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Sample records for herpes zoster-associeret morbiditet

  1. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    Cold sore; Fever blister; Oral herpes simplex; Herpes labialis; Herpes simplex ... Oral herpes is a common infection of the mouth area. It is caused by ... genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ...

  2. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... having a first herpes "outbreak" or episode. Clinical manifestations of genital herpes differ between the first and ... What is the link between genital herpes and HIV? Genital ulcerative disease caused by herpes makes it easier to transmit ...

  3. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- ...

  4. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Herpes Print A A A What's in this article? ... How Is It Prevented? What Is It? Genital herpes is caused by a virus called herpes simplex ( ...

  5. Herpes Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes causes cold sores around the mouth or face. Genital herpes affects the genitals, buttocks ... type 2 is the usual cause of genital herpes, but it also can infect the mouth. HSV spreads through direct contact. Some people have ...

  6. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... herpes is HSV-2. HSV-1 usually causes cold sores that appear on the mouth, lips, and eyes, but it is becoming more common as a cause of genital herpes, especially in young women. How common is the herpes virus? At least 50 million people in the United ...

  7. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital herpes? Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... sex and avoid sexual activity during an outbreak. Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  8. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on your genital or rectal area, buttocks, and thighs. You can get it from having vaginal, anal, or ... of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  9. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... fetal scalp electrode (tiny wire used to check fetal heart rate). Cesarean birth may be recommended if you have an active herpes sore or prodromal symptoms such as pain or burning when you go into labor. After ...

  10. [Herpes gestationis].

    PubMed

    Mairos, João S; Veca, Concetta P; Ribeiro, Rui

    2004-01-01

    Herpes Gestationis is a serious dermatological disease, albeit rare, associated to pregnancy or to the trophoblast diseases. Contrary to what the name suggests, it is not a viral disease but an auto-immune disease. We present the clinical case of a 38 year-old woman to whom a case of Herpes Gestationis was diagnosed when she was 15 weeks pregnant and whom has been treated with corticosteroids and antihistamine's showing positive results and without major complications for the mother or the embryo. The authors are undertaking a review of the existing literature, based on this clinic case.

  11. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ... Date reviewed: February 2016 previous 1 • ... Boyfriend Has an STD Before We Have Sex? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD Contact ...

  12. Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Scappatura, F. Philip

    1987-01-01

    The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment. PMID:21263803

  13. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date.

  14. [Herpes serology for genital herpes].

    PubMed

    Legoff, Jérôme; Aymard, Michèle; Braig, Suzanne; Ramel, Françoise; Dreno, Brigitte; Bélec, Laurent; Malkin, Jean-Elie

    2008-09-01

    The epidemiology of genital herpes is changing. The seroprevalence of HSV-2 infections is increasing, while HSV-1 is an increasingly common cause of herpetic ulcerations. The reference examination provides direct diagnosis after viral isolation in a cell culture or genome amplification. Herpes serology is indicated principally if direct examination is negative and in the absence of lesions. Non-type-specific serology detects antibodies common to HSV-1 and HSV-2. Its specificity and sensitivity are excellent, and it is approved as a reimbursable laboratory procedure. It cannot specify the viral type involved. Type-specific serology can distinguish between anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 antibodies. Currently available kits have a sensitivity and specificity, depending on the population studied, of 90 to 100%. It is not approved as a reimbursable laboratory procedure. HSV-1-specific serology cannot diagnose old HSV-1 genital infections, but seropositivity for HSV-2 generally suffices to diagnose HSV-2 genital herpes. The indication for type-specific serology must be discussed according to clinical context. The value of non-type-specific serology is limited.

  15. Meet the Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

  16. Meet the Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

  17. Herpes zoster and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Chawla, Aastha

    2016-08-01

    This review is a succinct description of the relationship between herpes zoster and diabetes. It makes a strong case for screening for diabetes in all patients of herpes zoster, and for using insulin to achieve optimal glycaemic control in persons with concomitant diabetes and herpes zoster. It highlights potential impact of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor therapy and statin usage on herpes zoster incidence.

  18. Herpes Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, A.; St Leger, A.; Jeon, S.; Dhaliwal, D.K.; Knickelbein, J.E.; Hendricks, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the world’s population. These infections are often asymptomatic, but ocular HSV-1 infections cause multiple pathologies with perhaps the most destructive being Herpes Stromal Keratitis (HSK). HSK lesions, which are immunoinflammatory in nature, can recur throughout life and often cause progressive corneal scaring resulting in visual impairment. Current treatment involves broad local immunosuppression with topical steroids along with antiviral coverage. Unfortunately, the immunopathologic mechanisms defined in animal models of HSK have not yet translated into improved therapy. Herein, we review the clinical epidemiology and pathology of the disease and summarize the large amount of basic research regarding the immunopathology of HSK. We examine the role of the innate and adaptive immune system in the clearance of virus and the destruction of the normal corneal architecture that is typical of HSK. Our goal is to define current knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms and recurrent nature of HSK and identify areas that require further study. PMID:22944008

  19. Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... will develop shingles, also known as zoster or herpes zoster, in their lifetime. There are an estimated ...

  20. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003352.htm Serum herpes simplex antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for ...

  1. Pregnancy and herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Newborn infants can become infected with herpes virus during pregnancy, during labor or delivery, or after birth. Causes Newborn infants can become infected with herpes virus: In the ...

  2. Herpes zoster virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Woolery, William Alan

    2008-10-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of varicella and herpes zoster (HZ) in humans. Herpes zoster is the result of reactivation of VZV within certain sensory ganglia. The burden of illness from HZ and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is high. Herpes-zoster vaccine contains live attenuated varicella-zoster virus in an amount approximately 14 times greater than that found in the varicella virus vaccine. Herpes zoster vaccine is approved for the prevention of shingles in appropriate persons aged 60 and older. The vaccine is administered in a single subcutaneous dose. Reported side effects are mild and generally limited to localized injection site findings. Herpes-zoster vaccine reportedly decreases the occurrence of herpes zoster by approximately 50 percent and prevents the development of PHN by two thirds. The vaccine appears to be minimally effective in those individuals over the age of 80 and is not recommended in this age group.

  3. Herpes zoster following cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R; Ryman, William

    2005-02-01

    A 56-year-old man developed reactivation of herpes zoster infection on his right forehead after treatment of several solar keratoses with cryosurgery. The rash was blistering and painful. Treatment with oral aciclovir was instituted and the lesions healed within 2 weeks. Known risk factors for reactivation include age and decreased immunity. Previous case reports have indicated trauma may be a risk factor in herpes zoster. We report a case of herpes zoster as a complication of cryosurgery.

  4. Herpes biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... if a person has been infected with the herpes simplex virus (I or II). This test does not detect the virus itself. If antibodies to the virus are present, the person has been infected with herpes simplex at some point in his or her life. ...

  5. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  6. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julie L; Amzat, Rianot; Martin, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Herpes zoster is a commonly encountered disorder. It is estimated that there are approximately 1 million new cases of herpes zoster in the United States annually, with an incidence of 3.2 per 1000 person-years. Patients with HIV have the greatest risk of developing herpes zoster ophthalmicus compared with the general population. Other risk factors include advancing age, use of immunosuppressive medications, and primary infection in infancy or in utero. Vaccination against the virus is a primary prevention modality. Primary treatments include antivirals, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Management may require surgical intervention and comanagement with pain specialists, psychiatrists, and infectious disease specialists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Human herpes simplex labialis.

    PubMed

    Fatahzadeh, M; Schwartz, R A

    2007-11-01

    Humans are the natural host for eight of more than 80 known herpes viruses. Infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are ubiquitous worldwide and highly transmissible. Herpes simplex labialis (HSL) is the best-recognized recrudescent infection of the lips and perioral tissues caused by HSV-1. Facial lesions of HSL may be unsightly, frequent outbreaks unpleasant, and the infection itself more severe locally and systemically in immunocompromised people. This article highlights the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic features and management issues for HSL.

  8. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Know STDs Questions and Answers About Sex Genital Warts (HPV) Can You Get Genital Herpes From a ... Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) About Birth Control Genital Warts (HPV) Telling Your Partner You Have an STD ...

  9. Polyneuritis and herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, A. D.; Ogul, E.; Graveson, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Widespread neurological disorders following herpes zoster are exceptional. They include encephalitis and myelitis, and a type of polyneuropathy. The latter is particularly rare as only 16 cases have been described since the first account by Wohlwill in 1924. We present two clinical cases of polyneuropathy following herpes zoster with neuropathological studies on one of them, and discuss its possible aetiology and pathogenesis in the light of previous reports and recent experimental studies. Images PMID:5037030

  10. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  11. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  12. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  13. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.

  14. Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax).

    PubMed

    2006-09-11

    A live attenuated varicella-zoster vaccine (Zostavax--Merck) has been approved by the FDA for prevention of herpes zoster (HZ; zoster; shingles) in persons > or = 60 years old. Each dose of Zostavax contains about 14 times as much varicella-zoster virus (VZV) as Varivax, which has been used in the US since 1995 to vaccinate against varicella (chicken pox).

  15. Vaccine against herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Jacyr

    2013-01-01

    The herpes zoster vaccine is made using high doses of live attenuated varicella/zoster virus. The vaccine is well tolerated and has few adverse effects: the most common one is pain at the injection site. Complications can occur mainly in persons who had prior zoster keratitis or uveitis. The vaccine can prevent this disease with low mortality but high morbidity.

  16. Herpes Zoster and Recurrent Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Nozomu; Daikoku, Tohru; Yajima, Misako

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. The incidence of recurrent herpes zoster (HZ) and the relationship between initial and recurrent HZ are not clear. Methods. The Miyazaki Dermatologist Society has surveyed ~5000 patients with HZ annually since 1997. A questionnaire regarding HZ and its recurrence was completed by the dermatologists. Results. A total of 34 877 patients with HZ were registered at 43 clinics between June 2009 and November 2015. Among 16 784 patients seen at 10 of the 43 clinics, 1076 patients (6.41%) experienced recurrence. Herpes zoster was more frequent in female than in male patients (5.27 vs 4.25 in 1000 person-years, P < .001), as was HZ recurrence (7.63% vs 4.73%, P < .001). Two and three recurrences were observed in 49 and 3 patients, respectively. Recurrence in the same dermatome was observed in 16.3% of patients, and more frequently this occurred in the left side (P = .027). The number of HZ-experienced persons increased with age, and one third of the population had experienced HZ by the age of 80. Conclusions. Recurrent HZ was observed in 6.41% of patients, with a higher incidence in women. Moreover, HZ experience reduced the HZ incidence to 31.7% of the incidence in the HZ-naive population. PMID:28480280

  17. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get genital herpes from oral sex. Genital herpes is caused by the herpes ... Genital herpes is usually caused by HSV-2; oral herpes (cold sores) is usually caused by HSV-1. ...

  18. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... Call your health care provider if you have any of the following: Symptoms of an outbreak that worsen despite medicine and self-care ...

  19. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed. PMID:23858399

  20. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk

    2013-07-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed.

  1. Herpes Virus Amplicon Vectors

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Suresh; Bowers, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Since its emergence onto the gene therapy scene nearly 25 years ago, the replication-defective Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon has gained significance as a versatile gene transfer platform due to its extensive transgene capacity, widespread cellular tropism, minimal immunogenicity, and its amenability to genetic manipulation. Herein, we detail the recent advances made with respect to the design of the HSV amplicon, its numerous in vitro and in vivo applications, and the current impediments this virus-based gene transfer platform faces as it navigates a challenging path towards future clinical testing. PMID:19956558

  2. Genital herpes: a review.

    PubMed

    Beauman, John G

    2005-10-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus infection is a recurrent, lifelong disease with no cure. The strongest predictor for infection is a person's number of lifetime sex partners. The natural history includes first-episode mucocutaneous infection, establishment of latency in the dorsal root ganglion, and subsequent reactivation. Most infections are transmitted via asymptomatic viral shedding. Classic outbreaks consist of a skin prodrome and possible constitutional symptoms such as headache, fever, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. As the infection progresses, papules, vesicles on an erythematous base, and erosions appear over hours to days. These lesions usually crust, re-epithelialize, and heal without scarring. First-episode infections are more extensive: primary lesions last two to six weeks versus approximately one week for lesions in recurrent disease. Atypical manifestations are common. Infected persons experience a median of four recurrences per year after their first episode, but rates vary greatly. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 recurs six times more frequently than type 1. Viral culture is preferred over polymerase chain reaction testing for diagnosis. Serologic testing can be useful in persons with a questionable history. Effective oral antiviral medications are available for initial, episodic, and suppressive therapy but are not a cure. There is some evidence that alternative therapies such as L-lysine, zinc, and some herbal preparations may offer some benefit. Counseling patients about the risk of transmission is crucial and helps prevent the spread of disease and neonatal complications.

  3. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2013-04-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease.

  4. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cherpes, Thomas L; Matthews, Dean B; Maryak, Samantha A

    2012-12-01

    Neonatal herpes, seen roughly in 1 of 3000 live births in the United States, is the most serious manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the perinatal period. Although acyclovir therapy decreases infant mortality associated with perinatal HSV transmission, development of permanent neurological disabilities is not uncommon. Mother-to-neonate HSV transmission is most efficient when maternal genital tract HSV infection is acquired proximate to the time of delivery, signifying that neonatal herpes prevention strategies need to focus on decreasing the incidence of maternal infection during pregnancy and more precisely identifying infants most likely to benefit from prophylactic antiviral therapy.

  5. Herpes viral culture of lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus; Herpes simplex virus culture Images Viral lesion culture References Costello M, Sabatini LM, Yungbluth M. Viral infections. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  6. Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

  7. Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

  8. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  9. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  10. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis.

    PubMed

    Zawar, Vijay; Godse, Kiran

    2012-03-01

    We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  11. Herpes Simplex - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herpes Simplex URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herpes Simplex - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Maternal and neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2013-02-01

    Genital herpes infections are extremely common worldwide and ~22% of pregnant women are infected with herpes simplex virus. Eighty percent of those affected with genital herpes are unaware of being infected. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is neonatal herpes disease. Fortunately, neonatal herpes simplex infections are uncommon but due to the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy have revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Most recently, the initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This review will summarize the epidemiology of maternal and neonatal herpes infections and discuss clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow-up of infants with neonatal herpes disease.

  13. Valacyclovir for the treatment of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Julie S; Hicks, Lindsey; Sra, Karan; Tyring, Stephen K

    2006-06-01

    Genital herpes is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the USA. While sometimes mild in severity, it can be a distressing and painful chronic condition. Likewise, herpes labialis and herpes zoster can be both physically and psychologically painful. While there is no cure for these conditions, treatment to alleviate symptoms, suppress recurrences and reduce transmission has been drastically improved over the past 20 years with the use of guanine nucleoside antivirals, such as valacyclovir hydrochloride (Valtrex), GlaxoSmithKline) the highly bioavailable prodrug of acyclovir (Zovirax((R)), GlaxoSmithKline), and famciclovir (Famvir, Novartis), a highly bioavailable prodrug of penciclovir (Denavir, Novartis). Clinical trials involving approximately 10,000 patients (including patients from nongenital herpes studies, such as herpes zoster) have assessed the safety and efficacy of valacyclovir in the treatment of initial genital herpes outbreaks, episodic treatment of recurrent episodes and daily suppressive therapy. It was shown that valacyclovir has similar efficacy to acyclovir in the episodic and suppressive treatment of genital herpes. Valacyclovir is the only antiviral drug approved for a once-daily dose of suppressive therapy for genital herpes, as well as the only antiviral drug US FDA approved for a 3-day regimen of episodic treatment of recurrent genital herpes. In addition, valacyclovir is also indicated in the reduction of the sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus infection and for the treatment of herpes labialis. In herpes zoster, valacyclovir is more effective than acyclovir or placebo (and as equally effective as famciclovir) in shortening the length and severity of herpes zoster-associated pain and postherpetic neuralgia. Valacyclovir has an acceptable safety profile in patients with herpes simplex and herpes zoster. The less frequent dosing regimen makes it an attractive option in the treatment of genital herpes and other viral

  14. Herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Stephen; Choudhary, Anshoo

    2006-07-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) results from an infection with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) also known as human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1). Primary infection may involve an ocular or non-ocular site, following which latency might be established principally in the trigeminal ganglion but also in the cornea. During latency, the virus appears as a circular episome associated with histones with active transcription only from the region encoding the latency-associated transcript (LAT). The LAT region is implicated in neuronal survival, anti-apoptosis, virulence, suppression of transcription, establishment of and reactivation from latency. The initial keratitis may develop after infection through the "front door route" (entry into the ocular surface from droplet spread) or "back door route" (spread to the eye from a non-ocular site, principally the mouth). The initial ocular infection may be mild. Visual morbidity results from recurrent keratitis, which leads to corneal scarring, thinning and neovascularisation. Although, recurrent disease may potentially occur through anterograde axonal spread from the trigeminal ganglion to the cornea, recent evidence suggests that HSV-1 in the cornea may be another source of recurrent disease. The pathogenesis and severity of HSK is largely determined by an interaction between viral genes encoded by the strain of HSV-1 and the make up of the host's immune system. Herpetic stromal disease is due to the immune response to virus within the cornea and the ability of the strain to cause corneal stromal disease is correlated with its ability to induce corneal vascularisation. The pathogenesis of corneal scarring and vascularisation is uncertain but appears to be a complex interaction of various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors either brought in by inflammatory cells or produced locally in response to HSV-1 infection. Evidence now suggests that HSV-1 infection disrupts the normal equilibrium between angiogenic and anti

  15. Treatment of herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Opstelten, Wim; Eekhof, Just; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Verheij, Theo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the evidence regarding treatment of herpes zoster (HZ) in the short-term, focusing on the prevention of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE The evidence relating to treatment of HZ is derived mainly from randomized controlled trials (level I evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Antiviral drugs might have some effect on the severity of acute pain and on the duration of skin lesions. Corticosteroids also alleviate acute pain. Oral antiviral medication reduces the risk of eye complications in patients with ophthalmic HZ. There is no convincing evidence that antiviral medication reduces the risk of PHN. Some studies, however, have shown that famciclovir and valacyclovir shorten the duration of PHN. The effectiveness of amitriptyline or cutaneous and percutaneous interventions in preventing PHN has not been proven. CONCLUSION Oral antiviral drugs should be prescribed to elderly HZ patients with high risk of PHN. Moreover, these drugs should be prescribed to all patients at the first signs of ophthalmic HZ, irrespective of age or severity of symptoms. PMID:18337531

  16. [Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Machetanz, J

    2016-08-01

    Herpes zoster develops by endogenous reactivation of varizella zoster virus (VZV). Incidence increases with age. Females are more frequently affected than males. The reactivation rate in seropositive individuals is about 20 %. After a short prodromal stage, herpetiform-grouped vesicles appear in segmental arrangement. Pain and paresthesia are typical zoster symptoms. Complications like bacterial superinfections, vasculopathy, paresis, and oculopathy may occur. During pregnancy herpes zoster is a threat for mother and child. Among elderly patients, cardiovascular risk is increased during the first week of herpes zoster infection. Postherpetic neuropathy is feared. Diagnosis can be made clinically and by the use of polymerase chain reaction. First-line treatment is systemic antiviral drug therapy with either acyclovir or brivudine. Adjuvant therapies consist of pain management and topical treatment.

  17. Herpes zoster: A clinicocytopathological insight

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Snehal; Singaraju, Sasidhar; Einstein, A; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster or shingles is reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that had entered the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox traveled to the dorsal root ganglia and remained in a latent form. This condition is characterized by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration which shows a typical single dermatome involvement. In this case report, we present a patient with herpes zoster involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, with unilateral vesicles over the right side of lower third of face along the trigeminal nerve tract, with intraoral involvement of buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and the tongue of the same side. Cytopathology revealed classic features of herpes infection including inclusion bodies, perinuclear halo and multinucleated cells. PMID:27721631

  18. Let's Hear It for Herps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the…

  19. Let's Hear It for Herps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the…

  20. Herpes: Removing Fact from Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1984-01-01

    Factual information dealing with the virus herpes is provided in hopes of allaying the public fears that have recently appeared because of misinformation presented by the media. Symptoms, types, and new developments in treatment are explored. Recommendations for obtaining additional information are offered. (DF)

  1. Herpes: Removing Fact from Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1984-01-01

    Factual information dealing with the virus herpes is provided in hopes of allaying the public fears that have recently appeared because of misinformation presented by the media. Symptoms, types, and new developments in treatment are explored. Recommendations for obtaining additional information are offered. (DF)

  2. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  3. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  4. Herpes simplex virus infection during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa; Gardella, Carolyn

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes in pregnancy continues to cause significant maternal morbidity, with an increasing number of infections being due to oral-labial transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1. Near delivery, primary infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2 carry the highest risk of neonatal herpes infection, which is a rare but potentially devastating disease for otherwise healthy newborns. Prevention efforts have been limited by lack of an effective intervention for preventing primary infections and the unclear role of routine serologic testing.

  5. Therapeutic Options for Herpes Simplex Infections.

    PubMed

    Au, Eugene; Sacks, Stephen L.

    2003-02-01

    Herpes simplex viruses are responsible for a number of disease states in infected individuals. Capable of establishing latent infection, herpes simplex can reactivate, causing pain, discomfort, and psychosocial consequences. Because no cure is available, treatment modalities for herpes simplex infection are required, from both personal and public health standpoints. To date, therapy has centered around the use of antiviral drugs to control infection and suppress recurrences. To expand the scope of available treatments, efforts have focused on the development of vaccines against herpes simplex virus and new agents such as immune response modifiers. Recent data suggest that these new agents are promising in their therapeutic potential.

  6. Generating protective immunity against genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-10-01

    Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes.

  7. Immunity and the burden of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk; Kwon, Soon Sun; Lee, Jacob; Choi, Su-Mi; Lee, Jin Soo; Eom, Joong Sik; Sohn, Jang Wook; Choeng, Hee Jin

    2014-03-01

    The burden of herpes zoster may be related to patients' immunity, although this has not been studied extensively. This hypothesis was tested in a matched case-control study of patients with herpes zoster who sought treatment at one of seven university hospitals in Korea from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010. Patients diagnosed with herpes zoster were placed into three groups based on their immune status: severely immunocompromised, mild-to-moderately immunocompromised, and normal immunity. Each patient in the severely immunocompromised group was matched with one patient in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised group and one patient in the normal immunity group in the same hospital based on age, sex, and date of herpes zoster onset. A total of 582 patients with herpes zoster were included in the analysis: 194 in each of the three groups. Patients in the severely immunocompromised group had the highest herpes zoster-related hospitalization rate as compared to patients in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised and normal immune groups (P < 0.01). The length of hospital stay and herpes zoster-related medical cost increased significantly with the deterioration of patients' immunity (P < 0.01, respectively). Cutaneous complications occurred more frequently in the severely immunocompromised group than in the other two groups (P < 0.01). An increase in herpes zoster burden was observed as the patients' immunity decreased. Therefore, effective measures are necessary to prevent herpes zoster and reduce its burden in severely immunocompromised patients.

  8. Herpes simplex virus following stab phlebectomy.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Lum, Ying Wei; Heller, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection following surgery is an unusual postoperative phenomenon. Many mechanisms have been suggested, with the most likely explanation related to latent virus reactivation due to a proinflammatory response in the setting of local trauma. Here, we present a case of herpes simplex virus reactivation in an immunocompetent female following a conventional right lower extremity stab phlebectomy. Salient clinical and physical examination findings are described, and management strategies for herpes simplex virus reactivation are outlined. This is the first known case report of herpes simplex virus reactivation following lower extremity phlebectomy.

  9. Natural remedies for Herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Gaby, Alan R

    2006-06-01

    Herpes simplex is a common viral infection of the skin or mucous membranes. The lesions caused by this infection are often painful, burning, or pruritic, and tend to recur in most patients. Short-term treatment with acyclovir can accelerate the healing of an acute outbreak, and continuous acyclovir therapy is often prescribed for people with frequent recurrences. While this drug can reduce the recurrence rate by 60-90 percent, it can also cause a wide array of side effects, including renal failure, hepatitis, and anaphylaxis. Safe and effective alternatives are therefore needed. There is evidence that certain dietary modifications and natural substances may be useful for treating active Herpes simplex lesions or preventing recurrences. Treatments discussed include lysine, vitamin C, zinc, vitamin E, adenosine monophosphate, and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

  10. Prevention agenda for genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Handsfield, H H; Stone, K M; Wasserheit, J N

    1999-04-01

    Few meeting participants envisioned a prevention and control program on the scale or scope of CDC's programs to prevent HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection, but all agreed that the virtual absence of public health interventions to prevent genital herpes is no longer appropriate in light of evolving epidemiologic knowledge and other research advances. The ultimate scope of a national genital herpes prevention effort will depend in part on the results of the recommended research agenda, which probably will evolve over the better part of a decade. Numerous other STD prevention partners will also need to contribute to this effort and help to determine the makeup of future programs. Substantial new fiscal resources will be required both to implement the proposed research agenda and, depending on the results, to undertake the prevention efforts indicated by those studies. Competing STD prevention priorities and other national health needs will influence the availability of those resources. The consultants' meeting and the research and program activities summarized above are described in more detail in the full meeting report, which is posted on the Division's web site (www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/dstdp.html) or may be requested directly from the Division. DSTDP is interested in receiving comments and suggestions about herpes prevention.

  11. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  12. Herpes in Dyadic Relationships: Patterns and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drob, Sanford; Bernard, Harold S.

    1985-01-01

    Explores how dyadic relationships can be affected when one partner suffers from genital herpes. Six patterns are described: When One Partner Does Not Know, The Compromise Relationship, The Enraged Partner, The Mark of Guilt, Problems in Risk Management, and Herpes Used as Weapon. Treatment strategies for dealing with patterns are offered.…

  13. Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

  14. Herpes in Dyadic Relationships: Patterns and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drob, Sanford; Bernard, Harold S.

    1985-01-01

    Explores how dyadic relationships can be affected when one partner suffers from genital herpes. Six patterns are described: When One Partner Does Not Know, The Compromise Relationship, The Enraged Partner, The Mark of Guilt, Problems in Risk Management, and Herpes Used as Weapon. Treatment strategies for dealing with patterns are offered.…

  15. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  16. Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

  17. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  18. Pediatrics and herpes simplex virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Richard; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2005-01-01

    This review explores the development of prophylactic genital herpes vaccines and their potential impact on perinatal and oral-facial disease. Vaccine strategies have included the use of whole killed virus, viral subunits, attenuated live virus, viral vectors, and bare DNA. To date, the recombinant subunit vaccine, truncated HSV-2 gD and alum/MPL, has been the most efficacious. The vaccine is 73 to 74 percent effective in preventing genital disease in herpes simplex virus seronegative women but is not effective in men or seropositive women. Models predict a significant impact on genital herpes if it limits viral shedding. Reductions in perinatal and oral-facial disease are likely to occur as well. Once an efficacious herpes vaccine is available, its effectiveness will depend ultimately on vaccine acceptance by professional organizations, healthcare professionals, and parents. Further research is required to improve on and fully understand the implications of prophylactic herpes simplex vaccines.

  19. An updated approach to treating and preventing herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Garrubba, Carl; Donkers, Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and herpes zoster. Herpes zoster is a common infection in older adults and can lead to potentially debilitating postherpetic neuralgia. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of herpes zoster, including strategies to reduce disease frequency and severity with the herpes zoster vaccine.

  20. Herpes Mastitis: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Arnaud; Simonson, Colin; Valla, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Herpetic lesions most frequently occur on oral and genital areas. However, herpes simplex virus (HSV) can be a rare cause of breast infection. In few published articles, the route of transmission is predominantly from infant to mother. We report two cases about simultaneous mammary and extramammary (oral and genital) herpetic infection in nonlactating women. In both cases, HSV breast lesions were acquired by sexual contacts with partners who were asymptomatic HSV carriers. Through a review of literature, we highlight clinical signs for an early diagnosis. We also emphasize the advantage of the valacyclovir for treating this uncommon pathology.

  1. Muscle Paralysis in Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, David; Fusfeld, Robert D.

    1965-01-01

    Herpes zoster may, in some instances, cause motor paralysis as well as the usual sensory and cutaneous manifestations. It is suggested that the presence of electromyographic denervation potentials be used as the criterion of muscle paresis in order to avoid mistaking atrophy of disuse for true lower motor neuron disease. Use of the proper physical therapy procedures hastens the recovery of function and may serve to retard denervation atrophy and fibrosis in patients with muscle paralysis. ImagesFigure 1 (Case 1).Figure 1 (Case 1). PMID:5828175

  2. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement.

  3. The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

    2012-10-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.

  4. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  5. Herpes Genitalis: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, A.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes genitalis is caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary or recurrent infection. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and due to associated physical and psychological morbidity it constitutes a considerable, often underestimated medical problem. In addition to providing the reader with basic knowledge of the pathogen and clinical presentation of herpes genitalis, this review article discusses important aspects of the laboratory diagnostics, antiviral therapy and prophylaxis. The article is aimed at all health-care workers managing patients with herpes genitalis and attempts to improve the often suboptimal counselling, targeted use of laboratory diagnostics, treatment and preventive measures provided to patients. PMID:28017972

  6. Herpes Genitalis: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, A

    2016-12-01

    Herpes genitalis is caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary or recurrent infection. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and due to associated physical and psychological morbidity it constitutes a considerable, often underestimated medical problem. In addition to providing the reader with basic knowledge of the pathogen and clinical presentation of herpes genitalis, this review article discusses important aspects of the laboratory diagnostics, antiviral therapy and prophylaxis. The article is aimed at all health-care workers managing patients with herpes genitalis and attempts to improve the often suboptimal counselling, targeted use of laboratory diagnostics, treatment and preventive measures provided to patients.

  7. Herpes simplex type-1 virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michaell A

    2003-06-01

    Oral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus represents one of the more common conditions the dental practitioner will be called upon to manage. Unique in its ability to establish latency and undergo subsequent recurrence, it is an ubiquitous infectious agent for which a cure does not exist. For the immunocompetent patient, herpes virus simplex infection typically represents nothing more than a nuisance. However, for the immunocompromised patient, this infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recently introduced antiviral drug regimens may reduce the morbidity and potential mortality of the herpes simplex virus, especially in immunocompromised patients. The value of antiviral therapy in the management of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection in the immunocompetent patient remains an area of contentious debate.

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus: Partner for Life

    PubMed Central

    Blondeau, Joseph M.; Embil, Juan A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors provide a careful review of the characteristics of the herpes simplex virus and its various manifestations. They offer suggestions for its diagnosis and treatment, in various forms, and outline an approach to physician counselling of infected persons.

  9. Herpes zoster oticus: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Muecke, M; Amedee, R G

    1993-08-01

    Herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome) is recognized as a polycranial neuritis caused by the DNA virus Herpes zoster and characterized by damage to sensory and motor nerves, including the audio-vestibular apparatus. Common presenting symptoms include cutaneous auricular vesicles, severe otalgia, inflammation of the pinna, and occasionally unilateral sudden facial paralysis. This article reviews the medical management of this disease, including the efficacy of antibiotics, corticosteroids, and acyclovir, along with the role of surgical decompression of the facial nerve.

  10. The management of herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Brentjens, Mathijs H; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2002-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus persists in a latent form for the life of its host, periodically reactivating and often resulting in significant psychosocial distress for the patient. Currently no cure is available. Antiviral therapy is the main treatment modality, used either orally, intravenously, or topically to prohibit further replication of the virus and thereby minimize cellular destruction. However, immunologic advances in the treatment and prevention of herpes simplex infections are promising and continue to be studied.

  11. Therapeutic options for herpes labialis: experimental and natural therapies.

    PubMed

    Elish, Diana; Singh, Fiza; Weinberg, Jeffrey M

    2005-07-01

    Herpes labialis, a common condition characterized by recurrent vesicular eruptions primarily on the lips and perioral skin, causes pain and discomfort for millions of adults each year. Over the past several years, the major focus of herpes research has been on the treatment of genital herpes. However, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of therapies specifically for herpes labialis. Last year in Cutis, we reviewed oral and topical therapies for herpes labialis. In this final part of the series, we review experimental and natural treatments that are available for herpes labialis and its associated symptoms.

  12. Recent advances in management of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Tétrault, I.; Boivin, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on new diagnostic tests and antiviral strategies for managing genital herpes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Treatment guidelines are based on randomized clinical trials and recommendations from the Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Recommendations concerning other aspects of managing genital herpes (e.g., indications for using type-specific serologic tests) are mainly based on expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, affecting about 20% of sexually active people; up to 80% of cases are undiagnosed. Because of frequent atypical presentation and the emotional burden associated with genital herpes, clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by viral culture. Type-specific serologic assays are now available, but their use is often restricted to special situations and requires adequate counseling. New antivirals (valacyclovir and famciclovir) with improved pharmacokinetic profiles have now been approved for episodic treatment of recurrences and suppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: Wise use of new diagnostic assays for herpes simplex coupled with more convenient treatment regimens should provide better management of patients with genital herpes. Images Figure 1 PMID:10955181

  13. Herpes

    MedlinePlus

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  14. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach tested on lab monkeys, ... researchers say. The vaccine has proven effective in animals against herpes simplex virus 2, the sexually transmitted ...

  15. Public awareness and knowledge of herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Pica, Francesca; Volpi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Between 20% and 40% of the population is estimated to suffer from episodes of recurrent herpes labialis, although few reports in the literature have addressed the public awareness of this infection in the general population. The aims of this study were to determine the existing level of awareness and knowledge of this disease and to assess the source of this knowledge, the ability of the public to recognize the characteristics of the disease and the behavior of patients with clinical cases of disease manifestation. To this end, 2,000 individuals (961 male and 1,039 female) of 14 years of age and older were surveyed using the ECOcapi system [Eurisko Consumer Omnibus-CAPI (computer-assisted personal interviewing) version]. Eighty-nine percent of those surveyed had some knowledge of herpes labialis; 92% were able to refer to at least one symptom of herpes labialis, 91% were able to identify correctly his infection from pictures, and 45% had experienced personally at least one episode of herpes labialis infection. The majority of the individuals suffering from herpes labialis self-medicated using a topical therapy. Women were found to be affected more commonly by herpes labialis than men [OR 1.42 (1.18-1.70)], and women were also more likely to recognize the disease [OR 1.65 (1.30-2.08)] and to seek medical advice for the condition [OR 1.38 (1.12-1.70)]. In conclusion, herpes labialis is a common and well-known condition, and it is often self-diagnosed correctly, as the prodromal phase and the use of self-medication are very common.

  16. Prodrugs of herpes simplex thymidine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yanachkova, Milka; Xu, Wei-Chu; Dvoskin, Sofya; Dix, Edward J; Yanachkov, Ivan B; Focher, Federico; Savi, Lida; Sanchez, M Dulfary; Foster, Timothy P; Wright, George E

    2015-04-01

    Because guanine-based herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase inhibitors are not orally available, we synthesized various 6-deoxy prodrugs of these compounds and evaluated them with regard to solubility in water, oral bioavailability, and efficacy to prevent herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation from latency in a mouse model. Organic synthesis was used to prepare compounds, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to analyze hydrolytic conversion, Mass Spectrometry (MS) to measure oral bioavailability, and mouse latent infection and induced reactivation to evaluate the efficacy of a specific prodrug. Aqueous solubilities of prodrugs were improved, oxidation of prodrugs by animal cytosols occurred in vitro, and oral absorption of the optimal prodrug sacrovir™ (6-deoxy-mCF3PG) in the presence of the aqueous adjuvant Soluplus® and conversion to active compound N(2)-[3-(trifluoromethyl)pheny])guanine (mCF3PG) were accomplished in mice. Treatment of herpes simplex virus-1 latent mice with sacrovir™ in 1% Soluplus in drinking water significantly suppressed herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation and viral genomic replication. Ad libitum oral delivery of sacrovir™ was effective in suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in ocularly infected latent mice as measured by the numbers of mice shedding infectious virus at the ocular surface, numbers of trigeminal ganglia positive for infectious virus, number of corneas that had detectable infectious virus, and herpes simplex virus-1 genome copy numbers in trigeminal ganglia following reactivation. These results demonstrate the statistically significant effect of the prodrug on suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in vivo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Hyperleukocytosis in a premature infant with intrauterine herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Underwood, M A; Wartell, A E; Borghese, R A

    2012-06-01

    Herpes encephalitis is a rare but devastating infection in premature infants. We report a 29 week gestation infant with severe intrauterine cutaneous and central nervous system herpes accompanied by hyperleukocytosis. Leukemoid reactions are not uncommon in this population, but the association of herpes encephalitis and a leukemoid reaction or hyperleukocytosis has not been reported previously.

  18. Treatment and prevention of herpes labialis

    PubMed Central

    Opstelten, Wim; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Eekhof, Just

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To review the evidence regarding the treatment and prevention of herpes labialis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE The evidence relating to treatment and prevention of herpes labialis is derived from randomized controlled trials (level I evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Treatment with an indifferent cream (zinc oxide or zinc sulfate), an anesthetic cream, or an antiviral cream has a small favourable effect on the duration of symptoms, if applied promptly. This is also the case with oral antiviral medication. If antiviral medicine (cream or oral) is started before exposure to the triggering factor (sunlight), it will provide some protection. Research on sunscreens has shown mixed results: some protection has been reported under experimental conditions that could not be replicated under natural conditions. In the long term, the number of relapses of herpes labialis can be limited with oral antiviral medication. CONCLUSION Only prompt topical or oral therapy will alleviate symptoms of herpes labialis. Both topical and oral treatment can contribute to the prevention of herpes labialis. PMID:19074705

  19. [Lacrimal and salivatory glycoproteins in ophthalmic herpes].

    PubMed

    Reuk, S E; Terekhina, N A

    2016-01-01

    to compare tear, saliva, and plasma levels of acute phase proteins (APPs) of inflammation in patients with herpes keratitis and to use the RESULTS in treatment evaluation. APPs were measured in tears, oral fluid, and blood plasma from 22 adults and 34 children with ophthalmic herpes as well as 68 healthy controls using immunoturbidimetric and spectrophotometric methods of detection. High levels of C-reactive protein and orosomucoid, low levels of ceruloplasmin, α1-antitrypsin, and transferrin in tears from patients with herpes keratitis as well as abnormal tear, saliva, and plasma APPs levels at discharge are poor prognostic signs. They all indicate that corneal inflammation is still intense and that the treatment should not be ceased yet. Severity of APPs concentration changes in tear from patients with herpes keratitis correlates with the depth of corneal lesions, recurrence rate, and disease dynamics. Quantitative determination of acute phase proteins in tear and oral fluid is an early and sensitive inflammation test and may be also used for non-invasive monitoring and antiviral treatment evaluation. Oral fluid allows to extend the capabilities of non-invasive diagnostics of ophthalmic herpes.

  20. Herpes simplex ulcerative esophagitis in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman A; Fagih, Mosa A

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is a common cause of ulcerative esophagitis in the immunocompromised or debilitated host. Despite a high prevalence of primary and recurrent Herpes simplex virus infection in the general population, Herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) appears to be rare in the immunocompetent host. We report three cases of endoscopically-diagnosed HSVE in apparently immunocompetent children; the presentation was characterized by acute onset of fever, odynophagia, and dysphagia. In two cases, the diagnosis was confirmed histologically by identification of herpes viral inclusions and culture of the virus in the presence of inflammation. The third case was considered to have probable HSVE based on the presence of typical cold sore on his lip, typical endoscopic finding, histopathological evidence of inflammation in esophageal biopsies and positive serologic evidence of acute Herpes simplex virus infection. Two cases received an intravenous course of acyclovir and one had self-limited recovery. All three cases had normal immunological workup and excellent health on long-term follow-up.

  1. The herpes zoster subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) causes severe pain and rash in older people and may be complicated by prolonged pain (postherpetic neuralgia; PHN). HZ results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, often associated with age related or other causes of decreased T cell immunity. A concentrated live attenuated vaccine boosts this immunity and provides partial protection against HZ, but this decreases with age and declines over 5-8 years. The new HZ subunit (HZ/su or Shingrix) vaccine combines a key surface VZV glycoprotein (E) with T cell boosting adjuvant (AS01B). It is highly efficacious in protection (97%) against HZ in immunocompetent subjects, with no decline in advancing age and protection maintained for >3 years. Phase I-II trials showed safety and similar immunogenicity in severely immunocompromised patients. Local injection site pain and swelling can be severe in a minority (9.5%) but is transient (2 days). The HZ/su vaccine appears very promising in immunocompetent patients in the ZoE-50 controlled trial. The unblinding of the current ZoE-50 trial and publication of results from the accompanying ZoE-70 trial will reveal more about its mechanism of action and its efficacy against PHN, particularly in subjects >70 years. Phase III trial results in immunocompromised patients are eagerly awaited.

  2. Herpes simplex virus Membrane Fusion.

    PubMed

    Weed, Darin J; Nicola, Anthony V

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus mediates multiple distinct fusion events during infection. HSV entry is initiated by fusion of the viral envelope with either the limiting membrane of a host cell endocytic compartment or the plasma membrane. In the infected cell during viral assembly, immature, enveloped HSV particles in the perinuclear space fuse with the outer nuclear membrane in a process termed de-envelopment. A cell infected with some strains of HSV with defined mutations spread to neighboring cells by a fusion event called syncytium formation. Two experimental methods, the transient cell-cell fusion approach and fusion from without, are useful surrogate assays of HSV fusion. These five fusion processes are considered in terms of their requirements, mechanism, and regulation. The execution and modulation of these events require distinct yet often overlapping sets of viral proteins and host cell factors. The core machinery of HSV gB, gD, and the heterodimer gH/gL is required for most if not all of the HSV fusion mechanisms.

  3. [Severe form of herpes gestationis].

    PubMed

    Orsini, G; Loizzi, P; Morelli, L; Chiechi, L M; Sabatini, R; Distante, G

    2003-06-01

    We report a very severe form of herpers gestationis that arose at the 26(th) week of pregnancy and reached us for observation at the 30(th) week. Herpes gestationis in an autoimmune vesicobullous dermatosis characterised by skin eruptions, intense itching and consequent increase in fetal morbility, with delayed intrauterine growth and prematurity. Owing to its particular severity (involvement of the entire body surface including the face), between the 30th and the 32(nd) weeks we had to address a severe clinical condition characterised by anaemia, marked hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hupertension and hyperglycaemia which led us to resort to the maximum dose of oral corticotherapy in association with topical therapy using clobetasol propionate. In our opinion the results obtained were highly statisfactory with the result that at the end of the 37(th) week, in consideration of the patient's obstetric history, podalic presentation and parity, we performed a Caesarean delivering a newborn of 3000 g in excellent condition. The patient was discharged symptom-free on the 6(th) day and the newborn was in full healt.

  4. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cole; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity. PMID:26462293

  5. [Immune evasion by herpes simplex viruses].

    PubMed

    Retamal-Díaz, Angello R; Suazo, Paula A; Garrido, Ignacio; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-02-01

    Herpes simplex viruses and humans have co-existed for tens of thousands of years. This long relationship has translated into the evolution and selection of viral determinants to evade the host immune response and reciprocally the evolution and selection of host immune components for limiting virus infection and damage. Currently there are no vaccines available to avoid infection with these viruses or therapies to cure them. Herpes simplex viruses are neurotropic and reside latently in neurons at the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, occasionally reactivating. Most viral recurrences are subclinical and thus, unnoticed. Here, we discuss the initial steps of infection by herpes simplex viruses and the molecular mechanisms they have developed to evade innate and adaptive immunity. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to evade host immunity should help us envision novel vaccine strategies and therapies that limit infection and dissemination.

  6. The Uncommon Localization of Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Herpes zoster is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that is the cause of varicella. It is an acute neurological disease which can often lead to serious postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Different nerves can be included with the skin rash in the area of its enervation especially cranial nerves (CV) and intercostal nerves. Case report: In this report we present a patient with herpes zoster which involved ulnar nerve with skin rash in the region of ulnar innervations in women with no disease previously diagnosed. The failure of her immune system may be explained by great emotional stress and overwork she had been exposed to with neglecting proper nutrition in that period. Conclusion: Herpes zoster may involve any nerve with characteristic skin rash in the area of its innervations, and failure in immune system which leads reactivation of VZV may be caused by other factors besides the underlying illness. PMID:26980938

  7. Therapeutic options for herpes labialis, I: Oral agents.

    PubMed

    Elish, Diana; Singh, Fiza; Weinberg, Jeffrey M

    2004-07-01

    Given the prevalence of herpes labialis, effective therapy has the potential to affect the lives of many and presents a challenge for clinicians. Over the last several years, most of the focus of herpes research has been on the treatment of genital herpes. Recently, however, several studies have been published examining the efficacy of therapies specifically for herpes labialis. Several therapeutic agents, both prescription and over-the-counter, are available for controlling and managing the disease. In this series of articles, we review oral and topical therapeutic agents that are available in the treatment of herpes labialis and its associated symptoms. This article will review oral treatment options.

