experimental successes of immunoprophylactic and therapeutic compounds that enhance resistance and/or reduce viral burden at mucosal sites have accumulated. This review focuses on attempts to modulate innate and adaptive immunity against HSV mucosal infection for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. Notably, cells involved in innate immune regulations appear to shape adaptive immune responses. Thus, we summarized the current evidence of various immune mediators in response to mucosal HSV infection, focusing on the importance of innate immune responses. PMID:25177251

  4. Visualization of the Herpes Simplex Virus Portal in situ by Cryo-electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cardone, Giovanni; Winkler, Dennis C.; Trus, Benes L.; Cheng, Naiqian; Heuser, John E.; Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.; Steven, Alasdair C.

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), the prototypical herpesvirus, has an icosahedral nucleocapsid surrounded by a proteinaceous tegument and a lipoprotein envelope. As in tailed bacteriophages, the icosahedral symmetry of the capsid is broken at one of the twelve vertices, which is occupied by a dodecameric ring of portal protein, UL6, instead of a pentamer of the capsid protein, UL19. The portal ring serves as a conduit for DNA entering and exiting the capsid. From a cryo-EM reconstruction of capsids immuno-gold-labeled with anti-UL6 antibodies, we confirmed that UL6 resides at a vertex. To visualize the portal in the context of the assembled capsid, we used cryo-electron tomography to determine the three-dimensional structures of individual A-capsids (empty, mature capsids). The similarity in size and overall shape of the portal and a UL19 pentamer - both are cylinders of ~ 800 kDa - combined with residual noise in the tomograms, prevented us from identifying the portal vertices directly; however, this was accomplished by a computational classification procedure. Averaging the portal-containing subtomograms produced a structure that tallies with the isolated portal, as previously reconstructed by cryo-EM. The portal is mounted on the outer surface of the capsid floor layer, with its narrow end pointing outwards. This disposition differs from that of known phage portals in that the bulk of its mass lies outside, not inside, the floor. This distinction may be indicative of functional divergence at the level of portal-related functions other than its role as a DNA channel. PMID:17188319

  5. A clinical pilot study of lignin--ascorbic acid combination treatment of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Blanca Silvia Gonzalez; Yamamoto, Masaji; Utsumi, Katsuaki; Aratsu, Chiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Antiviral drugs as well as natural remedies have been used to reduce symptoms and the rate of recurrences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, a common disease. To evaluate anti-HSV-1 activity of a pine cone lignin and ascorbic acid treatment, a clinical pilot study was carried out. Forty-eight healthy patients of both genders between 4 and 61 years old (mean: 31+/-16 years), with active lesions of HSV-1, took part in the study. According to the HSV-1 stage at the presentation, the patients were classified into the prodromic (16 patients), erythema (11 patients), papule edema (1 patient), vesicle/pustule (13 patients) and ulcer stages (7 patients). One mg of lignin-ascorbic acid tablet or solution was orally administered three times daily for a month. Clinical evaluations were made daily the first week and at least three times a week during the second week after the onset and every six months during the subsequent year to identify recurrence episodes. The patients who began the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment within the first 48 hours of symptom onset did not develop HSV-1 characteristic lesions, whereas those patients who began the treatment later experienced a shorter duration of cold sore lesions and a decrease in the symptoms compared with previous episodes. The majority of the patients reported the reduction in the severity of symptoms and the reduction in the recurrence episodes after the lignin-ascorbic acid treatment compared with previous episodes, suggesting its possible applicability for the prevention and treatment of HSV-1 infection.

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus Replication: Roles of Viral Proteins and Nucleoporins in Capsid-Nucleus Attachment▿

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    Replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) involves a step in which a parental capsid docks onto a host nuclear pore complex (NPC). The viral genome then translocates through the nuclear pore into the nucleoplasm, where it is transcribed and replicated to propagate infection. We investigated the roles of viral and cellular proteins in the process of capsid-nucleus attachment. Vero cells were preloaded with antibodies specific for proteins of interest and infected with HSV-1 containing a green fluorescent protein-labeled capsid, and capsids bound to the nuclear surface were quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that nuclear capsid attachment was attenuated by antibodies specific for the viral tegument protein VP1/2 (UL36 gene) but not by similar antibodies specific for UL37 (a tegument protein), the major capsid protein (VP5), or VP23 (a minor capsid protein). Similar studies with antibodies specific for nucleoporins demonstrated attenuation by antibodies specific for Nup358 but not Nup214. The role of nucleoporins was further investigated with the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Capsid attachment to the nucleus was attenuated in cells treated with siRNA specific for either Nup214 or Nup358 but not TPR. The results are interpreted to suggest that VP1/2 is involved in specific attachment to the NPC and/or in migration of capsids to the nuclear surface. Capsids are suggested to attach to the NPC by way of the complex of Nup358 and Nup214, with high-resolution immunofluorescence studies favoring binding to Nup358. PMID:19073727

  7. Suppression of herpes simplex virus 1 in MDBK cells via the interferon pathway.

    PubMed

    Barreca, Cristina; O'Hare, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) normally undergoes productive infection in culture, causing cell destruction and plaque formation. Here we characterize an unusual pattern of HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection in MDBK cells which surprisingly results in suppression of replication, cell recovery, and maintenance of virus. Compared to Vero cells, MDBK cells supported a normal productive infection at a high multiplicity with complete cell destruction. At low multiplicity, HSV also showed an identical initial specific infectivity in the two cell types. Thereafter, the progression of infection was radically different. In contrast to the rapid plaque expansion and eventual destruction in Vero monolayers, in MDBK cells, after initial plaque formation, plaque size actually decreased and, with time, monolayers recovered. Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-VP16-expressing virus, we monitored infection in live individual plaques. After early stages of intense GFP-VP16 expression, expression regressed to a thin boundary at the edge of the plaques and was completely suppressed by 10 days. Cells lacking expression then began to grow into the plaque boundaries. Furthermore, following media replacement, individual cells expressing GFP-VP16 could be observed reinitiating infection. The results indicated the production of a potent inhibitory component during infection in MDBK cells, and we show the continued and prolonged presence of interferon in the medium, at times when there was no longer evidence of ongoing productive infection. We exploited the ability of V protein of simian virus 5 to degrade Stat1 and prevent interferon signaling. We established MDBK cells constitutively expressing the V protein with the resultant loss of Stat1. In comparison to the parental cells, infection in these cells now progressed at a rapid rate with expanding plaque formation. We believe the conclusions have significant implications for the study of HSV-1 and interferon signaling both in culture and in

  8. New helicase-primase inhibitors as drug candidates for the treatment of herpes simplex disease.

    PubMed

    Kleymann, Gerald; Fischer, Rüdiger; Betz, Ulrich A K; Hendrix, Martin; Bender, Wolfgang; Schneider, Udo; Handke, Gabriele; Eckenberg, Peter; Hewlett, Guy; Pevzner, Veniamin; Baumeister, Judith; Weber, Olaf; Henninger, Kerstin; Keldenich, Jörg; Jensen, Axel; Kolb, Jörg; Bach, Ute; Popp, Andreas; Mäben, Jutta; Frappa, Isabelle; Haebich, Dieter; Lockhoff, Oswald; Rübsamen-Waigmann, Helga

    2002-04-01

    The vast majority of the world population is infected with at least one member of the human herpesvirus family. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are the cause of cold sores and genital herpes as well as life-threatening or sight-impairing disease mainly in immunocompromized patients, pregnant women and newborns. Since the milestone development in the late 1970s of acyclovir (Zovirax), a nucleosidic inhibitor of the herpes DNA polymerase, no new non-nucleosidic anti-herpes drugs have been introduced. Here we report new inhibitors of the HSV helicase-primase with potent in vitro anti-herpes activity, a novel mechanism of action, a low resistance rate and superior efficacy against HSV in animal models. BAY 57-1293 (N-[5-(aminosulfonyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methyl-2-[4-(2-pyridinyl)phenyl]acetamide), a well-tolerated member of this class of compounds, significantly reduces time to healing, prevents rebound of disease after cessation of treatment and, most importantly, reduces frequency and severity of recurrent disease. Thus, this class of drugs has significant potential for the treatment of HSV disease in humans, including those resistant to current medications. PMID:11927946

  9. Validity of the coding for herpes simplex encephalitis in the Danish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Nørgaard, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2016-01-01

    Background Large health care databases are a valuable source of infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are valid. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the recorded diagnosis coding of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Methods The DNPR was used to identify all hospitalized patients, aged ≥15 years, with a first-time diagnosis of HSE according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10), from 2004 to 2014. To validate the coding of HSE, we collected data from the Danish Microbiology Database, from departments of clinical microbiology, and from patient medical records. Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, or no evidence of HSE. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the HSE diagnosis coding stratified by diagnosis type, study period, and department type. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of HSE cases coded with nonspecific ICD-10 codes of viral encephalitis and also the sensitivity of the HSE diagnosis coding. Results We were able to validate 398 (94.3%) of the 422 HSE diagnoses identified via the DNPR. Hereof, 202 (50.8%) were classified as confirmed cases and 29 (7.3%) as probable cases providing an overall PPV of 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.0–62.9). For “Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4), the PPV was 56.6% (95% CI: 51.1–62.0). Similarly, the PPV for “Meningoencephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4A) was 56.8% (95% CI: 39.5–72.9). “Herpes viral encephalitis” (ICD-10 code G05.1E) had a PPV of 75.9% (95% CI: 56.5–89.7), thereby representing the highest PPV. The estimated sensitivity was 95.5%. Conclusion The PPVs of the ICD-10 diagnosis coding for adult HSE in the DNPR were relatively low. Hence, the DNPR should be used with caution when studying patients with encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus. PMID:27330328

  10. Update On Emerging Antivirals For The Management Of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: A Patenting Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D.; Vadlapatla, Ramya K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  11. Immune response to herpes simplex virus infections: virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with recurrent facial infections.

    PubMed

    Zweerink, H J; Stanton, L W

    1981-02-01

    Radioimmunoprecipitation assays were used to identify antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 1-specific antigens in serum samples from individuals with recurrent facial herpes virus infections and from seropositive individuals without recurrent infections. Individuals with recurrent infections contributed three sequential serum samples each: immediately after the appearance of lesions, 3 weeks later, and 3 months later. Antibodies against at least 18 viral polypeptides were present in all positive sera: these included antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide (approximate molecular weight, 150,000) and against two glycopolypeptides with molecular weights of 115,000 to 130,000. No significant differences were observed between the serum samples in regard to their virus-specific antibody composition. The high-molecular-weight glycopolypeptides were partially purified and used in quantitative titration experiments. All sera tested were equally reactive with this material. It was concluded that under the experimental conditions an individual's susceptibility to recurrent herpetic infections could not be correlated with quantitative or qualitative changes in the levels of virus-specific antibodies.

