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Sample records for herschel gasps open

  1. The Evolution of Gas in Protoplanetary Systems: The Herschel GASPS Open Time Key Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, A.; Dent, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Gas in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) Open Time Key Programme for the Herschel Space Observatory will be the first extensive, systematic survey of gas in circumstellar disks over the critical transition from gas-rich protoplanetary through to gas-poor debris. The brightest spectral lines from disks lie in the far-infrared and arise from radii spanning roughly 10 to 100 AU, where giant planets are expected to form. Herschel is uniquely able to observe this wavelength regime with the sensitivity to allow a large scale survey. We will execute a 2-phase study using the PACS instrument. Phase I is a spectroscopic survey about 250 young stars for fine structure emission lines of [CII] (at 157 microns) and [OI] (at 63 microns). In Phase II, the brightest sources will be followed up with additional PACS spectroscopy ([OI] at 145 microns and some rotational lines of water). We expect that the gas mass sensitivity will be more than an order of magnitude lower than that achieved by ISO and Spitzer or expected for SOFIA. We will also measure the dust continuum to an equivalent mass sensitivity. We will observe several nearby clusters with ages from 1 to 30 Myr, encompassing a wide range of disk masses and stellar luminosities. The sample covers disk evolution from protoplanetary disks through to young debris disks, i.e. the main epoch of planet formation. With this extensive dataset, the GASPS project will: 1) trace gas and dust in the planet formation region across a large multivariate parameter space, 2) provide the first definitive measurement of the gas dissipation timescale in disks, 3) elucidate the evolutionary link between protoplanetary and debris disks, 4) investigate water abundances in the planetforming regions of disks, and 5) provide a huge database of disk observations and models with long-lasting legacy value for follow-up studies.

  2. The Evolution of Gas in Protoplanetary Systems: The Herschel GASPS Open Time Key Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, A.; Dent, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Gas in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) Open Time Key Programme for the Herschel Space Observatory will be the first extensive, systematic survey of gas in circumstellar disks over the critical transition from gas-rich protoplanetary through to gas-poor debris. The brightest spectral lines from disks lie in the far-infrared and arise from radii spanning roughly 10 to 100 AU, where giant planets are expected to form. Herschel is uniquely able to observe this wavelength regime with the sensitivity to allow a large scale survey. We will execute a 2-phase study using the PACS instrument. Phase I is a spectroscopic survey about 250 young stars for fine structure emission lines of [CII] (at 157 microns) and [OI] (at 63 microns). In Phase II, the brightest sources will be followed up with additional PACS spectroscopy ([OI] at 145 microns and some rotational lines of water). We expect that the gas mass sensitivity will be more than an order of magnitude lower than that achieved by ISO and Spitzer or expected for SOFIA. We will also measure the dust continuum to an equivalent mass sensitivity. We will observe several nearby clusters with ages from 1 to 30 Myr, encompassing a wide range of disk masses and stellar luminosities. The sample covers disk evolution from protoplanetary disks through to young debris disks, i.e. the main epoch of planet formation. With this extensive dataset, the GASPS project will: 1) trace gas and dust in the planet formation region across a large multivariate parameter space, 2) provide the first definitive measurement of the gas dissipation timescale in disks, 3) elucidate the evolutionary link between protoplanetary and debris disks, 4) investigate water abundances in the planetforming regions of disks, and 5) provide a huge database of disk observations and models with long-lasting legacy value for follow-up studies.

  3. DIGIT, GASPS, DEBRIS and DUNES: four HERSCHEL Open Time Key Programs to survey the dust cycle in circumstellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augereau, J.-C.; Absil, O.; Bouvier, J.; Duchêne, G.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Maret, S.; Martin-Zaïdi, C.; Ménard, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Olofsson, J.; Pantin, E.; Pinte, C.; Thébault, P.

    2008-11-01

    Four accepted HERSCHEL open time key programs, DIGIT, GASPS, DEBRIS and DUNES, will study the evolution of the dust grains in circumstellar disks around young and Main Sequence stars. There is a strong implication of the french community in these four projects which represent a total of 930 hours (>38 days) of her\\ observing time. The DIGIT and GASPS projects will focus on the first stages of planet formation, while the DEBRIS and DUNES projects will search for extra-solar Kuiper Belt analogs around nearby Main Sequence stars. In this paper, we give an overview of the scientific goals of the four projects and of the numerical tools that we will be providing to the teams to model and interpret the her\\ observations from these programs.

  4. GASPS--A Herschel Survey of Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Summary and Initial Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dent, W.R.F.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Williams, J. P.; Menard, F.; Andrews, S.; Ardila, D.; Aresu, G.; Augereau, J.-C.; Barrado y Navascues, D.; Brittain, S.; Carmona, A.; Ciardi, D.; Danchi, W.; Donaldson, J.; Duchene, G.; Eiroa, C.; Fedele, D.; Grady, C.; de Gregorio-Molsalvo, I.; Howard, C.; Huelamo, N.; Krivov, A.; Lebreton, J.; Roberge, A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a large-scale far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary disk through to young debris disk systems carried out using the ACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This Open Time Key program, known as GASPS (Gas Survey of Protoplanetary Systems), targeted approx. 250 young stars in narrow wavelength regions covering the [OI] fine structure line at 63 micron the brightest far-infrared line in such objects. A subset of the brightest targets were also surveyed in [OI]145 micron, [CII] at 157 µm, as well as several transitions of H2O and high-excitation CO lines at selected wavelengths between 78 and 180 micron. Additionally, GASPS included continuum photometry at 70, 100 and 160 micron, around the peak of the dust emission. The targets were SED Class II– III T Tauri stars and debris disks from seven nearby young associations, along with a comparable sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide sample of circumstellar disks, combining the results with models in a systematic way. In this overview paper we review the scientific aims, target selection and observing strategy of the program. We summarize some of the initial results, showing line identifications, listing the detections, and giving a first statistical study of line detectability. The [OI] line at 63 micron was the brightest line seen in almost all objects, by a factor of 10. Overall [OI] 63 micron detection rates were 49%, with 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars detected. A comparison with published disk dust masses (derived mainly from sub-mm continuum, assuming standard values of the mm mass opacity) shows a dust mass threshold for [OI] 63 µm detection of approx.10(exp -5) Solar M.. Normalizing to a distance of 140 pc, 84% of objects with dust masses =10 (exp -5) Solar M can be detected in this line in the present survey; 32% of those of mass 10(exp -6) – 10 (exp -5) Solar M, and only a very small number

  5. The Herschel DUNES Open Time Key Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2009-01-01

    We will use the unique photometric capabilities provided by Herschel to perform a deep and systematic survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby stars. Our sensitivity-limited Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) aims at finding and characterizing faint extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) in an unbiased, statistically significant sample of nearby FGK main-sequence stars. Our target set spans a broad range of stellar ages (from 0.1 to 10 Gyr) and is volume-limited (distances < 20 pc). All stars with known extrasolar planets within this distance are included; additionally, some M- and A-type stars will be observed in collaboration with the Herschel DEBRIS OTKP, so that the entire sample covers a decade in stellar mass, from 0.2 to 2 solar masses. We will perform PACS and SPIRE photometric observations covering the wavelength range from 70 to 500 microns. The PACS observations at 100 microns have been designed to detect the stellar photospheres down to the confusion limit with a signal-to-noise ratio > 5. The observations in the other Herschel bands will allow us to characterize, model, and constrain the disks. As a result, it will be possible for us to reach fractional dust luminosities of a few times 10-7, close to the EKB level in the Solar System. This will provide an unprecedented lower limit to the fractional abundance of planetesimal systems and allow us to assess the presence of giant planets, which would play dynamical roles similar to those played by Jupiter and Neptune in the Solar System. The proposed observations will provide new and unique evidence for the presence of mature planetary systems in the solar neighbourhood and, in turn, will address the universality of planet/planetary system formation in disks around young stars.

  6. Herschel GASPS spectral observations of T Tauri stars in Taurus. Unraveling far-infrared line emission from jets and discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Martínez, M.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Meeus, G.; Kamp, I.; Fang, M.; Podio, L.; Dent, W. R. F.; Eiroa, C.

    2017-07-01

    Context. At early stages of stellar evolution young stars show powerful jets and/or outflows that interact with protoplanetary discs and their surroundings. Despite the scarce knowledge about the interaction of jets and/or outflows with discs, spectroscopic studies based on Herschel and ISO data suggests that gas shocked by jets and/or outflows can be traced by far-IR (FIR) emission in certain sources. Aims: We want to provide a consistent catalogue of selected atomic ([OI] and [CII]) and molecular (CO, H2O, and OH) line fluxes observed in the FIR, separate and characterize the contribution from the jet and the disc to the observed line emission, and place the observations in an evolutionary picture. Methods: The atomic and molecular FIR (60-190 μm) line emission of protoplanetary discs around 76 T Tauri stars located in Taurus are analysed. The observations were carried out within the Herschel key programme Gas in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS). The spectra were obtained with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The sample is first divided in outflow and non-outflow sources according to literature tabulations. With the aid of archival stellar/disc and jet/outflow tracers and model predictions (PDRs and shocks), correlations are explored to constrain the physical mechanisms behind the observed line emission. Results: Outflow sources exhibit brighter atomic and molecular emission lines and higher detection rates than non-outflow sources. The line detection fractions decrease with SED evolutionary status (from Class I to Class III). We find correlations between [OI] 63.18 μm and [OI] 6300 Å, o-H2O 78.74 μm, CO 144.78 μm, OH 79.12+79.18 μm, and the continuum flux at 24 μm. The atomic line ratios can be explain either by fast (Vshock > 50 km s-1) dissociative J-shocks at low densities (n 103 cm-3) occurring along the jet and/or PDR emission (G0 > 102, n 103-106 cm-3). To account for the [CII] absolute fluxes, PDR emission or UV irradiation of

  7. Correlations between the stellar and disc properties of Taurus PMS stars in the GASPS sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Martínez, Miguel; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Pascual, Natalia; Montesinos, Benjamín; Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Eiroa, Carlos; Dent, Bill

    2013-07-01

    The Herschel Open Time Key Programme GASPS (P.I. B. Dent) has observed a large number of pre-main sequence TTauri stars in Taurus with PACS (photometry and spectroscopy). In addition, we have also carried out new ground-based optical and near-IR observations (photometry and spectroscopy) of most of the Taurus GASPS sample. In this poster, we present some preliminary results on correlations between the stellar and disc properties of this young stellar sample.

  8. The HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Magellanic Clouds, a HERschel Open Time Key Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meixner, Margaret; Panuzzo, P.; Roman-Duval, J.; Engelbracht, C.; Babler, B.; Seale, J.; Hony, S.; Montiel, E.; Sauvage, M.; Gordon, K.; Misselt, K.; Okumura, K.; Chanial, P.; Beck, T.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bolatto, A.; Bot, C.; Boyer, M. L.; Carlson, L. R.; Clayton, G. C.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Cormier, D.; Fukui, Y.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview or the HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) in the Magellanic Clouds project, which is a Herschel Space Observatory open time key program. We mapped the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instruments on board Herschel using the SPIRE/PACS parallel mode. The overriding science goal of HERITAGE is to study the life cycle of matter as traced by dust in the LMC and SMC. The far-infrared and submillimeter emission is an effective tracer of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust, the most deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dust ejected by the most massive stars. We describe in detail the data processing, particularly for the PACS data, which required some custom steps because of the large angular extent of a single observational unit and overall the large amount of data to be processed as an ensemble. We report total global fluxes for LMC and SMC and demonstrate their agreement with measurements by prior missions. The HERITAGE maps of the LMC and SMC are dominated by the ISM dust emission and bear most resemblance to the tracers of ISM gas rather than the stellar content of the galaxies. We describe the point source extraction processing and the critetia used to establish a catalog for each waveband for the HERITAGE program. The 250 micron band is the most sensitive and the source catalogs for this band have approx. 25,000 objects for the LMC and approx. 5500 objects for the SMC. These data enable studies of ISM dust properties, submillimeter excess dust emission, dust-to-gas ratio, Class 0 YSO candidates, dusty massive evolved stars, supemova remnants (including SN1987A), H II regions, and dust evolution in the LMC and SMC. All images and catalogs are delivered to the Herschel Science Center as part of the conummity support

  9. THE HERSCHEL INVENTORY OF THE AGENTS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS, A HERSCHEL OPEN TIME KEY PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Meixner, M.; Roman-Duval, J.; Seale, J.; Gordon, K.; Beck, T.; Boyer, M. L.; Panuzzo, P.; Hony, S.; Sauvage, M.; Okumura, K.; Chanial, P.; Babler, B.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bolatto, A.; Bot, C.; Carlson, L. R.; Clayton, G. C.; and others

    2013-09-15

    We present an overview of the HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) in the Magellanic Clouds project, which is a Herschel Space Observatory open time key program. We mapped the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instruments on board Herschel using the SPIRE/PACS parallel mode. The overriding science goal of HERITAGE is to study the life cycle of matter as traced by dust in the LMC and SMC. The far-infrared and submillimeter emission is an effective tracer of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust, the most deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dust ejected by the most massive stars. We describe in detail the data processing, particularly for the PACS data, which required some custom steps because of the large angular extent of a single observational unit and overall the large amount of data to be processed as an ensemble. We report total global fluxes for the LMC and SMC and demonstrate their agreement with measurements by prior missions. The HERITAGE maps of the LMC and SMC are dominated by the ISM dust emission and bear most resemblance to the tracers of ISM gas rather than the stellar content of the galaxies. We describe the point source extraction processing and the criteria used to establish a catalog for each waveband for the HERITAGE program. The 250 {mu}m band is the most sensitive and the source catalogs for this band have {approx}25,000 objects for the LMC and {approx}5500 objects for the SMC. These data enable studies of ISM dust properties, submillimeter excess dust emission, dust-to-gas ratio, Class 0 YSO candidates, dusty massive evolved stars, supernova remnants (including SN1987A), H II regions, and dust evolution in the LMC and SMC. All images and catalogs are delivered to the Herschel Science Center as part of the community support

  10. Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE): Open to the World and the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balm, P.

    2012-09-01

    Herschel is ESA's space-based infrared observatory. It was launched on May 14, 2009 and is in routine science operations. The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment, HIPE, is Herschel's interactive analysis package. HIPE has a user-base of approximately 1,000 users and a major new version is released twice a year. HIPE is the first open-source astronomy data analysis package written entirely in Java and Jython, which allows it to provide a modern GUI with command echoing, sophisticated interoperability and extensibility, with access to the vast amounts of Java libraries. HIPE includes the official data reduction scripts and allows executing and modifying them as needed. These aspects may make HIPE the seed for the astronomy working environment of the future.

  11. DUNES: DUst around NEarby Stars. A Herschel Open Time Key Programme.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiroa, C.; Dunes Consortium

    2013-04-01

    Preliminary results of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme DUNES are presented. The data show the capability of Herschel/PACS to detect and resolve dust disks with a luminosity close to the EKB luminosity. Our results suggest that the incidence of debris disks around mature solar-type, main-sequence stars is ˜ 24%, which is a remarkable increase with respect to previous estimates. The rate of resolved disks is ˜ 50% of the total number of identified debris disks, which again represents a huge increase in the number of resolved disk in the far-IR. The Herschel/PACS images allow us to study with unprecedent spatial detail many of those disks. The interpretation of some data poses challenges to debris disk models since the observed SEDs. e.g. the steep sources and the cold disks, cannot be explained by means of “clasical” debris disk scenarios

  12. Debris Discs and Connection to Exoplanets: Herschel Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, J. S.

    2012-03-01

    Debris discs are an exciting science area that has been opened up by Herschel through deep far-infrared observations. Key Projects cover disc evolution from the early stages when planets form (GASPS) and onwards to discs hosted by stars even older than the Solar System (GT, DUNES, DEBRIS). New categories are being discovered, including very cold cometary belts and unusual types of dust grain, and new connections are being made for systems of low-mass stars and planets. I will review these discoveries in the context of our ideas on how planetesimal belts from and evolve.

  13. Dust Around Nearby Stars: The Herschel DUNES Open Time Key Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danchi, William C.; Eiroa, C.; Herschel DUNES Team

    2010-01-01

    We will use the unique photometric capabilities provided by Herschel to perform a deep and systematic survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby stars. Our sensitivity-limited Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) aims at finding and characterizing faint extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) in an unbiased, statistically significant sample of nearby FGK main-sequence stars. Our target set spans a broad range of stellar ages (from 0.1 to 10 Gyr) and is volume-limited (distances < 20 pc). All stars with known extrasolar planets within this distance are included; additionally, some M- and A-type stars will be observed in collaboration with the Herschel DEBRIS OTKP, so that the entire sample covers a decade in stellar mass, from 0.2 to 2 solar masses. We will perform PACS and SPIRE photometric observations covering the wavelength range from 70 to 500 microns. The PACS observations at 100 microns have been designed to detect the stellar photospheres down to the confusion limit with a signal-to-noise ratio > 5. The observations in the other Herschel bands will allow us to characterize, model, and constrain the disks. As a result, it will be possible for us to reach fractional dust luminosities of a few times 10-7, close to the EKB level in the Solar System. This will provide an unprecedented lower limit to the fractional abundance of planetesimal systems and allow us to assess the presence of giant planets, which would play dynamical roles similar to those played by Jupiter and Neptune in the Solar System. The proposed observations will provide new and unique evidence for the presence of mature planetary systems in the solar neighbourhood and, in turn, will address the universality of planet/planetary system formation in disks around young stars.

  14. GASPS Photometry of the Tucana-Horologium Association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Donaldson J.; Roberge, Aki

    2010-01-01

    The GASPS Open Time Key Programme on Herschel represents a new opportunity to sensitively probe protoplanetary and debris disks at far-IR wavelengths. We present preliminary PACS 70 and 160 micron photometry of eighteen stars in the 30 Myr-old Tucana-Horologium association. Of these eighteen, eight were detected in the 70 micron band. Four of these eight were also detected in the 160 micron band. We constructed SEDs for these systems using optical data from Hipparcos (B and V), near-IR data from 2MASS (J, H, and K), mid-IR data from IRAS and Spitzer MIPS (12 and 24 microns, respectively), and the new far-IR data from PACS. For the stars showing IR excess emission, we fit simple single-temperature blackbody curves to the IR excess in order to determine the rough dust abundances and temperatures. Dust observations at these wavelengths will also be important for comparison with upcoming Herschel PACS spectra that will search for gas in the disks. Our goal is to determine or limit the ever-allusive gas-to-dust ratio for these disk systems.

  15. GASPS Photometry of the Tucana-Horologium Association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Donaldson J.; Roberge, Aki

    2010-01-01

    The GASPS Open Time Key Programme on Herschel represents a new opportunity to sensitively probe protoplanetary and debris disks at far-IR wavelengths. We present preliminary PACS 70 and 160 micron photometry of eighteen stars in the 30 Myr-old Tucana-Horologium association. Of these eighteen, eight were detected in the 70 micron band. Four of these eight were also detected in the 160 micron band. We constructed SEDs for these systems using optical data from Hipparcos (B and V), near-IR data from 2MASS (J, H, and K), mid-IR data from IRAS and Spitzer MIPS (12 and 24 microns, respectively), and the new far-IR data from PACS. For the stars showing IR excess emission, we fit simple single-temperature blackbody curves to the IR excess in order to determine the rough dust abundances and temperatures. Dust observations at these wavelengths will also be important for comparison with upcoming Herschel PACS spectra that will search for gas in the disks. Our goal is to determine or limit the ever-allusive gas-to-dust ratio for these disk systems.

  16. The Herschel ATLAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eales, S.; Dunne, L.; Clements, D.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Lagache, G.; Maddox, S.; Negrello, M.; Serjeant, S.; Thompson, M. A.; Van Kampen, E.; Amblard, A.; Andreani, P.; Baes, M.; Beelen, A.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Benford, D.; Bock, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel ATLAS is the largest open-time key project that will be carried out on the Herschel Space Observatory. It will survey 570 sq deg of the extragalactic sky, 4 times larger than all the other Herschel extragalactic surveys combined, in five far-infrared and submillimeter bands. We describe the survey, the complementary multiwavelength data sets that will be combined with the Herschel data, and the six major science programs we are undertaking. Using new models based on a previous submillimeter survey of galaxies, we present predictions of the properties of the ATLAS sources in other wave bands.

  17. The Herschel Open Time Key Project; DUst Around NEarby Stars: Results from the Complete Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danchi, William C.; Eiroa, C.; Consortium, DUNES

    2013-01-01

    The Herschel DUst Around Nearby Stars (DUNES) survey (Eiroa et al. 2010) was designed to address several fundamental questions regarding debris disks around nearby solar type stars, in order to put the Solar System into context. Our goals were to: (1) determine the fraction of stars with faint, Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB)-like disks, (2) explore collisional and dynamical evolution of EKB analogues, (3) observe dust properties and size distribution, and (4) determine the incidence of EKB-like disks vs. presence of planets. The final sample of stars directly observed by DUNES included 133 stars, including 27 F-type, 52 G-type and 54 K-type stars within 20 pc of the Sun. The integration time was set in order to make a 5-sigma detection of the expected photospheric emission at 100 and 160 microns, using the PACS instrument. In addition, 106 stars observed by DEBRIS survey (Mathews et al. 2010) satisfying the photospheric detection condition are shared targets, specifically 83 FGK stars - 51 F, 24 G and 8 K (the rest are A and M stars). We report the main conclusions from the survey including the frequency of detection of debris disks as a function of fractional luminosity of the dust, Ld/L*, and correlations of Ld/L* with metallicity, bolometric luminosity, effective temperature, and stellar age.

  18. GASP- GENERAL AVIATION SYNTHESIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The General Aviation Synthesis Program, GASP, was developed to perform tasks generally associated with the preliminary phase of aircraft design. GASP gives the analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner during preliminary design efforts. During the development of GASP, emphasis was placed on small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying from a single piston engine with a fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/turbofan systems as employed in business or transport type aircraft. The program is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines of design, integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedures. GASP provides a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, and performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies. By utilizing GASP, the impact of various aircraft requirements and design factors may be studied in a systematic manner, with benefits being measured in terms of overall aircraft performance and economics. The GASP program consists of a control module and six "technology" submodules which perform the various independent studies required in the design of general aviation or small transport type aircraft. The six technology modules include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, weight and balance, mission analysis, and economics. The geometry module calculates the dimensions of the synthesized aircraft components based on such input parameters as number of passengers, aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweep angles, and thickness of wing and tail surfaces. The aerodynamics module calculates the various lift and drag coefficients of the synthesized aircraft based on inputs concerning configuration geometry, flight conditions, and type of high lift device. The propulsion module determines the engine size and performance for the synthesized aircraft

  19. GASP- GENERAL AVIATION SYNTHESIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The General Aviation Synthesis Program, GASP, was developed to perform tasks generally associated with the preliminary phase of aircraft design. GASP gives the analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner during preliminary design efforts. During the development of GASP, emphasis was placed on small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying from a single piston engine with a fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/turbofan systems as employed in business or transport type aircraft. The program is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines of design, integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedures. GASP provides a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, and performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies. By utilizing GASP, the impact of various aircraft requirements and design factors may be studied in a systematic manner, with benefits being measured in terms of overall aircraft performance and economics. The GASP program consists of a control module and six "technology" submodules which perform the various independent studies required in the design of general aviation or small transport type aircraft. The six technology modules include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, weight and balance, mission analysis, and economics. The geometry module calculates the dimensions of the synthesized aircraft components based on such input parameters as number of passengers, aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweep angles, and thickness of wing and tail surfaces. The aerodynamics module calculates the various lift and drag coefficients of the synthesized aircraft based on inputs concerning configuration geometry, flight conditions, and type of high lift device. The propulsion module determines the engine size and performance for the synthesized aircraft

  20. Regulation of GDF-11 and myostatin activity by GASP-1 and GASP-2

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Se-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) and growth and differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) are highly related TGF-β family members that have distinct biological functions. MSTN is expressed primarily in skeletal muscle and acts to limit muscle growth. GDF-11 is expressed more widely and plays multiple roles, including regulating axial skeletal patterning during development. Several MSTN and GDF-11 binding proteins have been identified, including GDF-associated serum protein-1 (GASP-1) and GASP-2, which are capable of inhibiting the activities of these ligands. Here, we show that GASP-1 and GASP-2 act by blocking the initial signaling event (namely, the binding of the ligand to the type II receptor). Moreover, we show that mice lacking Gasp1 and Gasp2 have phenotypes consistent with overactivity of MSTN and GDF-11. Specifically, we show that Gasp2−/− mice have posteriorly directed transformations of the axial skeleton, which contrast with the anteriorly directed transformations seen in Gdf11−/− mice. We also show that both Gasp1−/− and Gasp2−/− mice have reductions in muscle weights, a shift in fiber type from fast glycolytic type IIb fibers to fast oxidative type IIa fibers, and impaired muscle regeneration ability, which are the reverse of what are seen in Mstn−/− mice. All of these findings suggest that both GASP-1 and GASP-2 are important modulators of GDF-11 and MSTN activity in vivo. PMID:24019467

  1. Herschel's Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows low-albedo sand dunes in Herschel Crater in the Mare Cimmerium region of the martian southern hemisphere. Winds responsible for these dunes generally blow from the north (top).

    Location near: 14.5oS, 231.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  2. Herschel Observations of Gas and Dust in the Unusual 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, A.; Kamp, I.; Montesinos, B.; Dent, W. R. F.; Meeus, G.; Donaldson, J. K.; Olofsson, J.; Moor, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Howard, C.; Eiroa, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Ardila, D. R.; Sandell, G.; Woitke, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present far-IR/sub-mm imaging and spectroscopy of 49 Ceti, an unusual circumstellar disk around a nearby young A1V star. The system is famous for showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but the gas properties of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. The data were acquired with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, largely as part of the “Gas in Protoplanetary Systems” (GASPS) Open Time Key Programme. Disk dust emission is detected in images at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron; 49 Cet is significantly extended in the 70 micron image, spatially resolving the outer dust disk for the first time. Spectra covering small wavelength ranges centered on eight atomic and molecular emission lines were obtained, including [O i] 63 micron and [C ii] 158 micron. The C ii line was detected at the 5 sigma level—the first detection of atomic emission from the disk. No other emission lines were seen, despite the fact that the Oi line is the brightest one observed in Herschel protoplanetary disk spectra. We present an estimate of the amount of circumstellar atomic gas implied by the C ii emission. The new far-IR/sub-mm data fills in a large gap in the previous spectral energy distribution (SED) of 49 Cet. A simple model of the new SED confirms the two-component structure of the disk: warm inner dust and cold outer dust that produces most of the observed excess. Finally, we discuss preliminary thermochemical modeling of the 49 Cet gas/dust disk and our attempts to match several observational results simultaneously. Although we are not yet successful in doing so, our investigations shed light on the evolutionary status of the 49 Cet gas, which might not be primordial gas but rather secondary gas coming from comets.

  3. Spontaneous gasping during cardiopulmonary resuscitation without mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Noc, M; Weil, M H; Sun, S; Tang, W; Bisera, J

    1994-09-01

    Spontaneous gasping is frequently observed during cardiac arrest, especially when mechanical ventilation is withheld during precordial compression. We related spontaneous gasping to pulmonary gas exchange and cardiac resuscitability in a rodent model of cardiac arrest. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced in 15 Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 min untreated ventricular fibrillation, precordial compression was initiated. Coronary perfusion pressure was maintained between 25 and 30 mm Hg. Oxygen was supplied at the tracheal tube port coincident with start of precordial compression in 10 animals. Five additional control animals were identically treated except they were mechanically ventilated coincident with start of precordial compression. After 6 min precordial compression, defibrillation was attempted and five of 10 nonventilated animals, and all control animals, were resuscitated by direct current countershock. In the successfully resuscitated, nonventilated animals, the frequency of spontaneous gasping during precordial compression progressively increased to an average of 19 gasps/min but it was < 6 gasps/min in nonresuscitated animals. More frequent gasping was associated with correspondingly greater arterial PO2 (110 versus 51 mm Hg, p < 0.01) and lesser PCO2 (55 versus 91 mm Hg, p < 0.01). In control animals, no spontaneous gasping was observed during precordial compression. Arterial PO2 and PCO2 of mechanically ventilated animals was more like that of spontaneously gasping rats. According, the frequency of spontaneous gasping in absence of mechanical ventilation is predictive of cardiac resuscitation success and associated with improved arterial oxygenation and CO2 removal.

  4. Interstellar Hydride Spectroscopy with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerin, Maryvonne

    2011-06-01

    The Herschel satellite is now giving access with unprecedented sensitivity to the THz spectral range. In particular ground state lines of simple neutral and ionized hydrides have been detected in a wide range of interstellar environments, leading to a renewed understanding of the formation processes of interstellar molecules in the diffuse interstellar medium. In this talk, I will present recent results obtained with the Herschel HIFI and PACS instruments on the carbon, oxygen and nitrogen hydrides. I will discuss how CH and HF can be used as tracers of molecular hydrogen in the diffuse interstellar matter, the new diagnostic capabilities of the cosmic ray ionization rate opened by the OH^+ and H_2O^+ molecular ions, and the role of the dissipation of turbulence in the production of the CH^+ and SH^+ reactive ions. Figure 1: Example of Herschel/HIFI spectra towards the massive star forming region G10.6--0.4. The diffuse interstellar matter along the line of sight towards this massive object is producing multiple absortion features from ˜ 6 to˜ 50 km/s while the emission or absortion signals between -20 to 5 km/s are caused by the massive source itself.

  5. John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

  6. GASPS—A Herschel Survey of Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Summary and Initial Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, W. R. F.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Williams, J. P.; Menard, F.; Andrews, S.; Ardila, D.; Aresu, G.; Augereau, J.-C.; Barrado y Navascues, D.; Brittain, S.; Carmona, A.; Ciardi, D.; Danchi, W.; Donaldson, J.; Duchene, G.; Eiroa, C.; Fedele, D.; Grady, C.; de Gregorio-Molsalvo, I.; Howard, C.; Huélamo, N.; Krivov, A.; Lebreton, J.; Liseau, R.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Mathews, G.; Meeus, G.; Mendigutía, I.; Montesinos, B.; Morales-Calderon, M.; Mora, A.; Nomura, H.; Pantin, E.; Pascucci, I.; Phillips, N.; Pinte, C.; Podio, L.; Ramsay, S. K.; Riaz, B.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Roberge, A.; Sandell, G.; Solano, E.; Tilling, I.; Torrelles, J. M.; Vandenbusche, B.; Vicente, S.; White, G. J.; Woitke, P.

    2013-05-01

    We describe a large-scale far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary disk through to young debris disk systems carried out using the ACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This Open Time Key program, known as GASPS (Gas Survey of Protoplanetary Systems), targeted ~250 young stars in narrow wavelength regions covering the [OI] fine structure line at 63 μm the brightest far-infrared line in such objects. A subset of the brightest targets were also surveyed in [OI]145 μm, [CII] at 157 μm, as well as several transitions of H2O and high-excitation CO lines at selected wavelengths between 78 and 180 μm. Additionally, GASPS included continuum photometry at 70, 100 and 160 μm, around the peak of the dust emission. The targets were SED Class II-III T Tauri stars and debris disks from seven nearby young associations, along with a comparable sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide sample of circumstellar disks, combining the results with models in a systematic way. In this overview paper we review the scientific aims, target selection and observing strategy of the program. We summarise some of the initial results, showing line identifications, listing the detections, and giving a first statistical study of line detectability. The [OI] line at 63 μm was the brightest line seen in almost all objects, by a factor of ~10. Overall [OI]63 μm detection rates were 49%, with 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars detected. A comparison with published disk dust masses (derived mainly from sub-mm continuum, assuming standard values of the mm mass opacity) shows a dust mass threshold for [OI]63 μm detection of ~10-5 Msolar. Normalising to a distance of 140 pc, 84% of objects with dust masses >=10-5 Msolar can be detected in this line in the present survey; 32% of those of mass 10-6-10-5 Msolar, and only a very small number of unusual objects with lower masses can be detected. This is

  7. GASP/WFIKKN Proteins: Evolutionary Aspects of Their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Monestier, Olivier; Brun, Caroline; Cocquempot, Olivier; Petit, Daniel; Blanquet, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Growth and differentiation factor Associated Serum Protein (GASP) 1 and 2 are proteins known to be involved in the control of myostatin activity at least in vitro. Most deuterostome GASPs share a modular organization including WAP, follistatin/kazal, IGc2, two kunitz, and NTR domains. Based on an exon shuffling model, we performed independent phylogenetic analyses on these modules and assessed that papilin is probably a sister sequence to GASP with a divergence date estimated from the last common ancestor to bilateria. The final organization was acquired by the addition of the FS domain in early deuterostomes. Our study revealed that Gasp genes diverged during the first round of genome duplication in early vertebrates. By evaluating the substitution rate at different sites on the proteins, we showed a better conservation of the follistatin/kazal domain of GASP1 than GASP2 in mammals, suggesting a stronger interaction with myostatin. We also observed a progressive increase in the conservation of follistatin and kunitz domains from the ancestor of Ciona to early vertebrates. In situ hybridization performed on mouse embryos showed a weak Gasp1 expression in the formed somites at 10.5 dpc and in limb buds from embryonic E10.0 to E12.5. Similar results were obtained for zebrafish embryos. We propose a synthetic view showing possible interactions between GASP1 and myostatin and highlighting the role of the second kunitz domain in preventing myostatin proteolysis. PMID:22937083

  8. Respiratory rhythm generation during gasping depends on persistent sodium current.

    PubMed

    Paton, Julian F R; Abdala, Ana P L; Koizumi, Hidehiko; Smith, Jeffrey C; St-John, Walter M

    2006-03-01

    In severe hypoxia, homeostatic mechanisms maintain function of the brainstem respiratory network. We hypothesized that hypoxia involves a transition from neuronal mechanisms of normal breathing (eupnea) to a rudimentary pattern of inspiratory movements (gasping). We provide evidence for hypoxia-driven transformation within the central respiratory oscillator, in which gasping relies on persistent sodium current, whereas eupnea does not depend on this cellular mechanism.

  9. Extreme debris discs around nearby stars with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. P.; Eiroa, C.

    2011-10-01

    The excellent sensitivity and high resolution of PACS on the Herschel Space Observatory has opened up the possibility of detecting direct analogues to the Solar System's Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around nearby stars. We present an overview of the results from the Herschel/ DUNES Open Time Key Program, highlighting the extreme diversity of observed debris discs, covering both newly discovered and newly resolved systems that are amongst the largest, faintest and coldest discs yet known around Sun-like stars.

  10. Structural lineaments of Gaspe from ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffensen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A test study was conducted to assess the value of ERTS images for mapping geologic features of the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to ascertain the best procedure to follow in order to obtain valuable geologic data as a result of interpretation; and 2) to indicate in which way these data could relate to mineral exploration. Of the four spectral bands of the Multispectral scanner, the band from 700 to 800 nanometers, which seems to possess the best informational content for geologic study, was selected for analysis. The original ERTS image at a scale of 1:3,700,000 was enlarged about 15 times and reproduced on film. Geologically meaningful lines, called structural lineaments, were outlined and classified according to five categories: morpho-lithologic boundaries, morpho-lithologic lineaments, fault traces, fracture zones and undefined lineaments. Comparison with the geologic map of Gaspe shows that morpho-lithologic boundaries correspond to contacts between regional stratigraphic units. Morpholithologic lineaments follow bedding trends, whereas fracture traces appear as sets of parallel lineaments, intersecting at high angles the previous category of lineaments. Fault traces mark more precisely the location of faults already mapped and spot the presence of presumable faults, not indicated on the geologic map.

  11. An analysis of the first two years of GASP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Nastrom, G. D.; Falconer, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    Distributions of mean ozone levels from the first two years of data from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) show spatial and temporal variations in agreement with previous measurements. The standard deviations of these distributions reflect the large natural variability of ozone levels in the altitude range of the GASP measurements. Monthly mean levels of ozone below the tropopause show an annual cycle with a spring maximum which is believed to result from transport from the stratosphere. Correlations of ozone with independent meteorological parameters, and meteorological parameters obtained by the GASP systems show that this transport occurs primarily through cyclogenesis at mid-latitudes.

  12. Effects of hyperglycemia on gasping and autoresuscitation in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, S Z; Blennow, M; Runold, M; Lagercrantz, H

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effects of glucose on the gasping ability and survival in a rat pup model during acute anoxia. Newborn rat pups of both 1 and 8 days of age were given glucose (30 and 60 mg/animal) or saline intraperitoneally and subsequently subjected to anoxia (100% N2). Glucose supplement induced hyperglycemia. Respiration was recorded by barometric plethysmography. The rat pups responded to acute anoxia with a robust sequence of respiratory pattern: hyperpnea, primary apnea, hypoxic gasping and secondary apnea. During anoxia the 1-day-old rats gasped much longer than the 8-day-old rats (23.4 +/- 1.0 vs. 6.1 +/- 0.5 min, p < 0.001). No difference was found in gasping duration between the saline control and the glucose-supplemented 1-day-old rat pups. The 8-day-old supplemented rats gasped much longer (9.3 +/- 0.5 min) than the control rats (6.1 +/- 0.5 min, p < 0.01). The animals autoresuscitated when they received oxygen (100%) during the gasping period. When oxygen was given after the gasping period, the survival rate was 33.3% in control and 0% in supplemented 1-day-old rats, and 100% in control and 50% in glucose-supplemented 8-day-old rats (p < 0.02). Further controlled experiments for a fixed period of anoxia to 13.5 min resulted in survival rates of 50.0% for controls and 28.6% for supplemented animals, respectively. The overall survival rate was then 85.2% in control and 52.9% in supplemented 8-day-old rats (p < 0.05). Lactate concentration in blood rapidly increased in the first 6 min of anoxia and thereafter gradually increased to 22.1 mmol/l around the last gasp in the 1-day-old rats. Hyperglycemia did not cause further accumulation of lactate despite a transient elevation over the control rats at 6 min of anoxia. In the 8-day-old supplemented animals the lactate level was only modestly increased, probably due to the prolonged gasping period. In conclusion, we found that gasping performance was well preserved in the 8-day

  13. A Debris Disk Case Study: 49 Ceti with Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2011-01-01

    Gas-poor debris disks represent a fundamentally different class of circumstellar disk than gas-rich protoplanetary disks. Their gas probably originates from the same source as the dust, i.e. planetesimal destruction, but the low gas densities make it difficult to detect. So far, Herschel has detected far-IR gas emission from one debris disk, Beta Pictoris. Here I discuss a well-known debris disk system in the GASPS survey, 49 Ceti. It serves as a case study for modeling low-density gas in optically thin disks. The dust disk appears to be spatially resolved at 70 um. Most interestingly, there appears to be a hint of ClI 158 urn emission at the roughly 2 sigma level. Preliminary modeling suggests that reconciling the sub-mm CO emission from this system with the weak or non-existent far-IR atomic lines may require an unusual chemical composition in the gas of this disk.

  14. Herschel mission overview and key programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilbratt, Göran L.

    2008-07-01

    Herschel is the next astronomy mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme. It is currently in the final stages of assembly and verification in ESA's ESTEC facility in Noordwijk, and is scheduled to be flown to the launch site at Europe's Spaceport in Kourou later this year. Herschel will carry a 3.5 metre diameter passively cooled Cassegrain telescope which is the largest of its kind and utilises novel silicon carbide technology. The science payload comprises three instruments: two direct detection cameras/medium resolution spectrometers, PACS and SPIRE, and a very high resolution heterodyne spectrometer, HIFI. The focal plane units are housed inside a superfluid helium cryostat based on ISO legacy. Herschel will be launched by an Ariane 5 ECA together with the Planck satellite into a transfer trajectory towards the operational orbit around L2. When operational Herschel will provide unprecedented observational opportunities in the 55-672 μm spectral range, much of which has never before been accessible from a space observatory. It is an observatory facility available to the worldwide astronomical community, nominally almost 20,000 hours will be available for astronomy, 32% is guaranteed time and the remainder is open to the general astronomical community through a standard competitive proposal procedure. The initial Key Programme Announcement of Opportunity (AO) was issued in Feb 2007. Both the guaranteed and open time Key Programmes have been selected and are introduced, and future observing opportunities are outlined.

  15. Support of Herschel Key Programme Teams at the NASA Herschel Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, David L.; Appleton, P. N.; Ardila, D.; Bhattacharya, B.; Mei, Y.; Morris, P.; Rector, J.; NHSC Team

    2010-01-01

    The first science data from the Herschel Space Observatory were distributed to Key Programme teams in September 2009. This poster describes a number of resources that have been developed by the NASA Herschel Science Center (NHSC) to support the first users of the observatory. The NHSC webpages and Helpdesk serve as the starting point for information and queries from the US community. Details about the use of the Herschel Common Science Software can be looked up in the Helpdesk Knowledgebase. The capability of real-time remote support through desktop sharing has been implemented. The NHSC continues to host workshops on data analysis and observation planning. Key Programme teams have been provided Wiki sites upon request for their team's private use and for sharing information with other teams. A secure data storage area is in place for troubleshooting purposes and for use by visitors. The NHSC draws upon close working relationships with Instrument Control Centers and the Herschel Science Center in Madrid in order to have the necessary expertise on hand to assist Herschel observers, including both Key Programme teams and respondents to upcoming open time proposal calls.

  16. A Unique Gas-Rich Debris Disk: Herschel Imaging and Spectroscopy of 49 Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2012-01-01

    Gas-poor debris disks represent a fundamentally different class of circumstellar disk than gas-rich protoplanetary disks. Their gas probably originates from the same source as the dust, i.e. planetesimal destruction, but the low gas densities make it difficult to detect. So far, Herschel has detected far-IR gas emission from only one or two debris disks, Beta Pictoris being one of them. Here we present Herschel GASPS observations of a well-known debris disk system, 49 Ceti. The dust disk is spatially resolved in thermal emission at 70 _m. Most interestingly, weak far-IR gas emission is detected. Preliminary modeling suggests that reconciling the sub-mm CO emission seen from this system with the far-IR gas detection and upper limits requires a low gas-to-dust ratio and possibly an unusual gas composition.

  17. Dunes in Herschel Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-14

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows dunes on the floor of Herschel Crater. Steep faces lipfaces are oriented downwind, in the direction of motion of the dunes. A dune-free area downwind of the crater is seen at the image center.

  18. Herschel's Far-Infrared View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James

    2014-01-01

    Herschel opened a new window on galaxy formation at far-infrared and sub-millimeter wavelengths, providing imaging in 6 spectral bands ranging from 70 - 500 um, diffraction-limited spatial resolution, and surveys ranging from deep well-studied fields to scanned maps covering large areas of sky. Herschel shows rapidly evolving far-infrared galaxy populations, with emission largely driven by dust-obscured star-formation. Herschel survey data mapped out the detailed evolution of the far-infrared luminosity function from our local universe to moderate redshifts. Combined with multi-wavelength surveys, we determined the role of far-infrared emission in diverse galaxy populations, including AGNs, as well as dust-obscured, Lyman-break, and radio galaxies. Herschel images provide a ready means to identify gravitationally lensed systems, expanding on the total number of known lenses, and providing spectacular high-redshift galaxies for detailed study. Observations of rich cluster fields produced new measurements on lensed galaxies, the extragalactic background, and the SZ effect. The analysis of Herschel images pioneered new statistical techniques to probe galaxies below the confusion limit, stacking on known populations to derive ensemble properties, and mapping large-scale structure through power spectral methods to explore the relationship between galaxy formation and the underlying distribution of dark matter. I will present recent results from Herschel extragalactic science observations, concentrating on the Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES), with selected highlights from all surveys.

  19. Roles of GASP-1 and GDF-11 in Dental and Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Se-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Growth and differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) is a TGF-β family member that plays important regulatory roles in development of multiple tissues which include axial skeletal patterning, palatal closure, and tooth formation. Proteins that have been identified as GDF-11 inhibitors include GDF-associated serum protein-1 (GASP-1) and GASP-2. Recently, we found that mice genetically engineered to lack both Gasp1 and Gdf11 have an increased frequency of cleft palate. The goal of this study was to investigate the roles of GDF-11 and its inhibitors, GASP-1 and GASP-2, during dental and craniofacial development and growth. Methods Mouse genetic studies were used in this study. Homozygous knockout mice for Gasp1 (Gasp1−/−) and Gasp2 (Gasp2−/−) were viable and fertile, but Gdf11 homozygous knockout (Gdf11−/−) mice died within 24 hours after birth. The effect of either Gasp1 or Gasp2 deletion in Gdf11−/− mice during embryogenesis was evaluated in Gasp1−/−;Gdf11−/− and Gasp2−/−;Gdf11−/− mouse embryos at 18.5 days post-coitum (E18.5). For the analysis of adult tissues, we used Gasp1−/−;Gdf11+/− and Gasp2−/−;Gdf11+/− mice to evaluate the potential haploinsufficiency of Gdf11 in Gasp1−/− and Gasp2−/− mice. Results Although Gasp2 expression decreased after E10.5, Gasp1 expression was readily detected in various ectodermal tissues at E17.5, including hair follicles, epithelium in nasal cavity, retina, and developing tooth buds. Interestingly, Gasp1−/−;Gdf11−/− mice had abnormal formation of lower incisors: tooth buds for lower incisors were under-developed or missing. Although Gdf11+/− mice were viable and had mild transformations of the axial skeleton, no specific defects in the craniofacial development have been observed in Gdf11+/− mice. However, loss of Gasp1 in Gdf11+/− mice occasionally resulted in small and abnormally shaped auricles. Conclusions These findings suggest that both GASP-1 and GDF-11 play

  20. Development and application of GASP 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrory, W. D.; Huebner, L. D.; Slack, D. C.; Walters, R. W.

    1992-01-01

    GASP 2.0 represents a major new release of the computational fluid dynamics code in wide use by the aerospace community. The authors have spent the last two years analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the previous version of the finite-rate chemistry, Navier Stokes solution algorithm. What has resulted is a completely redesigned computer code that offers two to four times the performance of previous versions while requiring as little as one quarter of the memory requirements. In addition to the improvements in efficiency over the original code, Version 2.0 contains many new features. A brief discussion of the improvements made to GASP, and an application using GASP 2.0 which demonstrates some of the new features are presented.

  1. Characterizations and comparisons of eupnoea and gasping in neonatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W; Fung, M L; Darnall, R A; St John, W M

    1996-01-01

    1. Our purpose was to characterize the ventilatory patterns of eupnoea and gasping in the neonatal rat. This study was precipitated by reports, using in vitro brainstem spinal cord preparations, that only a single pattern is present in neonatal rats. 2. In anaesthetized or decerebrate rat pups aged less than 13 days, eupnoea was characterized by a sudden onset of inspiratory activity and then a more gradual rise to peak levels. Following vagotomy, frequency fell and peak phrenic activity and tidal volume increased. The rate of rise of inspiratory activity also rose, but peak levels were still achieved during the latter half of inspiration. Vagal efferent activity exhibited bursts during both inspiration and the early expiration. This basic eupnoeic rhythm was not altered after sectioning of the carotid sinus nerves. 3. Upon exposure to hypoxia or anoxia, phrenic activity, tidal volume and frequency initially increased and then declined. In many animals, ventilatory activity then ceased, but later returned with a gasping pattern. 4. Gasping was characterized by a sudden onset of phrenic activity, which reached a peak intensity during the early portion of inspiration. The expiratory burst of vagal activity was eliminated. 5. Reductions of body temperature from 37 to 27 degrees C resulted in prolongations of inspiration and expiration and decreases of phrenic amplitude; phasic phrenic activity completely disappeared in some animals. Upon exposure to anoxia, gasping was observed, even in animals in which phrenic activity had disappeared in hyperoxia. 6. We conclude that, from the day of birth, rats can exhibit eupnoea and gasping patterns which are very similar to those of adult animals. 7. The rhythmic neural activities of the in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation, reported by others, differ markedly from eupnoea but are identical with gasping. We therefore conclude that this preparation is not suitable for investigation of the mechanisms that generate eupnoeic

  2. Herschel Data Processing Development: 10 Years After

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, S.

    2013-10-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, the fourth cornerstone mission in the ESA science program, was launched on the 14th of May 2009. As a cryogenic mission Herschel's operational lifetime is consumable-limited by its supply of liquid helium, estimated to be depleted by March 2013. Afterwards the mission will start a 4.75 year long post-operations phase. Originally it was considered sufficient to provide astronomers with raw data and software tools to carry out a basic data reduction, and no “data products” were to be generated and delivered. Following the realisation that the expectations of the astronomical community on the deliverables of an observatory mission evolved it was agreed to implement a single ‘cradle to grave’ data analysis system supporting the needs of all users for the whole project cycle. We will summarise the lessons learned during those ten years of Herschel data processing development, address the main challenges of this major software development project, and reflect on what went well, what needed to be adapted, and our open points.

  3. Inspiratory augmentation during asphyxic hyperpnoea and gasping: proprioceptive influences.

    PubMed

    Macefield, G; Nail, B

    1986-04-01

    The relative inspiratory augmentations of sternomastoid, scalene, external intercostal, interchondral and diaphragmatic electromyographic activities were examined during the progressive asphyxia induced by rebreathing in pentobarbitone/urethane anaesthetized rabbits. Diaphragmatic activity augmented significantly less than that of the scalene, intercostal and interchondral muscles in response to the asphyxic increase in inspiratory drive (hyperpnoea). Cervical vagotomy significantly increased the levels of inspiratory activity during the asphyxic hyperpnoea but did not abolish these relations. Dorsal rhizotomy at levels appropriate for the respective recording sites significantly limited the intercostal and interchondral augmentations, and depressed diaphragmatic activity to a less pronounced extent, but did not affect scalene activity. The asphyxic apnoea succeeding the hyperpnoea was terminated by gasping respiration. Excepting the interchondrals each muscle exhibited significantly greater electromyographic amplitudes during gasping than during the terminal hyperpnoeic efforts. Only during gasping were the sternomastoid muscles recruited. The intercostal and scalene gasps were significantly greater than those exhibited by either the interchondrals or the diaphragm. Such disproportionate responses were not affected by vagotomy or dorsal rhizotomy. The disparate inspiratory contributions during progressive asphyxia can therefore only be partially accounted for by differences in proprioceptive control.

  4. Herschel and the Molecular Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Helmich, F. P.

    2006-01-01

    Over the next decade, space-based missions will open up the universe to high spatial and spectral resolution studies at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. This will allow us to study, in much greater detail, the composition and the origin and evolution of molecules in space. Moreover, molecular transitions in these spectral ranges provide a sensitive probe of the dynamics and the physical and chemical conditions in a wide range of objects at scales ranging from budding planetary systems to galactic and extragalactic sizes. Hence, these missions provide us with the tools to study key astrophysical and astrochemical processes involved in the formation and evolution of planets, stars, and galaxies. These new missions can be expected to lead to the detection of many thousands of new spectral features. Identification, analysis and interpretation of these features in terms of the physical and chemical characteristics of the astronomical sources will require detailed astronomical modeling tools supported by laboratory measurements and theoretical studies of chemical reactions and collisional excitation rates on species of astrophysical relevance. These data will have to be made easily accessible to the scientific community through web-based data archives. In this paper, we will review the Herschel mission and its expected impact on our understanding of the molecular universe.

  5. The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS): Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher; Walker, C.; Kulesa, C.; Stark, A.; Smith, H.; Tolls, V.; White, G.; Israel, F.; Guesten, R.; Requenna-Torres, M.; Shaw, T.; Chen, S.; Schlawin, E.

    The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS) is a Herschel Open Time Key Programme to use the HIFI and PACS instruments to observe [CII], [NII], [OI], [OIII], and high-J CO emission lines in focused regions near the Galactic Center. By separating and evaluating the distinctly different roles of the central nuclear engine, the Galactic Bar, and dynamical stellar and interstellar feedback mechanisms, HIGGS will provide a high-resolution template for the physical processes in galactic nuclei throughout the local universe, in particular those engaged in starburst activity. We intend to present our early results along with a description of the data reduction and analysis tools that we have developed.

  6. Charles Darwin and John Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, B.

    2009-11-01

    The influence of John Herschel on the philosophical thoughts of Charles Darwin, both through the former's book, Natural Philosophy, and through their meeting in 1836 at the Cape of Good Hope, is discussed. With Herschel having himself speculated on evolution just a few months before he met Darwin, it is probable that he stimulated at least the beginnings of the latter's lifelong work on the subject.

  7. Caroline Lucretia Herschel -- Comet Huntress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.

    1999-04-01

    Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) was an active astronomer at a time when discovering comets, and calculating their orbits, was one of the main astronomical activities. She discovered eight comets and held the ladies' world record in this field until April 1987 when she was toppled from the podium by Carolyn S. Shoemaker. This paper places the Herschel cometary discoveries into the context of the contemporary cometary astronomy.

  8. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-11-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas for laboratory study required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can be properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  9. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas where laboratory study is required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front, chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can he properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  10. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Atmospheric ozone, and related flight and meteorological data for May 1975, obtained during 49 flights of a Pan American World Airways 747, are available as GASP tape VL0003 from the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina. In addition to the GASP data, tropopause pressure fields obtained from NMC archives for the dates of the GASP flights are included on the data tape. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, and data tape specifications are described.

  11. GASP. I. Gas Stripping Phenomena in Galaxies with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggianti, Bianca M.; Moretti, Alessia; Gullieuszik, Marco; Fritz, Jacopo; Jaffé, Yara; Bettoni, Daniela; Fasano, Giovanni; Bellhouse, Callum; Hau, George; Vulcani, Benedetta; Biviano, Andrea; Omizzolo, Alessandro; Paccagnella, Angela; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Cava, Antonio; Sheen, Y.-K.; Couch, Warrick; Owers, Matt

    2017-07-01

    GAs Stripping Phenomena in galaxies with MUSE (GASP) is a new integral-field spectroscopic survey with MUSE at the VLT aimed at studying gas removal processes in galaxies. We present an overview of the survey and show a first example of a galaxy undergoing strong gas stripping. GASP is obtaining deep MUSE data for 114 galaxies at z = 0.04-0.07 with stellar masses in the range {10}9.2{--}{10}11.5 {M}⊙ in different environments (galaxy clusters and groups over more than four orders of magnitude in halo mass). GASP targets galaxies with optical signatures of unilateral debris or tails reminiscent of gas-stripping processes (“jellyfish galaxies”), as well as a control sample of disk galaxies with no morphological anomalies. GASP is the only existing integral field unit (IFU) survey covering both the main galaxy body and the outskirts and surroundings, where the IFU data can reveal the presence and origin of the outer gas. To demonstrate GASP’s ability to probe the physics of gas and stars, we show the complete analysis of a textbook case of a jellyfish galaxy, JO206. This is a massive galaxy (9× {10}10 {M}⊙ ) in a low-mass cluster (σ ˜ 500 {km} {{{s}}}-1) at a small projected clustercentric radius and a high relative velocity, with ≥90 kpc long tentacles of ionized gas stripped away by ram pressure. We present the spatially resolved kinematics and physical properties of the gas and stars and depict the evolutionary history of this galaxy.

  12. The REAL Caroline Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, M. A.

    2003-12-01

    Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) is famous as the discoverer of eight comets, and the author of an Index to Flamsteed's British Catalogue of Stars, which the Royal Society published at its own expense. She was the devoted collaborator of her brother William during the twenty years he spent 'sweeping' for nebulae; and in old age she reorganized William's 2500 nebulae into a zone catalog that enabled his son John to re-examine these objects systematically, a work for which she was awarded a Gold Medal of the RAS. Nevertheless, study of her autobiographies and other manuscripts shows that her attitude to astronomy was ambivalent. William had rescued her from drudgery in Hanover, and her primary concern was to express her gratitude to him, even when his interests turned from music to astronomy and as a result she was required to abandon her career as a singer. Yet although the decision was hers, she often resented the sacrifice she had made. She emerges as a complex and often troubled personality, very different from the serene observer of legend.

  13. Reflex recruitment of medullary gasping mechanisms in eupnoea by pharyngeal stimulation in cats.

    PubMed Central

    Fung, M L; St John, W M; Tomori, Z

    1994-01-01

    1. Mechanical stimulation of the naso- and oropharynx causes the replacement of the eupnoeic ventilatory pattern by a brief, but large, burst of activity of the phrenic nerve. Our purpose was to define whether these changes in phrenic activity represent a switch to gasping. 2. In decerebrate, vagotomized, paralysed and ventilated cats, mechanical stimulation of the pharynx was performed during eupnoea, apneusis and gasping. The latter two ventilatory patterns were produced by ventilating the experimental animal with 1.0% carbon monoxide in air or with 100% nitrogen. Eupnoea could be re-established by a recommencement of ventilation with oxygen. 3. The rate of rise of phrenic activity and its peak height were much greater following mechanical stimulation of the pharynx than the phrenic bursts of eupnoea or apneusis. The durations of phrenic burst and the period between these were much less following pharyngeal stimulation. In contrast, these variables of phrenic activity were the same during pharyngeal stimulation and in gasping. 4. Previous studies had established that activity within a region of the lateral tegmental field of medulla is critical for the manifestation of gasping. Hence, electrical stimulation of this region during gasping elicits premature gasps whereas its ablation irreversibly eliminates gasping. 5. We positioned a multibarrelled pipette in the critical medullary region for gasping. Its location was verified, once gasping was established in hypoxia or anoxia, by the elicitation of premature gasps following electrical stimulation. Neurons in this region were destroyed by microinjections of the neurotoxin kainic acid; in a few experiments the region was destroyed by electrolytic lesions. 6. Following destruction of the region of the lateral tegmental field, gasping could no longer be provoked in anoxia. In contrast, the eupnoeic pattern of phrenic activity continued. However, mechanical stimulation of the pharynx no longer caused any changes in the

  14. Herschel Cool Universe Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-05

    Artist impression of Herschel is set against an image captured by the observatory, showing baby stars forming in the Rosette nebula. The bright spots are dusty cocoons containing massive forming stars, each one up to ten times the mass of our own sun.

  15. William Herschel's 'Hole in the Sky' and the discovery of dark nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinicke, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    In 1785 William Herschel published a paper in the Philosophical Transactions containing the remarkable section "An opening or hole". It describes an unusual vacant place in Scorpius. This matter falls into oblivion until Caroline Herschel initiated a correspondence with her nephew John in 1833. It contains Herschel's spectacular words "Hier ist wahrhaftig ein Loch im Himmel" ("Here truly is a hole in the sky"). About a hundred years later, Johann Georg Hagen, Director of the Vatican Observatory, presented a spectacular candidate for the 'hole', discovered in 1857 by Angelo Secchi in Sagittarius and later catalogued by Edward E. Barnard as the dark nebula B 86. Hagen's claim initiated a debate, mainly in the Journal of the British Astronomical Association, about the identity of Herschel's 'object'. Though things could be partly cleared up, unjustified claims still remain. This is mainly due to the fact that original sources were not consulted. A comprehensive study of the curious 'hole' is presented here. It covers major parts of the epochal astronomical work of William, Caroline and John Herschel. This includes a general study of 'vacant places', found by William Herschel and others, and the speculations about their nature, eventually leading to the finding that dark nebulae are due to absorbing interstellar matter. Some of the 'vacant places' could be identified in catalogues of dark nebulae and this leads to a 'Herschel Catalogue of Dark Nebulae' - the first historic catalogue of its kind.

  16. Herschel - PACS Survey Of Protoplanetary Disks In Taurus - Auriga Observations Of [O I] And [C Ii], And Far-Infrared Continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Christian; Sandell, Goeran; Vacca, William D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Matthews, Geoffrey; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Barbado, David; Dent, William R. F.; Eiroa, Carlos; Grady, Carol; Kamp, Inga; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Menard, Francois; Pinte, Christophe; Podio, Linda; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Roberge, Aki; Thi,, Wing-Fai; Vicente, Silvia; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was used to observe approx. 120 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus as part of the GASPS Open Time Key project. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer was used to measure the continuum as well as several gas tracers such as [O I] 63 micron, [O I] 145 micron, [C II] 158, micron OH, H2O, and CO. The strongest line seen is [O I] at 63 micron. We find a clear correlation between the strength of the [O I] 63 micron line and the 63 micron continuum for disk sources. In outflow sources, the line emission can be up to 20 times stronger than in disk sources, suggesting that the line emission is dominated by the outflow. The tight correlation seen for disk sources suggests that the emission arises from the inner disk (<50 AU) and lower surface layers of the disk where the gas and dust are coupled. The [O I] 63 micron is fainter in transitional stars than in normal Class II disks. Simple spectral energy distribution models indicate that the dust responsible for the continuum emission is colder in these disks, leading to weaker line emission. [C II] 158 micron emission is only detected in strong outflow sources. The observed line ratios of [O I] 63 micron to [O I] 145 micron are in the regime where we are insensitive to the gas-to-dust ratio, neither can we discriminate between shock or photodissociation region emission. We detect no Class III object in [O I] 63 micron and only three in continuum, at least one of which is a candidate debris disk.

  17. HERSCHEL/PACS SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN TAURUS/AURIGA—OBSERVATIONS OF [O I] AND [C II], AND FAR-INFRARED CONTINUUM

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Vacca, William D.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Mathews, Geoffrey; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Ménard, Francois; Pinte, Christophe; Podio, Linda; Thi, Wing-Fai; Dent, William R. F.; Eiroa, Carlos; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Grady, Carol; Roberge, Aki; Kamp, Inga; Vicente, Silvia; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-10

    The Herschel Space Observatory was used to observe ∼120 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus as part of the GASPS Open Time Key project. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer was used to measure the continuum as well as several gas tracers such as [O I] 63 μm, [O I] 145 μm, [C II] 158 μm, OH, H{sub 2}O, and CO. The strongest line seen is [O I] at 63 μm. We find a clear correlation between the strength of the [O I] 63 μm line and the 63 μm continuum for disk sources. In outflow sources, the line emission can be up to 20 times stronger than in disk sources, suggesting that the line emission is dominated by the outflow. The tight correlation seen for disk sources suggests that the emission arises from the inner disk (<50 AU) and lower surface layers of the disk where the gas and dust are coupled. The [O I] 63 μm is fainter in transitional stars than in normal Class II disks. Simple spectral energy distribution models indicate that the dust responsible for the continuum emission is colder in these disks, leading to weaker line emission. [C II] 158 μm emission is only detected in strong outflow sources. The observed line ratios of [O I] 63 μm to [O I] 145 μm are in the regime where we are insensitive to the gas-to-dust ratio, neither can we discriminate between shock or photodissociation region emission. We detect no Class III object in [O I] 63 μm and only three in continuum, at least one of which is a candidate debris disk.

  18. Exploring New Spectral Windows with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergin, Edwin A.

    2011-06-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA cornerstone mission with NASA participation, has been in operation for over a year. I will briefly outline the overall capabilities of Herschel which has both photometric and spectroscopic coverage from 63 to 610 microns. Herschel offers unprecedented sensitivity as well as continuous spectral coverage across the gaps imposed by the atmosphere, opening up a largely unexplored wavelength regime to high resolution spectroscopy. In particular, I will present results from the guaranteed time key program: Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS). Our program is nearing completion of data acquisition and I will discuss the most complete molecular spectrum of star-forming gas ever obtained in the spectrum of Orion KL and the galactic center molecular cloud Sagittarius B2. These spectra have over 1.4 THz of bandwidth and a resolution of 1 MHz. We estimate that there are over 100,000 spectral lines alone in the Orion KL spectrum with numerous lines of water vapor, ammonia, sulfur-bearing molecules, and numerous organics. I will demonstrate the power of molecular spectroscopy in characterizing the physical state of dense gas near massive stars through the perspective offered by observations of hundreds of lines of a single molecule and are revealing a new tracer of active galactic nuclei. I will show how the spectra provide a near complete chemical assay and cooling census of star-forming gas. Ultimately the gains from Herschel have tremendous potential to extend our understanding of the physics of star birth and feedback while informing on the origin of water and organics in space.

  19. GASP: Gas stripping and the outskirts of galaxies as a function of environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggianti, Bianca; GASP Team

    2017-03-01

    We present GASP, an ongoing ESO Large Program with MUSE aiming to study gas removal processes from galaxies at low redshift. GASP targets 100 galaxies with tails, tentacles and one-sided debris. MUSE data allows a detailed investigation of the ionized stripped gas, as well as of the gas and stars within the galaxy out to large distances from the galaxy center. We show the first results for two of the GASP galaxies that are striking cluster jellyfish galaxies of stellar masses ~ 1011 M ⊙.