  8. Guidelines for the management of herpes simplex virus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah; Steben, Marc

    2008-06-01

    To provide recommendations for the management of genital herpes infection in women who want to get pregnant or are pregnant and for the management of genital herpes in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission to the infant. More effective management of complications of genital herpes in pregnancy and prevention of transmission of genital herpes from mother to infant. Medline was searched for articles published in French or English related to genital herpes and pregnancy. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.

  9. Preventing herpes simplex virus in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide. Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected genitally with HSV, and most of them are unaware of this. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is HSV disease in the newborn. Although neonatal HSV infections remain uncommon, due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, HSV infection in the newborn is often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. This review summarizes the epidemiology and management of neonatal HSV infections and discusses strategies to prevent HSV infection in the newborn.

  10. [Treatment of cutaneous herpes and herpes zoster with Nivcrisol-D].

    PubMed

    Giurcăneanu, F; Crişan, I; Eşanu, V; Cioca, V; Cajal, N

    1988-01-01

    The results obtained at the Dermatological service of the Colentina Hospital show that the product NIVCRISOL-D, containing propolis, has a significant therapeutical effect against recurrent herpes and zona zoster.

  11. Anorexia nervosa with herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    George, G. C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa appear to show an increased immunity to certain infections, as well as immunological deficiencies. This is the report of a patient with anorexia nervosa who developed herpes simplex encephalitis, a condition associated with lowered immunological defence mechanisms. PMID:7301681

  12. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical…

  13. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical…

  14. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown.

  15. Herpes Zoster Vaccination: Controversies and Common Clinical Questions.

    PubMed

    Van Epps, Puja; Schmader, Kenneth E; Canaday, David H

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster, clinically referred to as shingles, is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. The incidence of herpes zoster and its complications increase with decline in cell-mediated immunity, including age-associated decline. The most effective management strategy for herpes zoster is prevention of the disease through vaccination in those who are most vulnerable. Despite the demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of herpes zoster, the uptake of vaccine remains low. Here, we will discuss the controversies that surround the live herpes zoster vaccine and address the common clinical questions that arise. We will also discuss the new adjuvanted herpes zoster vaccine currently under investigation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. 2014 UK national guideline for the management of anogenital herpes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Raj; Green, John; Clarke, Emily; Seneviratne, Kanchana; Abbt, Naomi; Evans, Ceri; Bickford, Jane; Nicholson, Marian; O'Farrell, Nigel; Barton, Simon; FitzGerald, Mark; Foley, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    These guidelines concern the management of anogenital herpes simplex virus infections in adults and give advice on diagnosis, management, and counselling of patients. This guideline replaces the 2007 BASHH herpes guidelines and includes new sections on herpes proctitis, key points to cover with patients regarding transmission and removal of advice on the management of HSV in pregnancy which now has a separate joint BASHH/RCOG guideline. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Herpes zoster correlates with pyogenic liver abscesses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Mei-Ling, Shen; Kuan-Fu, Liao; Sung-Mao, Tsai; Cheng-Li, Lin Ms; Shih-Wei, Lai

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper was to explore the relationship between herpes zoster and pyogenic liver abscesses in Taiwan. This was a nationwide cohort study. Using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, there were 33049 subjects aged 20-84 years who were newly diagnosed with herpes zoster from 1998 to 2010 that were selected for our study, and they were our herpes zoster group. 131707 randomly selected subjects without herpes zoster were our non-herpes zoster group. Both groups were matched by sex, age, other comorbidities, and the index year of their herpes zoster diagnosis. The incidence of pyogenic liver abscesses at the end of 2011 was then estimated. The multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for pyogenic liver abscesses associated with herpes zoster and other comorbidities. The overall incidence rate was 1.38-fold higher in the herpes zoster group than in the non-herpes zoster group (4.47 vs. 3.25 per 10000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 1.32, 1.44). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted hazard ratio of pyogenic liver abscesses was 1.34 in the herpes zoster group (95% confidence interval 1.05, 1.72) when compared with the non-herpes zoster group. Sex (in this case male), age, presence of biliary stones, chronic kidney diseases, chronic liver diseases, cancers, and diabetes mellitus were also significantly associated with pyogenic liver abscesses. Patients with herpes zoster are associated with an increased hazard of developing pyogenic liver abscesses.

  18. Pharmacologic management of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed Central

    Mamdani, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Herpes zoster is an infection caused by reactivation of dormant varicella-zoster virus. The acute course of herpes zoster is generally benign; however, some patients will experience postherpetic neuralgia characterized by severe, relentless, and at times disabling pain that is often refractory to treatment. While herpes zoster responds to acyclovir, cost-benefit considerations limit the drug's usefulness to only a select group. Postherpetic neuralgia requires a holistic approach, including pharmacologic therapy using several different classes of drugs. PMID:7907508

  19. Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

    2014-12-01

    No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines.

  20. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  1. Inactivation of Herpes Simplex Viruses by Nonionic Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Asculai, Samuel S.; Weis, Margaret T.; Rancourt, Martha W.; Kupferberg, A. B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonionic surface-active agents possessing ether or amide linkages between the hydrophillic and hydrophobic portions of the molecule rapidly inactivated the infectivity of herpes simplex viruses. The activity stemmed from the ability of nonionic surfactants to dissolve lipid-containing membranes. This was confirmed by observing surfactant destruction of mammalian cell plasma membranes and herpes simplex virus envelopes. Proprietary vaginal contraceptive formulations containing nonionic surfactants also inactivated herpes simplex virus infectivity. This observation suggests that nonionic surfactants in appropriate formulation could effectively prevent herpes simplex virus transmission. Images PMID:208460

  2. Bell's palsy associated with herpes simplex gingivostomatitis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Nasatzky, E; Katz, J

    1998-09-01

    Bell's palsy is a sudden, isolated, peripheral facial paralysis caused by various known and sometimes unknown factors. The case of an 18-year-old man who developed Bell's palsy after onset of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis is presented. Although Bell's palsy has already been associated with herpes simplex virus type 1, the described case is the first in the literature in which enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for immunoglobulin G to herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 1 culture were both positive. The recent literature regarding the possible relationship between herpes simplex virus type 1 and Bell's palsy is reviewed and discussed.

  3. [Pain in herpes zoster: Prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Calvo-Mosquera, G; González-Cal, A; Calvo-Rodríguez, D; Primucci, C Y; Plamenov-Dipchikov, P

    2016-04-01

    Shingles is a painful rash that results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus in the dorsal root ganglia or cranial nerves. In this article an update is presented on the prevention and pharmacological treatment of the secondary pain from the virus infection. The most effective way to prevent post-herpetic neuralgia and its consequences is the prevention of herpes itself. A live attenuated vaccine (the Oka strain varicella zoster virus) has been available for several years, and is approved in adults aged 50 years old. Although this vaccine has shown to be effective against herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia, its effectiveness decreases with age and is contraindicated in patients with some form of immunosuppression. Today the recombinant vaccines provide an alternative, and may be administered to immunocompromised persons.

  4. [Ocular hypertension in herpes simplex keratouveitis].

    PubMed

    Burcea, M; Avram, Corina-Ioana; Stamate, Alina-Cristina; Malciolu, R; Oprea, S; Zemba, M

    2014-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus is one of the most common pathogens in humans, who are seropositive for the virus in 90% of the cases at the adult age. It determines reccurent infections in more than a third of the population and these infections depend on the immune response of the host. Ocular infections of newborns are due to the herpes simplex virus type 2, meanwhile type 1 is found predominantly at adults; almost all ocular structures can be affected. HSV-1 in the most frequent etiologic agent in infectious anterior uveitis (with the varicelo-zosterian virus) and it is responsible for 6-10% of all cases of anterior uveitis. More than half of the keratouveitides due to HSV will develop intraocular hypertension and open-angle secondary glaucoma, during reccurences and most of them will resolve after proper control of inflammation.

  5. Herpes encephalitis preceded by ipsilateral vestibular neuronitis.

    PubMed

    Philpot, Stephen J; Archer, John S

    2005-11-01

    A 74-year-old woman developed vertigo and jerk nystagmus to the left with normal cerebral imaging. Three days later she developed fever, altered mental state and left medial temporal lobe hypodensity, confirmed on lumbar puncture to be due to herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis. We propose that the patient had vestibular neuronitis caused by HSV-1 that progressed to ipsilateral temporal lobe encephalitis.

  6. Herpes Viral Origin of the Parsonage-Turner Syndrome: Highlighting of Serological Immune Anti-Herpes Deficiency Cured by Anti-Herpes Therapy.

    PubMed

    Goaster, Jacqueline Le; Bourée, Patrice; Ifergan, Charles; Tangy, Frederic; Olivier, René; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a 50 year-old athletic male presented with weakness, pain and unilateral phrenic paralysis, followed by bilateral phrenic paralysis with deep dyspnea. In 2013, the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was diagnosed. When the patient was seen in September 2014 for the first time, he was facing phrenic neuromuscular failure, which led to the hypothesis of neurotropic herpes viruses. A control of the global serological anti-Herpes immunity to analyze his antibody (Ab) levels confirmed herpes immune genetic deficiency. An appropriate herpes chemotherapy treatment was proposed. Immediately, a spectacular recovery of the patient was observed, and after a few weeks, the respiratory function tests showed normal values. The hypothesis of the inductive role of viruses of the herpes family in the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was thus substantiated. The patient's immune deficiency covers the HSV2, HHV3, HHV4, HHV5 and HHV6 Ab levels. This led to the control of herpes in the family lineage: indeed, his daughter presented alterations of her serological herpes Ab levels.

  7. Mitochondrial Haplogroups as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Rebecca T; Hulgan, Todd; Kalams, Spyros A; Fessel, Joshua P; Samuels, David C

    2016-10-01

    Background.  Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods.  Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our study used 9691 Caucasian individuals with herpes zoster status determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 053-053.9. Cases and controls were matched on sex and date of birth within 5 years. Mitochondrial haplogroups were defined from mitochondrial DNA variants genotyped on the Illumina 660W or Illumina Infinium Human-Exome Beadchip. Sex and date of birth were extracted from the EMR. Results.  European mitochondrial haplogroup H had a protective association with herpes zoster status (odds ratio [OR] = .82; 95% confidence interval [CI], .71-.94; P = .005), whereas haplogroup clade IWX was a risk factor for herpes zoster status (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07-1.77; P = .01). Conclusions.  Mitochondrial haplogroup influences herpes zoster risk. Knowledge of a patient's mitochondrial haplogroup could allow for a precision approach to the management of herpes zoster risk through vaccination strategies and management of other modifiable risk factors.

  8. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (≤35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD.

  9. Mitochondrial Haplogroups as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Rebecca T.; Hulgan, Todd; Kalams, Spyros A.; Fessel, Joshua P.; Samuels, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods. Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our study used 9691 Caucasian individuals with herpes zoster status determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 053–053.9. Cases and controls were matched on sex and date of birth within 5 years. Mitochondrial haplogroups were defined from mitochondrial DNA variants genotyped on the Illumina 660W or Illumina Infinium Human-Exome Beadchip. Sex and date of birth were extracted from the EMR. Results. European mitochondrial haplogroup H had a protective association with herpes zoster status (odds ratio [OR] = .82; 95% confidence interval [CI], .71–.94; P = .005), whereas haplogroup clade IWX was a risk factor for herpes zoster status (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07–1.77; P = .01). Conclusions. Mitochondrial haplogroup influences herpes zoster risk. Knowledge of a patient's mitochondrial haplogroup could allow for a precision approach to the management of herpes zoster risk through vaccination strategies and management of other modifiable risk factors. PMID:27807590

  10. Update on recommendations for use of herpes zoster vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hales, Craig M; Harpaz, Rafael; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael; Bialek, Stephanie R

    2014-08-22

    Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax [Merck & Co., Inc.]) was licensed in 2006 and recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) in 2008 for prevention of herpes zoster (shingles) and its complications among adults aged ≥60 years. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Zostavax in 2011 for adults aged 50 through 59 years based on a large study of safety and efficacy in this age group. ACIP initially considered the use of herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged 50 through 59 years in June 2011, but declined to recommend the vaccine in this age group, citing shortages of Zostavax and limited data on long-term protection afforded by herpes zoster vaccine. In October 2013, ACIP reviewed the epidemiology of herpes zoster and its complications, herpes zoster vaccine supply, short-term vaccine efficacy in adults aged 50 through 59 years, short- and long- term vaccine efficacy and effectiveness in adults aged ≥60 years, an updated cost-effectiveness analysis, and deliberations of the ACIP herpes zoster work group, all of which are summarized in this report. No vote was taken, and ACIP maintained its current recommendation that herpes zoster vaccine be routinely recommended for adults aged ≥60 years. Meeting minutes are available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/meetings-info.html.

  11. Herpes genitalis - Topical zinc sulfate: An alternative therapeutic and modality.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, B B; Dhawan, Mohit; Singh, Rajwinder

    2013-01-01

    Herpes genitalis is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections in the world caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2. All herpes viruses show latency. Herpes genitalis caused by HSV-1 and HSV-2 is recurrent in 55 and 90% of case respectively. To comparatively evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of topical zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) in varying concentrations in herpes genitalis. Ninety patients clinically diagnosed as herpes genitalis and confirmed by Tzanck test were taken up for study and divided into 3 groups of 30 patients each which were applied topical ZnSO4 in concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% respectively for 3 months. Ten patients of herpes genitalis were kept as control in whom only distilled water was applied. Patients were followed up for a total period of 6 months for any recurrences. Ten patients of group 1 (1% ZnSO4) showed recurrence, 6 patients in group 2 (2% ZnSO4) and only one patient in group 3 (4% ZnSO4) showed recurrence. In the control group, 8 out of 10 patients showed recurrence. No serious side effects were seen in all 3 groups. Topical ZnSO4 has been found to be an effective therapeutic modality not only for treatment but also for prolonging remissions in herpes genitalis. Topical 4% ZnSO4 has been found to be most efficacious out of the three concentrations, without any side effects.

  12. A case of late herpes simplex encephalitis relapse.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Andrea; Lauria, Giuseppe; Mantero, Vittorio; Salmaggi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Late relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis, defined as recurrence more than 3 months after the first initial encephalitic episode, is a rare condition. We describe the case of an adult patient who presented a relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis 8 years after the first episode occurred at the age of 57 years and review the literature of this topic.

  13. Genital herpes testing among persons living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mark, Hayley D; Lucea, Marguerite; Nanda, Joy P; Farley, Jason E; Gilbert, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey explored the frequency of genital herpes testing among 110 people living with HIV (PLWH) and reported barriers and facilitators related to testing. Forty-four percent of the respondents had not been tested for genital herpes since receiving an HIV diagnosis, 34% had been tested, and 22% preferred not to say. Respondents' most frequently cited factors affecting a decision to not be tested were: (a) testing not being recommended by a provider, (b) not having herpes symptoms, and (c) not thinking they had herpes. Data from this study indicated that PLWH were not frequently tested for genital herpes; there was a limited understanding of the frequently subclinical nature of infection; and provider recommendations for testing, or lack thereof, affected testing decisions.

  14. Status of prophylactic and therapeutic genital herpes vaccines.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-06-01

    A half billion people have genital herpes infections worldwide. Approximately one-fifth of American women between ages 14 and 49 are HSV-2 seropositive. The development of an effective genital herpes vaccine is a global health necessity based on the mental anguish genital herpes causes for some individuals, the fact that pregnant women with genital herpes risk transmitting infection to their newborn children, and the observation that HSV-2 infection is associated with a 3-fold to 4-fold increased probability of HIV acquisition. We review the strengths and limitations of preclinical animal models used to assess genital herpes vaccine candidates and the goals of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. We also discuss the current pipeline of vaccine candidates and lessons learned from past clinical trials that serve as a stimulus for new strategies, study designs and endpoint determinations.

  15. Management of oral and genital herpes in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Mell, Howard K

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiology of oral and genital herpes has dramatically changed over the past decade. Herpes simplex virus-1, traditionally associated with oral herpes, is now implicated in an increasing percentage of genital herpes cases. The possibility of "autoinoculation" (or self-infection) of anatomic sites other than that of the primary infection has been recognized. New methods of suppression therapy are being examined. These changes have led to a revision in the recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This review discusses herpes infections of the oral and genital mucosa and the suggested approach to the infected patient who presents in the emergency department. Specific attention is given to the CDC's 2006 guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

  16. Genital herpes in older women: a silent epidemic.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Janice

    2008-06-01

    To present an overview of the prevalence of genital herpes in older women and to present case studies of older women diagnosed with genital herpes in a geriatric practice in the southeastern United States. Review of current scientific literature and treatment/practice guidelines. Specific descriptive cases are reviewed to illustrate the clinical problem. Genital herpes is an important differential diagnosis to include when assessing and treating older women for recurrent genital symptoms. Given the large numbers of older individuals potentially infected with genital herpes, the nurse practitioner (NP) is well positioned to accurately diagnose and initiate treatment that can improve quality of life. The NP's skill in education and counseling is essential to the ongoing management of genital herpes infections.

  17. 76 FR 48715 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological Assay Device AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... the herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assay device type, which is classified as class II (special... tests to identify antibodies to herpes simplex virus in serum, and the devices that consist of herpes...

  18. Herpes labialis among dental healthcare providers in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Azodo, C C; Umoh, A O

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of herpes labialis has been relatively neglected. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of self-reported herpes labialis among Nigerian dental health providers. This cross-sectional study of final year dental students and dentists undergoing postgraduate training at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria was conducted in June, 2014. The demographic information, lifetime and period (previous year) experience of the herpes labialis, perceived triggers and action taken during the last episode were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. The annual prevalence of herpes labialis was 7.4% while the lifetime prevalence was 22.1%. The lifetime prevalence was significantly associated with marital status, professional status and family history of herpes labialis. However, in binary regression, it was only marital status and family history of herpes labialis that emerged as the determinants of this lifetime prevalence. The most common trigger factors reported by the participants for the last episode of herpes labialis were fever, malaria, fatigue and stress. The actions taken by participants for the last episode of herpes labialis were using drugs without prescription (14.3%), application of lubricant (23.8%), nothing (57.1%) and could not remember (4.8%). Data from this study revealed that one out of fourteen and one out of five every studied dental healthcare providers had experienced herpes labialis in the last 12 months and their lifetime respectively. The reduction of fever inducing infections, stress and fatigue which were major triggers will help decrease herpes labialis among this studied group.

  19. Update on oral herpes virus infections.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Kuperstein, Arthur S; Stoopler, Eric T

    2014-04-01

    Oral herpes virus infections (OHVIs) are among the most common mucosal disorders encountered by oral health care providers. These infections can affect individuals at any age, from infants to the elderly, and may cause significant pain and dysfunction. Immunosuppressed patients may be at increased risk for serious and potential life-threatening complications caused by OHVIs. Clinicians may have difficulty in diagnosing these infections because they can mimic other conditions of the oral mucosa. This article provides oral health care providers with clinically relevant information regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of OHVIs.

  20. Herpes simplex encephalitis: some interesting presentations.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Jose, M; Kumar, V

    2003-09-01

    Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of fatal viral encephalitis. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis and successful therapy to restrict morbidity and mortality. We report 4 patients of HSE, with interesting presentations, viz. brainstem involvement in an immunosuppressed patient, Kluver-Bucy Syndrome-a consequence of untreated HSE, HSE in the postpartum period mistaken as cortical venous thrombosis, and response to inadequate treatment. They demonstrate the wide spectrum of clinical features, pitfalls in diagnosis, and a variable response to therapy in HSE.

  1. Herpes simplex virus and the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Eric A; Coyle, Walter J

    2008-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is well known as a sexually transmitted disease. However, relatively little has been published concerning the presentations and treatment of HSV infection within the gastrointestinal tract, where HSV most commonly affects the esophagus in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. HSV proctitis is not uncommon and occurs primarily in males having sex with males. In patients with normal immune systems, gastrointestinal HSV infections are generally self-limited and rarely require antiviral therapy. Treatment of infection is suggested for immunocompromised patients, though no large randomized controlled trials have been performed. This article reviews the manifestations of HSV infection within the luminal gastrointestinal tract and options for diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Characterizing human herpes virus 6 following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Perissinotti, Anthony J; Gulbis, Alison; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Howell, Joshua

    2015-04-01

    Human herpes virus 6 reactivation occurs in approximately 50% of patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplant, however, the significance of human herpes virus 6 reactivation remains uncertain. A retrospective study was conducted analyzing clinical data of patients testing positive for human herpes virus 6 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction following hematopoietic stem cell transplant from 1 January 1998 to 1 October 2011. Data retrieved were used to describe the clinical course and outcome of human herpes virus 6 positive hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Sixty patients were identified who tested positive for human herpes virus 6 by polymerase chain reaction following hematopoietic stem cell transplant. A high proportion of patients were identified in this cohort with acute myeloid leukemia (28.3%), active disease (65%), transplanted with a matched unrelated donor (30%), ≥ 1 antigen mismatched (28.3%) matched unrelated donor, or an umbilical cord graft (25%), and those who received antithymocyte globulin (42.4%). Thirty-eight (63.3%) patients were treated for human herpes virus 6 with foscarnet alone or in combination with intravenous immunoglobulin, whereas 18 (30%) did not require treatment survival at Day 100 was 73.3%. This study suggests human herpes virus 6 reactivation occurs shortly after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (median of 25 days (interquartile range, 20-31.75) after hematopoietic stem cell transplant). Many potential risk factors are described in this report. Treatment of human herpes virus 6 predominately consisted of foscarnet with or without intravenous immunoglobulin; however, treatment of human herpes virus 6 was not always warranted. Furthermore, the effect of treatment on patient outcomes is uncertain. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Herpes simplex encephalitis with thalamic, brainstem and cerebellar involvement.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meenal; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Udwadia Hegde, Anaita

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a common and treatable cause of acute encephalitis in all age groups. Certain radiological features such as temporal parenchymal involvement facilitate the diagnosis. The use of herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction has expanded the clinical and imaging spectrum. We report the case of a young patient who presented with a movement disorder and predominant involvement of thalami, brainstem and cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging, and was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Differentiation from Japanese encephalitis may be difficult in these patients, especially in endemic areas, and may necessitate the use of relevant investigations in all patients.

  4. Behaviour disturbances during recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, R; Bhalla, A; Gordon, A; Roberts, J

    1983-01-01

    Bizarre behaviour disturbances in four patients occurring during incomplete recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Some aspects of their behaviour were similar to that originally described by Klüver and Bucy in monkeys following bilateral temporal lobectomy. Previous reports of behavioural disturbances in man after herpes simplex encephalitis are reviewed and attention drawn to the aggressive and disruptive behaviour that is often seen. With the reduced mortality in herpes simplex encephalitis in recent years it is possible that behaviour disturbances such as those described here will be seen more frequently. Images PMID:6619889

  5. Primary herpes simplex virus infection mimicking cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; White, Catherine; Higgins, Stephen Peter

    2015-06-02

    We report the case of an 18-year-old woman presenting with ulceration of the cervix caused by primary type 2 herpes simplex infection in the absence of skin lesions. The differential diagnosis included cervical cancer and we referred the patient for urgent colposcopy. However, laboratory tests proved the viral aetiology of the cervical ulceration and the cervix had healed completely 3 weeks later. The case highlights the need to consider herpes simplex infection in the differential diagnosis of ulceration of the cervix even when there are no cutaneous signs of herpes.

  6. Isolated double herpes zoster paresis involving the left facial nerve and the right peroneal nerve following disseminated herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Hideto; Tsukahara, Nanako; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Ito, Satoshi; Sakuramoto, Chieko

    2007-05-01

    A 72-year-old Japanese male developed disseminated herpes zoster and could not easily walk due to right drop foot and pain. He soon developed numbness and pain on the left side of his face, and noticed difficulty closing his left eye. The left angle of his mouth dropped. The patient was diagnosed as having a double mononeuropathy (a left facial nerve paresis and a right peroneal nerve paresis) following disseminated herpes zoster. Given that the patient was elderly and had diabetes mellitus, the patient appeared to be an immunocompromised host. We also describe other rare complications of herpes zoster from the published work.

  7. [The lysate and recombinant antigens in ELISA-test-systems for diagnostic of herpes simplex].

    PubMed

    Ganova, L A; Kovtoniuk, G V; Korshun, L N; Kiseleva, E K; Tereshchenko, M I; Vudmaska, M I; Moĭsa, L N; Shevchuk, V A; Spivak, N Ia

    2014-08-01

    The lysate and recombinant antigens of various production included informula of ELISA-test-systems were analyzed. The ELISA-test-systems are used for detection of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I and II. For testing the panel of serums PTH 201 (BBI Inc.) were used. The samples of this panel contain antibodies to Herpes simplex virus type I and II in mixed titers. The 69 serums of donors were used too (17 samples had IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I, 23 samples to Herpes simplex virus type II and 29 samples had no antibodies to Herpes simplex virus). The diagnostic capacity of mixture of recombinant antigens gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I and gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II (The research-and-production complex "DiaprofMed") was comparable with mixture of lysate antigen Herpes simplex virus type I and II (Membrane) EIE Antigen ("Virion Ltd."). In the test-systems for differentiation of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I the recombinant antigen gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I proved to be comparable with commercial analogue Herpes simplex virus-1 gG1M ("Viral Therapeutics Inc."'). At the same time, capacity to detect IgG to Herpes simplex virus type II in recombinant protein gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II is significantly higher than in its analogue Herpes simplex virus-2 gG2c ("Viral Therapeutics Inc.").

  8. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  9. AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

  10. Multiplex PCR for identification of herpes virus infections in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Durzyńska, Julia; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Maria; Hanć, Tomasz; Durda, Magdalena; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a multiplex PCR (mPCR) for a rapid and simultaneous detection of herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in squamous oral cells obtained from adolescents. Accuracy of the method was tested in a group of 513 adolescents, almost 11% of subjects were positive for infection with herpes viruses. Correlations with gender, age, and place of residence were sought. A similar incidence of HSV-2 and HCMV was found (4.3% and 5.4%, respectively) and the incidence of HSV-1 was the lowest (1%) in the study group. Conversely to HSV-2, HCMV was detected mostly in the youngest individuals. The same occurrence of all viruses was observed in boys and girls. The mPCR method described is suggested as a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of active herpes infections.

  11. Maternal herpes labialis in pregnancy and neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Nørgård, Bente; Nørgaard, Mette; Czeizel, Andrew E; Puhó, Erzsébet; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2006-08-01

    According to previous case reports, some congenital abnormalities (CAs) of the brain, such as microcephaly, are a result of intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection. A population-based case-control study was conducted to determine the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) after maternal herpes labialis infection during pregnancy. Data were taken from the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities from 1980 to 1996, which included 1202 children with NTDs and 21641 comparison children with CAs other than NTDs. The adjusted relative risks (odds ratio [OR]) for NTDs associated with maternal herpes labialis in the first trimester of pregnancy was OR 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-2.06), and in the entire pregnancy was OR 0.94 (95% CI 0.61-1.44). Self-reported maternal herpes labialis during pregnancy was not associated with a substantially increased risk of NTDs in infants.

  12. Herpes zoster on the face in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Nair, Preeti; Gharote, Harshkant; Singh, Pooja; Jain-Choudhary, Palak

    2014-10-19

    Herpes zoster is a localised disease caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that enters the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox, travels to the dorsal root ganglia, and remains in latent form. The condition is characterised by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration, and shows a typical single dermatome innervated by single dorsal root or cranial sensory ganglion. Involvement of three or more dermatomes is known as disseminated zoster and seen in immunocompromised individuals. Complications of herpes zoster include ocular sequelae, bacterial superinfection of the lesions, meningoencephalitis and postherpetic neuralgia. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age and immunosuppression, therefore prompt management is necessary to avoid morbidity and mortality in these individuals. We present two case reports of herpes zoster, one involving the maxillary and mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve while the other involves all branches of the trigeminal nerve.

  13. Herpes zoster on the face in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Preeti; Gharote, Harshkant; Singh, Pooja; Jain-Choudhary, Palak

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a localised disease caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that enters the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox, travels to the dorsal root ganglia, and remains in latent form. The condition is characterised by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration, and shows a typical single dermatome innervated by single dorsal root or cranial sensory ganglion. Involvement of three or more dermatomes is known as disseminated zoster and seen in immunocompromised individuals. Complications of herpes zoster include ocular sequelae, bacterial superinfection of the lesions, meningoencephalitis and postherpetic neuralgia. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age and immunosuppression, therefore prompt management is necessary to avoid morbidity and mortality in these individuals. We present two case reports of herpes zoster, one involving the maxillary and mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve while the other involves all branches of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:25331144

  14. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... during any type of sex (oral, vaginal, or anal). Girls should have their partners use a dental_ ... BC Date reviewed: January 2015 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Genital Herpes ...

  15. AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

  16. Study Casts Doubt on A Brain Cancer's Link to Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... between a common type of herpes virus and aggressive brain cancers, according to a new study that ... researchers analyzed tumor tissue from 125 patients with aggressive brain cancers called gliomas. Ninety-nine of the ...

  17. Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Field, Scott S

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acquisition, which can be lethal.

  18. Herpes simplex infection of the larynx requiring laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Sims, John R; Massoll, Nicole A; Suen, James Y

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection of the larynx is an exceedingly rare clinical entity, most frequently reported in the pediatric population or in immunocompromised adults. We present a 62-year-old woman presented with neck pain, hoarseness, crepitus over the larynx, and what appeared to be a necrotic mass of the right true vocal cord on laryngoscopy. Due to near-complete destruction of the cartilaginous framework of the larynx, a total laryngectomy was performed. The final pathology report showed squamous mucosal changes consistent with herpes simplex infection, confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Though herpes simplex laryngitis is uncommon, this case shows the potential for herpes simplex to cause extensive damage and compromise airway patency when left untreated.

  19. Disseminated Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Hwa; Lee, Eun Ha; Choi, Ji Hye

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a cutaneous infection that is characterized by an acute vesicobullous rash with ipsilateral one or two dermatomal distribution and painful allodynia, while predominantly being found in the elderly. Extensive cutaneous dissemination has been reported in immune-compromised patients, such as those who suffer from HIV infections, cancer, chemotherapy, and corticosteroid therapy patients. However, we report a case of disseminated herpes zoster infection in an immuno-competent elderly individual. PMID:23614086

  20. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis during treatment with etanercept.

    PubMed

    Crusio, Robbert H J; Singson, Stephanie V; Haroun, Faysal; Mehta, Hetal H; Parenti, David M

    2014-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. They are associated with an increased risk for infections. We report a case of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis in a patient receiving etanercept and review the literature on TNF-α and TNF-α inhibitors, and their importance in the pathophysiology of herpes simplex encephalitis.

  1. [Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Hashizume, K

    2001-09-01

    Pain associated with herpes zoster arise from the virul neuritis of the suffered trigeminal or spinal dorsal ganglion. Prolonged neuritis makes an irreversible nerve injury and continuous pain impulse develops a central sensitization. A post-herpetic neuralgia is thought to be a neuropathic pain due to the irreversible nerve injury and sensitization. It is important to treat herpetic pain completely before the development of the post-herpetic neuralgia, because there are few effective therapies to cure post-herpetic neuralgia. A sympathetic nerve block increases the nerve blood flow supply, and may improve the nerve injury. It is also known that some sympathetic mechanisms relate to the development of the sensitization. A sensory nerve block reduces pain impulse to the dorsal horn, and may interfere the sensitization. A cortico-steroid administrated with a nerve block can reduce the neuritis, and may improve the nerve injury.

  2. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  3. [Herpes zoster-induced neuralgia (neuropathy)].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, M Yu; Sineva, N A; Vodopyanov, N P

    2014-01-01

    Neuralgia (neuropathy) is the most common manifestation of herpes zoster (HZ). In spinal and cranial neuralgia, there are 3 types of pain: 1) spontaneous, persistent, burning pain; 2) intermittent sharp pain; 3) pain occurring with nonpainful stimulation. The skin exhibits areas of hypesthesia, anesthesia, and dysesthesia. Ophthalmic neuralgia (of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve) is encountered in 20% of HZ cases. HZ of the auricle and external auditory meatus concurrent with facial and vestibulocochlear neuropathy is diagnosed as Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Postherpetic neuralgia (neuropathy) is characterized by pain present for 3 months or more after the appearance of herpetic eruptions. Combined therapy involving the earlier use of antiviral agents, tricyclic antidepressants, analgesics, and neuromidine is the most effective option for HZ-induced neuralgia (neuropathy).

  4. Selective language aphasia from herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ku, A; Lachmann, E A; Nagler, W

    1996-09-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old right-handed Chinese/English bilingual patient who developed herpes simplex encephalitis involving the left temporal lobe, with resultant aphasia. His native language was Mandarin, but he had received extensive training in English for 6 years after moving to the United States and was fluent in English. One week after admission, he could not speak, comprehend, repeat, name, read, or write in English, but he had relative preservation of most of these facilities in Mandarin. He could not write in Mandarin, and his syntax was simplified. Two months later, along with intensive bilingual speech therapy, his reading, writing, and naming in English had almost recovered.

  5. Naming deficit in herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Barbarotto, R; Capitani, E; Laiacona, M

    1996-04-01

    The preferential involvement of living categories in naming impairment is well recognised in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE). In this paper we describe naming, neuropsychological and neuroradiological findings with seven fresh HSE cases. Patients were given a picture naming task that included 60 items belonging to 6 different categories (three living, i.e. fruits, vegetables and animals and three non-living, i.e. furniture, vehicles and tools). In the statistical analysis several possible sources of bias as the frequency of the target word, the familiarity with the objects to name, the image complexity and other parameters were taken into account. Four out of seven patients were significantly more impaired with living things. We describe their general cognitive profile and discuss the anatomo-functional aspects of category dissociation. Language impairment, disproportionately severe for the naming of living exemplars, is frequently observed in HSE, is clinically relevant and should be specifically investigated.

  6. Association between recent herpes zoster but not herpes simplex infection and subsequent risk of malignancy in women: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Buntinx, F; Bartholomeeusen, S; Belmans, A; Mathei, C; Opdenakker, G; Sweldens, K; Truyers, C; Van Ranst, M

    2014-05-01

    The association between herpes zoster and subsequent cancer risk is still unclear. Consequently, doubts remain regarding the need for investigation of herpes patients for co-existing or subsequent malignancy. This is a retrospective cohort study comparing cancer risk in patients after herpes zoster and age-/sex-matched non-herpes zoster patients, in a primary care-based continuous morbidity database. We tested for interaction by gender, age, diabetes, HRT use or antiviral therapy. Analyses were repeated for patients with and without herpes simplex. The hazard ratio (HR) comparing cancer risk in herpes zoster vs. control patients was significant in all women, women aged > 65 years and subgroups of breast and colorectal cancer (HRs 1·60, 1·82, 2·14, 2·19, respectively). For men, a significant association was found for haematological cancers (HR 2·92). No associations were found with herpes simplex. No interaction was identified with antiviral therapy, diabetes or HRT treatment. We concluded that there was a moderate significant association between herpes zoster and subsequent cancer risk in women aged > 65 years, without any influence of antiviral therapy. No association was found with herpes simplex. There is insufficient reason for extensively testing older patients with herpes zoster or herpes simplex for the presence of occult cancer.

  7. Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  8. 75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and... corrects the regulation classifying herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assays by removing the reference...

  9. Pediatric herpes simplex virus infections: an evidence-based approach to treatment.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Jennifer E; Garcia, Sylvia E

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is a common virus that causes a variety of clinical presentations ranging from mild to life-threatening. Orolabial and genital herpes are common disorders that can often be managed in an outpatient setting; however, some patients do present to the emergency department with those conditions, and emergency clinicians should be aware of possible complications in the pediatric population. Neonatal herpes is a rare disorder, but prompt recognition and initiation of antiviral therapy is imperative, as the morbidity and mortality of the disease is high. Herpes encephalitis is an emergency that also requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose. Herpes simplex virus is also responsible for a variety of other clinical presentations, including herpes gladiatorum, herpetic whitlow, eczema herpeticum, and ocular herpes. This issue reviews the common clinical presentations of the herpes simplex virus, the life-threatening infections that require expedient identification and management, and recommended treatment regimens.

  10. Treatment of mucocutaneous presentations of herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Nikkels, Arjen F; Pièrard, Gérald E

    2002-01-01

    Infections by herpes simplex virus (HSV) types I and II are diverse and quite frequent. After primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sensory ganglia and recrudescences may occur at an unpredictable rate. Recurrent labial and genital herpes infections represent the majority of clinical manifestations of HSV infections. Their management is currently well established using evidence-based medicine data. Primary labial herpes is generally not treated with antivirals in otherwise healthy children, although intravenous aciclovir may be offered in severe primary infections, particularly in the immunocompromised patient. The decision whether or not to treat recurrent labial herpes should be evaluated individually and depends on the frequency and severity of relapses, the impairment of the quality of life, and the cost of therapy. Patients with mild disease may benefit from topical therapy, and those with severe and frequent recurrences may be considered for intermittent or long-term oral antiviral therapy. Primary genital herpes is treated with oral or intravenous antivirals, depending on the severity of the infection and associated symptoms. Recurrent genital herpes can be managed with episodic short courses of oral antivirals in patients whose recurrences are moderate to severe and rare, and have a clear prodrome. Patients with >5 episodes/year, severe recurrences or unrecognisable prodromes may be best managed with long-term suppressive antiviral prophylaxis. HSV is also responsible for a variety of other clinical manifestations, including herpetic whitlow, neonatal infection, disseminated and atypical cutaneous infections, traumatic herpes, eczema herpeticum, and HSV-associated erythema multiforme. HSV infection may also represent a complication following cosmetic procedures of the oro-facial region, surgical and dental interventions, sun exposure and burns. Precise treatment guidelines for these HSV infections are not firmly established.

  11. Focused review: neuraxial morphine and oral herpes reactivation in the obstetric population.

    PubMed

    Bauchat, Jeanette R

    2010-11-01

    Neuraxial morphine administration is a common strategy for providing postcesarean delivery analgesia. Morphine delivered via this route increases the risk of herpes labialis (oral herpes) reactivation, a disease common in women of childbearing age. A primary concern is risk of transmission to the neonate from maternal reactivation. The benefits to the mother of this form of analgesia outweigh the risk of neonatal herpes acquired postpartum from maternal recurrence because serious neonatal morbidity from recurrent herpes has not been described.

  12. Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0498 TITLE: Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses for the...August 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...for each blot. Glyco-protein D is produced at extraordinarily high levels by our herpes simplex virus, and thus, it is quite common in herpes simplex

  13. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth

  14. Herpes zoster eye complications: rates and trends.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter C; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Butterfield, Linda C

    2013-06-01

    To provide population-based data on the risk, types, and outcomes of eye involvement in herpes zoster (HZ). A cohort study based on review of the medical records of patients in whom HZ was diagnosed between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2007, was performed. Herpes zoster was confirmed by the presence of the typical rash and symptoms or by laboratory testing, and eye involvement was confirmed by ophthalmologists' evaluation. Information was collected on all eye diagnoses and on HZ eye-related visits, treatments, procedures, and outcomes. Of the 7370 individuals with HZ in any dermatome, 184 (2.5%) had eye involvement. The mean age of the 184 was 62.6 years, and 5 cases occurred in patients younger than 21. Overall, 6.5% (12) were immunosuppressed at the time of the eye complications. The rate of increase in HZ eye involvement was 23% by decade from 1980 to 2007. Common eye complications were keratitis (n=144, 76.2%), uveitis/iritis (n=88, 46.6%), and conjunctivitis (n=67, 35.4%). Recurrent keratitis and recurrent iritis/uveitis occurred in 6.9% (13) and 7.4% (14), respectively. Outcomes included 6 patients (3.3%) with new vision decrements to 20/200 or worse. Two individuals had successful corneal transplants. Another 6 individuals (3.3%) had lid ptosis that affected vision, including 1 elderly woman with permanent unilateral tarsorrhaphy. Severe HZ eye pain was reported to be directly responsible for 1 unsuccessful suicide attempt. Acute retinal necrosis did not develop in any individual. A mean of 10.8 eye visits per patient with HZ and eye involvement was reported to continue for a mean of 308 days. Eye complications are common and result in considerable health care use and permanent vision decrement in about 6.6% (6) of individuals with HZ eye involvement. Most health care use and long-term adverse outcomes occurred in patients in whom prevention of HZ with the zoster vaccine would be possible. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and

  15. TLR3 deficiency in herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hye Kyung; Seppänen, Mikko; Hautala, Timo; Ciancanelli, Michael J.; Itan, Yuval; Lafaille, Fabien G.; Dell, William; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Byun, Minji; Pauwels, Elodie; Rönnelid, Ylva; Cai, Xin; Boucherit, Soraya; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Paetau, Anders; Lebon, Pierre; Rozenberg, Flore; Tardieu, Marc; Abel, Laurent; Yildiran, Alisan; Vergison, Anne; Roivainen, Reina; Etzioni, Amos; Tienari, Pentti J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the proportion of children with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) displaying TLR3 deficiency, the extent of TLR3 allelic heterogeneity, and the specific clinical features of TLR3 deficiency. Methods: We determined the sequence of all exons of TLR3 in 110 of the 120 patients with HSE enrolled in our study who do not carry any of the previously described HSE-predisposing mutations of TLR3 pathway genes (TLR3, UNC93B1, TRIF, TRAF3, and TBK1). All the new mutant TLR3 alleles detected were characterized experimentally in-depth to establish the causal relationship between the genotype and phenotype. Results: In addition to the 3 previously reported TLR3-deficient patients from the same cohort, 6 other children or young adults with HSE carry 1 of 5 unique or extremely rare (minor allele frequency <0.001) missense TLR3 alleles. Two alleles (M374T, D592N) heterozygous in 3 patients are not deleterious in vitro. The other 3 are deleterious via different mechanisms: G743D+R811I and L360P heterozygous in 2 patients are loss-of-function due to low levels of expression and lack of cleavage, respectively, and R867Q homozygous in 1 patient is hypomorphic. The 3 patients' fibroblasts display impaired TLR3 responses and enhanced herpes simplex virus 1 susceptibility. Overall, TLR3 deficiency is therefore found in 6 (5%) of the 120 patients studied. There is high allelic heterogeneity, with 3 forms of autosomal dominant partial defect by negative dominance or haploinsufficiency, and 2 forms of autosomal recessive defect with complete or partial deficiency. Finally, 4 (66%) of the 6 TLR3-deficient patients had at least 1 late relapse of HSE, whereas relapse occurred in only 12 (10%) of the total cohort of 120 patients. Conclusions: Childhood-onset HSE is due to TLR3 deficiency in a traceable fraction of patients, in particular the ones with HSE recurrence. Mutations in TLR3 and TLR3 pathway genes should be searched and experimentally studied in children with

  16. Bell's Palsy and Herpes Zoster Oticus.

    PubMed

    Morrow

    2000-09-01

    Normal facial movement is required for chewing, swallowing, speaking, and protecting the eye. Bell's palsy causes most cases of acute, unilateral facial palsy; infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 may be its major cause. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation (Ramsay Hunt syndrome) is less common, but may appear without skin lesions in a form indistinguishable from Bell's palsy. Symptoms improve in nearly all patients with Bell's palsy, and most patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, but many are left with functional and cosmetic deficits. Steroids are frequently used to optimize outcomes in Bell's palsy, but proof of their effectiveness is marginal. Oral prednisone has been studied extensively, although some reports have suggested a higher recovery rate with intravenous steroids. Given the existing data, we support the use of oral prednisone in those patients with complete facial palsy, and no contraindications to their use (Fig. 1). In this author's opinion, the greatly increased cost and inconvenience of intravenous steroids cannot be justified by the data available. Antiviral agents may also be effective in treatment of Bell's palsy; HSV is susceptible to acyclovir and related agents. There have been few investigations of acyclovir treatment in Bell's palsy, but one controlled study showed added benefit when the drug was used with prednisone. The risk and cost of acyclovir is low enough that we support its use, with oral steroids, in those patients with complete facial paralysis. Several small studies have implied that oral acyclovir improves the outcome of facial palsy for patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Although these studies do not prove efficacy, evidence for the benefits of antiviral agents in other forms of zoster is strong enough to recommend their use when the facial nerve is involved. VZV is less sensitive to acyclovir than HSV, so higher doses are recommended to treat Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Because some Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients

  17. Case report: symptomatic oral herpes simplex virus type 2 and asymptomatic genital shedding.

    PubMed

    Olin, Laura; Wald, Anna

    2006-05-01

    A 42-year-old bisexual man with a history of recurrent oral herpes and no history of genital herpes was noted to have antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) only. During a symptomatic oral recurrence, HSV-2 was found in a perioral lesion as well as in the genital area.

  18. Diaphragmatic paralysis associated with herpes zoster and HIV-tuberculosis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Benabdellah, A; Souhil, Touati; Farouk, Zaoui Omar

    2014-08-01

    Motor complications after herpes zoster are not uncommon. There have been reports of muscular paralysis following herpes zoster. The association between diaphragmatic paralysis and zoster was first reported in 1949 by Halpern. The case presented below showed diaphragmatic involvement following herpes zoster in a HIV-tuberculosis coinfected patient.