  12. Evaluation of a Novel, Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Compound, Acyclovir Elaidate (P-4010), in the Female Guinea Pig Model of Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, R.; Smith, T. L.; Myhren, F.; Phillips, J.; Sandvold, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    The antiviral effect of acyclovir elaidate in the female guinea pig model of genital herpes was investigated in a series of experiments. The antiherpesvirus effects of this novel compound, 9-(2′-[trans-9"-octadecenoyloxyl]ethoxymethyl)guanine (code no. P-4010), were studied in both primary and recurrent genital herpes in the female guinea pig, following oral gavage or intraperitoneal injection, with different formulations of the compound, and in comparison with acyclovir (ACV) or penciclovir (PCV). The results indicate that compound P-4010 has a greater capability than either ACV or PCV in reducing the clinical symptoms of primary genital herpes induced following the inoculation of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginally into guinea pigs. In addition, the administration of P-4010 twice daily over a 10-day period by the intraperitoneal route (15 to 40 mg/kg of body weight/day) or by oral gavage (50 to 200 mg/kg/day), commencing 4 h subsequent to intravaginal HSV-2 infection, resulted in a degree of reduction in the incidence and severity of spontaneous, recurrent genital herpes in these animals. The findings are discussed in the light of the value and relevance of the female guinea pig model of genital herpes for the assessment of anti-herpes simplex virus compounds. PMID:9869565

  13. High-Risk Corneal Graft Rejection in the Setting of Previous Corneal Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kuffova, Lucia; Knickelbein, Jared E.; Yu, Tian; Medina, Carlos; Amescua, Guillermo; Rowe, Alexander M.; Hendricks, Robert L.; Forrester, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The “high-risk phenotype” of corneal graft recipients is considered to be related to preexisting vascularization such as that associated with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) keratitis (HSK). The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunologic mechanisms underlying accelerated corneal graft rejection using a mouse model of HSK. Methods Herpes simplex virus type 1 keratitis was induced in BALB/c mice. Syngeneic and allogeneic (C57BL/6 mice) corneal grafts were performed in mice with HSK at different times after infection. Some grafts were performed on HSV-infected CD4 T cell–deficient BALB/c mice. Clinical, histologic, immunologic, and virus detection studies were performed on samples of cornea, draining lymph node (LN), and trigeminal ganglion (TG) cells. Results Corneal grafts in mice with HSK rejected with higher frequency and more rapid tempo compared with grafts in uninfected mice. In corneas with HSK and vascularization at the time of grafting, both syngeneic and allogeneic corneal grafts failed with similar frequency and tempo. However, in the absence of preexisting inflammation and vascularization, syngeneic grafts were accepted when the grafts were performed at a late time point after HSV infection (42 days), whereas allografts were rejected at this time. In contrast, syngeneic grafts in nonvascularized HSV-infected recipients failed if they were performed within 10 days of HSV infection, an effect that was dependent on CD4 T cells, as demonstrated using CD4 deficient mice. Importantly, a variably sustained but strongly positive anti-HSV T-cell response was detected in allografted HSK recipients with a similar but lesser response in syngeneic hosts. Conclusions A previous HSV-1 corneal infection predisposes donor grafts to a high risk of failure by both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms in which an anti-HSV CD4 T-cell response plays a prominent role. PMID:27050878

  14. [Analysis of corneal pathologic changes and laboratory parameters in herpes simplex karatitis patients with ganhuo-shangyanzheng or ganshengyinxuzheng].

    PubMed

    Zhang, H N; Li, X Q; Liang, Q H

    2001-02-28

    In order to investigate the relationship between Ganhuo shangyanzheng and Can-shengyin xuzheng in herpes simplex karatitis patients, we observed corneal pathologic changes and examined blood levels of prostaglandin F2 (PGF2), prostaglandin E2 (PGF2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), norepinephrine (NR), epinephrine (E) in sixty herpes simplex karatitis patients with Ganhou shangyanzheng or Gan-shengyinxuzheng. The results showed that the corneal pathologic changes were corneal ulcer infiltrating to stroma of cornea in Ganhuo shangyanzheng patients, and refractary corneal ulcer with large amount of corneal neovascularizaton and infiltration of corneal stroma in Gan-shengyinxuzheng patients, the blood levels of PGF2, PGE2, TNF, AVP, NE, E in Ganhuo shangyanzheng patients were higher than those in Gan-shengyinxuzheng patients or healthy persons. The results suggest that these parameters may be objective parameters for differential diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine Zheng types in patients with herpes simplex karatitis.

  15. Homogenization with heat treatment: A cost effective alternative to nucleic acid extraction for herpes simplex virus real-time PCR from viral swabs.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jason J; Heinstein, Charles R; Hatchette, Todd F

    2012-01-01

    Most laboratories use expensive commercial kits to purify nucleic acids and remove PCR inhibitors that may be present in clinical specimens. In this study a simple homogenization with heat treatment of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) was shown to be equivalent to commercial kit-based nucleic acid extraction methods. With a cost of less than $1 USD per extraction, this method provides an economical, rapid, and effective method to recover HSV-1/2 DNA from swabs suitable for real-time HSV PCR.

  16. Midtrimester fetal herpes simplex-2 diagnosis by serology, culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Curtin, William M; Menegus, Marilyn A; Patru, Maria-Magdalena; Peterson, C Jeanne; Metlay, Leon A; Mooney, Robert A; Stanwood, Nancy L; Scheible, Amy L; Dorgan, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in utero comprises a minority of neonatal herpes infections. Prenatal diagnosis is rare. We describe a midtrimester diagnosis of fetal HSV-2 infection. Ultrasound at 20 weeks for elevated maternal serum α-fetoprotein (MSAFP) showed lagging fetal growth, echogenic bowel, echogenic myocardium, and liver with a mottled pattern of echogenicity. Amniocentesis demonstrated normal karyotype, elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase. Culture isolated HSV-2 with an aberrant growth pattern. Maternal serology was positive for HSV-2. Quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed 59 million copies/ml. Fetal autopsy demonstrated widespread tissue necrosis but only sparse HSV-2 inclusions. Fetal HSV-2 infection can be suspected when an elevated MSAFP accompanies ultrasound findings suggesting perinatal infection. Maternal HSV serology, amniotic fluid culture and quantitative PCR are recommended for diagnostic certainty and counseling.

  17. Nuclear Sensing of Viral DNA, Epigenetic Regulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection, and Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. Herpes viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. PMID:25742715

  18. Radioimmunoassay for herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    McGuirt, P.V.; Keller, P.M.; Elion, G.B.

    1982-01-30

    A sensitive RIA for HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) has been developed. This assay is based on competition for the binding site of a rabbit antibody against purified HSV-1 TK, between a purified /sup 3/H-labeled HSV-1 TK and a sample containing an unknown amount of viral TK. The assay is capable of detecting 8 ng or more of the HSV enzyme. Purified HSV-1 TK denatured to <1% of its original kinase activity is as effective in binding to the antibody as is native HSV-1 TK. Viral TK is detectable at ranges of 150-460 ng/mg protein of cell extract from infected cells or cells transformed by HSV or HSV genetic material. HSV-2 TK appears highly cross-reactive, VZV TK is slightly less so, and the vaccinia TK shows little or no cross-reactivity. This RIA may serve as a tool for monitoring the expression of the HSV TK during an active herpes virus infection, a latent ganglionic infection, or in neoplastic cells which may have arisen by viral transformation.

  19. Herpes simplex virus 1 counteracts viperin via its virion host shutoff protein UL41.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanghui; Wang, Kezhen; Wang, Shuai; Cai, Mingsheng; Li, Mei-li; Zheng, Chunfu

    2014-10-01

    The interferon (IFN)-inducible viperin protein restricts a broad range of viruses. However, whether viperin plays a role during herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is poorly understood. In the present study, it was shown for the first time that wild-type (WT) HSV-1 infection couldn't induce viperin production, and ectopically expressed viperin inhibited the replication of UL41-null HSV-1 but not WT viruses. The underlying molecular mechanism is that UL41 counteracts viperin's antiviral activity by reducing its mRNA accumulation.

  20. Conjunctival geographic ulcer: an overlooked sign of herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Chu, Chang-Yao; Lee, Chaw-Ning; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chang, Kung-Chao; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) ocular infection causes significant visual burden worldwide. Despite the fact that dendritic or geographic corneal ulcers are typical findings in HSV epithelial keratitis, conjunctival ulcer as a sign of HSV infection has rarely been reported. Although easily overlooked, this important sign could be enhanced by fluorescein staining. We report two cases of conjunctival geographic ulcers proven to be HSV infection by viral isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One patient had bilateral disease and blepharitis, and the other had unilateral involvement without skin lesions. With timely diagnosis and proper management, excellent visual outcome can be expected.

  1. Prospects and Perspectives for Development of a Vaccine Against Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Shane C.; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and -2 are human pathogens that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in certain clinical settings. The development of effective antiviral medications, however, has had little discernible impact on the epidemiology of these pathogens, largely because the majority of infections are clinically silent. Decades of work have gone into various candidate HSV vaccines, but to date none has demonstrated sufficient efficacy to warrant licensure. This review examines developments in HSV immunology and vaccine development published since 2010, and assesses the prospects for improved immunization strategies that may result in an effective, licensed vaccine in the near future. PMID:25077372

  2. A unique presentation of acute liver failure from herpes simplex virus hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, C; Kebriaei, P; Turner, K A; Yemelyanova, A; Ariza-Heredia, E J; Foo, W C

    2016-08-01

    We present the case of a patient, with history of myelodysplastic syndrome and recent bone marrow transplant, who developed fulminant liver failure secondary to herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis. His presentation was unique, as findings of liver microabscesses on computed tomography scan have not been described previously in this patient population. Despite initial treatment with acyclovir, he continued to deteriorate, and later sensitivities found the HSV strain to be resistant to acyclovir. HSV hepatitis with secondary liver failure is rare and, without appropriate treatment, its mortality is >80%. Early suspicion and immediate therapy are the keys to improve patient survival. PMID:27222930

  3. Oncolytic virotherapy using herpes simplex virus: how far have we come?

    PubMed Central

    Sokolowski, Nicolas AS; Rizos, Helen; Diefenbach, Russell J

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy exploits the properties of human viruses to naturally cytolysis of cancer cells. The human pathogen herpes simplex virus (HSV) has proven particularly amenable for use in oncolytic virotherapy. The relative safety of HSV coupled with extensive knowledge on how HSV interacts with the host has provided a platform for manipulating HSV to enhance the targeting and killing of human cancer cells. This has culminated in the approval of talimogene laherparepvec for the treatment of melanoma. This review focuses on the development of HSV as an oncolytic virus and where the field is likely to head in the future. PMID:27512683

  4. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Does Not Induce Apoptosis in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hüfner, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8+ T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay-positive neurons were detected. The infiltrating T cells do not induce apoptosis in latently infected neurons. PMID:25762734

  5. Conjunctival geographic ulcer: an overlooked sign of herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Chu, Chang-Yao; Lee, Chaw-Ning; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chang, Kung-Chao; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) ocular infection causes significant visual burden worldwide. Despite the fact that dendritic or geographic corneal ulcers are typical findings in HSV epithelial keratitis, conjunctival ulcer as a sign of HSV infection has rarely been reported. Although easily overlooked, this important sign could be enhanced by fluorescein staining. We report two cases of conjunctival geographic ulcers proven to be HSV infection by viral isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One patient had bilateral disease and blepharitis, and the other had unilateral involvement without skin lesions. With timely diagnosis and proper management, excellent visual outcome can be expected. PMID:25728077

  6. Prospects and perspectives for development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Shane C; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-11-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 are human pathogens that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in certain clinical settings. The development of effective antiviral medications, however, has had little discernible impact on the epidemiology of these pathogens, largely because the majority of infections are clinically silent. Decades of work have gone into various candidate HSV vaccines, but to date none has demonstrated sufficient efficacy to warrant licensure. This review examines developments in HSV immunology and vaccine development published since 2010, and assesses the prospects for improved immunization strategies that may result in an effective, licensed vaccine in the near future.