  20. Agonal gasps of cardiac arrest victim can aid in confirming tracheal intubation using Umesh's intubation detector.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Magazine, Rahul

    2013-09-01

    Several patients of cardiac arrest may be found in a state of agonal gasps that are of insufficient tidal volume and are not considered as a sign of life. However, this volume is sufficient enough to cause appreciable inflation and deflation of the reservoir bag of Umesh's intubation detector (UID) as evidenced in all 12 victims of cardiac arrest with gasping efforts in this study. Therefore, we conclude that the agonal gasps during cardiac arrest can reliably be used to confirm tracheal intubation using the UID device. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Herschel flight models sorption coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duband, L.; Clerc, L.; Ercolani, E.; Guillemet, L.; Vallcorba, R.

    2008-03-01

    The Herschel and Planck satellites will be jointly launched on an ARIANE 5 in 2008. The Herschel payload consists of three instruments built by international scientific consortia, heterodyne instrument for first (HIFI), photo-conductor array camera and spectrometer (PACS) and spectral and photometric imaging receiver (SPIRE). The spacecraft provides the environment for astronomical observations in the infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength range requiring cryogenic temperatures for the cold focal plane units. The spectral and photometric imaging receiver (SPIRE) will cover the 200-670 μm spectral range using bolometric detectors, as the photo-conductor array camera and spectrometer (PACS) will cover the 60-210 μm spectral range. Both instruments SPIRE and PACS feature detectors operating at 300 mK. This cooling will be effected by two helium sorption coolers developed at the Service des Basses Températures of the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA-SBT). These coolers based on an evaporative cooling cycle features no moving parts and can be recycled indefinitely pending the availability of a cold heat sink at temperature below 3 K. Several models were developed in the course of the Herschel program and this paper deals with the design, manufacturing and qualification of the flight model coolers.

  2. Are planets and debris correlated? Herschel imaging of 61 Vir.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, M.; Kennedy, G. M.; Moro-Martín, A.

    2012-03-01

    Debris disk studies with Spitzer found no evidence of a correlation between (giant) exoplanets and circumsteallar dust. Since these studies were carried out, a new parameter space of fainter and colder debris disks has been opened up by the Herschel Space Observatory -- improving our knowledge of the disk frequency, in particular around cooler stars -- and simultaneously higher precision doppler surveys have allowed the detection of lower-mass planets, the frequency of which can now be characterized.Ê Here, we revisit the planet-debris disk correlation using Herschel data from the DEBRIS and DUNES surveys. We assess whether the frequency and properties of disks around stars with high-mass and low-mass planets are any different from a control sample, and if these differences can be used to shed light on planet formation mechanisms and to ÒpredictÓ the presence of planets around stars with certain disk characteristics.

  3. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tapes VL0007 and VL0008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Gauntner, D. J.; Humenik, F. M.; Briehl, D.

    1977-01-01

    The Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board the NASA CV-990 research aircraft and four commerical B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. In-situ measurements of atmospheric ozone and water vapor, data from laboratory analysis of filters exposed in flight, and related flight and meteorological data obtained from September 1976 through January 1977 are reported. These data are now available on GASP tapes VL0007 & VL0008 from the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina. In addition to the GASP data, tropopause pressure fields obtained from NMC archives for the dates of the GASP flights are included on the data tape. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, and data tape specifications are described.

  4. Tabulations of Ambient Ozone Data Obtained by GASP Airliners; March 1975 to December 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    M.: NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP): Data Report for Tape VLO005. NASA TM X-73608, 1977. 10. Gauntner , Daniel J .; Holdeman, J . D.; and...Sampling Program (GASP): Data Report for Tapes VLO10 and VLO012. NASA TM-79U61, 1979. 14. Holdeman, J . D.; Dudzinski, Thomas J .; and Tiefermann, Marvin W ...19b5 (available from National Weather Service, Silver Springs, MD.). 17. Perkins, Porter J .; Holdeman, J . D.; and Gauntner , Daniel J .: Aircraft Cabin

  5. nGASP - the nematode genome annotation assessment project

    SciTech Connect

    Coghlan, A; Fiedler, T J; McKay, S J; Flicek, P; Harris, T W; Blasiar, D; Allen, J; Stein, L D

    2008-12-19

    While the C. elegans genome is extensively annotated, relatively little information is available for other Caenorhabditis species. The nematode genome annotation assessment project (nGASP) was launched to objectively assess the accuracy of protein-coding gene prediction software in C. elegans, and to apply this knowledge to the annotation of the genomes of four additional Caenorhabditis species and other nematodes. Seventeen groups worldwide participated in nGASP, and submitted 47 prediction sets for 10 Mb of the C. elegans genome. Predictions were compared to reference gene sets consisting of confirmed or manually curated gene models from WormBase. The most accurate gene-finders were 'combiner' algorithms, which made use of transcript- and protein-alignments and multi-genome alignments, as well as gene predictions from other gene-finders. Gene-finders that used alignments of ESTs, mRNAs and proteins came in second place. There was a tie for third place between gene-finders that used multi-genome alignments and ab initio gene-finders. The median gene level sensitivity of combiners was 78% and their specificity was 42%, which is nearly the same accuracy as reported for combiners in the human genome. C. elegans genes with exons of unusual hexamer content, as well as those with many exons, short exons, long introns, a weak translation start signal, weak splice sites, or poorly conserved orthologs were the most challenging for gene-finders. While the C. elegans genome is extensively annotated, relatively little information is available for other Caenorhabditis species. The nematode genome annotation assessment project (nGASP) was launched to objectively assess the accuracy of protein-coding gene prediction software in C. elegans, and to apply this knowledge to the annotation of the genomes of four additional Caenorhabditis species and other nematodes. Seventeen groups worldwide participated in nGASP, and submitted 47 prediction sets for 10 Mb of the C. elegans genome

  6. nGASP – the nematode genome annotation assessment project

    PubMed Central

    Coghlan, Avril; Fiedler, Tristan J; McKay, Sheldon J; Flicek, Paul; Harris, Todd W; Blasiar, Darin; Stein, Lincoln D

    2008-01-01

    Background While the C. elegans genome is extensively annotated, relatively little information is available for other Caenorhabditis species. The nematode genome annotation assessment project (nGASP) was launched to objectively assess the accuracy of protein-coding gene prediction software in C. elegans, and to apply this knowledge to the annotation of the genomes of four additional Caenorhabditis species and other nematodes. Seventeen groups worldwide participated in nGASP, and submitted 47 prediction sets across 10 Mb of the C. elegans genome. Predictions were compared to reference gene sets consisting of confirmed or manually curated gene models from WormBase. Results The most accurate gene-finders were 'combiner' algorithms, which made use of transcript- and protein-alignments and multi-genome alignments, as well as gene predictions from other gene-finders. Gene-finders that used alignments of ESTs, mRNAs and proteins came in second. There was a tie for third place between gene-finders that used multi-genome alignments and ab initio gene-finders. The median gene level sensitivity of combiners was 78% and their specificity was 42%, which is nearly the same accuracy reported for combiners in the human genome. C. elegans genes with exons of unusual hexamer content, as well as those with unusually many exons, short exons, long introns, a weak translation start signal, weak splice sites, or poorly conserved orthologs posed the greatest difficulty for gene-finders. Conclusion This experiment establishes a baseline of gene prediction accuracy in Caenorhabditis genomes, and has guided the choice of gene-finders for the annotation of newly sequenced genomes of Caenorhabditis and other nematode species. We have created new gene sets for C. briggsae, C. remanei, C. brenneri, C. japonica, and Brugia malayi using some of the best-performing gene-finders. PMID:19099578

  7. Gasp, a Grb2-associating protein, is critical for positive selection of thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Michael S.; Oda, Hiroyo; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Sato, Yoshinori; Eshima, Koji; Kirikae, Teruo; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Shirai, Mutsunori; Abe, Takaya; Natsume, Tohru; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Suzuki, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    T cells develop in the thymus through positive and negative selection, which are responsible for shaping the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in selection remains an area of intense interest. Here, we identified and characterized a gene product Gasp (Grb2-associating protein, also called Themis) that is critically required for positive selection. Gasp is a cytosolic protein with no known functional motifs that is expressed only in T cells, especially immature CD4/CD8 double positive (DP) thymocytes. In the absence of Gasp, differentiation of both CD4 and CD8 single positive cells in the thymus was severely inhibited, whereas all other TCR-induced events such as β-selection, negative selection, peripheral activation, and homeostatic proliferation were unaffected. We found that Gasp constitutively associates with Grb2 via its N-terminal Src homology 3 domain, suggesting that Gasp acts as a thymocyte-specific adaptor for Grb2 or regulates Ras signaling in DP thymocytes. Collectively, we have described a gene called Gasp that is critical for positive selection. PMID:19805304

  8. John Herschel, photography and the camera lucida.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, L. J.

    John Herschel's use of the camera lucida as a drawing aid and the part played by this instrument in Henry Fox Talbot's motivation to invent photography are described. Herschel's seminal contributions to the early progress of photography, his attempts at colour photography, his invention of the "blueprint" process and his assistance to other photographic pioneers are discussed.

  9. The Newly-named "Herschel Space Observatory" revisits its science goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    In science, new answers often trigger new questions. And in astronomy, new questions often mean new instruments. The ESA 'Herschel Space Observatory', formerly called 'Far Infrared and Submillimetre Telescope' (FIRST), is the instrument that inherits many of the questions triggered by its predecessor, ESA's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). 200 astronomers from all over the world met last week in Toledo, Spain, to discuss how to insert these new questions in Herschel's 'scientific agenda'. Thus, Herschel will study the origin of stars and galaxies -its main goals-, but it will also keep on searching for water in space -as ISO did-, and will help us to understand the formation of our own Solar System through detailed observations of comets and of the poorly known 'transneptunian objects'. A new name for 'FIRST' The new name for FIRST, 'Herschel Space Observatory', or 'Herschel', was announced at the opening of the Toledo conference by ESA's Director of Science, Roger Bonnet. William Herschel was an Anglo-German astronomer who discovered infrared light in 1800. Thanks to his discovery, astronomers can now observe a facet of the Universe that remains hidden to other telescopes. ESA's Herschel is the first space observatory covering a major part of the far-infrared and submillimetre waveband (from 57 to 670 microns) and its new name honours Herschel on the 200th anniversary of his discovery. Roger Bonnet explained: "It strikes me that we are at a key scientific conference devoted to the next ESA infrared space mission, gathering many 'infrared pioneers', 200 years after a famous musician and astronomer discovered that by placing a thermometer in the remote part of the solar spectrum, where apparently there was no light, he could detect heat. What we call now infrared radiation. This meeting marks two events: the beginning of a very promising utilisation of FIRST, and the adoption of a new name for the telescope: the Herschel Space Observatory". Roger Bonnet also

  10. Herschel Observations of Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Tappert, Claus; Hoffman, Douglas I.; Campbell, Ryan K.

    2013-01-01

    We have used the PACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe eight cataclysmic variables at 70 and 160 μm. Of these eight objects, only AM Her was detected. We have combined the Herschel results with ground-based, Spitzer, and WISE observations to construct spectral energy distributions for all of the targets. For the two dwarf novae in the sample, SS Cyg and U Gem, we find that their infrared luminosities are completely dominated by their secondary stars. For the two highly magnetic "polars" in our survey, AM Her and EF Eri, we find that their mid-infrared excesses, previously attributed to circumbinary dust emission, can be fully explained by cyclotron emission. The WISE light curves for both sources show large, orbitally modulated variations that are identically phased to their near-IR light curves. We propose that significant emission from the lowest cyclotron harmonics (n <= 3) is present in EF Eri and AM Her. Previously, such emission would have been presumed to be optically thick, and not provide significant orbitally modulated flux. This suggests that the accretion onto polars is more complicated than assumed in the simple models developed for these two sources. We develop a model for the near-/mid-IR light curves for WZ Sge with an L2 donor star that shows that the ellipsoidal variations from its secondary star are detected. We conclude that none of the targets surveyed have dusty circumbinary disks. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  11. The Herschel Point Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Gabor; Schulz, Bernhard; Altieri, Bruno; Calzoletti, Luca; Kiss, Csaba; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Paladini, Roberta; Papageorgiou, Andreas; Pearson, Chris; Rector, John; Shupe, David; Valtchanov, Ivan; Verebélyi, Erika; Xu, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was the fourth cornerstone mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme with excellent broad band imaging capabilities in the submillimetre and far-infrared part of the spectrum. Although the spacecraft finished its observations in 2013, it left a large legacy dataset that is far from having been fully scrutinized and still has potential for new scientific discoveries. This is specifically true for the photometric observations of the PACS and SPIRE instruments that scanned >10% of the sky at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 microns. Some source catalogs have already been produced by individual observing programs, but there are many observations that would never be analyzed for their full source content. To maximize the science return of the SPIRE and PACS data sets, our international team of instrument experts is in the process of building the Herschel Point Source Catalog (HPSC) from all scan map observations. Our homogeneous source extraction enables a systematic and unbiased comparison of sensitivity across the different Herschel fields that single programs will generally not be able to provide. The extracted point sources will contain individual YSOs of our Galaxy, unresolved YSO clusters in resolved nearby galaxies and unresolved galaxies of the local and distant Universe that are related to star formation. Such a huge dataset will help scientists better understand the evolution from interstellar clouds to individual stars. Furthermore the analysis of stellar clusters and the star formation on galactic scales will add more details to the understanding of star formation laws through time.We present our findings on comparison of different source detection and photometric tools. First results of the extractions are shown along with the description of our pipelines and catalogue entries. We also provide an additional science product, the structure noise map, that is used for the quality assessment of the catalogue in

  12. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Tappert, Claus; Hoffman, Douglas I.; Campbell, Ryan K. E-mail: rthamilt@nmsu.edu E-mail: dhoffman@ipac.caltech.edu

    2013-01-01

    We have used the PACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe eight cataclysmic variables at 70 and 160 {mu}m. Of these eight objects, only AM Her was detected. We have combined the Herschel results with ground-based, Spitzer, and WISE observations to construct spectral energy distributions for all of the targets. For the two dwarf novae in the sample, SS Cyg and U Gem, we find that their infrared luminosities are completely dominated by their secondary stars. For the two highly magnetic 'polars' in our survey, AM Her and EF Eri, we find that their mid-infrared excesses, previously attributed to circumbinary dust emission, can be fully explained by cyclotron emission. The WISE light curves for both sources show large, orbitally modulated variations that are identically phased to their near-IR light curves. We propose that significant emission from the lowest cyclotron harmonics (n {<=} 3) is present in EF Eri and AM Her. Previously, such emission would have been presumed to be optically thick, and not provide significant orbitally modulated flux. This suggests that the accretion onto polars is more complicated than assumed in the simple models developed for these two sources. We develop a model for the near-/mid-IR light curves for WZ Sge with an L2 donor star that shows that the ellipsoidal variations from its secondary star are detected. We conclude that none of the targets surveyed have dusty circumbinary disks.

  13. Herschel/PACS observations of young sources in Taurus: the far-infrared counterpart of optical jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podio, L.; Kamp, I.; Flower, D.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Mora, A.; Aresu, G.; Brittain, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Pinte, C.; White, G. J.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Observations of the atomic and molecular line emission associated with jets and outflows emitted by young stellar objects provide sensitive diagnostics of the excitation conditions, and can be used to trace the various evolutionary stages they pass through as they evolve to become main sequence stars. Aims: To understand the relevance of atomic and molecular cooling in shocks, and how accretion and ejection efficiency evolves with the evolutionary state of the sources, we will study the far-infrared counterparts of bright optical jets associated with Class I and II sources in Taurus (T Tau, DG Tau A, DG Tau B, FS Tau A+B, and RW Aur). Methods: We have analysed Herschel/PACS observations of a number of atomic ([O i]63 μm, 145 μm, [C ii]158 μm) and molecular (high-J CO, H2O, OH) lines, collected within the open time key project GASPS (PI: W. R. F. Dent). To constrain the origin of the detected lines we have compared the obtained FIR emission maps with the emission from optical-jets and millimetre-outflows, and the measured line fluxes and ratios with predictions from shock and disk models. Results: All of the targets are associated with extended emission in the atomic lines; in particular, the strong [O i] 63 μm emission is correlated with the direction of the optical jet/mm-outflow. The line ratios suggest that the atomic lines can be excited in fast dissociative J-shocks occurring along the jet. The molecular emission, on the contrary, originates from a compact region, that is spatially and spectrally unresolved, and lines from highly excited levels are detected (e.g., the o-H2O 818-707 line, and the CO J = 36-35 line). Disk models are unable to explain the brightness of the observed lines (CO and H2O line fluxes up to 10-15-6 × 10-16 W m-2). Slow C- or J-shocks with high pre-shock densities reproduce the observed H2O and high-J CO lines; however, the disk and/or UV-heated outflow cavities may contribute to the observed emission. Conclusions

  14. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on serum myostatin and GASP-1.

    PubMed

    Saremi, A; Gharakhanloo, R; Sharghi, S; Gharaati, M R; Larijani, B; Omidfar, K

    2010-04-12

    Myostatin is a catabolic regulator of skeletal muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of resistance training for 8 weeks in conjunction with creatine supplementation on muscle strength, lean body mass, and serum levels of myostatin and growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein-1 (GASP-1). In a double-blinded design 27 healthy male subjects (23.42+/-2.2 years) were assigned to control (CON), resistance training+placebo (RT+PL) and resistance training+creatine supplementation (RT+CR) groups. The protocol consisted of 3 days per week of training for 8 weeks, each session including three sets of 8-10 repetitions at 60-70% of 1 RM for whole-body exercise. Blood sampling, muscular strength testing and body composition analysis (full body DEXA) were performed at 0, 4th and 8th weeks. Myostatin and GASP-1 was measured. Resistance training caused significant decrease in serum levels of myostatin and increase in that of GASP-1. Creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training lead to greater decreases in serum myostatin (p<0.05), but had not additional effect on GASP-1 (p>0.05). The effects of resistance training on serum levels of myostatin and GASP-1, may explain the increased muscle mass that is amplified by creatine supplementation.

  15. The Mystery of Herschel's ``Cold Debris Disks''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivov, A. V.; Löhne, T.; Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.

    2012-03-01

    An important result of the Herschel Open Times Key Program DUNES is a discovery of a new class of ``cold debris disks''. These are tenuous disks that show little or no infrared excess at 100μm, but a significant one at 160μm and possibly longer wavelengths. A comparison of the dust temperatures inferred from the SEDs to the disk radii estimated from resolved images suggests that the dust is colder than a black body at the dust location. This requires the grains to be large (compared to far-infrared wavelengths) and to have low absorption in the visible. While the latter can be achieved, for instance if the dust is rich in ices, the absence of small grains is puzzling, since collisional models of debris disks predict the grains of all sizes down to several times the radiation pressure blowout limit to be present. We will discuss several scenarios proposed to explain depletion of small grains: transport-dominated disks, disks with dynamically cold dust-producing planetesimals, and the disks of unstirred primordial millimeter-sized grains. While the first two scenarios encounter problems, the last one looks more promising. Our collisional simulations show that, at least for some collision outcome prescriptions, such disks can indeed survive for gigayears, largely preserving the primordial size distribution. The modeled thermal emission appears to be roughly consistent with the observed one.

  16. Herschel Observations of Interstellar Chloronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Roueff, Evelyne; Snell, Ronald L.; Lis, Dariusz; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Black, John H.; De Luca, Massimo; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Gupta, Harshal; Indriolo, Nick; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Larsson, Bengt; Melnick, Gary J.; Menten, Karl M.; Monje, Raquel; Nagy, Zsófia; Phillips, Thomas G.; Sandqvist, Aage; Sonnentrucker, Paule; van der Tak, Floris; Wolfire, Mark G.

    2012-03-01

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared, we have observed para-chloronium (H2Cl+) toward six sources in the Galaxy. We detected interstellar chloronium absorption in foreground molecular clouds along the sight lines to the bright submillimeter continuum sources Sgr A (+50 km s-1 cloud) and W31C. Both the para-H35 2Cl+ and para-H37 2Cl+ isotopologues were detected, through observations of their 111-000 transitions at rest frequencies of 485.42 and 484.23 GHz, respectively. For an assumed ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of 3, the observed optical depths imply that chloronium accounts for ~4%-12% of chlorine nuclei in the gas phase. We detected interstellar chloronium emission from two sources in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1: the Orion Bar photodissociation region and the Orion South condensation. For an assumed OPR of 3 for chloronium, the observed emission line fluxes imply total beam-averaged column densities of ~2 × 1013 cm-2 and ~1.2 × 1013 cm-2, respectively, for chloronium in these two sources. We obtained upper limits on the para-H35 2Cl+ line strengths toward H2 Peak 1 in the Orion Molecular cloud and toward the massive young star AFGL 2591. The chloronium abundances inferred in this study are typically at least a factor ~10 larger than the predictions of steady-state theoretical models for the chemistry of interstellar molecules containing chlorine. Several explanations for this discrepancy were investigated, but none has proven satisfactory, and thus the large observed abundances of chloronium remain puzzling. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  17. Herschel Spots Comet Massacre Around Nearby Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-12

    New data from the Herschel Space Observatory suggest comets are constantly smashing together around the star Fomalhaut, a young star, just a few hundred million years old, and twice as massive as the sun.

  18. Herschel's DEBRIS - An Update on the Search for Kuiper Belts Around the Nearest Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butner, Harold M.; Matthews, B.; DEBRIS Survey Team

    2011-01-01

    DEBRIS (Disk Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre) is an open time key project on Herschel that aims to conduct an unbiased statistical survey for debris disks around the nearest stars. The goal is to achieve flux-limited observations at 100 and 160 microns - and thereby reach unprecedented debris disk mass limits. The sample includes 446 primaries, 348 of which are observed by the DEBRIS team and 98 which are covered by another project (DUNES - DUst disks around NEarby Stars). The sample covers spectral types from A0 through M7, and is designed to allow the detection of dust masses similar to those of our own Kuiper belt. The superior resolution of Herschel combined with the fact that our sample are all nearby stars will provide resolved disks for many of the detected disks. We will discuss the status of ongoing Herschel observations for this unique unbiased survey of debris disk candidates.

  19. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    Atmospheric ozone, water vapor, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 214 flights of a United Airlines B-747 and two Pan American World Airways B-747's from March through June 1976. In addition, trichlorofluoromethane data obtained from laboratory analysis of two whole air samples collected in flight are reported. These data are available on GASP tape VL0005 from the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina. In addition to the GASP data, tropopause pressure fields obtained from NMC archives for the dates of the GASP flights are included on the data tape. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, and data tape specifications are described in this report. Selected analyses including ozone and sample bottle data are also presented.

  20. Herschel evidence for disk flattening or gas depletion in transitional disks

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, J. T.; Pascucci, I.; Espaillat, C.; Woitke, P.; Andrews, S.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W.-F.; Meeus, G.; Dent, W. R. F.

    2014-06-01

    Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks characterized by reduced near- and mid-infrared emission, with respect to full disks. This characteristic spectral energy distribution indicates the presence of an optically thin inner cavity within the dust disk believed to mark the disappearance of the primordial massive disk. We present new Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of [O I] 63.18 μm for 21 transitional disks. Our survey complements the larger Herschel GASPS program ({sup G}as in Protoplanetary Systems{sup )} by quadrupling the number of transitional disks observed with PACS in this wavelength. [O I] 63.18 μm traces material in the outer regions of the disk, beyond the inner cavity of most transitional disks. We find that transitional disks have [O I] 63.18 μm line luminosities ∼2 times fainter than their full disk counterparts. We self-consistently determine various stellar properties (e.g., bolometric luminosity, FUV excess, etc.) and disk properties (e.g., disk dust mass, etc.) that could influence the [O I] 63.18 μm line luminosity, and we find no correlations that can explain the lower [O I] 63.18 μm line luminosities in transitional disks. Using a grid of thermo-chemical protoplanetary disk models, we conclude that either transitional disks are less flared than full disks or they possess lower gas-to-dust ratios due to a depletion of gas mass. This result suggests that transitional disks are more evolved than their full disk counterparts, possibly even at large radii.

  1. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tapes VL0010 and VL0012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Tiefermann, M. W.; Nyland, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The GASP atmospheric trace constituent data currently available are considered. Included on tapes are in-situ measurements of atmospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, water vapor, and clouds, data from laboratory analysis of filters exposed in flight, and related flight and meteorological data. Measurements of ozone levels within the first class cabin of these aircraft are also reported. In addition to the GASP data, tropopause pressures obtained from time and space interpolation of NMC archived data for the dates of the flights are included. Reported herein are the flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and analyses of the cabin ozone measurements.

  2. Cloning and characterization of a Gasp homolog from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, and its putative role in cuticle formation.

    PubMed

    Nisole, A; Stewart, D; Bowman, S; Zhang, D; Krell, P J; Doucet, D; Cusson, M

    2010-10-01

    Proteins that are capable of binding chitin play essential roles in the synthesis and structural integrity of the insect cuticle and peritrophic matrix. In the course of developing expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries for the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, we identified an abundant cDNA encoding a homolog of the Drosophila "gasp" gene (Gene Analogous to Small Peritrophins). For the present work, we undertook the characterization of this new homolog, CfGasp, in an effort to identify its role during larval development. As shown for DmGasp, the C. fumiferana homolog was found to contain three type-2 chitin-binding domains (CBDs), which were also found in Gasp orthologs retrieved from GenBank. In a phylogenetic analysis, these Gasp proteins formed a tight cluster, distinct from the midgut-specific peritrophins with which they share the cysteine-containing CBDs so far considered absent from cuticular proteins. However, unlike what has been shown for peritrophins, CfGasp transcript levels were low in larval midguts and most abundant in epidermis, while they were low in trachea and ovaries. Transcript levels increased during larval molts in a pattern similar to that observed for exocuticular proteins in other insects. In addition, the recombinant protein was shown to be capable of binding chitin. Altogether, these results suggest a structural role for CfGasp in exocuticle formation.

  3. GASP - THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF HELIUM, METHANE, NEON, NITROGEN, CARBON MONOXIDE, CARBON DIOXIDE, OXYGEN, AND ARGON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program, GASP, has been written to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, methane, neon, nitrogen, and oxygen. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature, or density as input. In addition, entropy and enthalpy are possible inputs. Outputs are temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, expansion coefficient, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. A special technique is provided to estimate the thermal conductivity near the thermodynamic critical point. GASP is a group of FORTRAN subroutines. The user typically would write a main program that invoked GASP to provide only the described outputs. Subroutines are structured so that the user may call only those subroutines needed for his particular calculations. Allowable pressures range from 0.l atmosphere to 100 to l,000 atmospheres, depending on the fluid. Similarly, allowable pressures range from the triple point of each substance to 300 degrees K to 2000 degrees K, depending on the substance. The GASP package was developed to be used with heat transfer and fluid flow applications. It is particularly useful in applications of cryogenic fluids. Some problems associated with the liquefication, storage, and gasification of liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas can also be studied using GASP. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and is available for implementation on IBM 7000 series computers. GASP was developed in 1971.

  4. GASP - THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF HELIUM, METHANE, NEON, NITROGEN, CARBON MONOXIDE, CARBON DIOXIDE, OXYGEN, AND ARGON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program, GASP, has been written to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, methane, neon, nitrogen, and oxygen. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature, or density as input. In addition, entropy and enthalpy are possible inputs. Outputs are temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, expansion coefficient, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. A special technique is provided to estimate the thermal conductivity near the thermodynamic critical point. GASP is a group of FORTRAN subroutines. The user typically would write a main program that invoked GASP to provide only the described outputs. Subroutines are structured so that the user may call only those subroutines needed for his particular calculations. Allowable pressures range from 0.l atmosphere to 100 to l,000 atmospheres, depending on the fluid. Similarly, allowable pressures range from the triple point of each substance to 300 degrees K to 2000 degrees K, depending on the substance. The GASP package was developed to be used with heat transfer and fluid flow applications. It is particularly useful in applications of cryogenic fluids. Some problems associated with the liquefication, storage, and gasification of liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas can also be studied using GASP. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and is available for implementation on IBM 7000 series computers. GASP was developed in 1971.

  5. On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate and that this is, specifically, manifested as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using a historical geomagnetic activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity would be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is “statistically significant.” On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat price and wheat yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are “insignificant.” Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.

  6. On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2013-08-01

    We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate and that this is, specifically, manifested as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using a historical geomagnetic activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity would be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is "statistically significant." On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat price and wheat yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are "insignificant." Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.

  7. Debris disks as seen by Herschel/DUNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhne, T.; Eiroa, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Absil, O.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thébault, P.; Bayo, A.; del Burgo, C.; Danchi, W.; Krivov, A. V.; Lebreton, J.; Letawe, G.; Magain, P.; Maldonado, J.; Montesinos, B.; Pilbratt, G. L.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2012-06-01

    The far-infrared excesses produced by debris disks are common features of stellar systems. These disks are thought to contain solids ranging from micron-sized dust to planetesimals. Naturally, their formation and evolution are linked to those of potential planets. With this motivation, the Herschel open time key programme DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars) aims at further characterising known debris disks and discovering new ones in the regime explored by the Herschel space observatory. On the one hand, in their survey of 133 nearby FGK stars, DUNES discovered a class of extremely cold and faint debris disks, different from well-known disks such as the one around Vega in that their inferred typical grain sizes are rather large, indicating low dynamical excitation and low collision rates. On the other hand, for the more massive disk around the sun-like star HD 207129, well-resolved PACS images confirmed the ring-liked structure seen in HST images and provided valuable information for an in-depth study and benchmark for models. Employing both models for power-law fitting and collisional evolution we found the disk around HD 207129 to feature low collision rates and large grains, as well. Transport by means of Poynting-Robertson drag likely plays a role in replenishing the dust seen closer to the star, inside of the ring. The inner edge is therefore rather smooth and the contribution from the extended halo of barely bound grains is small. Both slowly self-stirring and planetary perturbations could potentially have formed and shaped this disk. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  8. Evaluation of Absolute Positioning Using the Defense Mapping Agency’s (GASP) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Lobos Array ...................... ................. 34 Figure 12. GASP Processing Flow .................................... 37 Figure 13. Sample STARPREP...order to in- itialize the kinematic operations, a reference array (the Lobos Array) was established at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute’s...The Lobos Site In order to initialize the kinematic operations, the pre-departure and post. arrival positions of the POINT SUR, GPS antenna array

  9. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Nyland, T. W.; Tiefermann, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The GASP atmospheric trace constituent data cover atmospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, condensation nuclei, clouds, and related meteorological and flight information obtained during October 28-31, 1977. Reported herein are flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, and data tape specifications.

  10. The fear gasping face as a threat display in a Melanesian society

    PubMed Central

    Crivelli, Carlos; Jarillo, Sergio; Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Theory and research show that humans attribute both emotions and intentions to others on the basis of facial behavior: A gasping face can be seen as showing “fear” and intent to submit. The assumption that such interpretations are pancultural derives largely from Western societies. Here, we report two studies conducted in an indigenous, small-scale Melanesian society with considerable cultural and visual isolation from the West: the Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea. Our multidisciplinary research team spoke the vernacular and had extensive prior fieldwork experience. In study 1, Trobriand adolescents were asked to attribute emotions, social motives, or both to a set of facial displays. Trobrianders showed a mixed and variable attribution pattern, although with much lower agreement than studies of Western samples. Remarkably, the gasping face (traditionally considered a display of fear and submission in the West) was consistently matched to two unpredicted categories: anger and threat. In study 2, adolescents were asked to select the face that was threatening; Trobrianders chose the “fear” gasping face whereas Spaniards chose an “angry” scowling face. Our findings, consistent with functional approaches to animal communication and observations made on threat displays in small-scale societies, challenge the Western assumption that “fear” gasping faces uniformly express fear or signal submission across cultures. PMID:27791137

  11. Nature of the gas and dust around 51 Ophiuchi. Modelling continuum and Herschel line observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, W. F.; Ménard, F.; Meeus, G.; Carmona, A.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Augereau, J.-C.; Kamp, I.; Woitke, P.; Pinte, C.; Mendigutía, I.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.; Britain, S.; Dent, W.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Circumstellar disc evolution is paramount for the understanding of planet formation. The gas in protoplanetary discs large program (GASPS) aims at determining the circumstellar gas and solid mass around ~250 pre-main-sequence Herbig Ae and T Tauri stars. Aims: We aim to understand the origin and nature of the circumstellar matter orbiting 51 Oph, a young (<1 Myr) luminous B9.5 star. Methods: We obtained continuum and line observations with the PACS instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory and continuum data at 1.2 mm with the IRAM 30 m telescope. The spectral energy distribution and line fluxes were modelled using the physico-chemo radiative transfer code ProDiMo to constrain the gas and solid mass of the disc around 51 Oph. The disc vertical hydrostatic structure was computed self-consistently together with the gas thermal balance. Results: We detected a strong emission by atomic oxygen [O i] at 63 microns using the Herschel Space Observatory. The [O i] emission at 145 microns, the [C ii] emission at 158 microns, the high-J CO emissions, and the warm water emissions were not detected. Continuum emission was detected at 1.2 mm. The continuum from the near- to the far-infrared and the [O i] emission are well explained by the emission from a compact (Rout = 10-15 AU) hydrostatic disc model with a gas mass of 5 × 10-6 M⊙, 100 times that of the solid mass. However, this model fails to match the continuum millimeter flux, which hints at a cold outer disc with a mass in solids of ~10-6 M⊙ or free-free emission from a photoevaporative disc wind. This outer disc can either be devoid of gas and/or is too cold to emit in the [O i] line. A very flat extended disc model (Rout = 400 AU) with a fixed vertical structure and dust settling matches all photometric points and most of the [O i] flux. Conclusions: The observations can be explained by an extended flat disc where dust grains have settled. However, a flat gas disc cannot be reproduced by

  12. Mapping the Milky Way: William Herschel's Star Gages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    William Herschel (Fig. 1) is rightfully known as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Born in Hanover (in modern Germany) in 1738, Herschel immigrated to England in 1757 and began a successful career as a professional musician. Later in life Herschel developed a strong interest in astronomy. He began making his own reflecting telescopes in…

  13. Mapping the Milky Way: William Herschel's Star Gages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    William Herschel (Fig. 1) is rightfully known as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Born in Hanover (in modern Germany) in 1738, Herschel immigrated to England in 1757 and began a successful career as a professional musician. Later in life Herschel developed a strong interest in astronomy. He began making his own reflecting telescopes in…

  14. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF INTERSTELLAR CHLORONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, David A.; Indriolo, Nick; Roueff, Evelyne; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Snell, Ronald L.; Lis, Dariusz; Monje, Raquel; Phillips, Thomas G.; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Black, John H.; Larsson, Bengt; De Luca, Massimo; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Gupta, Harshal; Melnick, Gary J.; Menten, Karl M.; Nagy, Zsofia; and others

    2012-03-20

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared, we have observed para-chloronium (H{sub 2}Cl{sup +}) toward six sources in the Galaxy. We detected interstellar chloronium absorption in foreground molecular clouds along the sight lines to the bright submillimeter continuum sources Sgr A (+50 km s{sup -1} cloud) and W31C. Both the para-H{sup 35}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and para-H{sup 37}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} isotopologues were detected, through observations of their 1{sub 11}-0{sub 00} transitions at rest frequencies of 485.42 and 484.23 GHz, respectively. For an assumed ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of 3, the observed optical depths imply that chloronium accounts for {approx}4%-12% of chlorine nuclei in the gas phase. We detected interstellar chloronium emission from two sources in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1: the Orion Bar photodissociation region and the Orion South condensation. For an assumed OPR of 3 for chloronium, the observed emission line fluxes imply total beam-averaged column densities of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} and {approx}1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, respectively, for chloronium in these two sources. We obtained upper limits on the para-H{sup 35}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} line strengths toward H{sub 2} Peak 1 in the Orion Molecular cloud and toward the massive young star AFGL 2591. The chloronium abundances inferred in this study are typically at least a factor {approx}10 larger than the predictions of steady-state theoretical models for the chemistry of interstellar molecules containing chlorine. Several explanations for this discrepancy were investigated, but none has proven satisfactory, and thus the large observed abundances of chloronium remain puzzling.

  15. Mirror Figuring Techniques of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Between the years 1773 to 1818, Sir William Herschel constructed dozens of speculum telescope mirrors, with diameters ranging from 6 - 48 inches. Very little, if any, detailed information has ever been published on the specifics of his mirror figuring efforts. The reason for this certainly relates to his desire to closely guard mirror production trade secrets. Upon Herschel's death, all telescope-making documents were passed on to his only son, Sir John Herschel. These materials are now in the possession of the British RAS and primarily consist of: a) a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," b) a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and c) a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." It is suggested that publication was further delayed and then eventually abandoned due to silver-coated glass mirrors coming into favor. A recent investigation by the author, of the unpublished manuscripts on the construction of specula, suggests that Herschel's mirror figuring techniques did not involve any guess work; in fact, his methods were highly refined -- never leaving to chance the evolution of a spherical surface into the required paraboloid. At the heart of Herschel's figuring techniques were a series of aperture diaphragms (similar to the Couder masks used by modern telescope makers) that were placed over the mirror, which allowed for the precise determination of its curvature at various predefined zones. With this information, Herschel was able to vary his figuring strokes with his polishing tool accordingly. In addition, all mirrors were subsequently "star tested," sometimes with aperture diaphragms in place, allowing for field examination of the mirror's "distinctness" or performance. Double stars and the planet Saturn were favorite targets used to analyze and then correct a mirror's figure.

  16. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    ScienceCinema

    Lemonick, Michael [Princeton University and Time Magazine, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2016-07-12

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus—the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  17. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonick, Michael

    2008-11-12

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus - the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  18. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonick, Michael

    2008-11-12

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus—the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  19. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bock, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Bradford, M.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.; Corbelli, E.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J.; de Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Gear, W.; Giovanardi, C.; Glenn, J.; Gomez, H.; Griffin, M.; Grossi, M.; Hony, S.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L.; Isaak, K.; Jones, A.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Madden, S. C.; O'Halloran, B.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Rangwala, N.; Rigby, E.; Roussel, H.; Rykala, A.; Sabatini, S.; Sacchi, N.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Schirm, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Stevens, J.; Sundar, S.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Verstappen, J.; Vigroux, L.; Vlahakis, C.; Wilson, C.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zeilinger, W.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 μm spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the colour temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter β < 2 in low metallicity, active systems. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by Principal Investigator consortia. It is open for proposals for observing time from the worldwide astronomical community.

  20. Revised list of Sir William Herschel's Fields of Diffuse Nebulosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latusseck, A.

    2008-12-01

    William Herschel's catalogue of more than 2500 nonstellar celestial objects is without doubt one of the great astronomical achievements of this exceptional astronomer. Largely unknown, however, is a list containing fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity, which Herschel published in 1811 as a supporting argument to his nebular hypothesis (Herschel, 1811: 275-276), all of which were observed as a by-product of his sweeps between 1783 and 1802. For the purpose of a final revision of Herschel's objects, his sister Caroline's copies of the eight observing books containing the results of his decade-long sweeps (Herschel, Herschel and Herschel, 2004) were analyzed. As a result, a number of errors and inaccuracies were found and corrected. Furthermore, the terminology used to describe the observed nebulosities--which differed widely from that used by Herschel to describe non-stellar objects in his better-known catalogues of nebulae--was investigated in order to obtain a clearer impression of the appearance of Herschel's objects. The resulting revised list, being one principal result of the review of Herschel's list of fifty-two nebulosities, contains corrected physical information on each of the nebulosities. It further gives estimates on the reliability of Herschel's observations and finally summarizes all of the noticed peculiarities in a separate column.

  1. Herschel Observations of Dusty Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vican, Laura; Schneider, Adam; Bryden, Geoff; Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph; Song, Inseok

    2016-12-01

    We present results from two Herschel observing programs using the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer. During three separate campaigns, we obtained Herschel data for 24 stars at 70, 100, and 160 μm. We chose stars that were already known or suspected to have circumstellar dust based on excess infrared (IR) emission previously measured with the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) or Spitzer and used Herschel to examine long-wavelength properties of the dust. Fifteen stars were found to be uncontaminated by background sources and possess IR emission most likely due to a circumstellar debris disk. We analyzed the properties of these debris disks to better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for dust production and removal. Seven targets were spatially resolved in the Herschel images. Based on fits to their spectral energy distributions, nine disks appear to have two temperature components. Of these nine, in three cases, the warmer dust component is likely the result of a transient process rather than a steady-state collisional cascade. The dust belts at four stars are likely stirred by an unseen planet and merit further investigation.

  2. The first year of routine Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    MEETING REPORT The successful completion of the first year of routine science operations of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory was marked by a Specialist Discussion Meeting of the RAS held in January 2011. A few of the early science highlights from the mission were presented. Derek Ward-Thompson and David Clements summarize.

  3. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  4. Temperature histories of commercial flights at severe conditions from GASP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal environment of commercial aircraft from a data set gathered during the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is studied. The data set covers a four-year period of measurements. The report presents plots of airplane location and speed and atmospheric temperature as functions of elapsed time for 35 extreme-condition flights, selected by minimum values of several temperature parameters. One of these parameters, the severity factor, is an approximation of the in-flight wing-tank temperature. Representative low-severity-factor flight histories may be useful for actual temperature-profile inputs to design and research studies. Comparison of the GASP atmospheric temperatures to interpolated temperatures from National Meteorological Center and Global Weather Central analysis fields shows that the analysis temperatures are slightly biased toward warmer than actual temperatures, particularly over oceans and at extreme conditions.

  5. Introducing the GASP scale: a new measure of guilt and shame proneness.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Taya R; Wolf, Scott T; Panter, A T; Insko, Chester A

    2011-05-01

    Although scholars agree that moral emotions are critical for deterring unethical and antisocial behavior, there is disagreement about how 2 prototypical moral emotions--guilt and shame--should be defined, differentiated, and measured. We addressed these issues by developing a new assessment--the Guilt and Shame Proneness scale (GASP)--that measures individual differences in the propensity to experience guilt and shame across a range of personal transgressions. The GASP contains 2 guilt subscales that assess negative behavior-evaluations and repair action tendencies following private transgressions and 2 shame subscales that assess negative self-evaluations (NSEs) and withdrawal action tendencies following publically exposed transgressions. Both guilt subscales were highly correlated with one another and negatively correlated with unethical decision making. Although both shame subscales were associated with relatively poor psychological functioning (e.g., neuroticism, personal distress, low self-esteem), they were only weakly correlated with one another, and their relationships with unethical decision making diverged. Whereas shame-NSE constrained unethical decision making, shame-withdraw did not. Our findings suggest that differentiating the tendency to make NSEs following publically exposed transgressions from the tendency to hide or withdraw from public view is critically important for understanding and measuring dispositional shame proneness. The GASP's ability to distinguish these 2 classes of responses represents an important advantage of the scale over existing assessments. Although further validation research is required, the present studies are promising in that they suggest the GASP has the potential to be an important measurement tool for detecting individuals susceptible to corruption and unethical behavior. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Main results on asteroids and comets returned from the Herschel mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Vilenius, Esa

    The Herschel Space Observatory was designed to observe the 'cool universe' in the far-IR wavelength range. During the operational phase between May 2009 and April 2013 the main focus was on the exploration of the formation of galaxies and stars, but also many solar system objects were studied in detail. Several space-mission targets like Bennu (OSIRIS-REx), 1999 JU _{3} (Hayabusa-2), Lutetia (Rosetta), Ceres and Vesta (DAWN) were observed at far-infrared wavelengths with the Herschel instruments. These thermal emission studies provide information which is complementary to the in-situ or flyby data and help to derive physical properties and to understand thermal processes. The results can be applied to many similar objects which are not included in interplanetary mission studies, but easily accessible by remote observations. Trans-Neptunian objects (TNO) and Centaurs have their thermal emission peak at Herschel's far-IR wavelength range and about 130 TNOs have been characterized as part of the Herschel Open Time Key programm "TNOs are Cool!". The newly derived physical and thermal properties show the large diversity in the outer solar system. TNO densities, albedos, or size distributions are important ingredients for testing formation and evolution scenarios. We will present the results of dedicated photometric and spectroscopic studies of prominent near-Earth, main-belt, and trans-Neptunian objects, as well as selected comets. Highlights of the Herschel mission are the finding of water on Ceres, the Earth-like D/H ratio of comet Hartley-2 and the detailed picture of the trans-Neptunian population with implications also for models describing the migration of the giant planets about 4 billion years ago.

  7. Summary of the GASP code application and evaluation effort for scramjet combustor flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Shivakumar; Bittner, Robert D.; Bobskill, Glenn J.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations of 3D turbulent mixing and reacting flows have been systematically evaluated by comparison with experimental data and other numerical solutions to provide confidence in the General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP) code version 1.3. Specifically, the GASP flow solver has been used to model high speed flow through scram jet combustors. Unit injector problems evaluated include (1) UVA staged sonic normal injection of air into Mach 2 air stream, (2) the VPI Mach 1.7 low angled (15 deg) flush wall helium injection into an unconfined Mach 6 'cold air' stream, and (3) the HYPULSE angled (30 deg) flush wall hydrogen injection into a Mach 6, high enthalpy (flight Mach 17 simulation) nitrogen and air test gases. Results of the numerical simulation for the first two test cases have been compared with detailed in-stream measurements and with SPARK CFD solutions. The results for the last two cases have been compared with measured wall pressure and heat flux data and with SPARK CFD solutions. The present GASP solutions compare favorably with both the experimental data and the SPARK solutions.

  8. John Herschel on the Discovery of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, Nicholas

    2006-12-01

    The letters of John Herschel that concern the discovery of the planet Neptune have not been greatly discussed by historians of science. I have transcribed these in the course of archiving the British Neptune-discovery documents. Herschel tends to be depicted as a background figure in narrations of the story of Neptune's discovery, whereas the present account focuses upon his evolving view of the topic: the rival merits of the two main protagonists, and the startling manner in which an obscure branch of mathematics (perturbation theory) was able to pinpoint the position of a new sphere in the sky. As the son of the man who found Uranus, his views have a special relevance. Also, I suggest that his eloquent prose style may still be enjoyed today.

  9. Herschel Observations of Debris Disks from WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, D. L.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Liu, W.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.

    2012-01-01

    The \\Vide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6,12 and 22 microns. We report on a study of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars within 120 pc with WISE 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages < 1 Gyr. Nearly a hundred of the WISE new warm debris disk candidates detected among FGK stars are being observed by Herschel/PACS to characterize circumstellar dust. Preliminary results indicate 70 micron detection rates in excess of 80% for these targets, suggesting that most of these systems have both warm and cool dust in analogy to our asteroid and Kuiper belts. In this contribution, we will discuss the WISE debris disk survey and latest results from Herschel observations of these sources.

  10. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Red Herschel Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Wardlow, Julie; Ivison, Rob; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Riechers, Dominik; Clements, David; Oliver, Seb; Oteo, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Wide-field submillimeter surveys with Herschel have produced large samples of rare populations, which provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. In this proposal we request IRAC observations of 'red' Herschel sources, which are the most extreme DSFGs at z>4. The proposed snapshot IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um data will probe the stellar emission from these systems - complementary data to the far-infrared dust emission that led to their identification. We will use these data to extend the SEDs into the near-IR regime and measure more reliable stellar masses than otherwise available. They will be combined with existing survey data and dedicated follow-up programs to map the evolution of DSFGs as a function of redshift, stellar mass and far-IR luminosity.

  11. The peculiar UV extinction of Herschel 36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, J.; Helfer, H. L.; Wolf, J.; Donn, B.; Pipher, J. L.

    The differential extinction curve of Herschel 36 was determined from International Ultraviolet Explorer data. It is quite unusual, characterized by a distinct 2200 A peak with a very low far blue end at 5 to 7 mu to the -1 power. The star appears to be an extreme member of the group Savage drew attention to, previously consisting only of theta Ori, NU Ori, sigma Sco, and rho Oph. It appears that multiple scattering effects are needed to explain the observations.

  12. News Note: Herschel-Darwin commemoration dinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coning, Chris

    2016-08-01

    On the evening of 15 June 1836 Charles Darwin had dinner with John Herschel in Cape Town. The year 2016 makes it 180 years since this event took place. Auke Slotegraaf and Chris de Coning decided that the event should be commemorated. A total of 15 people attended the dinner, which was held on 15 June at a restaurant in the house occupied by the astronomer Fearon Fallows in 1821. It was a very informal evening and there were three speakers.

  13. Change in network connectivity during fictive-gasping generation in hypoxia: prevention by a metabolic intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Posadas, Andrés; Flores-Martínez, Ernesto; Lorea-Hernández, Jonathan-Julio; Rivera-Angulo, Ana-Julia; Pérez-Ortega, Jesús-Esteban; Bargas, José; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal circuit in charge of generating the respiratory rhythms, localized in the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC), is configured to produce fictive-eupnea during normoxia and reconfigures to produce fictive-gasping during hypoxic conditions in vitro. The mechanisms involved in such reconfiguration have been extensively investigated by cell-focused studies, but the actual changes at the network level remain elusive. Since a failure to generate gasping has been linked to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), the study of gasping generation and pharmacological approaches to promote it may have clinical relevance. Here, we study the changes in network dynamics and circuit reconfiguration that occur during the transition to fictive-gasping generation in the brainstem slice preparation by recording the preBötC with multi-electrode arrays and assessing correlated firing among respiratory neurons or clusters of respiratory neurons (multiunits). We studied whether the respiratory network reconfiguration in hypoxia involves changes in either the number of active respiratory elements, the number of functional connections among elements, or the strength of these connections. Moreover, we tested the influence of isocitrate, a Krebs cycle intermediate that has recently been shown to promote breathing, on the configuration of the preBötC circuit during normoxia and on its reconfiguration during hypoxia. We found that, in contrast to previous suggestions based on cell-focused studies, the number and the overall activity of respiratory neurons change only slightly during hypoxia. However, hypoxia induces a reduction in the strength of functional connectivity within the circuit without reducing the number of connections. Isocitrate prevented this reduction during hypoxia while increasing the strength of network connectivity. In conclusion, we provide an overview of the configuration of the respiratory network under control conditions and how it is reconfigured during fictive-gasping

  14. Pre-collapse phase studies before Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, M.

    2012-03-01

    The role of molecular clouds as factories of stars has been recognized for decades, but understanding how a large cloud of tens of thousands or more solar masses fragments into stellar-sized pockets with an efficiency of only a few percent and an IMF spectrum is still a puzzling mystery. In this talk, I will review how our observational understanding of the stages prior to star formation has evolved with time, from the earliest molecular studies to the pre-Herschel era. Both the large scale of clouds and the small structure of dense cores will be covered, following the results from molecular-line observation and dust emission/extinction studies. Although Herschel observations are clearly revolutionizing our view of cloud and core formation, parallel work on the kinematics of the cloud gas is also shedding new light on the pre-collapse phases. I will end my presentation showing how large-scale kinematics studies, highly complementary to the Herschel continuum data, reveal a sequence of fragmentation that seems responsible for core formation.

  15. The Herschels: A very fashionable scientific family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterburn, Emily

    2011-01-01

    What is special about the Herschel family? It is a family that has attracted the attention of historians of science for many years and has done so for a number of reasons. Some simply marvel at the family's ability to have produced generations upon generation of great men and women of science. Others have highlighted the work of individuals within the family and how their work changed the way astronomy was done, what it was about, and then later did the same for science as a whole. The unusually high status enjoyed by Herschel women, Caroline Herschel in particular, has not escaped notice, though I will here question some of the conclusions drawn about her motivations. Most of all, however I will argue in this paper, they should be interesting to a modern audience for the way in which they managed time and again, generation on generation, to make science fashionable and popular. In this paper I will look at three generations of this family - from William and Caroline discovering comets and planets in the late eighteenth century, through John and his claim that society needs science to be properly civilised, to John and Margaret's children and their varied takes on the relationship between astronomy, science and the public. I will look at the role astronomy played in each of their lives, how they were taught and taught each other and how in each generation they managed to make their work the talk of the town.

  16. A Herschel-PACS view of 16 Centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, Rene; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Vilenius, E.; Ortiz, J.; Mueller, T.; Fornasier, S.; Lellouch, E.; Mommert, M.; Pal, A.; Kiss, C.; Mueller, M.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Peixinho, N.

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize a set of Centaurs in terms of their size, albedo, and thermal properties. The Herschel open time key program "TNOs are Cool!'' observed 130 Centaurs and TNOs in 2009-2012. In this particular work we use Herschel/PACS three-band photometry to obtain monochromatic flux densities at 70, 100 and 160 μm. Additionally, we also incorporate Spitzer/MIPS flux densities at 24 and 70 μm when available. We use a consistent method for data reduction and aperture photometry to finally determine sizes and albedos of 16 Centaurs using radiometric techniques. We study the correlations between the size and albedo resulting from our models and other physical (i.e spectral slope) and orbital parameters using a more extended sample (obtained from literature). The final sample comprises 36 objects: 18 Centaurs observed with Herschel/PACS; 10 observed only with Spitzer and 8 SDOs. The first conclusion is that the albedo of the Centaurs is not determined by their orbit. Similarly we do not find any correlation between diameter and orbital parameters. We also find that most of the objects in our sample are dark (pv < 7%) and most of them are small (D < 120km). However, we do not find any correlation between albedo and diameter, in particular for the group of the small objects we can find albedo values homogeneously distributed from 4 - 15%. When it comes to correlation with the color of the objects, we find that the red objects are all small (mean diameter 65 km), while the gray ones are either small or large (mean diameter 120 km). Also, the gray objects seem to be darker, with a mean value of 5.6%, while for the red objects the albedo can vary from 5 to 15%, with a mean value of 8.5%. All of this shows that there are other physical properties (size and albedo distribution) that make differences between the gray and red objects, even if we do not yet have a physical explanation for the origin of this bimodality.

  17. Binary AGB stars observed with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornfeld, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    Asymptotic Giant Branch stars are stars at the end of their lifetime with low to intermediate masses. They are important in the Galactic context, since they contribute a lot of dust to the interstellar medium (ISM) and influence the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Many AGB stars show peculiar outflow morphologies depending on their mass-loss rates. The outflowing wind of these stars collides with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). The collisions with the ISM result in the formation of bow shocks or rings, well visible in the latest Herschel Space Observatory images made with the on-board PACS instrument. Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleight-Taylor instabilities were found in the bow shock regions. With the help of Herschel and within the framework of the MESS (Mass loss of Evolved StarS) Guaranteed Time Key Program it was tried to distinguish between the different morphologies. The outflow morphologies were categorized in 4 main classes: "fermata", "eye", "ring", and "irregular"; also point sources showing no resolved circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) were found. Some of the AGB stars in the MESS sample are known binary stars and the binary state of some other objects is still in discussion. A new attempt to clarify the binarity of the objects can be made by checking their outflow morphology and to compare the results with known morphological (a-)symmetries in binary systems. This Thesis discusses 14 binary AGB candidates from the MESS sample, the previous findings and the Herschel results. Herschel observes at infrared wavelengths. Light at this wavelengths can be seen through the dust, which is formed in the surrounding environment of these stars. For the unknown cases it is difficult to determine the binary state, because AGB stars can have very strong wind outflows, making the detection of a companion difficult. Photo- and spectroscopy, CO line outflow measurements or composite spectra can be used to identify features caused directly o! r indirectly by the

  18. Constraining the properties of transitional discs in Chamaeleon I with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Á.; Bouy, H.; Merín, B.; Duchêne, G.; Rebollido, I.; Espaillat, C.; Pinte, C.

    2016-05-01

    Transitional discs are protoplanetary discs with opacity gaps/cavities in their dust distribution, a feature that may be linked to planet formation. We perform Bayesian modelling of the three transitional discs SZ Cha, CS Cha, and T25 including photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory to quantify the improvements added by these new data. We find disc dust masses between 2 × 10-5 and 4 × 10-4 M⊙ and gap radii in the range of 7-18 au, with uncertainties of ˜ one order of magnitude and ˜4 au, respectively. Our results show that adding Herschel data can significantly improve these estimates with respect to mid-infrared data alone, which have roughly twice as large uncertainties on both disc mass and gap radius. We also find weak evidence for different density profiles with respect to full discs. These results open exciting new possibilities to study the distribution of disc masses for large samples of discs.

  19. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  20. Mapping the Milky Way: William Herschel's Star Gages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    William Herschel (Fig. 1) is rightfully known as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Born in Hanover (in modern Germany) in 1738, Herschel immigrated to England in 1757 and began a successful career as a professional musician. Later in life Herschel developed a strong interest in astronomy. He began making his own reflecting telescopes in 1774, and soon his telescopes were recognized as the finest in the world. It was through one of his homemade telescopes, a Newtonian reflector with a focal length of seven feet and an aperture of 6.2 inches, that Herschel first spotted the planet Uranus in 1781. The discovery of a new planet catapulted Herschel to fame and secured him a position as personal astronomer to King George III.

  1. Should unobstructed gasping be facilitated and confirmed before administering adrenaline, otherwise, give titrated vasopressin?

    PubMed

    Rottenberg, Eric M

    2015-02-01

    A recent commentary, "Resuscitation That's (Un)Shockable: Time to Get the Adrenaline Flowing", published in the New England Journal of Medicine Journal Watch called attention to a relatively recent study showing that a large and increasing percentage of patients with in-hospital cardiac arrests exhibit initial nonshockable rhythms (asystole or pulseless electrical activity [PEA]; 82% in 2009 vs 69% in 2000) and a most recent study that concluded that neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrest was significantly more likely after earlier epinephrine administration. It was found that delayed administration of epinephrine was associated significantly with lower chance for survival to hospital discharge, in stepwise fashion (12%, 10%, 8%, and 7% survival, respectively, for patients receiving their first epinephrine dose≤3, 4-6, 7-9, and >9 minutes after arrest). Although early use of epinephrine to manage patients with nonshockable rhythms lacks strong evidence to support efficacy, focus on time to epinephrine administration-in addition to high-quality chest compressions-might be the best early intervention. However, evidence may strongly support the recommendation that adrenaline needs to be used very early because without effective-depth cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with complete recoil, epinephrine may only be effective when gasping is present, which is a time-limited phenomenon. However, because very few rescuers can perform effective-depth chest compressions with complete recoil, gasping is critically necessary for adequate ventilation and generation of adequate coronary and cerebral perfusion. However, under acidemic conditions and high catecholamine levels and/or absence of gasping, vasopressin should be administered instead.

  2. The peculiar extinction of Herschel 36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, B.; Hecht, J. H.; Helfer, H. L.; Wolf, J.; Pipher, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The extinction of Herschel 36 was measured and found to be peculiar in the same sense as that observed in Orion. Following the treatment of Mathis and Wallenhorst, this can be explained by the presence of large silicate and graphite grains than are normally found in the interstellar medium. Correcting the stellar flux for foreground extinction results in a residual extinction curve for the associated dust cloud, with an unusually small normalized extinction (less than 1.0) at 1500 A. This low UV extinction may be due to the effects of scattering by the dust cloud material.

  3. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briehl, D.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Liu, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    The data currently available from GASP, including flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, and data tape specifications are described. Measurements of atmospheric ozone, cabin ozine, carbon monoxide, water vapor, particles, clouds, condensation nuclei, filter samples and related meteorological and flight information obtained during 562 flights of aircraft N533PA, N4711U, N655PA, and VH-EBE from October 3, 1977 through January 5, 1978 are reported. Data representing tropopause pressures obtained from time and space interpolation of National Meteorological Center archived data for the dates of the flights are included.

  4. HERSCHEL PACS OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF DEBRIS DISKS IN THE TUCANA-HOROLOGIUM ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, J. K.; Roberge, A.; Chen, C. H.; Augereau, J.-C.; Menard, F.; Eiroa, C.; Meeus, G.; Krivov, A. V.; Mathews, G. S.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Sandell, G.

    2012-07-10

    We present Herschel PACS photometry of 17 B- to M-type stars in the 30 Myr old Tucana-Horologium Association. This work is part of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme 'Gas in Protoplanetary Systems'. 6 of the 17 targets were found to have infrared excesses significantly greater than the expected stellar IR fluxes, including a previously unknown disk around HD30051. These six debris disks were fitted with single-temperature blackbody models to estimate the temperatures and abundances of the dust in the systems. For the five stars that show excess emission in the Herschel PACS photometry and also have Spitzer IRS spectra, we fit the data with models of optically thin debris disks with realistic grain properties in order to better estimate the disk parameters. The model is determined by a set of six parameters: surface density index, grain size distribution index, minimum and maximum grain sizes, and the inner and outer radii of the disk. The best-fitting parameters give us constraints on the geometry of the dust in these systems, as well as lower limits to the total dust masses. The HD105 disk was further constrained by fitting marginally resolved PACS 70 {mu}m imaging.

  5. The far-infrared behaviour of Herbig Ae/Be discs: Herschel PACS photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, N.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Mendigutía, I.; Sandell, G.

    2016-02-01

    Herbig Ae/Be objects are pre-main sequence stars surrounded by gas- and dust-rich circumstellar discs. These objects are in the throes of star and planet formation, and their characterisation informs us of the processes and outcomes of planet formation processes around intermediate mass stars. Here we analyse the spectral energy distributions of disc host stars observed by the Herschel open time key programme "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems". We present Herschel/PACS far-infrared imaging observations of 22 Herbig Ae/Bes and 5 debris discs, combined with ancillary photometry spanning ultraviolet to sub-millimetre wavelengths. From these measurements we determine the diagnostics of disc evolution, along with the total excess, in three regimes spanning near-, mid-, and far-infrared wavelengths. Using appropriate statistical tests, these diagnostics are examined for correlations. We find that the far-infrared flux, where the disc becomes optically thin, is correlated with the millimetre flux, which provides a measure of the total dust mass. The ratio of far-infrared to sub-millimetre flux is found to be greater for targets with discs that are brighter at millimetre wavelengths and that have steeper sub-millimetre slopes. Furthermore, discs with flared geometry have, on average, larger excesses than flat geometry discs. Finally, we estimate the extents of these discs (or provide upper limits) from the observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  6. Debris On Herschel: An Overview Of The Search For Kuiper Belts Around The Nearest Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butner, Harold M.; Matthews, B.; DEBRIS Survey Team

    2010-01-01

    Building on the recent success of Spitzer in detecting debris disks around the nearest stars and the SCUBA instrument at the JCMT in imaging cold disks, DEBRIS (Disk Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre) is an open time key project on Herschel which aims to conduct an unbiased statistical survey for debris disks around the nearest stars to unprecedented mass limits. The survey is driven by 100 and 160 micron observations and is flux-limited. The sample is drawn from a database of nearby stars of spectral types A0 through M7 and totals 446 primaries, 348 of which will be observed by the DEBRIS team and 98 of which are covered by another project, the DUNES (DUst disks around NEarby Stars) team. Each target will be observed to a 100 micron rms of 1.2 mJy, allowing the detection of disks with dust masses comparable that of our own Kuiper belt towar the nearest stars. The superior resolution of Herschel should provide resolved images of many of the closest disks, and even our most distant disks may be resolvable. We will discuss the current state of debris disk research and highlight the areas in which Herschel will make the biggest impacts: establishing the true incidence of debris disks; characterizing the debris disk population, resolving disks and modeling their structure for evidence of long period planets; and the placing of our own Solar System in context

  7. Herschel discovery of a new class of cold, faint debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Krivov, A. V.; Montesinos, B.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Arévalo, M.; Augereau, J.-Ch.; Bayo, A.; Danchi, W.; Del Burgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M.; González-García, B. M.; Heras, A. M.; Lebreton, J.; Liseau, R.; Maldonado, J.; Meeus, G.; Montes, D.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thébault, P.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2011-12-01

    We present Herschel PACS 100 and 160 μm observations of the solar-type stars α Men, HD 88230 and HD 210277, which form part of the FGK stars sample of the Herschel open time key programme (OTKP) DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars). Our observations show small infrared excesses at 160 μm for all three stars. HD 210277 also shows a small excess at 100 μm, while the 100 μm fluxes of α Men and HD 88230 agree with the stellar photospheric predictions. We attribute these infrared excesses to a new class of cold, faint debris discs. Both α Men and HD 88230 are spatially resolved in the PACS 160 μm images, while HD 210277 is point-like at that wavelength. The projected linear sizes of the extended emission lie in the range from ~115 to ≤ 250 AU. The estimated black body temperatures from the 100 and 160 μm fluxes are ≲22 K, and the fractional luminosity of the cold dust is Ldust/L ⋆ ~ 10-6, close to the luminosity of the solar-system's Kuiper belt. These debris discs are the coldest and faintest discs discovered so far around mature stars, so they cannot be explained easily invoking "classical" debris disc models. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  8. The DEBRIS Project: Searching for Kuiper Belts around the Nearest Stars with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Brenda

    Building on the recent success of Spitzer in detecting debris disks around the nearest stars and the SCUBA instrument at the JCMT in imaging cold disks, DEBRIS (Disk Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre) is an open time key project on Herschel which aims to conduct an unbiased statistical survey for debris disks around the nearest stars to unprecedented mass limits. The survey is driven by 100 and 160 micron observations and is flux-limited. The sample is drawn from a database of nearby stars (Phillips et al. in prep) of spectral types A0 through M7 and totals 446 primaries, 348 of which will be observed by the DEBRIS team and 98 of which are covered by another the DUNES (DUst disks around NEarby Stars) team. Each target will be observed to a 100 micron rms of 1.2 mJy, allowing the detection of disks with dust masses comparable that of our own Kuiper belt towar the nearest stars. The superior resolution of Herschel should provide resolved images of many of the closest disks, and even our most distant disks may be resolvable. I will discuss the current state of debris disk research and highlight the areas in which Herschel will make the biggest impacts: establishing the true incidence of debris disks; characterizing the debris disk population, resolving disks and modeling their structure for evidence of long period planets; and the placing of our own Solar System in context.