  19. Investigation of a sub-unit vaccine using an animal model of herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Harney, B A; Easty, D L; Skinner, G R

    1983-01-01

    A rabbit and a mouse model of herpes simplex eye disease have been used to evaluate a sub-unit herpes simplex vaccine. Various immunization schedules were investigated. The vaccine was found to stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses and to offer protection against corneal infection with liver herpes simplex virus.

  20. Emerging therapies for herpes viral infections (types 1 - 8).

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Arun; Pang, Katie R; Wu, Jashin J; Narvaez, Julio; Rauser, Michael; Huang, David B; Beutner, Karl R; Tyring, Stephen K

    2004-11-01

    There are eight members of the herpesviridae family: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus-6, human herpes virus-7 and human herpes virus-8. The diseases caused by viruses of the herpesviridae family are treated with and managed by systemic and topical antiviral therapies and immunomodulating drugs. Because these viruses establish a latent state in hosts, antiherpetic agents, such as nucleoside analogues, only control symptoms of disease or prevent outbreaks, and cannot cure the infections. There is a need for treatments that require less frequent dosing, can be taken even when lesions are more advanced than the first signs or symptoms, and can treat resistant strains of the viruses without the toxicities of existing therapies. Immunomodulating agents, such as resiquimod, can act on the viruses indirectly by inducing host production of cytokines, and can thereby reduce recurrences of herpes. The new helicase primase inhibitors, which are the first non-nucleoside antiviral compounds, are being investigated for treatment of HSV disease, including infections resistant to existing therapy.

  1. Herp enhances ER-associated protein degradation by recruiting ubiquilins

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Eunmin; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Yoon, Jong-Bok

    2008-05-02

    ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) is a protein quality control system of ER, which eliminates misfolded proteins by proteasome-dependent degradation and ensures export of only properly folded proteins from ER. Herp, an ER membrane protein upregulated by ER stress, is implicated in regulation of ERAD. In the present study, we show that Herp interacts with members of the ubiquilin family, which function as a shuttle factor to deliver ubiquitinated substrates to the proteasome for degradation. Knockdown of ubiquilin expression by small interfering RNA stabilized the ERAD substrate CD3{delta}, whereas it did not alter or increased degradation of non-ERAD substrates tested. CD3{delta} was stabilized by overexpressed Herp mutants which were capable of binding to ubiquilins but were impaired in ER membrane targeting by deletion of the transmembrane domain. Our data suggest that Herp binding to ubiquilin proteins plays an important role in the ERAD pathway and that ubiquilins are specifically involved in degradation of only a subset of ubiquitinated targets, including Herp-dependent ERAD substrates.

  2. Herpes zoster is associated with herpes simplex and other infections in under 60 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Buntinx, Frank; Bartholomeeusen, Stephaan; Terpstra, Ita; De Haes, Inke; Willem, Lander; Elli, Steven; Bilcke, Joke; Van Damme, Pierre; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the association between herpes zoster (HZ) and herpes simplex (HS) occurrence whilst controlling for risk factors of HZ. Using a Belgian general practitioner network, a retrospective cohort study with 3736 HZ patients and 14,076 age-gender-practice matched controls was performed, covering over 1.5 million patient-years. Multiple logistic regression was used with HZ as outcome and several diagnoses (malignancy, depression, diabetes mellitus, auto-immune diseases, asthma, multiple sclerosis, HIV, fractures), medications (systemic corticosteroids, biologicals, vaccination), HS and other infections as variables. HS was significantly associated with HZ for all analysed time intervals (up to five years) post HZ (OR of 3.51 [2.09 5.88] 95%CI one year post HZ) and to a lesser extent for time ranges pre HZ. Registration of other infections was significantly associated with HZ in all time intervals pre and post HZ (OR up to 1.37). Malignancy up to five years pre HZ, depression up to one year pre or post HZ, fractures up to two years pre HZ, asthma, auto-immune diseases, and immunosuppressive medication one year pre or post HZ were also associated with HZ. HZ and HS occurrences are significantly associated and potentially share a common susceptibility beyond the known risk factors. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence of herpes zoster, 1997-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Mullooly, J. P.; Riedlinger, K.; Chun, C.; Weinmann, S.; Houston, H.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated age-specific herpes zoster (HZ) incidence rates in the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Health Plan (KPNW) during 1997-2002 and tested for secular trends and differences between residents of two states with different varicella vaccine coverage rates. The cumulative proportions of 2-year-olds vaccinated increased from 35% in 1997 to 85% in 2002 in Oregon, and from 25% in 1997 to 82% in 2002 in Washington. Age-specific HZ incidence rates in KPNW during 1997-2002 were compared with published rates in the Harvard Community Health Plan (HCHP) during 1990-1992. The overall HZ incidence rate in KPNW during 1997-2002 (369/100,000 person-years) was slightly higher than HCHP's 1990-1992 rate when adjusted for age differences. For children 6-14 years old, KPNW's rates (182 for females, 123 for males) were more than three times HCHP's rates (54 for females, 39 for males). This increase appears to be associated with increased exposure of children to oral corticosteroids. The percentage of KPNW children exposed to oral corticosteroids increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 3.6% in 2002. Oregon residents had slightly higher steroid exposure rates during 1997-2002 than Washington residents. There were significant increases in HZ incidence rates in Oregon and Washington during 1997-2002 among children aged 10-17 years, associated with increased exposure to oral steroids. PMID:15816149

  4. Peptide inhibitors against herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Tarallo, Rossella; Russo, Luigi; Galdiero, Emilia; Cantisani, Marco; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano

    2013-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a significant human pathogen causing mucocutaneous lesions primarily in the oral or genital mucosa. Although acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogs provide successful treatment, HSV remains highly prevalent worldwide and is a major cofactor for the spread of human immunodeficiency virus. Encephalitis, meningitis, and blinding keratitis are among the most severe diseases caused by HSV. ACV resistance poses an important problem for immunocompromised patients and highlights the need for new safe and effective agents; therefore, the development of novel strategies to eradicate HSV is a global public health priority. Despite the continued global epidemic of HSV and extensive research, there have been few major breakthroughs in the treatment or prevention of the virus since the introduction of ACV in the 1980s. A therapeutic strategy at the moment not fully addressed is the use of small peptide molecules. These can be either modeled on viral proteins or derived from antimicrobial peptides. Any peptide that interrupts protein-protein or viral protein-host cell membrane interactions is potentially a novel antiviral drug and may be a useful tool for elucidating the mechanisms of viral entry. This review summarizes current knowledge and strategies in the development of synthetic and natural peptides to inhibit HSV infectivity.

  5. Fulminant herpes hepatitis mimicking hepatic abscesses.

    PubMed

    Wolfsen, H C; Bolen, J W; Bowen, J L; Fenster, L F

    1993-01-01

    Fulminant hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in adults is a rare and deadly disease. We describe a 23-year-old woman with a 20-year history of Crohn's disease (CD) who was hospitalized with an acute febrile illness and diarrhea. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen demonstrated an intramural sigmoid colon abscess and multiple abscesses in the liver. Despite high-dose parenteral corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, the patient remained acutely ill, with high fever and markedly elevated serum transaminase levels, but no jaundice. Sigmoid resection and wedge liver biopsy were performed at laparotomy. Histologic examination documented HSV-type intranuclear inclusions and inflammation with necrosis in both the sigmoid colon and liver specimens. The patient subsequently died despite parenteral acyclovir treatment. Although rare, fulminant hepatitis due to HSV simplex virus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all patients with severe hepatitis. Of special note, the necrotizing liver lesions may be mistaken for pyogenic abscesses on CT scan.

  6. Vaccines for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Koelle, David M

    2006-02-01

    Infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) can have serious medical consequences. Although antiviral medications can suppress symptomatic disease, asymptomatic shedding and transmission, they neither cure nor alter the natural history of HSV infections. Manipulation of the immune response is one potential method to decrease disease burden. Current research on prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination approaches is discussed in this review, with a focus on compounds that have entered clinical trials or that display novel compositions or proposed mechanisms of action. One such vaccine is an alum and monophosphoryl lipid A-adjuvanted subunit glycoprotein D2 vaccine that has demonstrated activity in the prevention of HSV-2 infection and disease in HSV-uninfected women in a phase III clinical trial. Further confirmatory clinical trials of this vaccine are currently underway. Other vaccine formats also in development include attenuated live or replication-incompetent HSV-2 strains and technologies that target virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses.

  7. THE PATHOGENESIS OF HERPES VIRUS ENCEPHALITIS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard T.

    1964-01-01

    The pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis and myelitis was studied in suckling mice using routine titration procedures and fluorescent antibody staining for the identification of infected cells. After intracerebral inoculation virus was shown to disperse rapidly in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), multiply in meninges and ependyma, and then invade the underlying parenchyma infecting both neurons and glia. Following extraneural inoculation virus gained access to the central nervous system (CNS) by both hematogenous and neural pathways. After intraperitoneal and intranasal inoculation virus was found to multiply in viscera and produce viremia; foci of CNS infection then developed around small cerebral vessels. After subcutaneous and intranasal inoculation neural spread of virus was demonstrated along corresponding peripheral and cranial nerves. This spread resulted from the centripetal infection of endoneural cells (Schwann cells and fibroblasts). Antigen was not found in axons even after infection of the corresponding ganglion cell perikaryon. Subsequent spread within the CNS was unrelated to neural tracts, and there was no evidence of axonal spread of virus in the host-virus system studied. These findings are discussed in relation to previous and current theories of the viral "blood-brain barrier" and neural pathways of infection. PMID:14164487

  8. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

    1997-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

  9. Herpes Zoster Immunization in Older Adults Has Big Benefits.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Harald

    2015-09-01

    A case of acute herpes zoster neuralgia (shingles) in a 78-year-old patient is described. The value and importance of immunizing against herpes zoster to decrease the incidence and severity of both acute herpes zoster neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia are described. --This report is adapted from paineurope 2015: Issue 1, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the Web site: www.paineurope.com , at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources.

  10. [Efficacy of polyprenyl phosphates in the experimental genital herpes model].

    PubMed

    Narovlyansky, A N; Ivanova, A M; Shevlyagina, N V; Didenko, L V; Borovaya, T G; Izmest'eva, A V; Sanin, A V; Pronin, A V; Ershov, F I

    2015-01-01

    An experimental model of the primary genital herpes (herpes simplex type 2, HSV-2) in the female guinea pigs was suggested to study the infectious process activity of polyprenyl phosphates (PPP) and PPP+acyclovir (AC) complex treatment. The morphofunctional features of the guinea pig ovaries were studied in the control and experimental groups (the latter were inoculated with PPP and/or AC as a primary infection treatment) at the stage of the recurrent genital herpes aggravation. It was shown that in the case of combined PPP +AC use significant changes in the disease symptoms were observed, as well as a decrease in the infectious process activity and duration, and positive remote effect on the ovarian morphophysiology.

  11. Herpes Zoster Duplex Unilateralis: Two Cases and Brief Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jee Hee; Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Hye One; Cho, Hee Jin

    2016-01-01

    Cases involving dermatomal herpes zoster in two or more locations are rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. When two noncontiguous dermatomes are involved, if affected unilaterally, it is called herpes zoster duplex unilateralis; if bilaterally, bilateralis. Here, we report two cases of herpes zoster duplex unilateralis. A 66-year-old man presented with painful erythematous grouped vesicles on his left scalp, forehead, trunk, and back (left [Lt.] V1, Lt. T8). Histologic findings were consistent with herpetic infection. A 33-year-old woman presented with painful erythematous grouped vesicles and crust on her left forehead and neck (Lt. V1, Lt. C5). Both patients were treated with oral administration of famcyclovir 750 mg/day for seven days. PMID:27904277

  12. The challenge of developing a herpes simplex virus 2 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Dropulic, Lesia K; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2013-01-01

    HSV infections are prevalent worldwide. A vaccine to prevent genital herpes would have a significant impact on this disease. Several vaccines have shown promise in animal models; however, so far these have not been successful in human clinical studies. Prophylactic HSV vaccines to prevent HSV infection or disease have focused primarily on eliciting antibody responses. Potent antibody responses are needed to result in sufficiently high levels of virus-specific antibody in the genital tract. Therapeutic vaccines that reduce recurrences need to induce potent T-cell responses at the site of infection. With the increasing incidence of HSV-1 genital herpes, an effective herpes vaccine should protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Novel HSV vaccines, such as replication-defective or attenuated viruses, have elicited humoral and cellular immune responses in preclinical studies. These vaccines and others hold promise in future clinical studies. PMID:23252387

  13. Common questions about herpes: analysis of chat-room transcripts.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lisa K; Omisore, Folashade

    2009-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with genital herpes typically undergo a period of psychological adjustment. Although healthcare providers can play a key role in this adjustment, in several patient surveys patients have expressed dissatisfaction with the information and counselling offered by professionals. To address this gap, providers must first identify the common questions and myths that are not addressed, or are addressed inadequately. This article is that first step. Through a content analysis of herpes chat-room transcripts captured on their website from autumn 2001 to spring 2006, researchers from the American Social Health Association identified common herpes questions and myths. The 1968 chat passages were coded into 12 themes and 50 sub-themes. Frequently, visitors' questions concerned transmission, symptoms and diagnosis followed by natural history, psychosocial issues and treatment options. The results of this analysis will aid in the creation of tailored messages to address common factual questions and provide psychosocial support.

  14. Associations between individual and relationship characteristics and genital herpes disclosure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jaime L; Buhi, Eric R; Marhefka, Stephanie; Daley, Ellen; Dedrick, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure is often a challenge for individuals living with genital herpes. This study explores determinants of genital herpes disclosure with one's most recent sexual partner using an online questionnaire (n = 93). The majority of participants reported (80.4%) disclosure. Among non-disclosers, fear of negative partner reactions was the primary reason for non-disclosure. Age, relationship commitment, time in relationship, and expectations of partner's reaction were statistically significant predictors at the bivariate level. Reaction expectations and relationship commitment remained significant in the multivariate logistic regression model. Findings indicate that future disclosure research should focus on relationship context and managing negative expectations to increase disclosure.

  15. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Complicated by Cerebral Hemorrhage during Acyclovir Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Yukinori; Hara, Yuuta

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can be complicated by adverse events in the acute phase. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old woman with HSE complicated by cerebral hemorrhage. She presented with acute deterioration of consciousness and fever and was diagnosed with HSE based on the detection of herpes simplex virus-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid by a polymerase chain reaction. The cerebral hemorrhage developed during acyclovir therapy; however, its diagnosis was delayed for 2 days. After the conservative treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage, the patient made a near-complete recovery. Cerebral hemorrhage should be considered as an acute-phase complication of HSE. PMID:28090058

  16. Herpes virus infection of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Among the human herpes viruses, three are neurotropic and capable of producing severe neurological abnormalities: herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Both the acute, primary infection and the reactivation from the site of latent infection, the dorsal sensory ganglia, are associated with severe human morbidity and mortality. The peripheral nervous system is one of the major loci affected by these viruses. The present review details the virology and molecular biology underlying the human infection. This is followed by detailed description of the symtomatology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, course, therapy, and prognosis of disorders of the peripheral nervous system caused by these viruses.

  17. Purpuric herpes zoster in patients in therapy with clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, S; Vaira, F; Nazzaro, G

    2015-08-01

    Clopidogrel is an adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist used for the prevention of vascular events in patients with atherothrombotic diseases manifested by recent myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or peripheral arterial disease. Diarrhoea, rash and pruritus are rather common side effects of clopidogrel. Other side effects include epistaxis, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer. Thrombocytopenia is the most common laboratory abnormality. Leucopenia and neutropenia are rare. We report three cases of purpuric herpes zoster in patients in therapy with clopidogrel. To our knowledge, only one case of haemorrhagic herpes zoster has been published in a patient in therapy with this drug.

  18. Herpes simplex virus lymphadenitis: the elusive doppelganger in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Cases, Margaret; Leduc, Charles; Farmer, Patricia L; Richardson, Susan E; Zoutman, Dick E

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus has protean manifestations and is an important cause of morbidity in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of recurrent lymphadenopathy and rash in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The elusive clinical diagnosis eventually required core biopsy of a lymph node with immunohistochemistry and confirmation by polymerase chain reaction. This case illustrates the challenging clinical and laboratory diagnosis of herpes simplex virus lymphadenitis and the need to maintain a high index of suspicion for infection when treating an immunocompromised patient with unusual and/or persistent symptoms.

  19. Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kukhanova, M K; Korovina, A N; Kochetkov, S N

    2014-12-01

    WHO reports that 90% of human population is infected by different types of herpesviruses, which develop latency or cause oral and genital herpes, conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, and other diseases. Herpesvirus almost always accompanies HIV-infection and complicates AIDS treatment. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most wide spread viruses from the Herpesviridae family. HSV virion, genome structure, replication mechanisms, antiherpes drug development strategies, including design of prodrugs, and mutations causing ACV-resistance in clinical HSV isolates are discussed in this review.

  20. Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention in immunocompetent patient*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Hortense, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome. The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompetent female patient who presented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and fully recovered after eight weeks. PMID:25387508

  1. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Complicated by Cerebral Hemorrhage during Acyclovir Therapy.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yukinori; Hara, Yuuta

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can be complicated by adverse events in the acute phase. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old woman with HSE complicated by cerebral hemorrhage. She presented with acute deterioration of consciousness and fever and was diagnosed with HSE based on the detection of herpes simplex virus-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid by a polymerase chain reaction. The cerebral hemorrhage developed during acyclovir therapy; however, its diagnosis was delayed for 2 days. After the conservative treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage, the patient made a near-complete recovery. Cerebral hemorrhage should be considered as an acute-phase complication of HSE.

  2. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection.

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Mimicking Bullous Disease in an Immunocompromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lecluse, Anne L.Y.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Immunodeficient patients are at risk of developing extended or atypical herpes simplex virus infections, which can be easily misdiagnosed. We present the case of a 79-year-old, treatment-induced (oral corticosteroid), immunocompromised female with an extensive atypical herpes simplex virus infection. This patient presented with multiple erosions and vesicles on the trunk with a subacute onset. The clinical differential diagnosis was herpes simplex infection, herpes zoster infection, pemphigus vulgaris or bullous pemphigoid. Due to the atypical clinical presentation and negative Tzanck test, suspicion of viral infection was low. High-dose steroid treatment was initiated. Subsequent histopathology, however, showed a herpes simplex virus infection. After discontinuing steroid treatment and initiating antiviral treatment, the patient recovered within a week. Emphasis must be placed on the importance of clinical awareness of extended and clinically atypical herpes simplex infections in immunocompromised patients. A negative Tzanck test does not rule out the possibility of a herpes infection. PMID:21103195

  4. Calcium spirulan derived from Spirulina platensis inhibits herpes simplex virus 1 attachment to human keratinocytes and protects against herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Mader, Julia; Gallo, Antonio; Schommartz, Tim; Handke, Wiebke; Nagel, Claus-Henning; Günther, Patrick; Brune, Wolfram; Reich, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 are highly prevalent in populations worldwide and cause recurrent oral lesions in up to 40% of infected subjects. We investigated the antiviral activity of a defined Spirulina platensis microalga extract and of purified calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a sulfated polysaccharide contained therein. The inhibitory effects of HSV-1 were assessed by using a plaque reduction assay and quantitative PCR in a susceptible mammalian epithelial cell line and confirmed in human keratinocytes. Time-of-addition and attachment experiments and fluorescence detection of the HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 were used to analyze the mechanism of HSV-1 inhibition. Effects of Ca-SP on Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 replication and uptake of the ORF45 tegument protein were tested in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. In an observational trial the prophylactic effects of topically applied Ca-SP were compared with those of systemic and topical nucleoside analogues in 198 volunteers with recurrent herpes labialis receiving permanent lip makeup. Ca-SP inhibited HSV-1 infection in vitro with a potency at least comparable to that of acyclovir by blocking viral attachment and penetration into host cells. Ca-SP also inhibited entry of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8. In the clinical model of herpes exacerbation, the prophylactic effect of a Ca-SP and microalgae extract containing cream was superior to that of acyclovir cream. These data indicate a potential clinical use of Ca-SP containing Spirulina species extract for the prophylactic treatment of herpes labialis and suggest possible activity of Ca-SP against infections caused by other herpesviruses. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  6. Zebrafish: modeling for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Thessicar Evadney; Jones, Kevin S; Dale, Rodney M; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2014-02-01

    For many years, zebrafish have been the prototypical model for studies in developmental biology. In recent years, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study infectious diseases, including viral infections. Experiments conducted with herpes simplex virus type-1 in adult zebrafish or in embryo models are encouraging as they establish proof of concept with viral-host tropism and possible screening of antiviral compounds. In addition, the presence of human homologs of viral entry receptors in zebrafish such as 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate, nectins, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14-like receptor bring strong rationale for virologists to test their in vivo significance in viral entry in a zebrafish model and compare the structure-function basis of virus zebrafish receptor interaction for viral entry. On the other end, a zebrafish model is already being used for studying inflammation and angiogenesis, with or without genetic manipulations, and therefore can be exploited to study viral infection-associated pathologies. The major advantage with zebrafish is low cost, easy breeding and maintenance, rapid lifecycle, and a transparent nature, which allows visualizing dissemination of fluorescently labeled virus infection in real time either at a localized region or the whole body. Further, the availability of multiple transgenic lines that express fluorescently tagged immune cells for in vivo imaging of virus infected animals is extremely attractive. In addition, a fully developed immune system and potential for receptor-specific knockouts further advocate the use of zebrafish as a new tool to study viral infections. In this review, we focus on expanding the potential of zebrafish model system in understanding human infectious diseases and future benefits.

  7. Zebrafish: Modeling for Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, Thessicar Evadney; Jones, Kevin S.; Dale, Rodney M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Abstract For many years, zebrafish have been the prototypical model for studies in developmental biology. In recent years, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study infectious diseases, including viral infections. Experiments conducted with herpes simplex virus type-1 in adult zebrafish or in embryo models are encouraging as they establish proof of concept with viral-host tropism and possible screening of antiviral compounds. In addition, the presence of human homologs of viral entry receptors in zebrafish such as 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate, nectins, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14-like receptor bring strong rationale for virologists to test their in vivo significance in viral entry in a zebrafish model and compare the structure–function basis of virus zebrafish receptor interaction for viral entry. On the other end, a zebrafish model is already being used for studying inflammation and angiogenesis, with or without genetic manipulations, and therefore can be exploited to study viral infection-associated pathologies. The major advantage with zebrafish is low cost, easy breeding and maintenance, rapid lifecycle, and a transparent nature, which allows visualizing dissemination of fluorescently labeled virus infection in real time either at a localized region or the whole body. Further, the availability of multiple transgenic lines that express fluorescently tagged immune cells for in vivo imaging of virus infected animals is extremely attractive. In addition, a fully developed immune system and potential for receptor-specific knockouts further advocate the use of zebrafish as a new tool to study viral infections. In this review, we focus on expanding the potential of zebrafish model system in understanding human infectious diseases and future benefits. PMID:24266790

  8. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-02-26

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors' binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules.

  9. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  10. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors’ binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules. PMID:26927159

  11. Bell's palsy and herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Schirm, J; Mulkens, P S

    1997-11-01

    Bell's palsy, which is defined as idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis of sudden onset, accounts for > 50% of all cases of facial paralysis. Different theories on the etiology of Bell's palsy have been proposed and investigated. Various clinical studies have suggested an etiological link between Bell's palsy and herpes simplex virus (HSV). In addition, animal experiments have shown the ability of HSV to induce facial paralysis. In our opinion, the possible link between Bell's palsy and HSV can only be explored properly by studying the human facial nerve, and especially the geniculate ganglion itself. Different groups have tried to detect hypothetically reactivated and hypothetically latent HSV in the facial nerves of Bell's palsy patients and control patients, respectively. The isolation of infectious HSV from facial nerve tissue by conventional cell culture methods appeared to be very difficult, also when Bell's palsy patients were tested. Instead, modern molecular methods, such as in situ hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could easily detect HSV DNA in geniculate ganglia. The detection of HSV-specific latency-associated transcripts in the ganglia of control patients provided further evidence for the hypothetically latent state of HSV in the geniculate ganglia in these patients. Recent PCR experiments performed by a Japanese group strongly suggest that the area adjacent to the geniculate ganglia does not usually contain any HSV at all, except in patients with Bell's palsy. This well-controlled study provides conclusive evidence that reactivation of HSV genomes from the geniculate ganglia is the most important cause of Bell's palsy. Consequently, it has been suggested that "Bell's palsy" be renamed as "herpetic facial paralysis".

  12. Performance of HerpeSelect and Kalon Assays in Detection of Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2▿

    PubMed Central

    LeGoff, Jérôme; Mayaud, Philippe; Gresenguet, Gérard; Weiss, Helen A.; Nzambi, Khonde; Frost, Eric; Pepin, Jacques; Belec, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    The performances of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in detecting herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies have been inconsistent for African and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive populations. We compared the performances of the HerpeSelect and Kalon glycoprotein G2 ELISAs for patients with genital ulcer disease in Ghana and the Central African Republic. Sera from 434 women were tested with the HerpeSelect assay, and a subsample (n = 199) was tested by the Kalon assay. Ulcer swabs and cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HSV-2 DNA by PCR. HSV-2-seronegative women with detectable genital HSV-2 DNA were retested for HSV-2 antibodies 14 and 28 days later by the two ELISAs. A total of 346 (80%) women were positive by HerpeSelect at baseline, and 225 (54%) had detectable genital (lesional or cervicovaginal) HSV-2 DNA. Sixty-six (19%) HerpeSelect-positive samples had low-positive index values (1.1 to 3.5), and 58% of these samples had detectable genital HSV-2 DNA. Global agreement between the two serological assays was 86%. Concordance was high (99%) for sera that were negative by HerpeSelect or had high index values (>3.5). Defining infection detected by HSV-2 DNA PCR and/or Kalon assay as true infection, 71% of sera with low-positive index values were associated with true HSV-2 infection. Twenty-five women were identified as having nonprimary first-episode genital HSV-2 infection. Rates of HSV-2 seroconversion at day 14 were 77% (10/13 patients) by HerpeSelect assay and 23% (3/13 patients) by Kalon assay, with four additional seroconversions detected by Kalon assay at day 28. HIV serostatus did not influence assay performance. Low index values obtained with the HerpeSelect assay may correspond to true HSV-2 infection, in particular to nonprimary first episodes of genital HSV-2 infection, and need to be interpreted in the context of clinical history. PMID:18385443

  13. Performance of HerpeSelect and Kalon assays in detection of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, Jérôme; Mayaud, Philippe; Gresenguet, Gérard; Weiss, Helen A; Nzambi, Khonde; Frost, Eric; Pepin, Jacques; Belec, Laurent

    2008-06-01

    The performances of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in detecting herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies have been inconsistent for African and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive populations. We compared the performances of the HerpeSelect and Kalon glycoprotein G2 ELISAs for patients with genital ulcer disease in Ghana and the Central African Republic. Sera from 434 women were tested with the HerpeSelect assay, and a subsample (n = 199) was tested by the Kalon assay. Ulcer swabs and cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HSV-2 DNA by PCR. HSV-2-seronegative women with detectable genital HSV-2 DNA were retested for HSV-2 antibodies 14 and 28 days later by the two ELISAs. A total of 346 (80%) women were positive by HerpeSelect at baseline, and 225 (54%) had detectable genital (lesional or cervicovaginal) HSV-2 DNA. Sixty-six (19%) HerpeSelect-positive samples had low-positive index values (1.1 to 3.5), and 58% of these samples had detectable genital HSV-2 DNA. Global agreement between the two serological assays was 86%. Concordance was high (99%) for sera that were negative by HerpeSelect or had high index values (>3.5). Defining infection detected by HSV-2 DNA PCR and/or Kalon assay as true infection, 71% of sera with low-positive index values were associated with true HSV-2 infection. Twenty-five women were identified as having nonprimary first-episode genital HSV-2 infection. Rates of HSV-2 seroconversion at day 14 were 77% (10/13 patients) by HerpeSelect assay and 23% (3/13 patients) by Kalon assay, with four additional seroconversions detected by Kalon assay at day 28. HIV serostatus did not influence assay performance. Low index values obtained with the HerpeSelect assay may correspond to true HSV-2 infection, in particular to nonprimary first episodes of genital HSV-2 infection, and need to be interpreted in the context of clinical history.

  14. Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 for herpes simplex and herpes zoster keratopathy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Curtis R; Wagoner, Michael D; Welder, Jeffrey D; Cohen, Alex W; Goins, Kenneth M; Greiner, Mark A; Kitzmann, Anna S

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the outcomes of Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 (Kpro-1) in eyes with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and herpes zoster virus (HZV) keratopathy. A retrospective review was performed of the medical records of every patient treated with a Boston Kpro-1 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between January 1, 2008 and July 1, 2012. Eyes with visual loss due to HSV or HZV keratopathy were included in the statistical analysis. The main outcome measures were graft retention, postoperative complications, and visual outcome. Nine eyes met the inclusion criteria, including 5 eyes in the HSV group and 4 eyes in the HZV group. The graft retention rate was 100% in the HSV group after a mean follow-up of 48.4 months, compared with 25% in the HZV group after 50.5 months (P = 0.048). There were 3 cases of microbial keratitis, including 2 eyes that also developed endophthalmitis, in the HZV group, compared with no cases in the HSV group (P = 0.048). There was significantly better best-corrected visual acuity at the most recent examination in the HSV group than in the HZV group (P = 0.019). All 5 HSV eyes had improved best-corrected visual acuity compared with preoperative acuity, whereas only 1 HZV eye experienced a similar result (P = 0.048). Kpro-1 is associated with an excellent prognosis for graft retention, acceptably low prevalence of sight-threatening complications, and highly satisfactory visual improvement in eyes with HSV keratopathy, but not in eyes with HZV keratopathy.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and mucous membranes to a severe form of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Neonatal...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and mucous membranes to a severe form of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Neonatal...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and mucous membranes to a severe form of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Neonatal...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and mucous membranes to a severe form of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Neonatal...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and mucous membranes to a severe form of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Neonatal...

  20. Rapid and simultaneous detection of 6 types of human herpes virus (herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus 6A/B, and human herpes virus 7) by multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Kogawa, Kazuhiro; Sasa, Hidenori; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Furuya, Kenichi; Sato, Kenji

    2009-10-01

    A multiplex PCR assay was developed that enabled the simultaneous detection of DNA from 6 types of human herpes virus, HSV-1/2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6A/B, and HHV-7, using appropriate primer sets and conventional PCR techniques and instruments, with PCR products for each type of virus designed to be easily distinguishable by size. Electropherograms obtained from conventional agarose gels showed that, for each type, the observed number of base pairs corresponded to the intended product and that bands were easily distinguishable from each other. A minimum of 20 copies of viral DNA in a reaction was sufficient to confirm the existence of each of the 6 types of human herpes virus. Comparison of the data obtained from this method and the data obtained from conventional TaqMan PCR using clinical specimens from various sources showed consistent results. The multiplex PCR method reported here for the detection and differentiation of human herpes viruses did not require special equipment or techniques such as hybridization analysis and sequencing analysis and, therefore, enabled us to easily and rapidly detect and identify the 6 types of human herpes virus using conventional methods.

  1. On the mutation rate of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Drake, John W; Hwang, Charles B C

    2005-06-01

    All seven DNA-based microbes for which carefully established mutation rates and mutational spectra were previously available displayed a genomic mutation rate in the neighborhood of 0.003 per chromosome replication. The pathogenic mammalian DNA virus herpes simplex type 1 has an estimated genomic mutation rate compatible with that value.

  2. [Phosphoramidate derivatives of acyclovir--herpes virus replication inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Zakirova, N F; Shipitsyn, A V; Ias'ko, M V; Kochetkov, S N

    2011-01-01

    A number of new phosphoramidates of acyclovir--compounds of interest as anti-virals against resistant strains of virus herpes was synthesized. Several methods of synthesis of these compounds were suggested. Optimal method appeared to be the obtaining of phosphoramidates through the phosphomonocloride with its subsequent treatment with various amines. Two compounds have shown moderate activity against HSV-1.

  3. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on patients with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhengrong; Wang, Sue; Huang, Xu; Xiao, Pingtian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy on patients with herpes zoster. A total of 68 cases with herpes zoster were randomly divided into HBO2 and control groups. The patients in the control group were treated with drugs, while the patients in the HBO2 group were treated with both drugs and HBO2. Parameters of therapeutic efficacy including period of blister resolution, scar formation time and percentage of patients developing post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) were determined for the patients in both groups. Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were also scored for the patients before and after treatment. The therapeutic efficacy in the control group was 81.25%, which was significantly lower than that (97.22%) in the HBO2 group (p < 0.05). The percentage of patients developing PHN, scar formation time and NPRS score in the HBO2 groups were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). HAMD score in the HBO2 group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). HBO2 can significantly enhance therapeutic efficacy, relieve pain, accelerate herpes blister healing and lesion resolution, reduce the percentage of patients developing PHN and improve depression in patients with herpes zoster.

  4. Topical Acyclovir for Recurrent Herpes Labialis in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Graham

    1991-01-01

    I reviewed the literature on the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis with topical acyclovir ointment to determine the effectiveness of this treatment for family practice patients. This article discusses the generalizability of the results to family practice. I concluded that the evidence supporting this therapy is weak and that it cannot, in the light of current knowledge, be strongly recommended. PMID:21234082

  5. Herpes simplex virus-induced cardiomyopathy successfully treated with acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Kuchynka, Petr; Palecek, Tomas; Hrbackova, Hana; Vitkova, Ivana; Simek, Stanislav; Nemecek, Eduard; Aster, Viktor; Louch, William E; Aschermann, Michael; Linhart, Ales

    2010-10-01

    Inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMi) represents an acquired form of dilated cardiomyopathy. Viral infection is the most common cause of DCMi. In contrast with other cardiotropic viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a very rare finding in endomyocardial biopsies of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. We report a case of HSV-induced cardiomyopathy successfully treated with acyclovir.

  6. Genome Sequence of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain SC16

    PubMed Central

    Rastrojo, Alberto; López-Muñoz, Alberto Domingo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), also known as Human herpesvirus 1, is a highly prevalent human neurotropic pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including lethal encephalitis. Here, we report the genome sequence of the HSV-1 strain SC16. PMID:28126930

  7. Herpes simplex virus oesophagitis in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Remmelts, H H F; van den Brink, J-W; Laan, R; Bac, D-J

    2011-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) oesophagitis is well described in immunocompromised patients. In immunocompetent individuals HSV oesophagitis is rare. We present a case of HSV oesophagitis in a pregnant woman. A possible explanation for HSV oesophagitis during pregnancy is the decreased cellular immunity, leading to an increased frequency and severity of viral infections. Antiviral therapy is advocated in pregnancy.

  8. Occipital neuralgia evoked by facial herpes zoster infection.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Takeshi; Shimohama, Shun

    2006-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a pain syndrome which may usually be induced by spasms of the cervical muscles or trauma to the greater or lesser occipital nerves. We report a patient with occipital neuralgia followed by facial herpes lesion. A 74-year-old male experienced sudden-onset severe headache in the occipital area. The pain was localized to the distribution of the right side of the greater occipital nerve, and palpation of the right greater occipital nerve reproduces the pain. He was diagnosed with occipital neuralgia according to ICHD-II criteria. A few days later, the occipital pain was followed by reddening of the skin and the appearance, of varying size, of vesicles on the right side of his face (the maxillary nerve and the mandibular nerve region). This was diagnosed as herpes zoster. This case represents a combination of facial herpes lesions and pain in the C2 and C3 regions. The pain syndromes can be confusing, and the classic herpes zoster infection should be considered even when no skin lesions are established.

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  10. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  11. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  12. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  13. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  14. Management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection and exposure.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are rare but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Advances in diagnostic modalities to identify these infants, as well as the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy, have revolutionised the management of affected infants. This review will summarise the epidemiology of neonatal HSV infections and discuss the management of infants with HSV exposure and infection.

  15. The mortality of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Medina, Eduardo; Cantey, Joseph B; Sánchez, Pablo J

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study characterized the clinical course of 13 neonates who died with herpes simplex virus infection from 2001 to 2011, representing a 26% case-fatality rate. Fatal disease developed at ≤ 48 hours of age in one-third of infants, was mostly disseminated disease, and occurred despite early administration of high-dose acyclovir therapy.

  16. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  17. Herpes virus seroepidemiology in the adult Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jan; Kok, Eloise; Adolfsson, Rolf; Lövheim, Hugo; Elgh, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Herpes viruses establish a life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe the seroepidemiology of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1), Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV2), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) and Human herpes virus type 6 (HHV6) in an adult Swedish population (35-95 years of age). Presence of antibodies against the respective viruses in serum from individuals in the Betula study was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Singular samples from 535 persons (53.9% women, mean age at inclusion 62.7 ± 14.4 years) collected 2003-2005 were analyzed for the five HHVs mentioned above. In addition, samples including follow-up samples collected 1988-2010 from 3,444 persons were analyzed for HSV. Prevalence of HSV1 was 79.4%, HSV2 12.9%, CMV 83.2%, VZV 97.9%, and HHV6 97.5%. Herpes virus infections were more common among women (p = 0.010) and a lower age-adjusted HSV seroprevalence was found in later birth cohorts (p < 0.001). The yearly incidence of HSV infection was estimated at 14.0/1000. Women are more often seropositive for HHV, especially HSV2. Age-adjusted seroprevalence for HSV was lower in later birth cohorts indicating a decreasing childhood and adolescent risk of infection.

  18. Incidence of herpes zoster infections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Nimmrich, S; Horneff, G

    2015-03-01

    The risk of herpes zoster among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) exposed to biologics has not been evaluated. We determined incidence rates of herpes zoster among children with JIA in correlation with medication at time of occurrence and total drug exposure. The German biologics register database was used to identify patients with herpes zoster. Crude infection rates and incidence ratios (IRR) were compared to published rates. Demographics and overall exposure and particular exposure time to corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and biologics were analyzed. The JIA cohort included 3,042 patients with 5,557.9 person-years of follow-up; 1,628 have used corticosteroids, 2,930 methotrexate and 1,685 etanercept. In total, 17 herpes zoster events have been documented [6/1,000 patients (3.5-9.0); 3.1/1,000 patient-years (1.9-4.9)]. Thus, the incidence rate in JIA patients was higher than expected [IRR 2.9 (1.8-4.5), p < 0.001]. In all patients, the event resolved completely. There were two complications, one patient developed intercostal neuralgia, and one had a recurrent herpes zoster. Compared to the healthy population, a significant higher IRR is observed in JIA patients who received a monotherapy with etanercept or in combination with steroids and methotrexate, but not in JIA patients exposed to methotrexate without biologics. In comparison with our control group of patients treated with methotrexate, the IRR was higher for exposure to etanercept monotherapy and combination of etanercept and corticosteroids irrespective of methotrexate use. A generally higher incidence rate in JIA patients treated with etanercept was observed. No serious or refractory manifestations occurred.

  19. Effect of immunosuppression on recurrent herpes simplex in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, W A; Harbour, D A; Hill, T J

    1980-01-01

    Mice latently infected with herpes simplex virus were treated with immunosuppressive drugs either alone or combined with stimuli to the skin. Treatment with cyclophosphamide reduced spleen weights and severely depressed lymphocyte levels, but had no effect on healing after cellophane tape stripping (CTS) and did not affect the cutaneous hypersensitivity response after injection of inactivated herpes simplex virus. The drug, either used alone or combined with CTS, failed to increase the incidence of recurrent clinical disease, but increased the incidence of virus isolation after CTS. Prednisolone and azathioprine used together also reduced spleen weights and circulating lymphocyte levels. They slightly delayed healing after CTS, but had no effect on cutaneous hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus. The treatment, either used alone or combined with CTS, slightly increased the incidence of recurrent clinical disease but did not increase the incidence of virus isolation after CTS. Treatment with antithymocyte serum severely depressed the levels of circulating lymphocytes and delayed the regression of HeLa cell tumors in mice. Used alone, the treatment slightly increased the incidence of recurrent clinical disease, but it failed to increase the incidence of recurrences after CTS. It increased the duration of recurrent herpetic lesions, although in uninfected mice healing after CTS was not affected. Silica altered the clinical course of primary infection with herpes simplex virus and increased the incidence of latency in the ganglia. It also delayed healing after CTS in uninfected mice, so it was not tested when recurrent herpes after CTS was assessed clinically. Treatment with silica alone did not increase the incidence of recurrent clinical disease or the incidence of virus isolation after CTS. The results demonstrate that potent immunosuppressive drugs are much less effective than simple cutaneous manipulation in inducing recurrent lesions, and thus argue strongly

  20. Persistent infection with neurotropic herpes viruses and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Watson, A M M; Prasad, K M; Klei, L; Wood, J A; Yolken, R H; Gur, R C; Bradford, L D; Calkins, M E; Richard, J; Edwards, N; Savage, R M; Allen, T B; Kwentus, J; McEvoy, J P; Santos, A B; Wiener, H W; Go, R C P; Perry, R T; Nasrallah, H A; Gur, R E; Devlin, B; Nimgaonkar, V L

    2013-05-01

    Herpes virus infections can cause cognitive impairment during and after acute encephalitis. Although chronic, latent/persistent infection is considered to be relatively benign, some studies have documented cognitive impairment in exposed persons that is untraceable to encephalitis. These studies were conducted among schizophrenia (SZ) patients or older community dwellers, among whom it is difficult to control for the effects of co-morbid illness and medications. To determine whether the associations can be generalized to other groups, we examined a large sample of younger control individuals, SZ patients and their non-psychotic relatives (n=1852). Method Using multivariate models, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to exposures to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), controlling for familial and diagnostic status and sociodemographic variables, including occupation and educational status. Composite cognitive measures were derived from nine cognitive domains using principal components of heritability (PCH). Exposure was indexed by antibodies to viral antigens. PCH1, the most heritable component of cognitive performance, declines with exposure to CMV or HSV-1 regardless of case/relative/control group status (p = 1.09 × 10-5 and 0.01 respectively), with stronger association with exposure to multiple herpes viruses (β = -0.25, p = 7.28 × 10-10). There were no significant interactions between exposure and group status. Latent/persistent herpes virus infections can be associated with cognitive impairments regardless of other health status.

  1. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David C; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria; Voellmy, Richard

    2015-10-01

    We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate, stringent regulation of

  2. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David C.; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. IMPORTANCE The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate

  3. Neonatal herpes infections in The Netherlands in the period 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Hemelaar, Steffannie J A L; Poeran, Jashvant; Steegers, Eric A P; van der Meijden, Willem I

    2015-05-01

    To monitor the incidence of neonatal herpes in The Netherlands between 2006 and 2011, as well as the adherence to the rather conservative Dutch prevention policy. Questionnaires were sent to all virology laboratories (n = 44), gynaecology and paediatrics departments of all hospitals in The Netherlands (n = 89). Questionnaires for the laboratories pertained to rates of proven cases of neonatal herpes; for the gynaecologists and paediatricians it pertained to rates of genital herpes during pregnancy and neonatal herpes, and their policy. For gynaecologists this concerned the risk of herpes simplex virus transmission in case of primary genital herpes during pregnancy or labour; for paediatricians it concerned the diagnostic policy in a neonate suspected of neonatal herpes. For the period 2006-2011 38 cases of neonatal herpes were reported, yielding an incidence of 4.7 per 100,000 births. The estimated annual number of pregnant women with primary or recurrent genital herpes was 278. Of the responding gynaecologists and paediatricians, only 59% and up to 39%, respectively, reported a policy in accordance with the national guideline. The incidence of neonatal herpes in The Netherlands seems to have increased in the period 2006-2011. Combined with suboptimal guideline adherence this warrants strategies to improve awareness and subsequent adherence.

  4. Recurrent genital herpes treatments and their impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-01-01

    Herpes genitalis is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases in the world, with an estimated seroprevalence in the US of greater than 20%. Two viruses of the same family cause herpes genitalis: herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. After the resolution of primary infection, the virus persists in the nerve roots of the sacral plexus, often causing recurrent (though generally less severe) outbreaks. These outbreaks, as well as the infectious potential to the patient's sexual partners, results in significant psychological stress on the patient, and has a tremendous negative impact on QOL. Current treatment modalities may result in a reduction in the number of outbreaks and viral shedding, but no cure exists. Although studies have clearly demonstrated the negative impact of recurrent genital herpes on QOL, an assessment scale specific to herpes was not developed until recently. Earlier studies indicated that patients did not perceive a significant benefit from episodic treatment with antivirals, but studies using the Recurrent Genital Herpes Quality of Life Questionnaire (RGHQoL) have now demonstrated that suppressive antiviral therapy improves quality of life in patients with frequent recurrences of genital herpes. However, not all patients with recurrent genital herpes need suppressive therapy, and proposed factors to consider include frequency of recurrence, physical and psychological distress caused by recurrences, and the potential for transmission to the patient's sexual partner. Newer therapeutic modalities, including the topical immune response modifier resiquimod and herpes vaccines, may eventually be shown to further decrease the psychological morbidity of recurrent genital herpes.