  7. Use of Adeno-Associated and Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors for In Vivo Neuronal Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, Rachel D.; Wells, Audrey M.; Carlezon, William A.; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses and the herpes simplex virus are the two most widely used vectors for the in vivo expression of exogenous genes. Advances in the development of these vectors have enabled remarkable temporal and spatial control of gene expression. This unit provides methods for storing, delivering, and verifying expression of adeno-associated and herpes simplex viruses in the adult mouse brain. It also describes important considerations for experiments using in vivo expression of these viral vectors, including serotype and promoter selection, as well as timing of expression. Additional protocols are provided that describe methods for preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate conditions for in vivo delivery. PMID:26426386

  8. Use of Adeno-Associated and Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors for In Vivo Neuronal Expression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Penrod, Rachel D; Wells, Audrey M; Carlezon, William A; Cowan, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses and the herpes simplex virus are the two most widely used vectors for the in vivo expression of exogenous genes. Advances in the development of these vectors have enabled remarkable temporal and spatial control of gene expression. This unit provides methods for storing, delivering, and verifying expression of adeno-associated and herpes simplex viruses in the adult mouse brain. It also describes important considerations for experiments using in vivo expression of these viral vectors, including serotype and promoter selection, as well as timing of expression. Additional protocols are provided that describe methods for preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate conditions for in vivo delivery.

  9. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  10. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection following Jewish ritual circumcisions that included direct orogenital suction - New York City, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection commonly causes "cold sores" (HSV type 1 [HSV-1]) and genital herpes (HSV-1 or HSV type 2 [HSV-2]); HSV infection in newborns can result in death or permanent disability. During November 2000-December 2011, a total of 11 newborn males had laboratory-confirmed HSV infection in the weeks following out-of-hospital Jewish ritual circumcision, investigators from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) learned. Ten of the 11 newborns were hospitalized; two died. In six of the 11 cases, health-care providers confirmed parental reports that the ritual circumcision included an ultra-Orthodox Jewish practice known as metzitzah b'peh, in which the circumciser (mohel, plural: mohelim) places his mouth directly on the newly circumcised penis and sucks blood away from the circumcision wound (direct orogenital suction). In the remaining cases, other evidence suggested that genital infection was introduced by direct orogenital suction (probable direct orogenital suction). Based on cases reported to DOHMH during April 2006-December 2011, the risk for neonatal herpes caused by HSV-1 and untyped HSV following Jewish ritual circumcision with confirmed or probable direct orogenital suction in New York City was estimated at 1 in 4,098 or 3.4 times greater than the risk among male infants considered unlikely to have had direct orogenital suction. Oral contact with a newborn's open wound risks transmission of HSV and other pathogens. Circumcision is a surgical procedure that should be performed under sterile conditions. Health-care professionals advising parents and parents choosing Jewish ritual circumcision should inquire in advance whether direct orogenital suction will be performed, and orogenital suction should be avoided.

  11. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  12. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in an STD clinic in Paris.

    PubMed

    Janier, M; Lassau, F; Bloch, J; Spindler, E; Morel, P; Gérard, P; Aufrère, A

    1999-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HSV-1 in a population of men and women attending the STD clinic of Hôpital St-Louis (Paris, France). Four hundred and eighty-seven patients (264 men and 223 women) were tested for HSV-2 and HSV-1 antibodies by specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Smithkline-Beecham Biologicals). Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out for correlations with clinical, socio-epidemiological and behavioural data. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 55% (44.7% in men, 67.3% in women). HSV-1 seroprevalence was 93% (94.7% in men, 91% in women). The predictive factors of HSV-2 seropositivity being female (OR: 3.37), age (OR: 1.04), country of origin (Central Africa OR: 3.52, North Africa OR: 1.36), history of genital herpes (OR: 10.97), hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers (OR: 1.92) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers (OR: 3.96). The only protective factor was HSV-1 seropositivity (OR: 0.25). The predictive factors of HSV-1 seropositivity were only the country of origin (Central Africa OR: 2.95, North Africa OR: 1.83) and the absence of genital herpes (OR: 11.01). Only 23 (8.6%) HSV-2 seropositive patients had a history of genital herpes. This study underlines the very high HSV-2 seroprevalence of patients with STDs, only a few of whom have a history of genital herpes. Detection and counselling is urgently needed for these patients. PMID:10471101

  13. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Sensory Ganglia of Hairless Mice Prevented by Acycloguanosine†

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Richard J.; Friedman-Kien, Alvin E.; DeStefano, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Acycloguanosine (ACG) was able to prevent the fatal outcome of herpes simplex virus-induced skin infections of the lumbosacral or orofacila area in hairless mice. Topical ACG treatment was more effective than systemic treatment in preventing the evolution of skin lesions. Acute ganglionic infections in the trigeminal ganglia were prevented by ACG, and latent ganglionic infections did not become established when the ACG treatment was initiated 3 h after infection. Serum antibody titers were, on the average, eight times higher in mice which developed latent ganglionic infections after ACG treatment than in mice without evidence of herpes simplex virus latency in ganglia. Reinoculation of ACG-treated mice at a site different from that of the primary inoculation did not lead to the establishment of a second latent infection with the homologous virus type when a latent infection was already present. In mice without evidence of latent infection after the primary inoculation, a latent infection at the site of reinoculation became established in 25% of the animals. PMID:230784

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Adults: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Michael J; Venkatesan, Arun

    2016-07-01

    Herpetic infections have plagued humanity for thousands of years, but only recently have advances in antiviral medications and supportive treatments equipped physicians to combat the most severe manifestations of disease. Prompt recognition and treatment can be life-saving in the care of patients with herpes simplex-1 virus encephalitis, the most commonly identified cause of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. Clinicians should be able to recognize the clinical signs and symptoms of the infection and familiarize themselves with a rational diagnostic approach and therapeutic modalities, as early recognition and treatment are key to improving outcomes. Clinicians should also be vigilant for the development of acute complications, including cerebral edema and status epilepticus, as well as chronic complications, including the development of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and other neuronal cell surface and synaptic epitopes. Herein, we review the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and clinical and radiological features of herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis in adults, including a discussion of the most common complications and their treatment. While great progress has been made in the treatment of this life-threatening infection, a majority of patients will not return to their previous neurologic baseline, indicating the need for further research efforts aimed at improving the long-term sequelae. PMID:27106239

  15. Virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zweerink, H J; Corey, L

    1982-01-01

    Virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. The progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies against a number of other viral antigens, including a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 62,000. Patients who developed a wide variety of antibodies to viral polypeptides shortly after resolution of their initial episode seemed to experience more severe initial infections and more recurrences than did those who reacted poorly with these virus-specific antigens. This was most apparent with respect to antibodies to virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights between 30,000 and 43,000. Antibody specificity did not change during the course of follow-up regardless of whether serum samples were taken shortly before, during, or after recurrent episodes. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were quantitated with the purified 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein material. No significant fluctuations in these antibody titers were observed before or after recurrences of the disease. Images PMID:7118244

  16. Phenotypic switching in cells transformed with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, M.; Vogel, S.; Silverstein, S.

    1982-06-01

    Biochemical transformation of Ltk/sup -/ cells with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) gene resulted in numerous TK/sup +/ colonies that survived selection in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium. Many of these TK/sup +/ cell lines switched phenotypes and reverted to the TK/sup -/ state. In this report, the authors describe the biological and biochemical characteristics of three TK/sup -/ revertant lines. One (K/sub 1/B/sub 5/) transiently expressed TK in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine, which selects for the TK/sup -/ phenotype. Another TK/sup -/ sibling (K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup n/) expressed TK only after removal from bromodeoxyuridine-containing medium. The last variant (K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup me/) lost the ability to switch to the TK/sup +/ phenotype, although it maintained the herpes simplex virus sequences coding for TK. Loss of the ability of K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup me/ cells to express TK was correlated with extensive methylation of the sequence recognized by the restriction endonuclease HpaII (pCpCpGpG). After these cells were treated with 5-azacytidine, they regained the ability to clone in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium and reexpressed virus tk mRNA and enzyme. In addition, the HpaII sites that were previously shown to be refractile to enzyme digestion were converted to a sensitive state, demonstrating that they were no longer methylated.

  17. Forces and Structures of the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Entry Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard W

    2015-09-11

    This paper discusses physical and structural aspects of the mechanisms herpes simplex virus (HSV) uses for membrane fusion. Calculations show that herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D has such avidity for its receptors that it can hold the virion against the plasma membrane of a neuron strongly enough for glycoprotein B (gB) to disrupt both leaflets of the bilayer. The strong electric field generated by the cell potential across perforations at this disruption would break the hydrogen bonds securing the gB fusion loops, leading to fusion of the plasma and viral membranes. This mechanism agrees with the high stability of the tall trimeric spike structure of gB and is consistent with the probable existence of a more compact initial conformation that would allow it to closely approach the plasma membrane. The release of the fusion domains by disruption of hydrogen bonds is shared with the endocytotic entry pathway where, for some cell types not punctured by gB, the virus is able to induce inward forces that cause endocytosis and the fusion loops are released by acidification. The puncture-fusion mechanism requires low critical strain or high tissue strain, matching primary tropism of neural processes at the vermillion border. In support of this mechanism, this paper proposes a functional superstructure of the antigens essential to entry and reviews its consistency with experimental evidence. PMID:27617923

  18. Specific Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase by Helical Peptides Corresponding to the Subunit Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digard, Paul; Williams, Kevin P.; Hensley, Preston; Brooks, Ian S.; Dahl, Charles E.; Coen, Donald M.

    1995-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits-a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which revealed that a 36-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of the catalytic subunit folds into a monomeric structure with partial α-helical character. CD studies of shorter peptides were consistent with a model where two separate regions of α-helix interact to form a hairpin-like structure. The 36-residue peptide and a shorter peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 18 residues blocked UL42-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis at concentrations that had no effect on synthesis by the catalytic subunit alone or by calf thymus DNA polymerase δ and its processivity factor. These peptides, therefore, represent a class of specific inhibitors of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase that act by blocking accessory-subunit-dependent synthesis. These peptides or their structures may form the basis for the synthesis of clinically effective drugs.