  9. Transient effects in Herschel/PACS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadda, Dario; Jacobson, Jeffery D.; Appleton, Philip N.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The Ge:Ga detectors used in the PACS spectrograph onboard the Herschel space telescope react to changes of the incident flux with a certain delay. This generates transient effects on the resulting signal which can be important and last for up to an hour. Aims: The paper presents a study of the effects of transients on the detected signal and proposes methods to mitigate them especially in the case of the unchopped mode. Methods: Since transients can arise from a variety of causes, we classified them in three main categories: transients caused by sudden variations of the continuum due to the observational mode used; transients caused by cosmic ray impacts on the detectors; transients caused by a continuous smooth variation of the continuum during a wavelength scan. We propose a method to disentangle these effects and treat them separately. In particular, we show that a linear combination of three exponential functions is needed to fit the response variation of the detectors during a transient. An algorithm to detect, fit, and correct transient effects is presented. Results: The solution proposed to correct the signal for the effects of transients substantially improves the quality of the final reduction with respect to the standard methods used for archival reduction in the cases where transient effects are most pronounced. Conclusions: The programs developed to implement the corrections are offered through two new interactive data reduction pipelines in the latest releases of the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment.

  10. Vibrationally Excited Molecular Hydrogen Near Herschel 36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachford, Brian L.; Snow, T. P.; Ross, T.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first high resolution UV spectra toward Herschel 36, a Trapezium-like system of high-mass stars contained within the Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC 6523). The spectra reveal extreme ro-vibrational excitation of molecular hydrogen in material at a single velocity or very small range of velocities, most likely the largest ever seen in UV absorption spectra. While the velocities of the highly excited H2 lines are consistent within each observation, it appears that they underwent a ≈60 km s-1 redshift during the 3.6 years between observations. In neither case does the velocity of the highly excited material match the velocity of the bulk of the line-of-sight material which appears to mostly be in the foreground of M8. Recent work shows unusually excited CH and CH+ lines and several unusually broad Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) towards Herschel 36. Along with the H2 excitation, all of these findings appear to be related to the extreme environment within ˜0.1 pc of the massive young stellar system.

  11. William Herschel and the 'garnet' stars: μ Cephei and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinicke, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    Although William Herschel's 'Garnet Star' (μ Cephei) is a prominent object, the story of the discovery of this famous red star is not well documented. Prior to and after Herschel, the identification of this star was the subject of confusion in various catalogues and atlases. The case is complex and involves other stars in southern Cepheus, including double stars, found by Herschel in the course of his star surveys. It is also fascinating to learn that μ Cephei is not the only star called 'garnet' by him. This study reveals that there are 21 in all, resulting in a 'Herschel Catalogue of Garnet Stars' - the first historical catalogue of red stars. Among them are prominent objects, which in the literature are credited to later observers. This misconception is corrected here, for Herschel was the true discoverer of all of them. The most interesting cases are Hind's 'Crimson Star', Secchi's 'La Superba', John Herschel's 'Ruby Star' and Schmidt's V Aquilae. Finally, we discussed whether Herschel speculated about the physical nature of his garnet stars, many of which are now known to be variable.

  12. Mapping dust in Orion protostars: from Herschel to APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanke, Thomas; Stutz, Amelia; Megeath, Thomas; HOPS Team

    2013-07-01

    HOPS (Herschel Orion Protostar Survey) is a 70 and 160mum Herschel PACS survey towards a sample of Spitzer identified protostar candidates in the Orion A and B giant molecular clouds. In this poster we give an overview of our efforts to obtain longer wavelength dust continuum maps, using the Laboca and Saboca cameras (870 and 350mum, respectively) at the APEX telescope, which provide maps at spatial resolutions well matched to the Herschel PACS data. The Laboca maps cover the entire field surveyed also by Herschel, providing a dust continuum measurement for all protostars observed by Herschel. The Saboca maps are restricted to smaller maps, mainly targeting PACS-bright protostar candidates, new protostar candidates not seen previously by Spitzer and identified from the Herschel maps, and also all bright cores found in the Laboca maps which do not have a protostellar association (i.e., starless cores). The data are used to provide long-wavelength submm photometry constraining the protostellar envelope masses. The 350mum Saboca data spatially resolve the emission from the outer envelope and are used to constrain their radial density distribution. Furthermore, combined with the Herschel data, we derive column density and temperature maps of the dense gas surrounding the protostars.

  13. Forecasting method of ice blocks fall by logistic model and melting degree-days calculation: a case study in northern Gaspésie, Québec, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Francis; Hétu, Bernard; Allard, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Ice blocks fall is a serious natural hazard that frequently happens in mountainous cold region. The ice blocks result from the melting and collapse of rockwall icings (ice walls or frozen waterfalls). Environment Canada weather data were analysed for 440 cases of ice blocks fall events reported in northern Gaspésie by the "Ministère des Transports du Québec" (M.T.Q.). The analysis shows that the ice blocks fall are mainly controlled by an increase of the air temperature above 0oC. The melting degree-days (DDmelt) can be used to follow the temperature variations and the heat transfer into the ice bodies. Furthermore, large daily temperature changes, especially drastic drops of temperatures and freeze-thaw cycles, can induce enough mechanical stress to favour the opening of cracks and possibly cause the collapse of unstable ice structures such as freestanding ice formations. By following the evolution of the DDmelt and the best logistic model, it is possible to forecast the collapse of some of the most problematic rockwall icings and target the most hazardous periods along the northern Gaspésie roads.

  14. Gaspé Belt subsurface geometry in the northern Québec Appalachians as revealed by an integrated geophysical and geological study: 2 — Seismic interpretation and potential field modelling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Geological information, seismic reflection profiles and potential field data are used to study the geometry of the Middle Paleozoic Gaspé Belt (eastern Canada) that has been interpreted in various ways in the past. On the western edge of the Gaspé Belt, in the Matapédia area, growth strata are imaged on seismic profiles and testify of normal (or transtensional) motion during the period spanning the Silurian (and possibly Late Ordovician) to earliest Devonian along several faults, including the Shickshock-Sud Fault. In this area, Acadian deformation during the Middle to Late Devonian is associated with relatively modest shortening (less than 20%) accommodated by broad open folds, steeply-dipping neo-formed faults and inversion of previously formed faults. Neo-formed faults cut the entire Middle Paleozoic succession and offset the Ordovician Taconian unconformity suggesting that no sedimentary interval acted as an efficient décollement level. Toward the SE, the Sainte-Florence Fault divides rock assemblages with different paleogeographic settings and structural styles. Increase in tectonic complexity and amount of shortening to the south of the fault is interpreted as resulting of a vise effect between two basement blocks.

  15. Herschel DUNES Observations of Cold Debris Disks Around Nearby Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, Aki; Eiroa, C.; DUNES Team

    2011-01-01

    The DUNES (DUst discs around NEarby Stars) Open Time Key Programme for the Herschel Space Observatory is a sensitivity-limited photometric survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby FGK stars. It takes advantage of the PACS and SPIRE instruments to detect and characterize cold disks as faint as Ldust/Lstar 10-7 - 10-6, at dust temperatures around 30 - 40 K. Such systems are extrasolar analogues of Solar System's Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB). DUNES will observe a statistically significant, volume-limited (d < 20 pc) sample, constrained only by background confusion. Stars at larger distances (d < 25 pc) with previously known exoplanets and/or Spitzer-detected faint debris disks are also included. More than one third of the DUNES sample has been observed to date. Our goal of detecting very faint, cold dust disks has been achieved; many disks are also spatially resolved. The unresolved disks show a variety of spectral energy distributions, some suggesting the presence of cold EKB-like dust rings. A number of previously unknown debris disks have been detected, including the coldest disks yet found. Preliminary results relating disk properties to the host star parameters will be shown.

  16. Herschel Views on Stellar and Circumstellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, Christoffel

    2010-05-01

    We review the first results of Herschel on stellar and circumstellar evolution. - For main-sequence stars, PACS and SPIRE measurements of the debris disks surrounding Vega and Beta Pictoris are presented, revealing the disks with unprecedented spatial resolution at the peaks of their spectral energy distribution. - Through imaging and spectroscopic studies, the mass loss mechanisms and histories during the final stages of stellar evolution are investigated. Imaging of the circumstellar environments of AGB stars enables a detailed discussion of the discontinuous nature of the mass loss processes which induce the final evolution. With their moderately high spectral resolution, PACS and SPIRE reveal spectacularly rich molecular diagnostics on the dynamics of and the chemistry in the environments of objects such as CW Leo and VY CMa.

  17. Caroline Herschel: agency and self-presentation

    PubMed Central

    Winterburn, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Caroline Herschel was rare among her female contemporaries in gaining public recognition for her work in science, yet her role in this process and her role in designing her training have never previously been studied. We know that access to education and participation in science was different for men and women in the eighteenth century. However, drawing on feminist, pedagogical and biographical approaches to history, I argue that although access depended on a variety of factors, a more consistent gender divide came in lessons on how to learn, and in what was regarded as appropriate behaviour. Caroline's skill—so often misunderstood—was to be aware of the differences and to use them to her own advantage. PMID:26489184

  18. Exploring the Sandy Province of Herschel Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-04

    This view from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the downwind stretches of a sand sheet in central part of the much larger Herschel Crater. This sandy province began kilometers upwind in a string of barchan sand dunes. As the north-to-south blowing wind weakened downwind, it could no longer fashion the sand into dunes but rather into amorphously-shaped sand sheets. While perhaps not awe-inspiringly beautiful, sand sheets can tell us about Mars' current and past environmental conditions as a piece of the puzzle for understanding habitability. Having dunes upwind of sheets is the opposite situation Earth has, where upwind sand sheets evolve downwind into sand dunes. This mystery is receiving ongoing research to to understand these sandy differences between Earth and Mars. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21933

  19. CAROLINE HERSCHEL: AGENCY AND SELF-PRESENTATION.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Emily

    2015-03-20

    Caroline Herschel was rare among her female contemporaries in gaining public recognition for her work in science, yet her role in this process and her role in designing her training have never previously been studied. We know that access to education and participation in science was different for men and women in the eighteenth century. However, drawing on feminist, pedagogical and biographical approaches to history, I argue that although access depended on a variety of factors, a more consistent gender divide came in lessons on how to learn, and in what was regarded as appropriate behaviour. Caroline's skill--so often misunderstood--was to be aware of the differences and to use them to her own advantage.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Draco nebula Herschel 250um map (Miville-Deschenes+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschenes, M.-A.; Salome, Q.; Martin, P. G.; Joncas, G.; Blagrave, K.; Dassas, K.; Abergel, A.; Beelen, A.; Boulanger, F.; Lagache, G.; Lockman, F. J.; Marshall, D. J.

    2017-03-01

    Draco was observed with Herschel PACS (110 and 170um) and SPIRE (250, 350 and 500um) as part of the open-time program "First steps toward star formation: unveiling the atomic to molecular transition in the diffuse interstellar medium" (P.I. M-A Miville-Deschenes). A field of 3.85x3.85 was observed in parallel mode. Unfortunately, an error occurred during the acquisition of the PACS data making them unusable. Therefore, the results presented here are solely based on SPIRE data, especially the 250um map that has the highest angular resolution. (2 data files).

  1. Studying evolved stars with Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Santos, João Manuel

    2016-07-01

    A systematic inspection of the far-infrared (FIR) properties of evolved stars allows not only to constrain physical models, but also to understand the chemical evolution that takes place in the end of their lives. In this work we intend to study the circumstellar envelopes (CSE) on a sample of stars in the THROES catalogue from AGB/post-AGB stars to planetary nebulae using photometry and spectroscopy provided by the PACS instrument on-board Herschel telescope. In the first part we are interested in obtaining an estimate of the size of FIR emitting region and to sort our targets in two classes: point-like and extended. Secondly, we focus on the molecular component of the envelope traced by carbon monoxide (CO) rotational lines. We conduct a line survey on a sample of evolved stars by identifying and measuring flux of both 12CO and 13CO isotopologues in the PACS range, while looking at the overall properties of the sample. Lastly, we will be interested in obtaining physical parameters of the CSE, namely gas temperature, mass and mass-loss rate on a sample of carbon stars. For that, we make use of PACS large wavelength coverage, which enables the simultaneous study of a large number of CO transitions, to perform the rotational diagram analysis. We report the detection of CO emission in a high number of stars from the catalogue, which were mostly classified as point-like targets with a few exceptions of planetary nebulae. High J rotational number transitions were detected in a number of targets, revealing the presence of a significant amount of hot gas (T ˜ 400-900 K) and high mass-loss rates. We conclude that Herschel/PACS is in a privileged position to detect a new population of warmer gas, typically missed in sub-mm/mm observations.

  2. Sir William Herschel's notebooks - Abstracts of solar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the background of Sir William Herschel's notebooks and the historical context within which his observations were made are provided. The observations have relevance in reconstructing solar behavior, as discussed in a separate analysis paper by Hoyt and Schatten (1992), and in understanding active features on the sun such as faculae. The text of Herschel's notebooks with modern terms used throughout forms the body of this paper. The complete text has not previously been published and is not easily accessible to scholars. Herschel used different words for solar features than are used today, and thus, for clarity, his terminology is changed on two occasions. A glossary explains the terminology changed. In the text of the notebooks, several contemporaries are mentioned; a brief description of Herschel's colleagues is provided.

  3. John Herschel, Charles Lyell, and the planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    John Herschel and Charles Lyell are not usually seen as scientists who had much in common. One was an astronomer, the other a geologist. They shared, however, an active interest in the age of the Earth and in the history of the physical processes that produced the planet before us. Herschel brought to this discussion a well-polished mastery of celestial mechanics and the chemistry and optics of crystals, and Lyell brought with him a familiarity with fossils, strata, and rock types. This talk focuses on Herschel and Lyell's discussions about the Earth through time and space, and about what qualified (to them) as acceptable geo-theory. Along the way, more attention is paid to Herschel's interests in terrestrial topics, since this is less well known.

  4. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, water vapor, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 139 flights of a United Airlines B-747 and a Pan American World Airways B-747 from December 1975 through March 1976. In addition, sample bottles were exposed during three flights and analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples were exposed during five flights and analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed.

  5. GASP-PL/I Simulation of Integrated Avionic System Processor Architectures. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brent, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    A development study sponsored by NASA was completed in July 1977 which proposed a complete integration of all aircraft instrumentation into a single modular system. Instead of using the current single-function aircraft instruments, computers compiled and displayed inflight information for the pilot. A processor architecture called the Team Architecture was proposed. This is a hardware/software approach to high-reliability computer systems. A follow-up study of the proposed Team Architecture is reported. GASP-PL/1 simulation models are used to evaluate the operating characteristics of the Team Architecture. The problem, model development, simulation programs and results at length are presented. Also included are program input formats, outputs and listings.

  6. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, D. J.; Holdeman, J. D.; Humenik, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 245 flights of a Qantas Airways of Australia B-747 and two Pan American World Airways B-747s from July 1976 through September 1976. In addition, whole air samples, obtained during three flights, were analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples, obtained during four flights, were analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, fluorides, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed.

  7. Signatures of energy flux in particle production: a black hole birth cry and death gasp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-07-01

    It is recently argued that if the Hawking radiation process is unitary, then a black hole's mass cannot be monotonically decreasing. We examine the time dependent particle count and negative energy flux in the non-trivial conformal vacuum via the moving mirror approach. A new, exactly unitary solution is presented which emits a characteristic above-thermal positive energy burst, a thermal plateau, and negative energy flux. It is found that the characteristic positive energy flare and thermal plateau is observed in the particle outflow. However, the results of time dependent particle production show no overt indication of negative energy flux. Therefore, a black hole's birth cry is detectable by asymptotic observers via particle count, whereas its death gasp is not.

  8. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 1: Main program. Part 1: Theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    The General Aviation synthesis program performs tasks generally associated with aircraft preliminary design and allows an analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner. GASP emphasizes small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying froma single piston engine with fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/ turbofan powered business or transport type aircraft. The program, which may be operated from a computer terminal in either the batch or interactive graphic mode, is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedure. The model is a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies, and assessing the impact of advanced technologies on aircraft performance and economics.

  9. Flight summaries and temperature climatology at airliner cruise altitudes from GASP (Global Atmospheric Sampling Program) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Jasperson, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature data obtained by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) during the period March 1975 to July 1979 are compiled to form flight summaries of static air temperature and a geographic temperature climatology. The flight summaries include the height and location of the coldest observed temperature and the mean flight level, temperature and the standard deviation of temperature for each flight as well as for flight segments. These summaries are ordered by route and month. The temperature climatology was computed for all statistically independent temperture data for each flight. The grid used consists of 5 deg latitude, 30 deg longitude and 2000 feet vertical resolution from FL270 to FL430 for each month of the year. The number of statistically independent observations, their mean, standard deviation and the empirical 98, 50, 16, 2 and .3 probability percentiles are presented.

  10. The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS): HST Frontier Field Coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS; PI: Egami) is a large Far-IR/Submm imaging survey of massive galaxy clusters using the Herschel Space Observatory. Its main goal is to detect and study IR/Submm galaxies that are below the nominal confusion limit of Herschel by taking advantage of the strong gravitational lensing power of massive galaxy clusters. HLS has obtained deep PACS (100/160 um) and SPIRE (250/350/500 um) images for 54 cluster fields (HLS-deep) as well as shallower but nearly confusion-limited SPIRE-only images for 527 cluster fields (HLS-snapshot) with a total observing time of ~420 hours. Extensive multi-wavelength follow-up studies are currently on-going with a variety of observing facilities including ALMA.Here, I will focus on the analysis of the deep Herschel PACS/SPIRE images obtained for the 6 HST Frontier Fields (5 observed by HLS-deep; 1 observed by the Herschel GT programs). The Herschel/SPIRE maps are wide enough to cover the Frontier-Field parallel pointings, and we have detected a total of ~180 sources, some of which are strongly lensed. I will present the sample and discuss the properties of these Herschel-detected dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) identified in the Frontier Fields. Although the majority of these Herschel sources are at moderate redshift (z<3), a small number of extremely high-redshift (z>6) candidates can be identified as "Herschel dropouts" when combined with longer-wavelength data. We have also identified ~40 sources as likely cluster members, which will allow us to study the properties of DSFGs in the dense cluster environment.A great legacy of our HLS project will be the extensive multi-wavelength database that incorporates most of the currently available data/information for the fields of the Frontier-Field, CLASH, and other HLS clusters (e.g., HST/Spitzer/Herschel images, spectroscopic/photometric redshifts, lensing models, best-fit SED models etc.). Provided with a user-friendly GUI and a flexible search engine, this

  11. A Herschel study of NGC 650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, P. A. M.; Van de Steene, G. C.; Exter, K. M.; Barlow, M. J.; Ueta, T.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Olofsson, G.; Polehampton, E. T.; Swinyard, B. M.; Van Winckel, H.; Waelkens, C.; Wesson, R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the Herschel guaranteed time key project Mass loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) we have imaged a sample of planetary nebulae. In this paper we present the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) images of the classical bipolar planetary nebula NGC 650. We used these images to derive a temperature map of the dust. We also constructed a photoionization and dust radiative transfer model using the spectral synthesis code Cloudy. To constrain this model, we used the PACS and SPIRE fluxes and combined them with hitherto unpublished International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) spectra as well as various other data from the literature. A temperature map combined with a photoionization model were used to study various aspects of the central star, the nebula, and in particular the dust grains in the nebula. The central star parameters are determined to be Teff = 208 kK and L = 261 L⊙ assuming a distance of 1200 pc. The stellar temperature is much higher than previously published values. We confirm that the nebula is carbon-rich with a C/O ratio of 2.1. The nebular abundances are typical for a type IIa planetary nebula. With the photoionization model we determined that the grains in the ionized nebula are large (assuming single-sized grains, they would have a radius of 0.15 μm). Most likely these large grains were inherited from the asymptotic giant branch phase. The PACS 70/160 μm temperature map shows evidence of two radiation components heating the grains. The first component is direct emission from the central star, while the second component is diffuse emission from the ionized gas (mainly Lyα). We show that previous suggestions of a photo-dissociation region surrounding the ionized region are incorrect. The neutral material resides in dense clumps inside the ionized region. These may also harbor stochastically heated very small grains in addition to the large

  12. Bars as seen by Herschel and Sloan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolandi, Guido; Dotti, Massimo; Boselli, Alessandro; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    We present an observational study of the effect of bars on the gas component and on the star formation properties of their host galaxies in a statistically significant sample of resolved objects, the Herschel Reference Sample. The analysis of optical and far-infrared images allows us to identify a clear spatial correlation between stellar bars and the cold-gas distribution mapped by the warm dust emission. We find that the infrared counterparts of optically identified bars are either bar-like structures or dead central regions in which star formation is strongly suppressed. Similar morphologies are found in the distribution of star formation directly traced by Hα maps. The sizes of such optical and infrared structures correlate remarkably well, hinting at a causal connection. In the light of previous observations and of theoretical investigations in the literature, we interpret our findings as further evidence of the scenario in which bars drive strong inflows toward their host nuclei: young bars are still in the process of perturbing the gas and star formation clearly delineates the shape of the bars; old bars on the contrary already removed any gas within their extents, carving a dead region of negligible star formation.

  13. Herschel View of G49 Filament

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-28

    New images of huge filamentary structures of gas and dust from ESA's Herschel space observatory reveal how matter is distributed across our Milky Way galaxy. Long and flimsy threads emerge from a twisted mix of material, taking on complex shapes. This image shows a filament called G49, which contains 80,000 suns' worth of mass. This huge but slender structure of gas and dust extends about 280 light-years in length, while its diameter is only about 5 light-years across. In this image, longer-wavelength light has been assigned visible colors. Light with wavelengths of 70 microns is blue; 160-micron light is green; and 350-micron light is red. Cooler gas and dust are seen in red and yellow, with temperatures as low as minus 421 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 252 degrees Celsius). In the densest and coolest clumps, the seeds of new generations of stars are taking shape. A brighter clump of matter is visible at the left tip of the wispy thread. This filament is about 18,000 light-years away. The image is oriented with northeast toward the left of the image and southwest toward the right. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19340

  14. Observations of ammonia in comets with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biver, N.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Hartogh, P.; Crovisier, J.; de Val-Borro, M.; Kidger, M.; Küppers, M.; Lis, D.; Moreno, R.; Szutowicz, S.; HssO Team

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia is the most abundant nitrogen bearing species in comets. However, it has been scarcely observed in comets due to the weakness of the lines observable from the ground at infrared and centimetre wavelengths. Nevertheless, its main photodissociation product NH_2 has been observed in several comets in the visible. The fundamental rotational J_{K}=(1_0-0_0) transition of NH_3 at 572.5 GHz has been observed in comets since 2004, with the Odin satellite (Biver et al. 2007). In the frame of the Herschel guaranteed time key program ''HssO'' (Hartogh et al. 2009), ammonia was detected with the HIFI instrument in comets 10P/Tempel 2 (Biver et al. 2012), 45P/Honda- Mrkos-Pajdusakova, 103P/Hartley 2, and C/2009 P1 (Garradd). The hyperfine structure of the line is resolved. We have built a complete excitation model to interpret these observations, including the radial distribution in comet 103P. The derived abundances relative to water are on the order of 0.5 %, similar to the values inferred from visible observations of NH_2.

  15. Tabulations of ambient ozone data obtained by GASP (Global Air Sampling Program) airliners, March 1975 to July 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Tabulations are given of GASP ambient ozone mean, standard deviation, median, 84th percentile, and 98th percentile values, by month, flight level, and geographical region. These data are tabulated to conform to the temporal and spatial resolution required by FAA Advisory Circular 120-38 (monthly by 2000 ft in altitude by 5 deg in latitude) for climatological data used to show compliance with cabin ozone regulations. In addition seasonal x 10 deg latitude tabulations are included which are directly comparable to and supersede the interim GASP ambient ozone tabulations given in appendix B of FAA-EE-80-43 (NASA TM-81528). Selected probability variations are highlighted to illustrate the spatial and temporal variability of ambient ozone and to compare results from the coarse and fine grid analyses.

  16. Vacancies in the Heavens: Caroline Herschel and the Discovery of Dark Nebulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lada, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    Late in the spring of 1784 William Herschel was at the eyepiece of his monstrous 20-foot telescope shouting out to Caroline Herschel, his younger sister and observing partner, counts of stars as they passed though his field of view. At one point during the observing session there was a long moment of silence, after which Caroline heard William exclaim: "Heir ist wahrhaftig ein Lock im Himmel!" ("Here is certainly a Hole in the Heavens") These words mark the telescopic discovery of dark nebulae. William reported this discovery in a brief subsection of a paper to the Royal Society in 1785. He believed that what he observed was an opening or hole in the distribution of stars. He apparently did not attach too much greater significance to this observation and never discussed it any subsequent publications. However, Caroline appears to have guessed that this observation held a potentially greater significance. Indeed, fifty years after the initial observation, she encouraged her nephew John Herschel to confirm William's observation with the refurbished 20-foot telescope that he had just erected in South Africa. After this she proceeded to compile first catalog of dark nebula which she extracted from the large body of telescopic observations made by William with her assistance over the many years with the 20 foot telescope. It wasn't until the early twentieth century that the work of Barnard and Wolf conclusively demonstrated that these startling vacancies in the sky were true astronomical objects-- dark obscuring nebulae and it took another half century until astronomers proved them to be the birth sites of all stars and planets in the galaxy, amply confirming Caroline's intuition concerning their importance in the pantheon of astronomical objects.

  17. Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex. II. The embedded young stellar and protostellar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaczkowski, B.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Roccatagliata, V.; Ohlendorf, H.; Zinnecker, H.

    2013-01-01

    -mass and intermediate-mass stars, but no massive (M ≳ 20 M⊙) stars. The characteristic spatial configuration of the YSOs provides support to the picture that the formation of this latest stellar generation is triggered by the advancing ionization fronts. The Herschel data described in this paper have been obtained in the open time project OT1_tpreibis1 (PI: T. Preibisch). Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables A.1, B.1, C.1, and D.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A67

  18. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. I. Luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Boselli, A.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; Cortese, L.; Dariush, A.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    We describe the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) and the first data obtained as part of the science demonstration phase (SDP). The data cover a central 4×4 sq deg region of the cluster. We use SPIRE and PACS photometry data to produce 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm luminosity functions (LFs) for optically bright galaxies that are selected at 500 μm and detected in all bands. We compare these LFs with those previously derived using IRAS, BLAST and Herschel-ATLAS data. The Virgo cluster LFs do not have the large numbers of faint galaxies or examples of very luminous galaxies seen previously in surveys covering less dense environments. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  19. A peculiar class of debris disks from Herschel/DUNES. A steep fall off in the far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, S.; Wolf, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Eiroa, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.; Löhne, T.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Arévalo, M.; Bayo, A.; Bryden, G.; del Burgo, C.; Greaves, J.; Kennedy, G.; Lebreton, J.; Liseau, R.; Maldonado, J.; Montesinos, B.; Mora, A.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.; White, G. J.

    2012-05-01

    Context. The existence of debris disks around old main sequence stars is usually explained by continuous replenishment of small dust grains through collisions from a reservoir of larger objects. Aims: We present photometric data of debris disks around HIP 103389 (HD 199260), HIP 107350 (HN Peg, HD 206860), and HIP 114948 (HD 219482), obtained in the context of our Herschel open time key program DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars). Methods: We used Herschel/PACS to detect the thermal emission of the three debris disks with a 3σ sensitivity of a few mJy at 100 μm and 160 μm. In addition, we obtained Herschel/PACS photometric data at 70 μm for HIP 103389. These observations are complemented by a large variety of optical to far-infrared photometric data. Two different approaches are applied to reduce the Herschel data to investigate the impact of data reduction on the photometry. We fit analytical models to the available spectral energy distribution (SED) data using the fitting method of simulated thermal annealing as well as a classical grid search method. Results: The SEDs of the three disks potentially exhibit an unusually steep decrease at wavelengths ≥70 μm. We investigate the significance of the peculiar shape of these SEDs and the impact on models of the disks provided it is real. Using grain compositions that have been applied successfully for modeling of many other debris disks, our modeling reveals that such a steep decrease of the SEDs in the long wavelength regime is inconsistent with a power-law exponent of the grain size distribution -3.5 expected from a standard equilibrium collisional cascade. In contrast, a steep grain size distribution or, alternatively an upper grain size in the range of few tens of micrometers are implied. This suggests that a very distinct range of grain sizes would dominate the thermal emission of such disks. However, we demonstrate that the understanding of the data of faint sources obtained with Herschel is still incomplete

  20. Infrared study of transitional disks in Ophiuchus with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollido, Isabel; Merín, Bruno; Ribas, Álvaro; Bustamante, Ignacio; Bouy, Hervé; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Prusti, Timo; Pilbratt, Göran L.; André, Philippe; Ábrahám, Péter

    2015-09-01

    Context. Observations of nearby star-forming regions with the Herschel Space Observatory complement our view of the protoplanetary disks in Ophiuchus with information about the outer disks. Aims: The main goal of this project is to provide new far-infrared fluxes for the known disks in the core region of Ophiuchus and to identify potential transitional disks using data from Herschel. Methods: We obtained PACS and SPIRE photometry of previously spectroscopically confirmed young stellar objects (YSO) in the region and analysed their spectral energy distributions. Results: From an initial sample of 261 objects with spectral types in Ophiuchus, we detect 49 disks in at least one Herschel band. We provide new far-infrared fluxes for these objects. One of them is clearly a new transitional disk candidate. Conclusions: The data from Herschel Space Observatory provides fluxes that complement previous infrared data and that we use to identify a new transitional disk candidate. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Final reduced Herschel maps are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A30Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgAll tables are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A30

  1. Enhancing the Legacy of Spitzer and Herschel with the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Naveen

    The next frontier for comprehensive galaxy surveys is the epoch at z~1.5-3.5, the peak of star formation and black hole activity. Despite the new windows that Spitzer and Herschel have opened up into the stellar and dust emission of distant galaxies and AGN during this key epoch, these studies have been limited by the lack of spectroscopic redshifts and the unknown physical conditions (e.g., metallicities, ionization) within the targeted galaxies. To realize the full potential of Spitzer and Herschel, we require a large spectroscopic survey that will: (a) efficiently assemble spectroscopic redshifts for large samples of galaxies at z=1.4-3.8; (b) yield the physical conditions, including the ionization and metallicities of these galaxies; and (c) easily obtain spectroscopic redshifts even for very dusty/confused galaxies. To this end, our team has been allocated a large program of 47 Keck nights with the multi-object near-IR spectrograph MOSFIRE to carry out the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey (MOSDEF) in three of the Hubble CANDELS fields. MOSDEF will obtain rest-optical spectra of ~1500 galaxies at redshifts z=1.4-3.8, targeting many of the optical nebular emission lines and continuum features (e.g., [OII], [OIII], H-beta, H-alpha, [NII], [SII], 4000 Angstrom break, Ca H and K, and Mbg) that until now have been inaccessible for large samples of distant galaxies, but which are routinely used to measure the SFRs, dust attenuation, metal and gas content, and ionization and dynamical properties in nearby galaxies. MOSDEF spectroscopy provides a critical supporting role for the analysis of Spitzer and Herschel observations of distant galaxies. With this transformative dataset, we will perform the following analyses. First, we will use Spitzer and Herschel imaging, aided with spectroscopic redshifts from MOSDEF, to construct individual and mean dust SEDs for galaxies at redshifts 1.4

  2. Herschel Discovery of a New Class of Cold, Faint Debris Discs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiroal, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Krivov, A. V.; Montesinos, B.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Arevalo, M.; Augereau, J.-Ch.; Bayo, A.; Danchi, W.; del Burgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, B. M.; Heras, A. M.; Lebreton, J.; Liseau, R.; Maldonado, J.; Meeus, G.; Montes, D.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present Herschel PACS 100 and 160 micron observations of the solar-type stars alpha Men, HD 88230 and HD 210277, which form part of the FGK stars sample of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars). Our observations show small infrared excesses at 160 m for all three stars. HD 210277 also shows a small excess at 100 micron, while the 100 micron fluxes of alpha Men and HD 88230 agree with the stellar photospheric predictions. We attribute these infrared excesses to a new class of cold, faint debris discs. alpha Men and HD 88230 are spatially resolved in the PACS 160 m images, while HD 210277 is point-like at that wavelength. The projected linear sizes of the extended emission lie in the range from approx 115 to <= 250 AU. The estimated black body temperatures from the 100 and 160 micron fluxes are approx < 22 K, while the fractional luminosity of the cold dust is L(sub dust) / L(*) approx 10 (exp 6) close to the luminosity of the Solar-System's Kuiper belt. These debris discs are the coldest and faintest discs discovered so far around mature stars and cannot easily be explained by invoking "classical" debris disc models.

  3. Herschel Discovery of a New class of Cold, Faint Debris Discs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Krivov, A. V.; Montesinos, B.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Arevalo, M.; Augereau, J. -Ch.; Bayo, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present Herschel PACS 100 and 160 micron observations of the solar-type stars alpha Men, HD 88230 and HD 210277, which form part of the FGK stars sample of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars). Our observations show small infrared excesses at 160 micron for all three stars. HD 210277 also shows a small excess at 100 micron. while the 100 micron fluxes of a Men and HD 88230 agree with the stellar photospheric predictions. We attribute these infrared excesses to a new class of cold, faint debris discs. alpha Men and HD 88230 are spatially resolved in the PACS 160 micron images, while HD 210277 is point-like at that wavelength. The projected linear sizes of the extended emission lie in the range from approximately 115 to <= 250 AU. The estimated black body temperatures from the 100 and 160 micron fluxes are approximately < 22 K, while the fractional luminosity of the cold dust is L(dust)/ L(star) approximates 10(exp -6), close to the luminosity of the Solar-System's Kuiper belt. These debris discs are the coldest and faintest discs discovered so far around mature stars and cannot easily be explained by invoking "classical" debris disc models.

  4. Herschel Discovery of a New class of Cold, Faint Debris Discs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Krivov, A. V.; Montesinos, B.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Arevalo, M.; Augereau, J. -Ch.; Bayo, A.; Danchi, W.; del Burgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, B. M.; Heras, A. M.; Lebreton, J.; Liseau, R.; Maldonado, J.; Meeus, G.; Montes, D.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present Herschel PACS 100 and 160 micron observations of the solar-type stars alpha Men, HD 88230 and HD 210277, which form part of the FGK stars sample of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars). Our observations show small infrared excesses at 160 micron for all three stars. HD 210277 also shows a small excess at 100 micron. while the 100 micron fluxes of a Men and HD 88230 agree with the stellar photospheric predictions. We attribute these infrared excesses to a new class of cold, faint debris discs. alpha Men and HD 88230 are spatially resolved in the PACS 160 micron images, while HD 210277 is point-like at that wavelength. The projected linear sizes of the extended emission lie in the range from approximately 115 to <= 250 AU. The estimated black body temperatures from the 100 and 160 micron fluxes are approximately < 22 K, while the fractional luminosity of the cold dust is L(dust)/ L(star) approximates 10(exp -6), close to the luminosity of the Solar-System's Kuiper belt. These debris discs are the coldest and faintest discs discovered so far around mature stars and cannot easily be explained by invoking "classical" debris disc models.

  5. Properties of resonant trans-Neptunian objects based on Herschel Space Observatory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas Anikó, Takácsné; Kiss, Csaba; Mueller, Thomas G.; Mommert, Michael; Vilenius, Esa

    2016-10-01

    The goal of our work is to characterise the physical characteristics of resonant, detached and scattered disk objects in the trans-Neptunian region, observed in the framework of the "TNOs are Cool!" Herschel Open Time Key Program. Based on thermal emission measurements with the Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS instruments we were able to determine size, albedo, and surface thermal properties for 23 objects using radiometric modelling techniques. This is the first analysis in which the physical properties of objects in the outer resonances are determined for a larger sample. In addition to the results for individual objects, we have compared these characteristic with the bulk properties of other populations of the trans-Neptunian region. The newly analysed objects show e.g. a large variety of beaming factors, indicating diverse surfaces, and in general they follow the albedo-colour clustering identified earlier for Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs, further strengthening the evidence for a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system.

  6. PlotXY: A High Quality Plotting System for the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) and the Astronomical Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panuzzo, P.; Li, J.; Caux, E.

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with NASA and the Herschel Instrument Control Centres, to provide the astronomical community a complete environment to process and analyze the data gathered by the Herschel Space Observatory. One of the most important components of HIPE is the plotting system (named PlotXY) that we present here. With PlotXY it is possible to produce easily high quality publication-ready 2D plots. It provides a long list of features, with fully configurable components, and interactive zooming. The entire code of HIPE is written in Java and is open source released under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3. A new version of PlotXY is being developed to be independent from the HIPE code base; it is available to the software development community for the inclusion in other projects at the URL http://code.google.com/p/jplot2d/.

  7. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  8. The evolution of temperature extremes in the Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec, Canada (1974-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Guillaume; Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona

    2016-07-01

    The majority of natural hazards that affect Canadian territory are the result of extreme climate and weather conditions. Among these weather hazards, some can be calculated from the application of thresholds for minimum and maximum temperatures at a daily or monthly timescale. These thermal indices allowed the prediction of extreme conditions that may have an impact on the human population by affecting, for example, health, agriculture, and water resources. In this article, we discuss the methods used (RHtestsV4, SPLIDHOM, ClimPACT) then describe the steps followed to calculate the indices, including how we dealt with the problem of missing data and the necessity to identify a common methodology to analyze the time series. We also present possible solutions for ensuring the quality of meteorological data. We then present an overview of the results, namely the main trends and variability of extreme temperature for seven stations located in the Gaspé Peninsula from 1974 to 2013. Our results indicate some break points in time series and positive trends for most indices related to the rise of the temperatures but indicate a negative trend for the indices related to low temperatures for most stations during the study period.

  9. Genetic heterogeneity in regional populations of Quebec--parental lineages in the Gaspe Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Claudia; Vézina, Hélène; Yotova, Vania; Hamon, Robert; de Knijff, Peter; Sinnett, Daniel; Labuda, Damian

    2009-08-01

    Stable colonization of the Gaspe Peninsula by Europeans started in the middle of the 18th century at the time of the British conquest of New France. The earliest settlers were Acadians, escaping British deportation policies, followed by Loyalists from the US, who preferred to remain under British rule after the Declaration of Independence. In the 19th century, the developing fishing industry attracted French Canadians from the St. Lawrence Valley and newcomers from Europe including Channel Islanders from Jersey and Guernsey. We analyzed parental lineages of the self-declared descendants of these four groups of settlers by mtDNA D-loop sequencing and Y-chromosome genotyping and compared them with French, British, and Irish samples. Their representation in terms of haplotype frequency classes reveals different signatures of founder effects, such as a loss of rare haplotypes, modification of intermediate frequency haplotypes, reduction in genetic diversity (seen in Acadians), but also enrichment by admixture. Parental lineages correlate with group identity. Descendants of early settlers, Acadians and Loyalists, preserved their identity more than those of French Canadian and Channel Islander "latecomers." Although overall genetic diversity among Gaspesians is comparable with their European source populations, F(ST) analysis indicated their greater differentiation. Distinct settlement history, a limited number of founders and relative genetic isolation contributed to the regionalization of the Quebec gene pool that appears less homogenous than usually anticipated.

  10. Prostaglandin E2 differentially modulates the central control of eupnoea, sighs and gasping in mice

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Henner; Caughie, Cali; Elsen, Frank P; Doi, Atsushi; Garcia, Alfredo J; Zanella, Sebastien; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandins are important regulators of autonomic functions in the mammalian organism. Here we demonstrate in vivo that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can differentially increase the frequency of eupnoea (normal breathing) and sighs (augmented breaths) when injected into the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), a medullary area that is critical for breathing. Low concentrations of PGE2 (100–300 nm) increased the sigh frequency, while higher concentrations (1–2 μm) were required to increase the eupnoeic frequency. The concentration-dependent effects were similarly observed in the isolated preBötC. This in vitro preparation also revealed that riluzole, a blocker of the persistent sodium current (INap), abolished the modulatory effect on sighs, while flufenamic acid, an antagonist for the calcium-activated non-selective cation conductance (ICAN) abolished the effect of PGE2 on fictive eupnoea at higher concentrations. At the cellular level PGE2 significantly increased the amplitude and frequency of intrinsic bursting in inspiratory neurons. By contrast PGE2 affected neither excitatory nor inhibitory synaptic transmission. We conclude that PGE2 differentially modulates sigh, gasping and eupnoeic activity by differentially increasing INap and ICAN currents in preBötC neurons. PMID:25556802

  11. HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di; Liseau, Rene; Black, John H.; Bell, Tom A.; Hollenbach, David; Kaufman, Michael J.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre; Snell, Ronald; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Bergin, Edwin; Caselli, Paola; Caux, Emmanuel; Falgarone, Edith

    2011-08-20

    We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in emission from the H{sub 2} Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s{sup -1} to 12 km s{sup -1} and widths of 3 km s{sup -1}. The beam-averaged column density is N(O{sub 2}) = 6.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} relative to H{sub 2} is (0.3-7.3) x 10{sup -6}. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a {approx}5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is {approx}10 M{sub sun} and the dust temperature is {>=}150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O{sub 2} abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T {>=} 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O{sub 2}. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature {>=}180 K. The inferred O{sub 2} column density {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} can be produced in Peak A, having N(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s{sup -1}) C-shock, which can produce N(O{sub 2}) up to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}.

  12. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  13. John Herschel's position in the post-Neptune discovery debates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, N.

    2005-08-01

    In the course of archiving Britain's Neptune correspondence I have transcribed letters by Herschel (from the Royal Society Library) that have been little appreciated by scholars. The great polemical debates took place chiefly within the RAS but also affecting the Royal Society and the British Association, and Herschel was very much at the centre of things. His views become especially interesting once the sceptical American view started to be heard some months after the discovery, that because the real Neptune was so very different in its motions from that predicted by Adams and LeVerrier, and because the 2:1 resonance between Uranus and Neptune is such a large effect and yet was wholly unknown to these two, the prediction had to have been a mere happy coincidence. Herschel's view that the synchrony involved was beneficial for public understanding of science remains of relevance today. During these intense debates, Herschel was completing his bestseller 'Outlines of Astronomy' that was to go through twelve editions.

  14. Herschel Hi-GAL imaging of massive young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguin, F. A.; Hoare, M. G.; Wheelwright, H. E.; Clay, S. J.; de Wit, W.-J.; Rafiq, I.; Pezzuto, S.; Molinari, S.

    2015-05-01

    We used Herschel Hi-GAL (Herschel infrared Galactic Plane survey) data to determine whether massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) are resolved at 70 μm and to study their envelope density distribution. Our analysis of three relatively isolated sources in the l = 30° and 59° Galactic fields show that the objects are partially resolved at 70 μm. The Herschel Hi-GAL survey data have a high scan velocity which makes unresolved and partially resolved sources appear elongated in the 70 μm images. We analysed the two scan directions separately and examine the intensity profile perpendicular to the scan direction. Spherically symmetric radiative transfer models with a power-law density distribution were used to study the circumstellar matter distribution. Single dish submm data were also included to study how different spatial information affects the fitted density distribution. The density distribution which best fits both the 70 μm intensity profile and spectral energy distribution has an average index of ˜0.5. This index is shallower than expected and is probably due to the dust emission from bipolar outflow cavity walls not accounted for in the spherical models. We conclude that 2D axisymmetric models and Herschel images at low scan speeds are needed to better constrain the matter distribution around MYSOs.

  15. The JOSE atmospheric seeing monitor at the William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Jacques, D.; Cox, G. C.; Baldwin, J. E.; Mackay, C. D.; Waldram, E. M.; Wilson, R. W.

    1997-09-01

    We have installed a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor at the William Herschel Telescope. The sensor has 8x8 subapertures and operates at frame rates up to 865 Hz. It is used to monitor those aspects of the seeing relevant to the design and optimization of the future WHT adaptive optics system. Here we describe its implementation and present some sample results.

  16. Footprint Database and web services for the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verebélyi, Erika; Dobos, László; Kiss, Csaba

    2015-08-01

    Using all telemetry and observational meta-data, we created a searchable database of Herschel observation footprints. Data from the Herschel space observatory is freely available for everyone but no uniformly processed catalog of all observations has been published yet. As a first step, we unified the data model for all three Herschel instruments in all observation modes and compiled a database of sky coverage information. As opposed to methods using a pixellation of the sphere, in our database, sky coverage is stored in exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. Indexing of the footprints allows for very fast search among observations based on pointing, time, sky coverage overlap and meta-data. This enables us, for example, to find moving objects easily in Herschel fields. The database is accessible via a web site and also as a set of REST web service functions which makes it usable from program clients like Python or IDL scripts. Data is available in various formats including Virtual Observatory standards.

  17. Fourier-space combination of Planck and Herschel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu-Vicente, J.; Stutz, A.; Henning, Th.; Keto, E.; Ballesteros-Paredes, J.; Robitaille, T.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Herschel has revolutionized our ability to measure column densities (NH) and temperatures (T) of molecular clouds thanks to its far infrared multiwavelength coverage. However, the lack of a well defined background intensity level in the Herschel data limits the accuracy of the NH and T maps. Aims: We aim to provide a method that corrects the missing Herschel background intensity levels using the Planck model for foreground Galactic thermal dust emission. For the Herschel/PACS data, both the constant-offset as well as the spatial dependence of the missing background must be addressed. For the Herschel/SPIRE data, the constant-offset correction has already been applied to the archival data so we are primarily concerned with the spatial dependence, which is most important at 250 μm. Methods: We present a Fourier method that combines the publicly available Planck model on large angular scales with the Herschel images on smaller angular scales. Results: We have applied our method to two regions spanning a range of Galactic environments: Perseus and the Galactic plane region around l = 11deg (HiGal-11). We post-processed the combined dust continuum emission images to generate column density and temperature maps. We compared these to previously adopted constant-offset corrections. We find significant differences (≳20%) over significant ( 15%) areas of the maps, at low column densities (NH ≲ 1022 cm-2) and relatively high temperatures (T ≳ 20 K). We have also applied our method to synthetic observations of a simulated molecular cloud to validate our method. Conclusions: Our method successfully corrects the Herschel images, including both the constant-offset intensity level and the scale-dependent background variations measured by Planck. Our method improves the previous constant-offset corrections, which did not account for variations in the background emission levels. The image FITS files used in this paper are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp

  18. OT1_sserje01_1: THE HERSCHEL-AKARI NEP DEEP SURVEY: the cosmological history of stellar mass assembly and black hole accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjeant, S.

    2010-07-01

    We propose a far-IR and submm mapping survey of the premier AKARI deep field in the North Ecliptic Pole, in PACS/SPIRE parallel mode. This is the only major deep infrared field not yet covered by Herschel guaranteed or open time key projects. The outstanding and unparalleled continuous mid-IR photometric coverage from AKARI, far better than equivalent Spitzer surveys, enables a wide range of galaxy evolution diagnostics unachievable in any other survey field (including Herschel HerMES/PEP fields), by spanning the wavelengths of redshifted PAH and silicate features and the peak energy output of AGN dust tori. The investment by AKARI in the NEP represents ~10 percent of the entire pointed observations available throughout the lifetime of AKARI. Our proposal remedies the remarkable omission from Herschel's legacy surveys of the premier extragalactic deep field from another IR space telescope. We will simultaneously identify and find photometric redshifts for the Herschel point source population, make stacking analysis detections of the galaxies which dominate the submm extragalactic background light as a function of redshift, determine the bolometric power outputs of the galaxies that dominate the submm background, compare the UV/optical/mid-IR continuum/PAH/far-IR/submm/radio star formation rate estimator in the most comprehensive IR survey data set to date, and track the coupled stellar mass assembly and black hole accretion throughout most of the history of the Universe.

  19. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Data report for tape VL0001. [data management and data retrieval of information from environmental surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Lezberg, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are now being measured as part of the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP), using fully automated air sampling systems on board commercial 747 aircraft in routine airline service. Measurements of atmospheric ozone and related meteorological and flight information obtained during several GASP flights in March 1975 are now available from the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina. In addition to the data from the aircraft, tropopause pressure data obtained from the National Meteorological Center (NMC) archives for the dates of the flights are included. This report is the first of a series of reports which describes the data currently available from GASP, including flight routes and dates, instrumentation, the data processing procedure used, and data tape specifications.

  20. Proteomics analysis of a long-term survival strain of Escherichia coli K-12 exhibiting a growth advantage in stationary-phase (GASP) phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Assunta; Lamboglia, Egidio; Bianchi, Laura; Landi, Claudia; Armini, Alessandro; Ciolfi, Silvia; Bini, Luca; Marri, Laura

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was the functional and proteomic analysis of a mutant, W3110 Bgl(+) /10, isolated from a batch culture of an Escherichia coli K-12 strain maintained at room temperature without addition of nutrients for 10 years. When the mutant was evaluated in competition experiments in co-culture with the wild-type, it exhibited the growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype. Proteomes of the GASP mutant and its parental strain were compared by using a 2DE coupled with MS approach. Several differentially expressed proteins were detected and many of them were successful identified by mass spectrometry. Identified expression-changing proteins were grouped into three functional categories: metabolism, protein synthesis, chaperone and stress responsive proteins. Among them, the prevalence was ascribable to the "metabolism" group (72%) for the GASP mutant, and to "chaperones and stress responsive proteins" group for the parental strain (48%).

  1. Identification of new transitional disk candidates in Lupus with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Ribas, Á.; Bouy, H.; Prusti, T.; Pilbratt, G. L.; André, Ph.

    2015-06-01

    Context. New data from the Herschel Space Observatory are broadening our understanding of the physics and evolution of the outer regions of protoplanetary disks in star-forming regions. In particular they prove to be useful for identifying transitional disk candidates. Aims: The goals of this work are to complement the detections of disks and the identification of transitional disk candidates in the Lupus clouds with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Methods: We extracted photometry at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm of all spectroscopically confirmed Class II members previously identified in the Lupus regions and analyzed their updated spectral energy distributions. Results: We have detected 34 young disks in Lupus in at least one Herschel band, from an initial sample of 123 known members in the observed fields. Using recently defined criteria, we have identified five transitional disk candidates in the region. Three of them are new to the literature. Their PACS-70 μm fluxes are systematically higher than those of normal T Tauri stars in the same associations, as already found in T Cha and in the transitional disks in the Chamaeleon molecular cloud. Conclusions: Herschel efficiently complements mid-infrared surveys for identifying transitional disk candidates and confirms that these objects seem to have substantially different outer disks than the T Tauri stars in the same molecular clouds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 5-7 and Figs. 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. "Heart" of Herschel to be presented to media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    The Herschel mission, equipped with the largest telescope ever launched in space (3.5 m diameter), will give astronomers their best capability yet to explore the universe at far-infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths. By measuring the light at these wavelengths, scientists see the ‘cold’ universe. Herschel will give them an unprecedented view, allowing them to see deep into star forming regions, galactic centres and planetary systems. In order to achieve its objectives and to be able to detect the faint radiation coming from the coolest objects in the cosmos, otherwise ‘invisible’, Herschel’s detectors must operate at very low and stable temperatures. The spacecraft is equipped so as to cool them close to absolute zero (-273.15 ºC), ranging from -271 ºC to only a few tenths of a degree above absolute zero. To have achieved this particular feature alone is a remarkable accomplishment for European industry and science. The final integration of the various components of the Herschel spacecraft - payload module, cryostat, service module, telescope and solar arrays - will be completed in the next few months. This phase will be followed by a series of tests to get the spacecraft ready for launch at the end of July 2008. Herschel will be launched into space on an Ariane 5 ECA rocket. The launch is shared with Planck, ESA’s mission to study relic radiation from the Big Bang. Media interested to attend the press event are invited to fill in the reply form below. Note for editors The Prime Contractor for the Herschel spacecraft is Thales Alenia Space (Cannes, France). It leads a consortium of industrial partners with Astrium (Germany) responsible for the Extended Payload Module (EPLM, including the Herschel cryostat), Astrium (France) responsible for the telescope, and the Thales Alenia Space industry branch of Torino, Italy, responsible for the Service Module (SVM). There is also a host of subcontractors spread throughout Europe. The three Herschel

  3. OT2_eegami_5: Herschel Lensing Survey II: Completing the Herschel Legacy with the HST/MCT CLASH Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, E.

    2011-09-01

    For deep imaging longward of 100 um, confusion noise sets the fundamental sensitivity limits achievable with Herschel, and these limits cannot be improved by integrating longer. To penetrate through this confusion limit and detect faint high-redshift galaxies, gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters offers a very powerful and yet cheap solution. For this reason, our team has been conducting a PACS/SPIRE imaging survey of 44 massive lensing clusters as one of the Herschel Key Programs, "The Herschel Lensing Survey" (PI: Egami, 292.3 hrs). Deep PACS/SPIRE imaging data of massive clusters are quite rich with a variety of information, which allows us to study not only the properties of gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies but also those of cluster member galaxies and the intracluster medium through the analysis of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. In January 2010, a massive HST program targeting powerful lensing clusters was accepted as one of the three multi-cycle treasury (MCT) programs. This program, ``the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble'' (CLASH), has an allocation of 524 orbits, and will obtain deep ACS and WFC3 images of 25 massive galaxy clusters using 16 broad-band filters from near-UV (2250 A) to near-IR (1.6 um). These extensive multi-filter imaging observations will produce high-precision photometric redshifts (sigma/(1+z)<0.02). On average, the program spends 20 orbits per cluster. Considering this enormous investment of HST time, the CLASH program will define the ultimate sample of massive galaxy clusters on which future studies will focus. Here, we propose to obtain deep PACS and SPIRE images for 10 CLASH clusters that still lack such data (the other 15 clusters already have a good Herschel coverage). To fully exploit the combination of the Herschel and HST data, the HLS and CLASH teams are submitting this proposal jointly with the participation of key scientists from both teams.

  4. Astronomy from Space: The Hubble, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Space-based astronomy is going through a renaissance, with three Great Observatories currently flying: Hubble in the visible and ultraviolet, Spitzer in the infrared and Chandra in X-rays. The future looks equally bright. The final servicing mission to Hubble will take place in February 2009 and promises to make the observatory more capable than ever with two new cameras, and refurbishment that will allow it to last at least five years. The upcoming launch of the Herschel Space Telescope will open the far-infrared to explore the cool and dusty Universe. Finally, we look forward to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2013, which wil provide a successor to both Hubble and Spitzer. In this talk, the author discusses some of the highlights of scientific discovery in the last 10 years and reveals the promise to the next 10 years.

  5. Astronomy from Space: The Hubble, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Space-based astronomy is going through a renaissance, with three Great Observatories currently flying: Hubble in the visible and ultraviolet, Spitzer in the infrared and Chandra in X-rays. The future looks equally bright. The final servicing mission to Hubble will take place in February 2009 and promises to make the observatory more capable than ever with two new cameras, and refurbishment that will allow it to last at least five years. The upcoming launch of the Herschel Space Telescope will open the far-infrared to explore the cool and dusty Universe. Finally, we look forward to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2013, which wil provide a successor to both Hubble and Spitzer. In this talk, the author discusses some of the highlights of scientific discovery in the last 10 years and reveals the promise to the next 10 years.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cep OB2 Herschel/PACS view (Sicilia-Aguilar+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Roccatagliata, V.; Getman, K.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Birnstiel, T.; Merin, B.; Fang, M.; Henning, T.; Eiroa, C.; Currie, T.

    2015-02-01

    The Cep OB2 clusters, Tr 37 (centered at 21:38:09, +57:26:48, J2000) and NGC 7160 (centered at 21:53:40, 62:36:10, J2000), were observed with the ESA Herschel Space Observatory using the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), as part of the open time (OT) program "Disk dispersal in Cep OB2" (PI A. Sicilia-Aguilar). We obtained a total of 23h observing time in parallel mode at 70 and 160um. Observations took place between November 2012 and January 2013. (4 data files).

  7. GASP: A Performance Analysis Tool Interface for Global AddressSpace Programming Models, Version 1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Leko, Adam; Bonachea, Dan; Su, Hung-Hsun; George, Alan D.; Sherburne, Hans; George, Alan D.

    2006-09-14

    Due to the wide range of compilers and the lack of astandardized performance tool interface, writers of performance toolsface many challenges when incorporating support for global address space(GAS) programming models such as Unified Parallel C (UPC), Titanium, andCo-Array Fortran (CAF). This document presents a Global Address SpacePerformance tool interface (GASP) that is flexible enough to be adaptedinto current global address space compiler and runtime infrastructureswith little effort, while allowing performance analysis tools to gathermuch information about the performance of global address spaceprograms.

  8. An investigation of the Eigenvalue Calibration Method (ECM) using GASP for non-imaging and imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyne, Gillian; Lara, David; Hallinan, Gregg; Redfern, Michael; Shearer, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Polarised light from astronomical targets can yield a wealth of information about their source radiation mechanisms, and about the geometry of the scattered light regions. Optical observations, of both the linear and circular polarisation components, have been impeded due to non-optimised instrumentation. The need for suitable observing conditions and the availability of luminous targets are also limiting factors. The science motivation of any instrument adds constraints to its operation such as high signal-to-noise (SNR) and detector readout speeds. These factors in particular lead to a wide range of sources that have yet to be observed. The Galway Astronomical Stokes Polarimeter (GASP) has been specifically designed to make observations of these sources. GASP uses division of amplitude polarimeter (DOAP) (Compain and Drevillon Appl. Opt. 37, 5938-5944, 1998) to measure the four components of the Stokes vector (I, Q, U and V) simultaneously, which eliminates the constraints placed upon the need for moving parts during observation, and offers a real-time complete measurement of polarisation. Results from the GASP calibration are presented in this work for both a 1D detector system, and a pixel-by-pixel analysis on a 2D detector system. Following Compain et al. (Appl. Opt. 38, 3490-3502 1999) we use the Eigenvalue Calibration Method (ECM) to measure the polarimetric limitations of the instrument for each of the two systems. Consequently, the ECM is able to compensate for systematic errors introduced by the calibration optics, and it also accounts for all optical elements of the polarimeter in the output. Initial laboratory results of the ECM are presented, using APD detectors, where errors of 0.2 % and 0.1° were measured for the degree of linear polarisation (DOLP) and polarisation angle (PA) respectively. Channel-to-channel image registration is an important aspect of 2-D polarimetry. We present our calibration results of the measured Mueller matrix of each sample

  9. Correlation of gravity with the Maquereau Group, southern Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, Maurice K.

    1986-06-01

    Gravity observations at 150 locations in the Port-Daniel and Chandler area, southeastern Gaspé, Quebec, delineate an E-W to ENE-WSW trending elliptical positive Bouguer gravity anomaly with an amplitude of 19 mGal and a residual gravity anomaly of circa 22 mGal. This anomaly correlates closely with the Lower Cambrian and/or Hadrynian Maquereau Group, the steep gradients defining it coinciding with the contact between the group and the surrounding Ordovician and Siluro-Devonian sedimentary rocks. On the basis of its similar geological setting, this gravity anomaly may be compared with the positive Bouguer anomalies observed over the Fleur de, Lys zone to the east of the Baie Verte lineament in Newfoundland. Tridimensional modelling of the gravity data is inconsistent with a serpentinite dome as originally proposed and it suggests that the Maquereau Group represents an upthrusted slice of deep-seated volcanosedimentary sequences. These were originally located on the lower segment of the continental slope; they constituted a topographic high during the final process of the mountain building at the Taconic phase (Middle to Upper Ordovician time). The most probable way of emplacement of the Maquereau block is through a tear-fault running E-W to ESE-WNW in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence west of Cape Breton and resulting from Early Paleozoic continental collision between a Eurafrican continent and a North American continent which had a salient located beneath the site of the modern Gulf. The Maquereau may then have been reactivated with a left-lateral motion accompanied of a rotation about a sub-horizontal axis. The presumed Baie Verte-Brompton line ought to be displaced to the north and the Humber zone is narrowed.