  5. Herpes zoster could be an early manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2016-05-01

    No formal epidemiological research based on systematic analysis has focused on the relationship between herpes zoster and immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Taiwan. Our aim was to explore whether herpes zoster is an early manifestation of undiagnosed human HIV infection in Taiwan. This was a retrospective cohort study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 35,892 individuals aged ≤ 84 years with newly diagnosed herpes zoster from 1998 to 2010 were assigned to the herpes zoster group, whereas 143,568 sex-matched and age-matched, randomly selected individuals without herpes zoster served as the non-herpes zoster group. The incidence of HIV diagnosis at the end of 2011 was estimated in both groups. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk of HIV diagnosis associated with herpes zoster and other comorbidities including drug dependence and venereal diseases. The overall incidence of HIV diagnosis was 4.19-fold greater in the herpes zoster group than that in the non-herpes zoster group (3.33 per 10,000 person-years vs. 0.80 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI 4.04-4.35). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that the adjusted hazard ratio of HIV diagnosis was 4.37 (95% CI 3.10-6.15) for individuals with herpes zoster and without comorbidities, as compared with individuals without herpes zoster and without comorbidities. Herpes zoster is associated with HIV diagnosis. Patients who have risk behaviors of HIV infection should receive regular surveillance for undiagnosed HIV infection when they present with herpes zoster. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Topical application of polyethylenimine as a candidate for novel prophylactic therapeutics against genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kyoko; Onoue, Hiroki; Sasaki, Kohei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Kumar, Penmetcha K R; Gopinath, Subash C B; Maitani, Yoshie; Kai, Takashi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause genital herpes, which can enhance the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus. The development of anti-HSV agents with novel mechanisms of action is urgently required in the topical therapy of genital herpes. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-HSV effects of Epomin SP-012(®), a highly cationic polyethylenimine, were evaluated. When the in vitro antiviral effects of SP-012 were assessed, this compound showed potent activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2. It inhibited the attachment of HSV-2 to host cells and cell-to-cell spread of infection in a concentration-dependent manner and exerted a virucidal effect. No SP-012-resistant HSV-2 was found when the virus was successively passaged in the presence of SP-012. In a mouse genital herpes model, topically administered SP-012 inhibited the progression of the disease caused by HSV infection. These data illustrate that SP-012 may be a novel class of HSV inhibitor that would be acceptable for long-term topical application.

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus 2 ICP0− Mutant Viruses Are Avirulent and Immunogenic: Implications for a Genital Herpes Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Halford, William P.; Püschel, Ringo; Rakowski, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0− mutants are interferon-sensitive, avirulent, and elicit protective immunity against HSV-1 (Virol J, 2006, 3:44). If an ICP0− mutant of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) exhibited similar properties, such a virus might be used to vaccinate against genital herpes. The current study was initiated to explore this possibility. Several HSV-2 ICP0− mutant viruses were constructed and evaluated in terms of three parameters: i. interferon-sensitivity; ii. virulence in mice; and iii. capacity to elicit protective immunity against HSV-2. One ICP0− mutant virus in particular, HSV-2 0ΔNLS, achieved an optimal balance between avirulence and immunogenicity. HSV-2 0ΔNLS was interferon-sensitive in cultured cells. HSV-2 0ΔNLS replicated to low levels in the eyes of inoculated mice, but was rapidly repressed by an innate, Stat 1-dependent host immune response. HSV-2 0ΔNLS failed to spread from sites of inoculation, and hence produced only inapparent infections. Mice inoculated with HSV-2 0ΔNLS consistently mounted an HSV-specific IgG antibody response, and were consistently protected against lethal challenge with wild-type HSV-2. Based on their avirulence and immunogenicity, we propose that HSV-2 ICP0− mutant viruses merit consideration for their potential to prevent the spread of HSV-2 and genital herpes. PMID:20808928

  8. Herpes simplex virus 2 ICP0 mutant viruses are avirulent and immunogenic: implications for a genital herpes vaccine.

    PubMed

    Halford, William P; Püschel, Ringo; Rakowski, Brandon

    2010-08-17

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0(-) mutants are interferon-sensitive, avirulent, and elicit protective immunity against HSV-1 (Virol J, 2006, 3:44). If an ICP0(-) mutant of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) exhibited similar properties, such a virus might be used to vaccinate against genital herpes. The current study was initiated to explore this possibility. Several HSV-2 ICP0(-) mutant viruses were constructed and evaluated in terms of three parameters: i. interferon-sensitivity; ii. virulence in mice; and iii. capacity to elicit protective immunity against HSV-2. One ICP0(-) mutant virus in particular, HSV-2 0DeltaNLS, achieved an optimal balance between avirulence and immunogenicity. HSV-2 0DeltaNLS was interferon-sensitive in cultured cells. HSV-2 0DeltaNLS replicated to low levels in the eyes of inoculated mice, but was rapidly repressed by an innate, Stat 1-dependent host immune response. HSV-2 0DeltaNLS failed to spread from sites of inoculation, and hence produced only inapparent infections. Mice inoculated with HSV-2 0DeltaNLS consistently mounted an HSV-specific IgG antibody response, and were consistently protected against lethal challenge with wild-type HSV-2. Based on their avirulence and immunogenicity, we propose that HSV-2 ICP0(-) mutant viruses merit consideration for their potential to prevent the spread of HSV-2 and genital herpes.

  9. Acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in children: reactivation of an undiagnosed latent neonatal herpes infection.

    PubMed

    Grose, Charles

    2012-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is known to cause acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The availability of HSV-2-specific polymerase chain reaction tests for diagnostic analysis has greatly increased our ability to discriminate ARN caused by HSV-2 from ARN caused by either herpes simplex virus type 1 or varicella zoster virus (VZV). Of great interest, HSV-2 appears to be the most common cause of viral ARN in children and adolescents. Although a few children with ARN are known to have had neonatally acquired herpes infection, most children lack a history of known herpes disease. Thus, the origin of the HSV-2 infection is a mystery. The hypothesis of this review is that HSV-2 ARN in children and adolescents may be the first sign of a previously undiagnosed and asymptomatic neonatal HSV-2 infection, which has reactivated several years later from latency in a cranial nerve and entered the retina. The review brings together 7 previously published ARN cases, plus one new case is added. Thus, this review also expands the spectrum of complications from neonatal HSV-2 infection.

  10. The diagnosis of genital herpes – beyond culture: An evidence-based guide for the utilization of polymerase chain reaction and herpes simplex virus type-specific serology

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; Severini, A; Zahariadis, G; Petric, M; Romanowski, B

    2007-01-01

    Accurate identification of persons with genital herpes is necessary for optimal patient management and prevention of transmission. Because of inherent inaccuracies, clinical diagnosis of genital herpes should be confirmed by laboratory testing for the causative agents herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV type 2 (HSV-2). Further identification of the HSV type is valuable for counselling on the natural history of infection and risk of transmission. Laboratory methods include antigen detection, culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional and type-specific serology (TSS). PCR has, by far, the greater sensitivity and should be the test of choice for symptomatic cases. HSV-2 TSS is indicated for patients with genital lesions in whom antigen detection, culture or PCR fail to detect HSV, and for patients who are asymptomatic but have a history suggestive of genital herpes. HSV-2 TSS is further indicated for patients infected with HIV. HSV-2 TSS along with HSV-1 TSS may be considered, as appropriate, in evaluating infection and/or immune status in couples discordant for genital herpes, women who develop their first clinical episode of genital herpes during pregnancy, asymptomatic pregnant women whose partners have a history of genital herpes or HIV infection, and women contemplating pregnancy or considering sexual partnership with those with a history of genital herpes. The above should be performed in conjunction with counselling of infected persons and their sex partners. PMID:18923735

  11. [Battle with herpes for 37 years].

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) remains latent in the human trigeminal ganglion after primarily infecting the cornea and conjunctiva. Mental stress, heat stimulation, ultraviolet ray and immunosuppression are among the reactivating factors of HSV-1, which can lead to epithelial herpetic keratitis, stromal herpetic keratitis, and other complications. I have been working with HSV-1 for a long time, concentrating especially on its latency and reactivation. I would like to introduce some of the recent research results. 1. Herpetic keratitis cases at the Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University. There were 129 eyes of 128 patients who visited the Cornea Service in our university hospitals at Osayasayama, Sakai and Nara over 13 years and were diagnosed with herpetic keratitis and followed up for at least one year. They were investigated as to the type of herpetic keratitis at the initial visit and its recurrence. Initial types of herpetic keratitis and number of eyes of each type were: Epithelial type, 65 eyes (50%); Stromal type, 30 eyes (23%); Combined epithelial and stromal types, 18 eyes (14%). Recurrence was seen in 47% of the total 129 eyes. Recurrent cases of the epithelial type were mostly epithelial type. Frequently recurrent cases of the stromal type presented with repeated epithelial, stromal, and combined types. 2. Effects of antiherpetics on mouse epithelial herpetic keratitis. Acyclovir (ACV) eye ointment is usually prescribed for several weeks to treat human epithelial herpetic keratitis. Our question is: Is this long administration really necessary? To find the answer to this question, we investigated time-dependent effects of antiherpetics on mouse epithelial herpetic keratitis. Mouse corneas were infected with HSV-1 and either ACV eye ointment, oral valaciclovir (VACV) or oral famciclovir (FCV) was administered. No virus was detected in the tear fluid examined by viral culture 4 days after start of ACV eye ointment or oral VACV and 6 days after

  12. The relative infrequency and low levels of neutralising and immunoprecipitating antibody to herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 in patients with a history of recurrent herpes genitalis.

    PubMed

    Woodman, C B; Stocker, D; Sugrue, D; Desberbasques, M; Hartley, C E; Fuller, A; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-seven per cent of 70 patients with a history of recurrent herpes genitalis but no concomitant history of recurrent oral or peri-genital disease, had no detectable neutralising antibody against type 1 or type 2 herpes simplex virus; the prevalence and levels of neutralising antibody were similar to 53 patients with no history of herpetic disease and significantly lower than 67 patients with a history of recurrent herpes genitalis in association with oral or peri-genital disease all of whom had neutralising antibody against both virus types. There were similar differences between groups for immunoprecipitating antibody where 80% of patients were herpes genitalis alone had no detectable immunoprecipitating antibody. The results indicate that the failure to detect immunising and immunoprecipitating antibody in an individual's serum is compatible with a long and even severe history of recurrent herpes genitalis and consequently that the development of neutralising antibody does not necessarily indicate an episode of primary herpetic disease.

  13. Vaccines for preventing herpes zoster in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Anna M Z; Andriolo, Brenda N G; Torloni, Maria R; Soares, Bernardo G O

    2016-03-03

    Herpes zoster, also known as 'shingles', is a neurocutaneous disease characterised by the reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV), the virus that causes chickenpox when immunity to VZV declines. It is an extremely painful condition that can last many weeks or months and it can significantly compromise the quality of life of affected individuals. The natural process of aging is associated with a reduction in cellular immunity and this predisposes older people to herpes zoster. Vaccination with an attenuated form of VZV activates specific T cell production avoiding viral reactivation. The Food and Drug Administration has approved a herpes zoster vaccine with an attenuated active virus for clinical use among older adults, which has been tested in large populations. A new adjuvanted recombinant VZV subunit zoster vaccine has also been tested. It consists of recombinant VZV glycoprotein E and a liposome-based AS01B adjuvant system. This new vaccine is not yet available for clinical use. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of vaccination for preventing herpes zoster in older adults. For this 2015 update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 9), MEDLINE (1948 to the 3rd week of October 2015), EMBASE (2010 to October 2015), CINAHL (1981 to October 2015) and LILACS (1982 to October 2015). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing zoster vaccine with placebo or no vaccine, to prevent herpes zoster in older adults (mean age > 60 years). Two review authors independently collected and analysed data using a data extraction form. They also performed 'Risk of bias' assessment. We identified 13 studies involving 69,916 participants. The largest study included 38,546 participants. All studies were conducted in high-income countries and included only healthy Caucasian individuals ≥ 60 years of age without immunosuppressive comorbidities. Ten studies used live attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV

  14. Central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection in afebrile children with seizures.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Indrajit; Hartley-McAndrew, Michelle E; Weinstock, Arie L

    2012-04-01

    Central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection is suspected in patients presenting with acute-onset seizures and lethargy. The potential neurologic sequelae from untreated herpes infection can prompt empirical acyclovir therapy, even in afebrile subjects. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection in children presenting with afebrile seizures and to assess the need for empirical acyclovir therapy. Clinical and laboratory data of children with acute-onset afebrile seizures and children with central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection were compared. Polymerase chain reaction and viral cultures of the cerebrospinal fluid for herpes simplex virus infection were negative in all subjects with afebrile seizures; 32.7% of these subjects were empirically treated with acyclovir. In conclusion, central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection is uncommon in children presenting with afebrile seizures, and acyclovir therapy is rarely necessary in subjects with normal neurologic examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis.

  15. Novel agents and strategies to treat herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Kleymann, Gerald

    2003-02-01

    The quiet pandemic of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has plagued humanity since ancient times, causing mucocutaneous infection, such as herpes labialis and herpes genitalis. Disease symptoms often interfere with everyday activities and occasionally HSV infections are the cause of life-threatening or sight-impairing disease, especially in neonates and the immunocompromised patient population. After primary or initial infection the virus persists for life in a latent form in neurons of the host, periodically reactivating and often resulting in significant psychosocial distress for the patient. Currently, no cure is available. In the mid-1950s the first antiviral, idoxuridine, was developed for topical treatment of herpes disease and, in 1978, vidarabine was licensed for systemic use to treat HSV encephalitis. Acyclovir (Zovirax), a potent, specific and tolerable nucleosidic inhibitor of the herpes DNA polymerase, was a milestone in the development of antiviral drugs in the late 1970s. In the mid-1990s, when acyclovir became a generic drug, valacyclovir (Valtrex) and famciclovir (Famvir), prodrugs of the gold standard and penciclovir (Denavir), Vectavir), a close analogue, were launched. Though numerous approaches and strategies were tested and considerable effort was expended in the search of the next generation of an antiherpetic therapy, it proved difficult to outperform acyclovir. Notable in this regard was the award of a Nobel Prize in 1988 for the elucidation of mechanistic principles which resulted in the development of new drugs such as acyclovir. Vaccines, interleukins, interferons, therapeutic proteins, antibodies, immunomodulators and small-molecule drugs with specific or nonspecific modes of action lacked either efficacy or the required safety profile to replace the nucleosidic drugs acyclovir, valacyclovir, penciclovir and famciclovir as the first choice of treatment. Recently though, new inhibitors of the HSV helicase-primase with potent in vitro

  16. Herpes zoster correlates with increased risk of Parkinson's disease in older people

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Little is known on the relationship between herpes zoster and Parkinson's disease in older people. This study aimed to explore whether herpes zoster could be associated with Parkinson's disease in older people in Taiwan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the claim data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 10,296 subjects aged 65 years and older with newly diagnosed herpes zoster as the herpes zoster group and 39,405 randomly selected subjects aged 65 years and older without a diagnosis of herpes zoster as the nonherpes zoster group from 1998 to 2010. Both groups were followed up until subjects received a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. This follow-up design would explore whether subjects with herpes zoster were at an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. Relative risks were estimated by adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. The incidence of Parkinson's disease was higher in the herpes zoster group than that in the nonherpes zoster group (4.86 vs 4.00 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 1.14, 1.29). After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that the adjusted HR of Parkinson's disease was 1.17 for the herpes zoster group (95% CI 1.10, 1.25), compared with the nonherpes zoster group. Older people with herpes zoster confer a slightly increased hazard of developing Parkinson's disease when compared to those without herpes zoster. We think that herpes zoster correlates with increased risk of Parkinson's disease in older people. When older people with herpes zoster seek help, clinicians should pay more attention to the development of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease. PMID:28207515

  17. Successful treatment of hypertrophic herpes simplex genitalis in HIV-infected patient with topical imiquimod.

    PubMed

    Deza, Gustavo; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Curto-Barredo, Laia; Villar García, Judit; Pujol, Ramon M

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic herpes simplex genitalis is an atypical presentation of genital herpes described in the context of immunosuppression, particularly HIV-positive patients. This situation can become a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. For this reason, alternative therapies are currently being discussed in the literature. We report a case of hypertrophic genital herpes in a HIV-positive patient who was successfully treated with topical 5% imiquimod after treatment failures with oral and i.v. antivirals.

  18. A Fusogenic Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus for Therapy of Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0434 TITLE: A Fusogenic Oncolytic Herpes Simplex ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Fusogenic Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus for Therapy of Advanced Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER...oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) can significantly enhance the anti-tumor effect of the virus. Three specific aims have been proposed and they are: 1

  19. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus keratitis after initiating bimatoprost treatment for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Debra M; Schuman, Joel S

    2002-03-01

    To report a case of herpes simplex virus reactivation after starting bimatoprost treatment for glaucoma. Interventional case report. A 66-year-old woman had a herpes simplex keratouveitis reactivation that occurred within 1 month after starting bimatoprost. The herpes simplex had been inactive for more than 10 years. Bimatoprost and prednisolone acetate 0.12% were discontinued; oral acyclovir, ofloxacin, and betaxolol 0.25% were initiated. Two weeks later, prednisolone acetate 1% was added. The reactivation resolved, and 1 month later, the best corrected visual acuity improved to 20/40. Caution should be used in prescribing bimatoprost for patients with a history of herpes simplex virus keratitis.

  20. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. ); Murray, R.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO )

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  1. Rare Occurrence of Herpes Zoster of Trigeminal Nerve following Extraction of Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Christy, A. Winnifred; Raja Deva Thanmbi, T. Jones; Leelavathy, J.; Rhema Louis, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Herpes Zoster also known as Shingles is an acute viral infection which is an extremely painful and incapacitating ailment. It results from the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. The triggering factors for the onset of an attack of Herpes Zoster include some form of immunosuppression. The diagnosis of Herpes Zoster can be made on proper medical history and a thorough clinical examination. Here is the report of a male patient affected by Herpes Zoster infection which followed after extraction of a lower first molar. PMID:26819783

  2. Herpes labialis in patients with Russell's viper bite and acute kidney injury: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Waikhom, Rajesh; Sapam, Ranjeeta; Patil, Krishna; Jadhav, Jaya Prada; Sircar, Dipankar; Roychowdhury, Arpita; Dasgupta, Sanjay; Pandey, Rajendra

    2011-06-01

    Snake bite is an important health hazard in tropical countries and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes labialis is a common ailment caused by the Herpes simplex virus. There is no published data showing any association between the snake bite and development of Herpes labialis. Here, we present a series of patients who developed Herpes labialis after Russell's viper bite and had acute kidney injury. We attempted to find whether snake bite is an immunosuppressed state and whether it could have pre-disposed the patients to the development of these lesions.

  3. Apparent Rarity of Asymptomatic Herpes Cervicitis in a Woman with Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device

    PubMed Central

    Okolo, Abu Clement; Manga, Mohammed Mohammed; Anaedobe, Chinenye Gloria; Salami, Ayodeji Akeem; Akang, Effiong Essien Udo

    2013-01-01

    Infection with genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) remains a common viral sexually transmitted disease, often subclinical and a major worldwide problem of women of reproductive age group. Herpes cervicitis is an unusual presentation of Herpes simplex virus infection in females. The finding of herpes cervicitis on routine pap smear of an asymptomatic woman on Intrauterine contraceptive device still further supports the need for increased awareness on the possibility of Herpes simplex virus infection among women, particularly those on Intrauterine contraceptive device. The index case is a 28 years old Nigerian female who was referred to our Special Treatment Clinic on account of an abnormal pap smear cytology which was in keeping with Herpes cervicitis. There was no history of genital ulcer in this patient; however ELISA for HSV 2 IgM was positive in her. We therefore describe a case of herpes cervicitis in an asymptomatic woman on intrauterine contraceptive device. This case highlights to clinicians the need to be aware of the possibility of this association and to carry out relevant investigations so as to identify and treat these patients appropriately. Therefore, there is a need to put in place adequate public health intervention strategy to prevent genital herpes in women of reproductive age group with a view to preventing the possibility of congenital herpes in subsequent pregnancy.

  4. Ube2g2-gp78-mediated HERP polyubiquitylation is involved in ER stress recovery.

    PubMed

    Yan, Long; Liu, Weixiao; Zhang, Huihui; Liu, Chao; Shang, Yongliang; Ye, Yihong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Wei

    2014-04-01

    A large number of studies have focused on how individual organisms respond to a stress condition, but little attention has been paid to the stress recovery process, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress recovery. Homocysteine-induced ER protein (HERP) was originally identified as a chaperone-like protein that is strongly induced upon ER stress. Here we show that, after ER stress induction, HERP is rapidly degraded by Ube2g2-gp78-mediated ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. The polyubiquitylation of HERP in vitro depends on a physical interaction between the CUE domain of gp78 and the ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain of HERP, which is essential for HERP degradation in vivo during ER stress recovery. We further show that although HERP promotes cell survival under ER stress, high levels of HERP expression reduce cell viability under oxidative stress conditions, suggesting that HERP plays a dual role in cellular stress adaptation. Together, these results establish the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of HERP as a novel mechanism that fine-tunes the stress tolerance capacity of the cell.

  5. Granulomatous herpes simplex encephalitis in an infant with multicystic encephalopathy: a distinct clinicopathologic entity?

    PubMed

    Schutz, Peter W; Fauth, Clarissa T; Al-Rawahi, Ghada N; Pugash, Denise; White, Valerie A; Stockler, Sylvia; Dunham, Christopher P

    2014-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis can manifest as a range of clinical presentations including classic adult, neonatal, and biphasic chronic-granulomatous herpes encephalitis. We report an infant with granulomatous herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis with a subacute course and multicystic encephalopathy. A 2-month-old girl presented with lethargy and hypothermia. Computed tomography scan of the head showed multicystic encephalopathy and calcifications. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis by polymerase chain reaction testing for herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, enterovirus, and cytomegalovirus was negative. Normal cerebrospinal fluid interferon-α levels argued against Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. The patient died 2 weeks after presentation. At autopsy, multicystic encephalopathy was confirmed with bilateral gliosis, granulomatous inflammation with multinucleated giant cells, and calcifications. Bilateral healing necrotizing retinitis suggested a viral etiology, but retina and brain were free of viral inclusions and immunohistochemically negative for herpes simplex virus-2 and cytomegalovirus. However, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed herpes simplex virus-2 DNA in four cerebral paraffin blocks. Subsequent repeat testing of the initial cerebrospinal fluid sample using a different polymerase chain reaction assay was weakly positive for herpes simplex virus-2 DNA. Granulomatous herpes simplex virus encephalitis in infants can present with subacute course and result in multicystic encephalopathy with mineralization and minimal cerebrospinal fluid herpes simplex virus DNA load. Infectious etiologies should be carefully investigated in the differential diagnosis of multicystic encephalopathy with mineralization, in particular if multinucleated giant cells are present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Unusual Clinical Presentation and Role of Decompressive Craniectomy in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Kumar, Nuthan; Vyas, Sameer; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Aggarwal, Ashish

    2015-08-01

    Decompressive craniectomy in pediatric central nervous infections with refractory intracranial hypertension is less commonly practiced. We describe improved outcome of decompressive craniectomy in a 7-year-old boy with severe herpes simplex encephalitis and medically refractory intracranial hypertension, along with a brief review of the literature. Timely recognition of refractory intracranial hypertension and surgical decompression in children with herpes simplex encephalitis can be life-saving. Additionally, strokelike atypical presentations are being increasingly recognized in children with herpes simplex encephalitis and should not take one away from the underlying herpes simplex encephalitis.

  7. Corneal donor infection by herpes simplex virus: herpes simplex virus DNA in donor corneas.

    PubMed

    Cleator, G M; Klapper, P E; Dennett, C; Sullivan, A L; Bonshek, R E; Marcyniuk, B; Tullo, A B

    1994-07-01

    Three corneoscleral discs (from two donors) underwent subtotal endothelial loss during routine "long-term" organ culture storage. Laboratory studies of these corneas revealed evidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The fellow cornea from one of the donors had been issued for transplant to a patient with keratoconus. Deterioration of the graft was noted 5 days after surgery; the disc was removed at 2 months and was shown to be infected with HSV. In an experiment designed to simulate initial "cleansing" of donor globes, 0.1% polyvinylpyrolidone-iodine protected cells from infection with HSV. It was concluded that the detection of HSV in these corneas could not be explained by external contamination of the ocular surface. Furthermore, culture of conjunctival and pharangeal swabs taken from 47 consecutive donors confirmed that HSV is rarely isolated at or around the time of death. Five pairs of donor corneas destined for use in transplantation were selected at random and investigated for the presence of HSV. HSV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in tissue from two of the corneal donors. Sequential stepwise sectioning suggested that HSV DNA when present was distributed in discrete foci within the cornea. These observations suggest that HSV infection may be a cause of severe endothelial loss during corneal organ culture and possibly provide an explanation for some "failures" of corneal grafting.

  8. Autophagy interaction with herpes simplex virus type-1 infection.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Douglas; Liang, Chengyu

    2016-01-01

    More than 50% of the U.S. population is infected with herpes simplex virus type-I (HSV-1) and global infectious estimates are nearly 90%. HSV-1 is normally seen as a harmless virus but debilitating diseases can arise, including encephalitis and ocular diseases. HSV-1 is unique in that it can undermine host defenses and establish lifelong infection in neurons. Viral reactivation from latency may allow HSV-1 to lay siege to the brain (Herpes encephalitis). Recent advances maintain that HSV-1 proteins act to suppress and/or control the lysosome-dependent degradation pathway of macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) and consequently, in neurons, may be coupled with the advancement of HSV-1-associated pathogenesis. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that HSV-1 infection may constitute a gradual risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders. The relationship between HSV-1 infection and autophagy manipulation combined with neuropathogenesis may be intimately intertwined demanding further investigation.

  9. [Factual approach to the treatment of genital herpes].

    PubMed

    Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2000-05-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. After the primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sacral dorsal root ganglia. Recurrences may occur at an unpredictable rate. The clinical signs are not always easy to recognize and viral identification techniques may be helpful such as immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on Tzanck smears and muco-cutaneous biopsies. The treatment of genital herpes can follow one of three strategies using antiviral drugs, non-specific immunomodulators, and vaccination. The new oral antiviral drugs decrease the severity of clinical manifestations without, however, providing a definitive cure. In this article recent knowledge about the clinical aspects, differential diagnosis, diagnostic methods, treatment options and management is reviewed.

  10. Valacyclovir for the management of herpes viral infections.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, A; Anderson, N J; Beutner, R; Tyring, S K

    2005-02-01

    The Herpesviridae family (Types 1-8) continues to inflict considerable morbidity and social stigma upon humanity. Once infected with the herpes viruses, especially Types 1-3, they establish permanent residence within our nervous system and reactivate during periods of stress, trauma, and/or other precipitating factors. To date, there is no cure for herpes viral infections but antivirals can attenuate the symptoms and duration of episodic outbreaks. Prophylactic therapy can suppress recurrences. The first antiviral with selective activity against virus-infected cells is considered to be acyclovir. Our article will highlight the clinical indications of the current generation, valacyclovir, which is a prodrug of acyclovir. We consider valacyclovir as a second-generation antiviral, having taken into account the initial selectivity and safety profile of its progenitor, acyclovir.

  11. Management and prevention of herpes zoster: A Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Guy; Jovey, Roman; Elliott, Catherine T; Patrick, David M

    2010-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus reactivation leads to herpes zoster – the main complication of which is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Rapid antiviral therapy initiated within 72 h of rash onset has been shown to accelerate rash healing, reduce the duration of acute pain and, to some extent, attenuate the development and duration of PHN. Other adjunctive therapies such as analgesics, antidepressants and some anticonvulsants are frequently required in the management of severe PHN. A live, attenuated zoster vaccine has been recently shown to significantly decrease herpes zoster incidence, PHN and the overall burden of illness when administered to adults older than 60 years of age. This new prophylactic modality has been reported to be cost-effective in the Canadian context, especially in the 60- to 75-year-old age group. PMID:21358885

  12. Acute and recurrent herpes simplex in several strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Harbour, D A; Hill, T J; Blyth, W A

    1981-07-01

    Acute and recurrent herpes simplex was studied after infection in the ear of two outbred and five inbred strains of mice. In all strains tested there was clinical evidence of infection, and a proportion of the mice became latently infected in the cervical ganglia. Six weeks after infection, when attempts were made to induce recurrent desease by stripping the ears of the mice with cellophange tape, a proportion of animals of each strain developed recurrent disease, characterized by erythema in the skin. At monthly intervals thereafter, the ears were stripped again and, on each occasion, a proportion of the animals developed recurrent disease, with the exception of Balb/c mice. The different reaction of Balb/c and other inbred strains might prove useful in studies on the mechanism of control of recurrent herpes simplex.

  13. Tests of vaginal microbicides in the mouse genital herpes model.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, L; Whaley, K J; Hegarty, T A; Moench, T R; Cone, R A

    1997-11-01

    Microbicide candidates were selected that have demonstrated activity against sperm or sexually transmitted disease pathogens in vitro, and the efficacy of these agents for preventing vaginal transmission of genital herpes infection was evaluated in the progestin-treated mouse. Each agent was delivered to the vaginas of mice approximately 20 sec prior to delivering a highly infectious herpes simplex virus-2 inoculum. The following agents provided significant protection: anti-HSV monoclonal antibodies III-174 and HSV8, modified bovine beta-lactoglobulin (beta-69), carrageenan, concanavalin A, chlorhexidine, dextran sulfate (average molecular weight 8,000 and 500,000), fucoidan, neem, nonoxynol-9, polystyrene sulfonate, and povidone-iodine. Two agents, gramicidin and heparan sulfate, though highly effective in vitro, were not protective in vivo at the doses tested.

  14. Gerstmann's syndrome following an acute herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ilchevsky, S; Boev, I; Kazakova, T

    1998-01-01

    The authors present a rare clinical case of a woman who developed Gerstmann's syndrome following an acute Herpes simplex viral encephalitis. Clinical observation and laboratory evaluation were performed during the acute phase of the disease. After that the follow-up continued for one-year period. The localization of the pathologic process was determined by computerized tomography, conducted periodically. The characteristics of the clinical picture are interpreted in the context of the contemporary concepts of the topical diagnosis of Gerstmann's syndrome. The possibility of a sudden onset of acute Herpes simplex viral encephalitis without a preceding febrile-intoxication syndrome is worth noting. Conclusions are drawn stressing the need of an early etiologic treatment and the importance of the rehabilitation activities during the convalescence period.

  15. Herpes zoster immunization in older adults has big benefits.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Harald

    2015-06-01

    The value and importance of providing herpes zoster immunization to reduce the incidence and severity of acute herpes zoster neuralgia, especially in older patients, is described. The prevention of postherpetic neuralgia can profoundly impact patients' quality of life. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 4, © Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the website: www.paineurope.com at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources.

  16. Autophagy Stimulation Abrogates Herpes simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a double-stranded DNA virus that causes life-long infections. HSV-1 infections may lead to herpetic stromal keratitis that may advance to corneal blindness. HSV-1 infections can also cause fatal conditions, such as herpes encephalitis, or neonatal disease. A major virulence mechanism of HSV-1 is the control of autophagy, an innate immune defense strategy that could otherwise degrade viral particles. Here, to investigate a new mechanism for antiviral therapy, we tested the effect of various autophagy inducers (physiological and pharmacological) on infection. Autophagy stimulation was confirmed to significantly suppress HSV-1 infection in various cell types, without affecting cell viability. This study establishes the importance of autophagy for regulating HSV-1 infection, and provides a proof-of-principle evidence for a novel antiviral mechanism. PMID:25856282

  17. Autophagy interaction with herpes simplex virus type-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Douglas; Liang, Chengyu

    2016-01-01

    abstract More than 50% of the U.S. population is infected with herpes simplex virus type-I (HSV-1) and global infectious estimates are nearly 90%. HSV-1 is normally seen as a harmless virus but debilitating diseases can arise, including encephalitis and ocular diseases. HSV-1 is unique in that it can undermine host defenses and establish lifelong infection in neurons. Viral reactivation from latency may allow HSV-1 to lay siege to the brain (Herpes encephalitis). Recent advances maintain that HSV-1 proteins act to suppress and/or control the lysosome-dependent degradation pathway of macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) and consequently, in neurons, may be coupled with the advancement of HSV-1-associated pathogenesis. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that HSV-1 infection may constitute a gradual risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders. The relationship between HSV-1 infection and autophagy manipulation combined with neuropathogenesis may be intimately intertwined demanding further investigation. PMID:26934628

  18. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis of the Parietal Lobe: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Fisahn, Christian; Tkachenko, Lara; Moisi, Marc; Rostad, Steven; Umeh, Randle; Zwillman, Michael E; Tubbs, R Shane; Page, Jeni; Newell, David W; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2016-09-16

    A 69-year-old female with a history of breast cancer and hypertension presented with a rare case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) isolated to her left parietal lobe. The patient's first biopsy was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I/II antigens, but less than two weeks later, the patient tested positive on repeat biopsy. This initial failure to detect the virus and the similarities between HSE and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) suggests repeat testing for HSV in the presence of ICH. Due to the frequency of patients with extra temporal HSE, a diagnosis of HSE should be more readily considered, particularly when a patient may not be improving and a concrete diagnosis has not been solidified.

  19. Trigeminal herpes zoster: early recognition and treatment are crucial

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) is not uncommon in older patients, particularly in cases of chronic autoimmune disorders and in patients taking immunosuppressant drugs. We present a case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with severe herpes zoster infection, involving the maxillary and ophthalmic branches of the trigeminal nerve. Despite an initial delay in instigating crucial antiviral treatment, the patient achieved an excellent recovery, with only some mild scarring at 2 months postinfection. Trigeminal herpes zoster is a potentially devastating clinical occurrence, and is associated with severe long-term neurological sequelae, including encephalitis, vision loss and postherpetic neuralgia. Physicians must be aware of risk factors and treatment modalities. PMID:25795749

  20. Pediatric herpes simplex virus encephalitis: a retrospective multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Schleede, Lena; Bueter, Wolfgang; Baumgartner-Sigl, Sara; Opladen, Thomas; Weigt-Usinger, Katharina; Stephan, Susanne; Smitka, Martin; Leiz, Steffen; Kaiser, Olaf; Kraus, Verena; van Baalen, Andreas; Skopnik, Heino; Hartmann, Hans; Rostasy, Kevin; Lücke, Thomas; Schara, Ulrike; Häusler, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge on pediatric herpes simplex virus encephalitis is limited. Here we summarize 6 neonates and 32 children diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (n = 37) or serological studies (n = 1), respectively. Diagnosis was difficult, as only 15 patients presented neurologic symptoms. Moreover, cerebrospinal fluid glucose, protein, and leukocytes were normal in 6 patients. Subsequently, all but 2 showed neurologic symptoms. Diffusion-weighted neuroimaging was the most sensitive early imaging method. Despite acyclovir treatment, 8 patients experienced early relapses, showing movement abnormalities, impaired vigilance, and seizures. Diffuse white matter changes, found in 3 of 5 relapse patients on neuroimaging, and a negative cerebrospinal fluid herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction suggested inflammatory processes. All relapse patients were again treated with acyclovir, and 3 responded to additional corticosteroid treatment. Whereas outcome after relapses was poor, overall outcome was good. No child died; 14 were asymptomatic at discharge, and neuroimaging remained normal in 7 of 30 patients studied.

  1. Superior orbital fissure syndrome in herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, R P; Abdalla, M; Hogan, A; Tubridy, N; Barry, P; Power, W

    2009-09-01

    To report a case of superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) in a patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). A case report. A 71-year-old male with HZO presented acutely to accident and emergency complaining of right vision loss, double vision and drowsiness. The right visual acuity was counting fingers. There was no relative afferent pupillary defect. He had interstitial keratitis, ptosis, proptosis and total ophthalmoplaegia. The signs indicated HZO complicated by SOFS. Brain imaging and lumbar puncture confirmed the diagnosis of varicella zoster encephalitis. Systemic acyclovir and prednisolone led to recovery of visual acuity and ocular motility in addition to resolution of his proptosis and ptosis. SOFS is a rare complication of herpes zoster infection. With the appropriate treatment and follow-up, patients may be reassured that recovery of their visual acuity and ocular motility will occur.

  2. Relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis resulting in Kluver-Bucy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ku, Bon D; Yoon, Sung Sang

    2011-01-01

    Relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) rarely occurs after acyclovir treatment. We treated a patient with relapsing HSE of the contralateral temporal lobe, resulting in Klüver-Bucy syndrome, after a full-dose acyclovir treatment. This case suggests that physicians should consider sudden behavioral and emotional changes after HSE treatment as a possible indication of relapsing HSE, as well as possible temporal lobe epilepsy, and the need to administer longer acyclovir treatment for select patients.

  3. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later.

  4. Management and Prevention of Herpes Zoster Ocular Disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elisabeth J

    2015-10-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) in people who have had chicken pox, usually resulting in a painful, unilateral, dermatomal, vesicular rash. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the first division of cranial nerve V is involved. HZ is common, with approximately 1 million new cases per year in the United States, and occurs in 1 in 3 persons. Although the rate of HZ increases with age, over half of all cases occur under the age of 60 years. Complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus include eye disease, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and strokes. VZV has also been found in temporal arteritis biopsies. There is growing evidence that HZ is followed by chronic active VZV infection contributing to these complications. In view of this, and the efficacy of suppressive antiviral treatment in reducing recurrent herpes simplex keratitis, a randomized controlled trial of suppressive valacyclovir to reduce new or worsening anterior segment disease and/or PHN is needed. The zoster vaccine (ZV) is safe and effective in reducing the burden of illness, severity of PHN, and incidence of HZ. It is Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended for persons aged 60 years and above without impaired cellular immunity, and Food and Drug Administration approved for those aged 50 and older. It is most effective in preventing HZ in recipients in their 50s. Because of underusage of the ZV, it has not impacted the epidemiology of the disease. Barriers to its use include cost, variable reimbursement, frozen storage, and lack of a strong recommendation by doctors.

  5. Practical management measures for patients with recurrent herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    St Pierre, S A; Bartlett, B L; Schlosser, B J

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) is a common condition associated with the formation of vesicles around the mouth, often preceded by prodromal symptoms including tingling and burning. Treatment is targeted toward individual episodes, but in severe cases, suppressive therapy may be indicated. At present, no cure exists for this troublesome condition. The purpose of this article is to serve as a practical guide in the management of RHL by summarizing current treatments and discussing potential new therapies.

  6. Laser treatment of recurrent herpes labialis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corrêa; Simões, Alyne; Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Ramalho, Karen Muller; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Marotti, Juliana; Tunér, Jan

    2014-07-01

    Recurrent herpes labialis is a worldwide life-long oral health problem that remains unsolved. It affects approximately one third of the world population and causes frequent pain and discomfort episodes, as well as social restriction due to its compromise of esthetic features. In addition, the available antiviral drugs have not been successful in completely eliminating the virus and its recurrence. Currently, different kinds of laser treatment and different protocols have been proposed for the management of recurrent herpes labialis. Therefore, the aim of the present article was to review the literature regarding the effects of laser irradiation on recurrent herpes labialis and to identify the indications and most successful clinical protocols. The literature was searched with the aim of identifying the effects on healing time, pain relief, duration of viral shedding, viral inactivation, and interval of recurrence. According to the literature, none of the laser treatment modalities is able to completely eliminate the virus and its recurrence. However, laser phototherapy appears to strongly decrease pain and the interval of recurrences without causing any side effects. Photodynamic therapy can be helpful in reducing viral titer in the vesicle phase, and high-power lasers may be useful to drain vesicles. The main advantages of the laser treatment appear to be the absence of side effects and drug interactions, which are especially helpful for older and immunocompromised patients. Although these results indicate a potential beneficial use for lasers in the management of recurrent herpes labialis, they are based on limited published clinical trials and case reports. The literature still lacks double-blind controlled clinical trials verifying these effects and such trials should be the focus of future research.

  7. Fifteen minute consultation: Managing neonatal and childhood herpes encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Le Doare, K; Menson, Esse; Patel, Deepak; Lim, Ming; Lyall, Hermione; Herberg, Jethro

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common single cause of viral encephalitis in infants and children. Treated or untreated, it can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and its presentation is usually insidious and non-specific. Prompt and careful investigation is important in order to establish the diagnosis so that treatment can be optimised. We address some common questions arising when diagnosing and treating presumed HSE throughout childhood. PMID:25112286

  8. Shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine (zostavax(®)): a review of its use in the prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged ≥50 years.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-07-01

    The live, attenuated shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine Zostavax(®) is approved in the EU for use in the prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged ≥50 years. In adults aged ≥60 years, zoster vaccine reduced the burden of illness associated with herpes zoster, with reductions in the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia and herpes zoster, according to the results of the Shingles Prevention Study. Results of subsequent Short- and Long-Term Persistence Substudies indicate that the efficacy of zoster vaccine is maintained in the longer term, albeit with a gradual decline over time. In the Zostavax Efficacy and Safety Trial, zoster vaccine reduced the incidence of herpes zoster in adults aged 50-59 years. Findings of these studies are supported by the results of large, retrospective, cohort studies. Zoster vaccine was generally well tolerated, with injection-site adverse events being the most commonly reported adverse events. In conclusion, zoster vaccine provides an important opportunity to reduce the burden of illness associated with herpes zoster by reducing the incidence of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.

  9. Neuropsychologic outcomes in children with neonatal herpes encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Engman, Mona-Lisa; Adolfsson, Ingrid; Lewensohn-Fuchs, Ilona; Forsgren, Marianne; Mosskin, Mikael; Malm, Gunilla

    2008-06-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection with involvement of the central nervous system is a serious disease with high morbidity, even with acyclovir therapy. The disability includes cerebral palsy and different aspects of cognitive dysfunction which are of utmost importance for the child's future habilitation. We conducted a descriptive cohort study to define neuropsychologic outcomes and determine the relationship between neonatal neuroimaging and neuropsychologic outcomes. Among 267,690 children born in the Stockholm area over 12 years (1989-2000), 14 were diagnosed with neonatal herpes including central nervous system involvement. Nine children were neuropsychologically evaluated. Neonatal herpes virus infection had an even greater impact on cognitive function, speech ability, and attention deficit than anticipated. Relapse leading to deterioration was demonstrated in one child. Social skills were influenced to a lesser degree. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of the children were not well-correlated with extent of cerebral damage as visualized by computed tomography at 7-28 days after onset of signs. Neuropsychologic assessment is essential in the habilitation of the child, and a prerequisite for the evaluation of new treatments and for the assessment of deterioration of cerebral function related to relapses.

  10. [Neuropathic pain due to herpes zoster infection with atypical localization].

    PubMed

    Sağır, Özlem; Özaslan, Sabri; Meriç, Yücel; Arslan, İsmail; Köroğlu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Acute herpes zoster infection appears in the situation of depression of immune system and reactivation of varicella zoster virus which causes small pox. Pain and maculopapular lesion accompany clinical symptoms. Various pharmacological and invasive methods can be used for treatment. Efficient therapy is important for prevention of postherpetic neuralgia and cure of acute pain and dermatological lesions. A 55 years old, 160 cm height and 65 kg weight female patient with complaints of severe pain, sensation of burning, tingling at the right hand and forearm was admitted to our pain department. The patient who was diagnosed as cervical hernia at an other medical center had a normal physical servical spine examination. Patient history and physical examination findings with acute herpes zoster infection was considered. Right stellate ganglion blockade for diagnosis and treatment was performed because of regressed and atypically located lesions and a visual analog scale score of 10. VAS score decreased 50% at 9th min after block, VAS score at 2nd hour was 2. Antiviral, gabapentin, and tricyclic antidepressant treatment was started after stellat ganglion blockade and patient was discharged. After 3 months complaints dissapeared and drug doses were discreased and stopped. In conclusion we think that stellate ganglion blockade can be useful in diagnosis, acute pain control, improving patient comfort and compatibility to drug therapy in atypically located herpes zoster.