  19. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. Methods InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioral, and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Results Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Conclusions Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. PMID:25246424

  20. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-09-01

    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics.

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus Dances with Amyloid Precursor Protein while Exiting the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Ferland, Paulette; Webster, Paul; Bearer, Elaine L.

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1) replicates in epithelial cells and secondarily enters local sensory neuronal processes, traveling retrograde to the neuronal nucleus to enter latency. Upon reawakening newly synthesized viral particles travel anterograde back to the epithelial cells of the lip, causing the recurrent cold sore. HSV1 co-purifies with amyloid precursor protein (APP), a cellular transmembrane glycoprotein and receptor for anterograde transport machinery that when proteolyzed produces A-beta, the major component of senile plaques. Here we focus on transport inside epithelial cells of newly synthesized virus during its transit to the cell surface. We hypothesize that HSV1 recruits cellular APP during transport. We explore this with quantitative immuno-fluorescence, immuno-gold electron-microscopy and live cell confocal imaging. After synchronous infection most nascent VP26-GFP-labeled viral particles in the cytoplasm co-localize with APP (72.8+/−6.7%) and travel together with APP inside living cells (81.1+/−28.9%). This interaction has functional consequences: HSV1 infection decreases the average velocity of APP particles (from 1.1+/−0.2 to 0.3+/−0.1 µm/s) and results in APP mal-distribution in infected cells, while interplay with APP-particles increases the frequency (from 10% to 81% motile) and velocity (from 0.3+/−0.1 to 0.4+/−0.1 µm/s) of VP26-GFP transport. In cells infected with HSV1 lacking the viral Fc receptor, gE, an envelope glycoprotein also involved in viral axonal transport, APP-capsid interactions are preserved while the distribution and dynamics of dual-label particles differ from wild-type by both immuno-fluorescence and live imaging. Knock-down of APP with siRNA eliminates APP staining, confirming specificity. Our results indicate that most intracellular HSV1 particles undergo frequent dynamic interplay with APP in a manner that facilitates viral transport and interferes with normal APP transport and distribution. Such dynamic

  2. Induction of mucosal immunity against herpes simplex virus by plasmid DNA immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Kuklin, N; Daheshia, M; Karem, K; Manickan, E; Rouse, B T

    1997-01-01

    The ability of mucosally delivered plasmid DNA encoding glycoprotein B (gB) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to generate systemic as well as distal mucosal immunity was evaluated. BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally (i.n.) with gB DNA or DNA expressing beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal). Two days following immunization, gB and beta-Gal gene expression was detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR in lungs and cervical lymph nodes (CLN). Histological analysis showed that beta-Gal protein was expressed in vivo in the lungs and the CLN of animals immunized with i.n. administered beta-Gal DNA. The immune responses generated by i.n. administration of gB DNA with or without cholera toxin (CT) were compared to those generated by intramuscular (i.m.) gB DNA and i.n. live HSV administration. Three i.n. doses of gB DNA over a 3-week period resulted in a distal mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) response. In addition, the mucosal IgA response was enhanced by coadministration of CT with gB DNA. The i.m. route of immunization induced a strong IgG response in the serum and vagina but was inefficient in generating a mucosal IgA response. Antigen-specific cytokine ELISPOT analyses as well as the serum IgG1/IgG2a ratio indicated induction of stronger Th2 responses following the additional i.n. administration of CT compared to i.n. or i.m. gB DNA or i.n. live HSV immunization. In addition, mucosal immunization with gB DNA induced anti-HSV cell-mediated immunity in vivo as measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity. Although i.n. DNA immunization was an effective means of inducing mucosal antibody, it was inferior to i.m. DNA delivery in providing protection against lethal HSV challenge via the vaginal route. In addition, both i.m. and i.n. plasmid immunizations failed to generate an immune barrier to viral invasion of the mucosa. PMID:9060677

  3. A primary neuron culture system for the study of herpes simplex virus latency and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Mariko; Kim, Ju-Youn; Camarena, Vladimir; Roehm, Pamela C; Chao, Moses V; Wilson, Angus C; Mohr, Ian

    2012-04-02

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) establishes a life-long latent infection in peripheral neurons. This latent reservoir is the source of recurrent reactivation events that ensure transmission and contribute to clinical disease. Current antivirals do not impact the latent reservoir and there are no vaccines. While the molecular details of lytic replication are well-characterized, mechanisms controlling latency in neurons remain elusive. Our present understanding of latency is derived from in vivo studies using small animal models, which have been indispensable for defining viral gene requirements and the role of immune responses. However, it is impossible to distinguish specific effects on the virus-neuron relationship from more general consequences of infection mediated by immune or non-neuronal support cells in live animals. In addition, animal experimentation is costly, time-consuming, and limited in terms of available options for manipulating host processes. To overcome these limitations, a neuron-only system is desperately needed that reproduces the in vivo characteristics of latency and reactivation but offers the benefits of tissue culture in terms of homogeneity and accessibility. Here we present an in vitro model utilizing cultured primary sympathetic neurons from rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) (Figure 1) to study HSV-1 latency and reactivation that fits most if not all of the desired criteria. After eliminating non-neuronal cells, near-homogeneous TrkA(+) neuron cultures are infected with HSV-1 in the presence of acyclovir (ACV) to suppress lytic replication. Following ACV removal, non-productive HSV-1 infections that faithfully exhibit accepted hallmarks of latency are efficiently established. Notably, lytic mRNAs, proteins, and infectious virus become undetectable, even in the absence of selection, but latency-associated transcript (LAT) expression persists in neuronal nuclei. Viral genomes are maintained at an average copy number of 25 per neuron

  4. Antiviral activity of a carrageenan from Gigartina skottsbergii against intraperitoneal murine herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pujol, C A; Scolaro, L A; Ciancia, M; Matulewicz, M C; Cerezo, A S; Damonte, E B

    2006-02-01

    The partially cyclized mu/nu-carrageenan 1C3, isolated from the red seaweed Gigartina skottsbergii, was previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the in vitro replication of Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Here the protective effect of 1C3 in a murine model of intraperitoneal ( i. p.) HSV-1 infection was evaluated. OF1 mice were i. p. infected with 5 x 10 (5) PFU of HSV-1 KOS strain, and the effects of different treatments with 1C3 were studied. When 30 mg/kg of body weight of 1C3 was administered by the i. p. route immediately after HSV-1 infection, 87.5 % survival of the animals was achieved (p < 0.005), associated with a delay in the mean day of death in 1C3-treated non-surviving mice. Animal survival was not improved when multiple doses of 1C3 were also given in the period 1 - 48 h post-infection, and no protection was afforded when treatment was started after 24 h of infection. When virus and compound were injected by different routes, i. p. and intravenous ( i. v.), respectively, a still significant protection was achieved (40 % survival, p < 0.05). No toxicity of 1C3 for the animals was recorded. The pharmacokinetic properties were analyzed after injection of 1C3 into the tail vein by monitoring of [ (3)H]-1C3 in plasma and organs and by a bioassay of the anti-HSV-1 activity remaining in serum after non-radioactive 1C3 inoculation. A very rapid disappearance of the compound from the blood was observed since only 5.9 - 0.9 % of the radioactivity of the initially administered [ (3)H]-1C3 appeared in the plasma between 5-300 minutes after administration. A transient peak of radioactivity was detected in the kidney 15 minutes after inoculation. The bioassay confirms the presence of the compound circulating in a biologically active form up to 1 hour after injection. PMID:16491446

  5. Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 are old viruses, with a history of evolution shared with humans. Thus, it is generally well-adapted viruses, infecting many of us without doing much harm, and with the capacity to hide in our neurons for life. In rare situations, however, the primary infection becomes generalized or involves the brain. Normally, the primary HSV infection is asymptomatic, and a crucial element in the early restriction of virus replication and thus avoidance of symptoms from the infection is the concerted action of different arms of the innate immune response. An early and light struggle inhibiting some HSV replication will spare the host from the real war against huge amounts of virus later in infection. As far as such a war will jeopardize the life of the host, it will be in both interests, including the virus, to settle the conflict amicably. Some important weapons of the unspecific defence and the early strikes and beginning battle during the first days of a HSV infection are discussed in this review. Generally, macrophages are orchestrating a multitude of anti-herpetic actions during the first hours of the attack. In a first wave of responses, cytokines, primarily type I interferons (IFN) and tumour necrosis factor are produced and exert a direct antiviral effect and activate the macrophages themselves. In the next wave, interleukin (IL)-12 together with the above and other cytokines induce production of IFN-γ in mainly NK cells. Many positive feed-back mechanisms and synergistic interactions intensify these systems and give rise to heavy antiviral weapons such as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. This results in the generation of an alliance against the viral enemy. However, these heavy weapons have to be controlled to avoid too much harm to the host. By IL-4 and others, these reactions are hampered, but they are still allowed in foci of HSV replication, thus focusing the activity to only relevant sites. So, no hero does it alone

  6. A simple biological marker to differentiate the types of Herpes Simplex Viruses in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Akter, T; Tabassum, S; Nessa, A; Jahan, M

    2012-04-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) multiply readily on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated hen's egg and produce easily visible foci or pocks on this membrane. In the present study, pocks produced by the two antigenic types of HSV (1 & 2) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of typing HSV isolates by pock size on CAMs. A total of 57 HSV isolates from both non-genital and genital samples were typed by the pock size produced on the CAMs of fertile hen's eggs. Twenty two HSV isolates yielded visible pocks on CAM, of which 9 (40.9%) produced small pocks, while 13 (59.1%) produced large pocks. All pocks produced on CAM were confirmed by antigenic typing by the Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) method. HSV isolates which produced small pocks were in complete (100%) concordance with HSV type-1, while those producing larger pocks were in full (100%) concordance with HSV type-2. Thus, the pock size on CAM of embryonated fertile hen's egg may be used as a simple and relatively inexpensive biological marker for the differentiation of HSV types 1 & 2.

  7. Evaluation of new transport medium for detection of herpes simplex virus by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Ogburn, J R; Hoffpauir, J T; Cole, E; Hood, K; Michael, D; Nguyen, T; Raden, S; Raju, B; Reisinger, V; Oefinger, P E

    1994-12-01

    The transport medium Multi-Microbe Media (M4) was evaluated prospectively by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of herpes simplex virus from 473 specimens. In addition, 377 specimens in Bartels Viral Transport Medium were evaluated. By using culture as a "gold standard," the ELISA sensitivity was approximately 85%, while the specificities exceeded 96% for both media.