  10. The Herschel/PACS view of the Cep OB2 region: Global protoplanetary disk evolution and clumpy star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Getman, Konstantin; Rivière-Marichalar, Pablo; Birnstiel, Tilman; Merín, Bruno; Fang, Min; Henning, Thomas; Eiroa, Carlos; Currie, Thayne

    2015-01-01

    Context. The Cep OB2 region, with its two intermediate-aged clusters Tr 37 and NGC 7160, is a paradigm of sequential star formation and an ideal site for studies of protoplanetary disk evolution. Aims: We use Herschel data to study the protoplanetary disks and the star formation history of the region. Methods: Herschel/PACS observations at 70 and 160 μm probe the disk properties (mass, dust sizes, structure) and the evolutionary state of a large number of young stars. Far-IR data also trace the remnant cloud material and small-scale cloud structure. Results: We detect 95 protoplanetary disks at 70 μm, 41 at 160 μm, and obtain upper limits for more than 130 objects. The detection fraction at 70 μm depends on the spectral type (88% for K4 or earlier stars, 17% for M3 or later stars) and on the disk type (~50% for full and pre-transitional disks, ~35% for transitional disks, no low-excess/depleted disks detected). Non-accreting disks are not detected, suggesting significantly lower masses. Accreting transition and pre-transition disks have systematically higher 70 μm excesses than full disks, suggestive of more massive, flared and/or thicker disks. Herschel data also reveal several mini-clusters in Tr 37, which are small, compact structures containing a few young stars surrounded by nebulosity. Conclusions: Far-IR data are an excellent probe of the evolution of disks that are too faint for sub-millimetre observations. We find a strong link between far-IR emission and accretion, and between the inner and outer disk structure. Herschel confirms the dichotomy between accreting and non-accreting transition disks. Accretion is a powerful measure of global disk evolution: substantial mass depletion and global evolution need to occur to shut down accretion in a protoplanetary disk, even if the disk has inner holes. Disks likely follow different evolutionary paths: low disk masses do not imply opening inner holes, and having inner holes does not require low disk masses

  11. Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex. III. Detailed cloud structure and feedback effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccatagliata, V.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Gaczkowski, B.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The star formation process in large clusters/associations can be strongly influenced by the feedback from high-mass stars. Whether the resulting net effect of the feedback is predominantly negative (cloud dispersal) or positive (triggering of star formation due to cloud compression) is still an open question. Aims: The Carina Nebula complex (CNC) represents one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. We use our Herschel far-infrared observations to study the properties of the clouds over the entire area of the CNC (with a diameter of ≈3.2°, which corresponds to ≈125 pc at a distance of 2.3 kpc). The good angular resolution (10''-36'') of the Herschel maps corresponds to physical scales of 0.1-0.4 pc, and allows us to analyze the small-scale (i.e., clump-size) structures of the clouds. Methods: The full extent of the CNC was mapped with PACS and SPIRE in the 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm bands. We determined temperatures and column densities at each point in these maps by modeling the observed far-infrared spectral energy distributions. We also derived a map showing the strength of the UV radiation field. We investigated the relation between the cloud properties and the spatial distribution of the high-mass stars and computed total cloud masses for different density thresholds. Results: Our Herschel maps resolve for the first time the small-scale structure of the dense clouds over the entire spatial extent of the CNC. Several particularly interesting regions, including the prominent pillars south of η Car, are analyzed in detail. We compare the cloud masses derived from the Herschel data with previous mass estimates based on sub-mm and molecular line data. Our maps also reveal a peculiar wave-like pattern in the northern part of the Carina Nebula. Finally, we characterize two prominent cloud complexes at the periphery of our Herschel maps, which are probably molecular clouds in the Galactic background. Conclusions: We find that the

  12. A Peculiar Class of Debris Disks from Herschel/DUNES: A Steep Fall Off in the Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertel, S.; Wolf, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Eiroa, C.; Augereau, J. C.; Krivov, A. V.; Lohne, T.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Arevalo, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Context. The existence of debris disks around old main sequence stars is usually explained by continuous replenishment of small dust grains through collisions from a reservoir of larger objects. Aims. We present photometric data of debris disks around HIP 103389 (HD199260), HIP 100350 (HN Peg, HD206860), and HIP 114948 (HD 219482), obtained in the context of our Herschel Open TIme Key Program DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars). Methods. We used Herschel/PACS to detect the thermal emission of the three debris disks with a 30 sigma sensitivity of a few mJy at l00 micron and 160 micron. In addition, we obtained Herschel/PACS photometric data at 70 micron for HIP 103389. These observations are complemented by a large variety of optical to far-infrared photometric data. Two different approaches are applied to reduce the Herschel data to investigate the impact of data reduction on the photometry. We fit analytical models to the available spectral energy distribution (SED) data using the fitting method of simulated therma1 annealing as well as a classical grid search method. Results. The SEDs of the three disks potentially exhibit an unusually steep decrease at wavelengths >= 70 micron. We investigate the significance of the peculiar shape of these SEDs and the impact on models of the disks provided it is real. Using grain compositions that have been applied successfully for modeling of many other debris disks, our modeling reveals that such a steep decrease of the SEDs in the long wavelength regime is inconsistent with a power-law exponent of the grain size distribution -3.5 expected from a standard equilibrium collisional cascade. In contrast, a steep grain size distribution or, alternatively an upper grain size in the range of few tens of micrometers are implied. This suggests that a very distinct range of grain sizes would dominate the thermal. emission of such disks. However, we demonstrate that the understanding of the data of faint sources obtained with Herschel is

  13. THE CDF ARCHIVE: HERSCHEL PACS AND SPIRE SPECTROSCOPIC DATA PIPELINE AND PRODUCTS FOR PROTOSTARS AND YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Joel D.; Yang, Yao-Lun; II, Neal J. Evans; Larson, Rebecca L.; Karska, Agata; Herczeg, Gregory; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Bouwman, Jeroen

    2016-03-15

    We present the COPS-DIGIT-FOOSH (CDF) Herschel spectroscopy data product archive, and related ancillary data products, along with data fidelity assessments, and a user-created archive in collaboration with the Herschel-PACS and SPIRE ICC groups. Our products include datacubes, contour maps, automated line fitting results, and best 1D spectra products for all protostellar and disk sources observed with PACS in RangeScan mode for two observing programs: the DIGIT Open Time Key Program (KPOT-nevans-1 and SDP-nevans-1; PI: N. Evans), and the FOOSH Open Time Program (OT1-jgreen02-2; PI: J. Green). In addition, we provide our best SPIRE-FTS spectroscopic products for the COPS Open Time Program (OT2-jgreen02-6; PI: J. Green) and FOOSH sources. We include details of data processing, descriptions of output products, and tests of their reliability for user applications. We identify the parts of the data set to be used with caution. The resulting absolute flux calibration has improved in almost all cases. Compared to previous reductions, the resulting rotational temperatures and numbers of CO molecules have changed substantially in some sources. On average, however, the rotational temperatures have not changed substantially (<2%), but the number of warm (T{sub rot} ∼ 300 K) CO molecules has increased by about 18%.

  14. A "large and graceful sinuosity". John Herschel's graphical method.

    PubMed

    Hankins, Thomas L

    2006-12-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published a graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He argued that his method, which depended on human judgment rather than mathematical analysis, gave better results than computation, given the uncertainty in the data. Herschel found that astronomy and terrestrial physics were especially suitable for graphical treatment, and he expected that graphs would soon become important in all areas of science. He argued with William Whewell and James D. Forbes over the process of induction, over the application of probability, and over the moral content of science. Graphs entered into all these debates; but because they constituted a method, not a metaphysics, they were acceptable to most practicing scientists and became increasingly popular throughout the nineteenth century.

  15. A "Large and Graceful Sinuosity": John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2006-12-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published a graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He argued that this method, which depended on human judgment rather than mathematical analysis, gave better results than computation, given the uncertainty in the data. Herschel found that astronomy and terrestrial physics were especially suitable for graphical treatment, and he expected that graphs would soon become important in all areas of science. He argued with William Whewell and James D. Forbes over the process of induction, over the application of probability, and over the moral content of science. Graphs entered into all these debates, but because they constituted a method, not a metaphysics, they were acceptable to most practicing scientists and became increasingly popular throughout the nineteenth century.

  16. Herschel and Planck Power System Flight Return Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancetta, Ezio; Deplus, Nicolas; Zanella, Pietro; Neto, Alessandro; Fernandez, Emilio

    2014-08-01

    Herschel and Planck are space observatories managed by the European Space Agency. The two satellites were launched on May 14, 2009 by a single Ariane-5 launcher and operated in two different Lissajous orbits around the second Lagrangian point (L2), 1.5 million kilometres away from the Earth.Herschel completed its scientific operation in April 2013 and it was passivated on 17 June 2013; Planck has been passivated on 23 October 2013.This paper will first outline the power system design providing a description of the major design drivers, then will provide a synthesis of the behaviour of the Electrical Power System (EPS) in the whole 4-years mission, looking at the performance at launch and during major manoeuvres, verifying the Solar Array degradation with life compared to the expected one and summarizing the main lesson learnt.

  17. GASP cloud- and particle-encounter statistics and their application to LFC aircraft studies. Volume 2: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastron, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archive from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle-concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud-encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long-range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminaar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the narrative, analysis, and conclusions. Volume II contains five supporting appendixes.

  18. GASP cloud- and particle-encounter statistics and their application to LPC aircraft studies. Volume 1: Analysis and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archieve from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical.

  19. Growth advantage in stationary-phase (GASP) phenotype in long-term survival strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Ruth A; Liermann, Laura J; Brantley, Susan L; Tien, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens exists in the subsurface and has been identified in sites contaminated with radioactive metals, consistent with its ability to reduce metals under anaerobic conditions. The natural state of organisms in the environment is one that lacks access to high concentrations of nutrients, namely electron donors and terminal electron acceptors (TEAs). Most studies have investigated G. sulfurreducens under high-nutrient conditions or have enriched for it in environmental systems via acetate amendments. We replicated the starvation state through long-term batch culture of G. sulfurreducens, where both electron donor and TEA were scarce. The growth curve revealed lag, log, stationary, death, and survival phases using acetate as electron donor and either fumarate or iron(III) citrate as TEA. In survival phase, G. sulfurreducens persisted at a constant cell count for as long as 23 months without replenishment of growth medium. Geobacter sulfurreducens demonstrated an ability to acquire a growth advantage in stationary-phase phenotype (GASP), with strains derived from subpopulations from death- or survival phase being able to out-compete mid-log-phase populations when co-cultured. The molecular basis for GASP was not because of any detectable mutation in the rpoS gene (GSU1525) nor because of a mutation in a putative homolog to Escherichia coli lrp, GSU3370.

  20. Understanding Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the Herschel Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jason; Sanders, David B.; Larson, Kirsten L.; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Howell, Justin; Diaz Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Paladini, Roberta; Schulz, Bernhard; Shupe, David L.; Appleton, Philip N.; Armus, Lee; Billot, Nicolas; Pan Chan, Hiu; Evans, Aaron S.; Fadda, Dario; Frayer, David T.; Haan, Sebastian; Mie Ishida, Catherine; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Kim, Dong-Chan; Lord, Steven D.; Murphy, Eric J.; Petric, Andreea; Privon, George C.; Surace, Jason A.; Treister, Ezequiel; Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey, Cosmic Evolution Survey

    2017-06-01

    Luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs] are some of the most extreme objects in the universe with their elevated star formation rates and/or presence of a powerful AGN, playing a central role in the evolution of galaxies throughout cosmic history. The 201 local (U)LIRGs (z<0.088) within the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) provide an unmatched opportunity to characterize the diverse properties in a large, statistically significant sample, in addition to comparisons with their high redshift counterparts. In this thesis talk I will first present the Herschel PACS and SPIRE far infrared image atlas of the entire GOALS sample (encompassing the 70-500 micron wavelength range), and demonstrate the excellent data quality. The Herschel GOALS images presented here are the highest resolution, most sensitive and comprehensive far-infrared imaging survey of the nearest (U)LIRGs to date. This allows us for the first time to directly probe the critical far infrared and submillimeter wavelength regime of these systems, enabling us to accurately determine the bolometric luminosities, infrared surface brightnesses, star formation rates, and dust masses and temperatures on spatial scales of 2-5 kpc. In addition, the superb resolution of Herschel means we can resolve many of the galaxy pairs and systems within the GOALS sample, allowing us to measure far infrared fluxes of component galaxies. Finally, using the Herschel photometry in conjunction with Spitzer, WISE, and IRAS data, I will show our first results on the global properties of (U)LIRGs such as their average 3-500 micron infrared SEDs and far infrared colors, and compare them to lower infrared luminosity objects. We will also compare and contrast their infrared SED shapes with previously published SED templates from the literature. If time permits, I will also show initial results from our rest-frame optical spectroscopy program on z~2.3 infrared selected galaxies in the COSMOS field.

  1. OT2_smalhotr_3: Herschel Extreme Lensing Line Observations (HELLO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, S.

    2011-09-01

    We request 59.8 hours of Herschel time to observe 20 normal star-forming galaxies in the [CII] 158 micron and [OI] 63 micron lines. These galaxies lie at high redshift (1Herschel offers the unique opportunity to study both lines with high sensitivity throughout this epoch (using HIFI for [CII] and PACS for [OI]). These two lines are the main cooling lines of the atomic medium. By measuring their fluxes, we will measure (1) the cooling efficiency of gas, (2) gas densities and temperatures near starforming regions, and (3) gas pressures, which are important to drive the winds that provide feedback to starformation processes. By combining the proposed observations with existing multiwavelength data on these objects, we will obtain as complete a picture of galaxy-scale star formation and ISM physical conditions at high redshifts as we have at z=0. Then perhaps we can understand why star formation and AGN activity peaked at this epoch. In Herschel cycle OT1, 49 high redshift IR luminous galaxies were approved for spectroscopy, but only two so-called normal galaxies were included. This is an imbalance that should be corrected, to balance Herschel's legacy.

  2. Exploring science and technology through the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.; Rouzé, M.

    2015-03-01

    Because modern astronomy associates the quest of our origins and high-tech instruments, communicating and teaching astronomy explore both science and technology. We report here on our work in communicating astronomy to the public through Web sites (www.herschel.fr), movies on Dailymotion (www.dailymotion.com/AstrophysiqueTV) and new ITC tools that describe interactively the technological dimension of a space mission for astrophysics.

  3. Continued monitoring of aeolian activity within Herschel Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, Marco; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Michaels, Timothy; Bourke, Mary C.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chiara Tangari, Anna; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study a dark dune field on the western side of Herschel crater, a 300 km diameter impact basin located near the Martian equator (14.4°S, 130°E), where the ripple and dune motion reflects the actual atmospheric wind conditions. We develop an integrated analysis using (1) automated ripple mapping that yields ripple orientations and evaluates the spatial variation of actual atmospheric wind conditions within the dunes, (2) an optical cross-correlation that allows us to quantify an average ripple migration rate of 0.42 m per Mars year, and (3) mesoscale climate modeling with which we compare the observed aeolian changes with modeled wind stresses and directions. Our observations are consistent with previous work [1] [2] that detected aeolian activity in the western part of the crater. It also demonstrates that not only are the westerly Herschel dunes movable, but that predominant winds from the north are able to keep the ripples and dunes active within most (if not all) of Herschel crater in the current atmospheric conditions. References: [1] Cardinale, M., Silvestro, S., Vaz, D.A., Michaels, T., Bourke, M.C., Komatsu, G., Marinangeli, L., 2016. Present-day aeolian activity in Herschel Crater, Mars. Icarus 265, 139-148. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.10.022. [2] Runyon, K.D., Bridges, N.T., Ayoub, F., Newman, C.E. and Quade, J.J., 2017. An integrated model for dune morphology and sand fluxes on Mars. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 457, pp.204-212.

  4. Simbol-X: Synergies with JWST, ALMA and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiolino, R.

    2009-05-01

    I discuss the synergies between Simbol-X and three among the major astronomical facilities that, in the next decade, will be operative in the infrared-millimeter spectral range, namely JWST, Herschel and ALMA. I first provide a brief overview of the main features and observing capabilities offered by these facilities. Then I will discuss a few research fields (mostly extragalactic) that will geatly benefit of the joint exploitation of Simbol-X and these IR-mm observatories.

  5. John Herschel and the Cape flora, 1834 - 1839.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rourke, J. P.

    John Herschel's interest in botany was stimulated by his contact with the species-rich Cape flora while resident in Cape Town, 1834 - 1838. The comparative study of his extensive living collection of bulbous plants, mainly of the Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Amarayllidaceae and Orchidaceae led him to consider some basic aspects of the origin of species and of taxonomic theory, in letters to colleagues in Europe.

  6. Debris disks as seen by Herschel: statistics and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Marshall, J. P.; Augereau, J. C.; Eiroa, C.

    2011-10-01

    As leftovers of planet formation, debris disks represent an essential component of planetary systems. We first introduce the latest statistics obtained by the DUNES consortium, who are taking a census of extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt using the Herschel Space Observatory. Then we present a detailed study of the much younger debris disk surrounding the F5.5 star HD 181327. We derive strong constraints on the properties of its dust and we discuss its possible gaseous counterpart.

  7. A Herschel resolved debris disc around HD 105211

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengst, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Horner, J.; Marsden, S. C.

    2017-07-01

    Debris discs are the dusty aftermath of planet formation processes around main-sequence stars. Analysis of these discs is often hampered by the absence of any meaningful constraint on the location and spatial extent of the disc around its host star. Multi-wavelength, resolved imaging ameliorates the degeneracies inherent in the modelling process, making such data indispensable in the interpretation of these systems. The Herschel Space Observatory observed HD 105211 (η Cru, HIP 59072) with its Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instrument in three far-infrared wavebands (70, 100 and 160 μm). Here we combine these data with ancillary photometry spanning optical to far-infrared wavelengths in order to determine the extent of the circumstellar disc. The spectral energy distribution and multi-wavelength resolved emission of the disc are simultaneously modelled using a radiative transfer and imaging codes. Analysis of the Herschel/PACS images reveals the presence of extended structure in all three PACS images. From a radiative transfer model we derive a disc extent of 87.0 ± 2.5 au, with an inclination of 70.7 ± 2.2° to the line of sight and a position angle of 30.1 ± 0.5°. Deconvolution of the Herschel images reveals a potential asymmetry but this remains uncertain as a combined radiative transfer and image analysis replicates both the structure and the emission of the disc using a single axisymmetric annulus.

  8. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, most of which sound quite ludicrous. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston- not Herschel- who coined the term "asteroid" to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  9. Observations of Herbig Ae/Be Stars with Herschel/PACS: The Atomic and Molecular Contents of Their Protoplanetary Discs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeus, G.; Montesinos, B.; Mendigutia, I.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W. F.; Eiroa, C.; Grady, C. A.; Mathews, G.; Sandell, G.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We observed a sample of 20 representative Herbig Ae/Be stars and 5 A-type debris discs with PACS onboard Herschel, as part of the GAS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) project. The observations were done in spectroscopic mode, and cover the far-infrared lines of [OI], [CII], CO, CH+, H20, and OH. We have a [OI]63 micro/ detection rate of 100% for the Herbig Ae/Be and 0% for the debris discs. The [OI] 145 micron line is only detected in 25% and CO J = 18-17 in 45% (and fewer cases for higher J transitions) of the Herbig Ae/Be stars, while for [CII] 157 micron, we often find spatially variable background contamination. We show the first detection of water in a Herbig Ae disc, HD 163296, which has a settled disc. Hydroxyl is detected as well in this disc. First seen in HD 100546, CH+ emission is now detected for the second time in a Herbig Ae star, HD 97048. We report fluxes for each line and use the observations as line diagnostics of the gas properties. Furthermore, we look for correlations between the strength of the emission lines and either the stellar or disc parameters, such as stellar luminosity, ultraviolet and X-ray flux. accretion rate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strength, and flaring. We find that the stellar ultraviolet flux is the dominant excitation mechanism of [OI] 63 micron, with the highest line fluxes being found in objects with a large amount of flaring and among the largest PAH strengths. Neither the amount of accretion nor the X-ray luminosity has an influence on the line strength. We find correlations between the line flux of [OI]63 micron and [OI] 145 micron, CO J = IS-17 and [OI] 6300 A, and between the continuum flux at 63 micron and at 1.3 mm, while we find weak correlations between the line flux. of [OI] 63 micron and the PAH luminosity, the line flux of CO J = 3-2, the continuum flux at 63 pm, the stellar effective temperature, and the Br-gamma luminosity. Finally, we use a combination of the [OI] 63 micron and C(12)O J

  10. Observations of Herbig Ae/Be Stars with Herschel/PACS: The Atomic and Molecular Contents of Their Protoplanetary Discs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeus, G.; Montesinos, B.; Mendigutia, I.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W. F.; Eiroa, C.; Grady, C. A.; Mathews, G.; Sandell, G.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Brittain, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Howard, C.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C.; Roberge, A.; Vandenbussche, B.; Williams, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    We observed a sample of 20 representative Herbig Ae/Be stars and 5 A-type debris discs with PACS onboard Herschel, as part of the GAS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) project. The observations were done in spectroscopic mode, and cover the far-infrared lines of [OI], [CII], CO, CH+, H20, and OH. We have a [OI]63 micro/ detection rate of 100% for the Herbig Ae/Be and 0% for the debris discs. The [OI] 145 micron line is only detected in 25% and CO J = 18-17 in 45% (and fewer cases for higher J transitions) of the Herbig Ae/Be stars, while for [CII] 157 micron, we often find spatially variable background contamination. We show the first detection of water in a Herbig Ae disc, HD 163296, which has a settled disc. Hydroxyl is detected as well in this disc. First seen in HD 100546, CH+ emission is now detected for the second time in a Herbig Ae star, HD 97048. We report fluxes for each line and use the observations as line diagnostics of the gas properties. Furthermore, we look for correlations between the strength of the emission lines and either the stellar or disc parameters, such as stellar luminosity, ultraviolet and X-ray flux. accretion rate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strength, and flaring. We find that the stellar ultraviolet flux is the dominant excitation mechanism of [OI] 63 micron, with the highest line fluxes being found in objects with a large amount of flaring and among the largest PAH strengths. Neither the amount of accretion nor the X-ray luminosity has an influence on the line strength. We find correlations between the line flux of [OI]63 micron and [OI] 145 micron, CO J = IS-17 and [OI] 6300 A, and between the continuum flux at 63 micron and at 1.3 mm, while we find weak correlations between the line flux. of [OI] 63 micron and the PAH luminosity, the line flux of CO J = 3-2, the continuum flux at 63 pm, the stellar effective temperature, and the Br-gamma luminosity. Finally, we use a combination of the [OI] 63 micron and C(12)O J

  11. Windblown Dunes on the Floor of Herschel Impact Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Herschel Basin, one of many meteor impact craters on Mars, has some dark material on its floor that appeared from earlier spacecraft missions to have been blown and/or deposited by wind. Herschel Basin was imaged at low resolution by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters ((A) above) in the 1970s, and again by the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989.

    On June 14, 1998, Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera revealed that part of the dark surface on the floor of Herschel Basin consists of a field of sand dunes ((B) above). These dunes have a distinct crescent-like shape characteristic of dunes on Earth called barchan dunes. They result from winds that blow from a single dominant direction.

    In the case of Herschel Basin, the dunes indicate that the strongest winds blow approximately north-to-south. The crescent horns on the ends of some of the dunes in this image are elongated. This condition indicates that the dominant winds do not always blow in exactly the same direction-- sometimes the winds blow from the northeast, sometimes from the northwest, and sometimes from the north. The local topography probably influences the wind direction--and hence dune shape--because this dune field is located on a narrow, low plain between a high crater rim to the east, and a narrow mountain range-- the inner ring of the Herschel impact basin--to the west (see image (A)).

    MOC image 36507 was obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 365th orbit around 10:51 a.m. PDT on June 14, 1998. This subframe is centered around 14.27oS, 231.68oW.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  12. OT2_amoor_4: A census of debris disks in nearby young moving groups with Herschel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moór, A.

    2011-09-01

    Nearly all young stars harbour circumstellar disks, that serve as the reservoir for mass accretion onto the star, and later become the birthplace of planetary systems. After the disappearance of the gas component from the disk a dusty debris disk is formed that is believed to mark the location of the planetesimal belt as well. For outlining the evolution of such debris disks traditionally open clusters and field stars were studied, however we argue that the recently discovered young moving groups are more suitable objects for such analyses, due to their proximity and good coverage of the first 50 Myr period of the planetary system evolution. In this proposal we request 70/160 um Herschel/PACS photometric observations for so-far unobserved moving group members. These observations will provide a complete coverage of all known members within 80 pc of five nearby young moving groups (beta Pic Moving Group, Tucana-Horologium, Carina, Columba, and Argus), in the A to K spectral range. Based on the new observations we will identify new debris disks, characterize the disk population within individual moving groups, and study disk evolution by comparing the groups of different ages. The results will be used to verify predictions of the self-stirring model of the evolution of planetesimal disks. We will also compare the properties of debris disks in groups of the same age, looking for additional 'environmental' parameters that affect disk structure over a whole moving group. Our study will be a significant contribution to the census of debris disks in young moving groups, increasing the number of observed sources by a factor of 1.5. Since Spitzer could perform only a limited census and the so-far approved Herschel programs added very few additional moving group obervations, our programme is expected to have a high legacy value.

  13. The Herschel-ATLAS Data Release 1 - II. Multi-wavelength counterparts to submillimetre sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, N.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S. J.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Hoyos, C.; Smith, D. J. B.; Eales, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrae, E.; Baldry, I. K.; Cluver, M. E.; Cooray, A.; Driver, S. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Grootes, M. W.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Liske, J.; Madore, B. F.; Popescu, C. C.; Robotham, A. G.; Rowlands, K.; Seibert, M.; Thompson, M. A.; Tuffs, R. J.; Viaene, S.; Wright, A. H.

    2016-10-01

    This paper is the second in a pair of papers presenting data release 1 (DR1) of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS), the largest single open-time key project carried out with the Herschel Space Observatory. The H-ATLAS is a wide-area imaging survey carried out in five photometric bands at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm covering a total area of 600 deg2. In this paper, we describe the identification of optical counterparts to submillimetre sources in DR1, comprising an area of 161 deg2 over three equatorial fields of roughly 12 × 4.5 deg centred at 9h, 12h and 14{^h.}5, respectively. Of all the H-ATLAS fields, the equatorial regions benefit from the greatest overlap with current multi-wavelength surveys spanning ultraviolet (UV) to mid-infrared regimes, as well as extensive spectroscopic coverage. We use a likelihood ratio technique to identify Sloan Digital Sky Survey counterparts at r < 22.4 for 250-μm-selected sources detected at ≥4σ (≈28 mJy). We find `reliable' counterparts (reliability R ≥ 0.8) for 44 835 sources (39 per cent), with an estimated completeness of 73.0 per cent and contamination rate of 4.7 per cent. Using redshifts and multi-wavelength photometry from GAMA and other public catalogues, we show that H-ATLAS-selected galaxies at z < 0.5 span a wide range of optical colours, total infrared (IR) luminosities and IR/UV ratios, with no strong disposition towards mid-IR-classified active galactic nuclei in comparison with optical selection. The data described herein, together with all maps and catalogues described in the companion paper, are available from the H-ATLAS website at www.h-atlas.org.

  14. Could the survival and outcome benefit of adrenaline also be dependent upon the presence of gasping upon arrival of emergency rescuers?

    PubMed

    Rottenberg, Eric M

    2014-09-01

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of adrenaline use during resuscitation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest found no benefit of adrenaline in survival to discharge or neurological outcomes. It did, however, find an advantage of standard dose adrenaline (SDA) over placebo and high dose adrenaline over SDA in overall survival to admission and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), which was also consistent with previous reviews. As a result, the question that remains is "Why is there no difference in the rate of survival to discharge when there are increased rates of ROSC and survival to admission in patients who receive adrenaline?" It was suggested that the lack of efficacy and effectiveness of adrenaline may be confounded by the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during cardiac arrest, which has been demonstrated in animal models. CPR quality was not measured or reported in the included randomized controlled trials. However, the survival and outcome benefit of adrenaline may also depend upon the presence of witnessed gasping and/or gasping upon arrival of emergency rescuers, which is a critical factor not accounted for in the analyses of the cited animal studies that allowed gasping but showed the survival and neurological outcome benefits of adrenaline use. Moreover, without the aid of gasping, very few rescuers can provide high-quality CPR. Also, age and the absence of gasping observed by bystanders and/or upon arrival of emergency- rescuers may be important factors in the determination of whether vasopressin instead of adrenaline should be used first.

  15. 15N/14N Ratio Determination in the ISM with Herschel with High Resolution Spectroscopy of Nitrogen Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulès, L.; Bailleux, S.; Wlodarczak, G.; Pirali, O.; Martin-Drumel, M.-A.; Roy, P.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.

    2011-06-01

    The very high resolution of the HIFI instrument (134 kHz-1MHz) on board of Herschel needs very accurate laboratory measurements to detect unambiguously the signature of stable and unstable molecular species. Concerning the pure rotation spectra of new species, and particularly of open shell molecules, the first prediction could be far away and up to few hundred MHz. The 15N/14N ratio is not well measured in the ISM. However, the 15N/14N in the isotopomers is a potential tracer of the formation processes and the possible link with cometary molecules. Recent measurements include the detection of 15NH_2D N15NH+ and 15NH_3. The NH and NH_2 species are the simplest nitrogen radicals and are intermediate products in the NH_3 synthesis. They have been easily detected by Herschel and it therefore is interesting to now search for 15NH and 15NH_2. No spectrocopic data have been reported for these two radicals up to now. We present here the studies with high resolution spectroscopy in the THz range. The high sensitivity and the wide range of Synchrotron (0.6-6 THz) was essential to improve the prediction of the spectra of these two species in order to measure them in Lille (0.6-1 THz) with both a higher accuracy and resolution. The combined studies now give the most accurate predictions. ISM searches on these radicals are in progress in the HERSCHEL spectra. This work is supported by the Programme National de Physico-Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire (PCMI-CNRS) M. Gerin, N. Marcellino, N. Biver, et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 498 (2009) 9. L. Bizzochi, P. Caselli, and L. Dore, Astron. & Astrophys. 510 (2010) L5. D. C. Lis, A. Wooten, M. Gerin and E. Roueff, Astrophys. J. 710 (2010) L49.

  16. The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey: HerMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S.J.; Bock, J.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Beelen, A.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Boselli, A.; Bridge, C.; Brisbin, D; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Cirasuolo, M.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Dwek, E.; Levenson, L.; Nguyen, H. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, HerMES, is a legacy program designed to map a set of nested fields totalling approx. 380 deg(exp 2). Fields range in size from 0.01 to approx. 20 deg (exp 2), using Herschel-SPIRE (at 250, 350 and 500 micron), and Herschel-PACS (at 100 and 160 micron), with an additional wider component of 270 deg. (exp. 2) with SPIRE alone. These bands cover the peak of the redshifted thermal spectral energy distribution from interstellar dust and thus capture the re-processed optical and ultra-violet radiation from star formation that has been absorbed by dust, and are critical for forming a complete multi-wavelength understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The survey will detect of order 100,000 galaxies at 5-sigma in some of the best studied fields in the sky. Additionally, HerMES is closely coordinated with the PACS Evolutionary Probe survey. Making maximum use of the full spectrum of ancillary data, from radio to X-ray wavelengths, it is designed to: facilitate redshift determination; rapidly identify unusual objects; and understand the relationships between thermal emission from dust and other processes. Scientific questions HerMES will be used to answer include: the total infrared emission of galaxies; the evolution of the luminosity function; the clustering properties of dusty galaxies; and the properties of populations of galaxies which lie below the confusion limit through lensing and statistical techniques. This paper defines the survey observations and data products, outlines the primary scientific goals of the HerMES team, and reviews some of the early results.

  17. A new population of protostars discovered by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, A. M.; Tobin, J.; Fischer, W.; S. T. Megeath; Stanke, T.; Ali, B.; Henning, T.

    2012-03-01

    We present a newly discovered Herschel--detected class of very red protostars found in the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). In contrast to the known Orion protostars targeted with HOPS, the new sources are undetected or very faint in the Spitzer 24 μm imaging. A subset of these sources is redder than any of the known Orion Class 0 protostars, and appear similar in their 70 μm to 24 μm colors to the most extreme Class 0 objects known. These new Orion protostars are likely to be in a very early and short lived stage of protostellar evolution. As a sample of extremely red sources at a common distance, they represent an important new population of protostars. The majority of these reddest sources exhibit associated IRAC 4.5, and 5.8 μm extended emission that suggests the presence of an outflow, confirming their protostellar nature. In addition, many of these sources are located within classical filaments as traced by Spitzer absorption features and APEX 870 μm dust emission maps. Fits of the broad--band SEDs to radiative transfer models of protostars suggest that the extremely red 70 μm to 24 μm colors result from a combination of nearly edge--on viewing angles and high envelope infall rates. We analyze the properties of the filaments from which these sources form using sub--mm and IRAM 30 m N_2H^+ measurements. Finally, we present the initial results of a search for outflows using IRAM 30 m CO maps. As a population of cold protostars detected by Herschel but not Spitzer, the PBRS extend the Spitzer--identified sample to earlier stages of envelope evolution, allowing the most complete census yet of the Orion protostellar population.

  18. Herschel/HIFI Observations Of The Galactic Center's Molecular World*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnentrucker, Paule; Neufeld, D. A.; Gerin, M.; Phillips, T. G.; PRISMAS Team

    2011-05-01

    Because of its unique thermo-chemistry, fluorine is the only atom in the periodic table that can react exothermically with H2 to form a hydride. An implication of this is that HF will be the dominant reservoir of fluorine wherever the interstellar H2/atomic H ratio exceeds 1 (Neufeld, Wolfire & Schilke 2005; Neufeld & Wolfire 2009). The recent detections of strong HF absorptions toward a large number of Herschel sources indicate that HF is ubiquitous in the diffuse interstellar medium and that HF can be used as a valuable surrogate tracer of molecular hydrogen, as predicted. In this work we present new Herschel/HIFI observations of the gas clouds associated with the +50 km/s Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC), a cloud complex located nearby Sgr A at the Galactic Center. Absorptions from HF, para-water and CH are detected over velocities ranging from about -185 km/s to +80 km/s. Our spectra exhibit a bi-modal distribution where the HF optical depth is larger than that of para-water by at least a factor of 2 for velocities greater than -80 km/s, as found for other Galactic sources. However, for velocities lower than -80 km/s, the HF optical depth is smaller than that of para-water by factors of 2 to 3. The implications of these differences are reviewed in this paper. *Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  19. SPITZER-IRAC Identification of HERSCHEL-ATLAS SPIRE Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sam; Wardlow, Julie L.; Cooray, Asantha; Fleuren, S.; Sutherland, W.; Khostovan, A. A.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bussmann, R. S.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D.; Dariush, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Maddox, S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Scott, D.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; van der Werf, P.

    2012-09-01

    We use Spitzer-IRAC data to identify near-infrared counterparts to submillimeter galaxies detected with Herschel-SPIRE at 250 μm in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Using a likelihood ratio analysis we identify 146 reliable IRAC counterparts to 123 SPIRE sources out of the 159 in the survey area. We find that, compared to the field population, the SPIRE counterparts occupy a distinct region of the 3.6 and 4.5 μm color-magnitude space, and we use this property to identify 23 further counterparts to 13 SPIRE sources. The IRAC identification rate of 86% is significantly higher than those that have been demonstrated with wide-field ground-based optical and near-IR imaging of Herschel fields. We estimate a false identification rate of 3.6%, corresponding to 4-5 sources. Among the 73 counterparts that are undetected in Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 57 have both 3.6 and 4.5 μm coverage. Of these, 43 have [3.6] - [4.5] > 0, indicating that they are likely to be at z >~ 1.4. Thus, ~40% of identified SPIRE galaxies are likely to be high-redshift (z >~ 1.4) sources. We discuss the statistical properties of the IRAC-identified SPIRE galaxy sample including far-IR luminosities, dust temperatures, star formation rates, and stellar masses. The majority of our detected galaxies have 1010-1011 L ⊙ total IR luminosities and are not intense starbursting galaxies as those found at z ~ 2, but they have a factor of 2-3 above average specific star formation rates compared to near-IR selected galaxy samples.

  20. OT1_swampfle_1: WATCH - WATer Chemistry with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampfler, S.

    2010-07-01

    Water is one of the most abundant species in star-forming regions and plays important roles in both the energy balance, acting as a coolant, and the chemistry of star formation. Many of the species involved in the water chemistry emit in the far-infrared and are thus not observable from ground based facilities because of atmospheric absorption. Therefore, the Herschel Space Observatory provides a unique opportunity to study the chemical reactions involved in the formation and destruction of water and to probe the energetic processes in star-forming regions. Previous results from Herschel have shown that two species, OH+ and H2O+, that were thought to be important in the water chemistry of young stellar objects, are now mainly attributed to foreground clouds. These results raised the question on which chemical paths the formation and destruction of water takes place in the interior of protostellar envelopes. In this proposal, we plan to observe the different formation and destruction routes of water in a sample of eight nearby young stellar objects, which were chosen to cover a broad range of masses, luminosities and evolutionary stages. We propose to observe H3O+ and HCO+, two species that are closely linked to the formation and destruction of H2O and require high temperatures for excitation, in serveral high-J lines. This effort is complementary to the observations of H2O and OH done in the 'Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH)' key project. The combination of the information from the H2O, OH, H3O+ and HCO+ emission will tell us on which routes the formation and destruction of H2O in protostellar envelopes proceeds.

  1. The Photoconductor Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) instrument for Herschel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Babar; Frayer, D. T.; Fadda, D.; Appleton, P.; Latter, B.

    2007-05-01

    PACS is one of three science instruments for ESA ’ s Herschel Space Observatory (HSO, formerly known as FIRST). It operates either as an imaging photometer or an integral field spectrometer over the spectral band from 57 to 210 µm. PACS is being designed and built by a consortium of institutes and university departments from across Europe under the leadership of Principal Investigator Albrecht Poglitsch located at Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Garching, Germany. Consortium members are: Austria: UVIE; Belgium: IMEC, KUL, CSL; France: CEA, OAMP; Germany: MPE, MPIA; Italy: IFSI, OAP/OAT, OAA/CAISMI, LENS, SISSA; Spain: IAC.

  2. Far Infrared dropout galaxies in the Herschel GOODS fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Lennox

    The most massively star-forming galaxies in the universe are dust enshrouded and radiate primarily in the far-infrared. At high redshifts these galaxies cannot be easily found with ultraviolet or optical searches and constitute a missing portion of the universal star formation history determined with conventional techniques. Current studies suggest that these obscured galaxies contain a substantial fraction (about 20%) of the star formation out to a redshift of at least five. The goals of the present proposal are to refine these measurements, to search for yet higher redshift dusty galaxies, to study the morphologies and other properties of these galaxies, and to determine how the star formation rates in these galaxies correlate with the X-ray luminosities. The deepest Herschel imaging observations are of the two GOODS fields. Here we propose to extend the wavelength range of these observations to 850 micron, which is sensitive to very high redshifts (z out to about 8) where the rest-frame wavelength of the observations lies close to the peak in the thermal dust spectrum. We are making the 850 micron observations with the powerful SCUBA-2 camera on the JCMT telescope. Combined with the Spitzer and Herschel data, we will be able to measure the long wavelength spectral energy distributions of the SCUBA-2 detected galaxies and search for the highest redshift galaxies, which should be faint in the Spitzer and shorter wavelength Herschel data (mid and far-infrared dropout galaxies). We can obtain the morphologies from HST for those galaxies that are visible at optical or nearinfrared wavelengths, and we can measure the star formation rates for those that are detected with Chandra. Submillimeter detected luminous dusty galaxies have the highest star formation rates in the universe, and determining their properties and redshift distribution is key to understanding the formation of the most massive galaxies in the universe. The proposed work will add value to the Spitzer

  3. The Era of Newton, Herschel and Lord Rosse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jim

    2009-08-01

    In the eighteenth century England was dominant in building telescopes and instrumentation. This paper describes the contributions of the most important opticians and telescope builders, from Newton’s Opticks and the telescope design that bears his name, through various instrument makers who constructed ‘popular’ telescopes and published descriptions of mirror grinding (Smith, the Dollonds and their patent on achromatic lenses), to Herschel, who refined the description of his polishing procedures, and Lord Rosse, who attempted to communicate his through publication. The narrative of theory, practice and communication takes unexpected turns.

  4. Herschel survey of brown dwarf disks in ρ Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves de Oliveira, C.; Ábrahám, P.; Marton, G.; Pinte, C.; Kiss, Cs.; Kun, M.; Kóspál, Á.; André, P.; Könyves, V.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Young brown dwarfs are known to possess circumstellar disks, a characteristic that is fundamental to the understanding of their formation process, and raises the possibility that these objects harbour planets. Aims: We want to characterise the far-IR emission of disks around the young brown dwarf population of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster in LDN 1688. Methods: Recent observations of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster with the Herschel Space Observatory allow us to probe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the brown dwarf population in the far-IR, where the disk emission peaks. We performed aperture photometry at 70, 100, and 160 μm, and constructed SEDs for all previously known brown dwarfs detected. These were complemented with ancillary photometry at shorter wavelengths. We compared the observed SEDs to a grid of synthetic disks produced with the radiative transfer code MCFOST, and used the relative figure of merit estimated from the Bayesian inference of each disk parameter to analyse the structural properties. Results: We detected 12 Class II brown dwarfs with Herschel, which corresponds to one-third of all currently known brown dwarf members of ρ Ophiuchi. We did not detect any of the known Class III brown dwarfs. Comparison to models reveals that the disks are best described by an inner radius between 0.01 and 0.07 AU, and a flared disk geometry with a flaring index between 1.05 and 1.2. Furthermore, we can exclude values of the disk scale-height lower than 10 AU (measured at a fiducial radius of 100 AU). We combined the Herschel data with recent ALMA observations of the brown dwarf GY92 204 (ISO-Oph 102), and by comparing its SED to the same grid of disk models, we derived an inner disk radius of 0.035 AU, a scale height of 15 AU with a flaring index of β ~ 1.15, an exponent for dust settling of -1.5, and a disk mass of 0.001 M⊙. This corresponds to a disk-to-central object mass ratio of ~1%. Conclusions: The structural parameters constrained by the

  5. Herschel observations of the debris disc around HIP 92043

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. P.; Krivov, A. V.; del Burgo, C.; Eiroa, C.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Ertel, S.; Bryden, G.; Liseau, R.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bayo, A.; Danchi, W.; Löhne, T.; Maldonado, J.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thebault, P.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Typical debris discs are composed of particles ranging from several micron sized dust grains to km sized asteroidal bodies, and their infrared emission peaks at wavelengths 60-100 μm. Recent Herschel DUNES observations have identified several debris discs around nearby Sun-like stars (F, G and K spectral type) with significant excess emission only at 160 μm. Aims: We observed HIP 92043 (110 Her, HD 173667) at far-infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths with Herschel PACS and SPIRE. Identification of the presence of excess emission from HIP 92043 and the origin and physical properties of any excess was undertaken through analysis of its spectral energy distribution (SED) and the PACS images. Methods: The PACS and SPIRE images were produced using the HIPE photProject map maker routine. Fluxes were measured using aperture photometry. A stellar photosphere model was scaled to optical and near infrared photometry and subtracted from the far-infared and sub-mm fluxes to determine the presence of excess emission. Source radial profiles were fitted using a 2D Gaussian and compared to a PSF model based on Herschel observations of α Boo to check for extended emission. Results: Clear excess emission from HIP 92043 was observed at 70 and 100 μm. Marginal excess was observed at 160 and 250 μm. Analysis of the images reveals that the source is extended at 160 μm. A fit to the source SED is inconsistent with a photosphere and single temperature black body. Conclusions: The excess emission from HIP 92043 is consistent with the presence of an unresolved circumstellar debris disc at 70 and 100 μm, with low probability of background contamination. The extended 160 μm emission may be interpreted as an additional cold component to the debris disc or as the result of background contamination along the line of sight. The nature of the 160 μm excess cannot be determined absolutely from the available data, but we favour a debris disc interpretation, drawing parallels with

  6. The Herschel Data Processing System - Hipe And Pipelines - During The Early Mission Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, David R.; Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, the fourth cornerstone mission in the ESA science program, was launched 14th of May 2009. With a 3.5 m telescope, it is the largest space telescope ever launched. Herschel's three instruments (HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE) perform photometry and spectroscopy in the 55 - 672 micron range and will deliver exciting science for the astronomical community during at least three years of routine observations. Here we summarize the state of the Herschel Data Processing System and give an overview about future development milestones and plans. The development of the Herschel Data Processing System started seven years ago to support the data analysis for Instrument Level Tests. Resources were made available to implement a freely distributable Data Processing System capable of interactively and automatically reduce Herschel data at different processing levels. The system combines data retrieval, pipeline execution and scientific analysis in one single environment. The software is coded in Java and Jython to be platform independent and to avoid the need for commercial licenses. The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) is the user-friendly face of Herschel Data Processing. The first PACS preview observation of M51 was processed with HIPE, using basic pipeline scripts to a fantastic image within 30 minutes of data reception. Also the first HIFI observations on DR-21 were successfully reduced to high quality spectra, followed by SPIRE observations on M66 and M74. The Herschel Data Processing System is a joint development by the Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium, consisting of ESA, the NASA Herschel Science Center, and the HIFI, PACS and SPIRE consortium members.

  7. THE HERSCHEL DIGIT SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DISK EVOLUTION AND DISSIPATION

    SciTech Connect

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Najita, Joan; Merin, Bruno; Liebhart, Armin; Guedel, Manuel; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pinte, Christophe

    2013-01-10

    As part of the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)' Herschel Open Time Key Program, we present Herschel photometry (at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m) of 31 weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) candidates in order to investigate the evolutionary status of their circumstellar disks. Of the stars in our sample, 13 had circumstellar disks previously known from infrared observations at shorter wavelengths, while 18 of them had no previous evidence for a disk. We detect a total of 15 disks as all previously known disks are detected at one or more Herschel wavelengths and two additional disks are identified for the first time. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our targets seem to trace the dissipation of the primordial disk and the transition to the debris disk regime. Of the 15 disks, 7 appear to be optically thick primordial disks, including 2 objects with SEDs indistinguishable from those of typical Classical T Tauri stars, 4 objects that have significant deficit of excess emission at all IR wavelengths, and 1 'pre-transitional' object with a known gap in the disk. Despite their previous WTTS classification, we find that the seven targets in our sample with optically thick disks show evidence for accretion. The remaining eight disks have weaker IR excesses similar to those of optically thin debris disks. Six of them are warm and show significant 24 {mu}m Spitzer excesses, while the last two are newly identified cold debris-like disks with photospheric 24 {mu}m fluxes, but significant excess emission at longer wavelengths. The Herschel photometry also places strong constraints on the non-detections, where systems with F {sub 70}/F {sub 70,*} {approx}> 5-15 and L {sub disk}/L {sub *} {approx}> 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} can be ruled out. We present preliminary models for both the optically thick and optically thin disks and discuss our results in the context of the evolution and dissipation of circumstellar disks.

  8. OT2_sserje01_2: THE HERSCHEL-AKARI NEP DEEP SURVEY: the cosmological history of stellar mass assembly and black hole accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjeant, S.

    2011-09-01

    We propose a far-IR and submm mapping survey of the premier AKARI deep field in the North Ecliptic Pole, in PACS/SPIRE parallel mode. This is the only major deep infrared field not yet covered by Herschel guaranteed or open time key projects. The outstanding and unparalleled continuous mid-IR photometric coverage from AKARI, far better than equivalent Spitzer surveys, enables a wide range of galaxy evolution diagnostics unachievable in any other survey field (including Herschel HerMES/PEP fields), by spanning the wavelengths of redshifted PAH and silicate features and the peak energy output of AGN dust tori. The investment by AKARI in the NEP represents ~10 percent of the entire pointed observations available throughout the lifetime of AKARI. Our proposal remedies the remarkable omission from Herschel's legacy surveys of the premier extragalactic deep field from another IR space telescope. We will simultaneously identify and find photometric redshifts for the Herschel point source population, make stacking analysis detections of the galaxies which dominate the submm extragalactic background light as a function of redshift, determine the bolometric power outputs of the galaxies that dominate the submm background, compare the UV/optical/mid-IR continuum/PAH/far-IR/submm/radio star formation rate estimator in the most comprehensive IR survey data set to date, and track the coupled stellar mass assembly and black hole accretion throughout most of the history of the Universe. In OT1 the HOTAC concluded "The science output from the proposed survey will be outstanding [...] The panel was convinced that these observations should be done" but it since became clear that priority 2 time is very unlikely to be executed, so we request reclassification to priority 1.

  9. Safe Operation of HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem on Herschel Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalska, Malgorzata; Juchnikowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Thomas; Leinz, Christian; Nowosielski, Witold; Orleanski, Piotr; Ward, John

    The HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem is part of the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) dedicated for astronomical observations,to be mounted on the ESA satellite HER- SCHEL. The Subsystem provides the local oscillator signal (480-1910 GHz) to each of the fourteen HIFI input mixers. Part of LO, the Local Oscillator Control Unit (LCU) provides the main interface between Local Oscillator Subsystem and HIFI/Herschel power and telemetry buses. The unit supplies Local Oscillator, decodes the HIFI macro-commands, programs and monitors the parameters of Ka-Band Synthesizer and THz multiplier chains and controls the operation of the whole Local Oscillator Subsystem. The unique microwave components used in HF multipliers are extremely sensitive to the proper biasing (polarity, voltage, current, presence of HF power).The ESA strategy of this mission requires full safe operation of the instrument. This requirements is covered by complex protection system implemented inside LCU. In this paper, we present the general overview of the protection system of microwave components. The different levels of protection (hardware realization and software procedures) are described as well as various reliability aspects. The functionality of LO subsystem controlled by LCU was tested in 2007. Now the flight model of HIFI instrument is integrated with the satellite and will be launched with Herschel mission in July 2008.

  10. Herschel/Planck Environmental Tests in the CSL Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychon, I.; Domken, I.; Cucchiaro, A.; Thome, M.; Jamotton, P.; Grodent, C.

    2004-08-01

    The Herschel/Planck scientific mission is the fourth cornerstone project in the European Space Agency (ESA) science "Horizon 2000"plan. In the scope of this project, the Centre Spatial de Liege (CSL) has in charge to perform cryo-optical environmental tests on systems and subsystems of the two satellites. The tests will be conducted in four of the CSL facilities. Most of them have been especially upgraded in order to receive the mission systems and subsystems: Focal XXL, the cryovibrations chamber and Focal 5. In the frame of the Planck satellite, tests campaign will be accomplished on the Secondary and the Primary Reflectors of the Telescope, on the Telescope itself and on the overall Spacecraft. This last one consists in a high technical challenge as it is the only way to measure the end-to-end cooling chain of the instrument. Concerning the Herschel satellite, the Telescope will be tested in space conditions while scientific focal plane instruments will undergo cryogenic vibrations (PACS, HIFI, SPIRE) in a specific facility. In addition to the optical measurements specifications, each test requires cryogenic temperatures, lower than 20 [K]. Consequently, all the facilities are linked to a common cold helium circuitry. This allows performing some of the aboved-mentionned tests independently in several facilities, at the same time. From the facilities point of view, the relevant testing philosophies used to meet the specifications, the related problems and the CSL solutions are presented. Results of the first campaigns will also be presented.

  11. Herschel PACS and SPIRE imaging of CW Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladjal, D.; Barlow, M. J.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Ueta, T.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Cohen, M.; Decin, L.; De Meester, W.; Exter, K.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Huygen, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jean, C.; Kerschbaum, F.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Olofsson, G.; Polehampton, E.; Posch, T.; Regibo, S.; Royer, P.; Sibthorpe, B.; Swinyard, B. M.; Vandenbussche, B.; Waelkens, C.; Wesson, R.

    2010-07-01

    Herschel PACS and SPIRE images have been obtained over a 30' × 30' area around the well-known carbon star CW Leo (IRC +10 216). An extended structure is found in an incomplete arc of 22' diameter, which is cospatial with the termination shock due to interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM) as defined by Sahai & Chronopoulos from ultraviolet GALEX images. Fluxes are derived in the 70, 160, 250, 350, and 550 μm bands in the region where the interaction with the ISM takes place, and this can be fitted with a modified black body with a temperature of 25 ± 3 K. Using the published proper motion and radial velocity for the star, we derive a heliocentric space motion of 25.1 km s-1. Using the PACS and SPIRE data and the analytical formula of the bow shock structure, we infer a de-projected standoff distance of the bow shock of R0 = (8.0 ± 0.3) × 1017 cm. We also derive a relative velocity of the star with respect to the ISM of (106.6 ± 8.7)/√{n_ISM} km s-1, where nISM is the number density of the local ISM. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  12. Spray Formation of Herschel-Bulkley Fluids using Impinging Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Neil; Gao, Jian; Chen, Jun; Sojka, Paul E.

    2015-11-01

    The impinging jet spray formation of two non-Newtonian, shear-thinning, Herschel-Bulkley fluids was investigated in this work. The water-based gelled solutions used were 1.0 wt.-% agar and 1.0 wt.-% kappa carrageenan. A rotational rheometer and a capillary viscometer were used to measure the strain-rate dependency of viscosity and the Herschel-Bulkley Extended (HBE) rheological model was used to characterize the shear-thinning behavior. A generalized HBE jet Reynolds number Rej , gen - HBE was used as the primary parameter to characterize the spray formation. A like-on-like impinging jet doublet was used to produce atomization. Shadowgraphs were captured in the plane of the sheet formed by the two jets using a CCD camera with an Nd:YAG laser beam providing the back-illumination. Typical behavior for impinging jet atomization using Newtonian liquids was not generally observed due to the non-Newtonian, viscous properties of the agar and kappa carrageenan gels. Instead various spray patterns were observed depending on Rej , gen - HBE. Spray characteristics of maximum instability wavelength and sheet breakup length were extracted from the shadowgraphs. Multi-University Research Initiative Grant Number W911NF-08-1-0171.

  13. A snapshot beyond the Local Universe with Herschel/SPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinter, Sandor; Marton, Gabor; Toth, L. Viktor; Pearson, Chris; Bagoly, Zsolt; Balazs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Racz, Istvan I.

    The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) N1 field is one of the extragalactic windows where the lack of the Galactic ISM allows us to analyze the unbiased FIR properties of extragalactic objects. The field was investigated recently based on Herschel observations by the HerMES key project. We present a survey of the field covering a larger area than HerMES (12.54 deg2 vs 3.47 deg2). We provide accurate 250, 350, and 500 micrometer flux densities for about 8000 point sources using the latest Herschel analysis and calibration procedures. Based on SDSS spectroscopic and SWIRE photometric data our sample has approximately 4000 and 4500 galaxies with 0.2 < z < 0.5 and z > 0.5 redshifts, respectively. The new flux densities are crucial limiting the star-forming activity of galaxies outside the Local Universe, as it is demonstrated in the star-forming galaxy 2MASS J16072472+5412119.

  14. A snapshot beyond the Local Universe with Herschel/SPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Gabor; Pinter, Sandor; Toth, L. Viktor

    2015-08-01

    The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) N1 field is one of the extragalactic windows where the lack of the Galactic ISM allows us to analyze the unbiased FIR properties of extragalactic objects. The field was observed by the ISO and Spitzer infrared space telescopes, and followed-up with a number of ground base measurements in various wavelength bands. Its content was investigated in more details recently based on deep Herschel observations by the HerMES key project. We present a list of objects from observations covering a larger area than that of the HerMES ones and correlate our results with theirs to achieve a sufficient photometric accuracy. We provide accurate 250 micrometer flux densities for about 8000 point sources using the latest Herschel analysis and calibration procedures. Our sample has approximately 500 and 6000 galaxies with 0.21 redshifts respectively based on SDSS spectroscopic data. The new flux densities are crucial limiting the star forming activity of galaxies outside the Local Universe, and especially for the ones at z>1.

  15. Cryogenic Testing of the Herschel Flight Model Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, G.; Langfermann, M.; Wagner, K.; Hohn, R.; Demolder, B.; Jewell, C.; Linder, M.

    2010-04-01

    The `Herschel Space Observatory' is the fourth cornerstone mission in the `Horizons 2000' program of the European Space Agency (ESA), with the objectives to study the formation of galaxies in the early universe and the creation of stars. It will observe the chemical composition of surfaces and atmospheres of comets, planets and natural satellites, and examine the molecular chemistry of the universe. Herschel was launched into an operational Lissajous orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 point by an Ariane 5 on May 14th 2009 to perform photometer and spectrometer measurements, covering the full far infrared to sub-millimeter wavelength range from 60 to 670 micrometers during its operational lifetime of more than four years. This paper gives a short overview of the cryogenic system and summarises the cryogenic aspects of the different phases of the acceptance test campaign, including the launch preparation phase as well as the post-launch transient cool-down of the system, the verification of the Passive Phase Separator performance and the evaluation of pressure drop measurements performed on the helium venting system. The impact of thermo-acoustic oscillations within the helium subsystem is described, which were present during the initial cool-down test phase. A comparison of measurements to numerical analysis results is shown.

  16. Herschel observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, A. C.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Mittal, R.; Allen, S. W.; Baum, S. A.; Böhringer, H.; Bregman, J. N.; Bremer, M. N.; Combes, F.; Crawford, C. S.; Donahue, M.; Egami, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Ferland, G. J.; Hamer, S. L.; Hatch, N. A.; Jaffe, W.; Johnstone, R. M.; McNamara, B. R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Popesso, P.; Quillen, A. C.; Salomé, P.; Sarazin, C. L.; Voit, G. M.; Wilman, R. J.; Wise, M. W.

    2010-07-01

    The question of how much gas cools in the cores of clusters of galaxies has been the focus of many, multiwavelength studies in the past 30 years. In this letter we present the first detections of the strongest atomic cooling lines, [Cii], [Oi] and [Nii] in two strong cooling flow clusters, A1068 and A2597, using Herschel-PACS. These spectra indicate that the substantial mass of cold molecular gas (> 109 M_⊙) known to be present in these systems is being irradiated by intense UV radiation, most probably from young stars. The line widths of these FIR lines indicate that they share dynamics similar but not identical to other ionised and molecular gas traced by optical, near-infrared and CO lines. The relative brightness of the FIR lines compared to CO and FIR luminosity is consistent with other star-forming galaxies indicating that the properties of the molecular gas clouds in cluster cores and the stars they form are not unusual. These results provide additional evidence for a reservoir of cold gas that is fed by the cooling of gas in the cores of the most compact clusters and provide important diagnostics of the temperature and density of the dense clouds this gas resides in. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  17. Star formation in Herschel's Monsters versus semi-analytic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruppioni, C.; Calura, F.; Pozzi, F.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; De Lucia, G.; Fontanot, F.; Franceschini, A.; Marchetti, L.; Menci, N.; Monaco, P.; Vaccari, M.

    2015-08-01

    We present a direct comparison between the observed star formation rate functions (SFRFs) and the state-of-the-art predictions of semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation and evolution. We use the PACS Evolutionary Probe Survey and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey data sets in the COSMOS and GOODS-South fields, combined with broad-band photometry from UV to sub-mm, to obtain total (IR+UV) instantaneous star formation rates (SFRs) for individual Herschel galaxies up to z ˜ 4, subtracted of possible active galactic nucleus (AGN) contamination. The comparison with model predictions shows that SAMs broadly reproduce the observed SFRFs up to z ˜ 2, when the observational errors on the SFR are taken into account. However, all the models seem to underpredict the bright end of the SFRF at z ≳ 2. The cause of this underprediction could lie in an improper modelling of several model ingredients, like too strong (AGN or stellar) feedback in the brighter objects or too low fallback of gas, caused by weak feedback and outflows at earlier epochs.

  18. NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0015, VL0016, VL0017, VL0018, VL0019, and VL0020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papthakos, L. C.; Briehl, D.

    1981-01-01

    This is the twelfth of a series of reports which describes the data currently available from GASP, including flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, and data tape specifications. In-situ measurements of atmospheric ozone, cabin ozone, carbon monoxide, water vapor, particles, clouds, condensation nuclei, filter samples and related meteorological and flight information obtained during 1732 flights of aircraft N533PA, N4711U, N655PA, and VH-EBE from January 5, 1978 through October 9, 1978 are reported. These data are now available from the National Climatic Center, Asheville, NC, 22801. In addition to the GASP data, tropopause pressures obtained from time ans space interpolation of National Meteorological Center archived data for the dates of the flights are included.

  19. Downregulation of 5-HT7 Serotonin Receptors by the Atypical Antipsychotics Clozapine and Olanzapine. Role of Motifs in the C-Terminal Domain and Interaction with GASP-1.

    PubMed

    Manfra, Ornella; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Skieterska, Kamila; Frimurer, Thomas; Schwartz, Thue W; Levy, Finn Olav; Andressen, Kjetil Wessel

    2015-07-15

    The human 5-HT7 serotonin receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), activates adenylyl cyclase constitutively and upon agonist activation. Biased ligands differentially activate 5-HT7 serotonin receptor desensitization, internalization and degradation in addition to G protein activation. We have previously found that the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine inhibited G protein activation and, surprisingly, induced both internalization and lysosomal degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism of clozapine- and olanzapine-mediated degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. In the C-terminus of the 5-HT7 receptor, we identified two YXXΦ motifs, LR residues, and a palmitoylated cysteine anchor as potential sites involved in receptor trafficking to lysosomes followed by receptor degradation. Mutating either of these sites inhibited clozapine- and olanzapine-mediated degradation of 5-HT7 receptors and also interfered with G protein activation. In addition, we tested whether receptor degradation was mediated by the GPCR-associated sorting protein-1 (GASP-1). We show that GASP-1 binds the 5-HT7 receptor and regulates the clozapine-mediated degradation. Mutations of the identified motifs and residues, located in or close to Helix-VIII of the 5-HT7 receptor, modified antipsychotic-stimulated binding of proteins (such as GASP-1), possibly by altering the flexibility of Helix-VIII, and also interfered with G protein activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that binding of clozapine or olanzapine to the 5-HT7 receptor leads to antagonist-mediated lysosomal degradation by exposing key residues in the C-terminal tail that interact with GASP-1.

  20. The JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys: a comparison of SCUBA-2 and Herschel data of dense cores in the Taurus dark cloud L1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, J. M.; Marsh, K.; Buckle, J.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Di Francesco, J.; André, P.; Beaulieu, S.; Berry, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J.; Pineda, J.; Quinn, C.; Sadavoy, S.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; White, G.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present a comparison of Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) 850-μm and Herschel 70-500-μm observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterizing the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterize starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-μm, Herschel 250-μm, and Herschel 250-μm spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Herschel detects considerably more sources than SCUBA-2 even after spatial filtering. We investigate which properties of a starless core detected by Herschel determine its detectability by SCUBA-2, and find that they are the core's temperature and column density (for given dust properties). For similar-temperature cores, such as those seen in L1495, the surface brightnesses of the cores are determined by their column densities, with the highest-column-density cores being detected by SCUBA-2. For roughly spherical geometries, column density corresponds to volume density, and so SCUBA-2 selects the densest cores from a population at a given temperature. This selection effect, which we quantify as a function of distance, makes SCUBA-2 ideal for identifying those cores in Herschel catalogues that are closest to forming stars. Our results can now be used by anyone wishing to use the SCUBA-2 GBS data set.

  1. Philomaths, Herschel, and the myth of the self-taught man

    PubMed Central

    Winterburn, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The role of technicians and background characters in the historical practice of science is slowly gaining recognition. This paper looks at the collective effort involved in learning science, using as my case study the eighteenth-century musician turned astronomer, William Herschel. Lacking a university education, Herschel, like many contemporaries, presented himself as self-taught, thereby hiding his engagement with a rich network of didactic resources. Placing Herschel's story within the history of pedagogy, I argue that this network, previously discussed only in the context of popular or marketplace science, was an important resource for science education at its highest level. PMID:25254276

  2. Herschel observations of the Galactic H II region RCW 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Figueira, Miguel; Zavagno, Annie; Hill, Tracey; Schneider, Nicola; Men'shchikov, Alexander; Russeil, Delphine; Motte, Frédérique; Tigé, Jérémy; Deharveng, Lise; Anderson, Loren D.; Li, Jin-Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai

    2017-06-01

    Context. Triggered star formation around H II regions could be an important process. The Galactic H II region RCW 79 is a prototypical object for triggered high-mass star formation. Aims: We aim to obtain a census of the young stellar population observed at the edges of the H II region and to determine the properties of the young sources in order to characterize the star formation processes that take place at the edges of this ionized region. Methods: We take advantage of Herschel data from the surveys HOBYS, "Evolution of Interstellar Dust", and Hi-Gal to extract compact sources. We use the algorithm getsources. We complement the Herschel data with archival 2MASS, Spitzer, and WISE data to determine the physical parameters of the sources (e.g., envelope mass, dust temperature, and luminosity) by fitting the spectral energy distribution. Results: We created the dust temperature and column density maps along with the column density probability distribution function (PDF) for the entire RCW 79 region. We obtained a sample of 50 compact sources in this region, 96% of which are situated in the ionization-compressed layer of cold and dense gas that is characterized by the column density PDF with a double-peaked lognormal distribution. The 50 sources have sizes of 0.1-0.4 pc with a typical value of 0.2 pc, temperatures of 11-26 K, envelope masses of 6-760 M⊙, densities of 0.1-44 × 105 cm-3, and luminosities of 19-12 712 L⊙. The sources are classified into 16 class 0, 19 intermediate, and 15 class I objects. Their distribution follows the evolutionary tracks in the diagram of bolometric luminosity versus envelope mass (Lbol-Menv) well. A mass threshold of 140 M⊙, determined from the Lbol-Menv diagram, yields 12 candidate massive dense cores that may form high-mass stars. The core formation efficiency (CFE) for the 8 massive condensations shows an increasing trend of the CFE with density. This suggests that the denser the condensation, the higher the fraction of its

  3. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey - VIII. The Bright Galaxy Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.; Bianchi, S.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fritz, J.; Gavazzi, G.; Pappalardo, C.; Grossi, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Magrini, L.; Pohlen, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.

    2012-02-01

    We describe the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey and the first data that cover the complete survey area (four 4 × 4 deg2 regions). We use these data to measure and compare the global far-infrared properties of 78 optically bright galaxies that are selected at 500 μm and detected in all five far-infrared bands. We show that our measurements and calibration are broadly consistent with previous data obtained by the IRAS, ISO, Spitzer and Planck. We use SPIRE and PACS photometry data to produce 100-, 160-, 250-, 350- and 500-μm cluster luminosity distributions. These luminosity distributions are not power laws, but 'peaked', with small numbers of both faint and bright galaxies. We measure a cluster 100-500 μm far-infrared luminosity density of 1.6(7.0) ± 0.2 × 109 L⊙ Mpc-3. This compares to a cluster 0.4-2.5 μm optical luminosity density of 5.0(20.0) × 109 L⊙ Mpc-3, some 3.2(2.9) times larger than the far-infrared. A 'typical' photon originates from an optical depth of 0.4 ± 0.1. Most of our sample galaxies are well fitted by a single modified blackbody (β= 2), leading to a mean dust mass of log MDust= 7.31 M⊙ and temperature of 20.0 K. We also derive both stellar and atomic hydrogen masses from which we calculate mean values for the star-to-gas (atomic) and gas (atomic)-to-dust mass ratios of 15.1 and 58.2, respectively. Using our derived dust, atomic gas and stellar masses, we estimate cluster mass densities of 8.6(27.8) × 106, 4.6(13.9) × 108 and 7.8(29.7) × 109 M⊙ Mpc-3 for dust, atomic gas and stars, respectively. These values are higher than those derived for field galaxies by factors of 39(126), 6(18) and 34(129), respectively. In the above, the luminosity/mass densities are given using the whole sample with the values in brackets using just those galaxies that lie between 17 and 23 Mpc. We provide a data table of flux densities in all the Herschel bands for all 78 bright Virgo Cluster galaxies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science

  4. The chromosphere of α Cen A as seen by the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, B.; Liseau, R.; DUNES Team

    2015-05-01

    Chromospheres and coronae are common phenomena on solar-type stars. Understanding the heating of those layers requires the direct access to the relevant empirical data. In particular, the chromospheric temperature minimum, i.e. the region of the atmosphere where the temperature undergoes a reversal and starts increasing to reach values of the order of MK in the corona, can be observed directly in the far infrared and in the submillimetre spectral regime. In this paper we present the results of the observations obtained in those ranges of the solar twin α Cen A. Similar to the Sun, the far infrared emission of this star originates in the temperature minimum above the stellar photosphere. To our knowledge, this is the first time a temperature minimum has been directly measured on a main-sequence star other than the Sun. This contribution is a summary of the the results presented in ``α Centauri in the far infrared. First measurements of the temperature minimum of a star other than the Sun'' (Liseau et al 2013, A&A, 549, L7) based on results from the Herschel} Open Time Key Project DUNES and APEX/LABOCA observations.