  11. Human herpes viruses in burn patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wurzer, Paul; Guillory, Ashley; Parvizi, Daryousch; Clayton, Robert P; Branski, Ludwik K; Kamolz, Lars-P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Lee, Jong O

    2017-02-01

    The contribution of human herpes viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) to morbidity and mortality after burns remains controversial. This systematic review was undertaken to assess evidence of herpes virus-related morbidity and mortality in burns. PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science were searched to identify studies of HSV, CMV, or VZV infections in burn patients. Exclusion criteria included: A level of evidence (LoE) of IV or V; nonhuman in vivo studies; and non-English articles. There was no limitation by publication date. Fifty articles were subjected to full-text analysis. Of these, 18 had LoE between I-III and were included in the final review (2 LoE I, 16 LoE II-III). Eight had a prospective study design, 9 had a retrospective study design, and 1 included both. No direct evidence linked CMV and HSV infection with increased morbidity and mortality in burns. Following burn, CMV reactivation was more common than a primary CMV infection. Active HSV infection impaired wound healing but was not directly correlated to mortality. Infections with VZV are rare after burns but when they occur, VZV infections were associated with severe complications including mortality. The therapeutic effect of antiviral agents administered after burns warrants investigation via prospective randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Possible enhancement of BP180 autoantibody production by herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koji; Aoyama, Yumi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Niwa, Haruo; Horio, Ai; Nishio, Eiichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-02-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease caused by autoantibodies against type XVII collagen/BP180 (BP180). Although the mechanisms of autoantibody production remain to be elucidated, herpes virus infections have been identified as a possible triggering factor for pemphigus. We report a case of herpes zoster (HZ) having anti-BP180 serum antibodies. The patient developed sudden-onset, tense blisters and edematous erythema on the right anterior chest, shoulder and upper back. Histopathology showed remarkable degeneration of keratinocytes, acantholysis and blister formation with ballooning cells, indicating herpes virus infection. A polymerase chain reaction analysis of varicella zoster virus (VZV) was positive in crusts and effusions from the skin lesions, confirming the definitive diagnosis of HZ. Notably, we found that the patient had anti-BP180 serum antibodies in association with the occurrence of HZ. After successful treatment with valacyclovir hydrochloride for 7 days, the serum levels of anti-BP180 antibodies decreased in accordance with the improvement of skin lesions. These findings suggest that the production of anti-BP180 antibodies could be triggered by the reactivation of VZV. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus-1 following epilepsy surgery☆

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Crippa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; de Paola, Luciano; de Souza, Luciana Paula; Noronha, Lucia; Torres, Luis Fernando Bleggi; Koneski, Julio A.S.; Pessa, Luis Felipe Cavalli; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo; Vidal, Luine Rosele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study reports a case of encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), following surgical manipulation of the site of a primary infection. Methods Herpes simplex virus-1 infection was confirmed by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Results The patient was an 11-year-old girl who required temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. She had meningoencephalitis due to HSV at the age of 20 months, and she was treated with acyclovir. Three years later, the patient developed uncontrolled seizures that became more frequent and changed in character at 11 years of age. On the 12th postoperative day, she developed fever and seizures, and she was diagnosed with HSV-1 by positive CSF PCR. She was treated with acyclovir (30 mg/kg/day for 21 days). In this report, we describe the patient and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The authors stress the potential risk of reactivation of HSV encephalitis after intracranial surgery. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis must be considered in neurosurgical patients who develop postoperative seizures and fever. PMID:26543809

  14. Pentyl Gallate Nanoemulsions as Potential Topical Treatment of Herpes Labialis.

    PubMed

    Kelmann, Regina G; Colombo, Mariana; De Araújo Lopes, Sávia Caldeira; Nunes, Ricardo J; Pistore, Morgana; Dall Agnol, Daniele; Rigotto, Caroline; Silva, Izabella Thais; Roman, Silvane S; Teixeira, Helder F; Oliveira Simões, Cláudia M; Koester, Letícia S

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the antiherpes activity of pentyl gallate (PG), suggesting that it could be a promising candidate for the topical treatment of human herpes labialis. PG low aqueous solubility represents a major drawback to its incorporation in topical dosage forms. Hence, the feasibility of incorporating PG into nanoemulsions, the ability to penetrate the skin, to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 replication, and to cause dermal sensitization or toxicity were evaluated. Oil/water nanoemulsions containing 0.5% PG were prepared by spontaneous emulsification. The in vitro PG distribution into porcine ear skin after topical application of nanoemulsions was assessed, and the in vitro antiviral activity against HSV-1 replication was evaluated. Acute dermal toxicity and risk of dermal sensitization were evaluated in rat model. Nanoemulsions presented nanometric particle size (from 124.8 to 143.7 nm), high zeta potential (from -50.1 to -66.1 mV), loading efficiency above 99%, and adequate stability during 12 months. All formulations presented anti-HSV-1 activity. PG was able to reach deeper into the dermis more efficiently from the nanoemulsion F4. This formulation as well as PG were considered safe for topical use. Nanoemulsions seem to be a safe and effective approach for topically delivering PG in the treatment of human herpes labialis infection.

  15. Evasion of early antiviral responses by herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Paula A; Ibañez, Francisco J; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency.

  16. Eye and Periocular Skin Involvement in Herpes Zoster Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Chris D.; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Moschos, Marilita M.; Tabbara, Khalid F.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) is a clinical manifestation of the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection and is more common in people with diminished cell-mediated immunity. Lesions and pain correspond to the affected dermatomes, mostly in first or second trigeminal branch and progress from maculae, papules to vesicles and form pustules, and crusts. Complications are cutaneous, visceral, neurological, ocular, but the most debilitating is post-herpetic neuralgia. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus may affect all the ophthalmic structures, but most severe eye-threatening complications are panuveitis, acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as well. Antiviral medications remain the primary therapy, mainly useful in preventing ocular involvement when begun within 72 hours after the onset of the rash. Timely diagnosis and management of HZO are critical in limiting visual morbidity. Vaccine in adults over 60 was found to be highly effective to boost waning immunity what reduces both the burden of herpes zoster (HZ) disease and the incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). PMID:27800502

  17. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia Following Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-wei; Lan, Qing; Zhang, Wen-chuan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the clinical characteristics and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia following herpes zoster. From August 1, 2011 to August 1, 2013, 23 consecutive patients with trigeminal neuralgia following herpes zoster underwent microvascular decompression (MVD) at our cranial nerve disease center. All patients underwent preoperative MRI evaluation, intraoperative observation, and clinical effect evaluation. Clinical data were collected and analyzed in our center. V2 division was the most commonly affected branch. Unlike pretrigeminal neuralgia (PTN), trigger zone was only found in a small part of patients (21.7%). Unlike PTN, the adhesions and compressions between trigeminal nerve and offending vessels were usually not serious; trigeminal nerve usually is atrophic; superior cerebellar artery was the most common offending vessels (65.2%). Of 23 patients, 19 experienced pain relief (82.6%), 1 patient suffered from hearing loss, and another one suffered from cerebrospinal fluid leak; no severe complications were found. During follow-up period, no recurrence was found (3 lost). For patients who suffered from trigeminal neuralgia following herpes zoster, trigger zone was only found in a small part of patients. The trigeminal nerve usually is atrophic; microvascular decompression was equally applied to these patients if vessel compression was confirmed.

  18. Evasion of Early Antiviral Responses by Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Suazo, Paula A.; Ibañez, Francisco J.; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R.; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; González, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency. PMID:25918478

  19. Herpes simplex virus: isolation, cytopathological characterization and antiviral sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa, Carlos; Hattori, Lilian Yumi; Galhardi, Ligia Carla Faccin; Lopes, Nayara; Bomfim, Wesley Andrade; de Cândido, Ligyana Korki; de Azevedo, Elbens Marcos Minoreli; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an endemic disease and it is estimated that 6095% of the adult population are infected with symptoms that are usually self-limiting, though they can be serious, extensive and prolonged in immunocompromised individuals, highlighted by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The study of the wild-type HSV strains based on the cytopathogenic features and its antiviral sensitivity are important in the establishment of an antivirogram for controlling the infection. OBJECTIVE This study sought to isolate and examine the cytopathological characteristics of circulating strains of the Herpes simplex virus, from clinical specimens and their sensitivity to commercially available antiherpesvirus drugs, acyclovir, phosphonophormic acid and trifluridine. METHODS Herpes simplex virus isolation, cytopathological features and antiviral sensitivity assays were performed in cell culture by tissue culture infectious dose or plaque forming unit assay. RESULTS From twenty-two clinical specimens, we isolated and adapted nine strains. Overall, the cytopathic effect was detected 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and the presence of syncytia was remarkable 48 h p.i., observed after cell staining. Out of eight isolates, four developed plaques of varying sizes. All the isolates were sensitive to acyclovir, phosphonophormic and trifluridine, with the percentage of virus inhibition (%VI) ranging from 49.7-100%. CONCLUSIONS The methodology for HSV isolation and characterization is a straightforward approach, but the drug sensitivity test, regarded as being of great practical importance, needs to be better understood. PMID:24937819

  20. Seronegative Herpes simplex Associated Esophagogastric Ulcer after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Matevossian, Edouard; Doll, Dietrich; Weirich, Gregor; Burian, Maria; Knebel, Carolin; Thorban, Stefan; Hüser, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex infection is characterized by acute or subacute infection, often followed by a chronic carrier state. Consecutive recurrences may flare up if immunocompromise occurs. Herpes simplex associated esophagitis or duodenal ulcer have been reported in immunocompromised patients due to neoplasm, HIV/AIDS or therapeutically induced immune deficiency. Here we report the case of an HSV-DNA seronegative patient who developed grade III dysphagia 13 days after allogeneic liver transplantation. Endoscopy revealed an esophageal-gastric ulcer, and biopsy histopathology showed a distinct fibroplastic and capillary ulcer pattern highly suspicious for viral infection. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed a distinct nuclear positive anti-HSV reaction. Antiviral therapy with acyclovir and high-dose PPI led to a complete revision of clinical symptoms within 48 h. Repeat control endoscopy after 7 days showed complete healing of the former ulcer site at the gastroesophageal junction. Although the incidence of post-transplantation Herpes simplex induced gastroesophageal disease is low, the viral HSV ulcer may be included into a differential diagnosis if dysphagia occurs after transplantation even if HSV-DNA PCR is negative. PMID:21490847

  1. Mother-to-Child Transmission of Herpes Simplex Virus.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-09-01

    Infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2), both alpha herpesviruses, are highly prevalent worldwide. Both HSV types commonly cause genital infection, which, when acquired or reactivated during pregnancy, carries with it the risk of transmission to the fetus or neonate. Women who acquire primary or first-episode genital herpes during pregnancy are at greater risk for transmitting the infection than are women with recurrent genital herpes. Because viral infection and reactivation are frequently asymptomatic, many affected women are unaware of their infection and risk of transmission to their infants. Neonatal HSV infection can have devastating long-term consequences, especially when the central nervous system (CNS) is involved. Treatment of affected neonates with intravenous acyclovir has improved outcomes but there is room for further improvement, especially in regard to CNS disease. Working with pregnant women to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HSV is an important component in reducing the overall disease burden of neonatal HSV infections.

  2. Determinants of disclosure of genital herpes to partners

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Ferrier, S; Kocsis, A; Shadrick, J; Ukoumunne, O; Murphy, S; Hetherton, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors which determine whether and when patients will disclose infection with genital herpes to sexual partners. Methods: The sample was 26 women and 24 men attending a herpes clinic in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Semistructured interviews yielded quantitative data and also qualitative data which were subjected to content analysis. Results: Characteristics of partners were very important in determining whether disclosure occurred. Respondents were less likely to tell partners regarded as casual. Perception of the likely reaction of partners was important in deciding whether to tell. Many respondents assumed that they were not infectious if they were not currently having an attack or if they were taking antiviral medication. The decision whether to tell tended to be based on considerations of likely discovery and of honesty towards the partner rather than control of transmission. Of patient characteristics only self rated depressed mood was related to disclosure to the most recent partner. Conclusions: Perception of the partner and anticipated partner response is crucially important in determining whether and when disclosure of genital herpes infection occurs. PMID:12576613

  3. Report of twelve years experience in open study of Skinner herpes simplex vaccine towards prevention of herpes genitalis.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Fink, C; Melling, J; Wiblin, C; Thornton, B; Hallworth, J; Gardner, W; McLeish, P; Hartley, C; Buchan, A

    1992-01-01

    Three hundred and forty-seven subjects at risk for herpes genitalis were vaccinated with Skinner vaccine, NFUAc.HSV1.(S-MRC5), and were followed for an average duration of 2 years representing a total consortship of 664.4 years. Based on survey information obtained during this consortship, there were estimated to be 3076 recurrences which summated to 3.5 years total duration of disease and comprised at least 6794 lesions; there were an estimated 51997 episodes of intercourse including at least 241 episodes of unprotected intercourse in the presence of herpetic lesions. The rate of contraction of herpes genitalis was 6 of 54 consorts (11.1%) who received one vaccination and 7 of 293 (2.4%) who received two, three of four vaccinations. There was no evidence of physical or psychological side effects from vaccination.

  4. [Herpes Zoster, predictive element of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). Epidemio-clinical study in Cotonou (Benin)].

    PubMed

    Yedomon, H G; Doango-Padonou, F; Adjibi, A; Latoundji, S; Zohoun, I

    1993-01-01

    An epidemio-clinical study of Herpes Zoster in 39 healthy patients of Benin has permitted to the authors to evaluate the positive predictive value of Herpes Zoster for HIV infection on West Africa; and to compare it with results of central Africa. The mean age of patients is 34.74 years. The positive predictive value of Herpes Zoster for HIV infection is 41.02%. It is increased by the cranial site of Herpes Zoster.

  5. Helicase-primase inhibitors for herpes simplex virus: looking to the future of non-nucleoside inhibitors for treating herpes virus infections.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subhajit; Sukla, Soumi; Field, Hugh J

    2014-01-01

    Helicase-primase inhibitors (HPIs) are the first new family of potent herpes virus (herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus) inhibitors to go beyond the preliminary stages of investigation since the emergence of the original nucleoside analog inhibitors. To consider the clinical future of HPIs, this review puts the exciting new findings with two HPIs, amenamevir and pritelivir, into the historical context of antiviral development for the prevention and treatment of herpes simplex virus over the last century and, on this basis, the authors speculate on the potential evolution of these and other non-nucleoside inhibitors in the future.

  6. [Clinical presentations of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (diagnosis and therapy)].

    PubMed

    Chernakova, G M; Kleshcheva, E A; Semenova, T B

    Approximately a quarter of the world's population at some point in life is at risk of developing shingles (Herpes Zoster). In 10-20% of cases the first branch of the trigeminal nerve gets involved (Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus, HZO). Ophthalmic complications of HZO are able to cause a significant reduction in visual function. To study and summarize clinical features of HZO (including the rate of complications and their nature) and to determine the relationship between clinical and laboratory data from these patients. The study included 133 patients with ophthalmic and neurological complications of HZO (group 1 (n=28) - retrospective analysis of outpatient records for the period 1995-2005; group 2 (n=95) - a prospective study for the period 2005-2015), who received a course of conservative treatment in either the Botkin City Hospital, branch № 1, or in the ophthalmic department of the Moscow herpes centre (Gerpeticheskiy Tsentr Ltd.). Laboratory tests were performed only in patients from group 2 and included: examination of biological fluids for six types of herpes viruses by polymerase chain reaction, examination of tears and urine for DNA of Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma, and serological blood testing for markers of herpes virus infection. Patients from group 1 were prescribed topical antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory therapy, in rare cases - acyclovir per os. In group 2, the treatment included systemic antiviral medications and immune correction therapy. Anti-inflammatory therapy consisted of local and systemic non-steroidal agents (NSAIDs). The most common ophthalmic complications of HZO in both groups were stromal keratitis and keratoiridocyclitis, neurological - III and VI cranial nerves palsies. The duration of the disease in the first group ranged from 2 months to 3 years; in the second group, patients were divided into two subgroups: subgroup A with the disease duration of no more than one month (n=81) and subgroup B with the disease

  7. The equine herpes virus 4 thymidine kinase is a better suicide gene than the human herpes virus 1 thymidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Loubière, L; Tiraby, M; Cazaux, C; Brisson, E; Grisoni, M; Zhao-Emonet, J; Tiraby, G; Klatzmann, D

    1999-09-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase suicide gene (HSV1tk) together with ganciclovir (GCV) have been successfully used for in vivo treatment of various experimental tumors, and many clinical trials using this system have been launched. With the aim to improve this therapeutic system, we compared the potential efficacy of different herpes virus derived thymidine kinases (HSV1, varicella-zoster virus, equine herpes virus type-4 and Epstein-Barr virus) as suicide genes in association with the nucleoside analogs acyclovir, ganciclovir and bromovinyldeoxyur- idine. Using various murine and human cell lines expressing these viral tk, we show that HSV1- and EHV4tk are the more efficient suicide genes for the different nucleoside analogs tested. Moreover, EHV4tk expressing murine and human cells were three- to 12-fold more sensitive to GCV than HSV1tk expressing cells. This was correlated with the presence of five-fold higher amounts of the toxic triphosphated-GCV in EHV4- versus HSV1tk expressing cells. Altogether, these experiments underline the potential advantages of the EHV4tk as a suicide gene.

  8. Herpes zoster vaccine effectiveness and manifestations of herpes zoster and associated pain by vaccination status.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Yawn, Barbara P; Hales, Craig M; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Zhang, John; Kurland, Marge J; Harpaz, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Options for managing herpes zoster (HZ)-related pain and complications have limited effectiveness, making HZ prevention through vaccination an important strategy. Limited data are available on HZ vaccine effectiveness against confirmed HZ and manifestations of HZ among vaccinated persons. We conducted a matched case-control study to assess HZ vaccine effectiveness for prevention of HZ and other HZ-related outcomes and a cohort study of persons with HZ to compare HZ-related outcomes by vaccination status. Cases were identified through active surveillance among persons age ≥ 60 years with HZ onset and health-care encounters during 2010-2011 in Southeastern Minnesota. Controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Data were collected by medical record review and from participants via interviews and daily pain diaries. 266 HZ case-patients and 362 matched controls were enrolled in the vaccine effectiveness studies and 303 case-patients in the cohort study of HZ characteristics by vaccination status. Vaccination was associated with 54% (95% CI:32%-69%) reduction in HZ incidence, 58% (95% CI:31%-75%) reduction in HZ prodromal symptoms, and 70% (95% CI:33%-87%) reduction in medically-attended prodrome. HZ vaccine was statistically significant effective at preventing postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) measured at 30 d after rash onset, 61% (95% CI: 22%-80%). Among persons who developed HZ, no differences were found by vaccination status in severity or duration of HZ pain after rash onset. In this population-based study, HZ vaccination was associated with >50% reduction in HZ, HZ prodrome, and medically-attended prodrome.

  9. Risk of Stroke and Myocardial Infarction After Herpes Zoster in Older Adults in a US Community Population.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter C; Nagel, Maria A; Gilden, Don

    2016-01-01

    To assess the risk of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) after herpes zoster in a US community population of older adults. We performed a community cohort study (January 1, 1986, to October 1, 2011) comparing the risk of stroke and MI in 4862 adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 50 years and older with and without herpes zoster and 19,433 sex- and age-matched individuals with no history of herpes zoster. Odds ratios are presented for MI and stroke at 3, 6, 12, and 36 months after index herpes zoster plus hazard ratios for long-term risk (up to 28.6 years). Individuals with herpes zoster had more risk or confounding factors for MI and stroke, suggesting that they had worse health status overall. When controlling for the multiple risk factors, those with herpes zoster were at increased risk for stroke at 3 months after herpes zoster compared with those without a history of herpes zoster (odds ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.10-2.33; P=.04). The association between herpes zoster and MI at 3 months was not robust across analytic methods. Herpes zoster was not associated with an increased risk of stroke or MI at any point beyond 3 months. Herpes zoster was associated with only a short-term increased risk of stroke, which may be preventable with the prevention of herpes zoster. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Herpes zoster in a 2-year-old vaccinated against varicella.

    PubMed

    Ulman, Catherine A; Trevino, Julian J; Gandhi, Rishi K

    2014-01-15

    Herpes zoster is uncommon in the pediatric population. We report a case of herpes zoster in a 2-year-old boy who received the live attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccination at his 12-month pediatric visit. The child was treated with acyclovir and recovered without complications.

  11. Incidence of Alpha-Herpes virus induced ocular disease in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Adhin, Malti R; Grunberg, Meritha G; Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Pawiroredjo, Jerrel

    2012-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the corneal stroma is the most prominent cause of scar formation impairing visual acuity and HSV keratitis is the leading cause of corneal opacity throughout the world. Suriname lacked test systems for microbial causes of ocular disease, therefore a polymerase chain reaction-based Herpes virus assay was introduced, enabling prompt recognition, and timely treatment, preventing progressive eye damage. The incidence and epidemiology of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in ocular disease in Suriname was assessed. In a cross-sectional prospective study, ocular swabs were collected from 91 patients with a presumptive α-Herpes virus ocular infection attending the Academic Hospital between November 2008 and August 2010 and were tested by a PCR-based α-Herpes virus assay. Alpha-Herpes virus ophthalmic infections were caused predominantly by HSV-1 with a prevalence of 31%. The prevalences of VZV, HSV-2, and a mixed HSV-1/HSV-2 infection were 4%, 3%, and 2%, respectively. The first reported annual incidence of herpetic induced ocular disease in Suriname was estimated at 11.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 4.8-18.1). No clear age, ethnic or gender dependent difference in incidence was observed. The information obtained on α-Herpes virus positive ocular infections and the distribution of subtypes provided the first insight in the South American situation of α-Herpes virus induced ocular disease.

  12. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  13. Routine Testing for Genital Herpes of Little Benefit: U.S. Experts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162650.html Routine Testing for Genital Herpes of Little Benefit: U.S. Experts Early diagnosis won' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Routine blood test screening for genital herpes is not recommended for teens and adults -- including ...

  14. [Post-herpes simplex encephalitis chorea: Viral replication or immunological mechanism?].

    PubMed

    Benrhouma, H; Nasri, A; Kraoua, I; Klaa, H; Turki, I; Gouider-Khouja, N

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a severe neurological condition, whose outcome is improved if treated early with acyclovir. Post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea has rarely been reported. We report on two observations of children presenting with post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea, related to two different pathophysiological mechanisms. The first one is an 11-month-old girl developing relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis with chorea due to resumption of viral replication. The second one is a 2-year-old boy with relapsing post-herpes simplex encephalitis acute chorea caused by an immunoinflammatory mechanism. We discuss the different neurological presentations of herpetic relapses, notably those presenting with movement disorders, as well as their clinical, paraclinical, physiopathological, and therapeutic aspects. Post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea may involve two mechanisms: resumption of viral replication or an immunoinflammatory mechanism. Treatment of post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea depends on the underlying mechanism, while prevention is based on antiviral treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis with acyclovir at the dose of 20mg/kg/8h for 21 days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel vaccine (Zostavax) to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Katherine; Weinberg, Jeffrey M

    2006-10-01

    Varicella-zoster virus is the causal agent of varicella and herpes zoster in humans. Herpes zoster results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) within the sensory ganglia. The incidence and severity of herpes zoster increase with advancing age. More than half of all persons in whom herpes zoster develops are older than 60 years. The most frequent debilitating complication is postherpetic neuralgia, a neuropathic pain syndrome that persists or develops after the dermatomal rash has healed and can be prolonged and disabling. There are many limitations of current therapies for herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. A live attenuated VZV vaccine has been developed and recently approved by the FDA for the prevention of herpes zoster in individuals 60 years of age and older. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 38,546 patients 60 years of age or older, the use of the zoster vaccine reduced the burden of illness due to herpes zoster by 61.1% (P < .001), reduced the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia by 66.5% (P < .001), and reduced the incidence of herpes zoster by 51.3% (P < .001). In this review, we will discuss the history of the use of the varicella vaccine in children, and the subsequent development of the new zoster vaccine.

  16. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  17. [The differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and subacute herpes virus myelitis].

    PubMed

    Levitsky, G N; Zavalishin, E E; Chub, R V; Morozova, E A; Serkov, S V

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of incurable and potentially curable neurological diseases is an urgent problem of modern neurology. The authors present a case report of subacute herpes virus myelitis, a rare complication of herpes infection by Varicella-Zoster virus. The differential diagnosis with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is described.

  18. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  19. Association between Psychopathic Disorder and Serum Antibody to Herpes Simplex Virus (Type 1)

    PubMed Central

    Cleobury, J. F.; Skinner, G. R. B.; Thouless, M. E.; Wildy, P.

    1971-01-01

    The sera of a small of patients has been examined for herpes simplex virus antibody. Three clinically-defined groups of patients were compared: (a) aggressive psychopaths, (b) psychiatric controls, and (c) general hospital patients. The first group had an unusually high average kinetic neutralization constant against type 1 herpes simplex virus. PMID:5543996

  20. Association between psychopathic disorder and serum antibody to herpes simplex virus (type 1).

    PubMed

    Cleobury, J F; Skinner, G R; Thouless, M E; Wildy, P

    1971-02-20

    The sera of a small of patients has been examined for herpes simplex virus antibody. Three clinically-defined groups of patients were compared: (a) aggressive psychopaths, (b) psychiatric controls, and (c) general hospital patients. The first group had an unusually high average kinetic neutralization constant against type 1 herpes simplex virus.

  1. Laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of herpes simplex 1 and 2 genital infections.

    PubMed

    Glinšek Biškup, Urška; Uršič, Tina; Petrovec, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Although herpes simplex virus type 2 is the major cause of genital lesions, herpes simplex virus type 1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence rises with sexual activity from adolescence through adulthood. Slovenian data in a high-risk population shows 16% seroprevalence of HSV-2. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA in genital swabs was detected in 19% and 20.7%, respectively. In most cases, genital herpes is asymptomatic. Primary genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 can be manifested by a severe clinical picture, involving the vesicular skin and mucosal changes and ulcerative lesions of the vulva, vagina, and cervix in women and in the genital region in men. Direct methods of viral genome detection are recommended in the acute stage of primary and recurrent infections when manifest ulcers or lesions are evident. Serological testing is recommended as an aid in diagnosing genital herpes in patients with reinfection in atypical or already healed lesions. When herpes lesions are present, all sexual activities should be avoided to prevent transmission of infection. Antiviral drugs can reduce viral shedding and thus reduce the risk of sexual transmission of the virus.

  2. Grover's disease secondarily infected with herpes simplex virus and Staphylococcus aureus: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Bunce, Penelope Am; Stanford, Duncan G

    2013-11-01

    The case of a 73-year old man with herpes simplex and staphylococcus aureus infection complicating established Grover's disease is presented. This was treated successfully with valaciclovir. While reports of bacterial and herpetic infections complicating other acantholytic diseases, such as Darier's disease, have been published previously, only one publication to date shows herpes simplex infection in Grover's disease.

  3. Herpes simplex virus reactivation after subtotal hemispherectomy in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tracie; Bingaman, William; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Goldfarb, Johanna

    2010-12-01

    We report herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in a toddler after a subtotal hemispherectomy for seizures related to HSE 16 months earlier. Herpes simplex virus reactivation in the cerebrospinal fluid shortly after treatment of HSE has been described, but is extremely rare in other situations. HSE reactivation is a potential complication of epilepsy surgery after HSE in children.

  4. Primary varicella and herpes zoster among HIV-infected children from 1989 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sarah M; Shah, Samir S; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Rutstein, Richard M

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of herpes zoster in perinatally HIV-infected children. Secondary objectives included assessing the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy and varicella zoster virus immunization on primary varicella and herpes zoster incidence and identifying risk factors for herpes zoster. We hypothesized that the incidence of herpes zoster has decreased in this population as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy and routine varicella zoster virus immunization. This retrospective cohort study included HIV-infected children at a pediatric HIV clinic from 1989 to 2006. Incidence rates for 3 intervals (1989-1996, 1997-1999, and 2000-2006) were compared on the basis of introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1996) and varicella zoster virus vaccination (1999). A Cox proportional-hazards regression model was developed for the time to herpes zoster among the subset of patients with primary varicella infection. In 356 patients followed for 1721 person-years, the incidence of herpes zoster according to period was 30.0 per 1000 person-years in 1989-1996, 31.9 per 1000 person-years in 1997-1999, and 6.5 per 1000 person-years in 2000-2006. There was no difference in incidence-rate ratio between 1989-1996 and 1997-1999. However, there was a significant difference in herpes zoster incidence when comparing 1989-1999 with 2000-2006. The incidence of primary varicella zoster virus infection and herpes zoster in the 57 patients who received the varicella zoster virus vaccine was 22.3 per 1000 and 4.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Highly active antiretroviral therapy at the time of primary varicella zoster virus infection was protective against herpes zoster and increased herpes zoster-free survival. The incidence of herpes zoster has decreased since 1989. The decline occurred after 2000, likely representing the combined effect of immunization and highly active antiretroviral therapy. The use

  5. Thin-layer immunoassay for determination of antibodies to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Jeansson, S; Elwing, H; Nilsson, L A

    1979-01-01

    Thin-layer immunoassay (TIA) is a simple serological technique suitable for analysis of large numbers of samples. In this study, TIA was evaluated for determination of antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex virus antigen used in TIA was purified from material released from virus-infected cells. The results obtained by TIA were compared with those obtained by neutralization and complement fixation tests. TIA was found to be as sensitive as the neutralization test for demonstration of herpes simplex virus antibodies. No false-negative or -positive reactions were observed. In primary herpes simplex virus-1 infections, an antibody response was demonstrated by TIA, whereas antibodies could not be demonstrated in patients with primary herpes simplex virus-2 infections. Images PMID:222798

  6. Contacts with children and young people and adult risk of suffering herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Salleras, M; Domínguez, A; Soldevila, N; Prat, A; Garrido, P; Torner, N; Borrás, E; Salleras, L

    2011-10-13

    We carried out a matched case-control study to analyze the possible association between exposure to the children and the risk of suffering herpes-zoster in adulthood. Cases of herpes zoster in immunocompetent healthy patients aged ≥ 25 years seen in the dermatology department of the Sagrado Corazón Hospital in 2007-2008 were matched with four controls. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. 153 cases and 604 matched controls were included. Contacts with children were significantly associated with a reduction in the risk of suffering herpes zoster in adulthood (adjusted OR 0.56 [0.37-0.85]). Herpes-zoster vaccination in immunocompetent people aged ≥ 50 years could counteract the possible negative effects of mass varicella vaccination in childhood on the epidemiology of herpes zoster in adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilateral herpes simplex keratitis in a patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takahiko; Ishioka, Misaki; Ito, Norihiko; Kato, Yoko; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Hatano, Hiroshi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To describe a case of bilateral herpes simplex keratitis accompanying chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Design Observational case report. Case report An 11-year-old boy with myelocytic leukemia underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. He developed symptoms of the skin, eyes, and mouth, and lip biopsy indicated chronic GVHD. Persistent keratitis with corneal filaments and neovascularization was noted in both eyes. Sodium hyaluronate, autoserum, and 0.1% fluorometholone eyedrops were instilled for approximately 2 years to treat this keratitis, and there were no other ocular changes. Bilateral herpes simplex keratitis developed with geographic ulcers after topical betamethasone therapy, but responded to acyclovir ointment. Conclusions Herpes keratitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral keratitis in patients with reduced immunocompetence. During the course of chronic GVHD, corneal herpes may occur, so ocular treatment with topical corticosteroids should be managed by an ophthalmologist to monitor sight-threatening conditions such as corneal herpes. PMID:19668737

  8. No. 208-Guidelines for the Management of Herpes Simplex Virus in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah M; Steben, Marc

    2017-08-01

    To provide recommendations for the management of genital herpes infection in women who want to get pregnant or are pregnant and for the management of genital herpes in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission to the infant. More effective management of complications of genital herpes in pregnancy and prevention of transmission of genital herpes from mother to infant. Medline was searched for articles published in French or English related to genital herpes and pregnancy. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. VALIDATION: These guidelines have been reviewed and approved by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the SOGC. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Herpes labialis manifesting as recurrent erythema multiforme and solitary ulcer on face.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Biju; Bahal, Ashish; Raghav, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    A 65-year-old lady presented with recurrent crusting of lips and ulceration on face since the last three weeks. History revealed recurrent herpes labialis during the previous three years. Examination showed hemorrhagic crusting of lips and a solitary crusted ulcer on the right cheek. The patient showed partial improvement with antiviral therapy. On withdrawal of initial therapy, the patient developed classical lesions of herpes labialis and erythema multiforme. Investigations confirmed herpes simplex infection and erythema multiforme. All the lesions including the ulcer on the face responded to maintenance therapy with antivirals. Though herpes infection has been found to cause ulcers especially in the peri-anal region in immunosuppressed individuals, it is the first time in literature that a facial ulcer has been ascribed to herpes simplex virus that too in an immunocompetent individual.

  10. Herpes zoster vaccine: clinical trial evidence and implications for medical practice.

    PubMed

    Burke, M Susan

    2007-03-01

    This review of the data from the Shingles Prevention Study (SPS) highlights the efficacy and safety of a high-titer live attenuated herpes zoster virus vaccine in preventing herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in adults aged 60 years or older. In the SPS, the vaccine reduced the burden of illness due to herpes zoster disease by 61.1% and the incidence of its most common and debilitating sequela, PHN, by 66.5%. In addition, vaccination was associated with a 51.3% reduction in the overall incidence of herpes zoster. Also, subjects in whom herpes zoster did develop had decreased pain and discomfort. The vaccine was safe in the SPS population, with little differentiation from the safety profile of placebo other than an increased risk for reactions at the injection site. Rates of serious adverse events, systemic adverse events, hospitalization, and death were low and similar to those observed in the group that received placebo.

  11. Recurrent Transcortical Motor Aphasia—Another CNS Infectious Syndrome Associated with Herpes Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Raghav; Salgado, Efrain

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is an acute/subacute illness that causes both general and focal signs of cerebral dysfunction with fever, headache, and confusion as cardinal features. Recurrent herpes simplex meningitis, also known as Mollaret’s meningitis, is another manifestation of central nervous system herpetic infection with recurrent episodes of fever, headache, and nuchal rigidity associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evidence of active herpes simplex infection. Bell’s palsy is yet another manifestation of a herpes virus infection in at least some reported cases documented by CSF analysis. We report a case of a 70-year-old male who presented with acute transcortical motor aphasia initiating a stroke work-up that was negative. Physical examination revealed genital vesicles, and the CSF was consistent with active herpes simplex infection. PMID:26958155

  12. Relative potencies of different anti-herpes agents in the topical treatment of cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection of athymic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, J; De Clercq, E; Barr, P J; Jones, A S; Walker, R T; Torrence, P F; Shugar, D

    1979-01-01

    Thirteen established anti-herpes compounds have been directly compared in a single assay system for their effects on the development of herpetic skin lesions, and mortality associated therewith, in athymic nude (nu/nu) mice inoculated intracutaneously with herpes simplex virus type 1 (KOS). When applied topically (at 1% in a water-soluble ointment), phosphonoacetic acid, E-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, acycloguanosine, and trisodium phosphonoformate emerged as the most active agents. PMID:526011

  13. CSF herpes virus and autoantibody profiles in the evaluation of encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Linnoila, Jenny J; Binnicker, Matthew J; Majed, Masoud; Klein, Christopher J; McKeon, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    To report the frequency of coexisting herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1] or HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], cytomegalovirus, or human herpes virus 6 [HHV-6]) and autoantibodies in patients with encephalitis (herpes or autoimmune) in clinical laboratory service. Three groups were evaluated for herpes viruses and antibodies: group 1-patients whose CSF was positive for a herpes virus by real-time PCR over a period of 6 months; group 2-patients whose CSF was positive for an autoimmune encephalitis-associated antibody over 5 years (e.g., NMDA receptor [NMDA-R] antibody), and the same number of controls without autoimmune/infectious disease; and group 3-incidental autoimmune parainfectious encephalitis cases encountered over 1 year. In group 1, antibodies were detected in 27 of 100 herpes PCR-positive CSF specimens (CSFs), either unclassified neural or nonneural in all but one patient with NMDA-R antibody detected after EBV infection. Antibodies were also detected in 3 of 7 CSFs submitted for repeat PCR testing (unclassified, 2; AMPA receptor, 1). In group 2, herpes viruses were detected in 1 of 77 controls (HHV-6) and 4 of 77 patients with autoimmune encephalitis (EBV, 2; HHV-6, 2); autoantibodies targeted NMDA-R in 3/4 and GABAB-R in 1/4. In group 3, NMDA-R antibody was detected in 7 patients post-HSV-1 encephalitis. Of the remaining 3 patients, 2 had unclassified neural antibodies detected, and one had GABAB-R autoimmunity. Concomitant neoplasms were discovered in 2 patients each from groups 2 and 3. Autoantibodies and herpes virus DNA frequently coexist in encephalitic CSF. Some patients develop parainfectious autoimmunity following viral CNS infection (usually HSV-1 encephalitis). The significance of detecting herpes nucleic acids in others remains unclear.

  14. Increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with herpes zoster: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-yuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Lee, Yuan-Teh

    2014-05-01

    The association between herpes zoster and cardiovascular complications remains vague with limited study on the association between these two disorders. This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with herpes zoster. From insurance claims data of Taiwan, 19,483 patients with herpes zoster diagnosed in 1998-2008 and 77,932 subjects without herpes zoster were identified in this study. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of arrhythmia and coronary artery disease. The incidence rate ratio and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of the cardiovascular complications with 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. The incidence of arrhythmia was 1.17-fold greater in the herpes zoster cohort than in the non-herpes zoster cohort (13.2 vs. 11.3 per 1,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 1.16 (P < 0.01). The coronary artery disease incidence in the herpes zoster cohort was 1.16-fold higher than that in the non-herpes zoster cohort (9.02 vs. 7.83 per 1,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 1.11 (P < 0.01). Over the stratified follow-up years, adjusted HRs were 1.22 (95% CI = 1.12-1.34) for arrhythmia and 1.14 (95% CI = 1.02-1.28) for coronary artery disease within 2 years after herpes zoster diagnosis. The risk measured for these disorders declined over time. Comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia also contributed to these cardiovascular disorders with greater extent. It is concluded that the contribution of herpes zoster to the risk of arrhythmia and cardiovascular diseases is less strong than that of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.

  15. RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions.

    PubMed

    Silva, Amanda Perse da; Lopes, Juliana Freitas; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RNA interference to inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. For herpes simplex virus type-1 gene silencing, three different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 gene (sequence si-UL 39-1, si-UL 39-2, and si-UL 39-3) were used, which encode the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an essential enzyme for DNA synthesis. Herpes simplex virus type-1 was isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions from infected patients. All mucocutaneous lesions' samples were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 by real-time PCR and by virus isolation; all herpes simplex virus type-1 from saliva samples were positive by real-time PCR and 50% were positive by virus isolation. The levels of herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA remaining after siRNA treatment were assessed by real-time PCR, whose results demonstrated that the effect of siRNAs on gene expression depends on siRNA concentration. The three siRNA sequences used were able to inhibit viral replication, assessed by real-time PCR and plaque assays and among them, the sequence si-UL 39-1 was the most effective. This sequence inhibited 99% of herpes simplex virus type-1 replication. The results demonstrate that silencing herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 expression by siRNAs effectively inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 replication, suggesting that siRNA based antiviral strategy may be a potential therapeutic alternative.

  16. Abdominal distention and constipation followed by herpes zoster infection in a 2-month-old female infant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongfeng; Fang, Fang

    2015-08-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms of herpes zoster in infants are rarely reported. A 2-month-old female infant presented with herpes zoster and additional complication of abdominal distention and constipation. While rashes resolved, abdominal distention and constipation improved soon. To our knowledge, this is the first report of gastrointestinal complication of herpes zoster in infants. Physicians should be aware of the potential for motor involvement of herpes zoster in such infants. Herpes zoster should be considered during the diagnosis in the event of infants presenting with constipation.

  17. Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses confirmed by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tsukane; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses is rare. Here, we describe the case of an elderly patient with herpes labialis and herpes zoster manifesting as a right-side facial eruption with vesicles and crusting. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay demonstrated the presence of both herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus in swab samples taken from the face, which was confirmed by real-time PCR, suggesting concurrent reactivation of both viruses. The use of the LAMP assay in the present case indicates its usefulness in the diagnosis of atypical herpes infections.

  18. Live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine for HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Shafran, S D

    2016-04-01

    Multiple guidelines exist for the use of live viral vaccines for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella and yellow fever in people with HIV infections, but these guidelines do not make recommendations regarding live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine (LAHZV), which is approved for people over 50 years in the general population. LAHZV is made with the same virus used in varicella vaccine. The incidence of herpes zoster remains increased in people with HIV infection, even when on suppressive antiretroviral therapy, and a growing proportion of HIV-infected patients are over 50 years of age. The purpose of this article is to review the use of varicella vaccine and LAHZV in people with HIV infection and to make recommendations about the use of LAHZV in adults with HIV infection. A PubMed search was undertaken using the terms 'herpes zoster AND HIV' and 'varicella AND HIV'. Reference lists were also reviewed for pertinent citations. Varicella vaccine is recommended in varicella-susceptible adults, as long as they have a CD4 count > 200 cells/μL, the same CD4 threshold used for MMR and yellow fever vaccines. No transmission of vaccine strain Varicella zoster virus has been documented in people with HIV infections with a CD4 count above this threshold. LAHZV was administered to 295 HIV-infected adults with a CD4 count > 200 cells/μL, and was safe and immunogenic with no cases of vaccine strain infection. It is recommended that LAHZV be administered to HIV-infected adults with a CD4 count above 200 cells/μL, the same CD4 threshold used for other live attenuated viral vaccines. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  19. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  20. Herpes zoster sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koda, Masao; Mannoji, Chikato; Oikawa, Makiko; Murakami, Masazumi; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Kon, Tamiyo; Okawa, Akihiko; Ikeda, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masashi; Furuya, Takeo

    2015-07-29

    Symptom of herpes zoster is sometimes difficult to distinguish from sciatica induced by spinal diseases, including lumbar disc herniation and spinal canal stenosis. Here we report a case of sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis. A 74-year-old Chinese male patient visited our hospital for left-sided sciatic pain upon standing or walking for 5 min of approximately 1 month's duration. At the first visit to our hospital, there were no skin lesions. A magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal canal stenosis between the 4th and 5th lumbar spine. Thus, we diagnosed the patient with sciatica induced by spinal canal stenosis. We considered decompression surgery for the stenosis of 4th and 5th lumbar spine because conservative therapy failed to relieve the patient's symptom. At that time, the patient complained of a skin rash involving his left foot for several days. A vesicular rash and erythema were observed on the dorsal and plantar surfaces of the great toe and lateral malleolus. The patient was diagnosed with herpes zoster in the left 5th lumbar spinal nerve area based on clinical findings, including the characteristics of the pain and vesicular rash and erythema in the 5th lumbar spinal dermatome. The patient was treated with famciclovir (1,500 mg/day) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. After 1 week of medication, the skin rash resolved and pain relief was obtained. In conclusion, spinal surgeons should keep in mind herpes zoster infection as one of the possible differential diagnoses of sciatica, even if there is no typical skin rash.

  1. Evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Joel O; Smith, Martin D; Smith, Davey M; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-09-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus-host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses.

  2. Antigenic relatedness of equine herpes virus types 1 and 3.

    PubMed

    Gutekunst, D E; Malmquist, W A; Becvar, C S

    1978-01-01

    Antiserums prepared in specific pathogen free (SPF) ponies were used in direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunodiffusion, complement fixation and serum neutralization procedures to study the interrelationships of the three types of equine herpes viruses (EHV-1, EHV-2, and EHV-3). Equine cell cultures infected with each type virus fluoresced when stained with homologous conjugated antiserum. In reciprocal tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced, but EHV-2 did not cross-fluoresce. Non-infected cell cultures did not fluoresce when stained with the 3 conjugates. EHV-1 and EHV-3 cross-fluoresced in reciprocal indirect fluorescent antibody tests, but no cross-fluorescence was shown with EHV-2. Antigens representing each type of equine herpes virus reacted with their homologous antiserum in the immunodiffusion test. In reciprocal tests, a common line(s) of identity formed with EHV-1 and EHV-3; however, the precipitin line(s) was not common with EHV-2. Antigen prepared from noninfected embryonic mule skin (EMS) cell cultures did not react with any of the antiserums. Specific complement-fixing antibodies were present in antiserums when tested against their homologous antigens. In reciprocal complement fixation tests EHV-1 and EHV-3 crossreacted, but no cross-reactivity was shown with EHV-2. Significant levels of neutralizing antibody were in an antiserum when tested against homologous virus, whereas cross-neutralization was not detectable in reciprocal tests. These studies indicate that each type of equine herpes virus contains specific antigenic components, and EHV-1 and EHV-3 share a common antigen(s) that is not shared with EHV-2.

  3. Evolutionary Origins of Human Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Joel O.; Smith, Martin D.; Smith, Davey M.; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus–host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. PMID:24916030

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis on herpes zoster and the risk of cardiac and cerebrovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, Nathaniel; Tran, Hoang; Levin, Leonard; Ulbricht, Christine; Fingeroth, Joyce; Kiefe, Catarina; Singh, Sonal

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events. Methods/Results Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on the occurrence of the examined events were abstracted. Odds ratios and their accompanying confidence intervals were estimated using random and fixed effects models with statistical heterogeneity estimated with the I2 statistic. Twelve studies examining 7.9 million patients up to 28 years after the onset of herpes zoster met our pre-defined eligibility criteria. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses showed that herpes zoster, type unspecified, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus were associated with a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular events, without any evidence of statistical heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis also found a significantly increased risk of cardiac events associated with herpes zoster, type unspecified. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the accumulating body of evidence that herpes zoster and herpes zoster ophthalmicus are significantly associated with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. PMID:28749981

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis on herpes zoster and the risk of cardiac and cerebrovascular events.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Nathaniel; Tran, Hoang; Levin, Leonard; Ulbricht, Christine; Fingeroth, Joyce; Kiefe, Catarina; Goldberg, Robert J; Singh, Sonal

    2017-01-01

    Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events. Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on the occurrence of the examined events were abstracted. Odds ratios and their accompanying confidence intervals were estimated using random and fixed effects models with statistical heterogeneity estimated with the I2 statistic. Twelve studies examining 7.9 million patients up to 28 years after the onset of herpes zoster met our pre-defined eligibility criteria. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses showed that herpes zoster, type unspecified, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus were associated with a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular events, without any evidence of statistical heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis also found a significantly increased risk of cardiac events associated with herpes zoster, type unspecified. Our results are consistent with the accumulating body of evidence that herpes zoster and herpes zoster ophthalmicus are significantly associated with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events.