  8. Temporal Lobe Encephalitis Need not Always be Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Think of Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Madireddi, Jagadesh; Reddy, Gowtham; Stanley, Weena; Prabu, Mukhyaprana

    2016-05-01

    Historically, temporal lobe encephalitis is considered as a pathognomonic feature of Herpes simplex encephalitis. This rule may not always be true and we believe that clinicians should keep their differential open. We here report once such. Case of a 36-year-old Indian male who developed altered sensorium following a prodrome of headache and fever. Examination and imaging suggested Temporal Lobe Encephalitis (TLE). Herpes encephalitis was considered and he was started on anti-virals awaiting lumbar puncture reports. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis for Herpes Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) turned out to be negative. Later, to our surprise PCR for tuberculosis (TB) was positive. CSF was 100% lymphocytic and Adenosine deaminase was 12. He was started on 5 drug anti-tuberculosis regimen following which he showed a significant clinical improvement. Given the prevalence of tuberculosis in the sub-continent, clinicians must be aware of this diagnostic possibility when a patient with TLE does not respond to anti-virals. Apart from disease specific therapy, multi-disciplinary approach involving speech therapy is warranted. An early aetiological characterization of TLE has both diagnostic and prognostic implications, failing which patient may succumb. PMID:27437274

  9. Temporal Lobe Encephalitis Need not Always be Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Think of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Gowtham; Stanley, Weena; Prabu, Mukhyaprana

    2016-01-01

    Historically, temporal lobe encephalitis is considered as a pathognomonic feature of Herpes simplex encephalitis. This rule may not always be true and we believe that clinicians should keep their differential open. We here report once such. Case of a 36-year-old Indian male who developed altered sensorium following a prodrome of headache and fever. Examination and imaging suggested Temporal Lobe Encephalitis (TLE). Herpes encephalitis was considered and he was started on anti-virals awaiting lumbar puncture reports. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis for Herpes Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) turned out to be negative. Later, to our surprise PCR for tuberculosis (TB) was positive. CSF was 100% lymphocytic and Adenosine deaminase was 12. He was started on 5 drug anti-tuberculosis regimen following which he showed a significant clinical improvement. Given the prevalence of tuberculosis in the sub-continent, clinicians must be aware of this diagnostic possibility when a patient with TLE does not respond to anti-virals. Apart from disease specific therapy, multi-disciplinary approach involving speech therapy is warranted. An early aetiological characterization of TLE has both diagnostic and prognostic implications, failing which patient may succumb. PMID:27437274

  10. A young woman with recurrent vesicles on the lower lip: fixed drug eruption mimicking herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Benedix, Frauke; Schilling, Melany; Schaller, Martin; Röcken, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo

    2008-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with recurrent herpetiform vesicles of the lower lip, but all diagnostic measures for herpes virus infection including herpes viridae specific PCR were negative. Medical history revealed that she also had chronic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, which had been treated with various regimes, including repetitive applications of fluconazole. Consequently, fluconazole-induced fixed drug eruption was suspected, but skin tests performed with fluconazole remained with-out response. Consecutive repeated oral provocation tests with fluconazole were carried out and resulted in the development of burning herpetiform vesicles of the lower lip. Histopathology revealed a subepidermal and superficial perivascular infiltrate, basal vacuolated and apoptotic keratinocytes, intra-epidermal lymphocytes and intra-epidermal multilocular vesicles. Together with the clinical history and picture, fluconazole-induced fixed drug eruption mimicking labial herpes simplex virus infection was diagnosed. Oral provocation tests with an alternative systemic antifungal treatment, itraconazole, were well tolerated, systemic therapy with itraconazole was initiated, and no further labial vesicles developed. PMID:18779889

  11. Comparison of a DNA probe assay with the plaque reduction assay for measuring the sensitivity of herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus to penciclovir and acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Standring-Cox, R; Bacon, T H; Howard, B A

    1996-01-01

    A DNA probe assay was compared with the plaque reduction assay to determine the sensitivity of clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) to penciclovir and acyclovir in MRC-5 cells. In both assays, penciclovir and acyclovir shared comparable activity against cell-free virus (CFV) preparations of VZV and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) isolates, whilst acyclovir was significantly more active than penciclovir against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) isolates in both the DNA probe assay (P < or = 0.01) and the plaque reduction assay (P < or = 0.01). However, the 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) were generally lower in the DNA probe assay and the correlation between the plaque reduction and DNA probe assays was poor for either compound. Six acyclovir-resistant strains of HSV-1 derived in cell culture were also tested for susceptibility to penciclovir and acyclovir, in the DNA probe and plaque reduction assays. The relative susceptibilities of these strains were comparable, for example, one ACV-resistant strain was susceptible to penciclovir in both assays. Further comparisons of the assay methods were made using cell-associated VZV (CAV). As with CFV the EC50s were significantly lower in the DNA probe assay than the plaque reduction assay for penciclovir (P < or = 0.01) and acyclovir (P < or = 0.01). In the DNA probe assay there was no significant difference in the EC50s for either penciclovir or acyclovir when comparing CAV with CFV. However, in the plaque reduction assay the EC50s for CAV were significantly higher than those for CFV for both penciclovir (P < or = 0.01) and acyclovir (P < or = 0.01). Overall the DNA probe assay is objective, does not require prior titration of isolates and provides opportunities for automation. It is more suitable for sensitivity testing of large numbers of clinical isolates than the well-established plaque reduction assay.

  12. Herpes Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Services Resident Rotation Resident International Grant Shade Structure Program SPOTme® Skin Cancer Screening Program Volunteer Recognition ... Basement Membrane Zone lecture Full lecture Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study ...

  13. Herpes Simplex [corrected] Virus Type 2 Shedding From Male Circumcision Wounds in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mary K; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gray, Ronald H; Armour, Benjamin; Manucci, Jordyn; Serwadda, David; Redd, Andrew D; Nalugoda, Fred; Patel, Eshan U; Wawer, Maria J; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2015-11-15

    A prospective observational study of 176 men coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was conducted to assess whether their sexual partners may be at an increased risk of HSV-2 from male circumcision (MC) wounds. Preoperative and weekly penile lavage samples were tested for penile HSV-2 shedding. Prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression. Detectable penile HSV-2 shedding was present in 9.7% of men (17 of 176) before MC, compared with 12.9% (22 of 170) at 1 week (PRR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], .74-2.38) and 14.8% (23 of 155) at 2 weeks (PRR, 1.50; 95% CI, .86-2.62) after MC. HSV-2 shedding was lower among men with healed MC wounds (adjusted PRR, 0.62; 95% CI, .35-1.08). Men undergoing MC should be counseled on sexual abstinence and condom use.

  14. Understanding natural herpes simplex virus immunity to inform next-generation vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Sandgren, Kerrie J; Bertram, Kirstie; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Incremental advances in our knowledge of how natural immune control of herpes simplex virus (HSV) develops have yielded insight as to why previous vaccine attempts have only been partially successful, however, our understanding of these pathways, particularly in humans, is still incomplete. Further elucidation of the innate immune events that are responsible for stimulating these effector responses is required to accurately inform vaccine design. An enhanced understanding of the mechanism of action of novel adjuvants will also facilitate the rational choice of adjuvant to optimise such responses. Here we review the reasons for the hitherto partial HSV vaccine success and align these with our current knowledge of how natural HSV immunity develops. In particular, we focus on the innate immune response and the role of dendritic cells in inducing protective T-cell responses and how these pathways might be recapitulated in a vaccine setting. PMID:27525067

  15. Hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke secondary to herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis and vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Snider, Samuel B; Jacobs, Claire S; Scripko, Patricia S; Klein, Joshua P; Lyons, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis dogmatically is benign and self-limited in the immune competent patient. However, we describe how left untreated HSV-2 meningitis can be complicated by vasculitis and both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. We report a 57-year-old woman with lymphocytic meningitis complicated by ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage in the setting of vasculopathy and HSV-2 DNA detected in CSF successfully treated with acyclovir and corticosteroids. Subsequent angiographic magnetic resonance imaging revealed improvement in the vasculopathy after treatment. This case demonstrates that HSV-2 meningitis may take a less benign course and further provides the first evidence of angiographic improvement in addition to clinical improvement after definitive treatment.

  16. Perfusion and thallium single photon emission computed tomography in herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    De Deyn, P P; Van den Broucke, P W; Pickut, B A; Appel, B; Crols, R; Cras, P; Martin, J J

    1998-04-15

    This is the first report on 201thallium-single photon emission computed tomography (201Tl-SPECT) brain scan of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). The presented 201Tl-SPECT observations are correlated with 99mtechnetium hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) perfusion SPECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Brain 99mTc-HMPAO perfusion SPECT reveals a hyperperfusion in the right temporal lobe with extension to the parietal lobe and a hypoperfusion in the ipsilateral occipital lobe. 201Tl-SPECT shows a fixation in the right temporal lobe coinciding with the gadolinium enhancement on MRI. The right occipital lesion shown by gadolinium captation on MRI and hypoperfusion on 99mTc-HMPAO perfusion SPECT was not evident on the 201Tl SPECT. These findings could illustrate that the lesions might be different pathophysiologically.

  17. Incidental Detection of Hairy Cell Leukaemia with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Related Lip Ulcer Mimicking Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pallavi; Bhartiya, Richa; Singh, Ran Vijoy Narayan

    2016-08-01

    Hairy cell leukemia is a chronic lympho-proliferative disease. It is indolent but progressive in nature. It arises from B-cell lineage. We report an incidentally detected case of Hairy Cell Leukaemia (HCL) in a 55-year-old male patient with Herpes simplex virus (HSV) - related lip ulcer mimicking squamous cell carcinoma. Clinically the patient presented with lip ulceration without pain. He was found to have moderate hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia on general examination. Bone marrow aspiration and flow cytometric immunophenotyping revealed HCL. The oral lesion resolved after antiviral therapy. The intriguing possibility of a combined pathogenesis for the two disorders is considered, as HCL is known to be associated with immunosuppression, second malignancies and the production of cytokines promoting epithelial growth. PMID:27656454

  18. Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: epidemiology of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Bourdarias, B; Perro, G; Cutillas, M; Castede, J C; Lafon, M E; Sanchez, R

    1996-06-01

    Burned patients suffer significant immunosuppression during the first 3 or 4 weeks after hospitalization. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients and may account for considerable morbidity and some mortality. We studied retrospectively 11 patients with severe burn injury who became infected with HSV. We determined the prevalence of viral infection in this group of patients. Serological testing and viral culture was used to diagnose HSV infection. No general complications appeared in these 11 patients in association with HSV but two patients died of multiorgan failure. Locally, areas of active epidermal regeneration were most commonly affected. Acyclovir therapy was not used and the duration of hospitalization was normal in these 11 patients.