  5. Water vapor toward starless cores: The Herschel view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselli, P.; Keto, E.; Pagani, L.; Aikawa, Y.; Yıldız, U. A.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Tafalla, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Nisini, B.; Codella, C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Benz, A. O.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Bruderer, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Gaier, T.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Jackson, B.; Jacq, T.; Javadi, H.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Kester, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Laauwen, W.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; Luinge, W.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Megej, A.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Siegel, P.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Wyrowski, F.

    2010-10-01

    Aims: Previous studies by the satellites SWAS and Odin provided stringent upper limits on the gas phase water abundance of dark clouds (x(H2O) < 7 × 10-9). We investigate the chemistry of water vapor in starless cores beyond the previous upper limits using the highly improved angular resolution and sensitivity of Herschel and measure the abundance of water vapor during evolutionary stages just preceding star formation. Methods: High spectral resolution observations of the fundamental ortho water (o-H2O) transition (557 GHz) were carried out with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared onboard Herschel toward two starless cores: Barnard 68 (hereafter B68), a Bok globule, and LDN 1544 (L1544), a prestellar core embedded in the Taurus molecular cloud complex. Detailed radiative transfer and chemical codes were used to analyze the data. Results: The RMS in the brightness temperature measured for the B68 and L1544 spectra is 2.0 and 2.2 mK, respectively, in a velocity bin of 0.59 km s-1. The continuum level is 3.5 ± 0.2 mK in B68 and 11.4 ± 0.4 mK in L1544. No significant feature is detected in B68 and the 3σ upper limit is consistent with a column density of o-H2O N(o-H2O) < 2.5 × 1013 cm-2, or a fractional abundance x(o-H2O) < 1.3 × 10-9, more than an order of magnitude lower than the SWAS upper limit on this source. The L1544 spectrum shows an absorption feature at a 5σ level from which we obtain the first value of the o-H2O column density ever measured in dark clouds: N(o-H2O) = (8 ± 4) × 1012 cm-2. The corresponding fractional abundance is x(o-H2O) ≃ 5 × 10-9 at radii >7000 AU and ≃2 × 10-10 toward the center. The radiative transfer analysis shows that this is consistent with a x(o-H2O) profile peaking at ≃10-8, 0.1 pc away from the core center, where both freeze-out and photodissociation are negligible. Conclusions: Herschel has provided the first measurement of water vapor in dark regions. Column densities of o-H2O are low, but prestellar

  6. SPITZER IMAGING OF HERSCHEL-ATLAS GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED SUBMILLIMETER SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Hopwood, R.; Negrello, M.; Wardlow, J.; Cooray, A.; Khostovan, A. A.; Kim, S.; Barton, E.; Da Cunha, E.; Cooke, J.; Burgarella, D.; Aretxaga, I.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Bonfield, D. G.; Blundell, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Dannerbauer, H.

    2011-02-10

    We present physical properties of two submillimeter selected gravitationally lensed sources, identified in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. These submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have flux densities >100 mJy at 500 {mu}m, but are not visible in existing optical imaging. We fit light profiles to each component of the lensing systems in Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m data and successfully disentangle the foreground lens from the background source in each case, providing important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the background SMG at rest-frame optical-near-infrared wavelengths. The SED fits show that these two SMGs have high dust obscuration with A{sub V} {approx} 4-5 and star formation rates of {approx}100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. They have low gas fractions and low dynamical masses compared with 850 {mu}m selected galaxies.

  7. SED fitting of nearby galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, L.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bock, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Bradford, M.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.; Corbell, E.; Cooray, A.; Cormie, D.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J.; de Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Gear, W.; Giovanardi, C.; Glenn, J.; Gomez, H.; Griffin, M.; Grossi, M.; Hony, S.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L.; Isaak, K.; Jones, A.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Madden, S. C.; O'Halloran, B.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Rangwala, N.; Rigby, E.; Roussel, H.; Rykala, A.; Sabatini, S.; Sacchi, N.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Schirm, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Stevens, J.; Sundar, S.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Verstappen, J.; Vigroux, L.; Vlahakis, C.; Wilson, C.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zeilinger, W.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-12-01

    We compute UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of 51 nearby galaxies recently observed with SPIRE onboard Herschel and present infrared colours (in the 25-500 μm spectral range). SPIRE data of normal galaxies are well reproduced with a modified black body (β=2) of temperature T≃q 20 K. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties.

  8. Spitzer Imaging of Herschel-atlas Gravitationally Lensed Submillimeter Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopwood, R.; Wardlow, J.; Cooray, A.; Khostovan, A. A.; Kim, S.; Negrello, M.; da Cunha, E.; Burgarella, D.; Aretxaga, I.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Barton, E.; Bertoldi, F.; Bonfield, D. G.; Blundell, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooke, J.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dunlop, J.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Frayer, D.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hughes, D. H.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Lagache, G.; Leeuw, L.; Maddox, S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Omont, A.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Rodighiero, G.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Smail, I.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; Thompson, M. A.; Valtchanov, I.; van der Werf, P.; Verma, A.; Vieira, J. D.

    2011-02-01

    We present physical properties of two submillimeter selected gravitationally lensed sources, identified in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. These submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have flux densities >100 mJy at 500 μm, but are not visible in existing optical imaging. We fit light profiles to each component of the lensing systems in Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm data and successfully disentangle the foreground lens from the background source in each case, providing important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the background SMG at rest-frame optical-near-infrared wavelengths. The SED fits show that these two SMGs have high dust obscuration with A V ~ 4-5 and star formation rates of ~100 M sun yr-1. They have low gas fractions and low dynamical masses compared with 850 μm selected galaxies.

  9. Alignment in star-debris disc systems seen by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, J. S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Thureau, N.; Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Maldonado, J.; Matthews, B. C.; Olofsson, G.; Barlow, M. J.; Moro-Martín, A.; Sibthorpe, B.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D. R.; Booth, M.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cameron, A. Collier; del Burgo, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Eislöffel, J.; Duchêne, G.; Ertel, S.; Holland, W. S.; Horner, J.; Kalas, P.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Vican, L.; Wilner, D. J.; Wolf, S.; Wyatt, M. C.

    2014-02-01

    Many nearby main-sequence stars have been searched for debris using the far-infrared Herschel satellite, within the DEBRIS, DUNES and Guaranteed-Time Key Projects. We discuss here 11 stars of spectral types A-M where the stellar inclination is known and can be compared to that of the spatially resolved dust belts. The discs are found to be well aligned with the stellar equators, as in the case of the Sun's Kuiper belt, and unlike many close-in planets seen in transit surveys. The ensemble of stars here can be fitted with a star-disc tilt of ≲ 10°. These results suggest that proposed mechanisms for tilting the star or disc in fact operate rarely. A few systems also host imaged planets, whose orbits at tens of au are aligned with the debris discs, contrary to what might be expected in models where external perturbers induce tilts.

  10. Herschel Shines Light on the Episodic Evolutionary Sequence of Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel D.; DIGIT; FOOSH; COPS Teams

    2014-01-01

    New far-infrared and submillimeter spectroscopic capabilities, along with moderate spatial and spectral resolution, provide the opportunity to study the diversity of shocks, accretion processes, and compositions of the envelopes of developing protostellar objects in nearby molecular clouds. We present the "COPS" (CO in Protostars) sample; a statistical analysis of the full sample of 30 Class 0/I protostars from the "DIGIT" Key project using Herschel-PACS/SPIRE 50-700 micron spectroscopy. We consider the sample as a whole in characteristic spectral lines, using a standardized data reduction procedure for all targets, and analyze the differences in the continuum and gas over the full sample, presenting an overview of trends. We compare the sources in evolutionary state, envelope mass, and gas properties to more evolved sources from the"FOOSH'' (FUor) samples.

  11. HERSCHEL's ''COLD DEBRIS DISKS'': BACKGROUND GALAXIES OR QUIESCENT RIMS OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS?

    SciTech Connect

    Krivov, A. V.; Loehne, T.; Mutschke, H.; Neuhaeuser, R.; Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mustill, A. J.; Montesinos, B.; Del Burgo, C.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J.-C.; Ertel, S.; Lebreton, J.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, W.; Liseau, R.; Mora, A.; Pilbratt, G. L. [ESA Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics Missions Division, ESTEC and others

    2013-07-20

    Infrared excesses associated with debris disk host stars detected so far peak at wavelengths around {approx}100 {mu}m or shorter. However, 6 out of 31 excess sources studied in the Herschel Open Time Key Programme, DUNES, have been seen to show significant-and in some cases extended-excess emission at 160 {mu}m, which is larger than the 100 {mu}m excess. This excess emission has been attributed to circumstellar dust and has been suggested to stem from debris disks colder than those known previously. Since the excess emission of the cold disk candidates is extremely weak, challenging even the unrivaled sensitivity of Herschel, it is prudent to carefully consider whether some or even all of them may represent unrelated galactic or extragalactic emission, or even instrumental noise. We re-address these issues using several distinct methods and conclude that it is highly unlikely that none of the candidates represents a true circumstellar disk. For true disks, both the dust temperatures inferred from the spectral energy distributions and the disk radii estimated from the images suggest that the dust is nearly as cold as a blackbody. This requires the grains to be larger than {approx}100 {mu}m, even if they are rich in ices or are composed of any other material with a low absorption in the visible. The dearth of small grains is puzzling, since collisional models of debris disks predict that grains of all sizes down to several times the radiation pressure blowout limit should be present. We explore several conceivable scenarios: transport-dominated disks, disks of low dynamical excitation, and disks of unstirred primordial macroscopic grains. Our qualitative analysis and collisional simulations rule out the first two of these scenarios, but show the feasibility of the third one. We show that such disks can indeed survive for gigayears, largely preserving the primordial size distribution. They should be composed of macroscopic solids larger than millimeters, but smaller

  12. Herschel's "Cold Debris Disks": Background Galaxies or Quiescent Rims of Planetary Systems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivov, A. V.; Eiroa, C.; Loehne, T.; Marshall, J. P.; Montesinos, B.; DelBurgo, C.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bayo, A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Infrared excesses associated with debris disk host stars detected so far peak at wavelengths around approx, 100 micron or shorter. However, 6 out of 31 excess sources studied in the Herschel Open Time Key Programme, DUNES, have been seen to show significant-and in some cases extended-excess emission at 160 micron, which is larger than the 100 micron excess. This excess emission has been attributed to circumstellar dust and has been suggested to stem from debris disks colder than those known previously. Since the excess emission of the cold disk candidates is extremely weak, challenging even the unrivaled sensitivity of Herschel, it is prudent to carefully consider whether some or even all of them may represent unrelated galactic or extragalactic emission, or even instrumental noise. We re-address these issues using several distinct methods and conclude that it is highly unlikely that none of the candidates represents a true circumstellar disk. For true disks, both the dust temperatures inferred from the spectral energy distributions and the disk radii estimated from the images suggest that the dust is nearly as cold as a blackbody. This requires the grains to be larger than approx. 100 micron, even if they are rich in ices or are composed of any other material with a low absorption in the visible. The dearth of small grains is puzzling, since collisional models of debris disks predict that grains of all sizes down to several times the radiation pressure blowout limit should be present. We explore several conceivable scenarios: transport-dominated disks, disks of low dynamical excitation, and disks of unstirred primordial macroscopic grains. Our qualitative analysis and collisional simulations rule out the first two of these scenarios, but show the feasibility of the third one. We show that such disks can indeed survive for gigayears, largely preserving the primordial size distribution. They should be composed of macroscopic solids larger than millimeters, but

  13. Herschel's "Cold Debris Disks": Background Galaxies or Quiescent Rims of Planetary Systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivov, A. V.; Eiroa, C.; Löhne, T.; Marshall, J. P.; Montesinos, B.; del Burgo, C.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bayo, A.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, W.; Ertel, S.; Lebreton, J.; Liseau, R.; Mora, A.; Mustill, A. J.; Mutschke, H.; Neuhäuser, R.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Thébault, Ph.; Vitense, Ch.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2013-07-01

    Infrared excesses associated with debris disk host stars detected so far peak at wavelengths around ~100 μm or shorter. However, 6 out of 31 excess sources studied in the Herschel Open Time Key Programme, DUNES, have been seen to show significant—and in some cases extended—excess emission at 160 μm, which is larger than the 100 μm excess. This excess emission has been attributed to circumstellar dust and has been suggested to stem from debris disks colder than those known previously. Since the excess emission of the cold disk candidates is extremely weak, challenging even the unrivaled sensitivity of Herschel, it is prudent to carefully consider whether some or even all of them may represent unrelated galactic or extragalactic emission, or even instrumental noise. We re-address these issues using several distinct methods and conclude that it is highly unlikely that none of the candidates represents a true circumstellar disk. For true disks, both the dust temperatures inferred from the spectral energy distributions and the disk radii estimated from the images suggest that the dust is nearly as cold as a blackbody. This requires the grains to be larger than ~100 μm, even if they are rich in ices or are composed of any other material with a low absorption in the visible. The dearth of small grains is puzzling, since collisional models of debris disks predict that grains of all sizes down to several times the radiation pressure blowout limit should be present. We explore several conceivable scenarios: transport-dominated disks, disks of low dynamical excitation, and disks of unstirred primordial macroscopic grains. Our qualitative analysis and collisional simulations rule out the first two of these scenarios, but show the feasibility of the third one. We show that such disks can indeed survive for gigayears, largely preserving the primordial size distribution. They should be composed of macroscopic solids larger than millimeters, but smaller than a few

  14. OT1_amoromar_1: Herschel observations of solar-type stars with planets, planetesimals and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro-Martín, A.

    2010-07-01

    Similar to the Solar system, there are only 18 planetary systems known to harbor planets and planetesimals. This small sample is of unique value to our understanding of the diversity, dynamical history, and formation mechanisms of extra-solar planetary systems. Here we propose to observe seven of these systems, with spectral types F7-K2 and ages from 0.5-6.4 Gyr. They all show excess emission at 70 um but not at 24 um, implying the presence of an inner region depleted of warm dust, resembling the Solar System in its Jovian planets + Kuiper belt configuration. It is possible to characterize their planetesimal belts from the study of their dust disks. However, the disks SEDs are not known beyond 70 um. Long wavelength observations are of fundamental importance to determine the presence of cold grains, the only tracer of the outer edge of the dust-producing planetesimal belts. Because the latter is a critical parameter to understand the dynamical history and formation of these systems, we propose to carry out PACS 70/160 and SPIRE observations with the main goal of constraining the SEDs at long wavelengths. We have selected PACS 70 to take full advantage of the Herschels improved spatial resolution at 70 um compared to Spitzer, opening the opportunity to resolve the cold dust component that traces the planetesimal belt (which extent could be related to the dynamical history of the planetary system), and to detect extended halos (thought to arise from small dust grains on highly eccentric or hyperbolic orbits, that likely relate to the level of dynamical activity in the planetesimal belt). This proposal requires a total of 11.6 hours. The results will increase our understanding of the diversity of planetary systems, helping us place our Solar system into context. Herschel is the only observatory that can carry out the observation required for this study because of its high sensitivity in the wavelength range where the peak of the dust emission may be located.

  15. Derivation of sideband gain ratio for Herschel/HIFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kester, Do; Higgins, Ronan; Teyssier, David

    2017-03-01

    Context. Heterodyne mixers are commonly used for high-resolution spectroscopy at radio telescopes. When used as a double sideband system, the accurate flux calibration of spectral lines acquired by those detectors is highly dependent on the system gains in the respective mixer sidebands via the so-called sideband gain ratio (SBR). As such, the SBR was one of the main contributors to the calibration uncertainty budget of the Herschel/HIFI instrument. Aims: We want to determine the HIFI instrument sideband gain ratio for all bands on a fine frequency grid and within an accuracy of a few percent. Methods: We introduce a novel technique involving in-orbit HIFI data that is bootstrapped onto standard methods involving laboratory data measurements of the SBR. We deconvolved the astronomical data to provide a proxy of the expected signal at every frequency channel, and extracted the sideband gain ratios from the residuals of that process. Results: We determine the HIFI sideband gain ratio to an accuracy varying between 1 and 4%, with degraded accuracy in higher frequency ranges, and at places where the reliability of the technique is lower. These figures were incorporated into the HIFI data processing pipeline and improved the overall flux uncertainty of the legacy data from this instrument. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a modified sideband deconvolution algorithm, using astronomical data in combination with gas cell measurements, can be used to generate an accurate and fine-granularity picture of the sideband gain ratio behaviour of a heterodyne receiver. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. Spitzer Imaging of Herschel Lensed Sub-mm Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Wardlow, Julie; Kim, Sam; Khostovan, Ali; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Barton, Elizabeth; Gong, Yan; Amblard, Alexandre; Serra, Paolo; Cooke, Jeff; Riechers, Dominik; Dominic, Benford; Frayer, David; Gardner, Jonathan; Fu, Hai; Bussmann, Shane; Gurwell, Mark; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Pasquale, Temi; Conley, Alex; Bock, Jamie; Vieira, Joaquin; Bridge, Carrie; Glenn, Jason; Zemcov, Michael; Schulz, Bernhard; Shupe, David; Hopwood, Ros; Negrello, Mattia; Andreani, Paola; Clements, David; Dannerbauer, Helmut; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Dunne, Loretta; Dunlop, James; Eales, Steve; Farrah, Duncan; Ivison, Rob; Jarvis, Matt; Maddox, Steve; Michalowski, Michal; Omont, Alain; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Serjeant, Stephen; Smail, Ian; Thompson, Mark; Vaccari, Mattia; Verma, Aprajita; Coppin, Kirsten; Oliver, Seb; Wang, Lingyu

    2011-05-01

    Sub-millimeter surveys have, in the last decade, revealed an unexpected population of high-redshift dust-obscured sub-mm galaxies (SMGs) which are forming stars at a tremendous rate. Due to steep number counts and the negative k-correction at sub-mm wavelengths sub-mm surveys are effective at finding intrinsically faint, gravitationally lensed galaxies. We have now produced a reliable list of about 150 bright lensed SMGs in 200 sq. deg of the Herschel-ATLAS and HerMES (the GTO program of the SPIRE Instrument team) surveys with Herschel-SPIRE. We propose Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging of 122 of these gravitationally lensed SMGs. The target SMGs are selected to maximally overlap with existing and planned multi-wavelength followup programs, without duplicating existing deep IRAC data. Using the proposed Spitzer data we will: (a) Extend the SEDs of z~ 1 to 5 lensed SMGs into the near-IR regime, where derived stellar masses are more reliable than those estimated at other wavelengths alone; (b) Combine with lens models from existing and planned high-resolution sub-mm imaging (SMA, CARMA, PdBI) to map the evolution of stellar mass as a function of redshift and star-formation rate (SFR); (c) Combine with existing and planned CO and CII molecular line measurements to map the evolution of dust-to-gas and stellar-to-gas mass ratios as a function of redshift and SFR; (d) Obtain snapshot statistics on the sub-mm galaxy evolution from z of 1 to 5 as a function of stellar, dust, and gas mass to study the role of mergers and AGN contribution that may regulate the starburst phenomenon; (e) Compare our results to those from numerical simulations of high-redshift starburst galaxies to investigate the physical conditions in SMGs, and their evolutionary pathways.

  17. A search for debris disks in the Herschel-ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. A.; Smith, D. J. B.; Stevens, J. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Vidal Perez, E.; Marshall, J.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; White, G. J.; Leeuw, L.; Sibthorpe, B.; Baes, M.; González-Solares, E.; Scott, D.; Vieiria, J.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Bonfield, D. G.; Burgarella, D.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Frayer, D.; Fritz, J.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Herranz, D.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Lagache, G.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Maddox, S.; Negrello, M.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Rodighiero, G.; Samui, S.; Serjeant, S.; Temi, P.; Valtchanov, I.; Verma, A.

    2010-07-01

    Aims: We aim to demonstrate that the Herschel-ATLAS (H-ATLAS) is suitable for a blind and unbiased survey for debris disks by identifying candidate debris disks associated with main sequence stars in the initial science demonstration field of the survey. We show that H-ATLAS reveals a population of far-infrared/sub-mm sources that are associated with stars or star-like objects on the SDSS main-sequence locus. We validate our approach by comparing the properties of the most likely candidate disks to those of the known population. Methods: We use a photometric selection technique to identify main sequence stars in the SDSS DR7 catalogue and a Bayesian Likelihood Ratio method to identify H-ATLAS catalogue sources associated with these main sequence stars. Following this photometric selection we apply distance cuts to identify the most likely candidate debris disks and rule out the presence of contaminating galaxies using UKIDSS LAS K-band images. Results: We identify 78 H-ATLAS sources associated with SDSS point sources on the main-sequence locus, of which two are the most likely debris disk candidates: H-ATLAS J090315.8 and H-ATLAS J090240.2. We show that they are plausible candidates by comparing their properties to the known population of debris disks. Our initial results indicate that bright debris disks are rare, with only 2 candidates identified in a search sample of 851 stars. We also show that H-ATLAS can derive useful upper limits for debris disks associated with Hipparcos stars in the field and outline the future prospects for our debris disk search programme. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. HERSCHEL GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY OF [N ii] FINE STRUCTURE EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Yıldız, Umut A.; Langer, William D.; Pineda, Jorge L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first large-scale high angular resolution survey of ionized nitrogen in the Galactic Plane through emission of its two fine structure transitions ([N ii]) at 122 and 205 μm. The observations were largely obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The lines of sight were in the Galactic plane, following those of the Herschel OTKP project GOT C+. Both lines are reliably detected at the 10{sup −8}–10{sup −7} Wm{sup −2} sr{sup −1} level over the range –60° ≤ l ≤ 60°. The rms of the intensity among the 25 PACS spaxels of a given pointing is typically less than one third of the mean intensity, showing that the emission is extended. [N ii] is produced in gas in which hydrogen is ionized, and collisional excitation is by electrons. The ratio of the two fine structure transitions provides a direct measurement of the electron density, yielding n(e) largely in the range 10–50 cm{sup −3} with an average value of 29 cm{sup −3} and N{sup +} column densities 10{sup 16}–10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}. [N ii] emission is highly correlated with that of [C ii], and we calculate that between 1/3 and 1/2 of the [C ii] emission is associated with the ionized gas. The relatively high electron densities indicate that the source of the [N ii] emission is not the warm ionized medium (WIM), which has electron densities more than 100 times smaller. Possible origins of the observed [N ii] include the ionized surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clouds, the extended low-density envelopes of H ii regions, and low-filling factor high-density fluctuations of the WIM.

  19. JCMT in the Post-Herschel ERA of Alma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Doug

    2013-07-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), with a 15m dish, is the largest single-dish astronomical telescope in the world designed specifically to operate in the sub-mm wavelength regime. The JCMT is located close to the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4092m. The most recent addition to the JCMT's suite of instruments is the 10,000 bolometer sub-mm continuum instrument: SCUBA-2. SCUBA-2 operates simultaneously with 7' x7' foot print sub-arrays at both 450 and 850-microns. SCUBA-2's wide field surveying potential, combined with a 65% shared view of the sky from both sites, makes it the ideal instrument to provide complementary data for the ALMA Project. Furthermore, the SCUBA-2 sub-millimetre wavelength coverage and angular resolution complement existing Herschel observations. A set of comprehensive surveys of the submillimetre sky is underway at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) using SCUBA-2 and HARP, a heterodyne array receiver operating between 325 and 375 GHz. The JCMT Legacy Survey (JLS) is comprised of seven survey projects, and ranges in scope from the study of nearby debris disk systems, the study of star formation in nearby molecular cloud systems and more distant structures in our Galactic Plane, to the structure and composition of galaxies in our local neighbourhood and the number and evolution of submillimetre galaxies at high redshifts in the early Universe. In addition to the JLS, the COHR survey is imaging the Galactic plane in CO (3-2) and a JAC Staff-led project is using SCUBA-2 to survey the Galactic Centre. This poster highlights the significant survey capabilities of SCUBA-2 and HARP and reveals the continuing importance of the JCMT in a post-Herschel, ALMA world.

  20. Herschel Galactic Plane Survey of [NII] Fine Structure Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Yıldız, Umut A.; Langer, William D.; Pineda, Jorge L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first large-scale high angular resolution survey of ionized nitrogen in the Galactic Plane through emission of its two fine structure transitions ([N ii]) at 122 and 205 μm. The observations were largely obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The lines of sight were in the Galactic plane, following those of the Herschel OTKP project GOT C+. Both lines are reliably detected at the 10-8-10-7 Wm-2 sr-1 level over the range -60° ≤ l ≤ 60°. The rms of the intensity among the 25 PACS spaxels of a given pointing is typically less than one third of the mean intensity, showing that the emission is extended. [N ii] is produced in gas in which hydrogen is ionized, and collisional excitation is by electrons. The ratio of the two fine structure transitions provides a direct measurement of the electron density, yielding n(e) largely in the range 10-50 cm-3 with an average value of 29 cm-3 and N+ column densities 1016-1017 cm-2. [N ii] emission is highly correlated with that of [C ii], and we calculate that between 1/3 and 1/2 of the [C ii] emission is associated with the ionized gas. The relatively high electron densities indicate that the source of the [N ii] emission is not the warm ionized medium (WIM), which has electron densities more than 100 times smaller. Possible origins of the observed [N ii] include the ionized surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clouds, the extended low-density envelopes of H ii regions, and low-filling factor high-density fluctuations of the WIM.

  1. Herschel DEBRIS survey of debris discs around A stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thureau, N.

    2014-11-01

    The Herschel DEBRIS survey (Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre) brings a unique perspective to the study of debris discs around main-sequence A-type stars. We have observed a sample of 89 A-stars with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel space telescope at 100 and 160 μm. A statistical analysis of the data shows a lower debris disc rate than has previously been found. The drop is due in part to the fact that some excess sources were resolved as background objects by the superior angular resolution (a factor of 2.5) of PACS-100 relative to that of Spitzer (MIPS-70). We found a 3-σ detection rate of 23 myblue which is similar to the the detection rate around main-sequence F, G and K stars. Most of the debris discs were detected around the youngest and hottest stars in our sample. The incidence of discs in single and multiple systems was similar. The debris discs in multiple systems ware found either in tight binary systems (<1 AU) or wide ones (>100 AU). Debris discs in both tight and wide binary systems have physical properties that are statistically similar to those of discs around single stars. We did not detect any debris discs in binary systems with intermediate separation, in which the orbit and the debris disc would be on the same scale. One possible explanation is that discs in intermediate systems have evolved much faster owing to the disc-companion interactions and they are now undetectable.

  2. Mapping water in Jupiter with Herschel/HIFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalié, Thibault; Hartogh, P.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Jarchow, C.; Billebaud, F.; Orton, G.; Rengel, M.; Sagawa, H.; Lara, L.; Gonzalez, A.; HssO Team

    2010-10-01

    A major discovery of ISO was the detection of water in the upper atmospheres of the four giant planets and Titan (Feuchtgruber et al, 1997; Coustenis et al, 1998), implying the existence of external sources of water. This oxygen supply, which manifests itself also through the presence of CO2 and CO in these atmospheres, may have several sources: (i) a permanent flux from interplanetary dust particles produced from asteroid collisions and from comet activity (Prather et al,1978), (ii) local sources from planetary environments (rings, satellites) (Strobel and Yung, 1979; Prangé et al, 2006), (iii) cometary ``Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) type'’ impacts (Lellouch et al, 1995). Disentangling the various sources at Jupiter is a key objective of the Herschel Space Observatory key program HssO (Hartogh et al, 2009). Herschel/HIFI observed H2O in Jupiter at 1669 GHz in a 5x5 point map on July 7, 2010. From this observation, we will present and discuss the search for latitudinal variability of H2O in Jupiter. Acknowledgement: Research by T. Cavalié was supported by the Fondation des Amis des Sciences. References: Coustenis et al, A&A 336,L85-L89. Feuchtgruber et al, 1997. Nature 389, 159-162. Hartogh et al, 2009. Planet. Space Sci. 57, 1596-1606. Lellouch et al, 1995. Nature 373, 592-595. Prangé et al, 2006. Icarus 180, 379-392. Prather, 1978. ApJ 223, 1072-1081. Strobel & Yung, 1979. Icarus 37, 256-263.

  3. The dusty and molecular universe: a prelude to Herschel and ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Contents: General overviews. Potential Herschel/ALMA impact. ISM and global star formation. Galaxies and cosmology. Planetary systems. Local star formation and ISM. Stars and dust production. Synthesis and strategy.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M31 Herschel images (Viaene+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viaene, S.; Fritz, J.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Cortese, L.; de Looze, I.; Gear, W. K.; Gentile, G.; Hughes, T. M.; Jarrett, T.; Karczewski, O. L.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Tamm, A.; Tempel, E.; Thilker, D.; Verstappen, J.

    2014-05-01

    We present new, reduced Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron observations of M31 taken has part of the Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (P.I.: J. Fritz) The PACS 100 and 160 observations were reduced with the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) v.8 and Scanamorphos v.15.0 (Roussel, 2012, ASCL, 1209.012). The SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 micron observations data were reduced with HIPE v.8 and BriGAdE (Smith, in preparation). Complete details on the data reduction may be found in our first paper (Fritz et al., 2012A&A...546A..34F). Image properties are summarised in images.dat. The raw data can be retrieved from the Herschel Science Archive (ESA). (2 data files).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel counterparts of SDC (Peretto+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretto, N.; Lenfestey, C.; Fuller, G. A.; Traficante, A.; Molinari, S.; Thompson, M. A.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify which of the clouds from the Spitzer Dark Cloud catalogue (Peretto & Fuller, 2009, Cat. J/A+A/505/405) are real, which are artefacts. For this we used Herschel Hi-GAL (Molinari et al., 2010PASP..122..314M) column density maps and search for spatial associations between Spitzer Dark Cloud and Herschel column density peaks. Description: This table provides some of the key properties of the Spitzer Dark Clouds that we estimated using the Herschel data and used to disentangle between real and spurious clouds. For each cloud of the Peretto & Fuller (2009, Cat. J/A+A/505/405) catalogue we give the cloud name, the cloud equivalent radius, the average Herschel column density within the boundaries of the SDCs, the average Herschel column density immediately outside the boundary of the SDCs, the Herschel column density noise at the position of the SDC, the Herschel column density peak within the boundaries of the SDCs, the value for criterion c1, the value for criterion c2, the value for criterion c3, and a tag that indicates if the cloud has been identified as real by our automated detection scheme based on the values of c1 and c2. This tag can take a number of values. These are: 'y' for yes; n for no; 'sat' for a SDC entirely located in a saturated portion of the Herschel images; 'ysat' for a cloud that is considered real despite being partially saturated; 'out' for a SDC that is not covered by Herschel images; 'yout' for a cloud that is considered real despite being partially covered by Herschel images; 'nout' for a cloud considered spurious despite being partially covered by Herschel images. Also, note that the column referring to the equivalent radius Req is the same quantity as the one quoted in Table 1 column 11 of Peretto & Fuller (2009, Cat. J/A+A/505/405). However, these latter values should be discarded since a mistake has been found in the calculation of the equivalent radius. Only the new values, the ones provided in Table 1

  6. Herschel Observations of the Pre-Collapse Phase of Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, J.

    2012-03-01

    Stars form after compact gas cores condense out of larger molecular clouds and collapse. How these cores themselves form has been difficult to observe, given the limitations of detecting from the ground faint, diffuse sub-structure in clouds (e.g., clumps and filaments). With its sensitive, spaceborne instrumentation, however, Herschel has now detected these structures in numerous clouds out to several kiloparsecs from their continuum emission. Indeed, the continuum data from PACS and SPIRE are revolutionizing our understanding of the environments from which cores themselves arise. In this review, we will summarize the recent results of several Herschel Key Programmes whose goals include better physical understanding of these environments. The specific programmes with prestellar core targets include the Herschel Gould Belt Survey (GBS; PI: Ph. André), the Herschel OB Young Star survey (HOBYS; PI: F. Motte), Galactic Cold Cores (GCC; PI: M. Juvela), the Earliest Phases of Star Formation (EPoS; PI: O. Krause), and the Herschel Galactic Plane Survey (HiGAL; PI: S. Molinari). We show in general that filaments are found on many scales throughout the Galaxy, and are a key aspect to the pre-collapse phase of star formation not previously appreciated before Herschel. In addition, the continuum data are providing new direct probes of the thermal and density structures of pre-collapse star-forming objects.

  7. An incidence of skeletal fluorosis associated with groundwaters of the maritime carboniferous basin, Gaspé region, Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Boyle, D R; Chagnon, M

    1995-03-01

    Consumption of unusually high concentrations of F(-) in groundwaters of the Maria area in the Gaspé peninsula of Quebec have resulted in symptoms of skeletal fluorosis in two members of the population. One of these individuals consumed approximately 50 mg of fluoride per day over a 6 year period before being hospitalized and later diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis. It is estimated that, until this case came to light, approximately 15-20% of the rural population (total approximately 1,600) in the area were consuming groundwaters with F(-) levels between 5 and 28 mg L(-1) for at least 6 years. The high concentrations of F(-) in well waters of the Maria area occur only in wells completed in Carboniferous sandstone-siltstone-conglomerate sediments that underlie a thick blanket of alluvial-colluvial-glacial overburden. These fluoriferous groundwaters exhibit high Na and HCO3 (-) contents and low Ca and Mg concentrations compared to those associated with the overburden sediments. The high F levels greatly increase the risk for fluorotic diseases such as skeletal fluorosis and skeletal radiculomyopathy. Wells completed in overburden, although having suboptimal F(-) levels are safer for the health of individuals in this region. Effective regulations for well drilling need to be formulated for regions underlain by Carboniferous formations in the Maritime provinces of Canada. In some regions, high F(-) levels (10-25 mg L(-1)) in groundwaters will seriously affect how, and to what extent, groundwater supplies can be developed for domestic use.

  8. William Herschel's fifty-two fields of extensive diffused nebulosity - a revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latusseck, Arndt

    2008-11-01

    Since its publication in 1811, William Herschel's list of fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity has been largely disregarded, or even discredited, by the astronomical community. Neither he nor his successors decided to include the observations of large structureless fields of background nebulosity in their major catalogues. lt was only during a short period in the early twentieth century that astronomers like I. Roberts, E.E. Barnard, and M. Wolf started more serious investigations into the nature and reality of Herschel's nebulosities, but without deriving conclusive results. Those few who tried to understand Herschel's elusive observations were often puzzled by his ambiguous descriptions and frequently tended to reject the nebulosities as being optical illusions, because only a small number of them could be proven by celestial photography. The only unconditional supporter of the reality of the nebulosities was Johann Georg Hagen, who in the 1920s used them as evidence for his hypothesis that nebulous matter covered almost the entire celestial sphere. He claimed to have succeeded in visually observing nebulous matter in every single one of Herschel's fields, which raised sharp opposition from his numerous critics. The questionable quality of Herschel's original descriptions, the weak supporting arguments, and the lack of photographic evidence, finally led historians to conclude that Herschel's fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity were illusions. But it would seem astonishing that this gifted observer could have been fooled to such an extent. As a first approach to investigate this apparent anomaly, a complete analysis of Herschel's observing books was carried out, and the raw observations of the various catalogued nebulous fields were extracted. Some important stylistic uncertainties in the descriptions of the visual appearance of the nebulosities were cleared up, leading to a better understanding of what Herschel actually saw. Possible sources of error

  9. The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS). I. Data overview and analysis demonstration with NGC 6781

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, T.; Ladjal, D.; Exter, K. M.; Otsuka, M.; Szczerba, R.; Siódmiak, N.; Aleman, I.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R.; McDonald, I.; Wittkowski, M.; Sandin, C.; Ramstedt, S.; De Marco, O.; Villaver, E.; Chu, Y.-H.; Vlemmings, W.; Izumiura, H.; Sahai, R.; Lopez, J. A.; Balick, B.; Zijlstra, A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Rattray, R. E.; Behar, E.; Blackman, E. G.; Hebden, K.; Hora, J. L.; Murakawa, K.; Nordhaus, J.; Nordon, R.; Yamamura, I.

    2014-05-01

    Context. This is the first of a series of investigations into far-IR characteristics of 11 planetary nebulae (PNe) under the Herschel Space Observatory open time 1 program, Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS). Aims: Using the HerPlaNS data set, we look into the PN energetics and variations of the physical conditions within the target nebulae. In the present work, we provide an overview of the survey, data acquisition and processing, and resulting data products. Methods: We performed (1) PACS/SPIRE broadband imaging to determine the spatial distribution of the cold dust component in the target PNe and (2) PACS/SPIRE spectral-energy-distribution and line spectroscopy to determine the spatial distribution of the gas component in the target PNe. Results: For the case of NGC 6781, the broadband maps confirm the nearly pole-on barrel structure of the amorphous carbon-rich dust shell and the surrounding halo having temperatures of 26-40 K. The PACS/SPIRE multiposition spectra show spatial variations of far-IR lines that reflect the physical stratification of the nebula. We demonstrate that spatially resolved far-IR line diagnostics yield the (Te, ne) profiles, from which distributions of ionized, atomic, and molecular gases can be determined. Direct comparison of the dust and gas column mass maps constrained by the HerPlaNS data allows to construct an empirical gas-to-dust mass ratio map, which shows a range of ratios with the median of 195 ± 110. The present analysis yields estimates of the total mass of the shell to be 0.86 M⊙, consisting of 0.54 M⊙ of ionized gas, 0.12 M⊙ of atomic gas, 0.2 M⊙ of molecular gas, and 4 × 10-3 M⊙ of dust grains. These estimates also suggest that the central star of about 1.5 M⊙ initial mass is terminating its PN evolution onto the white dwarf cooling track. Conclusions: The HerPlaNS data provide various diagnostics for both the dust and gas components in a spatially resolved manner. In the forthcoming papers of the

  10. Potential multi-component structure of the debris disk around HIP 17439 revealed by Herschel/DUNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.; Löhne, T.; Eiroa, C.; Mora, A.; del Burgo, C.; Montesinos, B.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, W.; Kirchschlager, F.; Liseau, R.; Maldonado, J.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Schüppler, Ch.; Thébault, Ph.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The dust observed in debris disks is produced through collisions of larger bodies left over from the planet/planetesimal formation process. Spatially resolving these disks permits to constrain their architecture and thus that of the underlying planetary/planetesimal system. Aims: Our Herschel open time key program DUNES aims at detecting and characterizing debris disks around nearby, sun-like stars. In addition to the statistical analysis of the data, the detailed study of single objects through spatially resolving the disk and detailed modeling of the data is a main goal of the project. Methods: We obtained the first observations spatially resolving the debris disk around the sun-like star HIP 17439 (HD 23484) using the instruments PACS and SPIRE on board the Herschel Space Observatory. Simultaneous multi-wavelength modeling of these data together with ancillary data from the literature is presented. Results: A standard single component disk model fails to reproduce the major axis radial profiles at 70 μm, 100 μm, and 160 μm simultaneously. Moreover, the best-fit parameters derived from such a model suggest a very broad disk extending from few au up to few hundreds of au from the star with a nearly constant surface density which seems physically unlikely. However, the constraints from both the data and our limited theoretical investigation are not strong enough to completely rule out this model. An alternative, more plausible, and better fitting model of the system consists of two rings of dust at approx. 30 au and 90 au, respectively, while the constraints on the parameters of this model are weak due to its complexity and intrinsic degeneracies. Conclusions: The disk is probably composed of at least two components with different spatial locations (but not necessarily detached), while a single, broad disk is possible, but less likely. The two spatially well-separated rings of dust in our best-fit model suggest the presence of at least one high mass

  11. Herschel Survey of the Trans-Neptunian Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas G.

    2015-08-01

    Transneptunian Objects (TNOs) are believed to retain the most pristine and least altered material of the Solar System. We studied a sample of more than 130 objects with Herschel as part of a key program "TNOs are Cool" and smaller projects related to prominent targets.Our sample includes TNOs in each of the dynamical classes, including Centaurs, and 2 satellites. The PACS data were used to determine diameters and albedos for over 100 of those targets. We were also able to constrain the temperature distribution on the surfaces of over 80 objects, in some cases by combining the Herschel data with shorter-wavelength Spitzer or WISE measurements. The temperature distribution is controlled by the thermal inertia and roughness of the surface, and so gives deeper insight into surface processes in the outer Solar System. We obtained thermal lightcurve observations for a few interesting targets like Haumea, Eris, Varuna, to discriminate between shape and surface variegation effects. For the characterization of dwarf planets (e.g. Makemake, Orcus, Quaoar) and other bright object we extented the wavelength coverage into the submm by using the SPIRE photometer. Also the two Centaurs with ring systems -Chariklo and Chiron- have been observed at far-IR wavelengths with very high photometric accuracy. We were also able to study a few Centaurs with extreme orbits, including the super-comet candidate 2013 AZ60 showing very perculiar properties.The diameters measured in this program have been combined with mass-determinations for binary systems to give an intriguing first-look at the density of TNOs as a function of size. The analysis of albedo data revealed the existence of two distinct types of surface among mid-sized TNOs: The colour-albedo diagram shows that the objects located in dynamically stable orbits within the classical Kuiper Belt region and beyond have high albedo and red colours, implying a formation further from the Sun than the dark, neutral-colour bodies.The results

  12. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Massive-Cluster Gravitational Lenses Observed by the Herschel Lensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi; Rawle, Timothy; Cava, Antonio; Clement, Benjamin; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Ebeling, Harald; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Richard, Johan; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Schaerer, Daniel; Walth, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory, our team has been conducting a large survey of the fields of massive galaxy clusters, 'The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS)' (PI: Egami; 419 hours). The main scientific goal is to penetrate the confusion limit of Herschel by taking advantage of the strong gravitational lensing power of these massive clusters and study the population of low-luminosity and/or high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies that are beyond the reach of field Herschel surveys. In the course of this survey, we have obtained deep PACS (100/160 um) and SPIRE (250/350/500 um) images for 54 clusters (HLS-deep) as well as shallower (but nearly confusion-limited) SPIRE images for 527 clusters (HLS-snapshot). The goal of this proposal is to obtain shallow (500 sec/band) 3.6/4.5 um images of 266 cluster fields that have been observed by the HLS-snapshot survey but do not have any corresponding IRAC data. The HLS-snapshot SPIRE images are deep enough to detect a large number of sources in the target cluster fields, many of which are distant star-forming galaxies lensed by the foreground clusters, and the large sample size of HLS-snapshot promises a great potential for making exciting discoveries. Yet, these Herschel images would be of limited use if we could not identify the counterparts of the Herschel sources accurately and efficiently. The proposed IRAC snapshot program will greatly enhance the utility of these Herschel data, and will feed powerful gound observing facilities like ALMA and NOEMA with interesting targets to follow up.

  13. The Footprint Database and Web Services of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, László; Varga-Verebélyi, Erika; Verdugo, Eva; Teyssier, David; Exter, Katrina; Valtchanov, Ivan; Budavári, Tamás; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-10-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory is freely available to the public but no uniformly processed catalogue of the observations has been published so far. To date, the Herschel Science Archive does not contain the exact sky coverage (footprint) of individual observations and supports search for measurements based on bounding circles only. Drawing on previous experience in implementing footprint databases, we built the Herschel Footprint Database and Web Services for the Herschel Space Observatory to provide efficient search capabilities for typical astronomical queries. The database was designed with the following main goals in mind: (a) provide a unified data model for meta-data of all instruments and observational modes, (b) quickly find observations covering a selected object and its neighbourhood, (c) quickly find every observation in a larger area of the sky, (d) allow for finding solar system objects crossing observation fields. As a first step, we developed a unified data model of observations of all three Herschel instruments for all pointing and instrument modes. Then, using telescope pointing information and observational meta-data, we compiled a database of footprints. As opposed to methods using pixellation of the sphere, we represent sky coverage in an exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. For easier handling of Herschel observation footprints with rather complex shapes, two algorithms were implemented to reduce the outline. Furthermore, a new visualisation tool to plot footprints with various spherical projections was developed. Indexing of the footprints using Hierarchical Triangular Mesh makes it possible to quickly find observations based on sky coverage, time and meta-data. The database is accessible via a web site http://herschel.vo.elte.hu and also as a set of REST web service functions, which makes it readily usable from programming environments such as Python or IDL. The web service allows downloading footprint data

  14. Fan Noise Control Using Herschel-Quincke Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Ng, Wing F.

    2003-01-01

    The research effort proposed for this NASA NRA is mainly experimental. In addition, Virginia Tech is working in partnership with Goodrich Aerospace, Aerostructures Group for the analytical development needed to support the experimental endeavor, i.e. model development, design, and system studies. In this project, Herschel-Quincke (HQ)liner technology experiments will be performed at the NASA Glenn Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF) facility. A schematic of both inlet and aft HQ-liner systems installed in the ANCF rig as well as a picture of the Glenn facility is shown. The main goal is to simultaneously test in both the inlet and bypass duct sections. The by-pass duct will have HQ-systems in both the inner and outer duct walls. The main advantages of performing tests at the ANCF facility are that the effect of the inlet HQ-system on the by-pass HQ-system and vice versa, can be accurately determined from the in-duct modal data. Another significant advantage is that it offers the opportunity to assess (on a common basis) the proposed noise reduction concept on the ANCF rig which in the past has been used for assessing other active and passive noise reduction strategies.

  15. Advanced GLS map-making for the Herschel's photometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzo, Lorenzo; Raguso, Maria C.; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Calzoletti, Luca; Altieri, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    We discuss Generalised Least Squares (GLS) map-making for the data of the Herschel satellite's photometers, which is a difficult task, due to the many disturbances affecting the data, and requires appropriate pre- and post-processing. Taking an existing map-maker as a reference, we propose several advanced techniques, which can improve both the quality of the estimate and the efficiency of the software. As a main contribution we discuss two disturbances, which have not been studied yet and may be detrimental to the image quality. The first is a data shift, due to delays in the timing system or in the processing chain. The second is a random noise, termed pixel noise, due to the jitter and the approximation of the pointing information. For both these disturbances, we develop a mathematical model and propose a compensation method. As an additional contribution, we note that the performance can be improved by properly adapting the algorithm parameters to the data being processed and discuss an automatic setting method. We also provide a rich set of examples and experiments, illustrating the impact of the proposed techniques on the image quality and the execution speed.

  16. Calibration of Herschel SPIRE FTS observations at different spectral resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchili, N.; Hopwood, R.; Fulton, T.; Polehampton, E. T.; Valtchanov, I.; Zaretski, J.; Naylor, D. A.; Griffin, M. J.; Imhof, P.; Lim, T.; Lu, N.; Makiwa, G.; Pearson, C.; Spencer, L.

    2017-01-01

    The SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer on-board the Herschel Space Observatory had two standard spectral resolution modes for science observations: high resolution (HR) and low resolution (LR), which could also be performed in sequence (H+LR). A comparison of the HR and LR resolution spectra taken in this sequential mode revealed a systematic discrepancy in the continuum level. Analysing the data at different stages during standard pipeline processing demonstrates that the telescope and instrument emission affect HR and H+LR observations in a systematically different way. The origin of this difference is found to lie in the variation of both the telescope and instrument response functions, while it is triggered by fast variation of the instrument temperatures. As it is not possible to trace the evolution of the response functions using housekeeping data from the instrument subsystems, the calibration cannot be corrected analytically. Therefore, an empirical correction for LR spectra has been developed, which removes the systematic noise introduced by the variation of the response functions.

  17. CMB Polarization B -mode Delensing with SPTpol and Herschel

    DOE PAGES

    Manzotti, A.; Story, K. T.; Wu, W. L. K.; ...

    2017-08-30

    Here, we present a demonstration of delensing the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) Bmode polarization anisotropy. This process of reducing the gravitational-lensing generated B-mode component will become increasingly important for improving searches for the B modes produced by primordial gravitational waves. In this work, we delens B-mode maps constructed from multi-frequency SPTpol observations of a 90 deg2 patch of sky by subtracting a B-mode template constructed from two inputs: SPTpol E-mode maps and a lensing potential map estimated from the Herschel 500 µm map of the CIB. We find that our delensing procedure reduces the measured B-mode power spectrum bymore » 28% in the multipole range 300 < ℓ< 2300; this is shown to be consistent with expectations from theory and simulations and to be robust against systematics. Furthermore, the null hypothesis of no delensing is rejected at 6.9σ. Furthermore, we build and use a suite of realistic simulations to study the general properties of the delensing process and find that the delensing efficiency achieved in this work is limited primarily by the noise in the lensing potential map. We also demonstrate the importance of including realistic experimental non-idealities in the delensing forecasts used to inform instrument and survey-strategy planning of upcoming lower-noise experiments, such as CMB-S4.« less

  18. CMB Polarization B-mode Delensing with SPTpol and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzotti, A.; Story, K. T.; Wu, W. L. K.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bock, J. J.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H.-M.; Citron, R.; Conley, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dodelson, S.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Viero, M. P.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Zemcov, M.

    2017-09-01

    We present a demonstration of delensing the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization anisotropy. This process of reducing the gravitational-lensing-generated B-mode component will become increasingly important for improving searches for the B modes produced by primordial gravitational waves. In this work, we delens B-mode maps constructed from multi-frequency SPTpol observations of a 90 deg2 patch of sky by subtracting a B-mode template constructed from two inputs: SPTpol E-mode maps and a lensing potential map estimated from the Herschel 500 μm map of the cosmic infrared background. We find that our delensing procedure reduces the measured B-mode power spectrum by 28% in the multipole range 300< {\\ell }< 2300; this is shown to be consistent with expectations from simulations and to be robust against systematics. The null hypothesis of no delensing is rejected at 6.9σ . Furthermore, we build and use a suite of realistic simulations to study the general properties of the delensing process and find that the delensing efficiency achieved in this work is limited primarily by the noise in the lensing potential map. We demonstrate the importance of including realistic experimental non-idealities in the delensing forecasts used to inform instrument and survey-strategy planning of upcoming lower-noise experiments, such as CMB-S4.

  19. Winds of Binary AGB Stars as Observed by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Jorissen, A.; Kerschbaum, F.; Ottensamer, R.; Mečina, M.; Paladini, C.; Cox, N. L. J.; Nowotny, W.; Aringer, B.; Pourbaix, D.; Mohamed, S.; Siopis, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2015-08-01

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of the large-scale environments of binary AGB stars as part of the Mass-loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) sample. From the literature we found 18 of the objects to be members of physically bound multiple systems. Several show a large-scale far-IR emission which differs significantly from spherical symmetry. A probable cause is the gravitational force of the companion on the stellar AGB wind and the mass-losing star itself. A spiral pattern is thereby imprinted in the dusty stellar wind. The most remarkable structures are found around o Ceti, W Aquilæ, R Aquarii, and π1 Gruis. The environments of o Cet and W Aql show a spiral pattern while the symbiotic nature of R Aqr is revealed as two opposing arms which reflect a nova outburst. The emission around π1 Gru is dominated by two structures, a disk and an arc, which are presumably not caused by the same companion. We found evidence that π1 Gru is a hierarchical triple system in which a close companion attracts the AGB wind onto the orbital plane and the outer companion forms a spiral arm. These far-IR observations underline the role of a companion as a major external influence in creating asymmetric winds in the AGB phase, even before the star becomes a planetary nebula (PN).

  20. THE DEBRIS DISK AROUND {gamma} DORADUS RESOLVED WITH HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Booth, Mark; Kavelaars, J. J.; Koning, Alice; Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Lawler, Samantha M.; Qi, Chenruo; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Wilner, David J.; Greaves, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the debris disk around {gamma} Doradus, an F1V star, from the Herschel Key Programme DEBRIS (Disc Emission via Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre). The disk is well resolved at 70, 100, and 160 {mu}m, resolved along its major axis at 250 {mu}m, detected but not resolved at 350 {mu}m, and confused with a background source at 500 {mu}m. It is one of our best resolved targets and we find it to have a radially broad dust distribution. The modeling of the resolved images cannot distinguish between two configurations: an arrangement of a warm inner ring at several AU (best fit 4 AU) and a cool outer belt extending from {approx}55 to 400 AU or an arrangement of two cool, narrow rings at {approx}70 AU and {approx}190 AU. This suggests that any configuration between these two is also possible. Both models have a total fractional luminosity of {approx}10{sup -5} and are consistent with the disk being aligned with the stellar equator. The inner edge of either possible configuration suggests that the most likely region to find planets in this system would be within {approx}55 AU of the star. A transient event is not needed to explain the warm dust's fractional luminosity.

  1. 20 Cataclysmic variables to be observed by William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2016-05-01

    Roque Ruiz-Carmona (Ph.D. candidate, Institute of Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands) has requested AAVSO assistance with his campaign to observe a set of 20 cataclysmic variables (CVs) with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at La Palma TONIGHT. This campaign is identical in format to the ones successfully carried out by the AAVSO on his behalf in 2015 (AAVSO Alert Notices 524 and 527). The full details of and instructions for this campaign are included here although the first of the two nights for which data are requested has passed. In order for WHT to observe each of the targets safely and to maximize the science value of the observations obtained, it is essential to know whether they are in outburst or quiescence. To this end, the PI has requested our observers to obtain one image of each target on each of TWO separate nights so he may analyze them to determine the final observing list for WHT. The images must be taken and posted within a certain window. Links to finder charts as well as reporting instructions and other information may be found in the full Alert Notice.

  2. Herschel observations of Circinus X-1 during outburst and quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Buxton, Michelle; Fost, Tyler E-mail: dawn@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: tyler.fost@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    We have used the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe Cir X-1 both in and out of outburst. We detected Cir X-1 during outburst at 70 μm. Unfortunately, a cold background source dominates Cir X-1 at longer wavelengths. We have assembled optical and infrared (IR) data for Cir X-1 to model its spectral energy distribution (SED) in both quiescence and outburst and find that in both states it is consistent with a heavily reddened, 10,000 K blackbody. We believe this behavior is completely consistent with previous suggestions that these outbursts are due to accretion disk events, not unlike those of dwarf novae. To explore the behavior of other low-mass X-ray binaries with reported synchrotron jets, we have extracted and/or compiled optical and near- and mid-IR data sets for five such systems to construct their SEDs. The Z-source GX 349+2 and the black hole system GRS 1915+105 have strong and variable mid-IR excesses that suggest synchrotron emission. The other Z-sources have rather weak (or no) IR excesses that can be explained as reddened blackbody spectra with the addition of either synchrotron or bremsstrahlung components.

  3. Herschel/HIFI reveals the first stages of stellar formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpin, F.; Bontemps, S.; Chavarria, L.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; van Dishoeck, E.

    2010-12-01

    The understanding of the star formation is still on progress. Especially, the formation of high-mass stars is much less understood than the low-mass case: even the time order of observational phenomena is uncertain. Water, one of the most important molecules in the Universe, might elucidate key episodes in the process of stellar birth, and especially could be a major role in the formation of high-mass stars. For both types of stars, the source chemical composition is not well known and even less known is the chemical evolution of the interstellar matter throughout the various phases of star formation. This talk presents the first results of the various Herschel Space Observatory star formation key-programs. One of the instruments on-board HSO, HIFI, is the most powerful spectrometer never built, covering a huge frequency range, most of them unaccessible from ground. In particular, one of the KP, WISH, aims at following the process of star formation during the various stages and at using the water as a physical diagnostic throughout the evolution.

  4. Fan Noise Control Using Herschel-quincke Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Ng, Wing F.; Provenza, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The research effort proposed for this NASA NRA is mainly experimental. In addition, Virginia Tech is working in partnership with Goodrich Aerospace, Aerostructures Group for the analytical development needed to support the experimental endeavor, i.e. model development, design, and system studies. In this project, Herschel-Quincke (HQ)liner technology experiments will be performed at the NASA Glenn Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF) facility. A schematic of both inlet and aft HQ-liner systems installed in the ANCF rig as well as a picture of the Glenn facility is shown. The main goal is to simultaneously test in both the inlet and bypass duct sections. The by-pass duct will have HQ-systems in both the inner and outer duct walls. The main advantages of performing tests at the ANCF facility are that the effect of the inlet HQ-system on the by-pass HQ-system and vice versa, can be accurately determined from the in-duct modal data. Another significant advantage is that it offers the opportunity to assess (on a common basis) the proposed noise reduction concept on the ANCF rig which in the past has been used for assessing other active and passive noise reduction strategies.

  5. Herschel Space Observatory Telescope characterization with Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovillaire, Guillaume; Wang, Yong; Toth, Rémy; Porcar-Guézénec, Raphael

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory Telescope is the first of its kind to cover the 60-670 μm far infrared spectral band. Its optical characterization, performed in the visible range, was a true technological challenge requiring very large dynamic range coupled to very high accuracy. A specific Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (HWFS) was designed to meet the demanding specifications of the measurement. The metrological system used by the EADS Astrium team to characterize the silicon car-bide based telescope will be presented as well as the main features of the specifically developed HWFS. The large expected wavefront error was measured in a double path set-up using the HWFS positioned in an extra-focal plane and a point source in the focal plane. The auto-collimation was carried out thanks to several liquid mirrors covering the M1 pupil plane and located in the conjugation plane of the HWFS sub-apertures. The results on the wavefront error obtained at the Centre Spatial de Liege (CSL) in Belgium will be shown as well as the simulated Point Spread Function to be compared to the real PSF obtained during on flight measurements. The thermally induced focal length variations are also presented as the telescope is meant to operate at 70°K in space.

  6. The Herschel/planck Programme Planck Pfm Testing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reix, Jean-Michel; Rideau, Pascal; Gavila, Emmanuel; Chambelland, Jean-Philippe; Collaudin, Bernard; Passvogel, Thomas; Guillaume, Bernard

    2010-04-01

    The two science missions Herschel, an observatory-type mission, and Planck, a survey mission, are combined in one programme within ESAs long-term science programme. The objective for Planck is to image systematically the whole sky simultaneously with two scientific instruments in nine frequency channels between 30 and 900 GHz to unravel the temperature fluctuations, the anisotropy, of the cosmic background radiation. For both satellites, which have now been launched from the European Space Port in Kourou, French Guiana, on a single Ariane 5 launcher, the orbits will be Lissajous orbits around the 2nd Lagrange Point L2 of the Earth-Sun system. Having surpassed the technological problems and more generally the development phase, this paper focuses on the extensive assembly, integration and tests undertaken for the Proto-Flight Model (PFM) of the Planck Satellite. The paper details the early stages of the integration of the PFM until completeness of the assembly. It then describes the logic and the various tests implemented for the acceptance verification of the Planck PFM. It finally depicts the Launch campaign activities up to the launch from Kourou in the first half of May 2009.

  7. The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: Luminosity and Envelope Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Furlan, Elise; Ali, Babar; Stutz, Amelia M.; Tobin, John J.; Osorio, Mayra; Stanke, Thomas; Manoj, P.; Poteet, Charles A.; Booker, Joseph J.; Hartmann, Lee; Wilson, Thomas L.; Myers, Philip C.; Watson, Dan M.

    2017-05-01

    The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey obtained well-sampled 1.2-870 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of over 300 protostars in the Orion molecular clouds, home to most of the young stellar objects (YSOs) in the nearest 500 pc. We plot the bolometric luminosities and temperatures for 330 Orion YSOs, 315 of which have bolometric temperatures characteristic of protostars. The histogram of the bolometric temperature is roughly flat; 29% of the protostars are in Class 0. The median luminosity decreases by a factor of four with increasing bolometric temperature; consequently, the Class 0 protostars are systematically brighter than the Class I protostars, with a median luminosity of 2.3 L⊙ as opposed to 0.87 L⊙. At a given bolometric temperature, the scatter in luminosities is three orders of magnitude. Using fits to the SEDs, we analyze how the luminosities corrected for inclination and foreground reddening relate to the mass in the inner 2500 au of the best-fit model envelopes. The histogram of the envelope mass is roughly flat, while the median-corrected luminosity peaks at 15 L⊙ for young envelopes and falls to 1.7 L⊙ for late-stage protostars with remnant envelopes. The spread in luminosity at each envelope mass is three orders of magnitude. Envelope masses that decline exponentially with time explain the flat mass histogram and the decrease in luminosity, while the formation of a range of stellar masses explains the dispersion in luminosity.

  8. Exceptional outburst of the blazar CTA 102 in 2012: the GASP-WEBT campaign and its extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Agudo, I.; Smith, P. S.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; ˙arévalo, M. J.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bachev, R.; Blinov, D. A.; Borisov, G.; Borman, G. A.; Bozhilov, V.; Bueno, A.; Carnerero, M. I.; Carosati, D.; Casadio, C.; Chen, W. P.; Clemens, D. P.; Di Paola, A.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Gómez, J. L.; González-Morales, P. A.; Griñón-Marín, A.; Grishina, T. S.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Ibryamov, S.; Itoh, R.; Joshi, M.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Lázaro, C.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Manilla-Robles, A.; Metodieva, Y.; Milanova, Yu. V.; Mirzaqulov, D. O.; Molina, S. N.; Morozova, D. A.; Nazarov, S. V.; Ovcharov, E.; Peneva, S.; Ros, J. A.; Sadun, A. C.; Savchenko, S. S.; Semkov, E.; Sergeev, S. G.; Strigachev, A.; Troitskaya, Yu. V.; Troitsky, I. S.

    2016-09-01

    After several years of quiescence, the blazar CTA 102 underwent an exceptional outburst in 2012 September-October. The flare was tracked from γ-ray to near-infrared (NIR) frequencies, including Fermi and Swift data as well as photometric and polarimetric data from several observatories. An intensive Glast-Agile support programme of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (GASP-WEBT) collaboration campaign in optical and NIR bands, with an addition of previously unpublished archival data and extension through fall 2015, allows comparison of this outburst with the previous activity period of this blazar in 2004-2005. We find remarkable similarity between the optical and γ-ray behaviour of CTA 102 during the outburst, with a time lag between the two light curves of ≈1 h, indicative of cospatiality of the optical and γ-ray emission regions. The relation between the γ-ray and optical fluxes is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) mechanism, with a quadratic dependence of the SSC γ-ray flux on the synchrotron optical flux evident in the post-outburst stage. However, the γ-ray/optical relationship is linear during the outburst; we attribute this to changes in the Doppler factor. A strong harder-when-brighter spectral dependence is seen both the in γ-ray and optical non-thermal emission. This hardening can be explained by convexity of the UV-NIR spectrum that moves to higher frequencies owing to an increased Doppler shift as the viewing angle decreases during the outburst stage. The overall pattern of Stokes parameter variations agrees with a model of a radiating blob or shock wave that moves along a helical path down the jet.

  9. First Year In-Flight and Early Science with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lario, P.

    2011-07-01

    Herschel, an ESA space observatory equipped with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia with important participation from NASA, was launched on 14 May 2009. With its 3.5m diameter primary mirror, Herschel is the largest telescope ever launched into space. Herschel carries three science instruments whose focal plane units are cryogenically cooled inside a superfluid helium cryostat. The PACS and SPIRE instruments provide broadband imaging photometry in six bands centered on 75, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm and imaging spectroscopy over the range 55-672 μm. The HIFI instrument provides very high-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy over the ranges 157-212 and 240-625 μm. The prime science objectives of Herschel are intimately connected to the physics of, and processes in, the interstellar medium (ISM) in the widest sense. Near and far in both space and time, they stretch from solar system objects and the relics of the formation of the sun and our solar system, through star formation in the ISM and the feedback material returned by evolved stars to the ISM, to the star formation history of the universe, galaxy evolution, and cosmology. The very first observational results from Herschel already show that it will have strong impact on research in all of these fields, as exemplified by the few observational results presented here, These are just the tip of the iceberg of what is yet to come in the remaining 2 years of operations.