  6. Prevention strategies for herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Gershon, Anne A.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Brisson, Marc; Stanberry, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Impairment of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity, including impairment due to immunosenescence, is associated with an increased risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ), whereas levels of anti-VZV antibodies do not correlate with HZ risk. This crucial role of VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity suggests that boosting these responses by vaccination will be an effective strategy for reducing the burden of HZ. Other strategies focus on preventing the major complication of HZ – post-herpetic neuralgia. These strategies include pre-emptive treatment with drugs such as tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants and analgesics. PMID:20510262

  7. Herpes simplex infection in a juvenile orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Kik, Maria J L; Bos, Jan H; Groen, Jan; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2005-03-01

    A juvenile orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) died after 8 days of diarrhea and vomiting. Necropsy showed petechial hemorrhages in the skin, the myocardium, and the peritoneal membranes. The lungs were hyperemic and edematous, and the liver and spleen were enlarged. Histologic changes consisted of interstitial pneumonia, hepatitis, and splenic hyperplasia. Numerous eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were visible in pulmonary epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and splenic endothelial cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed herpesvirus in hepatocyte nuclei. Polymerase chain reaction of liver tissue demonstrated the presence of a herpes simplex virus-1.

  8. Celiac Crisis Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Linz, Christopher M.; Tsay, Julie L.; Jin, Ming; El-Dika, Samer S.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac crisis is a rare presentation of celiac disease that is characterized by life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and diarrhea. Triggers for celiac crisis include major surgeries, pancreatitis, and infections of cytomegalovirus, and salmonella. A 24-year-old woman presented with celiac crisis associated with severe herpes simplex virus (HSV) esophagitis. This case demonstrates that nutritional deficiencies seen in celiac disease can result in a relative immunodeficiency, which may lead to other infectious complications. Additionally, early recognition of celiac crisis is imperative as the metabolic derangements may be life-threatening, and therapy with gluten restriction and nutritional repletion is effective. PMID:27921058

  9. Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis and segmental motor paresis following herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Bahadir, Cengiz; Kalpakcioglu, Ayşe Banu; Kurtulus, Duygu

    2008-08-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who complained of acute onset of pain and weakness of her left shoulder and proximal arm muscles 3 weeks after a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Electromyography revealed involvement of the C5-6 myotomes and the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. Chest X-ray and electromyographic studies documented paralysis of the left diaphragm. One year after onset, muscle strength returned to normal, but radiographic and electrophysiologic findings of diaphragm paralysis were unchanged.

  10. Extratemporal herpes encephalitis during natalizumab treatment: A case report.

    PubMed

    Haggiag, Shalom; Prosperini, Luca; Galgani, Simonetta; Pozzilli, Carlo; Pinnetti, Carmela

    2016-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but often fatal disease if left untreated. MRI typically shows the characteristic findings of medial temporal lobe and insular involvement, while diagnosis in confirmed by CSF PCR. In immunocompromised state, HSE may have atypical clinical and radiological features. We report a MS patient under natalizumab treatment with HSE, who presented with MRI lesions exclusively in the right parietal lobe. The patient was timely started on acyclovir resulting in marked improvement. A high index of suspicion for HSE should be maintained when a patient presents with fever and extratemporal lesions, even more in immunocompromised subjects.

  11. Herpes Simplex Virus Oncolytic Therapy for Pediatric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gregory K; Pressey, Joseph G; Reddy, Alyssa T; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2009-01-01

    Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric malignancies. The potential benefit of HSV therapy in pediatric solid tumors including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas is reviewed along with the many challenges that need to be addressed prior to moving oncolytic HSV therapy from the laboratory to the beside in the pediatric population. PMID:19367259

  12. The inactivation of herpes simplex virus by some Solanaceae glycoalkaloids.

    PubMed

    Thorne, H V; Clarke, G F; Skuce, R

    1985-12-01

    The infectivity of herpes simplex virus Type I in tissue culture was inhibited by prior incubation with aqueous suspensions of glycoalkaloids in order of activity alpha-chaconine greater than alpha-tomatine greater than alpha-solasonine but not by the corresponding aglycones, solanidine, tomatidine and solasodine. However, inhibition was not only dependent on the presence of a sugar moiety since the glycone alpha-solanine was inactive under the conditions used. The glycones, but not the aglycones, showed cytopathic effects on cellular membranes of Vero cells and erythrocytes; therefore, it is suggested that inactivation of virus results from insertion of the glycones into the viral envelope.

  13. Luxury perfusion phenomenon in acute herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Uesugi, M; Igeta, Y; Kondo, S; Sun, X; Hirai, S

    1995-02-01

    In a patient with acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis, positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrated increased cerebral blood flow in the affected temporal lobe accompanied by reduction in the cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, i.e., luxury perfusion. Follow-up PET studies showed reduction in cerebral perfusion until it was more closely coupled with oxygen metabolism after the resolution of the acute inflammation. These findings support previous single photon emission computed tomographic data and provide a pathophysiological background for the occurrence of hyperperfusion in HSV encephalitis. This is an interesting example of the luxury perfusion phenomenon occurring in a disease other than cerebral ischemia.

  14. Early Events in Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: a Radioautographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Hummeler, Klaus; Tomassini, Natale; Zajac, Barbara

    1969-01-01

    The early events in herpes simplex virus infection were studied by means of radio-autography. The virus was rapidly taken up by the host cells and uncoated. Viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) reached the nuclear sites of replication in 15 to 30 min after infection. The viral DNA occasionally associated with chromosomes or condensed chromatin but was more frequently found to be randomly distributed. Viral progeny appeared 3 hr after infection. These particles did not show any particular spatial relationship to the parental DNA. The morphological latent period lasted 2.5 hr. Images PMID:4309102

  15. Orbital apex syndrome secondary to herpes zoster virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Iglesias, Alexia; Montero, Javier Antonio; Calabuig-Goena, Maria; Giraldo-Agudelo, Luisa Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A male patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) presented with left exophthalmos, external and internal ophthalmoplegia and decreased visual acuity. A CT scan revealed myositis without significant compression of the optic nerve. Intravenous acyclovir and oral steroids were started with improvement of the symptoms and eventual complete recovery.Orbital apex syndrome is a rare complication of HZO. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including a direct cytopathic effect of the virus as in the present case. Early diagnosis and therapy may lead to complete recovery of visual function. PMID:24614776

  16. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: A Review for the Internist.

    PubMed

    Vrcek, Ivan; Choudhury, Eileen; Durairaj, Vikram

    2017-01-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs due to reactivation of the varicella zoster virus in the ophthalmic branch of the fifth cranial nerve. This disease primarily affects the elderly as well as the immunocompromised and can result in a wide range of ophthalmic morbidity. Systemic antiviral therapy is the mainstay of treatment; however, consultation with an ophthalmologist is typically indicated. Herein we present a review of this common entity including epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, treatment, follow-up, and an update on the current body of literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heat shock and herpes virus: enhanced reactivation without untargeted mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of Ultraviolet-irradiated virus has been reported to occur in heat-shocked host cells. Since enhanced virus reactivation is often accompanied by untargeted mutagenesis, we investigated whether such mutagenesis would occur for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in CV-1 monkey kidney cells subjected to heat shock. In addition to expressing enhanced reactivation, the treated cells were transiently more susceptible to infection by unirradiated HSV. No mutagenesis of unirradiated HSV was found whether infection occurred at the time of increased susceptibility to infection or during expression of enhanced viral reactivation.

  18. Herpes simplex virus oncolytic therapy for pediatric malignancies.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Gregory K; Pressey, Joseph G; Reddy, Alyssa T; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2009-07-01

    Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric malignancies. The potential benefit of HSV therapy in pediatric solid tumors including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas is reviewed along with the many challenges that need to be addressed prior to moving oncolytic HSV therapy from the laboratory to the beside in the pediatric population.

  19. Hospitalizations realted to herpes zoster infection in the Canary Islands, Spain (2005-2014).

    PubMed

    García-Rojas, Amós; Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Núñez-Gallo, Domingo Ángel; Matute-Cruz, Petra; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel

    2017-08-24

    Herpes zoster is an important problem of public health especially among the elderly in Spain. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in the Canary Islands, Spain was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos. Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster in any position and cases of primary diagnosis (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0-053.9) during a 10-year period (2005-2014), were selected. A total of 1088 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster were identified during the study period. Annually there were 6.99 hospitalizations by herpes zoster per 100,000 population. It increases with age reaching a maximum in persons ≥85 years of age (43.98 admissions per 100,000). Average length of hospitalization was 16 days and 73 patients died, with a case-fatality rate of 4.03%. In 22% of the cases hospitalized, herpes zoster was the primary diagnosis. The hospitalization burden of herpes zoster in adults in the Canary Islands was still important during the last decade and justify the implementation of preventive measures, like vaccination in the elderly or other high risk groups to reduce the most severe cases of the disease.

  20. Sex differences in health care provider communication during genital herpes care and patients' health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ports, Katie A; Reddy, Diane M; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L

    2013-01-01

    Research in primary care medicine demonstrates that health care providers' communication varies depending on their sex, and that these sex differences in communication can influence patients' health outcomes. The present study aimed to examine the extent to which sex differences in primary care providers' communication extend to the sensitive context of gynecological care for genital herpes and whether these potential sex differences in communication influence patients' herpes transmission prevention behaviors and herpes-related quality of life. Women (N = 123) from the United States recently diagnosed with genital herpes anonymously completed established measures in which they rated (a) their health care providers' communication, (b) their herpes transmission prevention behaviors, and (c) their herpes-related quality of life. The authors found significant sex differences in health care providers' communication; this finding supports that sex differences in primary care providers' communication extend to gynecological care for herpes. Specifically, patients with female health care providers indicated that their providers engaged in more patient-centered communication and were more satisfied with their providers' communication. However, health care providers' sex did not predict women's quality of life, a finding that suggests that health care providers' sex alone is of little importance in patients' health outcomes. Patient-centered communication was significantly associated with greater quality-of-life scores and may provide a promising avenue for intervention.

  1. Current management and recommendations for access to antiviral therapy of herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony; Griffiths, Paul; Leone, Peter; Mindel, Adrian; Patel, Rajul; Stanberry, Lawrence; Whitley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Herpes labialis is a common skin infective condition, worldwide, which is primarily caused by HSV-1. Recurrent episodes of herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, can be frequent, painful, long-lasting and disfiguring for infected patients. At present, there are two types of antivirals for the treatment of herpes labialis, topical and oral, which are available over the counter or as prescription-only. The aim of antiviral therapy is to block viral replication to enable shortening the duration of symptoms and to accelerate healing of the lesions associated with herpes labialis. This review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of current topical and oral antivirals in the management of recurrent episodes of herpes labialis. In most countries, oral antivirals for herpes labialis are available as prescription-only. However, in early 2010, the oral antiviral famciclovir was reclassified from prescription-only medicine to pharmacist-controlled status in New Zealand. The benefits and risks associated with moving an antiviral therapy for herpes labialis from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled status are reviewed here, and the implications for patients, general physicians and pharmacists are considered.

  2. Risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster infection: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2012-01-01

    Background: Whether the risk of cancer is increased among patients with herpes zoster is unclear. We investigated the risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster using a nationwide health registry in Taiwan. Methods: We identified 35 871 patients with newly diagnosed herpes zoster during 2000–2008 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We analyzed the standardized incidence ratios for various types of cancer. Results: Among patients with herpes zoster, 895 cases of cancer were reported. Patients with herpes zoster were not at increased risk of cancer (standardized incidence ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.06). Among the subgroups stratified by sex, age and years of follow-up, there was also no increased risk of overall cancer. Interpretation: Herpes zoster is not associated with increased risk of cancer in the general population. These findings do not support extensive investigations for occult cancer or enhanced surveillance for cancer in patients with herpes zoster. PMID:22988158

  3. Current management and recommendations for access to antiviral therapy of herpes labialis

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Anthony; Griffiths, Paul; Leone, Peter; Mindel, Adrian; Patel, Rajul; Stanberry, Lawrence; Whitley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Herpes labialis is a common skin infective condition, worldwide, which is primarily caused by HSV-1. Recurrent episodes of herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, can be frequent, painful, long-lasting and disfiguring for infected patients. At present, there are two types of antivirals for the treatment of herpes labialis, topical and oral, which are available over the counter or as prescription-only. The aim of antiviral therapy is to block viral replication to enable shortening the duration of symptoms and to accelerate healing of the lesions associated with herpes labialis. This review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of current topical and oral antivirals in the management of recurrent episodes of herpes labialis. In most countries, oral antivirals for herpes labialis are available as prescription-only. However, in early 2010, the oral antiviral famciclovir was reclassified from prescription-only medicine to pharmacist-controlled status in New Zealand. The benefits and risks associated with moving an antiviral therapy for herpes labialis from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled status are reviewed here, and the implications for patients, general physicians and pharmacists are considered. PMID:21889905

  4. Risk of depressive disorder among patients with herpes zoster: a nationwide population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Wei, Han-Ting; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2014-05-01

    Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the endogenous varicella zoster virus infection. Previous studies have shown that herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia were associated with anxiety, depression, and insomnia. However, no prospective study has investigated the association between herpes zoster and the development of depressive disorder. Subjects were identified through the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients 18 years or older with a diagnosis of herpes zoster and without a psychiatric history were enrolled in 2000 and compared with age-/sex-matched controls (1:4). These participants were followed up to the end of 2010 for new-onset depressive disorder. A total of 1888 patients with herpes zoster were identified and compared with 7552 age-/sex-matched controls in 2000. Those with herpes zoster had a higher incidence of developing major depression (2.2% versus 1.4%, p = .018) and any depressive disorder (4.3% versus 3.2%, p = .020) than did the control group. The follow-up showed that herpes zoster was an independent risk factor for major depression (hazard ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-2.13) and any depressive disorder (hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.70), after adjusting demographic data and comorbid medical diseases. This is the first study to investigate the temporal association between herpes zoster and depressive disorder. Further studies would be required to clarify the underlying pathophysiology about this association and whether proper treatment of herpes zoster could decrease the long-term risk of depressive disorder.

  5. Association between family history and herpes zoster: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Akram; Farshchian, Mahmood; Ghasemzadeh, Mostafa; Sobhan, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    There are many risk factors besides age and immune suppression for herpes zoster. Family history as a risk factor is suggested in some recent studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between herpes zoster and family history. This case-control study was undertaken in Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan, Iran. "Case group" included patients with confirmed diagnosis of herpes zoster. "Control group" was chosen among other dermatologic patients or their companions without any history of herpes zoster. Immune deficiency was the main excluding criteria. Information about age, gender, dermatome involved (only in patient group), history of chronic dermatologic or systemic diseases and family history of herpes zoster was asked using special questionnaires. Case and control groups included 217 and 200 participants respectively. Mean age of cases and controls was 49.08±15.59 and 49.96±15.54 years old respectively (P=0.936). 53.5% of cases and 54.5% of controls were women (P=0.845). Most frequent dermatomes involved in patients were thoracic (85/217; 39.25%) and cervical dermatomes (55/217; 25.3%). Frequency of herpes zoster in first-degree blood relatives in cases and controls was 65/217 (30%) and 16/200 (8%) respectively (OR=4.91; 95% CI: 2.73, 8.85; P=0.001). Our findings indicated a significantly higher proportion of patients with family history of herpes zoster comparing to controls. This study confirms family history as a risk factor for herpes zoster. Therefore, the old patients with positive family history of herpes zoster may be appropriate candidates for vaccination with Zostavax. However, more evidence based on large cohort studies in needed to confirm our findings.

  6. Molecular and serologic diagnostic approaches; the prevalence of herpes simplex in idiopathic men infertile.

    PubMed

    Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra

    2014-05-01

    Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA on serum.

  7. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Varun K.; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J.; Quigley, Brian C.; Farris, Alton B.; Norvell, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. Methods: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results: A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Conclusions: Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease. PMID:27759636

  8. Herpes simplex keratitis: challenges in diagnosis and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Azher, Tayaba N; Yin, Xiao-Tang; Tajfirouz, Deena; Huang, Andrew Jw; Stuart, Patrick M

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is responsible for numerous ocular diseases, the most common of which is herpetic stromal keratitis. This is a recurrent infection of the cornea that typically begins with a subclinical infection of the cornea that establishes a latent infection of sensory ganglia, most often the trigeminal ganglia. Recurring infections occur when the virus is reactivated from latency and travels back to the cornea, where it restimulates an inflammatory response. This inflammatory response can lead to decreased corneal sensation, scarring, and blindness. The diagnosis of these lesions as the result of a recurrent herpes simplex virus infection can at times be problematic. Currently, herpetic stromal keratitis is diagnosed by its clinical presentation on the slit-lamp examination, but the literature does not always support the accuracy of these clinical findings. Other diagnostic tests such as polymerase chain reaction assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescent antibody, and viral cultures have provided more definitive diagnosis, but also have some limitations. That said, accurate diagnosis is necessary for proper treatment, in order to prevent serious consequences. Current treatment reduces the severity of lesions and controls further viral spread, but does not provide a cure.

  9. Anti-herpes virus activity of Dunbaria bella Prain.

    PubMed

    Akanitapichat, Pannarat; Wangmaneerat, Aree; Wilairat, Prapon; Bastow, Kenneth F

    2006-04-21

    The herpes inhibitory effect of Dunbaria bella Prain (Fabaceae), a Thai medicinal plant traditionally used to treat viral infections was investigated. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure, tertiary fractionation of a dichloromethane-methanol plant extract afforded a partially purified fraction (Fr.372) equally active against replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. The 50% inhibitory concentration determined by a viral yield-inhibition assay was 1.21-1.25 microg/ml and the antiviral selectivity was about 17-fold. Treatment of HSV with high concentrations of Fr.372 followed by removal before infection had little effect on subsequent viral yield indicating the active principle(s) were not inactivating the virus. Concentrations greater than 0.5 microg/ml significantly inhibited viral release more than cell-associated virus suggesting that one or more active ingredients may inhibit viral release. Furthermore, the antiviral activity was dependent on multiplicity of infection and the type of host cell. Preliminary chemical analysis showed that Fr.372 contained neither phenolic compounds nor alkaloids.

  10. THE ETIOLOGIC AGENTS OF VARICELLA AND HERPES ZOSTER

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Thomas H.; Witton, Helen M.; Bell, E. John

    1958-01-01

    Fourteen strains of virus derived from the cutaneous lesions of cases of varicella and eight from patients with herpes zoster were propagated serially in primary explant cultures of human preputial or embryonic skin-muscle tissue. Infectious material could not be demonstrated in the fluid phase of infected cultures and inocula for passage therefore consisted of suspensions of infected tissue. Such tissue suspensions when stored in the frozen state did not regularly retain infectivity. The cytopathic process was focal and appeared to develop as the result of transfer of infectious material from cell to contiguous cell. Optimum development of the focal lesions in vitro related directly to conditions favoring optimum tissue growth and was further influenced by the spatial relationship of the tissue outgrowth. A variety of types of cells of human origin and several of monkey origin were susceptible to infection and responded with the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies. The cellular response otherwise was variable, ranging from simple rounding with little change in size to the formation of large multinucleated cytoplasmic syncytia. Strains of virus recovered from patients with varicella and from patients with herpes zoster could not be distinguished on the basis of their cultural attributes. PMID:13598816

  11. Rapid Detection of Herpes Viruses for Clinical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Mehta, Satish

    2013-01-01

    There are eight herpes viruses that infect humans, causing a wide range of diseases resulting in considerable morbidity and associated costs. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpes virus that causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. Approximately 1,000,000 new cases of shingles occur each year; post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) follows shingles in 100,000 to 200,000 people annually. PHN is characterized by debilitating, nearly unbearable pain for weeks, months, and even years. The onset of shingles is characterized by pain, followed by the zoster rash, leading to blisters and severe pain. The problem is that in the early stages, shingles can be difficult to diagnose; chickenpox in adults can be equally difficult to diagnose. As a result, both diseases can be misdiagnosed (false positive/negative). A molecular assay has been adapted for use in diagnosing VZV diseases. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is a non-invasive, rapid, sensitive, and highly specific method for VZV DNA detection. It provides unequivocal results and can effectively end misdiagnoses. This is an approximately two-hour assay that allows unequivocal diagnosis and rapid antiviral drug intervention. It has been demonstrated that rapid intervention can prevent full development of the disease, resulting in reduced likelihood of PHN. The technology was extended to shingles patients and demonstrated that VZV is shed in saliva and blood of all shingles patients. The amount of VZV in saliva parallels the medical outcome.

  12. [Pain associated with craniofacial and cervical herpes zoster].

    PubMed

    George, B; Lory, C

    2007-10-01

    Ophthalmological and cervical involvement of herpes zoster virus ranks second and third, respectively, in terms of localization frequency. Involvement of the cranial nerves is a particular sign of complications, notably ocular complications, possibly compromising the visual or facial prognosis through involvement of the VIIth nerve, which is responsible for facial paralysis. These types of involvement should be rapidly diagnosed and treated so as to limit these complications. The pain associated with herpes zoster remains frequent and difficult to treat, even if today the criteria for defining postzoster pain is increasingly refined. Antalgic and antiviral treatment should be initiated early, from the very first signs, to attempt to reduce the incidence of this postzoster pain. The risk factors, associated with the development of postzoster pain are age over 50 years, the severity of the skin rash and the intensity of the acute pain, and the existence of a prodromic pain phase before onset. The European Federation of Neurological Societies has recently published guidelines on the pharmacological treatments for postzoster pain. Nerve block treatments remain at a limited evidence level. Patients with postzoster pain should be managed by teams specializing in pain management as soon as conventional treatments fail.

  13. Herpes simplex keratitis: challenges in diagnosis and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Azher, Tayaba N; Yin, Xiao-Tang; Tajfirouz, Deena; Huang, Andrew JW; Stuart, Patrick M

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is responsible for numerous ocular diseases, the most common of which is herpetic stromal keratitis. This is a recurrent infection of the cornea that typically begins with a subclinical infection of the cornea that establishes a latent infection of sensory ganglia, most often the trigeminal ganglia. Recurring infections occur when the virus is reactivated from latency and travels back to the cornea, where it restimulates an inflammatory response. This inflammatory response can lead to decreased corneal sensation, scarring, and blindness. The diagnosis of these lesions as the result of a recurrent herpes simplex virus infection can at times be problematic. Currently, herpetic stromal keratitis is diagnosed by its clinical presentation on the slit-lamp examination, but the literature does not always support the accuracy of these clinical findings. Other diagnostic tests such as polymerase chain reaction assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescent antibody, and viral cultures have provided more definitive diagnosis, but also have some limitations. That said, accurate diagnosis is necessary for proper treatment, in order to prevent serious consequences. Current treatment reduces the severity of lesions and controls further viral spread, but does not provide a cure. PMID:28176902

  14. The role of cytokines in experimental herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Arrunategui-Correa, V; Baltatzis, S; Foster, C S

    1999-10-01

    Experimental corneal infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) resulted in 11-21 days in herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) in C.A1-20 but not C.B-17 strain of BALB/c Igh-1-disparate mice. Formation of mRNAs of various pro-inflammatory cytokines was analyzed in corneas and draining lymph nodes (LNs) of HSK-susceptible C.A1-20 and HSK-resistant C.B-17 mice following HSV-1 corneal inoculation by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis. Transcripts for interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma were expressed in LNs of susceptible but not resistant mice. The level of IL-6 expression in the cornea correlated with the severity of keratitis in susceptible mice, being evident at days 4 and 14 after virus inoculation and thus showing a biphasic response. Resistant mice did not develop HSK and did not express IL-6. The IL-1beta and IL-4 gene transcription began early (day 7) in the corneas of resistant mice and then ceased, while in the corneas of susceptible mice, it began later (day 11). Taken together, these results indicate that IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-7 participate in the local inflammatory response in HSK.

  15. Animal models of herpes simplex virus immunity and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kollias, Christina M; Huneke, Richard B; Wigdahl, Brian; Jennings, Stephen R

    2015-02-01

    Herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous human pathogens represented by two distinct serotypes: herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1); and HSV type 2 (HSV-2). In the general population, adult seropositivity rates approach 90% for HSV-1 and 20-25% for HSV-2. These viruses cause significant morbidity, primarily as mucosal membrane lesions in the form of facial cold sores and genital ulcers, with much less common but more severe manifestations causing death from encephalitis. HSV infections in humans are difficult to study in many cases because many primary infections are asymptomatic. Moreover, the neurotropic properties of HSV make it much more difficult to study the immune mechanisms controlling reactivation of latent infection within the corresponding sensory ganglia and crossover into the central nervous system of infected humans. This is because samples from the nervous system can only be routinely obtained at the time of autopsy. Thus, animal models have been developed whose use has led to a better understanding of multiple aspects of HSV biology, molecular biology, pathogenesis, disease, and immunity. The course of HSV infection in a spectrum of animal models depends on important experimental parameters including animal species, age, and genotype; route of infection; and viral serotype, strain, and dose. This review summarizes the animal models most commonly used to study HSV pathogenesis and its establishment, maintenance, and reactivation from latency. It focuses particularly on the immune response to HSV during acute primary infection and the initial invasion of the ganglion with comparisons to the events governing maintenance of viral latency.

  16. The molecular basis of herpes simplex virus latency

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, Michael P; Proença, João T; Efstathiou, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a neurotropic herpesvirus that establishes latency within sensory neurones. Following primary infection, the virus replicates productively within mucosal epithelial cells and enters sensory neurones via nerve termini. The virus is then transported to neuronal cell bodies where latency can be established. Periodically, the virus can reactivate to resume its normal lytic cycle gene expression programme and result in the generation of new virus progeny that are transported axonally back to the periphery. The ability to establish lifelong latency within the host and to periodically reactivate to facilitate dissemination is central to the survival strategy of this virus. Although incompletely understood, this review will focus on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of latency that centre on the functions of the virus-encoded latency-associated transcripts (LATs), epigenetic regulation of the latent virus genome and the molecular events that precipitate reactivation. This review considers current knowledge and hypotheses relating to the mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and reactivation herpes simplex virus latency. PMID:22150699

  17. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Margolis, T P; Milner, M S; Shama, A; Hodge, W; Seiff, S

    1998-03-01

    To investigate the ocular complications of herpes zoster ophthalmicus in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This was a retrospective cohort study of 48 HIV-infected patients (48 eyes) treated at San Francisco General Hospital for herpes zoster ophthalmicus from December 1985 through March 1994. All patients were initially treated with either intravenous or oral acyclovir. The median CD4 lymphocyte count at diagnosis was 48 per mm3 (range, 2 to 490 per mm3). Fifteen patients (31%) had mild or no ocular involvement. Seventeen patients (35%) had stromal keratitis, mostly mild, and two (4)% developed chronic infectious pseudodendritic keratitis. Twenty-four study patients (50%) had iritis, but only three (6%) had elevations in intraocular pressure. Two patients (4%) developed postherpetic neuralgia, and two others (4%) had zoster-associated central nervous system disease. Only two patients (4%) developed necrotizing retinitis, both in the form of the progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome. Excluding the patients with retinitis and central nervous system disease, the rate of sight-threatening complications in our series was lower than expected. Almost one third of study patients had no ocular complications or only mild surface epithelial disease. Although the relatively low incidence of sight-threatening disease in our study population may have been a consequence of aggressive management with acyclovir, chronic infectious pseudodendritic keratitis, retinitis, and central nervous system disease, complications of ophthalmic zoster whose pathogenesis is largely a consequence of active viral replication, were particularly devastating and difficult to manage.

  18. Herpes Virus Fusion and Entry: A Story with Many Characters

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Atanasiu, Doina; Cairns, Tina M.; Gallagher, John R.; Krummenacher, Claude; Cohen, Gary H.

    2012-01-01

    Herpesviridae comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses all of whom employ orthologs of the same three glycoproteins, gB, gH and gL. Additionally, herpesviruses often employ accessory proteins to bind receptors and/or bind the heterodimer gH/gL or even to determine cell tropism. Sorting out how these proteins function has been resolved to a large extent by structural biology coupled with supporting biochemical and biologic evidence. Together with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, gB is a charter member of the Class III fusion proteins. Unlike VSV G, gB only functions when partnered with gH/gL. However, gH/gL does not resemble any known viral fusion protein and there is evidence that its function is to upregulate the fusogenic activity of gB. In the case of herpes simplex virus, gH/gL itself is upregulated into an active state by the conformational change that occurs when gD, the receptor binding protein, binds one of its receptors. In this review we focus primarily on prototypes of the three subfamilies of herpesviruses. We will present our model for how herpes simplex virus (HSV) regulates fusion in series of highly regulated steps. Our model highlights what is known and also provides a framework to address mechanistic questions about fusion by HSV and herpesviruses in general. PMID:22754650

  19. Bioactive natural products with anti-herpes simplex virus properties.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Masarčíková, Radka; Berchová, Kateřina

    2015-10-01

    In this review, we highlight and summarise the most promising extracts, fractions and pure compounds as potential anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) agents derived from microorganisms, marine organisms, fungi, animals and plants. The role of natural products in the development of anti-HSV drugs will be discussed. Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are common human pathogens that remain a serious threat to human health. In recent years, a great interest has been devoted to the search for integrated management of HSV infections. Acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues have been licensed for the therapy that target viral DNA polymerase. Although these drugs are currently effective against HSV infections, the intensive use of these drugs has led to the problem of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new sources to develop new antiherpetic agents has gained major priority to overcome the problem. Natural products as potential, new anti-HSV drugs provide several advantages such as reduced side effects, less resistance, low toxicity and various mechanisms of action. This paper aims to provide an overview of natural products that possess antiviral activity against HSV. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Valacyclovir. New indication: for genital herpes, simpler administration.

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    Valacyclovir, the metabolic precursor of acyclovir, is now approved for treatment and prevention of genital infection with herpes simplex viruses. The clinical file is bulky and methodologically sound. For treatment of a first episode of genital herpes, a large comparative trial has shown that valacyclovir (1 g twice a day) is as effective as acyclovir (200 mg five times a day) when given for 10 days. For treating recurrences, two trials show that valacyclovir is as effective as acyclovir (200 mg five times a day) with a treatment period of 5 days. A daily dose of 1 g of valacyclovir is as effective as 2 g daily. Valacyclovir can be administered once a day. For prevention among patients with frequent recurrences, the efficacy of valacyclovir (500 mg/d in a single dose) has been proven in a placebo-controlled trial lasting 4 months. In these trials, valacyclovir and acyclovir were both well tolerated, with no major differences between the two drugs. PMID:10424269

  1. Necrotizing keratitis caused by acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Toriyama, Koji; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of necrotizing keratitis caused by acyclovir (ACV)-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) with a clinical appearance similar to a previous fungal keratitis infection. Observational case report. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in the left eye with a history of herpetic keratitis that resolved with periodic treatment with ACV ointment and a topical steroid. The left eye was painful and red with an abscess and corneal erosion in the peripheral donor cornea. Examination of the scraped corneal epithelium by light microscopy and culturing identified Candida albicans; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative for human herpes viruses. After antifungal treatment, the ocular pain gradually decreased and the lesions slowly improved but recurred with a similar clinical appearance. A second light microscopy examination and cultures were negative for pathogens including C. albicans. PCR was positive for HSV-1 DNA; treatment with 3% topical ACV ointment was unsuccessful. A third examination showed only HSV-1 DNA. Despite antiviral ACV ointment, no clinical improvement occurred based on the HSV DNA copy numbers, which were the same before and after treatment, indicating a possible ACV-resistant strain. When topical trifluorothymidine was substituted for ACV, clinical improvement occurred and the HSV DNA copy numbers decreased. Necrotizing keratitis induced by ACV-resistant HSV occurred independently after fungal keratitis, with a similar clinical appearance in this case, making diagnosis and treatment difficult. Monitoring the HSV DNA load by real-time PCR could be useful for refractory cases even with atypical clinical appearances.

  2. Empiric acyclovir for neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Vanderpluym, Christina; Tawfik, Gerda; Hervas-Malo, Marilou; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry; Kellner, James; Robinson, Joan L

    2012-08-01

    Because neonatal herpes simplex virus (NHSV) infection is difficult to diagnose, there has been a move towards using more empiric acyclovir (ACV). The purpose of this study was to review the use of ACV to optimize future management of NHSV. Charts were reviewed for infants started on intravenous ACV up to day 43 of life--January 2001 through February 2007--at five hospitals in Edmonton and Calgary. ACV was started for possible (N = 115) or proven (N = 3) herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Six of the infants with possible HSV infection later had proven HSV infection. Seizures (34%), hemodynamic instability (29%) and skin lesions (24%) were the most common indications for ACV. Among the 118 infants, 106 (90%) had cerebrospinal fluid obtained and 82 (69%) had at least one surface swab for HSV but 4 (3%) had no specimens submitted for HSV detection. ACV was continued for 3.9 ± 3.5 days in the infants with no proven HSV disease. Possible nephrotoxicity from ACV was recorded in 3 of these 109 infants and in none of the infants with proven HSV disease. Clinicians in Alberta primarily consider the diagnosis of NHSV infection when confronted with a neonate with seizures, hemodynamic instability or suspicious skin lesions, but need to consider the diagnosis more often if all cases are to be treated at first presentation. They often perform incomplete investigations to rule out NHSV infection. Adverse events from ACV appear to be uncommon when the drug is used for suspected NHSV disease.

  3. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Complicating Combined Tocilizumab and Cyclosporine Therapy for Adult-Onset Still's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsurukawa, Shinichiro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kawahara, Chieko; Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Inamoto, Miwako; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with refractory adult-onset Still's disease presented with ocular herpes zoster infection during TCZ treatment. After three days of acyclovir treatment (5 mg/kg), she developed a severe headache and high fever. Viral DNA isolation and cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities led to a herpes zoster meningitis diagnosis. Her meningitis was cured by high doses of intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg for 14 days). To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningeal herpes zoster infection in rheumatic diseases under TCZ treatment. PMID:27092286

  4. Stromal keratitis in a neonate: Herpes virus a diagnosis to consider.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Tocino, H; Villanueva, A; Giraldo, L; Anglés, J M; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M E

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal herpes simple virus (HSV) keratitis, relatively uncommon are associated with significant morbidity. The case is presented of a newborn girl who developed herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratoconjunctivitis, despite a vaginal delivery, and the absence of medical history or active clinical maternal HSV infection. Diagnosis relies on a high level of clinical suspicion and the use of diagnostic tests. Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis, although relatively uncommon, is associated with significant morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Guillain-Barre syndrome presenting with sensory disturbance following a herpes virus infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We present a case of an unusual clinical manifestation of Guillain-Barre syndrome following a pre-existing herpes virus infection. Although there have been several reports describing the co-existence of herpes virus infection and Guillain-Barre syndrome, we undertook a more in-depth study of the cross-reactivity between herpes viruses and recommend a follow-up study based on serology tests. Case presentation A 39-year-old healthy Caucasian man with Guillain-Barre syndrome presented to our facility initially with sensory disturbance, followed by an atypical descending pattern of clinical progression. On physical examination, our patient showed hot and cold temperature sensory disturbance under the T4 vertebrae level, symmetrically diminished muscle power mainly to his lower limbs, blurred vision, a loss of taste and paresis and diminished reflexes of his lower limbs. Serology test results for common viruses on hospital admission were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M, and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and negative for varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At one month after hospital admission his test results were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G, varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M and negative for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At his six month follow-up, tests were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G and negative for cytomegalovirus

  6. Update on herpes zoster vaccine: licensure for persons aged 50 through 59 years.

    PubMed

    2011-11-11

    Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax, Merck & Co., Inc.) was licensed and recommended in 2006 for prevention of herpes zoster among adults aged 60 years and older. In March 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Zostavax in adults aged 50 through 59 years. In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) declined to recommend the vaccine for adults aged 50 through 59 years and reaffirmed its current recommendation that herpes zoster vaccine be routinely recommended for adults aged 60 years and older.

  7. Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

    1981-04-01

    Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

  8. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  9. Limb hypoplasia resulting from intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carola, D; Skibo, M; Cannon, S; Cam, K M; Hyde, P; Aghai, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus, although very rare, has devastating effects on multiple organ systems in the fetus and can lead to in utero fetal demise. Neonates born following intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection commonly manifest with cutaneous lesions, ocular damage and/or brain abnormalities. We describe the case of a dichorionic, diamniotic twin gestation complicated by intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection. This infection led to the fetal demise of twin A and a very uncommon presentation of limb hypoplasia in twin B.

  10. Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Vaccine (Zostavax(®)): A Review in the Prevention of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-06-01

    Zostavax(®) is a live attenuated shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine approved in the EU for the prevention of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in adults aged ≥50 years. Zoster vaccine protected against HZ in adults aged 50-59 years (ZEST trial) and ≥60 years [Shingles Prevention Study (SPS)], and also reduced the burden of illness associated with HZ and the risk of PHN in adults aged ≥60 years (SPS). A large amount of real-world data also supports the efficacy of zoster vaccine. Results of the SPS Short- and Long-Term Persistence Substudies and real-world studies indicate that zoster vaccine provided continued benefit in the longer term, albeit with a gradual decline in vaccine efficacy over time; long-term effectiveness studies are ongoing. The need for a booster dose is still unknown, but a study showed that, if necessary, a booster dose administered to adults aged ≥70 years who received their first dose of zoster vaccine ≥10 years previously was immunogenic. Zoster vaccine had a favourable safety and tolerability profile, with the most commonly reported adverse events being non-severe injection-site reactions. In conclusion, zoster vaccine reduces the incidence of HZ and PHN, thereby reducing the burden of illness associated with HZ; improved uptake of zoster vaccine is needed.

  11. Amplification of Herpes simplex type 1 and Human Herpes type 5 viral DNA from formalin-fixed Alzheimer brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, John D; Royall, Donald; Daum, Luke T; Kagan-Hallet, Kathleen; Chambers, James P

    2005-12-16

    It is known that nucleic acids from formalin-fixed tissues are not nearly as good templates for DNA amplification as those extracted from fresh tissues. However, specimens stored in most pathologic archives are initially fixed in formalin. The possibility of an infectious etiology of several diseases including Alzheimer's underscores the usefulness of archived tissue in assessing the association of infectious agents with specific pathology. In this report, we describe in detail a method resulting in robust amplification of HSV1 and Human Herpes type (HHV) 5 viral DNA targets using formalin-fixed Alzheimer brain frontal and temporal tissue as source of amplification template. Herpes simplex type 2 viral DNA was not detected in the limited samples examined in this study. Amplicons were verified by sequence analysis. Brain tissue stored in formalin longer than 1 year prior to post-formalin-fixation analysis gave rise to significantly shorter amplicons consistent with the observation that template DNA integrity decreases significantly with increasing time of storage in formalin. Thus, this report should be useful in PCR-based investigations assessing the regional presence of viral DNAs in formalin-fixed brain tissue.

  12. Psychiatric aspects of herpes simplex encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis and herpes zoster encephalitis among immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Więdłocha, Magdalena; Marcinowicz, Piotr; Stańczykiewicz, Bartłomiej

    2015-01-01

    The psychopathological symptoms occurring in the course of diseases associated with infections are often initially isolated and non-characteristic, and may cause diagnostic difficulties. Moreover, such disorders tend to be less responsive to psychiatric management. Among possible causes such as trauma, neoplasm and vascular changes, inflammatory changes of the brain as a result of a viral infection should also be considered. There were 452 registered cases of viral encephalitis in Poland in 2010, and although not very prevalent they remain a severe and life-threatening condition. What is more, the frequently occurring neurological and psychiatric complications of viral encephalitis often result in permanent disabilities, causing a significant decrease in the quality of life. This article presents the three types of encephalitis that are most prevalent among immunocompetent patients in Poland, i.e. herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and herpes zoster encephalitis (HZE). The psychopathology of the acute phase of the infection, the residual symptoms, features apparent in imaging studies and some neuropathological aspects are also presented. The paper also focuses on psychiatric aspects of the diagnostics and treatment of the described conditions. The clinical pictures of these infections are quite specific, although they cover a wide range of symptoms, and these characteristic features are described. The aim of this review is also to show the significance of thorough diagnostics and a multidisciplinary approach to patients with viral CNS infections.

  13. The challenges and opportunities for the development of a T-cell epitope-based herpes simplex vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-11-28

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) infections have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a billion individuals worldwide. HSV-1 infections are predominant than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries, their development has been difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One "common denominator" among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or a whole viral protein, which contain both "pathogenic symptomatic" and "protective asymptomatic" antigens and epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate developing "asymptomatic" epitope-based sub-unit vaccine strategies that selectively incorporate "protective asymptomatic" epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized by effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (TEM cells) from "naturally" protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models of ocular and genital herpes. We review the role of animal models in herpes vaccine development and discuss their current status, challenges, and prospects.

  14. Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Leone, Peter A.; Bernstein, David I.; Wald, Anna; Levin, Myron J.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Gorfinkel, Iris; Morrow, Rhoda L. Ashley; Ewell, Marian G.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Dubin, Gary; Heineman, Thomas C.; Schulte, Joann M.; Deal, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 μg of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20. Results The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], −29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (−8%; 95% CI, −59 to 26). Conclusions In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.) PMID:22216840

  15. Herpes Zoster Risk Reduction through Exposure to Chickenpox Patients: A Systematic Multidisciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Van Damme, Pierre; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and may subsequently reactivate to cause herpes zoster later in life. The exogenous boosting hypothesis states that re-exposure to circulating VZV can inhibit VZV reactivation and consequently also herpes zoster in VZV-immune individuals. Using this hypothesis, mathematical models predicted widespread chickenpox vaccination to increase herpes zoster incidence over more than 30 years. Some countries have postponed universal chickenpox vaccination, at least partially based on this prediction. After a systematic search and selection procedure, we analyzed different types of exogenous boosting studies. We graded 13 observational studies on herpes zoster incidence after widespread chickenpox vaccination, 4 longitudinal studies on VZV immunity after re-exposure, 9 epidemiological risk factor studies, 7 mathematical modeling studies as well as 7 other studies. We conclude that exogenous boosting exists, although not for all persons, nor in all situations. Its magnitude is yet to be determined adequately in any study field. PMID:23805224

  16. Legal and Moral Considerations in Educating Children with Herpes in Public School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Doug; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article examines legal and moral implications in providing classroom education to children with herpes. Conclusions suggest the integration of the child into educationally appropriate programs during the disease's inactive stage. (CL)

  17. [Neurologic manifestations in a child of a mother with gestational herpes].

    PubMed

    Berthier, M; Nasimi, A; Boussemart, T; Cardona, J; Oriot, D

    1996-05-01

    Herpes gestationis in the neonate is usually associated with an increased risk of premature birth and/or low birth weight for gestational age (GA) and sometimes skin lesions. Neurologic manifestations are nos described in these babies. A boy was born at 35 weeks of GA from a mother who developed skin eruption typical of herpes gestationis. His weight was 2320 g and his height was 46 cm. He had transient respiratory distress syndrome and was given antibiotics due to suspected group B streptococcus infection. He developed on day 3 skin vesiculous eruption which disappeared within 3 days and neurologic manifestations: hypertonia and hyperkinesis, abnormal EEG. The CSF was normal. The manifestations spontaneously disappeared within 5 days. The herpes gestationis factor was present in both mother and infant. A relationship between the maternal herpes gestationis and neonatal neurologic manifestations is possible; there was no other known causes for the transient neurological disease.

  18. [Simultaneous oral and skin manifestations of herpes zoster. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Consolaro, A; Oliveira, D T

    1990-01-01

    A case of herpes zoster involving the trigeminal nerve, with simultaneous skin and oral manifestation is presented. The diagnostic and treatment used are discussed, emphasizing the necessity of an intraoral examination, when skin facial lesions are observed by professionals.

  19. Legal and Moral Considerations in Educating Children with Herpes in Public School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Doug; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article examines legal and moral implications in providing classroom education to children with herpes. Conclusions suggest the integration of the child into educationally appropriate programs during the disease's inactive stage. (CL)

  20. Imbalanced oxidative stress causes chlamydial persistence during non-productive human herpes virus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Bhupesh K; Böhme, Linda; Bergmann, Birgit; Siegl, Christine; Krause, Eva; Mehlitz, Adrian; Rudel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Both human herpes viruses and Chlamydia are highly prevalent in the human population and are detected together in different human disorders. Here, we demonstrate that co-infection with human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) interferes with the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis and induces persistence. Induction of chlamydial persistence by HHV6 is independent of productive virus infection, but requires the interaction and uptake of the virus by the host cell. On the other hand, viral uptake is strongly promoted under co-infection conditions. Host cell glutathione reductase activity was suppressed by HHV6 causing NADPH accumulation, decreased formation of reduced glutathione and increased oxidative stress. Prevention of oxidative stress restored infectivity of Chlamydia after HHV6-induced persistence. We show that co-infection with Herpes simplex virus 1 or human Cytomegalovirus also induces chlamydial persistence by a similar mechanism suggesting that Chlamydia -human herpes virus co-infections are evolutionary shaped interactions with a thus far unrecognized broad significance.