  19. The function of herpes simplex virus genes: a primer for genetic engineering of novel vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Roizman, B

    1996-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus vectors are being developed for delivery and expression of human genes to the central nervous system, selective destruction of cancer cells, and as carriers for genes encoding antigens that induce protective immunity against infectious agents. Vectors constructed to meet these objectives must differ from wild-type virus with respect to host range, reactivation from latency, and expression of viral genes. The vectors currently being developed are (i) helper free amplicons, (ii) replication defective viruses, and (iii) genetically engineered replication competent viruses with restricted host range. Whereas the former two types of vectors require stable, continuous cell lines expressing viral genes for their replication, the replication competent viruses will replicate on approved primary human cell strains. PMID:8876131

  20. Rapid diagnosis and quantification of herpes simplex virus with a green fluorescent protein reporter system.

    PubMed

    Kung, S H; Wang, Y C; Lin, C H; Kuo, R L; Liu, W T

    2000-11-01

    A genetically modified cell line (Vero-ICP10-EGFP) was constructed for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) by a simple, rapid and direct method. The cell line was developed by stable transfection of Vero cell with a plasmid encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the promoter of the HSV-2 ICP10 gene. As early as 6 h after infection with HSV, fluorescence-emitting cells can be observed under a fluorescence microscope. A single infected cell emitting fluorescence can be observed with soft agar overlay by inverted fluorescence microscopy. No induction of detectable fluorescence was seen following infections with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71. Analysis by flow cytometry also demonstrated that intensity of the triggered fluorescence is proportional to the titer of HSV inoculated. Taken together, this novel GFP reporter system could become a useful means for rapid detection and quantification of HSV in clinical specimens.

  1. Near instrument-free, simple molecular device for rapid detection of herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Bertrand; Li, Ying; Kong, Huimin; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2012-06-01

    The first near instrument-free, inexpensive and simple molecular diagnostic device (IsoAmp HSV, BioHelix Corp., MA, USA) recently received US FDA clearance for use in the detection of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) in genital and oral lesion specimens. The IsoAmp HSV assay uses isothermal helicase-dependent amplification in combination with a disposable, hermetically-sealed, vertical-flow strip identification. The IsoAmp HSV assay has a total test-to-result time of less than 1.5 h by omitting the time-consuming nucleic acid extraction. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity are comparable to PCR and are superior to culture-based methods. The near instrument-free, rapid and simple characteristics of the IsoAmp HSV assay make it potentially suitable for point-of-care testing.

  2. The effect of cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor treatment on experimental herpes simplex encephalitis mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Zeng, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Qin; Guan, Jing-Xia; Lu, Zu-Neng

    2016-08-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis(HSE) is the most common and serious viral encephalitis in humans. There is a lack of effective medication to date for HSE. A better understanding of the mediators of tissue damage is essential for finding new targets for therapeutic intervention. In this project, we explored the effect of cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor olomoucine treatment on experimental HSE mice. The following results were obtained: (1) olomoucine increased survival in HSE mice; (2) olomoucine inhibited microglial activation and reduced HSV-1-induced cytokines release; (3) olomoucine prevented neural cells apoptosis and attenuated brain tissue pathological changes following HSV-1 infection; (4) olomoucine reduced brain edema and improved neurological function in HSE. Overall, olomoucine can induce a blunted inflammatory response, maintain the blood vessel wall intact, improve neurological function and increase survival in HSE mice.

  3. Ultrastructural studies on the replication of herpes simplex virus in PK and XTC-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ciampor, F; Szántó, J

    1982-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes showed the following characteristics of restricted replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1) strains MA and HSZP in PK and XTC-2 cells: 1) minimal cytopathic changes in PK cells as compared to more pronounced alterations in XTC-2 cells; 2) formation of single nucleocapsids or their absence in the nuclei of PK cells infected with the HSZP strain; 3) lack of budding and envelopment and absence of reduplication of the nuclear membrane; 4) persistence of partially uncoated virions within the endocytic vacuoles in the cytoplasm of PK cells; and 5) formation of dense inclusion bodies in addition to the presence of defective virions in the cytoplasm of XTC-2 cells and vacuolation of their cytoplasmic membranes. The replication of HSV 1 in PK and XTC-2 cells seemed to be blocked at both early and late stages of virus replication. At low multiplicity of infection, no virus particles were formed.

  4. Cell surface receptors for herpes simplex virus are heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The role of cell surface heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was investigated using CHO cell mutants defective in various aspects of glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Binding of radiolabeled virus to the cells and infection were assessed in mutant and wild-type cells. Virus bound efficiently to wild-type cells and initiated an abortive infection in which immediate-early or alpha viral genes were expressed, despite limited production of late viral proteins and progeny virus. Binding of virus to heparan sulfate-deficient mutant cells was severely impaired and mutant cells were resistant to HSV infection. Intermediate levels of binding and infection were observed for a CHO cell mutant that produced undersulfated heparan sulfate. These results show that heparan sulfate moieties of cell surface proteoglycans serve as receptors for HSV. PMID:1310996

  5. Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage λ to Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage λ and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on λ and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  6. Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: epidemiology of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Bourdarias, B; Perro, G; Cutillas, M; Castede, J C; Lafon, M E; Sanchez, R

    1996-06-01

    Burned patients suffer significant immunosuppression during the first 3 or 4 weeks after hospitalization. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients and may account for considerable morbidity and some mortality. We studied retrospectively 11 patients with severe burn injury who became infected with HSV. We determined the prevalence of viral infection in this group of patients. Serological testing and viral culture was used to diagnose HSV infection. No general complications appeared in these 11 patients in association with HSV but two patients died of multiorgan failure. Locally, areas of active epidermal regeneration were most commonly affected. Acyclovir therapy was not used and the duration of hospitalization was normal in these 11 patients. PMID:8781721

  7. Identification of syncytial mutations in a clinical isolate of herpes simplex virus 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muggeridge, Martin I. . E-mail: mmugge@lsuhsc.edu; Grantham, Michael L.; Johnson, F. Brent

    2004-10-25

    Small polykaryocytes resulting from cell fusion are found in herpes simplex virus (HSV) lesions in patients, but their significance for viral spread and pathogenesis is unclear. Although syncytial variants causing extensive fusion in tissue culture can be readily isolated from laboratory strains, they are rarely found in clinical isolates, suggesting that extensive cell fusion may be deleterious in vivo. Syncytial mutations have previously been identified for several laboratory strains, but not for clinical isolates of HSV type 2. To address this deficiency, we studied a recent syncytial clinical isolate, finding it to be a mixture of two syncytial and one nonsyncytial strain. The two syncytial strains have novel mutations in glycoprotein B, and in vitro cell fusion assays confirmed that they are responsible for syncytium formation. This panel of clinical strains may be ideal for examining the effect of increased cell fusion on pathogenesis.

  8. The 3 facets of regulation of herpes simplex virus gene expression: a critical inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Roizman, Bernard; Zhou, Guoying

    2015-01-01

    On entry into the body herpes simplex viruses (HSV) replicate in a series of steps that involves derepression of viral DNA activated by VP16, a virion protein, and sequential transcription of viral genes in a cascade fashion. HSV also enters into neurons in which viral DNA maintained as heterochromatin and with few exceptions viral gene expression is silenced. A third face of the interaction of HSV with its host cells takes place at the moment when the silenced viral genome in neurons is abruptly derepressed. The available data do no reveal evidence that HSV encodes different regulatory programs for each facet of its interaction with its host cells. Rather the data point to significant gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms by which each facet is initiated and the roles of the infected cells at each facet of the interaction of viral gene products with the host cell. PMID:25771487

  9. Necrotizing vasculitis in a case of disseminated neonatal herpes simplex infection.

    PubMed

    Phinney, P R; Fligiel, S; Bryson, Y J; Porter, D D

    1982-02-01

    A term newborn suffered disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) type II infection five days after cesarean section delivery for fetal distress. The mother had no history or evidence of herpetic lesions; the father had a history of genital herpetic lesions. The infant's terminal course was dominated by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with hepatic and renal failure. Microscopic examination revealed a necrotizing vasculitis of small and medium-sized lung and peripancreatic arteries. Nuclear inclusions characteristic of HSV were found in these arteries, as well as in the adrenal parenchyma, spleen, and lymph node; electron microscopy confirmed replication of virus within the arterial endothelial cells. The mechanism of arterial damage in severe herpetic infection contrasts with the immune-complex mechanism postulated for other viral vasculitides. Direct, virally induced arterial damage resulting in exposure of collagen may set the stage of DiC, a commonly fatal complication of this disease.

  10. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus multiplication by activated macrophages: a role for arginase?

    PubMed Central

    Wildy, P; Gell, P G; Rhodes, J; Newton, A

    1982-01-01

    Proteose-peptone-activated mouse macrophages can prevent productive infection by herpes simplex virus in neighboring cells in vitro whether or not those cells belong to the same animal species. The effect does not require contact between the macrophages and the infected cells, may be prevented by adding extra arginine to the medium, and may be reversed when extra arginine is added 24 h after the macrophages. Arginase activity was found both intracellularly and released from the macrophages. The extracellular enzyme is quite stable; 64% activity was found after 48 h of incubation at 37 degrees C in tissue culture medium. No evidence was found that the inefficiency of virus replication in macrophages was due to self-starvation by arginase. As might be predicted macrophages can, by the same mechanism, limit productive infection by vaccinia virus. PMID:6286497

  11. Role for herpes simplex virus 1 ICP27 in the inhibition of type I interferon signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Karen E.; Song, Byeongwoon; Knipe, David M.

    2008-05-10

    Host cells respond to viral infection by many mechanisms, including the production of type I interferons which act in a paracrine and autocrine manner to induce the expression of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Viruses have evolved means to inhibit interferon signaling to avoid induction of the innate immune response. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has several mechanisms to inhibit type I interferon production, the activities of ISGs, and the interferon signaling pathway itself. We report that the inhibition of the Jak/STAT pathway by HSV-1 requires viral gene expression and that viral immediate-early protein ICP27 plays a role in downregulating STAT-1 phosphorylation and in preventing the accumulation of STAT-1 in the nucleus. We also show that expression of ICP27 by transfection causes an inhibition of IFN-induced STAT-1 nuclear accumulation. Therefore, ICP27 is necessary and sufficient for at least some of the effects of HSV infection on STAT-1.