  10. 'Land-marks of the universe': John Herschel against the background of positional astronomy.

    PubMed

    Case, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    John Herschel (1792-1871) was the leading British natural philosopher of the nineteenth century, widely known and regarded for his work in philosophy, optics and chemistry as well as his important research and popular publications on astronomy. To date, however, there exists no extended treatment of his astronomical career. This paper, part of a larger study exploring Herschel's contributions to astronomy, examines his work in the context of positional astronomy, the dominant form of astronomical practice throughout his lifetime. Herschel, who did not himself practice positional astronomy and who was known for his non-meridional observations of specific stellar objects, was nonetheless a strong advocate for positional astronomy-but for very different reasons than the terrestrial applications to which it was most often put. For Herschel, the star catalogues of positional astronomy were the necessary observational foundation upon which information about the stars as physical objects could be constructed. Positional astronomy practiced in the great national observatories was not about navigation or timekeeping; it was a way to standardize stellar observations and make them useful data for constructing theories of the stars themselves. For Herschel, the seeds of the new astronomy emerged from the practices of the old.

  11. 'Land-marks of the universe': John Herschel against the background of positional astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    John Herschel (1792-1871) was the leading British natural philosopher of the nineteenth century, widely known and regarded for his work in philosophy, optics and chemistry as well as his important research and popular publications on astronomy. To date, however, there exists no extended treatment of his astronomical career. This paper, part of a larger study exploring Herschel's contributions to astronomy, examines his work in the context of positional astronomy, the dominant form of astronomical practice throughout his lifetime. Herschel, who did not himself practice positional astronomy and who was known for his non-meridional observations of specific stellar objects, was nonetheless a strong advocate for positional astronomy - but for very different reasons than the terrestrial applications to which it was most often put. For Herschel, the star catalogues of positional astronomy were the necessary observational foundation upon which information about the stars as physical objects could be constructed. Positional astronomy practiced in the great national observatories was not about navigation or timekeeping; it was a way to standardize stellar observations and make them useful data for constructing theories of the stars themselves. For Herschel, the seeds of the new astronomy emerged from the practices of the old.

  12. Molecular chemistry in protostellar disk winds and observational predictions for Herschel and ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvart, W.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau Des Forets, G.; Garcia, P. J. V.; Ferreira, J.; Casse, F.

    2011-05-01

    The origin of protostellar jets, and their role in extracting angular momentum from the accreting system, remain as major open questions in star formation research. The presence of abundant molecules such as CO, H_2, H_2O, SO and SiO, in the youngest class 0 jets (see eg. Taffala et al. 2010) provides an important new challenge for proposed ejection models. Here we explore the possibility that the jet may trace a dusty magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) centrifugal disk wind launched beyond the dust sublimation radius of 0.1-0.2 AU. The coupled ionization, chemical, and thermal evolution along dusty flow streamlines is computed for a prescribed MHD disk wind solution (Casse & Ferreira 2000), using a method developed for magnetized shocks in the interstellar medium (Flower and Pineau des Forets 2003). We consider 134 species, including gas-phase atoms and molecules (neutral and singly ionized) as well as species on grain icy mantles and inside grain cores. The chemical network consists of 1143 reactions including neutral-neutral and ion-neutral reactions, photo-ionization and photodissociation, recombination with electrons, charge exchange, cosmic ray induced desorption from grains, and sputtering of grain mantles and cores by neutral impact. Heating by ambipolar diffusion, and irradiation by coronal X-rays and far-ultraviolet photons from accretion shocks, are included (see Panoglou et al. 2011), as well as an improved treatment of self-shielding of H_2 and CO (Yvart et al. 2011). We present predictions for the most abundant molecules in the MHD disk wind, and emission maps and line profiles in H_2, CO, and (if available) H_2O. These predictions are compared with observed characteristics from ground-based and space-borne infrared and submm telescopes (eg. Spitzer, Herschel) and with future ALMA capabilities.

  13. THE INVISIBLE MONSTER HAS TWO FACES: OBSERVATIONS OF {epsilon} AURIGAE WITH THE HERSCHEL SPACE OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Hoard, D. W.; Ladjal, D.; Stencel, R. E.; Howell, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    We present Herschel Space Observatory photometric observations of the unique, long-period eclipsing binary star {epsilon} Aurigae. Its extended spectral energy distribution is consistent with our previously published cool (550 K) dust disk model. We also present an archival infrared spectral energy distribution of the side of the disk facing the bright F-type star in the binary, which is consistent with a warmer (1150 K) disk model. The lack of strong molecular emission features in the Herschel bands suggests that the disk has a low gas-to-dust ratio. The spectral energy distribution and Herschel images imply that the 250 GHz radio detection reported by Altenhoff et al. is likely contaminated by infrared-bright, extended background emission associated with a nearby nebular region and should be considered an upper limit to the true flux density of {epsilon} Aur.

  14. The Invisible Monster Has Two Faces: Observations of epsilon Aurigae with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, D. W.; Ladjal, D.; Stencel, R. E.; Howell, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    We present Herschel Space Observatory photometric observations of the unique, long-period eclipsing binary star epsilon Aurigae. Its extended spectral energy distribution is consistent with our previously published cool (550 K) dust disk model. We also present an archival infrared spectral energy distribution of the side of the disk facing the bright F-type star in the binary, which is consistent with a warmer (1150 K) disk model. The lack of strong molecular emission features in the Herschel bands suggests that the disk has a low gas-to-dust ratio. The spectral energy distribution and Herschel images imply that the 250 GHz radio detection reported by Altenhoff et al. is likely contaminated by infrared-bright, extended background emission associated with a nearby nebular region and should be considered an upper limit to the true flux density of epsilon Aur.

  15. A Herschel and CARMA view of CO and [C ii] in Hickson Compact groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Appleton, Philip N.; Lisenfeld, Ute

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the evolution of galaxies from the starforming blue cloud to the quiescent red sequence has been revolutionized by observations taken with Herschel Space Observatory, and the onset of the era of sensitive millimeter interferometers, allowing astronomers to probe both cold dust as well as the cool interstellar medium in a large set of galaxies with unprecedented sensitivity. Recent Herschel observations of of H2-bright Hickson Compact Groups of galaxies (HCGs) has shown that [C ii] may be boosted in diffuse shocked gas. CARMA CO(1-0) observations of these [C ii]-bright HCGs has shown that these turbulent systems also can show suppression of SF. Here we present preliminary results from observations of HCGs with Herschel and CARMA, and their [C ii] and CO(1-0) properties to discuss how shocks influence galaxy transitions and star formation.

  16. The far-infrared view of M87 as seen by the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, M.; Clemens, M.; Xilouris, E. M.; Fritz, J.; Cotton, W. D.; Davies, J. I.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Cortese, L.; De Looze, I.; Pohlen, M.; Verstappen, J.; Böhringer, H.; Bomans, D. J.; Boselli, A.; Corbelli, E.; Dariush, A.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Pierini, D.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Vlahakis, C.; Zibetti, S.

    2011-02-01

    The origin of the far-infrared emission from the nearby radio galaxy M87 remains a matter of debate. Some studies find evidence of a far-infrared excess due to thermal dust emission, whereas others propose that the far-infrared emission can be explained by synchrotron emission without the need for an additional dust emission component. We observed M87 with PACS and SPIRE as part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). We compare the new Herschel data with a synchrotron model based on infrared, submm and radio data to investigate the origin of the far-infrared emission. We find that both the integrated SED and the Herschel surface brightness maps are adequately explained by synchrotron emission. At odds with previous claims, we find no evidence of a diffuse dust component in M87.

  17. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey . II. Truncated dust disks in H I-deficient spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.; Davies, J. I.; Pohlen, M.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Boselli, A.; De Looze, I.; Fritz, J.; Verstappen, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; Dariush, A.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Pierini, D.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Vlahakis, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    By combining Herschel-SPIRE observations obtained as part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey with 21 cm Hi data from the literature, we investigate the role of the cluster environment on the dust content of Virgo spiral galaxies. We show for the first time that the extent of the dust disk is significantly reduced in Hi-deficient galaxies, following remarkably well the observed “truncation” of the Hi disk. The ratio of the submillimetre-to-optical diameter correlates with the Hi-deficiency, suggesting that the cluster environment is able to strip dust as well as gas. These results provide important insights not only into the evolution of cluster galaxies but also into the metal enrichment of the intra-cluster medium. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS): SEDs (Furlan+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, E.; Fischer, W. J.; Ali, B.; Stutz, A. M.; Stanke, T.; Tobin, J. J.; Megeath, S. T.; Osorio, M.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.; Poteet, C. A.; Booker, J.; Manoj, P.; Watson, D. M.; Allen, L.

    2016-06-01

    To summarize, starting from a sample of 410 Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS) targets (see section 2), but excluding likely contaminants and objects not observed or detected by PACS, there are 330 remaining objects that have Spitzer and Herschel data and are considered protostars (based on their Spitzer classification from Megeath et al. 2012, J/AJ/144/192). They form the sample studied in this work. In order to construct SEDs for our sample of 330 YSOs, we combined our own Herschel/PACS observations (see Proposal KPOTtmegeath2) with data from the literature and existing catalogs (see section 3.1). To extend the SEDs into the submillimeter, most of the YSOs were also observed in the continuum at 350 and 870um with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope (Stutz et al. 2013, J/ApJ/767/36). (5 data files).

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Planck and Herschel images combination (Abreu-Vicente+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu-Vicente, J.; Stutz, A.; Henning, T.; Keto, E.; Ballesteros-Paredes, J.; Robitaille, T.

    2017-06-01

    We provide a method that combines the Herschel and Planck data in the Fourier space. Our method corrects the missing Herschel background intensity levels using the Planck model for foreground Galactic thermal dust emission. We apply our method to two regions spanning a range of Galactic environments: Perseus and the Galactic plane region around l=11°. We post-process the combined dust continuum emission images to generate column density and temperature maps. In this file we show the original Herschel and Planck products used to obtain our new combined images, also attached. We further provide the column density and temperature maps of Perseus and HiGaL 11 obtained through our new images. (2 data files).

  20. Probing the interstellar medium of NGC 1569 with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lianou, S.; Barmby, P.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Madden, S. C.; Galliano, F.; Lebouteiller, V.

    2014-11-01

    NGC 1569 has some of the most vigorous star formation among nearby galaxies. It hosts two super star clusters (SSCs) and has a higher star formation rate (SFR) per unit area than other starburst dwarf galaxies. Extended emission beyond the galaxy's optical body is observed in warm and hot ionized and atomic hydrogen gas; a cavity surrounds the SSCs. We aim to understand the impact of the massive star formation on the surrounding interstellar medium in NGC 1569 through a study of its stellar and dust properties. We use Herschel and ancillary multiwavelength observations, from the ultraviolet to the submillimetre regime, to construct its spectral energy distribution, which we model with MAGPHYS on ˜300 pc scales at the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) 250 μm resolution. The multiwavelength morphology shows low levels of dust emission in the cavity, and a concentration of several dust knots in its periphery. The extended emission seen in the ionized and neutral hydrogen observations is also present in the far-infrared emission. The dust mass is higher in the periphery of the cavity, driven by ongoing star formation and dust emission knots. The SFR is highest in the central region, while the specific SFR is more sensitive to the ongoing star formation. The region encompassing the cavity and SSCs contains only 12 per cent of the dust mass of the central starburst, in accord with other tracers of the interstellar medium. The gas-to-dust mass ratio is lower in the cavity and fluctuates to higher values in its periphery.

  1. Resolved imaging of the HR 8799 Debris disk with Herschel

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Brenda; Booth, Mark; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Marois, Christian; Kennedy, Grant; Wyatt, Mark; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Macintosh, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    We present Herschel far-infrared and submillimeter maps of the debris disk associated with the HR 8799 planetary system. We resolve the outer disk emission at 70, 100, 160, and 250 μm and detect the disk at 350 and 500 μm. A smooth model explains the observed disk emission well. We observe no obvious clumps or asymmetries associated with the trapping of planetesimals that is a potential consequence of planetary migration in the system. We estimate that the disk eccentricity must be <0.1. As in previous work by Su et al., we find a disk with three components: a warm inner component and two outer components, a planetesimal belt extending from 100 to 310 AU, with some flexibility (±10 AU) on the inner edge, and the external halo that extends to ∼2000 AU. We measure the disk inclination to be 26° ± 3° from face-on at a position angle of 64° E of N, establishing that the disk is coplanar with the star and planets. The spectral energy distribution of the disk is well fit by blackbody grains whose semi-major axes lie within the planetesimal belt, suggesting an absence of small grains. The wavelength at which the spectrum steepens from blackbody, 47 ± 30 μm, however, is short compared with other A star debris disks, suggesting that there are atypically small grains likely populating the halo. The PACS longer wavelength data yield a lower disk color temperature than do MIPS data (24 and 70 μm), implying two distinct halo dust-grain populations.

  2. HERSCHEL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF LITTLE THINGS DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cigan, Phil; Young, Lisa; Cormier, Diane; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Madden, Suzanne; Brinks, Elias; Elmegreen, Bruce; Schruba, Andreas; Heesen, Volker; Collaboration: LITTLE THINGS Team

    2016-01-15

    We present far-infrared (FIR) spectral line observations of five galaxies from the Little Things sample: DDO 69, DDO 70, DDO 75, DDO 155, and WLM. While most studies of dwarfs focus on bright systems or starbursts due to observational constraints, our data extend the observed parameter space into the regime of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and moderate star formation rates. Our targets were observed with Herschel at the [C ii] 158 μm, [O i] 63 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, and [N ii] 122 μm emission lines using the PACS Spectrometer. These high-resolution maps allow us for the first time to study the FIR properties of these systems on the scales of larger star-forming complexes. The spatial resolution in our maps, in combination with star formation tracers, allows us to identify separate photodissociation regions (PDRs) in some of the regions we observed. Our systems have widespread [C ii] emission that is bright relative to continuum, averaging near 0.5% of the total infrared (TIR) budget—higher than in solar-metallicity galaxies of other types. [N ii] is weak, suggesting that the [C ii] emission in our galaxies comes mostly from PDRs instead of the diffuse ionized interstellar medium (ISM). These systems exhibit efficient cooling at low dust temperatures, as shown by ([O i]+[C ii])/TIR in relation to 60 μm/100 μm, and low [O i]/[C ii] ratios which indicate that [C ii] is the dominant coolant of the ISM. We observe [O iii]/[C ii] ratios in our galaxies that are lower than those published for other dwarfs, but similar to levels noted in spirals.

  3. 21 Cataclysmic variables to be observed by William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2016-12-01

    Roque Ruiz-Carmona (Ph.D. candidate, Institute of Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands) has requested AAVSO assistance with his campaign to observe a set of 21 cataclysmic variables (CVs) with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at La Palma on 2016 December 16. This campaign is essentially identical in format to the ones successfully carried out by the AAVSO on his behalf in 2015 and in May 2016 (AAVSO Alert Notices 524, 527, 543). Ruiz-Carmona writes: "As the end of my PhD is closer now, this is the second-to-last campaign monitoring CVs into outburst. As an update on my research, it seems that unexpectedly spiral density waves can only be detectable in high inclination systems and it seems that the luminosity of the disk in outburst outshines the spiral pattern for the rest of the system. This can also have deep implications: it can be that the spiral density waves are only an effect of the atmospheres of the disks and are therefore unrelated to transport of matter and angular momentum in the disks. In order to investigate this hypothesis, the sample of CVs I would like to monitor contains only eclipsing systems."[As before,] I just need to know if the targets are in outburst or not..." The PI has requested AAVSO observers to obtain one image of each target on each of TWO separate nights so he may analyze them to determine the final observing list for WHT. Links to finder charts as well as reporting instructions and other information may be found in the full Alert Notice.

  4. K2 and Herschel/PACS photometry of irregular satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Andras; Kiss, Csaba; Molnar, Laszlo; Mueller, Thomas G.; Sarneczky, Krisztian; Szabo, Robert; Kiss, Laszlo L.; Szabo, Gyula M.

    2016-10-01

    The combination of optical and far-infrared photometric measurements yields an unambiguous method for characterizing the basic physical and surface properties of minor bodies in the Solar System. In principle, an object with a certain visible brightness can either be an object with a small but bright or a large but dim surface. To resolve this issue, conducting thermal emission measurements can also be acquired since both larger and dimmer objects have higher infrared radiations. In addition, the precise modelling of thermal emission should certainly take into account the rotation period of these bodies - otherwise the presence of surface thermal inertia can result in inaccurate conclusions regarding to the physical size and albedo.Since early 2014, Kepler Space Telescope surveys fields close to the Ecliptic in a framework of quarterly campaigns of the K2 initiative. This program makes possible to continuously observe Solar System bodies during this period of 80-90 days and hence provide an uninterrupted photometric series of moving Solar System objects down to the magnitude range of R = 23.5. This instrument hence an ideal observatory now for Solar System studies. Due to the fact that the expected rotational periods of these objects are commensurable to the diurnal characteristics of ground-based observations, such uninterrupted light curves are rather valuable for the accurate determination of rotational characteristics - including the physical rotation period, the amplitude and the confirmation of the presence of double- or multiple peaked features.In this presentation we summarize our results of current K2 and legacy Herschel/PACS observations regarding to some of the irregular satellites of Uranus and Neptune, namely Caliban, Sycorax, Prospero, Setebos and Nereid. By comparing these results with similar kind of observations for trans-Neptunian objects (see Kiss et al., this DPS meeting), one can conclude how the formation and evolution of the outer Solar

  5. Gaussian beam measurement for HIFI instrument: Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaleev, Miroslav G.; Ermisch, Karsten; Fredrixon, Mathias; Svensson, Magnus; Belitsky, Victor

    2004-09-01

    The Heterodyne Instrument (HIFI) is part of the ESA Herschel Space Observatory Project. The instrument is intended for high-resolution spectroscopy and has a frequency coverage from 480 to 1250 GHz band in five receiver bands and 1410 to 1910 GHz in two additional bands. HIFI is built based on a modular principle: the mixers together with their respective optics are integrated into Mixer Sub-Assemblies (MSA). Each frequency band has two MSAs allocated for horizontal and vertical polarization. In this paper, we present the work done on the design and construction of a Gaussian beam measurement range. One of the unique features of the developed method is a possibility to measure the beam parameters of the MSAs in the absolute coordinate system referred to the device under test. This along with other methods should allow integration of the entire HIFI with the best possible coupling of the antenna beam to the receivers and achieving ultimate performance in such a complicated optical system. The range houses the measured MSA, which is at 4 K ambient temperature, and a continuous wave source placed on a precise scanner entirely under vacuum. Developed triangulation system provides mechanical reference data on the MSA, in-situ, after the entire system is evacuated and the cooling is finished. We adopted a scalar measurement approach where the test source scans the receiver input beam and the mixer IF power is measured. The data collected from 3-4 planar scans are used to calculate the orientation and position of the optical axis. We present results from the first beam measurements for MSA HIFI bands 1 and 2 (480 and 640 GHz), the measurement system performance and accuracy analysis.

  6. Herschel/SPIRE Submillimeter Spectra of Local Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma; Wilson, Christine D.; Glenn, Jason; Isaak, Kate G.; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Baes, Maarten; Barlow, Michael J.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Cormier, Diane

    2013-05-01

    We present the submillimeter spectra from 450 to 1550 GHz of 11 nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) on board Herschel. We detect CO transitions from J up = 4 to 12, as well as the two [C I] fine structure lines at 492 and 809 GHz and the [N II]1461 GHz line. We used radiative transfer models to analyze the observed CO spectral line energy distributions. The FTS CO data were complemented with ground-based observations of the low-J CO lines. We found that the warm molecular gas traced by the mid-J CO transitions has similar physical conditions (n_H_2 \\sim 103.2-103.9 cm-3 and T kin ~ 300-800 K) in most of our galaxies. Furthermore, we found that this warm gas is likely producing the mid-IR rotational H2 emission. We could not determine the specific heating mechanism of the warm gas, however, it is possibly related to the star formation activity in these galaxies. Our modeling of the [C I] emission suggests that it is produced in cold (T kin < 30 K) and dense (n_H_2 \\gt 10^3 cm-3) molecular gas. Transitions of other molecules are often detected in our SPIRE/FTS spectra. The HF J = 1-0 transition at 1232 GHz is detected in absorption in UGC 05101 and in emission in NGC 7130. In the latter, near-infrared pumping, chemical pumping, or collisional excitation with electrons are plausible excitation mechanisms likely related to the active galactic nucleus of this galaxy. In some galaxies, few H2O emission lines are present. Additionally, three OH+ lines at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz are identified in NGC 7130.

  7. HERSCHEL/SPIRE SUBMILLIMETER SPECTRA OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma; Wilson, Christine D.; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Isaak, Kate G.; Baes, Maarten; Barlow, Michael J.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Cormier, Diane

    2013-05-01

    We present the submillimeter spectra from 450 to 1550 GHz of 11 nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) on board Herschel. We detect CO transitions from J{sub up} = 4 to 12, as well as the two [C I] fine structure lines at 492 and 809 GHz and the [N II]1461 GHz line. We used radiative transfer models to analyze the observed CO spectral line energy distributions. The FTS CO data were complemented with ground-based observations of the low-J CO lines. We found that the warm molecular gas traced by the mid-J CO transitions has similar physical conditions (n{sub H{sub 2}}{approx} 10{sup 3.2}-10{sup 3.9} cm{sup -3} and T{sub kin} {approx} 300-800 K) in most of our galaxies. Furthermore, we found that this warm gas is likely producing the mid-IR rotational H{sub 2} emission. We could not determine the specific heating mechanism of the warm gas, however, it is possibly related to the star formation activity in these galaxies. Our modeling of the [C I] emission suggests that it is produced in cold (T{sub kin} < 30 K) and dense (n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}) molecular gas. Transitions of other molecules are often detected in our SPIRE/FTS spectra. The HF J = 1-0 transition at 1232 GHz is detected in absorption in UGC 05101 and in emission in NGC 7130. In the latter, near-infrared pumping, chemical pumping, or collisional excitation with electrons are plausible excitation mechanisms likely related to the active galactic nucleus of this galaxy. In some galaxies, few H{sub 2}O emission lines are present. Additionally, three OH{sup +} lines at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz are identified in NGC 7130.

  8. Chemical Herschel Surveys of Star Forming Regions (chess)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emprechtinger, Martin

    2011-06-01

    CHESS is an unbiased line survey of low-, intermediate-, and high-mass star forming regions at different stages of their evolution. The eight sources in the CHESS program are observed with the HIFI instrument on board of the Herschel Space Telescope, which provides a high spectral resolution (R˜ 10^6) and covers a frequency range from 480 to 1910 GHz. The objective of CHESS is to study the chemical composition and physical conditions in star forming regions and their variation with mass and evolutionary stage. To date about 50% of the program have been completed. One of the eight objects in the CHESS program is the hot core NGC 6334 I. With an envelope mass of 200 M_⊙ and temperatures 100 K, NGC 6334 I is very line rich. In this object emission lines of more than 40 species have been identified, including first detections of H_2Cl^+ (Lis et al. 2010) and H_2O^+ (Ossenkopf et al. 2010). Furthermore, several lines of ortho and para water and ammonia have been detected, allowing to determine the ortho/para ratio of these crucial species. In addition many hydrides (HF, CH) and hydride ions (SH^+, OH^+, CH^+) have been found. In the low mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422, another source of our sample, several deuterated species, including the first detection of ND (Bacmann et al. 2010), were found. The data allowed also the first determination of the ortho/para ratio of D_2H^+ (>2.6) (Vastel et al. 2010). In this talk I will give a summary of the conducted observation and highlight the most important results.

  9. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey - XVI. A cluster inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.; Bianchi, S.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Clemens, M.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fritz, J.; Fuller, C.; Pappalardo, C.; Hughes, T. M.; Madden, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-03-01

    Herschel far-infrared (FIR) observations are used to construct Virgo cluster galaxy luminosity functions and to show that the cluster lacks the very bright and the numerous faint sources detected in field galaxy surveys. The FIR spectral energy distributions are fitted to obtain dust masses and temperatures and the dust mass function. The cluster is overdense in dust by about a factor of 100 compared to the field. The same emissivity (β)-temperature relation applies for different galaxies as that found for different regions of M31. We use optical and H I data to show that Virgo is overdense in stars and atomic gas by about a factor of 100 and 20, respectively. Metallicity values are used to measure the mass of metals in the gas phase. The mean metallicity is ˜0.7 solar, and ˜50 per cent of the metals are in the dust. For the cluster as a whole, the mass density of stars in galaxies is eight times that of the gas and the gas mass density is 130 times that of the metals. We use our data to consider the chemical evolution of the individual galaxies, inferring that the measured variations in the effective yield are due to galaxies having different ages, being affected to varying degrees by gas loss. Four galaxy scaling relations are considered: mass-metallicity, mass-velocity, mass-star formation rate and mass-radius - we suggest that initial galaxy mass is the prime driver of a galaxy's ultimate destiny. Finally, we use X-ray observations and galaxy dynamics to assess the dark and baryonic matter content compared to the cosmological model.

  10. Locating dust crystals in protoplanetary disks with Herschel PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Gijs; Dominik, Carsten; Maaskant, Koen; Waters, Rens

    2012-03-01

    Forsterite is one of the crystalline dust species that is often observed in protoplanetary disks and solar system comets. Being absent in the interstellar medium, it must be produced during the disk lifetime, though its connection with disk evolution and planet formation remains unclear. One reason for this is that mid infrared spectroscopy can only give a hint of crystal location and abundance. Additional information -- such as the shape of the temperature dependent 69 micron feature of forsterite -- is necessary to pin down its exact location. The DIGIT key program targets a sample of 24 Herbig stars with Herschel PACS at sufficient resolution to spectrally resolve the shape of the 69 micron feature. Combined with spatially resolved imaging and radiative transfer calculations, these data allow us to constrain the crystal location with great precision. We report on detailed studies of the spatial distribution and abundance of forsterite in three transitional disks. In HD100546 and HD169142, we find that forsterite is concentrated at the outer edge of the disk gap, with a local abundance that is much higher than the overall crystallinity. This suggests that the origin of forsterite in these objects is closely linked to the disk gap, carved by protoplanets. IRS 48 shows a different pattern: although similar in disk morphology, its forsterite is much colder and located further out in the disk, suggesting a different formation channel. These objects demonstrate the diagnostic power of the 69 micron forsterite feature observed as part of DIGIT, and show that the standard scenario of radial mixing of crystals from the inner disk does not suffice. A different formation mechanism, perhaps tied to the transitional nature of these disks, is necessary to explain the observed location of dust crystals.

  11. The multiplicity of 250-μm Herschel sources in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, Jillian M.; Oliver, Seb; Hurley, Peter D.; Griffin, Matt; Sargent, Mark T.; Scott, Douglas; Wang, Lingyu; Wardlow, Julie L.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the multiplicity of extragalactic sources detected by the Herschel Space Observatory in the COSMOS field. Using 3.6- and 24-μm catalogues, in conjunction with 250-μm data from Herschel, we seek to determine if a significant fraction of Herschel sources are composed of multiple components emitting at 250 μm. We use the XID+ code, using Bayesian inference methods to produce probability distributions of the possible contributions to the observed 250-μm flux for each potential component. The fraction of Herschel flux assigned to the brightest component is highest for sources with total 250-μm fluxes <45 mJy; however, the flux in the brightest component is still highest in the brightest Herschel sources. The faintest 250-μm sources (30-45 mJy) have the majority of their flux assigned to a single bright component; the second brightest component is typically significantly weaker, and contains the remainder of the 250-μm source flux. At the highest 250-μm fluxes (45-110 mJy), the brightest and second brightest components are assigned roughly equal fluxes, and together are insufficient to reach 100 per cent of the 250-μm source flux. This indicates that additional components are required, beyond the brightest two components, to reproduce the observed flux. 95 per cent of the sources in our sample have a second component that contains more than 10 per cent of the total source flux. Particularly for the brightest Herschel sources, assigning the total flux to a single source may overestimate the flux contributed by around 150 per cent.

  12. Spitzer Imaging of Strongly lensed Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C.; Baes, M.; Chapman, S.; Dannerbauer, H.; da Cunha, E.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Magdis, G.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Scott, D.; Smith, M. W. L.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Vaccari, M.; Viaene, S.; Vieira, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 1010-4 × 1011 M⊙ and star formation rates of around 100 M⊙ yr-1. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  13. Herschel-resolved Outer Belts of Two-belt Debris Disks—Evidence of Icy Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel/PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust (T warm ˜ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer. Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μm), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid-Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer/IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μm) and Herschel/PACS (70-to-160 μm) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout (f MB = a min/a BOS ˜ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel-unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia, with important participation from NASA.

  14. Patterns of respiration in diving penguins: is the last gasp an inspired tactic?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rory P; Simeone, Alejandro; Luna-Jorquera, Guillermo; Steinfurth, Antje; Jackson, Sue; Fahlman, Andreas

    2003-05-01

    Humboldt penguins Spheniscus humboldti in captivity and free-living Magellanic penguins S. magellanicus were fitted with loggers to determine beak angles during breathing. The Humboldt penguins were also fitted with masks for determining rates of air flow during breathing. During periods of higher gas exchange requirement, Humboldt penguins opened their beaks during inspiration, where tidal volume was linearly correlated with both change in beak angle and maximum beak angle, closed them slightly during the final stages of inspiration and finally closed them during expiration. Substantial differences were apparent between individuals. Contrary to the condition proposed for most birds, our data suggest that expiration is passive during periods of high respiratory tidal volumes, and that the increased resistance of the respiratory pathway serves to slow air flow so as to maximize gas exchange in the lungs. During foraging, Magellanic penguins at the surface between dives showed similar breathing patterns but maximum beak angles were much higher and breath cycle time shorter, as would be expected for animals attempting to maximize gas exchange. Both maximum beak angle per breath and breath frequency changed systematically over the surface pause; both were initially high, then decreased to a low before rising again to a maximum just before diving. Based on known changes in tidal volume with beak angle derived from Humboldt penguins, a simple model is proposed to examine rates of gas exchange over the surface pause. This indicates that the observed patterns do not maximize the rate of transfer of oxygen over the whole of the surface pause but are rather concerned with an initial rapid accumulation of oxygen in the tissues followed by effective carbon dioxide release.

  15. Pressure Distribution in a Porous Squeeze Film Bearing Lubricated with a Herschel-Bulkley Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walicka, A.; Jurczak, P.

    2016-12-01

    The influence of a wall porosity on the pressure distribution in a curvilinear squeeze film bearing lubricated with a lubricant being a viscoplastic fluid of a Herschel-Bulkley type is considered. After general considerations on the flow of the viscoplastic fluid (lubricant) in a bearing clearance and in a porous layer the modified Reynolds equation for the curvilinear squeeze film bearing with a Herschel-Bulkley lubricant is given. The solution of this equation is obtained by a method of successive approximation. As a result one obtains a formula expressing the pressure distribution. The example of squeeze films in a step bearing (modeled by two parallel disks) is discussed in detail.

  16. Candidate High Redshift Clusters of Dusty Galaxies from Herschel and Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, D. L.; Greenslade, J.; Greenslade

    By examining Herschel images in the HerMES & H-ATLAS surveys at the position of Planck Catalog of Compact Source sources we are able to determine the nature of the Planck sources. Most are simply nearby, known, dusty galaxies, while others are foreground galactic `cirrus' dust. About 11% of sources, though, appear to be groups or clumps of fainter Herschel objects. Followup of a number of these indicates that they are galaxy clusters or protoclusters at z ~1-3 that contain a number of galaxies undergoing contemporaneous massive starbursts. These sources present challenges for current galaxy & cluster formation/evolution models.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST Frontier Fields Herschel sources (Rawle+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, T. D.; Altieri, B.; Egami, E.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Boone, F.; Clement, B.; Ivison, R. J.; Richard, J.; Rujopakarn, W.; Valtchanov, I.; Walth, G.; Weiner, B. J.; Blain, A. W.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Lutz, D.; Rodighiero, G.; Schaerer, D.; Smail, I.

    2017-07-01

    We present a complete census of the 263 Herschel-detected sources within the HST Frontier Fields, including 163 lensed sources located behind the clusters. Our primary aim is to provide a robust legacy catalogue of the Herschel fluxes, which we combine with archival data from Spitzer and WISE to produce IR SEDs. We optimally combine the IR photometry with data from HST, VLA and ground-based observatories in order to identify optical counterparts and gain source redshifts. Each cluster is observed in two distinct regions, referred to as the central and parallel footprints. (2 data files).

  18. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth from GOES Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP) and MODIS to AERONET AOD and IMPROVE PM2.5 Mass at Bondville, Illinois Stratified by Chemical Composition, RH, Particle Size, and Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. C.; Kondragunta, S.; Ciren, P.

    2008-05-01

    The USEPA is interested in using satellite remote sensing data to estimate levels of PM2.5. Here we report on comparisons of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from GOES Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to IMPROVE network PM2.5 mass and AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) ground-based AOD. Before we compare GASP and MODIS AOD to PM2.5, we first evaluate satellite AOD using the ground-based AERONET measurements and how it varies by aerosol chemical composition and size distribution. We focus attention on the Bondville, Illinois site because there is collocated IMPROVE sampling and an AERONET site. GASP provides aerosol optical depth at 0.55 um using top of atmosphere visible channel radiance measured from GOES east and GOES west. Time resolution is typically every 30 minutes during daylight hours. MODIS provides typically once per day AOD for any given location. The IMPROVE sampler provides a 24-hour integrated sample of PM10 mass, and PM2.5 mass and elemental composition on a one day in three schedule. AERONET provides aerosol optical depth at multiple wavelengths and aerosol size distribution as well as other derived parameters such as Angstrom exponent from ground based daytime measurements. We stratified cases by RH group, major chemical component, size distribution, and season. GOES AOD correlated best with PM2.5 mass during periods with mainly small particles, moderate RH, and sulfate dominated aerosol. It correlated poorly when RH is very high or low, aerosol is primarily organic, and when coarse to fine mass ratio is high. GASP AOD also correlated best with AERONET AOD when particles are mainly fine, suggesting the aerosol model assumptions (e.g. size distribution) may need to be varied geographically for GASP to achieve better AOD results.

  19. The Herschel Fornax Cluster Survey - I. The bright galaxy sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.; Bianchi, S.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Clemens, M.; Davis, T. A.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fuller, C.; Fritz, J.; Hunt, L. K.; Serra, P.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Bomans, D.; Hughes, T.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Madden, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present Herschel Space Telescope observations of the nearby Fornax cluster at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm with a spatial resolution of 7-36 arcsec (10 arcsec ≈ 1 kpc at dFornax = 17.9 Mpc). We define a sample of 11 bright galaxies, selected at 500 μm, that can be directly compared with our past work on the Virgo cluster. We check and compare our results with previous observations made by IRAS and Planck, finding good agreement. The far-infrared luminosity density is higher, by about a factor of 3, in Fornax compared to Virgo, consistent with the higher number density of galaxies. The 100 μm (42.5-122.5 μm) luminosity is two orders of magnitude larger in Fornax than in the local field as measured by IRAS. We calculate stellar (L0.4-2.5) and far-infrared (L100-500) luminosities for each galaxy and use these to estimate a mean optical depth of τ = 0.4 ± 0.1 - the same value as we previously found for Virgo cluster galaxies. For 10 of the 11 galaxies (NGC 1399 excepted), we fit a modified blackbody curve (β = 2.0) to our observed flux densities to derive dust masses and temperatures of 106.54-8.35 M⊙ and T =14.6-24.2 K, respectively, values comparable to those found for Virgo. The derived stars-to-gas(atomic) and gas(atomic)-to-dust ratios vary from 1.1-67.6 to 9.8-436.5, respectively, again broadly consistent with values for Virgo. Fornax is a mass overdensity in stars and dust of about 120 when compared to the local field (30 for Virgo). Fornax and Virgo are both a factor of 6 lower overdensities in gas(atomic) than in stars and dust indicating loss of gas, but not dust and stars, in the cluster environment. We consider in more detail two of the sample galaxies. As the brightest source in either Fornax or Virgo, NGC 1365 is also detected by Planck. The Planck data fit the PACS/SPIRE spectral energy distribution out to 1382 μm with no evidence of other sources of emission (`spinning dust', free-free, synchrotron). At the opposite end of the scale, NGC

  20. WATER VAPOR IN NEARBY INFRARED GALAXIES AS PROBED BY HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Chentao; Gao Yu; Liu Daizhong; Isaak, K. G.; Downes, D.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Lu Nanyao

    2013-07-10

    We report the first systematic study of the submillimeter water vapor rotational emission lines in infrared (IR) galaxies based on the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) data of Herschel SPIRE. Among the 176 galaxies with publicly available FTS data, 45 have at least one H{sub 2}O emission line detected. The H{sub 2}O line luminosities range from {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} L{sub Sun} to {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} L{sub Sun} while the total IR luminosities (L{sub IR}) have a similar spread ({approx}1-300 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} L{sub Sun }). In addition, emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O are also detected. H{sub 2}O is found, for most galaxies, to be the strongest molecular emitter after CO in FTS spectra. The luminosity of the five most important H{sub 2}O lines is near-linearly correlated with L{sub IR}, regardless of whether or not strong active galactic nucleus signature is present. However, the luminosity of H{sub 2}O(2{sub 11}-2{sub 02}) and H{sub 2}O(2{sub 20}-2{sub 11}) appears to increase slightly faster than linear with L{sub IR}. Although the slope turns out to be slightly steeper when z {approx} 2-4 ULIRGs are included, the correlation is still closely linear. We find that L{sub H{sub 2O}}/L{sub IR} decreases with increasing f{sub 25}/f{sub 60}, but see no dependence on f{sub 60}/f{sub 100}, possibly indicating that very warm dust contributes little to the excitation of the submillimeter H{sub 2}O lines. The average spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the entire sample is consistent with individual SLEDs and the IR pumping plus collisional excitation model, showing that the strongest lines are H{sub 2}O(2{sub 02}-1{sub 11}) and H{sub 2}O(3{sub 21}-3{sub 12}).

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel-PACS and -SPIRE spectroscopy of 70 objects (Green+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. D.; Yang, Y.-L.; Evans, N. J., II; Karska, A.; Herczeg, G.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Lee, J.-E.; Larson, R. L.; Bouwman, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present the CDF (COPS-DIGIT-FOOSH) archive, with Herschel spectroscopic observations of 70 objects (protostars, young stellar objects, and FU Orionis objects) from the "Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time" (DIGIT) Key Project, FU Orionis Objects Surveyed with Herschel" Open Time Program (FOOSH OT1), and "CO in Protostars" Open Time Program (COPS OT2) Herschel programs. These have been delivered to the Herschel archive and are available. The full source list is shown in Table1. The full DIGIT spectroscopic sample consists of 63 sources: 24 Herbig Ae/Be stars (intermediate mass sources with circumstellar disks), 9 T Tauri stars (low mass young stars with circumstellar disks), and 30 protostars (young stars with significant envelope emission) observed with Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) spectroscopy. DIGIT also included an additional wTTS (weak-line T Tauri star) sample that was observed photometrically and delivered separately. The wTTS sample is fully described by Cieza et al. 2013ApJ...762..100C. The full DIGIT embedded protostellar sample consisted of 30 Class 0/I targets, drawn from previous studies, focusing on protostars with high-quality Spitzer-IRS 5-40μm spectroscopy (summarized by Lahuis et al. 2006 c2d Spectroscopy Explanatory Supplement; Pasadena, CA: Spitzer Science Center), and UV, optical, infrared, and submillimeter complementary data. These objects are selected from some of the nearest and best-studied molecular clouds: Taurus (140pc; 6 targets), Ophiuchus (125pc; 7 targets), Perseus (230-250pc; 7 targets), R Corona Australis (130pc; 3 targets), Serpens (429pc; 2 targets), Chamaeleon (178pc, 1 target), and 4 additional isolated cores. PACS is a 5*5 array of 9.4''*9.4'' spatial pixels (spaxels) covering the spectral range from 50 to 210μm with λ/Δλ~1000-3000, divided into four segments, covering λ~50-75, 70-105, 100-145, and 140-210μm. The PACS spatial resolution ranges from ~9'' at the shortest wavelengths (50μm) to ~18'' at the

  2. How bright planets became dim stars: planetary speculations in John Herschel's double star astronomy.

    PubMed

    Case, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Previous research on the origins of double star astronomy in the early nineteenth century emphasized the role mathematical methods and instrumentation played in motivating early observations of these objects. The work of the British astronomer John Herschel, however, shows that questions regarding the physical nature of double stars were also important. In particular, an analysis of John Herschel's early work on double stars illustrates the way in which speculations regarding these objects were shaped by assumptions of the properties of stars themselves. For Herschel, a major consideration in double star astronomy was distinguishing between types of double stars. Optical doubles were useful in determining parallax while binary doubles were not. In practice, classification of a specific double star pair into one of these categories was based on the assumption that stars were of approximately the same luminosity and thus differences in relative brightness between stars were caused by difference in distances. Such assumptions, though ultimately abandoned, would lead Herschel in the 1830s to advance the possibility that the dim companion stars in certain double star pairs were not stars at all but in fact planets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent star formation in the Lupus clouds as seen by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygl, K. L. J.; Benedettini, M.; Schisano, E.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; André, Ph.; Bernard, J. P.; White, G. J.; Polychroni, D.; Bontemps, S.; Cox, N. L. J.; Di Francesco, J.; Facchini, A.; Fallscheer, C.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Minier, V.; Motte, F.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Peretto, N.; Pestalozzi, M.; Sadavoy, S.; Schneider, N.; Spinoglio, L.; Testi, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the star formation histories of the Lupus I, III, and IV clouds using the Herschel 70-500 μm maps obtained by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey Key Project. By combining the new Herschel data with the existing Spitzer catalog we obtained an unprecedented census of prestellar sources and young stellar objects in the Lupus clouds, which allowed us to study the overall star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE). The high SFE of Lupus III, its decreasing SFR, and its large number of pre-main sequence stars with respect to proto- and prestellar sources, suggest that Lupus III is the most evolved cloud, and after having experienced a major star formation event in the past, is now approaching the end of its current star-forming cycle. Lupus I is currently undergoing a large star formation event, apparent by the increasing SFR, the large number of prestellar objects with respect to more evolved objects, and the high percentage of material at high extinction (e.g., above AV ≈ 8 mag). Also Lupus IV has an increasing SFR; however, the relative number of prestellar sources is much lower, suggesting that its star formation has not yet reached its peak. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Biorheological Model on Flow of Herschel-Bulkley Fluid through a Tapered Arterial Stenosis with Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Priyadharshini, S.; Ponalagusamy, R.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of blood flow through a tapered artery with stenosis and dilatation has been carried out where the blood is treated as incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A comparison between numerical values and analytical values of pressure gradient at the midpoint of stenotic region shows that the analytical expression for pressure gradient works well for the values of yield stress till 2.4. The wall shear stress and flow resistance increase significantly with axial distance and the increase is more in the case of converging tapered artery. A comparison study of velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and flow resistance for Newtonian, power law, Bingham-plastic, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids shows that the variation is greater for Herschel-Bulkley fluid than the other fluids. The obtained velocity profiles have been compared with the experimental data and it is observed that blood behaves like a Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than power law, Bingham, and Newtonian fluids. It is observed that, in the case of a tapered stenosed tube, the streamline pattern follows a convex pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = 1 and it follows a concave pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = −1. Further, it is of opposite behaviour in the case of a tapered dilatation tube which forms new information that is, for the first time, added to the literature. PMID:27041979

  5. PDR properties and spatial structures probed by Herschel and Spitzer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.; Berné, O.; Pilleri, P.; Dedes, C.; Gonzalez, M.; Joblin, C.; Kramer, C.; Ossenkopf, V.; Mookerjea, B.; Röllig, M.

    2011-11-01

    We report the analysis of the mid-infrared spectral maps observed by Spitzer/IRS toward star-forming regions where the Herschel key program WADI has observed / will observe with HIFI and PACS. The IRS spectra are fitted using 4 components of small grains: PAH0, PAH+, PAHx, and evaporating VSG, and the spatial distributions of these components are derived.

  6. Thermal Emission of the Eris — Dysnomia System as Observed by Herschel/PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Cs.; Vilenius, E.; Müller, Th. G.; Pál, A.; Rengel, M.; Mommert, M.; Szalai, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Stansberry, J.

    2012-05-01

    We will present the physical characteristics of Eris (size, albedo, thermal inertia, etc.) based on our recent Herschel/PACS data, and will discuss the influence of Dysnomia in our system-integrated thermal data and constrain its size and albedo.

  7. The development of astronomy in Naples: the tale of two large telescopes made by William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargano, Mauro

    2012-03-01

    Mirrors and telescopes produced by William Herschel were popular in Europe, due to the opportunities they offered for deep sky observations. Leading public and private observatories acquired them to observe new objects in the Solar System, such as planets and asteroids, and strange stellar structures, stellar nebulae and clusters. After the establishment of the Chair of Astronomy at the University of Naples, it took thirty-four years before an observatory was built. Due to the commitment of Lord Acton, Naples became the first Italian city to host a telescope made by William Herschel. A few years later, Count von Hahn also bought a Herschel telescope for his private observatory in Germany, and at the time this was the largest telescope made by Herschel in mainland Europe. In this paper we recount the remarkable story of these telescopes by way of the scientific activities of the two astronomers who were associated with them, and how von Hahn's telescope eventually also ended up in Naples.

  8. 1400-1900 GHz local oscillators for the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J.; Maiwald, F.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Schlecht, E.; Maestrini, A.; Gill, J.; Mehdi, I.

    2003-01-01

    JPL continues to develop robust planar, all solid-state sources to cover the 1414 to 1908 GHz band. These sources will be used as local oscillators to drive hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne mixers on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe high resolution spectra in the interstellar medium. We report our current progress and present recent results.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: L1642 Herschel maps (Malinen+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, P. J.; Juvela, M.; Zahorecz, S.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Montillaud, J.; Arimatsu, K.; Bernard, J.-P.; Doi, Y.; Haikala, L.; Kawabe, R.; Marton, G.; McGehee, P.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Ristorcelli, I.; Shimajiri, Y.; Takita, S.; Toth, L. V.; Tsukagoshi, T.; Ysard, N.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced, zero-corrected and calibrated Herschel intensity maps at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500um (no background subtraction made). Colour temperature map calculated at 40" resolution with constant beta 1.8, using Markov chain Monte Carlo fitting and wavelengths 250-500um. (2 data files).

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cold gas properties of Herschel Reference Survey (Boselli+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Cortese, L.; Boquien, M.

    2013-11-01

    12CO(1-0) and HI data for galaxies of the Herschel Reference (Boselli et al., 2010, Cat. J/PASP/122/261). The data are either collected in the literature, or taken from our own observations done with the 12m Keat Peak radio telescope. (7 data files).

  11. Herschel-ATLAS: first data release of the Science Demonstration Phase source catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, E. E.; Maddox, S. J.; Dunne, L.; Negrello, M.; Smith, D. J. B.; González-Nuevo, J.; Herranz, D.; López-Caniego, M.; Auld, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Baes, M.; Cava, A.; Cooray, A.; Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Frayer, D.; Fritz, J.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rodighiero, G.; Serjeant, S.; Temi, P.; Thompson, M. A.

    2011-08-01

    The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (Herschel-ATLAS) is a survey of 550 deg2 with the Herschel Space Observatory in five far-infrared and submillimetre bands. The first data for the survey, observations of a field 4 × 4 deg2 in size, were taken during the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP), and reach a 5σ noise level of 33.5 mJy beam-1 at 250 μm. This paper describes the source extraction methods used to create the corresponding SDP catalogue, which contains 6876 sources, selected at 250 μm, within ˜14 deg2. Spectral and Photometric Imaging REciever (SPIRE) sources are extracted using a new method specifically developed for Herschel data and Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) counterparts of these sources are identified using circular apertures placed at the SPIRE positions. Aperture flux densities are measured for sources identified as extended after matching to optical wavelengths. The reliability of this catalogue is also discussed, using full simulated maps at the three SPIRE bands. These show that a significant number of sources at 350 and 500 μm have undergone flux density enhancements of up to a factor of ˜2, due mainly to source confusion. Correction factors are determined for these effects. The SDP data set and corresponding catalogue will be available from .

  12. The first release of data from the Herschel ATLAS: the SPIRE images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascale, E.; Auld, R.; Dariush, A.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Maddox, S.; Panuzzo, P.; Pohlen, M.; Smith, D. J. B.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dye, S.; de Zotti, G.; Fritz, J.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Leeuw, L.; López-Caniego, M.; Rigby, E.; Rodighiero, G.; Scott, D.; Smith, M. W. L.; Temi, P.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.

    2011-07-01

    We have reduced the data taken with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) photometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory in the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). We describe the data reduction, which poses specific challenges, both because of the large number of detectors which can have noise correlated in each array, and because only two scans are made for each region. We implement effective solutions to process the bolometric timelines into maps, and show that correlations among detectors are negligible, and that the photometer is stable on time scales up to 250 s. This is longer than the time the telescope takes to cross the observed sky region, and it allows us to use naive binning methods for an optimal reconstruction of the sky emission. The maps have equal contribution of confusion and white instrumental noise, and the former is estimated to 5.3, 6.4 and 6.7 mJy beam-1 (1σ), at 250, 350 and 500 μm, respectively. This pipeline is used to reduce other H-ATLAS observations, as they became available, and we discuss how it can be used with the optimal map maker implemented in the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE), to improve computational efficiency and stability. The SDP data set is available from . Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  13. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. IV. Resolved dust analysis of spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. W. L.; Vlahakis, C.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Boselli, A.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; Cortese, L.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Sabatini, S.; Verstappen, J.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    We present a resolved dust analysis of three of the largest angular size spiral galaxies, NGC 4501 and NGC 4567/8, in the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) science demonstration field. Herschel has unprecedented spatial resolution at far-infrared wavelengths and with the PACS and SPIRE instruments samples both sides of the peak in the far infrared spectral energy distribution (SED). We present maps of dust temperature, dust mass, and gas-to-dust ratio, produced by fitting modified black bodies to the SED for each pixel. We find that the distribution of dust temperature in both systems is in the range ~19-22 K and peaks away from the centres of the galaxies. The distribution of dust mass in both systems is symmetrical and exhibits a single peak coincident with the galaxy centres. This Letter provides a first insight into the future analysis possible with a large sample of resolved galaxies to be observed by Herschel. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  14. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey . VI. The far-infrared view of M 87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, M.; Clemens, M.; Xilouris, E. M.; Fritz, J.; Cotton, W. D.; Davies, J. I.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Cortese, L.; De Looze, I.; Pohlen, M.; Verstappen, J.; Böhringer, H.; Bomans, D. J.; Boselli, A.; Corbelli, E.; Dariush, A.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Pierini, D.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Vlahakis, C.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    The origin of the far-infrared emission from the nearby radio galaxy M 87 remains a matter of debate. Some studies find evidence of a far-infrared excess due to thermal dust emission, whereas others propose that the far-infrared emission can be explained by synchrotron emission without the need for an additional dust emission component. We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations of M 87, taken as part of the science demonstration phase observations of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. We compare these data with a synchrotron model based on mid-infrared, far-infrared, submm and radio data from the literature to investigate the origin of the far-infrared emission. Both the integrated SED and the Herschel surface brightness maps are adequately explained by synchrotron emission. At odds with previous claims, we find no evidence of a diffuse dust component in M 87, which is not unexpected in the harsh X-ray environment of this radio galaxy sitting at the core of the Virgo cluster. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  15. Tracing the gas composition of Titan's atmosphere with Herschel : Advances and Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengel, Miriam; Moreno, Raphael; Courtin, Régis; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Sagawa, Hideo; Hartogh, Paul; Swinyard, Bruce; Lara, Luisa; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Jarchow, Christopher; Fulton, Trevor; Cernicharo, José; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Biver, Nicolás; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; González, Armando

    2014-11-01

    The nitrogen-dominated atmosphere of Titan exhibits a great diversity and complexity of molecules and high organic material abundances. The origin of Titan atmosphere is poorly understood and its chemistry is rather complicated. In the framework of the Herschel guaranteed time key programme "Water and Related Chemistry in the Solar System" (Hartogh et al 2009), we carried out observations of the atmosphere of Titan with HIFI, PACS and SPIRE onboard Herschel (Rengel et al. 2014; Courtin et al. 2011, Moreno et al. 2011, 2012). Here we will review key results and discoveries on the atmosphere of Titan obtained with Herschel:-an inventory of species detected including some isotopes from a new survey between 51 and 671 microns.-the determination of the abundance of trace constituents and comparisons with previous efforts.-the unexpected detection of hydrogen isocyanide (HNC), a specie not previously identified in Titan's atmosphere, and the measurement of 16O/18O ratio in CO in Titan for the first time published.-the determination of the vertical profile of water vapor over the 100-450 km altitude range, distribution which does not follow previous predictions and allows to strength an Enceladus' activity as the source for the current water on Titan.With the advent of Herschel, these advances and discoveries allow a further characterization of the complex atmosphere of Titan and help to advance the study of the abundance distribution and the investigation of a variety of processes in Titan atmosphere.

  16. HERSCHEL/SCORE, imaging the solar corona in visible and EUV light: CCD camera characterization.

    PubMed

    Pancrazzi, M; Focardi, M; Landini, F; Romoli, M; Fineschi, S; Gherardi, A; Pace, E; Massone, G; Antonucci, E; Moses, D; Newmark, J; Wang, D; Rossi, G

    2010-07-01

    The HERSCHEL (helium resonant scattering in the corona and heliosphere) experiment is a rocket mission that was successfully launched last September from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, USA. HERSCHEL was conceived to investigate the solar corona in the extreme UV (EUV) and in the visible broadband polarized brightness and provided, for the first time, a global map of helium in the solar environment. The HERSCHEL payload consisted of a telescope, HERSCHEL EUV Imaging Telescope (HEIT), and two coronagraphs, HECOR (helium coronagraph) and SCORE (sounding coronagraph experiment). The SCORE instrument was designed and developed mainly by Italian research institutes and it is an imaging coronagraph to observe the solar corona from 1.4 to 4 solar radii. SCORE has two detectors for the EUV lines at 121.6 nm (HI) and 30.4 nm (HeII) and the visible broadband polarized brightness. The SCORE UV detector is an intensified CCD with a microchannel plate coupled to a CCD through a fiber-optic bundle. The SCORE visible light detector is a frame-transfer CCD coupled to a polarimeter based on a liquid crystal variable retarder plate. The SCORE coronagraph is described together with the performances of the cameras for imaging the solar corona.

  17. A Herschel resolved far-infrared dust ring around HD 207129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. P.; Löhne, T.; Montesinos, B.; Krivov, A. V.; Eiroa, C.; Absil, O.; Bryden, G.; Maldonado, J.; Mora, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J.-Ch.; Bayo, A.; Del Burgo, C.; Danchi, W.; Ertel, S.; Fedele, D.; Fridlund, M.; Lebreton, J.; González-García, B. M.; Liseau, R.; Meeus, G.; Müller, S.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thébault, P.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2011-05-01

    Context. Dusty debris discs around main sequence stars are thought to be the result of continuous collisional grinding of planetesimals in the system. The majority of these systems are unresolved and analysis of the dust properties is limited by the lack of information regarding the dust location. Aims: The Herschel DUNES key program is observing 133 nearby, Sun-like stars (<20 pc, FGK spectral type) in a volume limited survey to constrain the absolute incidence of cold dust around these stars by detection of far infrared excess emission at flux levels comparable to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt (EKB). Methods: We have observed the Sun-like star HD 207129 with Herschel PACS and SPIRE. In all three PACS bands we resolve a ring-like structure consistent with scattered light observations. Using α Boötis as a reference point spread function (PSF), we deconvolved the images, clearly resolving the inner gap in the disc at both 70 and 100 μm. Results: We have resolved the dust-producing planetesimal belt of a debris disc at 100 μm for the first time. We measure the radial profile and fractional luminosity of the disc, and compare the values to those of discs around stars of similar age and/or spectral type, placing this disc in context of other resolved discs observed by Herschel/DUNES. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. Burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) in the forest canopy: The unusual case of Nicrophorus pustulatus Herschel

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2007-01-01

    The burying beetle Nicrophorus pustulatus Herschel can reproduce in both large (Trumbo 1992) and small (Robertson 1992) carcasses in the laboratory, but has never been observed using these iiz the wild (Robertson 1992) and comes more readily to lights than to traps baited with carrion (Anderson 1982; Lingafelter 1995). Under natural conditions. this...

  19. HerMES: ALMA Imaging of Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; De Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2015-10-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the limited spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870 μm 0.″45 resolution imaging obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs that have far-infrared (FIR) flux densities that lie between the brightest of sources found by Herschel and fainter DSFGs found via ground-based surveys in the submillimeter region. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5σ point-source sensitivity limit in our ALMA sample; σ ≈ 0.2 {mJy}). Optical or near-infrared imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (μ \\gt 1.1), but only six are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general-purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility-plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for DSFGs with a break near 8 {mJy} at 880 μ {{m}} and a steep fall-off at higher flux densities. Nearly 70% of the Herschel sources break down into multiple ALMA counterparts, consistent with previous research indicating that the multiplicity rate is high in bright sources discovered in single-dish submillimeter or FIR surveys. The ALMA counterparts to our Herschel targets are located significantly closer to each other than ALMA counterparts to sources found in the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. Theoretical models underpredict the excess number of sources with small separations seen in our ALMA sample. The high multiplicity rate and small projected separations between sources seen in our sample argue in favor of interactions

  20. Herschel-ATLAS: Dusty early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, K.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.

    2015-03-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are thought to be devoid of dust and star-formation, having formed most of their stars at early epochs. We present the detection of the dustiest ETGs in a large-area blind submillimetre survey with Herschel (H-ATLAS, Eales et al. 2010), where the lack of pre-selection in other bands makes it the first unbiased survey for cold dust in ETGs. The parent sample of 1087 H-ATLAS galaxies in this study have a >= 5σ detection at 250μm, a reliable optical counterpart to the submillimetre source (Smith et al. 2011) and a spectroscopic redshift from the GAMA survey (Driver et al. 2011). Additionally, we construct a control sample of 1052 optically selected galaxies undetected at 250μm and matched in stellar mass to the H-ATLAS parent sample to eliminate selection effects. ETGs were selected from both samples via visual classifications using SDSS images. Further details can be found in Rowlands et al. (2012). Physical parameters are derived for each galaxy using the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code of da Cunha, Charlot and Elbaz (2008), Smith et al. 2012, using an energy balance argument. We investigate the differences between the dusty ETGs and the general ETG population, and find that the H-ATLAS ETGs are more than an order of magnitude dustier than the control ETGs. The mean dust mass of the 42 H-ATLAS ETGs is 5.5 × 107M⊙ (comparable to the dust mass of spirals in our sample), whereas the dust mass of the 233 control ETGs inferred from stacking at optical positions on the 250μm map is (0.8 - 4.0) × 106M⊙ for 25-15 K dust. The average star-formation rate of the H-ATLAS ETGs is 1.0 dex higher than that of control ETGs, and the mean r-band light-weighted age of the H-ATLAS ETGs is 1.8 Gyr younger than the control ETGs. The rest-frame NUV - r colours of the H-ATLAS ETGs are 1.0 magnitudes bluer than the control ETGs, and some ETGs may be transitioning from the blue cloud to the red sequence. Some H-ATLAS ETGs

  1. Long-term changes in UT/LS ozone between the late 1970s and the 1990s deduced from the GASP and MOZAIC aircraft programs and from ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; de Backer, H.; Stübi, R.

    2009-01-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s to compare them with respective measurements of the ongoing MOZAIC project. Climatologies of UT/LS ozone were built using the aircraft data sets (1975-1979 and 1994-2001), and long-term changes between the 1970s and 1990s were derived by comparison. The data were binned relative to the dynamical tropopause to separate between UT and LS air masses. LS data were analysed using equivalent latitudes. In the UT, pronounced increases are found over the Middle East and South Asia in the spring and summer seasons. Increases are also found over Japan, Europe, and the eastern parts of the Unites States depending on season. LS ozone over northern mid- and high latitudes was found to be lower in the 1990s compared to the 1970s in all seasons of the year. In addition, a comparison with long-term changes deduced from ozonesondes is presented. An altitude offset was applied to the sonde data to account for the slow response time of the ozone sensors. The early 1970s European Brewer-Mast (BM) sonde data agree with GASP within the range of uncertainty (UT) or measured slightly less ozone (LS). In contrast, the 1990s BM sensors show consistently and significantly higher UT/LS ozone values than MOZAIC. This unequal behaviour of aircraft/sonde comparisons in the 1970s and 1990s leads to differences in the estimated long-term changes over Europe: while the comparison between GASP and MOZAIC indicates ozone changes of -5% to 10% over Europe, the sondes suggest a much larger increase of 10%-35% depending on station and season, although statistical significance is not conclusive due to data sample limitations. In contrast to the BM sondes, the Electrochemical Cell (ECC) sonde at Wallops Island, USA, measured higher UT ozone than both GASP and MOZAIC. Hence, long-term changes from GASP/MOZAIC agree within the range of uncertainty with

  2. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. IX. Dust-to-gas mass ratio and metallicity gradients in four Virgo spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, L.; Bianchi, S.; Corbelli, E.; Cortese, L.; Hunt, L.; Smith, M.; Vlahakis, C.; Davies, J.; Bendo, G. J.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Clemens, M.; Casasola, V.; De Looze, I.; Fritz, J.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T.; Madden, S.; Pappalardo, C.; Pohlen, M.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Verstappen, J.

    2011-11-01

    Context. Using Herschel data from the open time key project the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS), we investigated the relationship between the metallicity gradients expressed by metal abundances in the gas phase as traced by the chemical composition of HII regions, and in the solid phase, as traced by the dust-to-gas mass ratio. Aims: We derived the radial gradient of the dust-to-gas mass ratio for all galaxies observed by HeViCS whose metallicity gradients are available in the literature. They are all late type Sbc galaxies, namely NGC 4254, NGC 4303, NGC 4321, and NGC 4501. Methods: We fitted PACS and SPIRE observations with a single-temperature modified blackbody, inferred the dust mass, and calculated two dimensional maps of the dust-to-gas mass ratio, with the total mass of gas from available HI and CO maps. HI moment-1 maps were used to derive the geometric parameters of the galaxies and extract the radial profiles. We examined different dependencies on metallicity of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor (XCO), used to transform the 12CO observations into the amount of molecular hydrogen. Results: We found that in these galaxies the dust-to-gas mass ratio radial profile is extremely sensitive to choice of the XCO value, since the molecular gas is the dominant component in the inner parts. We found that for three galaxies of our sample, namely NGC 4254, NGC 4321, and NGC 4501, the slopes of the oxygen and of the dust-to-gas radial gradients agree up to ~0.6-0.7 R25 using XCO values in the range 1/3-1/2 Galactic XCO. For NGC 4303 a lower value of XCO ~ 0.1 × 1020 is necessary. Conclusions: We suggest that such low XCO values might be due to a metallicity dependence of XCO (from close to linear for NGC 4254, NGC 4321, and NGC 4501 to superlinear for NGC 4303), especially in the radial regions RG < 0.6-0.7 R25 where the molecular gas dominates. On the other hand, the outer regions, where the atomic gas component is dominant, are less affected by the choice of

  3. Surface Properties of Extreme TNOs Based on Herschel/PACS measurements: The Case of Sedna and 2010 EK139

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Muller, Th. G.; Vilenius, E.; Rengel, M.; Mommert, M.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Stansberry, J.

    2012-05-01

    Using Herschel/PACS measurements, our findings for Sedna and 2010 EK139 agree with the suspected correlation between diameter and albedo for detached objects. However, this relation is due to completely different physical and surface processes.

  4. KPGT_ebergin_1: HEXOS: Herschel Observations of Extra-Ordinary Sources: The Orion and Sgr B2 Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergin, E.