  1. New concepts in herpes simplex virus vaccine development: notes from the battlefield

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Gargi; Chentoufi, Aziz A; Nesburn, Anthony B; Wechsler, Steven L; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2009-01-01

    The recent discovery that T cells recognize different sets of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 epitopes from seropositive symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals might lead to a fundamental immunologic advance in vaccine development against herpes infection and diseases. The newly introduced needle-free mucosal (i.e., topical ocular and intravaginal) lipopeptide vaccines provide a novel strategy that might target ocular and genital herpes and possibly provide ‘heterologous protection’ from HIV-1. Indeed, mucosal self-adjuvanting lipopeptide vaccines are easy to manufacture, simple to characterize, extremely pure, cost-effective, highly immunogenic and safe. In this review, we bring together recent published and unpublished data that illuminates the status of epitope-based herpes vaccine development and present an overview of our recent approach to an ‘asymptomatic epitope’-based lipopeptide vaccine. PMID:19627185

  2. Immune inhibition of virus release from herpes simplex virus-infected cells by human sera.

    PubMed

    Shariff, D M; Hallworth, J; Desperbasques, M; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R

    1988-01-01

    Human sera contain antibody (IVR antibody) which will inhibit the release of herpes simplex virus type 1 from virus-infected cells. This antibody activity was removed by adsorption of sera with virus-infected cell extract. There was a positive correlation between IVR and neutralizing antibody activity, particularly when measured by augmented neutralization test; measurement of IVR antibody was equally as sensitive as measurement of neutralizing antibody by augmented neutralization test. IVR antibody levels provided indication of a history of recurrent herpes labialis, the pattern of antibody response following primary herpetic infection, and indication of response to Skinner herpes vaccine in human subjects. It is suggested that consideration should be given to measurement of IVR antibody in both clinical and epidemiological studies of herpes and other virus infections.

  3. Experimental ulcerative herpetic keratitis. IV. Preliminary observations on the efficacy of a herpes simplex subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Carter, C A; Hartley, C E; Skinner, G R; Turner, S P; Easty, D L

    1981-10-01

    Systemic vaccination of rabbits with an inactivated type 1 virus subunit vaccine induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Following ocular infection with type 1 herpes virus corneal ulceration and virus excretion were reduced in the vaccinated rabbits.

  4. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Sepsis in a Young Woman with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lea-Maxie; Hofmann, Jörg; Kredel, Lea Isabell; Holzem, Christina; Kühl, Anja A; Taube, Eliane T; Schubert, Stefan; Siegmund, Britta; Epple, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a herpes simplex virus-1 [HSV-1] sepsis with severe herpes hepatitis in a young female treated with triple immunosuppressive therapy [adalimumab, azathioprine, prednisolone] for refractory Crohn's disease [CD]. The patient presented with high fever, generalised abdominal tenderness, strongly elevated transaminases, coagulopathy, and pancytopenia. Comprehensive diagnostics including blood HSV-1 polymerase chain reaction [PCR], liver biopsy, and immunohistochemistry revealed the diagnosis of fulminant herpes hepatitis. HSV-1 positivity of cutaneous lesions proved the disseminated nature of the infection. Early treatment with intravenous acyclovir led to a rapid improvement of the patient's condition and resulted in a full recovery of her liver function. This is the first reported case of HSV-sepsis in a patient with CD. Physicians treating inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] patients with combined immunosuppressive therapy should be aware of the possibility of herpes hepatitis, and early empirical antiviral therapy should be considered in immunosuppressed patients presenting with fever and severe anicteric hepatitis.

  6. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model

    SciTech Connect

    Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.; Notkins, A.L.; Straus, S.E.

    1987-09-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.

  7. Transient lingual papillitis associated with confirmed herpes simplex virus 1 in a patient with kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Andrew C; Kim, Silvia S; Burns, Jane C

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of transient lingual papillitis associated with confirmed herpes simplex virus 1 that developed after a child received intravenous immunoglobulin and infliximab for acute Kawasaki disease.

  8. Increased risk of herpes zoster in children with cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P < 0.0001). Leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor were all associated with the increased risk, and leukemia had the highest magnitude of strength of association.This nationwide population-based cohort study demonstrated that children with cancer were associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Prostate Cancer Cell Oncolysis by Herpes Simplex Virus ICP0 Mutants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    W81XWH-04-1-0859 TITLE: Molecular Characterization of Prostate Cancer Cell Oncolysis byHerpes Simplex Virus ICP0 Mutants PRINCIPAL...2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Sep 04 – 14 Mar 06 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Molecular Characterization of Prostate Cancer Cell...Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0 mutants in prostate cancer cells given the relationship between ICP0 and two tumor suppressors, RNase L and PML

  10. Herpes Zoster Lesions on Reconstructed Breast Skin: Rare Objective Proof of Reinervation.

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Laurenz; Valina, Stephan Wolfgang; Schoeller, Thomas; Ehebruster, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    Blazed up Herpes zoster lesions have been described in very few patients after free and pedicled flap transfer for reconstructive purpose. Although sensory recovery after flap reconstructions has been studied extensively most studies addressed subjective perceptions of sensation. Objective investigations of spontaneous reinervation of free and pedicled flaps are rare. We would like to present a witnessed herpes zoster infection of a latissimus dorsi skin flap 2 years after breast reconstruction.

  11. Unusual oral complications of herpes zoster infection: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Jain, Manoj Kumar; Manjunath, K S; Jagadish, S N

    2010-11-01

    A case of herpes zoster infection with unusual oral complications involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve is presented. The post-herpetic complications of osteonecrosis, spontaneous exfoliation of teeth, and subsequent pathologic fracture of mandible in the absence of concurrent predisposing factors in a 65-year-old man are demonstrated. Forty-one cases with osteonecrosis and spontaneous exfoliation of teeth previously presented in the literature are reviewed. This is the first report of pathologic fracture after herpes zoster infection.

  12. Herpes zoster pain, postherpetic neuralgia, and quality of life in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Gisèle; Leplege, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Herpes zoster pain and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) particularly affect older persons. This literature review presents how quality of life is evaluated and the consequences of shingles and PHN on the quality of life of older persons. Although more than 150 articles have been published on herpes zoster and its consequences, specific studies focusing on the older population are needed, in several domains like epidemiology, preventive medicine, neuropsychology, and pharmacology. © 2010 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2010 World Institute of Pain.

  13. Herpes Zoster Lesions on Reconstructed Breast Skin: Rare Objective Proof of Reinervation

    PubMed Central

    Valina, Stephan Wolfgang; Schoeller, Thomas; Ehebruster, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    Blazed up Herpes zoster lesions have been described in very few patients after free and pedicled flap transfer for reconstructive purpose. Although sensory recovery after flap reconstructions has been studied extensively most studies addressed subjective perceptions of sensation. Objective investigations of spontaneous reinervation of free and pedicled flaps are rare. We would like to present a witnessed herpes zoster infection of a latissimus dorsi skin flap 2 years after breast reconstruction. PMID:28194351

  14. Herpes zoster reactivation after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Krishnamoorthy; Pillai, Biju S.; Bansal, Devesh

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a reactivated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the sensory nerve ganglion, peripheral nerve, and its branches. Mechanical trauma to the nervous system can reactivate VZV. It is well known that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) can produce mechanical damage to the tissue. We report a rare case of herpes zoster reactivation after SWL for treatment of 1.2 cm size renal stone in a 63-year-old male patient. PMID:27555686

  15. Preparation and efficacy of an inactivated subunit vaccine (NFUIBHK) against type 2 Herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Williams, D R; Buchan, A; Whitney, J; Harding, M; Bodfish, K

    1978-11-17

    A vaccine against Herpes simplex virus infection was prepared by Nonidet NP 40 and formalin treatment of a type 1, infected-cell extract; virus particles were removed by ultracentrifugation over sucrose. These procedures were not detrimental to the antigenic quality of the vaccine preparation. The vaccine afforded significant protection to experimental type 2 genital herpes virus infection in mice, as adjudged by clinical observations, cytopathological change, and virus yields.

  16. Herpes simplex hepatitis after liver transplantation: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Côté-Daigneault, J; Carrier, F M; Toledano, K; Wartelle-Bladu, C; Willems, B

    2014-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is an uncommon cause of liver failure, but may have a dramatic outcome. We herein present a case report of a liver graft infection by HSV-1 associated with liver failure and encephalitis. A complete hospital chart review of the case and a literature search were undertaken. Literature review suggests that herpes simplex acute liver failure is rare and associated with a poor prognosis, even with early treatment. Novel diagnostic and preventive approaches need to be instituted.

  17. Herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis restricted to the brainstem in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Arita, Juliana Harumi; Lin, Jaime; Peruchi, Mirella Maccarini; Rodrigues, Marcelo Masruha; Vilanova, Luiz Celso Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a potentially fatal infection of central nervous system that typically involves frontal and temporal lobes. Occasionally, it presents an extratemporal involvement and in rarer cases, it is limited to the brainstem. We describe a case of an adolescent who presented with fever, sore throat, and vertigo. Clinical picture evolved to lethargy, tetraparesis, consciousness impairment, and respiratory failure. MRI showed lesions restricted to the brainstem. PCR of CSF was positive for herpes simplex type 1.

  18. Assessment of skin test with varicella-zoster virus antigen for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Y; Takao, Y; Miyazaki, Y; Ohnishi, F; Okeda, M; Yano, S; Kumihashi, H; Gomi, Y; Maeda, K; Ishikawa, T; Mori, Y; Asada, H; Iso, H; Yamanishi, K

    2013-04-01

    The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study was designed to clarify the incidence of and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based Japanese population. As part of this series, a total of 5683 residents aged ≥50 years received a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin test with VZV antigen, and 48 h later, the erythema and oedema were assessed by measuring the longest diameter. The diameters of both the erythema and oedema decreased with the increasing age of the subject. Sixty-three subjects contracted herpes zoster within a year after receiving the VZV skin test. Analysis of the herpes zoster incidence rate vs. the skin test reaction revealed that the shorter the diameter of erythema or oedema, the greater the likelihood of herpes zoster. These results demonstrated that the VZV skin test is an excellent surrogate marker for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.

  19. [Role of Herpes simplex virus in the immune stromal keratitis].

    PubMed

    Vinagre, C; Martínez, M J; Vogel, M; Traipe, L; Stoppel, J; Squella, O; Srur, M; Charlín, R

    2001-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the cornea is a leading cause of blindness in occidental countries and a common recurrent manifestation of it is the immune stromal keratitis (ISK). However, it is not known whether active viral replication occurs during the acute phase of the disease, because isolation of the virus by conventional culture techniques has not been accomplished. To establish the presence of HSV in patients with ISK. Fourteen corneal swabbing samples, from active diseased eyes of patients with clinical diagnosis of ISK, were submitted to Herpchek and PCR for the identification of HSV antigens and genome. All ISK samples were negative by both techniques. It was not possible to identify HSV antigens nor their genome by the methodology used. It is likely that, they can't be detected in corneal superficial layers or probably there is no viral replication at this stage of the disease, so antiviral therapy should be reconsidered.

  20. [Two cases of herpes encephalitis with normal cerebrospinal fluid findings].

    PubMed

    Avkan Oğuz, Vildan; Yapar, Nur; Sezak, Nurbanu; Alp Cavuş, Sema; Kuruüzüm, Ziya; Sayiner, Arzu; Ada, Emel; Cakir, Nedim; Yüce, Ayşe

    2006-01-01

    In this report, characteristics of two cases of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings at the time of admission have been discussed and the current literature has been reviewed. The diagnosis of the cases (one was 23 years old male, and the other was 75 years old female patient) was made on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings concordant with HSV encephalitis, together with HSV-1 DNA positivity by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Both of the patients were treated with acyclovir (3 x 750 mg/day) lasting for 15 days and 21 days, respectively. The first male patient recovered with mild neurological defects, whereas the second female patient died because of nosocomial pneumonia and septicemia. In conclusion, even the CSF findings are normal, in cases considered to be HSV encephalitis, MRI should be the first radiological diagnostic step and the diagnosis should be confirmed by the detection of HSV DNA in CSF by PCR.

  1. Reporter cell lines for the detection of herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Kung, Szu-Hao

    2005-01-01

    Virus culture has played significant roles in basic and clinical virology, with a number of advantages that cannot be attainable by modern molecular techniques. However, virus culture is generally a slower process, as it inevitably takes the period of a full replication cycle of a given virus. A genetically modified cell culture with a virus-inducible marker is described here, using a frequently isolated DNA virus (herpes simplex virus) as a model. The assay system relies on expression of the reporter gene driven by a specific viral promoter that is triggered early in the course of viral infection. The reporter gene employed was green fluorescent protein (GFP) or secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), whose assays offer real-time detection or quantification, respectively. This cell-based assay is simple, rapid, sensitive, specific, and quantitative and serves as a phenotypic method for determination of antiviral susceptibilities.

  2. Immunological Aspects of Acute and Recurrent Herpes Simplex Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) belongs to the major causes of visual morbidity worldwide and available methods of treatment remain unsatisfactory. Primary infection occurs usually early in life and is often asymptomatic. Chronic visual impairment and visual loss are caused by corneal scaring, thinning, and vascularization connected with recurrent HSV infections. The pathogenesis of herpetic keratitis is complex and is still not fully understood. According to the current knowledge, corneal scarring and vascularization are the result of chronic inflammatory reaction against HSV antigens. In this review we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immunities in acute and recurrent HSV ocular infection and present the potential future targets for novel therapeutical options based on immune interventions. PMID:25276842

  3. Corneal latency and transmission of herpes simplex virus-1.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Asim V; Shukla, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 by corneal transplantation has rarely been reported. It is believed that these cases have resulted either from reactivated virus traveling from the trigeminal ganglion to the cornea or from latent HSV-1 in the donor cornea itself. Studies of long-term viral presence in corneal tissue have sought to determine whether there is evidence of true non-neuronal latency, although there are problems in its definition. Recent studies provide new insights into neuronal latency, while similar HSV-1 gene regulation in the cornea may implicate corneal latency in pathophysiology and as a potential risk for transplant recipients. This issue has led to concerns over eye banking, which currently screens for other infectious agents but not HSV-1. Here we review the literature regarding corneal latency and the transmission of HSV-1.

  4. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Esther; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Sonda, Sabrina; Kaech, Andres; Lucas, Miriam S.; Ackermann, Mathias; Wild, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  5. Herpes genitalis without frontiers: from clinical aspects to viral identification.

    PubMed

    Papini, M

    2012-10-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus infection is a recurrent, lifelong disease with no cure. The strongest predictor for infection is a person's number of lifetime sex partners. HSV-2 is the commonest responsible, although infections caused by HSV-1 are rapidly increasing, particularly in adolescents, women and men who have sex with men. The natural history includes first-episode of mucocutaneous infection, establishment of latency in the dorsal root ganglion, and subsequent reactivation. Most infections are transmitted via asymptomatic viral shedding. Atypical manifestations are common. Genital HSV-2 recurs six times more frequently than type 1. Laboratory confirmation of the clinical diagnosis is recommended in all patients in order to guide a correct counselling and management. Real-time PCR and viral culture represent the gold standard for diagnosis. Serologic testing can be useful in persons with a questionable history. Counselling patients about the risk of transmission is crucial and helps prevent the spread of disease and neonatal complications.

  6. First-episode genital herpes: interventions for men and women.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Lisa

    2017-01-25

    The mission of the Cochrane Nursing Care Field (CNCF) is to improve health outcomes through increasing the use of the Cochrane Library and supporting Cochrane's role by providing an evidence base for nurses and healthcare professionals who deliver, lead or research nursing care. The CNCF produces Cochrane Corner columns, summaries of recent nursing-care-relevant Cochrane Reviews that are regularly published in collaborating nursing-related journals. Information on the processes CNCF has developed can be accessed at: cncf.cochrane.org/evidence-transfer-program-review-summaries. This is a Cochrane review summary of: Heslop R, Roberts H, Flower D et al ( 2016 ) Interventions for men and women with their first episode of genital herpes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 8. CD010684. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010684.pub2.

  7. Characterization of paramyxo-, herpes-, and orbiviruses isolated from psittacine birds.

    PubMed

    Hirai, K; Hitchner, S B; Calnek, B W

    1979-01-01

    Isolates of paramyxo-, herpes-, and orbiviruses from psittacine birds were characterized in the course of studies in cell cultures. The LBD-1 isolate, from a lovebird, was grown in chick kidney (CK) cells. It had the properties of a paramyxovirus but was found tobe serologically distinct from known avian paramyxoviruses. This virus was pathogenic for Japanese quail but not for young chickens or budgerigars. RSL-1 and -2, isolated from diseased rosellas, were propagated in chicken embryo fibroblasts and CK cells, and were found similar to other herpesviruses in physicochemical and morphological properties. They were immunologically related to the psittacine herpesvirus which causes Pacheco's parrot disease, and when inoculated into budgerigars produced clinical disease and death with hepatic lesions. The CKT-1 and PKT-1 isolates, from a cockatiel and a budgerigar, grew in fibroblastic cell cultures from several species. Their physicochemical properties suggested that they should be classified as members of the orbivirus group. They were mildly pathogenic for budgerigars.

  8. Prevention and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Allen, Upton D; Robinson, Joan L

    2014-04-01

    Human herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates can result in devastating outcomes, including mortality and significant morbidity. All infants are potentially at risk for neonatal HSV infection. This position statement reviews epidemiology, transmission and risk factors, with a focus on intrapartum infection. It considers diagnosis and prognosis according to infection category, along with testing modalities and limitations. Recommendations for managing newborns known to have been exposed intrapartum to HSV are based on expert opinion because a randomized trial to compare management options is not feasible. Guidance is provided for the empirical management of infants with suspected clinical sepsis, including those who do not respond to antibacterial therapy. The present statement replaces a 2006 position statement by the Canadian Paediatric Society.

  9. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  10. Management and prevention of recurrent herpes labialis in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Stanley C

    2007-12-01

    A range of topical and systemic therapies exists for treating recurrent herpes labialis. Among the topical agents, aciclovir and its derivatives can lessen the symptoms and duration of disease if applied frequently in the proper vehicle and started during the prodromal phase. Delivering these agents to the lesion via novel devices or vehicles may enhance their topical efficacy in the future. Among the systemic agents, new high-dose, 1-day regimens using either famciclovir or valaciclovir offer greater convenience and cost-effectiveness compared with traditional 5-7-day therapy. Combining either topical or systemic antinucleoside agents with topical anti-inflammatories such as corticosteroids may also lead to enhanced efficacy. Novel agents such as docosanol, toll-like receptor agonists, and viral ribonucleoside reductase inhibitors may also play a larger role in the future.

  11. Effect of alkaloids isolated from Amaryllidaceae on herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Renard-Nozaki, J; Kim, T; Imakura, Y; Kihara, M; Kobayashi, S

    1989-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the effects of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids and their derivatives upon herpes simplex virus (type 1), the relationship between their structure and antiviral activity and the mechanism of this activity. All alkaloids used in these experiments were biosynthesized from N-benzylphenethylamine; the apogalanthamine group was synthesized in our laboratory; those which may eventually prove to be antiviral agents had a hexahydroindole ring with two functional hydroxyl groups. Benzazepine compounds were neither cytotoxic nor antiviral, but many structures containing dibenzazocine were toxic at low concentrations. It was established that the antiviral activity of alkaloids is due to the inhibition of multiplication and not to the direct inactivation of extracellular viruses. The mechanism of the antiviral effect could be partly explained as a blocking of viral DNA polymerase activity.

  12. New-onset refractory status epilepticus mimicking herpes virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Puoti, Gianfranco; Elefante, Andrea; Saracino, Dario; Capasso, Antonella; Cotrufo, Roberto; Anello, Clara Belluomo

    2013-01-01

    New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a recently defined clinical entity that describes patients who present with status epilepticus of unclear etiology that is highly refractory to therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NORSE usually discloses no specific abnormalities except for an occasional mild T2/FLAIR hyperintense signal of the mesial temporal lobe. Here, we report a peculiar case of NORSE in which brain MRI showed massive alteration of both temporal lobes, with features strongly supporting the diagnosis of herpes virus encephalitis, but lacking any laboratory evidence of viral infection in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. It showed also striking signal alterations in the thalamus, which got worse in the course of the disease. This report emphasizes the possibility that seizure activity alone plays a critical role in both determining the disease and whether it will be self-sustaining.

  13. Basal Autophagy Is Required for Herpes simplex Virus-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which plays an important role in regulating plethora of infections. The role of autophagy in Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is unknown. Here, we found that HSV-2 does not allow induction of an autophagic response to infection, but maintains basal autophagy levels mostly unchanged during productive infection. Thus, we investigated the importance of basal autophagy for HSV-2 infection, using pharmacological autophagy suppression or cells genetically deficient in an autophagy-essential gene (ATG5). Interference with basal autophagy flux in cells significantly reduced viral replication and diminished the infection. These results indicate that basal autophagy plays an indispensable role required for a productive infection. Importantly, this study draws a sharp distinction between induced and basal autophagy, where the former acts as a viral clearance mechanism abrogating infection, while the latter supports infection. PMID:26248741

  14. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Kucukardali, Yasar; Solmazgul, Emrullah; Terekeci, Hakan; Oncul, Oral; Turhan, Vedat

    2008-01-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion is a common consequence of neurologic and pulmonary infections as well as drug intake and many other clinical situations. This report describes SIADH that developed in an elderly woman with single dermatomal herpes varicella zoster ophthalmicus without evidence of varicella zoster encephalitis or dissemination. A 76-year-old woman was admitted to our department for evaluation of left facial pain, confusion and disorientation. Further investigation revealed hyponatremia 112 mEq/L, low serum osmolality, high urine osmolality, normal renal function, normal adrenal and thyroid hormones, and high plasma vasopressin 40 pg/mL. These results indicate that the hyponatremia in this case was due to SIADH and that SIADH was caused by an increased release of vasopressin probably because of the antiviral drug (acyclovir) or infection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in a single dermatome.

  15. The molecular basis of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Michael P; Proença, João T; Efstathiou, Stacey

    2012-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a neurotropic herpesvirus that establishes latency within sensory neurones. Following primary infection, the virus replicates productively within mucosal epithelial cells and enters sensory neurones via nerve termini. The virus is then transported to neuronal cell bodies where latency can be established. Periodically, the virus can reactivate to resume its normal lytic cycle gene expression programme and result in the generation of new virus progeny that are transported axonally back to the periphery. The ability to establish lifelong latency within the host and to periodically reactivate to facilitate dissemination is central to the survival strategy of this virus. Although incompletely understood, this review will focus on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of latency that centre on the functions of the virus-encoded latency-associated transcripts (LATs), epigenetic regulation of the latent virus genome and the molecular events that precipitate reactivation.

  16. Lytic Promoters Express Protein during Herpes Simplex Virus Latency

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tiffany A.; Tscharke, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has provided the prototype for viral latency with previously well-defined acute or lytic and latent phases. More recently, the deep quiescence of HSV latency has been questioned with evidence that lytic genes can be transcribed in this state. However, to date the only evidence that these transcripts might be translated has come from immunological studies that show activated T cells persist in the nervous system during latency. Here we use a highly sensitive Cre-marking model to show that lytic and latent phases are less clearly defined in two significant ways. First, around half of the HSV spread leading to latently infected sites occurred beyond the initial acute infection and second, we show direct evidence that lytic promoters can drive protein expression during latency. PMID:27348812

  17. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a trigger of brain autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Armangue, Thaís; Leypoldt, Frank; Málaga, Ignacio; Raspall-Chaure, Miquel; Marti, Itxaso; Nichter, Charles; Pugh, John; Vicente-Rasoamalala, Monica; Lafuente-Hidalgo, Miguel; Macaya, Alfons; Ke, Michael; Titulaer, Maarten J; Höftberger, Romana; Sheriff, Heather; Glaser, Carol; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-02-01

    In 5 prospectively diagnosed patients with relapsing post-herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies were identified. Antibody synthesis started 1 to 4 weeks after HSE, preceding the neurological relapse. Three of 5 patients improved postimmunotherapy, 1 spontaneously, and 1 has started to improve. Two additional patients with NMDAR antibodies, 9 with unknown neuronal surface antibodies, and 1 with NMDAR and unknown antibodies, were identified during retrospective assessment of 34 HSE patients; the frequency of autoantibodies increased over time (serum, p=0.004; cerebrospinal fluid, p=0.04). The 3 retrospectively identified NMDAR antibody-positive patients also had evidence of relapsing post-HSE. Overall, these findings indicate that HSE triggers NMDAR antibodies and potentially other brain autoimmunity.

  18. Clinical Presentation of Herpes Zoster in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hospitalized Children Treated With Acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Kuchar, Ernest; Szenborn, Leszek; Lis, Izabela; Jaroszewska, Anna; Czeladzka, Justyna

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster, defined as the reactivation of a latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, used to be a serious disease in immunocompromised children until recently. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation of herpes zoster in hospitalized immunocompromised children compared with hospitalized immunocompetent counterparts. We reviewed the hospital charts of 72 children aged 6 months to 18 years diagnosed with herpes zoster and treated with acyclovir in our department covering a 19-year period. Forty-six of the children were immunocompromised which was mainly due to hematologic diseases. There were no differences in the age at which herpes zoster occurred, length of hospitalization, and the location or extent of the skin eruption. General symptoms were observed more frequently in the hospitalized immunocompetent patients compared with the hospitalized immunocompromised children (80% vs. 56%). The average age at which primary VZV infection occurred was higher among the immunocompromised children than the immunocompetent children with the latter group suffering from significantly more primary VZV infections during infancy. The presentation of herpes zoster in immunocompromised children is similar to that of herpes zoster in hospitalized immunocompetent children.

  19. Attitudes and Willingness to Assume Risk of Experimental Therapy to Eradicate Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Oseso, Linda; Magaret, Amalia S; Jerome, Keith R; Fox, Julie; Wald, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Current treatment of genital herpes is focused on ameliorating signs and symptoms but is not curative. However, as potential herpes simplex virus (HSV) cure approaches are tested in the laboratory, we aimed to assess the interest in such studies by persons with genital herpes and the willingness to assume risks associated with experimental therapy. We constructed an anonymous online questionnaire that was posted on websites that provide information regarding genital herpes. The questions collected demographic and clinical information on adults who self-reported as having genital herpes, and assessed attitudes toward and willingness to participate in HSV cure clinical research. Seven hundred eleven participants provided sufficient responses to be included in the analysis. Sixty-six percent were women; the median age was 37 years, and the median time since genital HSV diagnosis was 4.7 years. The willingness to participate in trials increased from 59.0% in phase 1 to 68.5% in phase 2, and 81.2% in phase 3 trials, and 40% reported willingness to participate even in the absence of immediate, personal benefits. The most desirable outcome was the elimination of risk for transmission to sex partner or neonate. The mean perceived severity of receiving a diagnosis of genital HSV-2 was 4.2 on a scale of 1 to 5. Despite suppressive therapy available, persons with genital herpes are interested in participating in clinical research aimed at curing HSV, especially in more advanced stages of development.

  20. Isolation of a new herpes virus from human CD4 sup + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Frenkel, N.; Schirmer, E.C.; Wyatt, L.S.; Katsafanas, G.; Roffman, E.; Danovich, R.M. ); June, C.H. )

    1990-01-01

    A new human herpes virus has been isolated from CD4{sup +} T cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy individual (RK), following incubation of the cells under conditions promoting T-cell activation. The virus could not be recovered from nonactivated cells. Cultures of lymphocytes infected with the RK virus exhibited a cytopathic effect, and electron microscopic analyses revealed a characteristic herpes virus structure. RK virus DNA did not hybridize with large probes derived from herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and human cytomegalovirus. The genetic relatedness of the RK virus to the recently identified T-lymphotropic human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated by restriction enzyme analyses using 21 different enzymes and by blot hydridization analyses using 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6 (Z29 and U1102). Whereas the two HHV-6 strains exhibited only limited restriction enzyme polymorphism, cleavage of the RK virus DNA yielded distinct patterns. Of the 11 HHV-6 DNA probes tested, only 6 cross-hybridized with DNA fragments derived from the RK virus. Taken together, the maximal homology amounted to 31 kilobases of the 75 kilobases tested. The authors conclude that the RK virus is distinct from previously characterized human herpesviruses. The authors propose to designate it as the prototype of a new herpes virus, the seventh human herpes virus identified to date.

  1. Understanding perceptions of genital herpes disclosure through analysis of an online video contest.

    PubMed

    Catallozzi, Marina; Ebel, Sophia C; Chávez, Noé R; Shearer, Lee S; Mindel, Adrian; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine pre-existing videos in order to explore the motivation for, possible approaches to, and timing and context of disclosure of genital herpes infection as described by the lay public. A thematic content analysis was performed on 63 videos submitted to an Australian online contest sponsored by the Australian Herpes Management Forum and Novartis Pharmaceuticals designed to promote disclosure of genital herpes. Videos either provided a motivation for disclosure of genital herpes or directed disclosure without an explicit rationale. Motivations included manageability of the disease or consistency with important values. Evaluation of strategies and logistics of disclosure revealed a variety of communication styles including direct and indirect. Disclosure settings included those that were private, semiprivate and public. Disclosure was portrayed in a variety of relationship types, and at different times within those relationships, with many videos demonstrating disclosure in connection with a romantic setting. Individuals with genital herpes are expected to disclose to susceptible partners. This analysis suggests that understanding lay perspectives on herpes disclosure to a partner may help healthcare providers develop counselling messages that decrease anxiety and foster disclosure to prevent transmission.

  2. Herpes Zoster as a Predictor of HIV Infection in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuan-Ti; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Tantoh, Disline Manli; Huang, Jing-Yang; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Shu-Yi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Hung, Hung-Chang; Jan, Cheng-Feng; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between herpes zoster (HZ) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Data were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Databases (LHID 2005 and 2010), Taiwan. The International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes were used to identify Hz from 2001-2004. Identification of HIV infection was from 2005-2010. The hazard ratios of HIV among herpes zoster infected and non-herpes zoster infected patients were estimated using multiple Cox proportional hazard model. In general, 19685 participants were identified with Hz. The HIV incidence rates (per 104 person-months) in herpes zoster infected and non-infected patients were 0.191(95% CI 0.130-0.280) and 0.079 (95% CI 0.074-0.084), respectively while the hazard ratio (HR) of HIV among infected individuals was 3.518 (95% CI 2.375-5.211). This study concludes that herpes zoster could be considered as a predictor of HIV infection especially among Asian populations, hence it is vital to test herpes zoster infected individuals for HIV antibodies.

  3. The Short- and Long-Term Risk of Stroke after Herpes Zoster: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuechun; Guan, Yeming; Hou, Liang; Huang, Haili; Liu, Hongjuan; Li, Chuanwen; Zhu, Yingying; Tao, Xingyong; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that stroke risk may be increased following herpes zoster. The aim of this study is to perform a meta-analysis of current literature to systematically analyze and quantitatively estimate the short and long-term effects of herpes zoster on the risk of stroke. Methods Embase, PubMed and Cochrane library databases were searched for relevant studies up to March 2016. Studies were selected for analysis based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relative risks with 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted to assess the association between herpes zoster and stroke. Results A total of 8 articles were included in our analysis. The present meta-analysis showed that the risks of stroke after herpes zoster were 2.36 (95% CI: 2.17–2.56) for first 2 weeks, 1.56 (95% CI: 1.46–1.66) for first month, 1.17 (95% CI: 1.13–1.22) for first year, and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02–1.16) for more than 1 year, respectively. Conclusion The results of our study demonstrated that herpes zoster was associated with a higher risk of stroke, but the risks decreased along with the time after herpes zoster. PMID:27768762

  4. Paraneoplastic pemphigus and Castleman's disease in the setting of herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Koch, Laine H; Layton, Christle J; Pilichowska, Monika; Stadecker, Miguel J; Barak, Orr

    2012-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl presented with a 3-week history of mucosal erosions, injected conjunctiva, dehydration, and respiratory distress. She had been treated with intravenous acyclovir for herpes simplex infection with positive herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G. Physical examination and imaging revealed a large abdominal mass. Incisional biopsy was obtained, and pathology demonstrated angiofollicular hyperplasia with hyalinized germinal centers and Castleman's syndrome-like features. Based on the mucosal erosions, herpes simplex virus serology and positive herpes simplex virus-1 direct fluorescent antibody, Castleman's disease secondary to overwhelming herpes simplex virus infection was the initial impression. The poor response to antivirals and subsequent development of a bullous eruption on the hands resulted in dermatology consultation. Skin biopsy was obtained from a bullae and revealed suprabasilar acantholysis with necrosis as well as upper dermal, perivascular, and interface infiltrate of lymphocytes and eosinophils. No viropathic changes were present. Direct immunofluorescence was significant for immunoglobulin G deposition intercellularly and along the dermoepidermal junction and focal trace C3 deposition along the dermoepidermal junction consistent with paraneoplastic pemphigus, later confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence. We report this case of paraneoplastic pemphigus secondary to Castleman's syndrome confounded by herpes simplex virus-1 positive mucosal erosions.

  5. Choreoathetosis after herpes simplex encephalitis with basal ganglia involvement on MRI.

    PubMed

    Kullnat, Megan Wills; Morse, Richard P

    2008-04-01

    Children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis have a relapse in approximately 25% of cases, which rarely may present as a movement disorder, most often choreoathetosis. The anatomic basis for herpes simplex virus encephalitis-associated movement disorders has been poorly understood, because neuroimaging, to date, has not been able to show the direct involvement of the areas of the brain that typically govern such movements. We present a patient with abnormal involuntary movements after herpes simplex virus encephalitis, with new lesions on MRI between the time of initial presentation and the development of choreoathetosis. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with a post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis movement disorder with neuroradiographic evidence of thalamic involvement correlating with the onset of abnormal involuntary movements. We describe this patient and review the literature on movement disorders and herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Current understanding of the pathophysiology of post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis movement disorders proposes 2 possible mechanisms that may be responsible: reinfection with the resumption of viral replication, or a postinfectious, immune-mediated process.

  6. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Hilton, D A; Flament-Saillour, M; Guillon, F; Wingertsmann, L; Baudrimont, M; de Truchis, P; Keohane, C; Vital, C; Love, S; Gray, F

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex (HSV) infection of the central nervous system is uncommon in AIDS and usually has an atypical topography. This review is centred around the case of a 49-year-old homosexual patient with AIDS who died from diffuse encephalopathy. Neuropathological examination revealed necrotic and haemorrhagic changes involving both temporal lobes, insulae and cingulate gyri. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundant but inflammation was minimal. Electron microscopy confirmed characteristic herpes virus particles. Immunocyto-chemistry was positive for HSV type 1 and 2. In situ hybridization and PCR, however, were positive for HSV type 1 but excluded HSV type 2. There was associated cytomegalovirus ventriculitis but clearly separated from HSV encephalitis. There were no histological features of HIV encephalitis and HIV could not be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry or by PCR to demonstrate proviral DNA. Apoptotic neurons were numerous in areas with a severe macrophage reaction. Only two pathological cases with characteristic limbic distribution and necrotic haemorrhagic histologic have been reported previously. The rarity of these reports suggests that in advanced AIDS, the immune reaction causing a typical necrotizing encephalitis cannot be mounted. Distinction between HSV type 1 and 2 infection may be difficult by immunocytochemistry and usually requires in situ hybridization, tissue culture or PCR. In AIDS patients, HSV-1 has been identified as responsible for encephalitis whereas HSV-2 has been more responsible for myelitis. Associated productive HIV infection of the CNS was found in none of the cases. In contrast, cytomegalovirus encephalitis was found in nine of 11 cases of AIDS-associated HSV encephalitis.

  7. Temporal and pontine involvement in a case of herpes simplex encephalitis, presenting as kluver bucy syndrome - a case report.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukarasu, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral temporal and frontal lobe involvement is a common characteristic of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Clinical sequelae of herpes simplex encephalitis may manifest sometimes as Kluver Bucy syndrome (KBS). In herpes simplex encephalitis, apart from frontal lobe, extra temporal involvement is rare and uncommon. We report a case of HSE manifesting clinically as KBS with a rare radiological finding of temporal and extratemporal involvement of pons.

  8. Disease burden of herpes zoster in Sweden - predominance in the elderly and in women - a register based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden is not well investigated. There is no Swedish immunization program to prevent varicella zoster virus infections. A vaccine against herpes zoster and its complications is now available. The aim of this study was to estimate the herpes zoster burden of disease and to establish a pre-vaccination baseline of the minimum incidence of herpes zoster. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish National Health Data Registers including the Patient Register, the Pharmacy Register, and the Cause of Death Register. The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden was estimated by analyzing the overall, and age and gender differences in the antiviral prescriptions, hospitalizations and complications during 2006-2010 and mortality during 2006-2009. Results Annually, 270 per 100,000 persons received antiviral treatment for herpes zoster, and the prescription rate increased with age. It was approximately 50% higher in females than in males in the age 50+ population (rate ratio 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.58). The overall hospitalization rate for herpes zoster was 6.9/100,000 with an approximately three-fold increase for patients over 80 years of age compared to the age 70-79 group. A gender difference in hospitalization rates was observed: 8.1/100,000 in females and 5.6/100,000 in males. Herpes zoster, with a registered complication, was found in about one third of the hospitalized patients and the most common complications involved the peripheral and central nervous systems. Death due to herpes zoster was a rare event. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the significant burden of herpes zoster disease in the pre-zoster vaccination era. A strong correlation with age in the herpes zoster- related incidence, hospitalization, complications, and mortality rates was found. In addition, the study provides further evidence of the female predominance in herpes zoster disease. PMID:24330510

  9. Herpes zoster correlates with increased risk of Parkinson's disease in older people: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2017-02-01

    Little is known on the relationship between herpes zoster and Parkinson's disease in older people. This study aimed to explore whether herpes zoster could be associated with Parkinson's disease in older people in Taiwan.We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the claim data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 10,296 subjects aged 65 years and older with newly diagnosed herpes zoster as the herpes zoster group and 39,405 randomly selected subjects aged 65 years and older without a diagnosis of herpes zoster as the nonherpes zoster group from 1998 to 2010. Both groups were followed up until subjects received a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. This follow-up design would explore whether subjects with herpes zoster were at an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. Relative risks were estimated by adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model.The incidence of Parkinson's disease was higher in the herpes zoster group than that in the nonherpes zoster group (4.86 vs 4.00 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 1.14, 1.29). After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that the adjusted HR of Parkinson's disease was 1.17 for the herpes zoster group (95% CI 1.10, 1.25), compared with the nonherpes zoster group.Older people with herpes zoster confer a slightly increased hazard of developing Parkinson's disease when compared to those without herpes zoster. We think that herpes zoster correlates with increased risk of Parkinson's disease in older people. When older people with herpes zoster seek help, clinicians should pay more attention to the development of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

  10. The Challenges and Opportunities for Development of a T-Cell Epitope-Based Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a half billion individuals worldwide. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. HSV-1 infections are more prevalent than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. While genital herpes in mainly caused by HSV-2 infections, in recent years, there is an increase in the proportion of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 infections in young adults, which reach 50% in some western societies. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries their development has been notoriously difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One “common denominator” among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or whole viral proteins, which contain both pathogenic “symptomatic” and protective “asymptomatic” antigens/epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate that using an “asymptomatic” epitope-based vaccine strategy that selectively incorporates protective epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized, in vitro, by effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells from “naturally” protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect, in vivo, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models from ocular and genital herpes infections and diseases, could be the answer to many of the scientific challenges facing HSV vaccine

  11. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibody Mediated Neurologic Relapse Post Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Sarah; Walsh, Aoibhinn; King, Mary D; Lynch, Bryan; Webb, David; Twomey, Eilish; Ronan Leahy, T; Butler, Karina; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Despite the advent of antiviral therapy, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains a devastating condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurologic relapse after initial improvement is generally attributed to herpes simplex virus reactivation. In 2013, inflammation caused by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies was reported in association with cases of neurologic relapse after herpes simplex encephalitis. We present 3 such cases and discuss diagnostic and management dilemmas.

  12. Mimicking herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 mucosal behavior in a well-characterized human genital organ culture.

    PubMed

    Steukers, Lennert; Weyers, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyun; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, Sarah; Cornelissen, Maria; Van den Broeck, Wim; Temmerman, Marleen; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-07-15

    We developed and morphologically characterized a human genital mucosa explant model (endocervix and ectocervix/vagina) to mimic genital herpes infections caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Subsequent analysis of HSV entry receptor expression throughout the menstrual cycle in genital tissues was performed, and the evolution of HSV-1/-2 mucosal spread over time was assessed. Nectin-1 and -2 were expressed in all tissues during the entire menstrual cycle. Herpesvirus entry mediator expression was limited mainly to some connective tissue cells. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 exhibited a plaque-wise mucosal spread across the basement membrane and induced prominent epithelial syncytia.

  13. Chronic urticaria associated with recurrent genital herpes simplex infection and success of antiviral therapy--a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zawar, Vijay; Godse, Kiran; Sankalecha, Sudhir

    2010-06-01

    The role of infectious agents as a cause of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is uncertain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether genital herpes simplex infection is causally related to CIU. We identified two patients with recurrent genital herpes simplex infections associated with CIU. Episodes of genital herpes were especially associated with acute exacerbation of urticaria. Anti-herpes simplex 2 antibodies and Tzanck smears were done in both patients, along with other relevant investigations for CIU. Acyclovir was added to antihistamine therapy. Both patients were apparently in good health and appeared clinically immunologically stable, though one of them was found to be diabetic. Clinical and laboratory investigations for genital lesions supported a diagnosis of herpes simplex. Anti-herpes simplex 2 antibodies were markedly raised in both patients. The Tzanck smear was positive in one case and negative in the other, despite a definitive clinical diagnosis of herpes progenitalis. CIU, which was inadequately controlled with antihistamines alone, responded dramatically to the addition of acyclovir therapy. Our results may not be applicable to other patients with CIU, especially when there is inadequate evidence of an association with genital herpes. CIU may be associated with recurrent genital herpes simplex infection. In such situations, the addition of acyclovir to therapy may be beneficial.

  14. Hospital admissions for herpes zoster in Portugal between 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Margarida; Froes, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    Introdução e Objectivos: O aumento da incidência de herpes zoster e da nevralgia pós-herpética estão associados ao envelhecimento da população. Estas patologias podem ser francamente debilitantes e ter um grande impacto na qualidade de vida dos doentes. Numa população envelhecida como a portuguesa, é esperado que o impacto do herpes zoster e da post-herpetic neuralgia aumentem. No entanto, não existe no país nenhum sistema específico de monitorização da doença e não foram encontrados dados epidemiológicos portugueses nas últimas décadas. A vacina contra o herpes zoster, já recomendada noutros países europeus, ainda não se encontra disponível em Portugal. Conhecer o impacto do herpes zoster é importante para fundamentar medidas de saúde pública relacionadas com a vacinação.Material e Métodos: Procedeu-se a uma análise retrospetiva da base de dados da Administração Central dos Sistemas de Saúde com a informação clínica codificada dos internamentos hospitalares de todos os indivíduos com o diagnóstico principal de herpes zoster (ICD-9-CM 053) e que tiveram alta entre 2000 e 2010.Resultados: Em Portugal, entre 2000 e 2010, ocorreram 1 706 internamentos hospitalares com o diagnóstico principal de herpes zoster. A maioria dos doentes era idosa. Do total de internados, 10,6% tinham formas potencialmente graves de imunocompromisso. A doença predominante de herpes zoster sem complicações, seguido de herpes zoster do sistema nervoso e oftálmico. A duração média dos internamentos foi de 9,3 dias, aumentando com a idade. A letalidade intra-hospitalar foi de 1%. Considerando o período de 2000-2009 e apenas a população adulta, a média anual da incidência dos internamentos hospitalares com o diagnóstico principal deherpes zoster foi de 1,9 por 100 000 habitantes, aumentando com a idade.Conclusão: Este estudo confirma que, em Portugal, as formas graves de herpes zoster estão relacionadas com a idade e associadas a

  15. Neonatal herpes prevention: a minor public health problem in some communities

    PubMed Central

    Mindel, A; Taylor, J; Tideman, R; Seifert, C; Berry, G; Wagner, K; Page, J; Marks, C; Trudinger, B; Cunningham, A

    2000-01-01

    Background: Neonatal herpes is a condition with high morbidity and mortality. The greatest risk occurs when the mother acquires herpes simplex virus (HSV) towards the end of pregnancy. A study from Seattle has suggested that the risk of acquisition of HSV during pregnancy was 3.7%. In Australia, HSV-2 infection is less common in pregnant women than in the United States. Consequently we conducted a study to establish HSV seroprevalence and the rate of HSV seroconversion in this population. Methods: The study was conducted at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, between June 1995 and April 1998. Women completed a questionnaire covering risk factors for the acquisition of genital herpes. A serum sample during pregnancy and a specimen of cord blood were obtained and tested for antibodies to HSV-2 using a type specific indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Equivocal results were resolved by western blot. A subset of the paired sera was tested for antibodies to HSV-1. The data were analysed using SPSS. Results: 326 of the 2616 (12.5%) women were HSV-2 seropositive. Three women (0.15%) acquired HSV-2 infection during pregnancy. None of the three babies of these mothers developed neonatal herpes. 416 maternal cord pairs were tested for HSV-1 antibodies and 330 (79.3%) were positive. No HSV-1 seroconversions occurred. Conclusions: In this population, HSV acquisition was uncommon (0.34% per year) and neonatal herpes was rare. A cost effective analysis suggested that type specific serology to screen pregnant women and their partners in low prevalence communities was not cost effective. Key Words: type specific serology; herpes simplex virus; neonatal herpes PMID:11026885

  16. Balm mint extract (Lo-701) for topical treatment of recurring herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Koytchev, R; Alken, R G; Dundarov, S

    1999-10-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was carried out with the aim of proving efficacy of standardized balm mint cream [active ingredient: 1% Lo-701--dried extract from Melissa officinalis L. leaves (70:1)] for the therapy of herpes simplex labialis. Sixty six patients with a history of recurrent herpes labialis (at least four episodes per year) in one center were treated topically; 34 of them with verum and 32 with placebo. The cream had to be smeared on the affected area four times daily over five days. A combined symptom score of the values for complaints, size of affected area and blisters at day 2 of therapy was formed as the primary target parameter. There was a significant difference in the values of the primary target parameter between both treatment groups: verum 4.03 +/- 0.33 (3.0); placebo 4.94 +/- 0.40 (5.0); values given are mean +/- SEM (median) of the symptoms score on day 2 of therapy. The tested formulation is effective for the treatment of herpes simplex labialis. The significant difference in the combined symptom score on the second day of treatment is of particular importance having in mind that the complaints in patients suffering from herpes labialis are usually most intensive at that time. In addition to the shortening of the healing period, the prevention of a spreading of the infection and the rapid effect on typical symptoms of herpes like itching, tingling, burning, stabbing, swelling, tautness and erythema, the balm mint cream has a further advantage. The different mechanism of action of the balm mint extract rules out the development of resistance of the herpes virus. Some indication exists that the intervals between the periods with herpes might be prolonged with balm mint cream treatment.