  12. Tin Oxide Nanowires Suppress Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Entry and Cell-to-Cell Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Paulowicz, Ingo; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Adelung, Rainer; Shukla, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The advent of nanotechnology has ushered in the use of modified nanoparticles as potential antiviral agents against diseases such as herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1) (HSV-2), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), monkeypox virus, and hepatitis B virus. Here we describe the application of tin oxide (SnO2) nanowires as an effective treatment against HSV-1 infection. SnO2 nanowires work as a carrier of negatively charged structures that compete with HSV-1 attachment to cell bound heparan sulfate (HS), therefore inhibiting entry and subsequent cell-to-cell spread. This promising new approach can be developed into a novel form of broad-spectrum antiviral therapy especially since HS has been shown to serve as a cellular co-receptor for a number of other viruses as well, including the respiratory syncytial virus, adeno-associated virus type 2, and human papilloma virus. PMID:23110193

  13. Systems Analysis of Protein Fatty Acylation in Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Cells Using Chemical Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Serwa, Remigiusz A.; Abaitua, Fernando; Krause, Eberhard; Tate, Edward W.; O’Hare, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Protein fatty acylation regulates diverse aspects of cellular function and organization and plays a key role in host immune responses to infection. Acylation also modulates the function and localization of virus-encoded proteins. Here, we employ chemical proteomics tools, bio-orthogonal probes, and capture reagents to study myristoylation and palmitoylation during infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Using in-gel fluorescence imaging and quantitative mass spectrometry, we demonstrate a generalized reduction in myristoylation of host proteins, whereas palmitoylation of host proteins, including regulators of interferon and tetraspanin family proteins, was selectively repressed. Furthermore, we found that a significant fraction of the viral proteome undergoes palmitoylation; we identified a number of virus membrane glycoproteins, structural proteins, and kinases. Taken together, our results provide broad oversight of protein acylation during HSV infection, a roadmap for similar analysis in other systems, and a resource with which to pursue specific analysis of systems and functions. PMID:26256475

  14. Demonstration of Herpes Simplex Virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr Virus in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani-Khasraghi, Sahar; Ameli, Mitra; Khalily, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study sought to investigate molecular evidence for association between the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in CRC and colorectal polyp by using the PCR method in Iran. Methods: In this analytical case-control study, we selected 15 patients with CRC, 20 patients with colorectal polyp, and 35 patients without malignancy as controls. After DNA extraction, PCR was used to determine HSV, CMV, and EBV genome by specific primers. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 tests. Results: Our findings demonstrated that there is no direct molecular evidence to support the association between HSV, CMV, and EBV and human colorectal malignancies. Conclusion: The results from this study do not exclude a possible oncogenic role of these viruses in neoplastic development of colon cells. PMID:26975327

  15. The Function of Herpes Simplex Virus Genes: A Primer for Genetic Engineering of Novel Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roizman, Bernard

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus vectors are being developed for delivery and expression of human genes to the central nervous system, selective destruction of cancer cells, and as carriers for genes encoding antigens that induce protective immunity against infectious agents. Vectors constructed to meet these objectives must differ from wild-type virus with respect to host range, reactivation from latency, and expression of viral genes. The vectors currently being developed are (i) helper free amplicons, (ii) replication defective viruses, and (iii) genetically engineered replication competent viruses with restricted host range. Whereas the former two types of vectors require stable, continuous cell lines expressing viral genes for their replication, the replication competent viruses will replicate on approved primary human cell strains.

  16. In vitro virucidal activity of a styrylpyrone derivative against herpes simplex virus strain KOS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Micheal; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2014-09-01

    In this study, styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) extracted from Goniothalamus umbrosus root was tested against herpes simplex virus (HSV) strain KOS-1. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of SPD on Vero cells was tested and the value of cytotoxic concentration, CC50, was 44 μM (8.88 μg/mL), and the 50% Effective Concentration, EC50, was 3.35 μM (0.67 μg/mL). Selectivity index of SPD against HSV Kos-1 was more than 13 indicating potential as antiviral agent. Three treatments were used in the antiviral test; 1) post-treatment, 2) pre-treatment, and 3) virucidal. The results revealed that the post-treatment was more effective in inhibiting viral replication compared to pre-treatment. The findings indicated that the SPD from G. umbrosus has good potential for prospective nature-based antiviral drug.

  17. Lymphocyte transformation and interferon production in human mononuclear cell microcultures for assay of cellular immunity to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Haahr, S; Rasmussen, L; Merigan, T C

    1976-01-01

    Interferon production and transformation in response to herpes simplex virus antigen were studied in microcultures of human mononuclear cells. Mononuclear cells consisting of monocytes and both T and B lymphocytes were purified by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients. Lymphocytes, predominantly T with 5% B, were obtained by passage of buffy-coat cells through nylon fiber columns. For some experiments, autochthonous macrophages and column-purified lymphocytes were stimulated with herpesvirus antigen. The effect of specific antibody and cell concentration on reactivity is described. Crude and purified antigens were compared as cell culture stimulants. Significant differences in transformation and interferon were observed between donors with a history of herpes labialis and donors with no detectable antibody, both in cultures prepared by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients and by column purification of lymphocytes. Cultures from seronegative donors prepared by Ficoll-Hypaque gradients produced interferon but did not transform when stimulated by herpes simplex antigen. "Immune" interferon production, that is, type II as opposed to type I, occurred only with autochthonous macrophage and column-purified lymphocyte cultures. Interferon produced by Ficoll-Hypaque-purified mononuclear cultures was type I, and its production was unrelated to immune status. Similarly, column-purified lymphocytes responded to herpes simplex virus antigen with type I interferon if obtained from a seropositive donor. PMID:181328

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Biocompatible Microemulsions Against Aspergillus niger and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Alkhatib, Mayson H; Aly, Magda M; Rahbeni, Rajaa A; Balamash, Khadijah S

    2016-01-01

    Background Microemulsions (MEs), which consist of oil, water, surfactants, and cosurfactants, have recently generated considerable interest as antimicrobial agents. Objectives To determine the antifungal and antiviral activities of three ME formulations (MEa, MEb, and MEc) that differ in their hydrophilicity. Methods The ME formulas were produced by mixing different fractions of Tween 80, Span 20, ethanol, oil, isopropyl myristate, and distilled water. The antifungal activity of the ME formulas against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Bacillus, Candida albicans, and C. glabrata were determined by the solid medium diffusion cytotoxicity test against the mitochondria, measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration, dry biomass, and leakage of potassium, and characterizing the cell morphology. The antiviral activities of the ME formulas against the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were determined using the cytopathic effect assay. Results Significant antimicrobial activities were recorded against A. niger and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) when treated with MEb that had hydrophobic nanodroplets with an average diameter of 4.7 ± 1.22 nm. A volume of 0.1 mL of MEb (10 mL of potato dextrose broth) inhibited the germination of A. niger cells, reduced their dry biomass, enhanced the leakage of potassium from the cell membranes, affected their mitochondria, and altered the shape of their conidia, in addition to enlarging them. MEb was able to destroy the HSV-2 virus at a 200-fold dilution in Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium. Conclusions The water-in-oil ME with equivalent surfactant-to-oil ratio (MEb) has great potential as an antifungal and antiviral agent. PMID:27800146

  19. Transfer of UL41, the gene controlling virion-associated host cell shutoff, between different strains of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, M L; Everett, R D

    1990-02-01

    Studies with mutant viruses have suggested that the product of gene UL41 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) controls the virion-mediated inhibition of cellular protein synthesis as well as the rate of degradation of viral mRNAs. HSV-1 strain 17+ has a weak host shutoff function, whereas HSV-2 strain G shuts off strongly. A gene of HSV-2(G), judged from its position in the genome to be the probable analogue of gene UL41 of HSV-1, was inserted into the nonessential thymidine kinase gene of HSV-1(17+). The recombinant virus, 17G41, exhibited a strong shutoff function and its immediate early mRNA did not accumulate in the presence of cycloheximide. It resembled HSV-2(G) in these respects and not the parent, confirming the function of the transferred gene. Recombinant virus 17G41 carries the UL41 genes of both strains, 17+ and G, and in this situation the strong shutoff function was dominant. However, after mixed infection with equal multiplicities of 17G41 and HSV-1(17+) the weak shutoff function was dominant. The recombinant, 17G41, was further modified by insertion of a lacZ expression cassette into the coding region of the original gene UL41 (17+). The resulting virus, 17(41-)G41, also had a strong shutoff activity but grew poorly in tissue culture.

  20. Liposome-Mediated Herpes Simplex Virus Uptake Is Glycoprotein-D Receptor-Independent but Requires Heparan Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Lorrie A; Jaishankar, Dinesh; Thompson, Jeffrey M; Jones, Kevin S; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Cationic liposomes are widely used to facilitate introduction of genetic material into target cells during transfection. This study describes a non-receptor mediated herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) entry into the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells that naturally lack glycoprotein D (gD)-receptors using a commercially available cationic liposome: lipofectamine. Presence of cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) increased the levels of viral entry indicating a potential role of HS in this mode of entry. Loss of viral entry in the presence of actin de-polymerizing or lysosomotropic agents suggests that this mode of entry results in the endocytosis of the lipofectamine-virus mixture. Enhancement of HSV-1 entry by liposomes was also demonstrated in vivo using a zebrafish embryo model that showed stronger infection in the eyes and other tissues. Our study provides novel insights into gD receptor independent viral entry pathways and can guide new strategies to enhance the delivery of viral gene therapy vectors or oncolytic viruses. PMID:27446014

  1. Zinc ionophores pyrithione inhibits herpes simplex virus replication through interfering with proteasome function and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Min; Chen, Yu; Chu, Ying; Song, Siwei; Yang, Na; Gao, Jie; Wu, Zhiwei

    2013-10-01

    Pyrithione (PT), known as a zinc ionophore, is effective against several pathogens from the Streptococcus and Staphylococcus genera. The antiviral activity of PT was also reported against a number of RNA viruses. In this paper, we showed that PT could effectively inhibit herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). PT inhibited HSV late gene (Glycoprotein D, gD) expression and the production of viral progeny, and this action was dependent on Zn(2+). Further studies showed that PT suppressed the expression of HSV immediate early (IE) gene, the infected cell polypeptide 4 (ICP4), but had less effect on another regulatory IE protein, ICP0. It was found that PT treatment could interfere with cellular ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), leading to the inhibition of HSV-2-induced IκB-α degradation to inhibit NF-κB activation and enhanced promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) stability in nucleus. However, PT did not show direct inhibition of 26S proteasome activity. Instead, it induced Zn(2+) influx, which facilitated the dysregulation of UPS and the accumulation of intracellular ubiquitin-conjugates. UPS inhibition by PT caused disruption of IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation thus leading to marked reduction of viral titer. PMID:23867132

  2. Effect of prior exposure to herpes simplex virus 1 on viral vector-mediated tumor therapy in immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Chahlavi, A; Rabkin, S; Todo, T; Sundaresan, P; Martuza, R

    1999-10-01

    Replication-competent, attenuated mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) have been shown to be efficacious for tumor therapy. However, these studies did not address the consequences of prior exposure to HSV, as will be the case with many patients likely to receive this therapy. Two strains of mice, A/J and BALB/c, were infected with wild-type HSV-1 by intraperitoneal injection and the immune response was determined by plaque reduction assay for neutralizing antibody and ELISA for IgG and IgM. Syngeneic tumors, N18 neuroblastoma and CT26 colon carcinoma, were implanted subcutaneously in HSV-1 seropositive and naive A/J and BALB/c mice, respectively. Established tumors were subsequently treated intratumorally with a multi-mutated HSV-1, G207. G207 inhibited tumor growth to a similar extent whether the mice were seropositive or not. We next examined the effect of multiple intratumoral inoculations of a 10-fold lower dose of G207 on tumor growth. In the multiple treatment group (biweekly for 3 weeks), 75% of tumors were cured, whereas no cures were seen in the single treatment group. We conclude that HSV seropositivity should not deleteriously affect the efficacy of G207 tumor therapy, and multiple inoculations of virus should be considered for clinical evaluation.