    2007-04-01

    As a GT Key Program we propose to perform full HIFI and PACS line surveys of 5 sources in the giant molecular clouds Orion and Sagittarius B2. These extraordinary star-forming regions contain the best studied examples of physical and chemical processes prevalent in the interstellar medium, including gravitational compression, thermal and turbulent pressure support, photodissociation, gas and grain chemistry in dense and diffuse quiescent gas, and shocks. With high excitation, rich chemistry, and large molecular column they give the highest chance for new detections in a sensitive search for new molecules. Line surveys of sources (Orion KL, Orion S, Orion Bar, Sgr B2 N+M) defined by these phenomena form the backbone of this proposed program. Herschel offers unprecedented sensitivity and relative calibration accuracy, as well as continuous spectral coverage across the gaps imposed by the atmosphere, opening up a largely unexplored wavelength regime to high resolution spectroscopy. These data will take line surveys to a new level and we will use them to comprehensively characterize the physics (density, thermal balance, kinematics, radiation field) and chemistry (chemical assay, ionization, deuterium fractionation, water ortho/para ratio) of star-forming molecular gas in a manner not previously possible. The opening of this spectral range is also an opportunity to detect the bending transitions of carbon chains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, along with the rotational transitions of complex organics. Given that these sources have the richest emission spectra seen for star-forming regions in the Galaxy, we anticipate that the proposed observations will define the sub-millimeter/far infrared region of the spectrum and that these data will form a lasting Herschel legacy.

  5. SDP_ebergin_3: HEXOS: Herschel Observations of Extra-Ordinary Sources: The Orion and Sgr B2 Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergin, E.

    2010-07-01

    As a GT Key Program we propose to perform full HIFI and PACS line surveys of 5 sources in the giant molecular clouds Orion and Sagittarius B2. These extraordinary star-forming regions contain the best studied examples of physical and chemical processes prevalent in the interstellar medium, including gravitational compression, thermal and turbulent pressure support, photodissociation, gas and grain chemistry in dense and diffuse quiescent gas, and shocks. With high excitation, rich chemistry, and large molecular column they give the highest chance for new detections in a sensitive search for new molecules. Line surveys of sources (Orion KL, Orion S, Orion Bar, Sgr B2 N+M) defined by these phenomena form the backbone of this proposed program. Herschel offers unprecedented sensitivity and relative calibration accuracy, as well as continuous spectral coverage across the gaps imposed by the atmosphere, opening up a largely unexplored wavelength regime to high resolution spectroscopy. These data will take line surveys to a new level and we will use them to comprehensively characterize the physics (density, thermal balance, kinematics, radiation field) and chemistry (chemical assay, ionization, deuterium fractionation, water ortho/para ratio) of star-forming molecular gas in a manner not previously possible. The opening of this spectral range is also an opportunity to detect the bending transitions of carbon chains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, along with the rotational transitions of complex organics. Given that these sources have the richest emission spectra seen for star-forming regions in the Galaxy, we anticipate that the proposed observations will define the sub-millimeter/far infrared region of the spectrum and that these data will form a lasting Herschel legacy.

  6. AOTVAL_ebergin_2: HEXOS: Herschel Observations of Extra-Ordinary Sources: The Orion and Sgr B2 Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergin, E.

    2010-07-01

    As a GT Key Program we propose to perform full HIFI and PACS line surveys of 5 sources in the giant molecular clouds Orion and Sagittarius B2. These extraordinary star-forming regions contain the best studied examples of physical and chemical processes prevalent in the interstellar medium, including gravitational compression, thermal and turbulent pressure support, photodissociation, gas and grain chemistry in dense and diffuse quiescent gas, and shocks. With high excitation, rich chemistry, and large molecular column they give the highest chance for new detections in a sensitive search for new molecules. Line surveys of sources (Orion KL, Orion S, Orion Bar, Sgr B2 N+M) defined by these phenomena form the backbone of this proposed program. Herschel offers unprecedented sensitivity and relative calibration accuracy, as well as continuous spectral coverage across the gaps imposed by the atmosphere, opening up a largely unexplored wavelength regime to high resolution spectroscopy. These data will take line surveys to a new level and we will use them to comprehensively characterize the physics (density, thermal balance, kinematics, radiation field) and chemistry (chemical assay, ionization, deuterium fractionation, water ortho/para ratio) of star-forming molecular gas in a manner not previously possible. The opening of this spectral range is also an opportunity to detect the bending transitions of carbon chains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, along with the rotational transitions of complex organics. Given that these sources have the richest emission spectra seen for star-forming regions in the Galaxy, we anticipate that the proposed observations will define the sub-millimeter/far infrared region of the spectrum and that these data will form a lasting Herschel legacy.

  7. SPITZER IMAGING OF STRONGLY LENSED HERSCHEL-SELECTED DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C.; Baes, M.; Chapman, S.; Dannerbauer, H.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Riechers, D. A.; Scott, D.; and others

    2015-11-20

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 10{sup 10}–4 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates of around 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  8. Herschel observations of extraordinary sources: Analysis of the full Herschel/HIFI molecular line survey of sagittarius B2(N)

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, Justin L.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Crockett, Nathan R.; Favre, Cécile; Anderson, Dana E.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; McNeill, Trevor D.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Emprechtinger, Martin; Monje, Raquel R.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Schilke, Peter; Comito, Claudia; Qin, Sheng-Li; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Harris, Brent J.; Steber, Amanda L.; Vasyunina, Tatiana; Lord, Steven D.; McGuire, Brett A. E-mail: ebergin@umich.edu; and others

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive broadband molecular line survey of the Sagittarius B2(N) star-forming region has been obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory, offering the first high spectral resolution look at this well-studied source in a wavelength region largely inaccessible from the ground (625-157 μm). From the roughly 8000 spectral features in the survey, a total of 72 isotopologues arising from 44 different molecules have been identified, ranging from light hydrides to complex organics, and arising from a variety of environments from cold and diffuse to hot and dense gas. We present a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model to the spectral signatures of each molecule, constraining the source sizes for hot core species with complementary Submillimeter Array interferometric observations and assuming that molecules with related functional group composition are cospatial. For each molecule, a single model is given to fit all of the emission and absorption features of that species across the entire 480-1910 GHz spectral range, accounting for multiple temperature and velocity components when needed to describe the spectrum. As with other HIFI surveys toward massive star-forming regions, methanol is found to contribute more integrated line intensity to the spectrum than any other species. We discuss the molecular abundances derived for the hot core where the LTE approximation is generally found to describe the spectrum well, in comparison to abundances derived for the same molecules in the Orion KL region from a similar HIFI survey. Notably, we find significantly higher abundances of amine- and amide-bearing molecules (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}NH, and NH{sub 2}CHO) toward Sgr B2(N) than Orion KL and lower abundances of some complex oxygen-bearing molecules (CH{sub 3}OCHO in particular). In addition to information on the chemical composition of the hot core, the strong far-infrared dust continuum allows

  9. The Open University Opens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.

    Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the Open University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous…

  10. Observations of H2O in Titan's atmosphere with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, R.; Lellouch, E.; Lara, L. M.; Courtin, R.; Hartogh, P.; Rengel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Disk averaged observations of several H2O far infrared lines in Titan’s atmosphere were performed with the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the guaranteed time key program "Water and related chemistry in the Solar System" (HssO, see Hartogh et al 2011). Two instruments were used: (i) HIFI, a heterodyne instrument (R~ 106 ) in the sub-millimeter, which measured the H2O(110-101) rotational transition at 557 GHz on June 10 and Dec. 31, 2010 (ii) PACS, a photoconductor spectrometer (R~103) which measured three water lines at 108.1, 75.4 and 66.4 microns on June 22, 2010. Additional PACS measurements at 66.4 microns on Dec. 15 and 22, 2010 and on July 09, 2011, do not show any significant line intensity variation with time, nor between the leading/trailing sides (i.e. longitude). Spectra were analyzed with a line-by-line radiative transfer code accounting for spherical geometry (Moreno et al. 2011). This model considers the H2O molecular opacity from JPL catalog (Pickett et al. 1998) and also includes collision-induced opacities N2-N2, N2-CH4 and CH4-CH4 (Borysow and Frommhold 1986, 1987, Borysow and Tang 1993). Far infrared aerosol opacities derived by CIRS were included, following Anderson and Samuelson (2011) for their vertical distribution and spectral dependencies. Analysis of the 557 GHz narrow line (FWHM ~ 2 MHz) indicates that it originates at altitudes above 300 km, while lines measured with PACS probe mainly deeper levels (80-150 km). The HIFI and PACS observations are fitted simultaneously, considering a vertical distribution of H2O mixing ratio which follows a power law dependency q=q0(P/P0)n, where q0 is the mixing ratio at some reference pressure level P0, taken near the expected condensation level. Model fits will be presented, and compared with previously proposed H2O vertical distributions. We show in particular that both the steep profile proposed by Lara et al. (1996) (and adopted by Coustenis et al. (1998) to model the first detection of H2O

  11. ALMA observation of high-z extreme star-forming environments discovered by Planck/Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneissl, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Comic Microwave Background satellite Planck with its High Frequency Instrument has surveyed the mm/sub-mm sky in six frequency channels from 100 to 900 GHz. A sample of 228 cold sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background was observed in follow-up with Herschel SPIRE. The majority of sources appear to be over-densities of star-forming galaxies matching the size of high-z proto-cluster regions, while a 3% fraction are individual bright, lensed galaxies. A large observing program is underway with the aim of resolving the regions into the constituent members of the Planck sources. First ALMA data have been received on one Planck/Herschel proto-cluster candidate, showing the expected large over-abundance of bright mm/sub-mm sources within the cluster region. ALMA long baseline data of the brightest lensed galaxy in the sample with > 1 Jy at 350 μm are also forthcoming.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FIR spectra of AGNs from Herschel (Fernandez-Ontiveros+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Ontiveros, J. A.; Spinoglio, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Malkan, M. A.; Andreani, P.; Dasyra, K. M.

    2016-11-01

    The combination of Herschel/PACS during its 3.5yr of operational life and Spitzer/IRS allows us to cover the fine-structure emission lines from the mid- to the far-IR (10-200um in the rest-frame) for all the galaxies in the sample. This database was completed with the Herschel/SPIRE published values of the [NII]205um, and [CI]371,609um line fluxes (mainly from Kamenetzky+ 2016ApJ...829...93K). Table 8 collects published mid-IR (10-35um) fine-structure line fluxes measured with Spitzer/IRS for our samples of AGN and starburst galaxies. These values were complemented with unpublished IRS observations from the Spitzer archive. (10 data files).

  13. The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS): A Bright Lensed Submillimeter Galaxy in the Field of Abell 773

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, Tim; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Combes, F.; Boone, F.; Smail, I.; Lensing Survey, Herschel

    2012-05-01

    The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS; PI: Egami) is observing more than 50 massive galaxy clusters with deep PACS and SPIRE (100-500um) imaging, and a further 500 clusters in a SPIRE snapshot program ( 20 deg^2 of far-infrared cluster observations in total). Here, we present a discussion of an exceptionally bright ( 200mJy at 500um) source behind the cluster Abell 773, which is a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z=5.2. The source has an intrinsic infrared luminosity L_FIR 1e13 L_sun, with a total magnification factor of 11. We combine Herschel-SMA-IRAM observations of the dust continuum and gas excitation line emission, including multiple CO transitions, [CII] and [NII] (detected for the first time at high-z), to explore the morphology, star formation and ISM in this SMG.

  14. De Herschel à Alma. Les galaxies dévoilent enfin leurs secrets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaz, David

    2016-08-01

    With deep surveys, one can measure the amount of stars born in slices of the Universe and infer a "cosmic rate of star formation." The latest estimates from the Herschel satellite show a rapid drop of star formation in galaxies since ten billion years. To understand the cause of this fall, we can now measure the interstellar reservoirs of galaxies by combining observations from Herschel and the millimeter interferometer ALMA. Early results suggest that this fall comes from the rapid consumption of interstellar matter which served as reservoir to galaxies. Thanks to the technique of interferometry, ALMA can map interstellar dust within galaxies observed at the time of the peak of cosmic star formation, ten billion years ago. We discover that the stars of the most massive galaxies are born not only at very high rates but also with an extreme concentration.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Herschel-Quincke Tube Concept on the Honeywell TFE731-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerome P.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Gerhold, Carl H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the key results obtained by the Vibration and Acoustics Laboratories at Virginia Tech over the period from January 1999 to December 2000 on the project 'Investigation of an Adaptive Herschel-Quincke Tube Concept for the Reduction of Tonal and Broadband Noise from Turbofan Engines', funded by NASA Langley Research Center. The Herschel-Quincke (HQ) tube concept is a developing technique that consists of circumferential arrays of tubes around the duct. A fixed array of tubes is installed on the inlet duct of the Honeywell TFE731-60 engine. Two array designs are incorporated into the inlet treatment, each designed for a different circumferential mode order which is expected to be cut on in the duct. Far field and in-duct noise measurement data are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the HQ concept for array 1, array 2, and both operating simultaneously.

  16. ALMA observation of high-z extreme star-forming environments discovered by Planck/Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneissl, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Comic Microwave Background satellite Planck with its High Frequency Instrument has surveyed the mm/sub-mm sky in six frequency channels from 100 to 900 GHz. A sample of 228 cold sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background was observed in follow-up with Herschel SPIRE. The majority of sources appear to be over-densities of star-forming galaxies matching the size of high-z proto-cluster regions, while a 3% fraction are individual bright, lensed galaxies. A large observing program is underway with the aim of resolving the regions into the constituent members of the Planck sources. First ALMA data have been received on one Planck/Herschel proto-cluster candidate, showing the expected large over-abundance of bright mm/sub-mm sources within the cluster region. ALMA long baseline data of the brightest lensed galaxy in the sample with > 1 Jy at 350 μm are also forthcoming.

  17. HELGA: The Herschel Exploitation of the Local Galaxy Andromeda: Sub-mm Morphology and Dust Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, J.; Smith, M. W. L.; Kirk, J.; Helga Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The results from a large-field Far-Infrared (FIR) and sub-millimeter (sub-mm) survey of our neighbor galaxy M31 are presented. We have obtained Herschel images of a ˜ 5.5 × 2.5 degree area centered on Andromeda. Using 21-cm atomic hydrogen maps, we are able to disentangle genuine emission from M31 from that for foreground Galactic cirrus, allowing us to recognize dusty structures out to ˜ 31 kpc from the center. We first characterize the FIR and sub-mm morphology and then, by de-projecting Herschel maps and running an ad-hoc source extraction algorithm, we reconstruct the intrinsic morphology and the spatial distribution of the molecular complexes. Finally, we study the spatially resolved properties of the dust (temperature, emissivity, mass, etc.) by means of a pixel-by-pixel SED fitting approach.

  18. Analytical Modeling of Herschel-Quincke Concept Applied to Inlet Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallez, Raphael F.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Gerhold, Carl H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the key results obtained by the Vibration and Acoustics Laboratories at Virginia Tech over the period from January 1999 to December 2000 on the project 'Investigation of an Adaptive Herschel-Quincke Tube Concept for the Reduction of Tonal and Broadband Noise from Turbofan Engines', funded by NASA Langley Research Center. The Herschel-Quincke (HQ) tube concept is a developing technique the consists of circumferential arrays of tubes around the duct. The analytical model is developed to provide prediction and design guidelines for application of the HQ concept to turbofan engine inlets. An infinite duct model is developed and used to provide insight into attenuation mechanisms and design strategies. Based on this early model, the NASA-developed TBIEM3D code is modified for the HQ system. This model allows for investigation of the HQ system combined with a passive liner.

  19. Performances Of Herschel/PACS Bolometer Arrays And Future Developments At CEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Babar; Billot, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Okumura, K.; Sauvage, M.; Agnese, P.

    2009-01-01

    The PACS Photometer of the Herschel Space Observatory is equipped with filled bolometer arrays developed by CEA/LETI and CEA/SAp. These innovative detectors allow to dispense with bulky light concentrators and to instantaneously sample the field of view without altering the optical coupling of the detectors to the telescope beam. CEA/LETI opted for an all-silicon design to allow for the collective manufacturing of 16x16 bolometer arrays. Being 3-side buttable these arrays are now the building blocks for making large focal planes necessary for the next generation of wide-field sub-mm cameras. We present the unique architecture of CEA filled bolometer arrays and we report on the latest performance measurements of the Herschel/PACS Photometer. We also present current and future developments at CEA for ground-based, balloon borne and space telescopes.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (Oliver+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, S. J.; Bock, J.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Beelen, A.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Boselli, A.; Bridge, C.; Brisbin, D.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Cirasuolo, M.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Dubois, E. N.; Dwek, E.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Farrah, D.; Feltre, A.; Ferrero, P.; Fiolet, N.; Fox, M.; Franceschini, A.; Gear, W.; Giovannoli, E.; Glenn, J.; Gong, Y.; Gonzalez Solares, E. A.; Griffin, M.; Halpern, M.; Harwit, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Heinis, S.; Hurley, P.; Hwang, H. S.; Hyde, A.; Ibar, E.; Ilbert, O.; Isaak, K.; Ivison, R. J.; Lagache, G.; Le Floc'h, E.; Levenson, L.; Faro, B. L.; Lu, N.; Madden, S.; Maffei, B.; Magdis, G.; Mainetti, G.; Marchetti, L.; Marsden, G.; Marshall, J.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Halloran, B.; Omont, A.; Page, M. J.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Patel, H.; Pearson, C. P.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Rawlings, J. I.; Raymond, G.; Rigopoulou, D.; Riguccini, L.; Rizzo, D.; Rodighier!, O. G.; Ros Eboom, I. G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Sanchez Portal, M.; Schulz, B.; Scott, D.; Seymour, N.; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Stevens, J. A.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Tugwell, K. E.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Vieira, J. D.; Viero, M.; Vigroux, L.; Wang, L.; Ward, R.; Wardlow, J.; Wright, G.; Xu, C. K.; Zemcov, M.

    2017-03-01

    SPIRE maps (250, 350 and 500 microns) and PACS maps (100 and 160 microns) covering an area of more than 385 square degrees in the sky resulting from observations taken as part of HerMES (KPGTsoliver1), a Herschel Key Project whose main objective was to chart the formation and evolution of infrared galaxies throughout cosmic history, measuring the bolometric emission of infrared galaxies and their clustering properties. The associated catalogues extracted from these maps include over 1,200,000 entries representing over 340,000 galaxies. They consist of 'blind extraction' catalogues containing photometric information derived directly from these maps, 'band merged' catalogues extracted at SPIRE 250 micron positions plus 'cross-identification' catalogues based on prior Spitzer MIPS 24 micron source positions. The latest data releases contain also information derived from the complementary Herschel programmes HeLMS (GT2mviero1) and HeRS (OT2mviero2). (4 data files).

  1. New HErschel Multi-wavelength Extragalactic Survey of Edge-on Spirals (NHEMESES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Bianchi, S.; Baes, M.; de Jong, R. S.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Radburn-Smith, D.; Gordon, K.; Xilouris, M.

    2012-08-01

    Edge-on spiral galaxies offer a unique perspective on the vertical structure of spiral disks, both stars and the iconic dark dustlanes. The thickness of these dustlanes can now be resolved for the first time with Herschel in far-infrared and sub-mm emission. We present NHEMESES, an ongoing project that targets 12 edge-on spiral galaxies with the PACS and SPIRE instruments on Herschel. These vertically resolved observations of edge-on spirals will impact on several current topics. First and foremost, these Herschel observations will settle whether or not there is a phase change in the vertical structure of the ISM with disk mass. Previously, a dramatic change in dustlane morphology was observed as in massive disks the dust collapses into a thin lane. If this is the case, the vertical balance between turbulence and gravity dictates the ISM structure and consequently star-formation and related phenomena (spiral arms, bars etc.). We specifically target lower mass nearby edge-ons to complement existing Herschel observations of high-mass edge-on spirals (the HEROES project). Secondly, the combined data-set, together with existing Spitzer observations, will drive a new generation of spiral disk Spectral Energy Distribution models. These model how dust reprocesses starlight to thermal emission but the dust geometry remains the critical unknown. And thirdly, the observations will provide an accurate and unbiased census of the cold dusty structures occasionally seen extending out of the plane of the disk, when backlit by the stellar disk. To illustrate the NHEMESES project, we present early results on NGC 4244 and NGC 891, two well studies examples of a low and high-mass edge-on spiral.

  2. A COOL DUST FACTORY IN THE CRAB NEBULA: A HERSCHEL STUDY OF THE FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, H. L.; Clark, C. J. R.; Gomez, E. L.; Gear, W. K.; Krause, O.; Besel, M.-A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th.; Barlow, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Owen, P. J.; Matsuura, M.; Rho, J.; Ivison, R. J.; Sibthorpe, B.; Polehampton, E. T.

    2012-11-20

    Whether supernovae are major sources of dust in galaxies is a long-standing debate. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Crab Nebula between 51 and 670 {mu}m as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program. We compare the emission detected with Herschel with multiwavelength data including millimeter, radio, mid-infrared, and archive optical images. We carefully remove the synchrotron component using the Herschel and Planck fluxes measured in the same epoch. The contribution from line emission is removed using Herschel spectroscopy combined with Infrared Space Observatory archive data. Several forbidden lines of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are detected where multiple velocity components are resolved, deduced to be from the nitrogen-depleted, carbon-rich ejecta. No spectral lines are detected in the SPIRE wavebands; in the PACS bands, the line contribution is 5% and 10% at 70 and 100 {mu}m and negligible at 160 {mu}m. After subtracting the synchrotron and line emission, the remaining far-infrared continuum can be fit with two dust components. Assuming standard interstellar silicates, the mass of the cooler component is 0.24{sup +0.32} {sub -0.08} M {sub Sun} for T = 28.1{sup +5.5} {sub -3.2} K. Amorphous carbon grains require 0.11 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} of dust with T = 33.8{sup +2.3} {sub -1.8} K. A single temperature modified blackbody with 0.14 M {sub Sun} and 0.08 M {sub Sun} for silicate and carbon dust, respectively, provides an adequate fit to the far-infrared region of the spectral energy distribution but is a poor fit at 24-500 {mu}m. The Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust, suggesting the formation of dust in core-collapse supernova ejecta is efficient.

  3. Resolving the stellar components of the massive multiple system Herschel 36 with AMBER/VLTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Alberdi, A.; Schödel, R.; Hummel, C. A.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Pott, J.-U.

    2014-12-01

    Context. Massive stars are extremely important for the evolution of the galaxies; there are large gaps in our understanding of their properties and formation, however, mainly because they evolve rapidly, are rare, and distant. Recent findings suggest that most O-stars belong to multiple systems. It may well be that almost all massive stars are born as triples or higher multiples, but their large distances require very high angular resolution to directly detect the companions at milliarcsecond scales. Aims: Herschel 36 is a young massive system located at 1.3 kpc. It has a combined smallest predicted mass of 45 M⊙. Multi-epoch spectroscopic data suggest the existence of at least three gravitationally bound components. Two of them, system Ab, are tightly bound in a spectroscopic binary, and the third one, component Aa, orbits in a wider orbit. Our aim was to image and obtain astrometric and photometric measurements of components Aa and Ab using, for the first time, long-baseline optical interferometry to further constrain its nature. Methods: We observed Herschel 36 with the near-infrared instrument AMBER attached to the ESO VLT Interferometer, which provides an angular resolution of ~2 mas. We used the code BSMEM to perform the interferometric image reconstruction. We fitted the interferometric observables using proprietary IDL routines and the code LitPro. Results: We imaged the Aa + Ab components of Herschel 36 in H and K filters. Component Ab is located at a projected distance of 1.81 mas, at a position angle of ~222° east of north, the flux ratio between components Aa and Ab is close to one. These findings agree with previous predictions about the properties of Herschel 36. The small measured angular separation indicates that system Ab and Ab may be approaching the periastron of their orbits. These results, only achievable with long-baseline near-infrared interferometry, constitute the first step toward a thorough understanding of this massive triple system.

  4. Modelling Herschel observations of infrared-dark clouds in the Hi-GAL survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatellos, D.; Griffin, M. J.; Kirk, J. M.; Molinari, S.; Sibthorpe, B.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Wilcock, L. A.

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate the use of the 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code PHAETHON to model infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) that are externally illuminated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). These clouds are believed to be the earliest observed phase of high-mass star formation, and may be the high-mass equivalent of lower mass pre-stellar cores. We model three different cases as examples of the use of the code, in which we vary the mass, density, radius, morphology and internal velocity field of the IRDC. We show the predicted output of the models at different wavelengths chosen to match the observing wavebands of Herschel and Spitzer. For the wavebands of the long-wavelength Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) photometer on Herschel, we also pass the model output through the SPIRE simulator to generate output images that are as close as possible to the ones that would be seen using SPIRE. We then analyse the images as if they were real observations, and compare the results of this analysis with the results of the radiative transfer models. We find that detailed radiative transfer modelling is necessary to accurately determine the physical parameters of IRDCs (e.g. dust temperature, density profile). This method is applied to study G29.55+00.18, an IRDC observed by the Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey (Hi-GAL), and in the future it will be used to model a larger sample of IRDCs from the same survey. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. E-mail: d.stamatellos@astro.cf.ac.uk

  5. Brown dwarf disks with Herschel: Linking far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Natta, Antonella; Scholz, Alexander; Testi, Leonardo; Jayawardhana, Ray; Greaves, Jane; Eastwood, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Brown dwarf disks are excellent laboratories to test our understanding of disk physics in an extreme parameter regime. In this paper we investigate a sample of 29 well-characterized brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, for which Herschel far-infrared fluxes and (sub)-mm fluxes are available. We measured new Herschel/PACS fluxes for 11 objects and complement these with (sub)-mm data and Herschel fluxes from the literature. We analyze their spectral energy distributions in comparison with results from radiative transfer modeling. Fluxes in the far-infrared are strongly affected by the shape and temperature of the disk (and hence stellar luminosity), whereas the (sub)-mm fluxes mostly depend on disk mass. Nevertheless, there is a clear correlation between far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes. We argue that the link results from the combination of the stellar mass-luminosity relation and a scaling between disk mass and stellar mass. We find strong evidence of dust settling to the disk midplane. The spectral slopes between near- and far-infrared are mostly between -0.5 and -1.2 in our sample, which is comparable to more massive T Tauri stars; this may imply that the disk shapes are similar as well, although highly flared disks are rare among brown dwarfs. We find that dust temperatures in the range of 7-15 K, calculated with T ≈ 25 (L/L⊙)0.25 K, are appropriate for deriving disk masses from (sub)-mm fluxes for these low luminosity objects. About half of our sample hosts disks with at least one Jupiter mass, confirming that many brown dwarfs harbor sufficient material for the formation of Earth-mass planets in their midst. Herschel is a ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  6. Herschel-ATLAS: counterparts from the ultraviolet-near-infrared in the science demonstration phase catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. J. B.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S. J.; Eales, S.; Bonfield, D. G.; Jarvis, M. J.; Sutherland, W.; Fleuren, S.; Rigby, E. E.; Thompson, M. A.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Croom, S.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Driver, S. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Fritz, J.; Hill, D. T.; Hopkins, A.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jones, D. H.; Kelvin, L.; Leeuw, L.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Madore, B. F.; Norberg, P.; Panuzzo, P.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, M.; Robotham, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Scott, D.; Seibert, M.; Sharp, R.; Temi, P.; Tuffs, R. J.; van der Werf, P.; van Kampen, E.

    2011-09-01

    We present a technique to identify optical counterparts of 250-μm-selected sources from the Herschel-ATLAS survey. Of the 6621 250 μm > 32-mJy sources in our science demonstration catalogue we find that ˜60 per cent have counterparts brighter than r = 22.4 mag in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Applying a likelihood ratio technique we are able to identify 2423 of the counterparts with a reliability R > 0.8. This is approximately 37 per cent of the full 250-μm catalogue. We have estimated photometric redshifts for each of these 2423 reliable counterparts, while 1099 also have spectroscopic redshifts collated from several different sources, including the GAMA survey. We estimate the completeness of identifying counterparts as a function of redshift, and present evidence that 250-μm-selected Herschel-ATLAS galaxies have a bimodal redshift distribution. Those with reliable optical identifications have a redshift distribution peaking at z ≈ 0.25 ± 0.05, while submillimetre colours suggest that a significant fraction with no counterpart above the r-band limit have z > 1. We also suggest a method for selecting populations of strongly lensed high-redshift galaxies. Our identifications are matched to UV-NIR photometry from the GAMA survey, and these data are available as part of the Herschel-ATLAS public data release. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. Using Herschel Far-Infrared Photometry to Constrain Star Formation Rates in CLASH Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Rebecca L.; Postman, Marc; Fogarty, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) program obtained broadband images of 25 massive galaxy clusters in 16 passbands from the UV to the near-IR. The data was taken with the Wide-field Camera 3 (WFC3), and the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These 25 clusters have also been observed in the mid-IR by Spitzer IRAC, the far-IR by the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE, and in the x-ray by the Chandra and XMM observatories. We focused on the two brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the survey (MACS1931.8-2653 and RXJ1532.9+3021) that have reddening-corrected UV-derived star formation rates (SFRs) > 100 M⊙ yr-1 as measured by Fogarty et al (2015). The inclusion of Herschel data provides unique constraints on dust content and independent estimates of the star formation rates in these interesting galaxies. We performed photometry on the five Herschel bands (100-500μm), and removed any contamination from other cluster members. We fit a UV-FIR SED to each galaxy to measure the bolometric dust luminosity (Lbol), which we use to derive the FIR obscured SFR. We calculate the sum of the measured UV unobscured SFR from the HST photometry and the FIR obscured SFR from the Herschel photometry to get a total SFR for these two BCGs. We compared this to the reddening-corrected SFRs and found they were in agreement within error. This confirms that the Kennicutt and Calzetti methods for calculating star formation rates are both applicable for these highly star-forming massive cluster galaxies.

  8. Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the Ophiuchus Main Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladjelate, Bilal; André, Philippe; Könyves, Vera; Men'shchikov, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the Ophiuchus Main CloudThe Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud is a well documented star-forming cloud located ~140 pc from the Sun. It is therefore an excellent laboratory for dense core search and classification. Harbouring low-mass star formation, its protostellar population have been studied for about three decades from the near infrared to the millimeter and radio range.As part of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey (http://www.herschel.fr/cea/gouldbelt/), extensive submillimeter images of the Ophiuchus Main Cloud (L1688) were produced and a deep census of both prestellar cores and young protostars was obtained using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm, getsources (Mensh'chikov et al. 2012).About 300 starless cores were extracted, including ~100 candidates gravitationally bound prestellar cores. The prestellar cores are primarily found in high column density filamentary structures above AV~7. Based on these data we discuss, the properties of the prestellar core mass function (CMF) as well as its variations in the various clumps of the cloud. The peak of the prestellar CMF appears to be close to 0.3 Solar masses in L1688.Conceptually, the low-mass end of the prestellar CMF is populated by pre-brown dwarf cores, the prototype of which is Oph-B11, a 20 Jovian masses object identified with SCUBA and IRAM (Greaves et al. 2003, André et al. 2012). Our Herschel census of dense cores in L1688 contains a few other candidate ultra low-mass cores under the hydrogen-burning limit (0.08 M⊙) which will be discussed.

  9. Antecedents to Fechner's law: the astronomers J. Herschel, W. R. Dawes, and N. R. Pogson

    PubMed Central

    Pliskoff, Stanley S.

    1977-01-01

    The history of the stellar magnitude scale is briefly traced from the second century b.c. until the middle of the nineteenth century. It becomes clear that astronomers formulated “Fechner's Law” by about 1850. While Fechner is credited with the grander view of things, the contention is made that the astronomers John Herschel, W. R. Dawes, and N. R. Pogson have not been given their due by historians of psychology. PMID:16812026

  10. Herschel-Resolved Outer Belts of Two-Belt Debris Disks--Evidence of Icy Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Farisa Y.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Werner, Michael W.; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2015-12-01

    We present dual-band Herschel/PACS imaging for 57 main sequence stars (42 A-type and 15 solar-type) with previously known warm dust (Twarm ~200K) detected and characterized by Spitzer. About half of the star-disk systems in our sample have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures that mirror that of the asteroid-Kuiper belt geometry of our own solar system. The Herschel observations at 70 and/or 100 micron spatially resolve the cold/outer dust component for 18 two-belt debris systems (15 for the first time; 10 are also resolved at 160 micron), finding evidence of planetesimals at >100 AU, i.e. larger size than assumed from a simple blackbody fit to the SED. By breaking the degeneracy between the grain properties and the dust's radial location, the resolved images help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust's composition for each system. Based on the combined Spitzer/IRS+MIPS (5 to 70 micron), the Herschel/PACS (70 and/or 100 and 160 micron) dataset, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that the majority of resolved cold/outer belts of star+disk systems are well fit with a mixed ice/rock composition, rather than pure rocky grains. In the absence of spectral features for ice, we find that the behavior of the continuum can help constrain the composition of the grains well (of icy nature and not pure rocky material) given the Herschel-resolved locations of the cold/outer dust belts. We have also begin to identify the presence of candidate companions via Keck direct imaging, which may be interacting with the observed dust.

  11. The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey: Herschel Image Atlas and Aperture Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jason K.; Sanders, D. B.; Larson, K. L.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J. H.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Xu, K. C.; Paladini, R.; Schulz, B.; Shupe, D.; Appleton, P.; Armus, L.; Billot, N.; Chan, B. H. P.; Evans, A. S.; Fadda, D.; Frayer, D. T.; Haan, S.; Ishida, C. M.; Iwasawa, K.; Kim, D.-C.; Lord, S.; Murphy, E.; Petric, A.; Privon, G. C.; Surace, J. A.; Treister, E.

    2017-04-01

    Far-infrared images and photometry are presented for 201 Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies [LIRGs: log ({L}{IR}/{L}⊙ )=11.00{--}11.99, ULIRGs: log ({L}{IR}/{L}⊙ )=12.00{--}12.99], in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), based on observations with the Herschel Space Observatory Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) instruments. The image atlas displays each GOALS target in the three PACS bands (70, 100, and 160 μm) and the three SPIRE bands (250, 350, and 500 μm), optimized to reveal structures at both high and low surface brightness levels, with images scaled to simplify comparison of structures in the same physical areas of ˜100 × 100 kpc2. Flux densities of companion galaxies in merging systems are provided where possible, depending on their angular separation and the spatial resolution in each passband, along with integrated system fluxes (sum of components). This data set constitutes the imaging and photometric component of the GOALS Herschel OT1 observing program, and is complementary to atlases presented for the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory. Collectively, these data will enable a wide range of detailed studies of active galactic nucleus and starburst activity within the most luminous infrared galaxies in the local universe. Based on Herschel Space Observatory observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by the European-led Principal Investigator consortia, and important participation from NASA.

  12. Herschel and Spitzer Observations of Slowly Rotating, Nearby Isolated Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Popov, S.; Wachter, S.

    2014-11-01

    Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 μm, 160 μm) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ≈ 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 μm emission (>5σ) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 μm detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 μm emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ~10% to ~20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 μm emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

  13. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M.; Fu, Hai; Wardlow, J.; Amber, S.; Baker, A. J.; Baes, M.; Bock, J.; Bourne, N.; Dye, S.; Bussmann, R. S.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CO, [CI] and [NII] lines from Herschel spectra (Kamenetzky+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetzky, J.; Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A.

    2016-11-01

    We compiled a list of successful extragalactic Herschel/SPIRE FTS proposals (301 spectra) and searched the Herschel Science Archive (HSA) for the available data. Table 1 lists the basic galaxy information and observation IDs for all galaxies for which at least one FTS line measurement or upper limit is reported. The bandpass of the Herschel FTS starts around the CO J=4-3 line, but the majority of the molecular mass in galaxies is cool and populates the lower rotational levels. We complement the line fluxes derived from the FTS with the CO J=1-0, J=2-1, and J=3-2 lines available from ground-based observatories. Many of these galaxies have already been studied in the literature, particularly in large CO surveys. For some galaxies, we also performed single-dish measurements using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). Measurements of the CO J=1-0 line were conducted with the 12m dish on Kitt Peak in 2015 May, and those of CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 were conducted with the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) located on Mt. Graham from 2014 November to 2015 February. (4 data files).

  15. Herschel Far-IR Observations of the Giant H II Region NGC 3603

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cecco, Alessandra; Faustini, Fabiana; Paresce, Francesco; Correnti, Matteo; Calzoletti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We observed the giant H II region around the NGC 3603 YC with the five broad bands (70, 160, 250, 350, 500 μm) of the SPIRE and PACS instruments, on board the Herschel Space Observatory. Together with what is currently known of the stellar, atomic, molecular, and warm dust components, this additional and crucial information should allow us to better understand the details of the star-formation history in this region. The main objective of the investigation is to study, at high spatial resolution, the distribution and main physical characteristics of the cold dust. By reconstructing the temperature and density maps, we found, respectively, a mean value of 36 K and log10 N H = 22.0 ± 0.1 cm-2. We carried out a photometric analysis detecting 107 point-like sources, mostly confined to the north and south of the cluster. By comparing our data with spectral energy distribution models, we found that 35 sources are well represented by young stellar objects in early evolutionary phases, from Class 0 to Class I. The Herschel detections also provided far-IR counterparts for 4 H2O masers and 11 objects previously known from mid-IR observations. The existence of so many embedded sources confirms the hypothesis of intense and ongoing star-formation activity in the region around NGC 3603 YC. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. Exploring Star Formation in Cluster Galaxies with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, Tim; Rex, M.; Egami, E.; Chung, S.; Fadda, D.; Lensing Survey, Herschel

    2011-05-01

    Nominally designed to locate high-redshift galaxies magnified by 44 massive foreground clusters, the ``Herschel Lensing Survey'' (HLS; PI: Egami) also provides deep 5-band, far-infrared (FIR) imaging of the galaxies contained within those clusters. For sources at these redshifts (z 0.2-0.4), Herschel photometry spans the peak of the dust component, allowing us to constrain the dust properties, measure total infrared luminosity and hence derive obscured star formation rate. Although a large fraction of galaxies in massive clusters are quiescent early-types and therefore remain undetected by Herschel, the far-infrared highlights regions of activity within the system. The FIR effectively probes the transitional phases of cluster galaxy evolution, exposing starburst mechanisms such as tidal interactions and mergers, as well as the remnants of the as-yet un-quenched in-fall population. Here we focus on two particular, contrasting clusters at z 0.3: the famous merging system known as the Bullet Cluster, and a relatively undisturbed cluster MS2137. We locate the FIR-bright cluster members and characterize their dust component, allowing us to study the distribution of star formation in the two systems as a function of morphology and local environment. In addition, we investigate an intriguing subpopulation of FIR-luminous galaxies with dust component SEDs that do not conform to the templates derived from local field galaxies, yet are also unlike any sources observed at higher redshift.

  17. Recent Star Formation in the Lupus Clouds as Seen by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Benedettini, Milena

    We present a study of the star formation histories of the Lupus I, III, and IV clouds using the Herschel 70-500 μm maps obtained by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey Key-Project. By combining the new Herschel data with the existing Spitzer catalog we obtained an unprecedented census of prestellar sources and young stellar objects in the Lupus clouds, which allowed us to study the overall star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE). The high SFE of Lupus III and its decreasing SFR suggest that Lupus III is the most evolved cloud, that after having experienced a major star formation event, is now approaching the end of its current star-forming cycle. Lupus I is currently undergoing a large star formation event, apparent by the increasing SFR. Also Lupus IV has an increasing SFR, however, the relative number of prestellar sources is much lower than in Lupus I, suggesting that its star formation has not yet reached its peak.

  18. THROES: A caTalogue of HeRschel Observations of Evolved Stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Medina, J.; Sánchez-Contreras, C.; García-Lario, P.

    2017-03-01

    We are building a catalogue of interactively reprocessed observations of all evolved stars observed with Herschel. The catalogue will offer not only the reduced PACS spectroscopic data for each observation, but also complementary information from other infrared observatories. As a first step, we are concentrating our efforts on two main activities: 1) the reprocessing and data-reduction of more than 120 individual sources, observed by Herschel/PACS in the 55-210 micron range, available in the Herschel Science Archive (HSA). 2) the creation of a catalogue, accesible via a web-based interface and through the Virtual Observatory (VO). Our ultimate goal is to carry out a comprehensive and systematic study of the far infrared properties of low-and intermediate-mass evolved stars using these data. These objects cover the whole range of possible evolutionary stages in this short-lived phase of stellar evolu- tion, from AGB phase to the PN stage, displaying a wide variety of chemical and physical properties.

  19. Herschel Observations and Updated Spectral Energy Distributions of Five Sunlike Stars with Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Bryden, Geoff; Harvey, Paul; Green, Joel D.

    2016-12-01

    Observations from the Herschel Space Observatory have more than doubled the number of wide debris disks orbiting Sunlike stars to include over 30 systems with R > 100 AU. Here, we present new Herschel PACS and reanalyzed Spitzer MIPS photometry of five Sunlike stars with wide debris disks, from Kuiper Belt size to R > 150 AU. The disk surrounding HD 105211 is well resolved, with an angular extent of >14″ along the major axis, and the disks of HD 33636, HD 50554, and HD 52265 are extended beyond the PACS point-spread function size (50% of energy enclosed within radius 4.″23). HD 105211 also has a 24 μm infrared excess, which was previously overlooked, because of a poorly constrained photospheric model. Archival Spitzer IRS observations indicate that the disks have small grains of minimum radius a min ˜ 3 μm, although a min is larger than the radiation-pressure blowout size in all systems. If modeled as single-temperature blackbodies, the disk temperatures would all be <60 K. Our radiative transfer models predict actual disk radii approximately twice the radius of a model blackbody disk. We find that the Herschel photometry traces dust near the source population of planetesimals. The disk luminosities are in the range 2 × 10-5 ⩽ L/L ⊙ ⩽ 2 × 10-4, consistent with collisions in icy planetesimal belts stirred by Pluto-size dwarf planets.

  20. HERSCHEL AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF SLOWLY ROTATING, NEARBY ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Popov, S.; Wachter, S.

    2014-11-01

    Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 μm, 160 mu m) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ≈ 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 μm emission (>5σ) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 μm detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 μm emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ∼10% to ∼20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 μm emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

  1. Detailed models of a sample of debris disks: from Herschel, KIN and Spitzer to the JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Augereau, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Dusty debris disks surrounding main sequence stars are extrasolar equivalents to the Solar System populations of asteroids, icy bodies and dust grains. Many were observed in thermal emission by Herschel with unprecedented wavelength coverage and spatial resolution, complementing available scattered light images, mid-infrared spectra and interferometric measurements. We present detailed models of the HD 181327 and HD 32297 disks obtained with the GRaTer radiative transfer code and made possible thanks to Herschel. We then focus on the intriguing case of the nearby F2V star η Corvi that shows strong infrared excess despite an estimated age of 1.4 Gyr. We establish a detailed model of its disk from the sub-AU scale to its outermost regions based on observations from the Keck Interferometer Nuller, Herschel and Spitzer. These bright and extended disks will be of prime interest for future observations with the JWST. We finally discuss new debris disks science that will be addressed with the NIRCam and MIRI instruments.

  2. Herschel-ATLAS: far-infrared properties of radio-selected galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, M. J.; Virdee, J. S.; Jarvis, M. J.; Bonfield, D. G.; Dunne, L.; Rawlings, S.; Stevens, J. A.; Christopher, N. M.; Heywood, I.; Mauch, T.; Rigopoulou, D.; Verma, A.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S. P.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Croom, S. M.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Hill, D. T.; Hughes, D.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jones, D. H.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Negrello, M.; Norberg, P.; Pohlen, M.; Prescott, M.; Rigby, E. E.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rodighiero, G.; Scott, D.; Sharp, R.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; van Kampen, E.

    2010-11-01

    We use the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (ATLAS) science demonstration data to investigate the star formation properties of radio-selected galaxies in the GAMA-9h field as a function of radio luminosity and redshift. Radio selection at the lowest radio luminosities, as expected, selects mostly starburst galaxies. At higher radio luminosities, where the population is dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN), we find that some individual objects are associated with high far-infrared luminosities. However, the far-infrared properties of the radio-loud population are statistically indistinguishable from those of a comparison population of radio-quiet galaxies matched in redshift and K-band absolute magnitude. There is thus no evidence that the host galaxies of these largely low-luminosity (Fanaroff-Riley class I), and presumably low-excitation, AGN, as a population, have particularly unusual star formation histories. Models in which the AGN activity in higher luminosity, high-excitation radio galaxies is triggered by major mergers would predict a luminosity-dependent effect that is not seen in our data (which only span a limited range in radio luminosity) but which may well be detectable with the full Herschel-ATLAS data set. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. E-mail: m.j.hardcastle@herts.ac.uk

  3. Herschel observations of near-Earth objects: Encounters with the spacecraft and with the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, L.; Müller, T.; Altieri, B.; Kiss, C.; Kùppers, M.; Barucci, M.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Gonzalez-Garcia, B.; Dotto, E.; Yoshikawa, M.; Carry, B.; Kidger, M.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Vavrek, R.; Teyssier, D.; Marston, A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel MACH-11 (Measurements of 11 Asteroids & Comets with Herschel) Programme has as its prime goal to observe those asteroids & comets which have been or will be visited by spacecraft or those which are being studied with a similar goal in mind. The following near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) form part of the list of targets making up this program and will be addressed in this analysis: - 1999 JU_3 (Hayabusa 2 mission target) - 1999 RQ_{36} (OSIRIS-REx mission target) - 1996 FG_3 (Marco-Polo R backup mission target) - (99942) Apophis (Study target) An additional NEA (not part of the MACH-11 program) will also be reviewed, namely 2005 YU_{55}. Each target was observed using the PACS Photometer of the Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al 2010). The extracted fluxes from each observation campaign were fed into a thermophysical model which has been validated against a large database of asteroids including targets of other spacecraft missions. In all cases, radiometric properties of each target have been derived and will be presented, with their impact on already published data being analysed & discussed.

  4. Another look at the BL Lacertae flux and spectral variability. Observations by GASP-WEBT, XMM-Newton, and Swift in 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bruschini, L.; Capetti, A.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Larionov, V. M.; Romano, P.; Vercellone, S.; Agudo, I.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Berdyugin, A.; Blinov, D. A.; Böttcher, M.; Buemi, C. S.; Calcidese, P.; Carosati, D.; Casas, R.; Chen, W.-P.; Coloma, J.; Diltz, C.; di Paola, A.; Dolci, M.; Efimova, N. V.; Forné, E.; Gómez, J. L.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hakola, A.; Hovatta, T.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Jordan, B.; Jorstad, S. G.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionova, E. G.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Ligustri, R.; Marscher, A. P.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nilsson, K.; Ros, J. A.; Roustazadeh, P.; Sadun, A. C.; Sillanpää, A.; Sainio, J.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Troitsky, I. S.; Umana, G.

    2010-12-01

    Aims: In a previous study we suggested that the broad-band emission and variability properties of BL Lacertae can be accounted for by a double synchrotron emission component with related inverse-Compton emission from the jet, plus thermal radiation from the accretion disc. Here we investigate the matter with further data extending over a wider energy range. Methods: The GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the whole earth blazar telescope (WEBT) monitored BL Lacertae in 2008-2009 at radio, near-IR, and optical frequencies to follow its flux behaviour. During this period, high-energy observations were performed by XMM-Newton, Swift, and Fermi. We analyse these data with particular attention to the calibration of Swift UV data, and apply a helical jet model to interpret the source broad-band variability. Results: The GASP-WEBT observations show an optical flare in 2008 February-March, and oscillations of several tenths of mag on a few-day time scale afterwards. The radio flux is only mildly variable. The UV data from both XMM-Newton and Swift seem to confirm a UV excess that is likely caused by thermal emission from the accretion disc. The X-ray data from XMM-Newton indicate a strongly concave spectrum, as well as moderate (~4-7%) flux variability on an hour time scale. The Swift X-ray data reveal fast (interday) flux changes, not correlated with those observed at lower energies. We compare the spectral energy distribution (SED) corresponding to the 2008 low-brightness state, which was characterised by a synchrotron dominance, to the 1997 outburst state, where the inverse-Compton emission was prevailing. A fit with an inhomogeneous helical jet model suggests that two synchrotron components are at work with their self inverse-Compton emission. Most likely, they represent the radiation from two distinct emitting regions in the jet. We show that the difference between the source SEDs in 2008 and 1997 can be explained in terms of pure geometrical variations. The

  5. Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex - The embedded young stellar and protostellar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaczkowski, Benjamin; Preibisch, Thomas; Ratzka, Thorsten; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Ohlendorf, Henrike; Pekruhl, Stephanie

    2013-07-01

    At a distance of 2.3 kpc, the Carina Nebula is the nearest southern region with a large enough massive stellar population to sample the top of the IMF and displays all phenomena of massive star formation. We have performed a 9 square-degree Herschel far-infrared survey of the Carina Nebula complex (CNC) which revealed, for the first time, the very complex and filamentary small-scale structure of the dense clouds. We discovered 642 objects that are independently detected as point-like sources in at least two of the five Herschel bands. About 75% of these are Class 0 protostars with masses between about one and ten solar masses estimated from radiative transfer modeling. Taking the observational limits into account and extrapolating the observed number of Herschel-detected protostars over the stellar initial mass function suggests that the star formation rate of the CNC is about 0.017 solar masses per year. The spatial distribution of the Herschel young stellar objects (YSO) candidates is highly inhomogeneous and does not follow the distribution of cloud mass. Rather, most Herschel YSO candidates are found at the irradiated edges of clouds and pillars. The currently ongoing star formation process forms only low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, but no massive stars. The characteristic spatial configuration of the YSOs provides support to the picture that the formation of this latest stellar generation is triggered by the advancing ionization fronts. Around the bubble-shaped HII region Gum 31 (containing the young stellar cluster NGC 3324) in the north-western part of the CNC we identified 752 candidate YSOs from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel data and analyzed their spectral energy distributions. Their location in the rim of the bubble is suggestive of their being triggered by a 'collect and collapse' scenario, which agrees well with the observed parameters of the region which we obtained from density and temperature maps from our Herschel data.

  6. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectroscopy from a Space Based Platform -- The Herschel/SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Locke Dean

    The Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel), a flagship mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), is comprised of three cryogenically cooled instruments commissioned to explore the far-infrared/submillimetre universe. Herschel's remote orbit at the second Lagrangian point (L2) of the Sun-Earth system, and its cryogenic payload, impose a need for thorough instrument characterization and rigorous testing as there will be no possibility for any servicing after launch. The Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) is one of the instrument payloads aboard Herschel and consists of a three band imaging photometer and a two band imaging spectrometer. The imaging spectrometer on SPIRE consists of a Mach-Zehnder (MZ)-Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) coupled with bolometric detector arrays to form an imaging FTS (IFTS). This thesis presents experiments conducted to verify the performance of an IFTS system from a space based platform, Le. the use of the SPIRE IFTS within the Herschel space observatory. Prior to launch, the SPIRE instrument has undergone a series of performance verification tests conducted at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) near Oxford, UK. Canada is involved in the SPIRE project through provision of instrument development hardware and software, mission flight software, and support personnel. Through this thesis project I have been stationed at RAL for a period spanning fifteen months to participate in the development, performance verification, and characterization of both the SPIRE FTS and photometer instruments. This thesis discusses Fourier transform spectroscopy and related FTS data processing (Chapter 2). Detailed discussions are included on the spectral phase related to the FTS beamsplitter (Chapter 3), the imaging aspects of the SPIRE IFTS instrument (Chapter 4), and the noise characteristics of the SPIRE bolometer detector arrays as measured using the SPIRE IFTS (Chapter 5). This thesis presents results from experiments performed

  7. Long-term changes in UT/LS ozone between the late 1970s and the 1990s deduced from the GASP and MOZAIC aircraft programs and from ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; de Backer, H.; Stübi, R.

    2009-07-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s to compare them with respective measurements of the ongoing MOZAIC project. Multi-annual averages of UT/LS ozone were built using the aircraft data sets (1975-1979 and 1994-2001), and long-term changes between the 1970s and 1990s were derived by comparison. The data were binned relative to the dynamical tropopause to separate between UT and LS air masses. LS data were analysed using equivalent latitudes. In the UT, pronounced increases of 20-40% are found over the Middle East and South Asia in the spring and summer seasons. Increases are also found over Japan, Europe, and the eastern parts of the United States depending on season. LS ozone over northern mid- and high latitudes was found to be lower in the 1990s compared to the 1970s in all seasons of the year. In addition, a comparison with long-term changes deduced from ozonesondes is presented. The early 1970s European Brewer-Mast (BM) sonde data agree with GASP within the range of uncertainty (UT) or measured slightly less ozone (LS). In contrast, the 1990s BM sensors show consistently and significantly higher UT/LS ozone values than MOZAIC. This unequal behaviour of aircraft/sonde comparisons in the 1970s and 1990s leads to differences in the estimated long-term changes over Europe: while the comparison between GASP and MOZAIC indicates ozone changes of -5% to 10% over Europe, the sondes suggest a much larger increase of 10%-35% depending on station and season, although statistical significance is not conclusive due to data sample limitations. In contrast to the BM sondes, the Electrochemical Cell (ECC) sonde at Wallops Island, USA, measured higher UT ozone than both GASP and MOZAIC. Hence, long-term changes from GASP/MOZAIC agree within the range of uncertainty with the changes deduced from Wallops Island.

  8. Unsteady solute dispersion in Herschel-Bulkley fluid in a tube with wall absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Jyotirmoy; Murthy, P. V. S. N.

    2016-11-01

    The axial dispersion of solute in a pulsatile flow of Herschel-Bulkley fluid through a straight circular tube is investigated considering absorption/reaction at the tube wall. The solute dispersion process is described by adopting the generalized dispersion model suggested by Sankarasubramanian and Gill ["Unsteady convective diffusion with interphase mass transfer," Proc. R. Soc. A 333, 115-132 (1973)]. Firstly the exchange, convection, and dispersion coefficients are determined for small and large time, and then the axial mean concentration of a solute in the tube is determined. The effect of power-law index l, yield stress of fluid τy, wall absorption parameter β, amplitude of fluctuating pressure component e, and Womersley frequency parameter α on the convection, dispersion, and mean concentration of solute is discussed for a Herschel-Bulkley fluid in the tube. The single frequency period in the oscillation of dispersion coefficient K2 is observed for small values of α while the double frequency period is noticed for large values of α at small time. Only positive dispersion occurs for small values of α. Both positive and negative dispersion is seen for large values of α. Also, the occurrence of negative dispersion is influenced by the parameters l, τy, β, and e for large values of α. A comparative study of the convection, dispersion, and mean concentration of solute among the Newtonian and non-Newtonian Herschel-Bulkley, power-law, Bingham, and Casson [J. Rana and P. V. S. N. Murthy, "Solute dispersion in pulsatile casson fluid flow in a tube with wall absorption," J. Fluid Mech. 793, 877-914 (2016)] fluid models is presented at small and large time. Also, large time behaviour of non-Newtonian Carreau and Carreau-Yasuda fluid models [J. Rana and P. V. S. N. Murthy, "Unsteady solute dispersion in non-Newtonian fluid flow in a tube with wall absorption," Proc. R. Soc. A 472, 20160294 (2016)] is considered for comparison with other discussed fluid models

  9. GOODS-Herschel: identification of the individual galaxies responsible for the 80-290 μm cosmic infrared background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiton, R.; Elbaz, D.; Okumura, K.; Hwang, H. S.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Valtchanov, I.; Dickinson, M.; Béthermin, M.; Schreiber, C.; Charmandaris, V.; Dole, H.; Juneau, S.; Le Borgne, D.; Pannella, M.; Pope, A.; Popesso, P.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We propose a new method of pushing Herschel to its faintest detection limits using universal trends in the redshift evolution of the far infrared over 24 μm colours in the well-sampled GOODS-North field. An extension to other fields with less multi-wavelength information is presented. This method is applied here to raise the contribution of individually detected Herschel sources to the cosmic infrared background (CIRB) by a factor 5 close to its peak at 250 μm and more than 3 in the 350 and 500 μm bands. Methods: We produce realistic mock Herschel images of the deep PACS and SPIRE images of the GOODS-North field from the GOODS-Herschel key program and use them to quantify the confusion noise at the position of individual sources, i.e., estimate a "local confusion noise". Two methods are used to identify sources with reliable photometric accuracy extracted using 24 μm prior positions. The clean index (CI), previously defined but validated here with simulations, which measures the presence of bright 24 μm neighbours and the photometric accuracy index (PAI) directly extracted from the mock Herschel images. Results: Both methods converge to comparable depths and fractions of the CIRB resolved into sources individually detected with Herschel. After correction for completeness, thanks to our mock Herschel images, individually detected sources make up as much as 54% and 60% of the CIRB in the PACS bands down to 1.1 mJy at 100 μm and 2.2 mJy at 160 μm and 55, 33, and 13% of the CIRB in the SPIRE bands down to 2.5, 5, and 9 mJy at 250 μm, 350 μm, and 500 μm, respectively. The latter depths improve the detection limits of Herschel by factors of 5 at 250 μm, and 3 at 350 μm and 500 μm as compared to the standard confusion limit. Interestingly, the dominant contributors to the CIRB in all Herschel bands appear to be distant siblings of the Milky Way (z ~ 0.96 for λ< 300 μm) with a stellar mass of M⋆ ~ 9 × 1010M⊙.

  10. HERSCHEL FINDS EVIDENCE FOR STELLAR WIND PARTICLES IN A PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPE: IS THIS WHAT HAPPENED TO THE YOUNG SUN?

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccarelli, C.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Dominik, C.; Kama, M.; Padovani, M.; Caux, E.; Caselli, P.

    2014-07-20

    There is evidence that the young Sun emitted a high flux of energetic (≥10 MeV) particles. The collisions of these particles with the material at the inner edge of the Protosolar Nebula disk induced spallation reactions that formed short-lived radionuclei, like {sup 10}Be, whose trace is now visible in some meteorites. However, it is poorly known exactly when this happened, and whether and how it affected the solar system. Here, we present indirect evidence for an ejection of energetic particles in the young protostar, OMC-2 FIR 4, similar to that experienced by the young solar system. In this case, the energetic particles collide with the material in the protostellar envelope, enhancing the abundance of two molecular ions, HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, whose presence is detected via Herschel observations. The flux of energetic particles at a distance of 1 AU from the emitting source, estimated from the measured abundance ratio of HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, can easily account for the irradiation required by meteoritic observations. These new observations demonstrate that the ejection of ≥10 MeV particles is a phenomenon occurring very early in the life of a protostar, before the disappearance of the envelope from which the future star accretes. The whole envelope is affected by the event, which sets constraints on the magnetic field geometry in the source and opens up the possibility that the spallation reactions are not limited to the inner edge of the Protosolar Nebula disk.

  11. FIR MEASUREMENTS OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx}< 1.0: DUST ATTENUATION FROM PACS-HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Oteo, I.; Bongiovanni, A.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Cepa, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Pintos-Castro, I.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Altieri, B.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Le Floc'h, E.; Pozzi, F.; Daddi, E.; Riguccini, L.; Aussel, H.; Elbaz, D.; Cimatti, A.

    2011-07-01

    One remaining open question regarding the physical properties of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) is their dust content and evolution with redshift. The variety of results is large and with those reported by now it is difficult to establish clear relations between dust, other fundamental parameters of galaxies (star formation rate, metallicity, or age), and redshift. In this Letter, we report Herschel PACS-100 {mu}m, PACS-160 {mu}m, and Spitzer MIPS-24 {mu}m detections of a sample of spectroscopically GALEX selected LAEs at z {approx} 0.3 and {approx}1.0. Five out of ten and one out of two LAEs are detected in, at least, one PACS band at z {approx} 0.3 and {approx}1.0, respectively. These measurements have a great importance given that they allow us to quantify, for the first time, the dust content in LAEs from direct FIR observations. MIPS-24 {mu}m detections allow us to determine the IR properties of the PACS-undetected LAEs. We obtain that mid-IR/FIR-detected star-forming (SF) LAEs at z {approx} 0.3 have dust content within 0.75 {approx}< A{sub 1200{sub A}} {approx}< 2.0, with a median value of A{sub 1200{sub A}} {approx} 1.1. This range broadens up to 0.75 {approx}< A{sub 1200{sub A}} {approx}< 2.5 when considering the LAEs at z {approx} 1.0. Only one SF LAE is undetected both in MIPS-24 {mu}m and PACS, with A{sub 1200{sub A}} {approx}< 0.75. These results seem to be larger than those reported for high-redshift LAEs and, therefore, although an evolutionary trend is not clearly seen, it could point out that low-redshift LAEs are dustier than high-redshift ones. However, the diverse methods used could introduce a systematic offset in the results.

  12. Herschel HIFI observations of the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud. Deep searches for O2 in emission and foreground absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandqvist, Aa.; Larsson, B.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Liseau, R.; Pagani, L.; Roueff, E.; Viti, S.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The Herschel Oxygen Project (HOP) is an open time key program, awarded 140 h of observing time to search for molecular oxygen (O2) in a number of interstellar sources. To date O2 has definitely been detected in only two sources, namely ρ Oph A and Orion, reflecting the extremely low abundance of O2 in the interstellar medium. Aims: One of the sources in the HOP program is the +50 km s-1 Cloud in the Sgr A Complex in the centre of the Milky Way. Its environment is unique in the Galaxy and this property is investigated to see if it is conducive to the presence of O2. Methods: The Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) is used to search for the 487 and 774 GHz emission lines of O2. Results: No O2 emission is detected towards the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud, but a number of strong emission lines of methanol (CH3OH) and absorption lines of chloronium (H2Cl+) are observed. Conclusions: A 3σ upper limit for the fractional abundance ratio of [O2]/[H2] in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud is found to be X(O2) ≤ 5 × 10-8. However, since we can find no other realistic molecular candidate than O2 itself, we very tentatively suggest that two weak absorption lines at 487.261 and 487.302 GHz may be caused by the 487 GHz line of O2 in two foreground spiral arm clouds. By considering that the absorption may only be apparent, the estimated upper limit to the O2 abundance of ≤ (10-20) × 10-6 in these foreground clouds is very high, as opposed to the upper limit in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud itself, but similar to what has been reached in recent chemical shock models for Orion. This abundance limit was determined also using Odin non-detection limits, and assumes that O2 fills the beam. If the absorption is due to a differential Herschel OFF-ON emission, the O2 fractional abundance may be of the order of ≈ (5-10) × 10-6. With the assumption of pure absorption by foreground clouds, the unreasonably high abundance of (1.4-2.8) × 10-4 was obtained. The

  13. A Comprehensive Study of ULIRGs in the Herschel Very Wide Field Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing

    Extreme starbursting galaxies exist at all redshifts, and most of them are so heavily obscured by dust that they are Ultra-Luminous InfraRed Galaxies (ULIRGs) while being faint in optical to near-IR. The latest example is at record-high z=6.337, approaching the end of the reionization. There have been numerous suggestions that understanding ULIRG is critical in constructing a comprehensive picture of galaxy formation history. These range from the hypothesis three decades ago that the ULIRG phase is the prelude to QSO and large ellipticals, to the recent tentative evidence that ULIRG could make a large (if not dominant) contribution to the global star formation rate density (GSFRD) at z>1. However, the exact nature of ULIRG and their role in galaxy assembly still remain illusive, largely due to the limited sample size and the severe source confusion problem in the far-IR (FIR). The very wide field surveys by Herschel have provided the best opportunity to date to systematically study ULIRG beyond the local universe, most importantly because of their wide coverage and high sensitivity to probe large volumes to high redshifts and the multiple FIR bands that allow for direct measurement of the IR luminosities. We propose to construct the largest possible ULIRG sample in these fields at all redshifts, and to study the evolution of ULIRGs. We will concentrate on the HerMES, the H-ATLAS and the HerS programs whose data are already public. While the confusion problem still persists in these Herschel data, we have demonstrated that it is possible to directly use the position priors from optical images to decompose the candidate contributors to a given Herschel source if its S/N suffices (Yan et al. 2014). This is a significant improvement over previous studies where higher-resolution mid-IR (mostly Spitzer MIPS 24-micron) data had to be used as the proxies to the FIR source locations, because (1) such proxy images also suffer from the blending problem in the first place and

  14. Herschel Key Program Heritage: a Far-Infrared Source Catalog for the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewiło, Marta; Babler, Brian; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Gordon, Karl; Hony, Sacha; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Okumura, Koryo; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sauvage, Marc; Boyer, Martha L.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Matsuura, Mikako; Oliveira, Joana M.; Srinivasan, Sundar; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Whitney, Barbara; Woods, Paul M.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) have been used to identify dusty populations of sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). We conducted the study using the HERITAGE catalogs of point sources available from the Herschel Science Center from both the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS; 100 and 160 μm) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE; 250, 350, and 500 μm) cameras. These catalogs are matched to each other to create a Herschel band-merged catalog and then further matched to archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS catalogs from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) and SAGE-SMC surveys to create single mid- to far-infrared (far-IR) point source catalogs that span the wavelength range from 3.6 to 500 μm. There are 35,322 unique sources in the LMC and 7503 in the SMC. To be bright in the FIR, a source must be very dusty, and so the sources in the HERITAGE catalogs represent the dustiest populations of sources. The brightest HERITAGE sources are dominated by young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dimmest by background galaxies. We identify the sources most likely to be background galaxies by first considering their morphology (distant galaxies are point-like at the resolution of Herschel) and then comparing the flux distribution to that of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (ATLAS) survey of galaxies. We find a total of 9745 background galaxy candidates in the LMC HERITAGE images and 5111 in the SMC images, in agreement with the number predicted by extrapolating from the ATLAS flux distribution. The majority of the Magellanic Cloud-residing sources are either very young, embedded forming stars or dusty clumps of the interstellar medium. Using the presence of 24 μm emission as a tracer of star formation, we identify 3518 YSO candidates in the LMC and 663 in the SMC. There are far fewer far-IR bright YSOs in the SMC than the LMC

  15. HERschel key program heritage: A far-infrared source catalog for the Magellanic Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewiło, Marta; Babler, Brian; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia; Hony, Sacha; Okumura, Koryo; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Matsuura, Mikako; Oliveira, Joana M.; Loon, Jacco Th. van; Srinivasan, Sundar; and others

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) have been used to identify dusty populations of sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). We conducted the study using the HERITAGE catalogs of point sources available from the Herschel Science Center from both the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS; 100 and 160 μm) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE; 250, 350, and 500 μm) cameras. These catalogs are matched to each other to create a Herschel band-merged catalog and then further matched to archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS catalogs from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) and SAGE-SMC surveys to create single mid- to far-infrared (far-IR) point source catalogs that span the wavelength range from 3.6 to 500 μm. There are 35,322 unique sources in the LMC and 7503 in the SMC. To be bright in the FIR, a source must be very dusty, and so the sources in the HERITAGE catalogs represent the dustiest populations of sources. The brightest HERITAGE sources are dominated by young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dimmest by background galaxies. We identify the sources most likely to be background galaxies by first considering their morphology (distant galaxies are point-like at the resolution of Herschel) and then comparing the flux distribution to that of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (ATLAS) survey of galaxies. We find a total of 9745 background galaxy candidates in the LMC HERITAGE images and 5111 in the SMC images, in agreement with the number predicted by extrapolating from the ATLAS flux distribution. The majority of the Magellanic Cloud-residing sources are either very young, embedded forming stars or dusty clumps of the interstellar medium. Using the presence of 24 μm emission as a tracer of star formation, we identify 3518 YSO candidates in the LMC and 663 in the SMC. There are far fewer far-IR bright YSOs in the SMC than the LMC

  16. Herschel-ATLAS: the surprising diversity of dust-selected galaxies in the local submillimetre Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, C. J. R.; Dunne, L.; Gomez, H. L.; Maddox, S.; De Vis, P.; Smith, M. W. L.; Eales, S. A.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bourne, N.; Driver, S. P.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Grootes, M. W.; Ivison, R. J.; Schofield, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rowlands, K.; Valiante, E.; Vlahakis, C.; van der Werf, P.; Wright, A. H.; de Zotti, G.