  17. Zoster vaccine (Zostavax): a review of its use in preventing herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Mark; Keating, Gillian M

    2010-02-01

    Individuals who have been infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) are at risk for developing herpes zoster and this risk appears to be related to a decline in VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Zostavax (zoster vaccine) is a one-dose, high-potency, live, attenuated VZV vaccine that boosts VZV-specific CMI and this is its presumed mechanism of action. Zoster vaccine is registered in the EU for use in adults aged >or=50 years for the prevention of herpes zoster and herpes zoster-related postherpetic neuralgia. In the Shingles Prevention Study, a placebo-controlled trial in adults aged >or=60 years (n = 38 546), zoster vaccine led to a sustained boost of VZV-specific CMI. Over a mean herpes zoster surveillance period of 3.1 years, zoster vaccine reduced the herpes zoster-related burden of illness by 61%, reduced the incidence of herpes zoster by 51% and reduced the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia by 67%. Zoster vaccine recipients who developed herpes zoster had a shorter illness duration and severity than placebo recipients who developed herpes zoster. Zoster vaccine had continuing efficacy in a Shingles Prevention Study subpopulation followed for 7 years post-vaccination. Zoster vaccine was generally well tolerated in older adults. While cost-effectiveness estimates in pharmacoeconomic analyses varied widely according to vaccine and herpes zoster parameter cost/benefit estimates, an analysis from a UK perspective found a zoster vaccine immunization programme in adults aged 65 years to be cost effective. In older adults, the zoster vaccine has the potential to significantly reduce the herpes zoster burden of illness by decreasing the incidence of herpes zoster or reducing its severity.

  18. Most common dermatologic topics published in five high-impact general medical journals, 1970-2012: melanoma, psoriasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young M; Namavar, Aram A; Wu, Jashin J

    2014-01-01

    General practitioners frequently encounter skin diseases and are accustomed to diagnosing the most common dermatologic conditions. We sought to determine the most common dermatologic topics published in five high-impact general medical journals (New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, the Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal (now The BMJ), and Annals of Internal Medicine). We conducted an independent search of the Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index for common dermatologic topics, limited to the period 1970 to 2012. Total number of publications dealing with each dermatologic topic considered. The five most common dermatologic topics published were melanoma, psoriasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne. Melanoma and psoriasis were the top two dermatologic topics published in each journal except for Annals of Internal Medicine. Internists frequently diagnose herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne, which are also common dermatologic topics published. Although internists infrequently diagnose melanoma and psoriasis, they are major topics for general medical journals because of their increased community awareness, major advancements in therapeutic research, and their nondermatologic manifestations.

  19. Most Common Dermatologic Topics Published in Five High-Impact General Medical Journals, 1970–2012: Melanoma, Psoriasis, Herpes Simplex, Herpes Zoster, and Acne

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young M; Namavar, Aram A; Wu, Jashin J

    2014-01-01

    Context: General practitioners frequently encounter skin diseases and are accustomed to diagnosing the most common dermatologic conditions. Objective: We sought to determine the most common dermatologic topics published in five high-impact general medical journals (New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, the Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal (now The BMJ), and Annals of Internal Medicine). Design: We conducted an independent search of the Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index for common dermatologic topics, limited to the period 1970 to 2012. Main Outcome Measure: Total number of publications dealing with each dermatologic topic considered. Results: The five most common dermatologic topics published were melanoma, psoriasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne. Melanoma and psoriasis were the top two dermatologic topics published in each journal except for Annals of Internal Medicine. Conclusions: Internists frequently diagnose herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne, which are also common dermatologic topics published. Although internists infrequently diagnose melanoma and psoriasis, they are major topics for general medical journals because of their increased community awareness, major advancements in therapeutic research, and their nondermatologic manifestations. PMID:25662523

  20. Unilateral Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Results in Bilateral Corneal Nerve Alteration

    PubMed Central

    Hamrah, Pedram; Cruzat, Andrea; Dastjerdi, Mohammad H.; Prüss, Harald; Zheng, Lixin; Shahatit, Bashar M.; Bayhan, Hasan A.; Dana, Reza; Pavan-Langston, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO), thought to be a unilateral disease, results in loss of corneal sensation, leading to neurotrophic keratopathy. This study aimed to analyze bilateral corneal nerve changes in patients with HZO by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and their correlation with corneal sensation as a measure of nerve function. Design Prospective, cross-sectional, controlled, single-center study. Participants Twenty-seven eyes with the diagnosis of HZO and their contralateral clinically unaffected eyes were studied and compared with normal controls (n = 15). Methods In vivo confocal microscopy (Confoscan 4; Nidek Technologies, Gamagori, Japan) and corneal esthesiometry (Cochet-Bonnet; Luneau Ophthalmologie, Chartres, France) of the central cornea were performed bilaterally in all patients and controls. Patients were grouped into normal (>5.5 cm), mild (>2.5–5.5 cm), and severe (<2.5 cm) loss of sensation. Main Outcome Measures Changes in corneal nerve density, total nerve number, main nerve trunks, branching, and tortuosity were evaluated after IVCM and were correlated to corneal sensation, disease duration, and number of recurrences. Results Eyes with herpes zoster ophthalmicus had a significant (P<0.001) decrease in total nerve length (595.8±358.1 vs. 2258.4±989.0 μm/frame), total number of nerves (5.4±2.8 vs. 13.1±3.8), number of main nerve trunks (2.3±1.1 vs. 4.7±1.2), and number of nerve branches (3.2±2.3 vs. 8.4±3.7) as compared with controls. In the contralateral clinically unaffected eyes, total nerve length (1053.1±441.4 μm/frame), total number of nerves (8.3±2.9), and main nerve trunks (3.1±1.0) also were decreased significantly as compared with controls (P<0.01). Reduced nerve density, total nerve count, main trunks, and tortuosity was correlated significantly with corneal sensation across all subgroups (P<0.001). Conclusions Patients with unilateral HZO demonstrated a profound and significant bilateral loss of the

  1. Nelfinavir Inhibits Maturation and Export of Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Nene N.; Desai, Prashant J.; Shirley, Courtney M.; Gibson, Wade; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nelfinavir (NFV) is an HIV-1 protease inhibitor with demonstrated antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and several other herpesviruses. However, the stages of HSV-1 replication inhibited by NFV have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of NFV on capsid assembly and envelopment. We confirmed the inhibitory effects of NFV on HSV-1 replication by plaque assay and found that treatment with NFV did not affect capsid assembly, activity of the HSV-1 maturational protease, or formation of DNA-containing capsids in the nucleus. Confocal and electron microscopy studies showed that these capsids were transported to the cytoplasm but failed to complete secondary envelopment and subsequent exit from the cell. Consistent with the microscopy results, a light-scattering band corresponding to enveloped virions was not evident following sucrose gradient rate-velocity separation of lysates from drug-treated cells. Evidence of a possibly related effect of NFV on viral glycoprotein maturation was also discovered. NFV also inhibited the replication of an HSV-1 thymidine kinase mutant resistant to nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir. Given that NFV is neither a nucleoside mimic nor a known inhibitor of nucleic acid synthesis, this was expected and suggests its potential as a coinhibitor or alternate antiviral therapeutic agent in cases of resistance. IMPORTANCE Nelfinavir (NFV) is a clinically important antiviral drug that inhibits production of infectious HIV. It was reported to inhibit herpesviruses in cell culture. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections are common and often associated with several diseases. The studies we describe here confirm and extend earlier findings by investigating how NFV interferes with HSV-1 replication. We show that early steps in virus formation (e.g., assembly of DNA-containing capsids in the nucleus and their movement into the cytoplasm) appear to be unaffected by NFV, whereas later steps (e

  2. Molecular and serologic diagnostic approaches; the prevalence of herpes simplex in idiopathic men infertile

    PubMed Central

    Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA

  3. Healthcare seeking and sexual behavior among patients with symptomatic newly acquired genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Richards, Julie; Krantz, Elizabeth; Selke, Stacy; Wald, Anna

    2008-12-01

    Symptoms among patients with first episode herpes simplex virus (HSV) likely influence health seeking and sexual behavior. An improved understanding of this relationship provides insight into the experience of having genital herpes and has implications for counseling. To describe the healthcare seeking and sexual behavior in patients with symptomatic laboratory confirmed first episode HSV infection. Two hundred thirty-six patients (94 men and 142 women) with newly acquired genital herpes were asked to complete a demographic and sexual history questionnaire. To confirm initial HSV diagnosis, swabs of lesions were collected for viral culture and HSV DNA polymerase chain reaction and blood was drawn for confirmation of HSV serostatus using the Western blot. Women reported pain and men reported lesions as the most frequent and bothersome symptom or sign causing each to seek healthcare. Forty-three percent of all participants missed some work or school because of their symptoms; women missed more school or work, sought care sooner, and saw more providers than men. Before diagnosis, most respondents (67%) suspected genital herpes was the etiology of the symptoms. Twenty-seven percent reported having sex after noticing their symptoms, though those who missed more school or work were less likely to engage in sexual intercourse. Men and women have different experiences with first episode HSV, but morbidity is substantial, especially among women. Both men and women may continue to engage in sexual activity after onset of genital herpes, emphasizing the need for providers to counsel their patients to avoid exposing partners to the infection.

  4. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient.

    PubMed

    Roger, Marie R; Anstead, Gregory M

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success.

  5. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Marie R.

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success. PMID:28373917

  6. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study: Rationale, Design, and Description of a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. Methods The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. Results We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. Conclusions The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese. PMID:22343323

  7. Functional decline and herpes zoster in older people: an interplay of multiple factors.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Herpes zoster is a frequent painful infectious disease whose incidence and severity increase with age. In older people, there is a strong bidirectional link between herpes zoster and functional decline, which refers to a decrement in ability to perform activities of daily living due to ageing and disabilities. However, the exact nature of such link remains poorly established. Based on the opinion from a multidisciplinary group of experts, we here propose a new model to account for the interplay between infection, somatic/psychiatric comorbidity, coping skills, polypharmacy, and age, which may account for the functional decline related to herpes zoster in older patients. This model integrates the risk of decompensation of underlying disease; the risk of pain becoming chronic (e.g. postherpetic neuralgia); the risk of herpes zoster non-pain complications; the detrimental impact of herpes zoster on quality of life, functioning, and mood; the therapeutic difficulties due to multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and ageing; and the role of stressful life events in the infection itself and comorbid depression. This model underlines the importance of early treatment, strengthening coping, and vaccine prevention.

  8. Application and tolerability of Herpotherm(®) in the treatment of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Schlippe, Gerrit; Voss, Werner; Brenn, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    Genital herpes is the manifestation of a herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Standard treatment uses both local and systemic approaches. Here, we report on the results of a local therapy approach with 31 female patients at a gynecological practice. In the here-described approach, established genital herpes infection was treated with the medical device Herpotherm(®), with or without virostatic drugs. Herpotherm(®) is a certified medical device operating on the basis of local heat application. Parameters evaluated during the approach were (i) subjective patient assessments and (ii) objective assessment of the physician. In the described therapy approach a positive effect in terms of nature and severity in the course of the disease using Herpotherm(®) could be demonstrated. It could be shown that Herpotherm(®) can also be used for genital herpes and that it is well tolerated. In relation to other therapies using topical treatment for genital herpes, an extremely rapid reduction of pain and herpetic symptoms could be observed. Intolerances or discontinued use as a result of complications were not observed.

  9. Protein sequences clustering of herpes virus by using Tribe Markov clustering (Tribe-MCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamam, A.; Siswantining, T.; Febriyani, N. L.; Novitasari, I. D.; Cahyaningrum, R. D.

    2017-07-01

    The herpes virus can be found anywhere and one of the important characteristics is its ability to cause acute and chronic infection at certain times so as a result of the infection allows severe complications occurred. The herpes virus is composed of DNA containing protein and wrapped by glycoproteins. In this work, the Herpes viruses family is classified and analyzed by clustering their protein-sequence using Tribe Markov Clustering (Tribe-MCL) algorithm. Tribe-MCL is an efficient clustering method based on the theory of Markov chains, to classify protein families from protein sequences using pre-computed sequence similarity information. We implement the Tribe-MCL algorithm using an open source program of R. We select 24 protein sequences of Herpes virus obtained from NCBI database. The dataset consists of three types of glycoprotein B, F, and H. Each type has eight herpes virus that infected humans. Based on our simulation using different inflation factor r=1.5, 2, 3 we find a various number of the clusters results. The greater the inflation factor the greater the number of their clusters. Each protein will grouped together in the same type of protein.

  10. Epidemiological Study on the Incidence of Herpes Zoster in Nearby Cheonan

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ho Soon; Kang, Jin Ku

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes Zoster is a disease that occurs after the virus is reactivated due to infection of the varicella virus in childhood. Risk factors are advanced age, malignant neoplasm, organ transplantation, immunosuppressive agents taking are known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the seasonal effect and other risk factors on the incidence of herpes zoster. Methods The medical records of 1,105 patients admitted to the outpatient diagnosed with herpes zoster were retrospectively examined. The patients' sex, age, dermatome, onset, underlying disease, residential areas were collected. Results The incidence of women outnumbered men and increased for those above the age of 50. The number of occurrences of herpes zoster patients was higher in the spring and summer than in winter. Unlike men, women had the most frequent outbreaks in March. The most common occurrence of dermatome is in the thoracic region. The number of occurrence was similar on the left as the right. Conclusions In this study, herpes zoster occurs more often in women than in men and more frequently occurs in women in the spring and summer. PMID:26175879

  11. [Data mining analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi AIDS herpes zoster medical record].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Ni; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-Jun

    2013-08-01

    Analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi in the treatment of AIDS drug laws of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia, provide reference for the use of Chinese medicine treatment of AIDS, herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. By using the method of analyzing the complex network of Weishi county, Henan in 2007 October to 2011 July during an interview with professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia patients, patients are input structured clinical information collection system, into the analysis of the data, carries on the research analysis theory of traditional Chinese medicine compatibility system algorithm and complex network analysis the use of complex networks. The use of multi-dimensional query analysis of AIDS drugs, the core of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia treated in this study are Scutellariae Radix, Glucyrrhizae Radix, Carthame Flos, Plantaginis Semen, Trichosamthis Fructus, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Gentianae Radix; core prescription for Longdan Xiegan decoction and Trichosanthes red liquorice decoction. Professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS, herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia by clearing heat and removing dampness and activating blood circulation to.

  12. Photodynamic therapy can be effective as a treatment for herpes simplex labialis.

    PubMed

    Marotti, Juliana; Aranha, Ana Cecília Correa; Eduardo, Carlos De Paula; Ribeiro, Martha Simões

    2009-04-01

    Herpes is a common infectious disease that is caused by human herpesviruses. Several treatments have been proposed, but none of them prevent reactivation of the virus. This article describes the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a treatment for herpes lesions, and reports on four cases. PDT was used as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of herpes labialis in four patients. A special type of 0.01% (m/V) of methylene blue solution was applied to the vesicular stage of herpesviral disease and the lesions were irradiated with laser energy (wavelength 660 nm, energy density 120 J/cm(2), output power of 40 mW, 2 min per point, 4.8 J of energy/point, at four points). After 24 h the patients returned and phototherapy was repeated with the same equipment, this time with 3.8 J/cm(2) and 15 mW, for a total dose of 0.6 J. The same procedure was repeated 72 h and 1 wk later. Treatment with low-level laser therapy can be considered as an option in the treatment of herpes labialis, and decreases the frequency of vesicle recurrence and provides comfort for patients. No significant acute side effects were noted and the lesions healed rapidly. Treatment of herpes labialis with PDT was effective, had no side effects, and when associated with laser phototherapy, accelerated the healing process.

  13. Predictive factors of herpes zoster HIV-infected patients: another adverse effect of crack cocaine.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Mathieu; Basurko, Celia; Adenis, Antoine; Gaubert-Marechal, Emilie; Mosnier, Emilie; Edouard, Sophie; Vantilcke, Vincent; Sivapregassam, Sindou; Tressières, Benoit; Cabié, André; Couppié, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1541 HIV-infected patients to determine variables associated with the incidence of herpes zoster. A single failure Cox model showed that herpes zoster incidence increased following the first 6 months of antiretroviral treatment adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=5 (95%CI=2.6-9.2), P<0.001; in the >60 years age group AHR=2 (95%CI=1-4), P=0.04; in patients in the top CD8 quartile AHR=2.1 (95%CI=1.3-3.6), P<0.001; and in patients previously reported to use crack cocaine AHR=5.9, (95%CI=1.4-25), P=0.02. Herpes zoster incidence increased in patients with CD4 counts<500 per mm(3) and gradually declined since 1992-1996, with AHR=0.3 (95%CI=0.2-0.5), P<0.001 for the 1997-2002 period and AHR=0.24 (95%CI=0.14-0.4), P<0.001 for the 2002-2008 period. Contrary to what has been described elsewhere, there was no specific effect of protease inhibitors on herpes zoster incidence. The present study is the first to suggest that crack cocaine is associated with an increased incidence of herpes zoster. The neurological or immunological effects of crack are discussed.

  14. Identification and analysis of putative promoter motifs in bovine herpes virus.

    PubMed

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh Mallikrjun; Sanakal, Rajeshwari Danappa; Kaliwal, Basappa Basaveneppa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyse the putative promoter motifs in the bovine herpes virus which causes several diseases in cattle worldwide including bovine mastitis with large economic impact on dairy industry. Bovine mastitis caused due to virus is often neglected as bacterial infections are held mainly responsible for the disease. Therefore, in this in silico investigation with all the existing experimental data a total of 147 promoter were identified along with their sequences from three genome viz bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV), bovine herpes virus 4 and bovine herpes virus 5, out of which 39 promoters were from bovine herpes virus 4 (BHV 4), 95 from BHV1 and 13 from BHV5 and it was observed that BHV1 and BHV5 have a close evolutionary history. However, they belong to the same subfamily and size of the genome and GC% of BHV1 and BHV5 was almost equal and very high compare to that of BHV4. This analysis may help in designing the live attenuated vaccine against BHV causing bovine mastitis that reduces the incidence of bovine mastitis. Identification of promoters may also help in designing of expression vectors which help in better understanding of the regulation of gene expression. In the era of large genomics and proteomics prediction of promoters in the whole genome is crucial for the advancement of drug discovery and gene therapy.

  15. Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections in mothers and newborns in a Havana maternity hospital.

    PubMed

    Festary, Aimée; Kourí, Vivian; Correa, Consuelo B; Verdasquera, Denis; Roig, Tania; Couret, Martha P

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus are associated with congenital or perinatal infection, causing potential damage to the newborn. Determine the prevalence of active or latent infection by cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus in a population of mothers, congenital infection by these agents in their infants, and association between prevalence of virus infection in mothers and in their newborns. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 in a population of 95 pregnant women admitted to the Dr Ramón González Coro University Maternity Hospital during the third trimester of pregnancy, and their infants (98). Patients were tested for antibodies specific to these viruses; vaginal swabs and urine from the women and serum and urine from the newborns were tested for viral genome. The Fisher exact test with 95% confidence interval was used for comparisons. Of the women studied, 89.5% tested positive for cytomegalovirus and 83.2% for herpes simplex. Active infection from cytomegalovirus was detected in 16.7%, and from herpes simplex in 3.2%. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection was detected in 4.1% of newborns; no herpes simplex virus infection was found in this group. Two newborns of women with active cytomegalovirus infection were congenitally infected. Serology demonstrated that most of the women were immune to both viruses. Active cytomegalovirus infections are common in this population, and newborns of women with active cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy are at increased risk of congenital infection.

  16. Replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Birch, J; Fink, C G; Skinner, G R; Thomas, G H; Jordan, J A

    1976-08-01

    The replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture was investigated. The temporal profile of virus replication was related to the initial virus inoculum; high input inocula induced a rapid increase in virus titre while lower multiplicities induced a more slow-rising increase in virus titre. Our evidence suggested that explants were capable of initiating and supporting virus replication for at least 2 weeks following establishment of the culture. Virus yields were optimal when explants were cultured at 37 degrees and in serum-supplemented medium. Explants also supported the replication of type 1 herpes simplex virus and a "non-human" herpes simplex virus (pseudo-rabies virus). The optimal conditions for replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical explants have been established and will provide a model permitting precise investigation of lytic or other virus-cervical cell interactions and their possible relationship to herpes virus-induced pre-invasive carcinoma of this organ.

  17. Replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, J.; Fink, C. G.; Skinner, G. R.; Thomas, G. H.; Jordan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture was investigated. The temporal profile of virus replication was related to the initial virus inoculum; high input inocula induced a rapid increase in virus titre while lower multiplicities induced a more slow-rising increase in virus titre. Our evidence suggested that explants were capable of initiating and supporting virus replication for at least 2 weeks following establishment of the culture. Virus yields were optimal when explants were cultured at 37 degrees and in serum-supplemented medium. Explants also supported the replication of type 1 herpes simplex virus and a "non-human" herpes simplex virus (pseudo-rabies virus). The optimal conditions for replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical explants have been established and will provide a model permitting precise investigation of lytic or other virus-cervical cell interactions and their possible relationship to herpes virus-induced pre-invasive carcinoma of this organ. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:183806

  18. Acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: effects of acyclovir and outcome of treatment with amitriptyline.

    PubMed Central

    Bowsher, D

    1992-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to assess the effects of acyclovir treatment of acute herpes zoster on subsequent postherpetic neuralgia, and to examine the effects of amitriptyline in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Eighty seven patients with postherpetic neuralgia of three or more months' duration were studied: 24 of them had had their herpes zoster treated with oral acyclovir. At first presentation, only 25% of the 24 patients who had had their herpes zoster treated with acyclovir selected the word group containing burning on the McGill pain questionnaire compared with 76% of the 63 patients who had not received acyclovir. A higher proportion of patients who had had acyclovir than had not selected the word group which contains the word aching (63% versus 49%). Acyclovir thus appears to change the nature of postherpetic neuralgia. Postherpetic neuralgia was treated with amitriptyline, alone or in combination with distigmine and/or sodium valproate. There was a strong correlation between pain relief and the interval between the occurrence of herpes zoster and the initiation of treatment with amitriptyline--early treatment is almost twice as likely to be successful as late. Since conventional analgesics and sympatholytic drugs are of no benefit in the treatment of established postherpetic neuralgia, the sequelae of herpes zoster must, therefore, be recognized and treated with amitriptyline as soon as possible. PMID:1419247

  19. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) study: rationale, design, and description of a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese.

  20. The use of FTIR microscopy for evaluation of herpes viruses infection development kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Mukmanov, Igor; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2004-08-01

    The kinetics of Herpes simplex infection development was studied using an FTIR microscopy (FTIR-M) method. The family of herpes viruses includes several members like H. simplex types I and II (HSV I, II), Varicella zoster (VZV) viruses which are involved in various human and animal infections of different parts of the body. In our previous study, we found significant spectral differences between normal uninfected cells in cultures and cells infected with herpes viruses at early stages of the infection. In the present study, cells in cultures were infected with either HSV-I or VZV and at various times post-infection they were examined either by optical microscopy or by advanced FTIR-M. Spectroscopic measurements show a consistent decrease in the intensity of the carbohydrate peak in correlation with the viral infection development, observed by optical microscopy. This decrease in cellular carbohydrate level was used as indicator for herpes viruses infection kinetics. This parameter could be used as a basis for applying a spectroscopic method for the evaluation of herpes virus infection development. Our results show also that the development kinetics of viral infection has an exponential character for these viruses.

  1. [Herpes simplex virus type 1-induced rising dbl quote, left (low)tumor" in the nasal vestibule. The problem of resistance development of herpes simplex in a patient with chronic lymphatic B-cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Althof, F; Mechtersheimer, M; Richter, M; Dietz, A

    2000-02-01

    Herpes simplex viruses are known to be among the most common disease-causing microorganisms. Their prevalence can exceed 90% depending on the socioeconomic status of the population. Since the number of immunocompromised patients has increased because of the increased incidence in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and an increase in organ transplantation, herpes virus infection may have a greater clinical significance. While treatment of otherwise healthy individuals will not usually cause any clinical problems herpes infection in an immunocompromised patient can have severe consequences. Additionally, development of viral resistance can be observed that may require alternative drugs in treatment. We present a case history of a man with a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia that was associated with a very unusual herpes simplex virus infection in the nasal vestibule. Possible causes for the development of resistance in herpes infections and the use of famciclovir and forscarnet as two therapeutic alternatives to aciclovir are discussed.

  2. Predictive values of prurigo nodularis and herpes zoster for HIV infection and immunosuppression requiring HAART in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Magand, Florence; Nacher, Mathieu; Cazorla, Céline; Cambazard, Frederic; Marie, Dominique Sainte; Couppié, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Prurigo nodularis and herpes zoster frequently lead to the diagnosis of HIV in tropical areas. The WHO has established a clinical definition of AIDS for undeveloped countries. Prurigo and herpes zoster are both classified as stage 2. The main objective of this study was to compare the level of immunosuppression of patients diagnosed as HIV-positive after consulting for prurigo nodularis or herpes zoster in French Guiana. A retrospective study was conducted including patients consulting at the Department of Dermatology, Cayenne Hospital (French Guiana) for prurigo nodularis or herpes zoster between 1989 and 2007 for which the systematic HIV test was positive. Demographic data and CD4 counts of both groups were compared. Analysis of 346 patients consulting for herpes zoster (n=192) or prurigo nodularis (n=154) led to the discovery of 129 HIV infections. The positive predictive value (PPV) for HIV positivity was 38.5% for herpes zoster and 36% for prurigo nodularis. The median lymphocyte count was 302/mm(3) in herpes zoster and 87/mm(3) in prurigo nodularis (P<0.001). The PPV for having a CD4 lymphocyte count<200/mm(3) was 26.5% for herpes zoster and 72% for prurigo nodularis. Prurigo nodularis was predictive of advanced immunosuppression. This questions the pertinence of the WHO clinical classification of AIDS. In the absence of CD4 count, the present results suggest that for patients with prurigo nodularis, antiretrovirals should be initiated without delay.

  3. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

  4. Herpes zoster in the T1 dermatome presenting with Horner’s syndrome, radicular weakness, and postherpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, W Oliver; Spencer, Byron R; Demaerschalk, Bart M

    2008-01-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by varicella zoster virus infection involving the dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerve roots. This common problem can be associated with multiple neurological abnormalities. We present a case of Herpes zoster affecting the T1 dermatome associated with ipsilateral Horner’s syndrome and radicular weakness. PMID:23745053

  5. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

  6. Insights into pediatric herpes simplex encephalitis from a cohort of 21 children from the California Encephalitis Project, 1998-2011.

    PubMed

    To, Tu M; Soldatos, Ariane; Sheriff, Heather; Schmid, D Scott; Espinosa, Natasha; Cosentino, Giorgio; Preas, Christopher P; Glaser, Carol A

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-one children with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were identified in the California Encephalitis Project.Noteworthy features included 6 (29%) patients with an initial negative herpes simplex virus cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction test and 13 (62%) patients with extratemporal lobe involvement identified by neuroimaging [corrected]. Eleven cases were <4 years of age, but all 4 fatal cases occurred in adolescents.

  7. Clinical Correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus Viremia Among Hospitalized Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, William R.; Jerome, Keith R.; Cook, Linda; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Casper, Corey

    2009-01-01

    Background The quantification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA from the peripheral blood is often used to evaluate patients suspected of having disseminated HSV infection. Few studies have examined the clinical correlates of HSV viremia among adults. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of blood samples sent to a reference molecular virology diagnostic facility at a university hospital for quantification of HSV DNA between October 2001 and June 2006. Medical records of patients with detectable HSV DNA were reviewed to abstract relevant clinical characteristics. Results HSV DNA was detected in 37 (4.0%) of 951 samples from 29 individual patients. 19 (65.5%) were >16 years of age, and detailed medical records were available for review from 13 (68.4%) of 19 adults patients. Of the 10 patients whose HSV infection was typed, 6 (60%) had HSV-2, 3 (30%) had HSV-1, and one had evidence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection. All viremic patients were treated with antiviral medications. The most common clinical findings were hepatitis (62%), fever (54%), CNS alterations (46%), skin lesions (38%), abdominal pain (31%), and sepsis (31%). Respiratory failure (23%) was uncommon. Patients with HSV viremia were observed to have a high mortality rate (6 of 10 immunocompromised and 1 of 3 immunocompetent individuals). Conclusions HSV viremia may be associated with a variety of morbid signs and symptoms in hospitalized immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults, and is associated with high rates of mortality, though causality can only be determined by additional studies. PMID:19807272

  8. Evaluation of the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, Donatella; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Icardi, Giancarlo; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden. PMID:25483704

  9. Inhibitors of nucleotidyltransferase superfamily enzymes suppress herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Tavis, John E; Wang, Hong; Tollefson, Ann E; Ying, Baoling; Korom, Maria; Cheng, Xiaohong; Cao, Feng; Davis, Katie L; Wold, William S M; Morrison, Lynda A

    2014-12-01

    Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious human diseases. Herpesvirus DNA replication depends on multiple processes typically catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS) enzymes. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibitors of NTS enzymes would suppress replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. Eight of 42 NTS inhibitors suppressed HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 replication by >10-fold at 5 μM, with suppression at 50 μM reaching ∼1 million-fold. Five compounds in two chemical families inhibited HSV replication in Vero and human foreskin fibroblast cells as well as the approved drug acyclovir did. The compounds had 50% effective concentration values as low as 0.22 μM with negligible cytotoxicity in the assays employed. The inhibitors suppressed accumulation of viral genomes and infectious particles and blocked events in the viral replication cycle before and during viral DNA replication. Acyclovir-resistant mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 remained highly sensitive to the NTS inhibitors. Five of six NTS inhibitors of the HSVs also blocked replication of another herpesvirus pathogen, human cytomegalovirus. Therefore, NTS enzyme inhibitors are promising candidates for new herpesvirus treatments that may have broad efficacy against members of the herpesvirus family.

  10. Clinical and immunologic features of recurrent herpes zoster (HZ).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Miyagawa, Fumi; Okazaki, Aiko; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamanishi, Koichi; Asada, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent herpes zoster (HZ) is thought to be rare, but there have been few large-scale studies of recurrent HZ. We conducted a large-scale prospective cohort study to characterize recurrent HZ. We examined 12,522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County and followed them up for 3 years. We compared the incidence of HZ and postherpetic neuralgia, severity of skin lesions and acute pain, cell-mediated immunity, and varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody titer between primary and recurrent HZ. A total of 401 participants developed HZ: 341 with primary HZ and 60 with recurrent HZ. Skin lesions and acute pain were significantly milder and the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia was lower in patients aged 50 to 79 years with recurrent HZ than in those with primary HZ. Varicella-zoster virus skin test induced a stronger reaction in patients aged 50 to 79 years with recurrent HZ than in those with primary HZ. Information on previous HZ episodes was self-reported by participants, so it could not be confirmed that they actually had a history of HZ. Recurrent HZ was associated with milder clinical symptoms than primary HZ, probably because of stronger varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity in the patients with recurrence. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extracts and molecules from medicinal plants against herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Ather, Arjumand; Thompson, Kenneth D; Gambari, Roberto

    2005-08-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are important pathogens for humans, especially in the case of highly susceptible adults. Moreover, HSV-2 has been reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection. Therefore, the discovery of novel anti-HSV drugs deserves great efforts. In this paper, we review anti-HSV substances from natural sources, including both extracts and pure compounds from herbal medicines, reported in studies from several laboratories. The role of traditional medicine for the development of anti-HSV compounds is also discussed. Interestingly, it was found that traditional medicines, like Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese (TCM), Chakma medicines, are good and potential sources for promising anti-HSV drugs. A second objective of this review is to discuss several anti-HSV compounds with respect to their structure-activity relationship (SAR). A large number of small molecules, like phenolics, polyphenols, terpenes (e.g., mono-, di-, tri-), flavonoids, sugar-containing compounds, were found to be promising anti-herpetic agents. Our major conclusion is that natural products from medicinal plant extracts are very important source of anti-HSV agents.

  12. Bowenoid papulosis at the site of prior herpes progenitalis.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Eleonora; Cutrì, Francesco Tripodi; Baroni, Adone

    2004-01-01

    A 35-year-old dentist came to the authors' attention for papular and vegetating lesions that had appeared on his penile shaft over the last 2 months. The lesions differed in their features: pink and vegetating on the left side, brown and papular on the right side (Figure 1). The obvious clinical diagnoses of genital warts on the left and Bowenoid papulosis on the right were confirmed by punch biopsies, which showed epithelial hyperplasia with diffuse cell vacuolization (koilocytes)in the left biopsy and moderate nuclear dysplasia in the right one (Figure 2). Human papillomavirus phenotyping was not performed. Interestingly, the patient reported a clear medical history of herpes progenital is (only one episode) that had involved the right side of his glans and prepuce 4 years ago. An immunomodulating treatment with imiquimod was started in the attempt to cure both the genital warts and Bowenoid papulosis lesions (imiquimod was applied three times a week for 8 weeks). At the end of the treatment, the genital warts had disappeared, whereas many Bowenoid papulosis lesions were still present on the right side of the penis (Figure 3). Treated with liquid nitrogen as well, the Bowenoid papulosis lesions disappeared.

  13. Nutritional factors in herpes zoster, postherpetic neuralgia, and zoster vaccination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Yin; Chang, Chia-Yu; Lin, Yung-Song; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2012-12-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) results from a reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV). HZ and its most common complication, termed postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), often cause long-term psychological distress and physical disabilities leading to profoundly negative impacts on the quality of patients' lives. The incidence and severity of HZ and PHN increase with advanced age as a consequence of declining cell-mediated immunity. Aging has been linked to progressive senescence of the immune system and also is associated with a greater susceptibility to nutritional deficiencies. Suppressing VZV reactivation depends on intact cell-mediated immunity, which requires adequate nutrients to maintain its efficient function. Contrarily, nutritional deficiencies may lead to dysfunction of the host immune responses. Recently, micronutrient deficiencies have been shown to increase the risk of HZ and PHN and to affect the immune response to vaccinations, whereas nutritional supplements effectively reduce herpetic pain and pain in patients with PHN. As the elderly population grows, the incidence and severity of HZ and PHN are expected to increase and cause a substantial financial burden on the health care system. Thus, enhancing knowledge of the risk factors of HZ and PHN and developing better interventions to treat and prevent HZ and PHN are important to public health. This article provides an overview of the present understanding of the association among nutritional deficiencies, diminished cell-mediated immunity, and the risk of HZ and PHN, and then illustrates the potential of nutritional intervention in the prevention, vaccination, and management of HZ and PHN.

  14. Bioreactor production of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Knop, David R; Harrell, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Serotypical application of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors to gene therapy (type 1) and prophylactic vaccines (types 1 and 2) has garnered substantial clinical interest recently. HSV vectors and amplicons have also been employed as helper virus constructs for manufacture of the dependovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV). Large quantities of infectious HSV stocks are requisite for these therapeutic applications, requiring a scalable vector manufacturing and processing platform comprised of unit operations which accommodate the fragility of HSV. In this study, production of a replication deficient rHSV-1 vector bearing the rep and cap genes of AAV-2 (denoted rHSV-rep2/cap2) was investigated. Adaptation of rHSV production from T225 flasks to a packed bed, fed-batch bioreactor permitted an 1100-fold increment in total vector production without a decrease in specific vector yield (pfu/cell). The fed-batch bioreactor system afforded a rHSV-rep2/cap2 vector recovery of 2.8 x 10(12) pfu. The recovered vector was concentrated by tangential flow filtration (TFF), permitting vector stocks to be formulated at greater than 1.5 x 10(9) pfu/mL.

  15. A Prospective Study of Herpes Zoster in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katakam, Bhumesh Kumar; Kiran, Geeta; Kumar, Udaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a dermatomal viral infection, caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) that persists in the posterior root ganglion. HZ is uncommonly reported in immunocompetent children. It may be due to intrauterine VZV infection or secondary to postnatal exposure to VZV at an early age. Aims: Our study was to review clinico-epidemiological data for HZ in children for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014. Consecutive cases clinically diagnosed as HZ in the pediatric age group were taken up. Results: We report the clinico-epidemiological study of 26 cases of HZ, their benign course and recovery among children. Conclusions: HZ is a rare disease in childhood. Varicella in early childhood is a risk factor of HZ in immunocompromised and immunocompetent children. Childhood zoster occurs in either healthy or underlying immunodeficient children. The appearance of HZ in a young child does not always imply an underlying immunodeficiency or malignancy. But the identification of HZ with or without immunodeficiency is of prime importance from the treatment and prognostic point of view and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vesicular eruptions. The prognosis is generally good in healthy children. PMID:27688444

  16. Subassemblies and Asymmetry in Assembly of Herpes Simplex Virus Procapsid

    PubMed Central

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Newcomb, William W.; Cheng, Naiqian; Winkler, Dennis C.; Fontana, Juan; Heymann, J. Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsid is a massive particle (~200 MDa; 1,250-Å diameter) with T=16 icosahedral symmetry. It initially assembles as a procapsid with ~4,000 protein subunits of 11 different kinds. The procapsid undergoes major changes in structure and composition as it matures, a process driven by proteolysis and expulsion of the internal scaffolding protein. Assembly also relies on an external scaffolding protein, the triplex, an α2β heterotrimer that coordinates neighboring capsomers in the procapsid and becomes a stabilizing clamp in the mature capsid. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate its assembly, we developed a novel isolation procedure for the metastable procapsid and collected a large set of cryo-electron microscopy data. In addition to procapsids, these preparations contain maturation intermediates, which were distinguished by classifying the images and calculating a three-dimensional reconstruction for each class. Appraisal of the procapsid structure led to a new model for assembly; in it, the protomer (assembly unit) consists of one triplex, surrounded by three major capsid protein (MCP) subunits. The model exploits the triplexes’ departure from 3-fold symmetry to explain the highly skewed MCP hexamers, the triplex orientations at each 3-fold site, and the T=16 architecture. These observations also yielded new insights into maturation. PMID:26443463

  17. Evolution and Diversity in Human Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Derek; Ochoa, Alejandro; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Dolan, Aidan; Bowden, Rory J.; Enquist, Lynn W.; Legendre, Matthieu; Davison, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a chronic, lifelong infection in >60% of adults. Multiple recent vaccine trials have failed, with viral diversity likely contributing to these failures. To understand HSV-1 diversity better, we comprehensively compared 20 newly sequenced viral genomes from China, Japan, Kenya, and South Korea with six previously sequenced genomes from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this diverse collection of passaged strains, we found that one-fifth of the newly sequenced members share a gene deletion and one-third exhibit homopolymeric frameshift mutations (HFMs). Individual strains exhibit genotypic and potential phenotypic variation via HFMs, deletions, short sequence repeats, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the protein sequence identity between strains exceeds 90% on average. In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, we found signs of selection in specific proteins and residues, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. We also confirmed previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSV-1 genome. Despite this, the HSV-1 strains analyzed clustered by geographic origin during whole-genome distance analysis. These data shed light on likely routes of HSV-1 adaptation to changing environments and will aid in the selection of vaccine antigens that are invariant worldwide. PMID:24227835

  18. Cervical cancer: is herpes simplex virus type II a cofactor?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C

    1995-01-01

    In many ways, cervical cancer behaves as a sexually transmitted disease. The major risk factors are multiple sexual partners and early onset of sexual activity. Although high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) play an important role in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer, other sexually transmitted infectious agents may be cofactors. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is transmitted primarily by sexual contact and therefore has been implicated as a risk factor. Several independent studies suggest that HSV-2 infections correlate with a higher than normal incidence of cervical cancer. In contrast, other epidemiological studies have concluded that infection with HSV-2 is not a major risk factor. Two separate transforming domains have been identified within the HSV-2 genome, but continued viral gene expression apparently is not necessary for neoplastic transformation. HSV infections lead to unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis, chromosomal amplifications, and mutations. These observations suggest that HSV-2 is not a typical DNA tumor virus. It is hypothesized that persistent or abortive infections induce permanent genetic alterations that interfere with differentiation of cervical epithelium and subsequently induce abnormal proliferation. Thus, HSV-2 may be a cofactor in some but not all cases of cervical cancer. PMID:8665469

  19. Evidence of Muller's ratchet in herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Nacarí; Domingo, Esteban; Muñoz-Egea, María Carmen; Tabarés, Enrique; Gadea, Ignacio

    2013-02-01

    Population bottlenecks can have major effects in the evolution of RNA viruses, but their possible influence in the evolution of DNA viruses is largely unknown. Genetic and biological variation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been studied by subjecting 23 biological clones of the virus to 10 plaque-to-plaque transfers. In contrast to large population passages, plaque transfers led to a decrease in replicative capacity of HSV-1. Two out of a total of 23 clones did not survive to the last transfer in 143 TK(-) cells. DNA from three genomic regions (DNA polymerase, glycoprotein gD and thymidine kinase) from the initial and passaged clones was sequenced. Nucleotide substitutions were detected in the TK and gD genes, but not in the DNA polymerase gene. Assuming a uniform distribution of mutations along the genome, the average rate of fixation of mutations was about five mutations per viral genome and plaque transfer. This value is comparable to the range of values calculated for RNA viruses. Four plaque-transferred populations lost neurovirulence for mice, as compared with the corresponding initial clones. LD(50) values obtained with the populations subjected to serial bottlenecks were 4- to 67-fold higher than for their parental clones. These results equate HSV-1 with RNA viruses regarding fitness decrease as a result of plaque-to-plaque transfers, and show that population bottlenecks can modify the pathogenic potential of HSV-1. Implications for the evolution of complex DNA viruses are discussed.

  20. Herpes zoster complicating imatinib mesylate for gastrointestinal stromal tumour.

    PubMed

    Durosinmi, M A; Ogbe, P O; Salawu, L; Oyekunle, A A

    2007-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is uncommon in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) and who have not been exposed to extensive radiotherapy and/or high-dose chemotherapy. We report a 56-year-old Nigerian man with GIST who developed VZV infection while on imatinib mesylate therapy. From August 2003 to November 2005, 64 patients (GIST/CML = 6/58) were enrolled into an ongoing Glivec (imatinib mesylate) international patient-assistance programme therapy for Philadelphia/bcr-abl-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and CD117-positive GIST patients at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The patient developed herpes zoster (HZ) infection 23 months into therapy with Glivec. With his absolute lymphocyte count at 2,774 cells per microlitre and CD4 count at 950 cells per microlitre, no obvious immunological defect was observed. Prompt resolution of symptoms without sequelae was achieved by treating with acyclovir, analgesic and dressing of lesions with desiccant. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of HZ infection in a patient with GIST on Glivec therapy, and the response is similar to that of CML patients who developed VZV while on similar therapy.