  3. Search for inhibitors against herpes simplex virus type-I in cell extracts derived from human lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lin, K H

    1977-06-01

    Cell extracts obtained from KB cells and 5 human lymphoblastoid cell lines including 2 from Burkitt's lymphoma (P3HR-1 and Raji), one each from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (no.223), acute lymphatic leukemia (MOLT-4) and a healthy person (NC-37) were tested for their inhibitory effects on the growth of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) in green monkey kidney (GMK) cells by the plaque titration method. The relationship between the production of HSV-1 inhibitors and the degree of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome repression in lymphoblastoid cells were also examined. Among the cell lines used P3HR-1 and no.223 cells produced a few EBV particles, Raji and NC-37 cells contained EBV genomes only, and MOLT-4 as well as KB cells were EBV genome-negative. The results revealed that P3HR-1 cell extract showed a tendency to inhibit HSV-1 growth in GMK cells but the other 4 lymphoblastoid cell lines and KB cells did not produce HSV-1 inhibitors, indicating that EBV genomes governing the formation of EBV structural antigens were not related to the production of HSV-1 growth inhibitors. The extracts from MOLT-4 cells, which are only a T lymphocyte cell line used in this study, stimulated HSV-1 growth in GMK cells significantly.

  4. Effect of smokeless tobacco and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens on survival of ultraviolet light-inactivated herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Dokko, H.; Min, P.S.; Cherrick, H.M.; Park, N.H. )

    1991-04-01

    Low doses of ultraviolet (UV) light, x-rays, photodynamic treatment, or aflatoxins increase the survival of UV-irradiated virus in cells. This effect is postulated to occur by enhancement of the error-prone cellular repair function, which could also be associated with oncogenic cell transformation. The present study was designed to investigate whether treatment of green monkey kidney cells with water extract of snuff (snuff extract), benzo(a)pyrene, nicotine, or tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines would result in enhanced survival of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus (HSV). Exposure of the cells with snuff extract, benzo(a)pyrene, N'-nitrosonornicotine, or 4-(N-methyl-N'-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone resulted in an enhancement of survival of UV-irradiated HSV type 1 compared with the control whereas exposure of the cells with nicotine did not. These data indicate that the water-extractable component of snuff and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens increase the cellular repair mechanism and provides for increased survival of UV-irradiated HSV.

  5. New model cell systems (PK and XTC-2) for studying acute and persistent infections with herpes simplex and pseudorabies viruses.

    PubMed

    Szántó, J; Lesso, J; Golais, F

    1980-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) showed limited replication in PK (pig kidney) and XTC-2 (Xenopus laevis frog) cell lines. Virus replication depended on the multiplicity of infection (MOI). At a high MOI, HSV-1 caused a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) in XTC-2 cells but a little marked CPE in PK cells. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) replicated intensively in PK cells (permissive system) but not in XTC-2 cells (nonpermissive system). Both viruses were adsorbed on to PK and XTC-2 cells. In infected PK cells, fluorescent HSV-1 antigen was demonstrated only in the vicinity of the nuclear membrane and in the paranuclear area of the cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. In XTC-2 cells, HSV-1 antigen was demonstrated also in the nuclei. Persistent HSV-1 infection was induced in PK but not in XTC-2 cells; it was of limited duration. PK cells which had lost HSV-1 multiplied further and proved susceptible to infection with HSV-1 or PRV.

  6. CD4 and CD8 cell responses to herpes simplex virus in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Young, C; Lehner, T; Barnes, C G

    1988-01-01

    The finding of part of the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) genome in peripheral blood leucocytes of some patients with Behcet's disease (BD) led to investigations of T cell responses to HSV1 in this disease. A significantly impaired uptake of 3H-thymidine by CD4 cells was found in BD, as compared with healthy HSV1 sero-positive subjects. The impaired cellular response appeared to be specific to HSV1, as neither cytomegalovirus nor varicella-zoster virus showed depressed CD4 cell responses in BD. A similar impairment of CD4 cell responses to HSV1 was found in patients with recurrent herpetic infections, known to be caused by latent HSV1 infections. However, in rheumatoid arthritis which was selected as an unrelated autoimmune disease. 3H-thymidine uptake by CD4 cells stimulated with HSV1 was enhanced. CD8 cells showed generally rather a low uptake of 3H-thymidine, nevertheless, the values in BD and recurrent herpetic infection were again lower than those in sero-positive controls or rheumatoid arthritis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that HSV1 might be involved in the immunopathogenesis of BD. PMID:2844457

  7. Liposome-Mediated Herpes Simplex Virus Uptake Is Glycoprotein-D Receptor-Independent but Requires Heparan Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Lorrie A.; Jaishankar, Dinesh; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Jones, Kevin S.; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Cationic liposomes are widely used to facilitate introduction of genetic material into target cells during transfection. This study describes a non-receptor mediated herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) entry into the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells that naturally lack glycoprotein D (gD)-receptors using a commercially available cationic liposome: lipofectamine. Presence of cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) increased the levels of viral entry indicating a potential role of HS in this mode of entry. Loss of viral entry in the presence of actin de-polymerizing or lysosomotropic agents suggests that this mode of entry results in the endocytosis of the lipofectamine-virus mixture. Enhancement of HSV-1 entry by liposomes was also demonstrated in vivo using a zebrafish embryo model that showed stronger infection in the eyes and other tissues. Our study provides novel insights into gD receptor independent viral entry pathways and can guide new strategies to enhance the delivery of viral gene therapy vectors or oncolytic viruses. PMID:27446014

  8. Human gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor exert a synergistic blockade on the replication of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Feduchi, E; Alonso, M A; Carrasco, L

    1989-01-01

    The replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is not inhibited in either HeLa or HEp-2 cells treated with human alpha interferon (HuIFN-alpha), particularly when high multiplicities of infection are used. However, HuIFN-gamma partially inhibits HSV-1 translation in HEp-2 cells infected at low multiplicities. Under these conditions, the transcription of genes alpha 22, TK, and gamma 0 is greatly diminished. The combined addition of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and HuIFN-gamma to HEp-2 cells exerts a synergistic inhibition of HSV-1 translation. Cells treated with both cytokines continue synthesizing cellular proteins, even 20 h after HSV-1 infection. As little as 10 U of IFN-gamma per ml blocked HSV-1 DNA replication, provided that TNF was also present in the medium. Analyses of HSV-1 gene transcription suggest that the action of both TNF and IFN-gamma blocked a step that comes at or prior to early HSV-1 gene expression. This early step in HSV-1 replication inhibited by TNF and IFN-gamma occurs after virus attachment and entry into cells, since the internalization of radioactive HSV-1 virion particles was not blocked by the presence of the two cytokines. Therefore, we conclude that the synergistic action of TNF plus IFN-gamma affects a step in HSV-1 replication that comes after virus entry but before or at the transcription of immediate-early genes. Images PMID:2536838

  9. Human gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor exert a synergistic blockade on the replication of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Alonso, M A; Carrasco, L

    1989-03-01

    The replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is not inhibited in either HeLa or HEp-2 cells treated with human alpha interferon (HuIFN-alpha), particularly when high multiplicities of infection are used. However, HuIFN-gamma partially inhibits HSV-1 translation in HEp-2 cells infected at low multiplicities. Under these conditions, the transcription of genes alpha 22, TK, and gamma 0 is greatly diminished. The combined addition of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and HuIFN-gamma to HEp-2 cells exerts a synergistic inhibition of HSV-1 translation. Cells treated with both cytokines continue synthesizing cellular proteins, even 20 h after HSV-1 infection. As little as 10 U of IFN-gamma per ml blocked HSV-1 DNA replication, provided that TNF was also present in the medium. Analyses of HSV-1 gene transcription suggest that the action of both TNF and IFN-gamma blocked a step that comes at or prior to early HSV-1 gene expression. This early step in HSV-1 replication inhibited by TNF and IFN-gamma occurs after virus attachment and entry into cells, since the internalization of radioactive HSV-1 virion particles was not blocked by the presence of the two cytokines. Therefore, we conclude that the synergistic action of TNF plus IFN-gamma affects a step in HSV-1 replication that comes after virus entry but before or at the transcription of immediate-early genes.

  10. Virostatic potential of micro-nano filopodia-like ZnO structures against herpes simplex virus-1

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Yogendra Kumar; Adelung, Rainer; Roehl, Claudia; Shukla, Deepak; Spors, Frank; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) entry into target cell is initiated by the ionic interactions between positively charged viral envelop glycoproteins and a negatively charged cell surface heparan sulfate (HS). This first step involves the induction of HS-rich filopodia-like structures on the cell surface that facilitate viral transport during cell entry. Targeting this initial first step in HSV-1 pathogenesis, we generated different zinc oxide (ZnO) micro-nano structures (MNSs) that were capped with multiple nanoscopic spikes mimicking cell induced filopodia. These MNSs were predicted to target the virus to compete for its binding to cellular HS through their partially negatively charged oxygen vacancies on their nanoscopic spikes, to affect viral entry and subsequent spread. Our results demonstrate that the partially negatively charged ZnO-MNSs efficiently trap the virions via a novel virostatic mechanism rendering them unable to enter into human corneal fibroblasts-a natural target cell for HSV-1 infection. The anti-HSV-1 activity of ZnO MNSs was drastically enhanced after creating additional oxygen vacancies under UV-light illumination. Our results provide a novel insight into the significance of ZnO MNSs as the potent HSV-1 inhibitor and rationalize their development as a novel topical agent for the prevention of HSV-1 infection. PMID:21893101

  11. In vitro evaluation of anti-herpes simplex-1 activity of three standardized medicinal plants from Lamiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mehdi; Sharififar, Fariba; Arabzadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mehni, Firoozeh; Mirtadzadini, Manosur; Iranmanesh, Zahra; Nikpour, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic acid with antioxidant and anti-viral effects. We have studied anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) effect of three medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family which have been standardized on the basis of RA content. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of Teucrium polium, Ziziphora clinopoides, and Salvia rhytidea was prepared by maceration method and RA content of the plants was determined using a spectrophotometric method. Maximum nontoxic concentration (MNTC) of the extracts was determined using neutral red method. Serial dilutions of extracts up to MNTC were examined on Vero cells for anti-HSV-1 effect by plaque assay in comparison to acyclovir as a positive control. Results: Among the tested extracts, T. polium contained the highest percentage of RA (1.8%w/w) and exhibited the least toxicity (MNTC = 1000 μg/ml). The greatest anti-HSV-1 was shown by T. polium and Z. clinopoides extracts which exhibited both time and concentration-dependent plaque inhibition. Conclusion: Considering the low toxicity and significant anti-viral effect of T. polium extract, this plant would prove valuable as an active anti-viral drug. PMID:25737608

  12. Primate neural retina upregulates IL-6 and IL-10 in response to a herpes simplex vector suggesting the presence of a pro-/anti-inflammatory axis.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Monica M; Brandt, Curtis R

    2016-07-01

    Injection of herpes simplex virus vectors into the vitreous of primate eyes induces an acute, transient uveitis. The purpose of this study was to characterize innate immune responses of macaque neural retina tissue to the herpes simplex virus type 1-based gene delivery vector hrR3. PCR array analysis demonstrated the induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, following hrR3 exposure. Secretion of IL-6 was detected by ELISA and cone photoreceptors and Muller cells were the predominant I