    2015-09-01

    We present the properties of the first 250 μm blind sample of nearby galaxies (15 < D < 46 Mpc) containing 42 objects from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Herschel's sensitivity probes the faint end of the dust luminosity function for the first time, spanning a range of stellar mass (7.4 < M⋆ < 11.3 log10 M⊙), star formation activity (-11.8 < SSFR < -8.9 log10 yr-1), gas fraction (3-96 per cent), and colour (0.6 < FUV-KS < 7.0 mag). The median cold dust temperature is 14.6 K, colder than in the Herschel Reference Survey (18.5 K) and Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (17.7 K). The mean dust-to-stellar mass ratio in our sample is higher than these surveys by factors of 3.7 and 1.8, with a dust mass volume density of (3.7 ± 0.7) × 105 M⊙ Mpc-3. Counter-intuitively, we find that the more dust rich a galaxy, the lower its UV attenuation. Over half of our dust-selected sample are very blue in FUV-KS colour, with irregular and/or highly flocculent morphology; these galaxies account for only 6 per cent of the sample's stellar mass but contain over 35 per cent of the dust mass. They are the most actively star-forming galaxies in the sample, with the highest gas fractions and lowest UV attenuation. They also appear to be in an early stage of converting their gas into stars, providing valuable insights into the chemical evolution of young galaxies.

  17. Feasibility and performances of compressed sensing and sparse map-making with Herschel/PACS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbey, N.; Sauvage, M.; Starck, J.-L.; Ottensamer, R.; Chanial, P.

    2011-03-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory of ESA was launched in May 2009 and has been in operation ever since. From its distant orbit around L2, it needs to transmit a huge quantity of information through a very limited bandwidth. This is especially true for the PACS imaging camera, which needs to compress its data far more than what can be achieved with lossless compression. This is currently solved by including lossy averaging and rounding steps onboard. Recently, a new theory called compressed sensing has emerged from the statistics community. This theory makes use of the sparsity of natural (or astrophysical) images to optimize the acquisition scheme of the data needed to estimate those images. Thus, it can lead to high compression factors. A previous article by Bobin et al. (2008, IEEE J. Selected Topics Signal Process., 2, 718) has shown how the new theory could be applied to simulated Herschel/PACS data to solve the compression requirement of the instrument. In this article, we show that compressed sensing theory can indeed be successfully applied to actual Herschel/PACS data and significantly improves over the standard pipeline. To fully use the redundancy present in the data, we perform a full sky-map estimation and decompression at the same time, which cannot be done in most other compression methods. We also demonstrate that the various artifacts affecting the data (pink noise and glitches, whose behavior is a priori not very compatible with compressed sensing) can also be handled in this new framework. Finally, we compare the methods from the compressed sensing scheme and data acquired with the standard compression scheme. We discuss improvements that can be made on Earth for the creation of sky maps from the data.

  18. Herschel Extreme Lensing Line Observations: [CII] Variations in Galaxies at Redshifts z=1-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Finkelstein, K.; Yang, Huan; Carilli, Chris; Combes, Françoise; Dassas, Karine; Finkelstein, Steven; Frye, Brenda; Gerin, Maryvonne; Guillard, Pierre; Nesvadba, Nicole; Rigby, Jane; Shin, Min-Su; Spaans, Marco; Strauss, Michael A.; Papovich, Casey

    2017-01-01

    We observed the [C ii] line in 15 lensed galaxies at redshifts 1 < z < 3 using HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory and detected 14/15 galaxies at 3σ or better. High magnifications enable even modestly luminous galaxies to be detected in [C ii] with Herschel. The [C ii] luminosity in this sample ranges from 8 × 107 L⊙ to 3.7 × 109 L⊙ (after correcting for magnification), confirming that [C ii] is a strong tracer of the ISM at high redshifts. The ratio of the [C ii] line to the total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity serves as a measure of the ratio of gas to dust cooling and thus the efficiency of the grain photoelectric heating process. It varies between 3.3% and 0.09%. We compare the [C ii]/FIR ratio to that of galaxies at z = 0 and at high redshifts and find that they follow similar trends. The [C ii]/FIR ratio is lower for galaxies with higher dust temperatures. This is best explained if increased UV intensity leads to higher FIR luminosity and dust temperatures, but gas heating does not rise due to lower photoelectric heating efficiency. The [C ii]/FIR ratio shows weaker correlation with FIR luminosity. At low redshifts highly luminous galaxies tend to have warm dust, so the effects of dust temperature and luminosity are degenerate. Luminous galaxies at high redshifts show a range of dust temperatures, showing that [C ii]/FIR correlates most strongly with dust temperature. The [C ii] to mid-IR ratio for the HELLO sample is similar to the values seen for low-redshift galaxies, indicating that small grains and PAHs dominate the heating in the neutral ISM, although some of the high [CII]/FIR ratios may be due to turbulent heating. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  19. HELP: XID+, the probabilistic de-blender for Herschel SPIRE maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, P. D.; Oliver, S.; Betancourt, M.; Clarke, C.; Cowley, W. I.; Duivenvoorden, S.; Farrah, D.; Griffin, M.; Lacey, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sargent, M.; Scudder, J. M.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Wang, L.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a new prior-based source extraction tool, XID+, to carry out photometry in the Herschel SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) maps at the positions of known sources. XID+ is developed using a probabilistic Bayesian framework that provides a natural framework in which to include prior information, and uses the Bayesian inference tool Stan to obtain the full posterior probability distribution on flux estimates. In this paper, we discuss the details of XID+ and demonstrate the basic capabilities and performance by running it on simulated SPIRE maps resembling the COSMOS field, and comparing to the current prior-based source extraction tool DESPHOT. Not only we show that XID+ performs better on metrics such as flux accuracy and flux uncertainty accuracy, but we also illustrate how obtaining the posterior probability distribution can help overcome some of the issues inherent with maximum-likelihood-based source extraction routines. We run XID+ on the COSMOS SPIRE maps from Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey using a 24-μm catalogue as a positional prior, and a uniform flux prior ranging from 0.01 to 1000 mJy. We show the marginalized SPIRE colour-colour plot and marginalized contribution to the cosmic infrared background at the SPIRE wavelengths. XID+ is a core tool arising from the Herschel Extragalactic Legacy Project (HELP) and we discuss how additional work within HELP providing prior information on fluxes can and will be utilized. The software is available at https://github.com/H-E-L-P/XID_plus. We also provide the data product for COSMOS. We believe this is the first time that the full posterior probability of galaxy photometry has been provided as a data product.

  20. High-J CO Intensity Measurements for Galaxies Observed by the Herschel FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Philip; Conley, Alex

    Molecular gas is the raw material for star formation and is commonly traced by the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule. The atmosphere blocks all but the lowest-J transitions of CO for observatories on the ground, but the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory revealed the CO emission of nearby galaxies from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12. Herschel showed that mid- and high-J CO lines in nearby galaxies are emitted from warm gas, accounting for approximately 10% of the molecular mass, but the majority of the CO luminosity. The energy budget of this warm, highly-excited gas is a significant window into the feedback interactions among molecular gas, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Likely, mechanical heating is required to explain the excitation. Such gas has also been observed in star forming regions within our galaxy. We have examined all ~300 spectra of galaxies from the Herschel Fourier Transform Spectrometer and measured line fluxes or upper limits for the CO J = 4-3 to J = 13-12, [CI], and [NII] 205 micron lines in ~200 galaxies, taking systematic effects of the FTS into account. We will present our line fitting method, illustrate trends available so far in this large sample, and preview the full 2-component radiative transfer likelihood modeling of the CO emission using an illustrative sample of 20 galaxies, including comparisons to well-resolved galactic regions. This work is a comprehensive study of mid- and high-J CO emission among a variety of galaxy types, and can be used as a resource for future (sub)millimeter studies of galaxies with ground-based instruments.

  1. Herschel-ATLAS: the link between accretion luminosity and star formation in quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfield, D. G.; Jarvis, M. J.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Cooray, A.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Page, M. J.; Stevens, J. A.; de Zotti, G.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Dariush, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Maddox, S. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E. E.; Rodighiero, G.; Serjeant, S.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; van der Werf, P.

    2011-09-01

    We use the science demonstration field data of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey to study how star formation, traced by the far-infrared Herschel data, is related to both the accretion luminosity and redshift of quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the 2dF-SDSS luminous red galaxy (LRG) and Quasar Spectroscopic Catalogue survey. By developing a maximum-likelihood estimator to investigate the presence of correlations between the far-infrared and optical luminosities, we find evidence that the star formation in quasar hosts is correlated with both redshift and quasar accretion luminosity. Assuming a relationship of the form LIR∝LθQSO(1 +z)ζ, we find θ= 0.22 ± 0.08 and ζ= 1.6 ± 0.4, although there is substantial additional uncertainty in ζ of the order of ±1, due to uncertainties in the host galaxy dust temperature. We find evidence for a large intrinsic dispersion in the redshift dependence, but no evidence for intrinsic dispersion in the correlation between LQSO and LIR, suggesting that the latter may be due to a direct physical connection between star formation and black hole accretion. This is consistent with the idea that both the quasar activity and star formation are dependent on the same reservoir of cold gas, so that they are both affected by the influx of cold gas during mergers or heating of gas via feedback processes. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  2. Insights into the earliest stages of star cluster formationfrom Herschel Gould Belt survey observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Philippe; Ladjelate, Bilal; Könyves, Vera

    2015-08-01

    For a long time, the conventional wisdom has been that "clustered star formation" and "isolated (or distributed) star formation" represent two fundamentally distinct modes of the star formation process. Recent detailed infrared studies of the spatial distribution of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the solar neighborhood, however, suggest that there is a continuous distribution of YSO surface densities from a diffuse population to the densest groups or clusters, with no evidence for discrete modes of star formation (e.g. Bressert et al. 2010). Based on the results of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (http://gouldbelt-herschel.cea.fr) toward the nearest regions of "clustered" and "distributed" star formation, including the Ophiuchus and Taurus clouds, we will show how these two seemingly opposing views can be reconciled.The Herschel results point to the key role of the quasi-universal filamentary structure pervading the cold ISM (cf. André et al. 2014, Protostars and Planets VI). Indeed, a large fraction of the dense molecular gas is found to be in the form of filaments and most prestellar cores are located within dense, "supercritical" filaments. To a large extent, therefore, the spatial distribution of YSOs is inherited from the filamentary texture of molecular clouds, which is partly hierarchical and shaped by a combination of turbulent, magnetic, and gravitational effects. Wherever gravity dominates on large scales, a "hub-filament" system develops (cf. Myers 2009) and a protocluster is generated at the "hub" or junction of a converging network of filaments. More distributed star formation occurs along individual filaments with marginally supercritical masses per unit length.

  3. Unraveling the Evolution of Protostars in Diverse Environments: The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megeath, S. Thomas; the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey Team

    2014-01-01

    The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS), a 200 hour PACS imaging and spectroscopy OTKP, is the cornerstone of a large multi-observatory campaign combining Herschel data with observations from Spitzer,Hubble, APEX, and other facilities. HOPS has produced well sampled 1-870 micron SEDs of over 300 protostars in the Orion molecular clouds, the most extensive such survey of a single cloud complex to date, and has obtained PACS spectra of 36 protostars to observe line emission from CO, OH, and H2O. We will present the major HOPS discoveries that demonstrate Herschel's contributions to an emerging picture of protostellar evolution within the diverse environments of the Orion A & B molecular clouds. Among these, the HOPS team has discovered protostars undetected by Spitzer that appear to be the youngest protostars in Orion (Stutz et al. 2013). We have found that the luminosities of high-J CO lines are correlated with protostellar luminosities, but the excitation temperatures are not, indicating that these lines form in high-temperature gas within outflows (Manoj et al. 2013). We have also constructed and modeled the first 1-70 um SED of a protostellar FU Ori object before and after its outburst, finding an atypically low post-outburst luminosity (Fischer et al. 2012). Finally, we have identified systematic variations in the spacing and luminosity of protostars between the different environments found in Orion (Megeath, Stanke, in prep.). More generally, the HOPS team is now determining the fundamental protostellar properties (envelope mass and density, system luminosity, and outflow cavity geometry) of the 300 Orion protostars by a comparison of the SEDs to radiative transfer models. We will summarize the prospects of using these fundamental properties to construct a detailed sequence for the physical evolution of protostars as they dissipate their envelopes, accounting for the influence of the diverse environments found within Orion.

  4. The Discovery of Extremely Young Protostars in Orion with Herschel and APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, Amelia; Tobin, John; Stanke, Thomas; Megeath, Tom; Fischer, Will; Robitaille, Thomas; Henning, Thomas; Ali, Babar; Di Francesco, James; Furlan, Elise; Osorio, Mayra; HOPS Team

    2013-07-01

    We perform a census of the reddest, and potentially youngest, protostars in the Orion molecular clouds using 24 um - 870 um imaging obtained with the Spitzer, Herschel, and APEX telescopes as part of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). We find a sample of 15 new extremely red protostar candidates that can reliably identified as protostars (Stutz et al., 2013). Taking the previously known sample of 300 Spitzer protostars and the new sample of 15 Herschel identified protostars together, we find 18 extremely red protostars (i.e., log λFλ70 / λFλ24 > 1.65). These are the reddest protostars known in Orion and we name them "PACS Bright Red sources", or PBRS. Our analysis reveals that the PBRs sample is composed of Class 0 like sources with very red spectral energy distributions (SEDs; Tbol < 45 K) and large sub-millimeter fluxes (Lsmm/Lbol > 0.6%). Modified blackbody fits to the SEDs provide lower limits to the envelope masses of 0.2 Msun - 2 Msun and luminosities of 0.7 Lsun - 10 Lsun. Based on these properties, and a comparison of the SEDs with radiative transfer models of protostars, we conclude that the PBRs are most likely extreme Class 0 objects distinguished by higher than typical envelope densities and possibly high mass infall rates. We estimate the ages of the PBRs to be between 5000 and 25000 years. We find that the fraction of PBRS is more than 5 times higher in the Orion B cloud than in Orion A; this may be due to differences in the star formation histories or in the star forming environment.

  5. What Determines the Density Structure of Molecular Clouds? A Case Study of Orion B with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; André, Ph.; Könyves, V.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Federrath, C.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Arzoumanian, D.; Benedettini, M.; Bressert, E.; Didelon, P.; Di Francesco, J.; Griffin, M.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.; Peretto, N.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Spinoglio, L.; White, G.

    2013-04-01

    A key parameter to the description of all star formation processes is the density structure of the gas. In this Letter, we make use of probability distribution functions (PDFs) of Herschel column density maps of Orion B, Aquila, and Polaris, obtained with the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS). We aim to understand which physical processes influence the PDF shape, and with which signatures. The PDFs of Orion B (Aquila) show a lognormal distribution for low column densities until A V ~ 3 (6), and a power-law tail for high column densities, consistent with a ρvpropr -2 profile for the equivalent spherical density distribution. The PDF of Orion B is broadened by external compression due to the nearby OB stellar aggregates. The PDF of a quiescent subregion of the non-star-forming Polaris cloud is nearly lognormal, indicating that supersonic turbulence governs the density distribution. But we also observe a deviation from the lognormal shape at A V > 1 for a subregion in Polaris that includes a prominent filament. We conclude that (1) the point where the PDF deviates from the lognormal form does not trace a universal A V -threshold for star formation, (2) statistical density fluctuations, intermittency, and magnetic fields can cause excess from the lognormal PDF at an early cloud formation stage, (3) core formation and/or global collapse of filaments and a non-isothermal gas distribution lead to a power-law tail, and (4) external compression broadens the column density PDF, consistent with numerical simulations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  6. An Analysis of the Environments of FU Orionis Objects with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel D.; Evans, Neal J., II; Kóspál, Ágnes; Herczeg, Gregory; Quanz, Sascha P.; Henning, Thomas; van Kempen, Tim A.; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Dunham, Michael M.; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Bouwman, Jeroen; Chen, Jo-hsin; Güdel, Manuel; Skinner, Stephen L.; Liebhart, Armin; Merello, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    We present Herschel-HIFI, SPIRE, and PACS 50-670 μm imaging and spectroscopy of six FU Orionis-type objects and candidates (FU Orionis, V1735 Cyg, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, V1331 Cyg, and HBC 722), ranging in outburst date from 1936 to 2010, from the "FOOSH" (FU Orionis Objects Surveyed with Herschel) program, as well as ancillary results from Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. In their system properties (L bol, T bol, and line emission), we find that FUors are in a variety of evolutionary states. Additionally, some FUors have features of both Class I and II sources: warm continuum consistent with Class II sources, but rotational line emission typical of Class I, far higher than Class II sources of similar mass/luminosity. Combining several classification techniques, we find an evolutionary sequence consistent with previous mid-IR indicators. We detect [O I] in every source at luminosities consistent with Class 0/I protostars, much greater than in Class II disks. We detect transitions of 13CO (J up of 5-8) around two sources (V1735 Cyg and HBC 722) but attribute them to nearby protostars. Of the remaining sources, three (FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, and V1331 Cyg) exhibit only low-lying CO, but one (V1057 Cyg) shows CO up to J = 23 → 22 and evidence for H2O and OH emission, at strengths typical of protostars rather than T Tauri stars. Rotational temperatures for "cool" CO components range from 20 to 81 K, for ~ 1050 total CO molecules. We detect [C I] and [N II] primarily as diffuse emission. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. Rayleigh guide star AO demonstrator for the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Paul; Bissonauth, Nirmal; O'Byrne, John W.; Dunlop, Colin N.; Gregory, Thomas; Morris, Timothy J.; Myers, Richard M.; Saunter, Christopher D.; Wilson, Richard W.

    2003-02-01

    An experimental Adaptive Optics system utilizing a low-altitude Rayleigh Laser Guide Star is presented. The current status of the project is described together with plans for future work, with the ultimate goal of providing demonstration Rayleigh LGS AO science on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. The implementation of the demonstration system is described in detail as are the technical challenges encountered during the development of the current shared-launch based system. Other papers in this conference describe a proposal for a facility class LGS system for the WHT and the performance of the observatory's NAOMI adaptive optics system.

  8. Pyramid Wavefront Sensor at the William Herschel Telescope: Towards Extremely Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Tozzi, A.; Puglisi, A.; Stefanini, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Arcetri adaptive optics group showed in 2001, using numerical simulation, that the pyramid WFS is able to do phasing and alignment of the mirror segments at the same time. In the period 2000-2004 the adaptive optics group developed this concept, and have built a lab prototype of the pyramid co-phasing sensor. A unique opportunity to calibrate and test our prototype in the lab and on the sky has been provided by the William Herschel Telescope and its adaptive optics system NAOMI.

  9. CIRPASS on the William Herschel Telescope: Measuring the Global Star Formation Rate Over Most of History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, A.; Sharp, R.; Doherty, M.; Parry, I.

    2005-12-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) has long been established in the optical, but is still in its infancy at infrared wavelengths. We are still a generation away from IR-MOS instruments on the 8-m class telescopes, but this technology has already been successfully demonstrated on the William Herschel Telescope with the visiting instrument, CIRPASS. This is the "Cambridge Infra-Red Panoramic Survey Spectrograph", built by the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge with the support of PPARC and the Sackler Foundation. CIRPASS works in the J- and H-bands, at wavelengths 1-1.8mm.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Local SDSS galaxies in Herschel Stripe 82 (Rosario+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, D. J.; Mendel, J. T.; Ellison, S. L.; Lutz, D.; Trump, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    We draw on the extensive set of measurements (redshifts, stellar masses, line fluxes, etc.) available from the SDSS/MPA-JHU data base to define and classify our sample of galaxies for study, and to understand their range of observed properties. Where possible, we employ Herschel and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) photometry to constrain the TIR using spectral energy distribution (SED) fits, and GALEX FUV photometry to correct for stellar emission not absorbed by dust. These data are brought to bear on the cross-assessment of infrared (IR), UV and optical SFRs. (1 data file).

  11. The first step of interstellar chemistry revealed by Herschel/HIFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Godard, B.; de Luca, M.

    2010-12-01

    Absorption spectroscopy performed with Herschel/HIFI in the direction of bright star-forming regions of the inner Galaxy provides a new probe of the interstellar medium. The ground-state transition of several light hydrides are found to have large optical depths and are therefore sensitive tracers of gas components that are poorly known such as gas of low density containing only a small fraction of molecular hydrogen. The large observed abundances of HF, CH^+, OH^+, H_2O^+ among others, provide new clues on the processes leading to the incorporation of heavy elements into interstellar chemistry.

  12. Multi-wavelength seds of Herschel-selected galaxies in the cosmos field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Hung, Chao-Ling; Scoville, N. Z.; Capak, Peter; Bock, J.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Aussel, Hervé; Ilbert, Olivier; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Roseboom, Isaac; Oliver, S. J.; Salvato, Mara; Aravena, M.; Berta, S.; Riguccini, L.; Symeonidis, M.

    2013-12-01

    We combine Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver maps of the full 2 deg{sup 2} Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field with existing multi-wavelength data to obtain template and model-independent optical-to-far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 4218 Herschel-selected sources with log(L {sub IR}/L {sub ☉}) = 9.4-13.6 and z = 0.02-3.54. Median SEDs are created by binning the optical to far-infrared (FIR) bands available in COSMOS as a function of infrared luminosity. Herschel probes rest-frame wavelengths where the bulk of the infrared radiation is emitted, allowing us to more accurately determine fundamental dust properties of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies. We find that the SED peak wavelength (λ{sub peak}) decreases and the dust mass (M {sub dust}) increases with increasing total infrared luminosity (L {sub IR}). In the lowest infrared luminosity galaxies (log(L {sub IR}/L {sub ☉}) = 10.0-11.5), we see evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features (λ ∼ 7-9 μm), while in the highest infrared luminosity galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) we see an increasing contribution of hot dust and/or power-law emission, consistent with the presence of heating from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We study the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies and find no evidence that Herschel-selected galaxies follow the SFR/M {sub *} 'main sequence' as previously determined from studies of optically selected, star-forming galaxies. Finally, we compare the mid-infrared to FIR properties of our infrared luminous galaxies using the previously defined diagnostic, IR8 ≡ L {sub IR}/L {sub 8}, and find that galaxies with L {sub IR} ≳ 10{sup 11.3} L {sub ☉} tend to systematically lie above (× 3-5) the IR8 'infrared main sequence', suggesting either suppressed PAH emission or an increasing contribution from

  13. A Herschel-SPIRE Survey of the MonR2 Giant Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Riwaj; Gutermuth, Robert; Ali, Babar; Megeath, Thomas; Pipher, Judith; Myers, Philip; Fischer, William; Henning, Thomas; Wolk, Scott; Allen, Lori; Tobin, John

    2015-08-01

    We present a new survey of the MonR2 giant molecular cloud with SPIRE on the Herschel Space Observatory. We cross-calibrated SPIRE data with Planck-HFI and accounted for its absolute offset and zero point correction. We fixed emissivity with the help of flux-error and flux ratio plots. As the best representation of cold dusty molecular clouds, we did greybody fits of the SEDs. We studied the nature of distribution of column densities above and below certain critical limit, followed by the mass and temperature distributions for different regions. We used dendrograms as a technique to study the hierarchical structures in the GMC.

  14. A Herschel-SPIRE Survey of the MonR2 Giant Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Riwaj; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Ali, Babar; Megeath, S. Thomas; Pipher, Judith; Myers, Philip C.; Fischer, William J.; Henning, Thomas; Wolk, Scott J.; Allen, Lori; Tobin, John J.

    2014-06-01

    We present a new survey of the MonR2 giant molecular cloud with SPIRE on the Herschel Space Observatory. We cross-calibrated SPIRE data with Planck-HFI and accounted for its absolute offset and zero point correction. We fixed emissivity with the help of flux-error and flux ratio plots. As the best representation of cold dusty molecular clouds, we did greybody fits of the SEDs. We studied the nature of distribution of column densities above and below certain critical limit, followed by the mass and temperature distributions for different regions. We isolated the filaments and studied radial column density profile in this cloud.

  15. Multi-wavelength SEDs of Herschel-selected Galaxies in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Hung, Chao-Ling; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Ilbert, Olivier; Aussel, Hervé; Capak, Peter; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Roseboom, Isaac; Salvato, Mara; Aravena, M.; Berta, S.; Bock, J.; Oliver, S. J.; Riguccini, L.; Symeonidis, M.

    2013-12-01

    We combine Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver maps of the full 2 deg2 Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field with existing multi-wavelength data to obtain template and model-independent optical-to-far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 4218 Herschel-selected sources with log(L IR/L ⊙) = 9.4-13.6 and z = 0.02-3.54. Median SEDs are created by binning the optical to far-infrared (FIR) bands available in COSMOS as a function of infrared luminosity. Herschel probes rest-frame wavelengths where the bulk of the infrared radiation is emitted, allowing us to more accurately determine fundamental dust properties of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies. We find that the SED peak wavelength (λpeak) decreases and the dust mass (M dust) increases with increasing total infrared luminosity (L IR). In the lowest infrared luminosity galaxies (log(L IR/L ⊙) = 10.0-11.5), we see evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features (λ ~ 7-9 μm), while in the highest infrared luminosity galaxies (L IR > 1012 L ⊙) we see an increasing contribution of hot dust and/or power-law emission, consistent with the presence of heating from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We study the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies and find no evidence that Herschel-selected galaxies follow the SFR/M * "main sequence" as previously determined from studies of optically selected, star-forming galaxies. Finally, we compare the mid-infrared to FIR properties of our infrared luminous galaxies using the previously defined diagnostic, IR8 ≡ L IR/L 8, and find that galaxies with L IR >~ 1011.3 L ⊙ tend to systematically lie above (× 3-5) the IR8 "infrared main sequence," suggesting either suppressed PAH emission or an increasing contribution from AGN heating.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: YSOs in Herschel-Hi-GAL survey (Veneziani+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneziani, M.; Elia, D.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R.; Carey, S.; Faimali, A.; Molinari, S.; Pestalozzi, M.; Piacentini, F.; Schisano, E.

    2012-09-01

    File yso.dat contains the photometry and distances of the identified Young Stellar Objects (YSO) in two 2x2 tiles of the Herschel-Hi-GAL survey. The fields are centered in (l,b)=(30,0) and (l,b)=(59,0). The detection and photometry from 24 micron to 500 micron have been extracted with the CuTEX algorithm (Molinari et al., 2011A&A...530A.133M) while the kinematic distances have been estimated by Russeil et al. (2011, Cat. J/A+A/526/A151). (1 data file).

  17. Feedback from deeply embedded low- and high-mass protostars. Surveying hot molecular gas with Herschel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karska, Agata

    2014-09-01

    Protostars interact violently with their natal cocoons within dense molecular clouds. Characterizing this feedback is key to understanding the efficiency of the star formation process and the chemical processing of material that will be available for planet formation. In this thesis, the imprints of physical processes on molecular gas are analyzed using state-of-the-art far-infrared spectroscopy from Herschel / PACS. Interpretation of the origin of far-infrared line emission allows us to quantify the physical conditions and the role of shocks and ultraviolet radiation during the 'kindergarten years' of low- and high-mass protostars.

  18. CSI L2 - Reconstructing Herschel/Planck, Anomalies on the Avionics Bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchetta, Andrea; Cocito, Andrea; Oort, Marc; Procopio, Dorico

    2010-08-01

    One year after the launch of Herschel and Planck it is time to show the issues which occurred in-flight that have required dedicated analyses. In particular, the role played by the Avionics Test Bench in investigating the anomalies involving the Attitude Control is presented. This verification set-up has been used extensively initially for reproducing the observed behavior and then to validate the various solutions that have been identified and implemented. Different entities, from the equipment suppliers up to the final customer, have been involved in this process and their role is presented.

  19. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XVIII. Star-forming dwarf galaxies in a cluster environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S. C.; Hughes, T. M.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bizzocchi, L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; Cortese, L.; Davies, J.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fritz, J.; Pappalardo, C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Viaene, S.; Vlahakis, C.

    2015-02-01

    To assess the effects of the cluster environment on the different components of the interstellar medium, we analyse the far-infrared (FIR) and submillimetre (submm) properties of a sample of star-forming dwarf galaxies detected by the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). We determine dust masses and dust temperatures by fitting a modified black body function to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Stellar and gas masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and metallicities are obtained from the analysis of a set of ancillary data. Dust is detected in 49 out of a total 140 optically identified dwarfs covered by the HeViCS field; considering only dwarfs brighter than mB = 18 mag, this gives a detection rate of 43%. After evaluating different emissivity indices, we find that the FIR-submm SEDs are best-fit by β = 1.5, with a median dust temperature Td = 22.4 K. Assuming β = 1.5, 67% of the 23 galaxies detected in all five Herschel bands show emission at 500 μm in excess of the modified black-body model. The fraction of galaxies with a submillimetre excess decreases for lower values of β, while a similarly high fraction (54%) is found if a β-free SED modelling is applied. The excess is inversely correlated with SFR and stellar masses. To study the variations in the global properties of our sample that come from environmental effects, we compare the Virgo dwarfs to other Herschel surveys,such as the Key Insights into Nearby Galaxies: Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH), the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS), and the HeViCS Bright Galaxy Catalogue (BGC). We explore the relations between stellar mass and Hi fraction, specific star formation rate, dust fraction, gas-to-dust ratio over a wide range of stellar masses (from 107 to 1011 M⊙) for both dwarfs and spirals. Highly Hi-deficient Virgo dwarf galaxies are mostly characterised by quenched star formation activity and lower dust fractions giving hints for dust stripping in cluster dwarfs. However, to explain the

  20. The Herschel ATLAS: Evolution of the 250 Micrometer Luminosity Function Out to z = 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, S.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Smith, D. J. B.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S.; Blain, A. W.; Bonfield, D. G.; Bremer, M.; Burgarella, D.; Buttiglione, S.; Cameron, E.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Croom, S.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Driver, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Frayer, D.; Leeuw, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the luminosity function of 250 micrometer-selected galaxies detected in the approximately equal to 14 deg(sup 2) science demonstration region of the Herschel-ATLAS project out to a redshift of z = 0.5. Our findings very clearly show that the luminosity function evolves steadily out to this redshift. By selecting a sub-group of sources within a fixed luminosity interval where incompleteness effects are minimal, we have measured a smooth increase in the comoving 250 micrometer luminosity density out to z = 0.2 where it is 3.6(sup +1.4) (sub -0.9) times higher than the local value.

  1. Results of the JOSE site evaluation project for adaptive optics at the William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R.

    1998-11-01

    Results are presented from a long-term study of the seeing properties at the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. The measurements have been made over a two-year period using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor equipped with high frame-rate CCD camera. The aim of the campaign is to characterize those aspects of the seeing relevant to the design and performance of astronomical adaptive optical systems for the WHT. Statistical results are presented for the value of Fried's parameter, power spectra of Zernike mode coefficients, isoplanatism and the outer scale of turbulence.

  2. Herschel/HIFI observations of the circumstellar ammonia lines in IRC+10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. R.; He, J. H.; Szczerba, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Cernicharo, J.; Decin, L.; Justtanont, K.; Teyssier, D.; Menten, K. M.; Neufeld, D. A.; Olofsson, H.; Planesas, P.; Marston, A. P.; Sobolev, A. M.; de Koter, A.; Schöier, F. L.

    2016-08-01

    Context. A discrepancy exists between the abundance of ammonia (NH3) derived previously for the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of IRC+10216 from far-IR submillimeter rotational lines and that inferred from radio inversion or mid-infrared (MIR) absorption transitions. Aims: To address the discrepancy described above, new high-resolution far-infrared (FIR) observations of both ortho- and para-NH3 transitions toward IRC+10216 were obtained with Herschel, with the goal of determining the ammonia abundance and constraining the distribution of NH3 in the envelope of IRC+10216. Methods: We used the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) on board Herschel to observe all rotational transitions up to the J = 3 level (three ortho- and six para-NH3 lines). We conducted non-LTE multilevel radiative transfer modelling, including the effects of near-infrared (NIR) radiative pumping through vibrational transitions. The computed emission line profiles are compared with the new HIFI data, the radio inversion transitions, and the MIR absorption lines in the ν2 band taken from the literature. Results: We found that NIR pumping is of key importance for understanding the excitation of rotational levels of NH3. The derived NH3 abundances relative to molecular hydrogen were (2.8 ± 0.5) × 10-8 for ortho-NH3 and for para-NH3, consistent with an ortho/para ratio of 1. These values are in a rough agreement with abundances derived from the inversion transitions, as well as with the total abundance of NH3 inferred from the MIR absorption lines. To explain the observed rotational transitions, ammonia must be formed near to the central star at a radius close to the end of the wind acceleration region, but no larger than about 20 stellar radii (1σ confidence level). Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. HIFI is the Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for the Far

  3. Herschel-ATLAS: the far-infrared-radio correlation at z < 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Matt J.; Smith, D. J. B.; Bonfield, D. G.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Falder, J. T.; Stevens, J. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S. P.; Bourne, N.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Hill, D. T.; Hopwood, R.; Hughes, D. H.; Ibar, E.; Jones, D. H.; Kelvin, L.; Lawrence, A.; Leeuw, L.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Negrello, M.; Norberg, P.; Pohlen, M.; Prescott, M.; Rigby, E. E.; Robotham, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Scott, D.; Sharp, R.; Temi, P.; Thompson, M. A.; van der Werf, P.; van Kampen, E.; Vlahakis, C.; White, G.

    2010-11-01

    We use data from the Herschel-ATLAS to investigate the evolution of the far-infrared-radio correlation over the redshift range 0 < z < 0.5. Using the total far-infrared luminosity of all >5σ sources in the Herschel-ATLAS Science Demonstration Field and cross-matching these data with radio data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimetres (FIRST) survey and the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) Northern Sky Survey (NVSS), we obtain 104 radio counterparts to the Herschel sources. With these data we find no evidence for evolution in the far-infrared-radio correlation over the redshift range 0 < z < 0.5, where the median value for the ratio between far-infrared and radio luminosity, qIR, over this range is qIR = 2.40 +/- 0.12 (and a mean of qIR = 2.52 +/- 0.03 accounting for the lower limits), consistent with both the local value determined from IRAS and values derived from surveys targeting the high-redshift Universe. By comparing the radio fluxes of our sample measured from both FIRST and NVSS we show that previous results suggesting an increase in the value of qIR from high to low redshift may be the result of resolving out extended emission of the low-redshift sources with relatively high-resolution interferometric data, although contamination from active galactic nuclei could still play a significant role. We also find tentative evidence that the longer wavelength cooler dust is heated by an evolved stellar population which does not trace the star formation rate as closely as the shorter wavelength <~ 250μm emission or the radio emission, supporting suggestions based on detailed models of individual galaxies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. E-mail: m.j.jarvis@herts.ac.uk

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalog of dense cores in Aquila from Herschel (Konyves+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyves, V.; Andre, P.; Men'shchikov, A.; Palmeirim, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; Schneider, N.; Roy, A.; Didelon, P.; Maury, A.; Shimajiri, Y.; Di, Francesco J.; Bontemps, S.; Peretto, N.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Elia, D.; Griffin, M. J.; Hill, T.; Kirk, J.; Ladjelate, B.; Marsh, K.; Martin, P. G.; Motte, F.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Pezzuto, S.; Roussel, H.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Schisano, E.; Spinoglio, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    Based on Herschel Gould Belt survey (Andre et al., 2010A&A...518L.102A) observations of the Aquila cloud complex, and using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm getsources (Men'shchikov et al., 2012A&A...542A..81M), we identified a total of 749 dense cores, including 685 starless cores and 64 protostellar cores. The observed properties of all dense cores are given in tablea1.dat, and their derived properties are listed in tablea2.dat. (4 data files).

  5. The Herschel Cold Debris Disks: Confusion with the Extragalactic Background at 160 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gáspár, András; Rieke, George H.

    2014-03-01

    The Herschel "DUst around NEarby Stars" (DUNES) survey has found a number of debris disk candidates that are apparently very cold, with temperatures near 22 K. It has proven difficult to fit their spectral energy distributions with conventional models for debris disks. Given this issue, we carefully examine the alternative explanation that the detections arise from confusion with infrared cirrus and/or background galaxies that are not physically associated with the foreground stars. We find that such an explanation is consistent with all of these detections.

  6. The molecular envelope of CRL 618: A new model based on Herschel/HIFI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Ruiz, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.

    2013-11-01

    Aims: We study the physical properties and molecular excitation of the different warm gas components found in the protoplanetary nebula CRL 618. The proper study of the nebular structure and its implications on the dynamics and kinematics of the molecular gas are of particular importance for understanding the evolution of these objects. Methods: We revise our previous Herschel/HIFI observations, which consist of several 12CO and 13CO lines in the far-infrared/sub-mm band in the nebula CRL 618. These data have been re-analyzed in detail by improving calibration, the signal-to-noise-ratio, and baseline substraction. Due to the high performance of Herschel, it was possible to identify the contributions of the different nebular components to the line profiles. Previous optical imaging and mm-wave interferometric mapping revealed that CRL 618 shows a complex molecular structure composed of a large and diffuse spherical halo, a compact central core, double shells, and a fast bipolar outflow. We have used a spatio-kinematical model to better constrain the temperature, density, and kinematics of the molecular components probed by the improved CO observations. Results: The 12CO and 13CO J = 16-15, J = 10-9, and J = 6-5 transitions are detected in this source. The line profiles present a composite structure showing spectacular wings in some cases, which become dominant as the energy level increases. Our analysis of the high-energy CO emission with the already known low-energy J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines confirms that the high-velocity component, or the fast bipolar outflow, is hotter than previously estimated with a typical temperature of ~300 K. This very fast component may then be an example of a very recent acceleration of the gas by shocks that has not yet cooled down. We also find that the dense central core is characterized by a very low expansion velocity, ~5 km s-1, and a strong velocity gradient. We conclude that this component is very likely to be the unaltered

  7. The on-board software of the HERSCHEL/PACS instrument: three successful years of in-flight operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzuto, Stefano; Ottensamer, Roland; Mazy, Alain; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Vandenbussche, Bart; Benedettini, Milena; Liu, Scige John; Molinari, Sergio; Schito, Daniele

    2012-09-01

    PACS is one of the three instruments of the ESA space mission Herschel. Its warm electronics consists of 4 computers connected through 1355 links. Each computer is equipped with a DSP-21020 microprocessor, each running its own software. In this poster we describe the main features of the dierent software with some emphasis on the FDIR (Failure Detection Isolation and Recovery) procedures implemented on-board: we describe the FDIR design and we show how the few anomalies that occurred since the Herschel launch three years ago, have been succesfully handled autonomously by the instrument.

  8. A Search for O2 in CO-Depleted Molecular Cloud Cores With Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirstroem, Eva S.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The general lack of molecular oxygen in molecular clouds is an outstanding problem in astrochemistry. Extensive searches with the Submillimeter Astronomical Satellite, Odin, and Herschel have only produced two detections; upper limits to the O2 abundance in the remaining sources observed are about 1000 times lower than predicted by chemical models. Previous atomic oxygen observations and inferences from observations of other molecules indicated that high abundances of O atoms might be present in dense cores exhibiting large amounts of CO depletion. Theoretical arguments concerning the oxygen gas-grain interaction in cold dense cores suggested that, if O atoms could survive in the gas after most of the rest of the heavy molecular material has frozen out onto dust, then O2 could be formed efficiently in the gas. Using Herschel HIFI, we searched a small sample of four depletion cores-L1544, L694-2, L429, and Oph D-for emission in the low excitation O2 N(sub J)?=?3(sub 3)-1(sub 2) line at 487.249 GHz. Molecular oxygen was not detected and we derive upper limits to its abundance in the range of N(O2)/N (H2) approx. = (0.6-1.6) x10(exp -7). We discuss the absence of O2 in the light of recent laboratory and observational studies.

  9. DDT_thmuelle_5: Herschel's first observation of a potentially hazardous object: 2005 YU55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müeller, T.

    2011-10-01

    We propose to observe the Apollo- and C-type asteroid 2005 YU55, which is on a Mars-Earth-Venus crossing orbit, during its upcoming exceptional Earth approach. In November 2011 it will pass within 0.85 lunar distances (0.85 LD) of the Earth, during which it will have a brief (less than one OD) observing window for Herschel. No asteroid of that size has ever been observed to pass inside 1 LD (and it will not happen again before 2028) although, according to recent orbit simulations, it does not pose any risk of an impact with Earth for the next 100 years. The proposed 0.3 hours of Herschel-PACS observations will allow us to characterize the object's size and its albedo. In combination with the foreseen radar measurements we will also be able to derive thermal surface properties which are strongly influencing non-gravitational forces, considered as one of the reasons for the large uncertainties in long-term orbit studies.

  10. Determining properties of halo dust for the Herschel EDGE-on galaxy Survey (HEDGES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzato, Jacklyn M.; Murphy, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    The Herschel EDGE-on galaxy Survey (HEDGES) is studying the distribution of dust in the halos of nearby spiral galaxies. More specifically, its goals are to determine the physical characteristics of this dust, what relationship there might be between halo dust content and star formation activity, how halo dust might expose information about the far-infrared (FIR)-Radio correlation, and how the physical distribution of this dust might relate to that of other gas tracers. The work presented here aims to investigate the physical characteristics of this halo dust and how they change with height above and below the plane of the six galaxies in the HEDGES sample: NGC 0891, NGC 3628, NGC 4244, NGC 4517, NGC 4565 and NGC 4631. To achieve this goal, code has been written that, for each galaxy, can extract vertical profiles and photometric data from nine different bands (taken using the Herschel Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope) in the FIR part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These photometric data are then used to construct a spectral energy distribution (SED) that is fit to dust models.

  11. Herschel/HIFI line surveys: Discovery of interstellar chloronium (H2Cl+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Dariusz C.

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the launch of Herschel, HCl was the only chlorine-containing molecule detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, chemical models have identified chloronium, H2Cl+, as a relatively abundant species that is potentially detectable. H2Cl+ was predicted to be most abundant in the environments where the ultraviolet radiation is strong: in diffuse clouds, or near the surfaces of dense clouds illuminated by nearby O and B stars. The HIFI instrument on Herschel provided the first detection of H2Cl+ in the ISM. The 212-101 lines of ortho-H235Cl+ and ortho-H237Cl+ were detected in absorption toward NGC 6334I, and the 111-000 transition of para-H235Cl+ was detected in absorption toward NGC 6334I and Sgr B2(S). The derived HCl / H2Cl+ column density ratios, ˜1-10, are within the range predicted by models of diffuse and dense Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). However, the observed H2Cl+ column densities, in excess of 1013 cm-2, are significantly higher than the model predictions. These observations demonstrate the outstanding spectroscopic capabilities of HIFI for detecting new interstellar molecules and providing key constraints for astrochemical models.

  12. Herschel photometric observations of the low metallicity dwarf galaxy NGC 1705

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Halloran, B.; Galametz, M.; Madden, S. C.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Barlow, M. J.; Bendo, G. J.; Bock, J. J.; Boselli, A.; Bradford, M.; Buat, V.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D. L.; Cormier, D.; Cooray, A.; Cortese, L.; Davies, J. I.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S. A.; Elbaz, D.; Galliano, F.; Gear, W. K.; Glenn, J.; Gomez, H. L.; Hony, S.; Isaak, K. G.; Levenson, L. R.; Lu, N.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Rangwala, N.; Rigby, E. E.; Roussel, H.; Rykala, A.; Sacchi, N.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Srinivasan, S.; Stevens, J. A.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Vigroux, L.; Wilson, C. D.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G. S.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2010-07-01

    We present Herschel SPIRE and PACS photometeric observations of the low metallicity (Z ~ 0.35 Z⊙) nearby dwarf galaxy, NGC 1705, in six wavelength bands as part of the Dwarf Galaxy Survey guaranteed time Herschel key program. We confirm the presence of two dominant circumnuclear IR-bright regions surrounding the central super star cluster that had been previously noted at mid-IR wavelengths and in the sub-mm by LABOCA. On constructing a global spectral energy distribution using the SPIRE and PACS photometry, in conjunction with archival IR measurements, we note the presence of an excess at sub-mm wavelengths. This excess suggests the presence of a signiPcant cold dust component within NGC 1705 and was modeled as an additional cold component in the SED. Although alternative explanations for the sub-mm excess beyond 350 μm, such as changes to the dust emissivity cannot be ruled out, the most likely explanation for the observed submillimetre excess is that of an additional cold dust component.

  13. MODELING THE HD 32297 DEBRIS DISK WITH FAR-INFRARED HERSCHEL DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, J. K.; Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.

    2013-07-20

    HD 32297 is a young A-star ({approx}30 Myr) 112 pc away with a bright edge-on debris disk that has been resolved in scattered light. We observed the HD 32297 debris disk in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, populating the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 63 to 500 {mu}m. We aimed to determine the composition of dust grains in the HD 32297 disk through SED modeling, using geometrical constraints from the resolved imaging to break the degeneracies inherent in SED modeling. We found the best fitting SED model has two components: an outer ring centered around 110 AU, seen in the scattered light images, and an inner disk near the habitable zone of the star. The outer disk appears to be composed of grains >2 {mu}m consisting of silicates, carbonaceous material, and water ice with an abundance ratio of 1:2:3 respectively and 90% porosity. These grains appear consistent with cometary grains, implying the underlying planetesimal population is dominated by comet-like bodies. We also discuss the 3.7{sigma} detection of [C II] emission at 158 {mu}m with the Herschel PACS instrument, making HD 32297 one of only a handful of debris disks with circumstellar gas detected.

  14. Modeling the HD 32297 Debris Disk With Far-Infrared Herschel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, J.K.; Lebreton, J.; Roberge, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    HD 32297 is a young A-star (approx. 30 Myr) 112 pc away with a bright edge-on debris disk that has been resolved in scattered light. We observed the HD 32297 debris disk in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, populating the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 63 to 500 micron..We aimed to determine the composition of dust grains in the HD 32297 disk through SED modeling, using geometrical constraints from the resolved imaging to break the degeneracies inherent in SED modeling. We found the best fitting SED model has two components: an outer ring centered around 110 AU, seen in the scattered light images, and an inner disk near the habitable zone of the star. The outer disk appears to be composed of grains>2 micron consisting of silicates, carbonaceous material, and water ice with an abundance ratio of 1:2:3 respectively and 90% porosity. These grains appear consistent with cometary grains, implying the underlying planetesimal population is dominated by comet-like bodies. We also discuss the 3.7 sigma detection of [C ii] emission at 158 micron with the Herschel PACS instrument, making HD 32297 one of only a handful of debris disks with circumstellar gas detected

  15. Cryogenic far-infrared laser absorptivity measurements of the Herschel Space Observatory telescope mirror coatings.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jacqueline; Klaassen, Tjeerd; Hovenier, Niels; Jakob, Gerd; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Sternberg, Oren

    2004-07-01

    Far-infrared laser calorimetry was used to measure the absorptivity, and thus the emissivity, of aluminum-coated silicon carbide mirror samples produced during the coating qualification run of the Herschel Space Observatory telescope to be launched by the European Space Agency in 2007. The samples were measured at 77 K to simulate the operating temperature of the telescope in its planned orbit about the second Lagrangian point, L2, of the Earth-Sun system. Together, the telescope's equilibrium temperature in space and the emissivity of the mirror surfaces will determine the far-infrared-submillimeter background and thus the sensitivity of two of the three astronomical instruments aboard the observatory if stray-light levels can be kept low relative to the mirror emission. Absorptivities of both clean and dust-contaminated samples were measured at 70, 118, 184, and 496 microm. Theoretical fits to the data predict absorptivities of 0.2-0.4% for the clean sample and 0.2-0.8% for the dusty sample, over the spectral range of the Herschel Space Observatory instruments.

  16. Far-ir Spectroscopy Of Various Mineral Groups: Providing Laboratory Data For Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusentsova, Tatyana; Peale, R.; Maukonen, D.; Figueiredo, P.; Harlow, G.; Ebel, D.; Lisse, C.

    2011-01-01

    To aid in interpreting data from Herschel Space Observatory Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), we have collected mass absorption coefficient spectra in the wavelength range 15 to 250 micron of micron-sized powders for more than 140 mineral species representing various mineral groups. Mineral groups investigated included nesosilicates (olivines, garnets, phenakite), inosilicates (pyroxenes, pyroxenoids, amphiboles), sorosilicates, cyclosilicates, tectosilicates (silicas, feldspars), phyllosilicates, carbonates, sulfides, and oxides. The mineral samples were selected from AMNH mineral collection, chemical and crystallographic identity of all minerals was confirmed by means of electron microprobe and grain and powder XRD. Samples were ground to micron dimensions and the micron size distribution was ensured by Stokes settling, verified by scanning electron microscopy. Milligram quantities of mineral sample were dispersed in polyethylene powder and melted into pellets. Spectra were collected using a Fourier spectrometer with globar source, mylar beamsplitter, and a 4 K bolometer. Temperature dependence of the spectra down to 15 K revealed sharpening and blue-shifts of the characteristic absorption lines, and in some cases, resolution of additional features not seen at room temperature. Mineral spectra in the far-IR region are highly characteristic of mineral group, crystal structure and chemical composition. The spectral data obtained in this study, together with the accompanying mineral characterization data, will be added to Planetary Data System database to be used for mineral identification in cosmic dust populations, based on far-IR emission spectra of collected by Herschel and similar space IR missions.

  17. A Search for O2 in CO-depleted Molecular Cloud Cores with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirström, Eva S.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2016-10-01

    The general lack of molecular oxygen in molecular clouds is an outstanding problem in astrochemistry. Extensive searches with the Submillimeter Astronomical Satellite, Odin, and Herschel have only produced two detections; upper limits to the O2 abundance in the remaining sources observed are about 1000 times lower than predicted by chemical models. Previous atomic oxygen observations and inferences from observations of other molecules indicated that high abundances of O atoms might be present in dense cores exhibiting large amounts of CO depletion. Theoretical arguments concerning the oxygen gas-grain interaction in cold dense cores suggested that, if O atoms could survive in the gas after most of the rest of the heavy molecular material has frozen out onto dust, then O2 could be formed efficiently in the gas. Using Herschel HIFI, we searched a small sample of four depletion cores—L1544, L694-2, L429, and Oph D—for emission in the low excitation O2 N J = 33-12 line at 487.249 GHz. Molecular oxygen was not detected and we derive upper limits to its abundance in the range of N(O2)/N(H2) ≈ (0.6{--}1.6) × {10}-7. We discuss the absence of O2 in the light of recent laboratory and observational studies.

  18. What exactly was William Herschel's Milky Way and how did he construct it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.; Sharma, R.

    2014-01-01

    William Herschel is famous for his "Construction of the Heavens," his pioneering quantitative view of the Milky Way based on extensive star counts ("gages") carried out while sweeping with his 20-ft telescope in the early 1780s. In 1785 he presented his main result in a single iconic diagram - a view of the Milky Way that was to dominate for over a century until "Kapteyn's Universe" finally overtook it in the early 20th century. In this paper we analyze the entire data sample of Herschel's published and unpublished star gages in order better to understand the nature of the data and how he used them. We examine such issues as his method of observing, his limiting magnitude, his consistency in star counting, his sky coverage, and his distance scaling (in units of "visual rays"). We also discuss how representative was his lone published 2-D slice through his model Milky Way, and the effects of his basic assumptions (such as a uniform density of stars). Where insight can be gained, we make comparisons with modern star counts (such as those of the HST Guide Star Catalog). To assist in this effort we have employed 3-D visualization software, as well as a plastic model (to be exhibited) constructed by a 3-D printer illustrating many aspects of the Herschelian Milky Way.

  19. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) - next step after Spitzer/Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, Hans

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a Boeing 747B fitted with a powerful 2.5m infrared telescope that operates at altitudes of 12-14km and observes light from the near-IR to the far-IR wavelength range that is blocked to reach the ground by the Earth's atmosphere (mainly due to water vapor). SOFIA is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Agency (DLR). This new airborne Observatory started early science observations in 2010 and has recently reached full operational capability, with a suite fo currently 4 instruments (and two more to be commissioned) in Cycle 2. Scientific highlights will be presented which include mid-IR broad-band imaging and far-IR high-resolution spectroscopic results which go beyond those of Spitzer and Herschel (star formation studies and astrochemistry). SOFIA will have a projected lifetime of 20 yrs and will be the premier mid- and far-infrared facility in the post-Spitzer and post-Herschel era for many years to come.

  20. Expansion of canopy-forming willows over the twentieth century on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada.

    PubMed

    Myers-Smith, Isla H; Hik, David S; Kennedy, Catherine; Cooley, Dorothy; Johnstone, Jill F; Kenney, Alice J; Krebs, Charles J

    2011-09-01

    Canopy-forming shrubs are reported to be increasing at sites around the circumpolar Arctic. Our results indicate expansion in canopy cover and height of willows on Herschel Island located at 70 degrees north on the western Arctic coast of the Yukon Territory. We examined historic photographs, repeated vegetation surveys, and conducted monitoring of long-term plots and found evidence of increases of each of the dominant canopy-forming willow species (Salix richardsonii, Salix glauca and Salix pulchra), during the twentieth century. A simple model of patch initiation indicates that the majority of willow patches for each of these species became established between 1910 and 1960, with stem ages and maximum growth rates indicating that some patches could have established as late as the 1980s. Collectively, these results suggest that willow species are increasing in canopy cover and height on Herschel Island. We did not find evidence that expansion of willow patches is currently limited by herbivory, disease, or growing conditions.

  1. Candidate Gravitationally Lensed Dusty Star-forming Galaxies in the Herschel Wide Area Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayyeri, H.; Keele, M.; Cooray, A.; Riechers, D. A.; Ivison, R. J.; Harris, A. I.; Frayer, D. T.; Baker, A. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Eales, S.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Marchetti, L.; Marques-Chaves, R.; Martinez-Navajas, P. I.; Oliver, S. J.; Omont, A.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Scott, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vieira, J.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present a list of candidate gravitationally lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) from the HerMES Large Mode Survey and the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey. Together, these partially overlapping surveys cover 372 deg2 on the sky. After removing local spiral galaxies and known radio-loud blazars, our candidate list of lensed DSFGs is composed of 77 sources with 500 μm flux densities (S 500) greater than 100 mJy. Such sources are dusty starburst galaxies similar to the first bright sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) discovered with SCUBA. We expect a large fraction of this list to be strongly lensed, with a small fraction made up of bright SMG-SMG mergers that appear as hyper-luminous infrared galaxies ({L}{IR}\\gt {10}13 {L}⊙ ). Thirteen of the 77 candidates have spectroscopic redshifts from CO spectroscopy with ground-based interferometers, putting them at z\\gt 1 and well above the redshift of the foreground lensing galaxies. The surface density of our sample is 0.21 ± 0.03 deg-2. We present follow-up imaging of a few of the candidates to confirm their lensing nature. The sample presented here is an ideal tool for higher-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations to understand the detailed properties of starburst phenomena in distant galaxies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  2. The Herschel-ATLAS: Extragalatic Number Counts from 250 to 500 Microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, D. L.; Rigby, E.; Maddox, S.; Dunne, L.; Mortier, A.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Bonfield, D.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Leeuw, L.; Sibthorpe, B.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims.The Herschel-ATLAS survey (H-ATLAS) will be the largest area survey to be undertaken by the Herschel Space Observatory. It will cover 550 sq. deg. of extragalactic sky at wavelengths of 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 microns when completed, reaching flux limits (50-) from 32 to 145mJy. We here present galaxy number counts obtained for SPIRE observations of the first -14 sq. deg. observed at 250, 350 and 500 m. Methods. Number counts are a fundamental tool in constraining models of galaxy evolution. We use source catalogs extracted from the H-ATLAS maps as the basis for such an analysis. Correction factors for completeness and flux boosting are derived by applying our extraction method to model catalogs and then applied to the raw observational counts. Results. We find a steep rise in the number counts at flux levels of 100-200mJy in all three SPIRE bands, consistent with results from BLAST. The counts are compared to a range of galaxy evolution models. None of the current models is an ideal fit to the data but all ascribe the steep rise to a population of luminous, rapidly evolving dusty galaxies at moderate to high redshift.

  3. Opto-mechanical modeling of the Herschel Space Telescope at ESA/ESTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransen, S.; Doyle, D.; Catanzaro, B.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper the opto-mechanical modeling of the Herschel infrared space telescope at ESA/ESTEC is presented. The aim of the paper is to give an overview of all modeling activities that took place between 2006 and 2010. In 2006 ESA commissioned a Tiger Team to review the discrepancy between the prediction and measurement of the change in telescope back focal length of the Herschel infrared space telescope. The understanding of the discrepancy was essential since the telescope did not have a refocusing mechanism and hence had to be shimmed to the focus position at cryogenic operational temperature. A team of 16 engineers and scientists collocated at ESA/ESTEC to review the finite element models, optical models and test data used for the prediction of the telescope back focal length. The methodology of prediction, the uncertainties and the obtained results were critically assessed. The team used various modeling techniques including paraxial optical models, first order linear thermal expansion models, full system and metrology ray tracing, deterministic and stochastic thermo-elastic finite element analyses. The opto-mechanical analysis techniques, assumptions and results are discussed. In addition the impact of new measurements of coefficients of thermal expansion, performed after shimming of the telescope flight model, are addressed.

  4. Physical characteristics of Cenaturs and trans-Neptunian objects from combined K2 and Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Csaba; Pal, Andras; Farkas Anikó, Takácsné; Marciniak, Anna; Mueller, Thomas G.; Kiss, Laszlo L.; Szabo, Gyula M.; Szabo, Robert; Sarneczky, Krisztian; Molnar, Laszlo

    2016-10-01

    Here we present the results of a comprehensive rotational and radiometric analysis of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) observed with the Kepler Space Observatory in the K2 mission and earlier with the Herschel Space Observatory at infrared wavelengths. The combined optical light curves and thermal emission data revealed a slow rotation rate of ~45h for the large Kuiper belt object 2007 OR10, and we obtained a diameter of ~1535 km that makes 2007 OR10 the third largest TNO after Pluto and Eris. The large size also implies a relatively dark surface, unusual among the dwarf planets in the outer Solar system. We also present rotational curves, physical characteristics and shape models for the Centaur 2002 KY14, for three Classical Kuiper belt objects, 1998 SN165, 2001 QT322 and 2003 QW90, and for two resonant TNOs, 2001 YH140 and 2005 RS43. In the case of 2003 QW90, 2001 YH140 and 2005 RS43 our results are based on so far unpublished thermal emission data from Herschel and Spitzer observations.

  5. Far-Infrared Herschel-PACS flux observations of OB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Diez, M. M.; Najarro, F.; Traficante, A.; Cazoletti, L.; Puls, J.; Figer, D.; Sundqvist, J.; Herrero, A.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Trombley, C.

    2013-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates that currently accepted mass-loss rates may need to be revised downwards when small-scale density inhomogeneities (clumping) are taken into account. Only a consistent treatment of ALL possible diagnostics from the UV through radio, scanning different regions of the stellar wind, and analyzed by means of state of the art model atmospheres, will allow to determine the true mass-loss rates. To this end we have assembled a variety of multi-wavelength data for a carefully selected sample of 28 O4-B8 stars. However, one crucial observational set was missing: far-IR diagnostics of free-free emission, which uniquely constrain the clumping properties of the wind at intermediate regions. We have used Herschel/PACS photometric mode to fill this crucial gap, studying the 70 and 100 micron fluxes. Here, we present preliminary photometric Herschel/PACS flux measurements of our sample as well as a first detailed analyses for some of the sources.

  6. HERSCHEL FAR-IR OBSERVATIONS OF THE GIANT H II REGION NGC 3603

    SciTech Connect

    Cecco, Alessandra Di; Faustini, Fabiana; Calzoletti, Luca; Paresce, Francesco; Correnti, Matteo

    2015-01-20

    We observed the giant H II region around the NGC 3603 YC with the five broad bands (70, 160, 250, 350, 500 μm) of the SPIRE and PACS instruments, on board the Herschel Space Observatory. Together with what is currently known of the stellar, atomic, molecular, and warm dust components, this additional and crucial information should allow us to better understand the details of the star-formation history in this region. The main objective of the investigation is to study, at high spatial resolution, the distribution and main physical characteristics of the cold dust. By reconstructing the temperature and density maps, we found, respectively, a mean value of 36 K and log{sub 10} N {sub H} = 22.0 ± 0.1 cm{sup –2}. We carried out a photometric analysis detecting 107 point-like sources, mostly confined to the north and south of the cluster. By comparing our data with spectral energy distribution models, we found that 35 sources are well represented by young stellar objects in early evolutionary phases, from Class 0 to Class I. The Herschel detections also provided far-IR counterparts for 4 H{sub 2}O masers and 11 objects previously known from mid-IR observations. The existence of so many embedded sources confirms the hypothesis of intense and ongoing star-formation activity in the region around NGC 3603 YC.

  7. Lessons learned from the microbial analysis of the Herschel spacecraft during assembly, integration, and test operations.

    PubMed

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Pukall, Rüdiger; Probst, Alexander J; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Schwendner, Petra; Mora, Maximilian; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Rettberg, Petra

    2013-12-01

    Understanding microbial diversity in spacecraft assembly clean rooms is of major interest with respect to planetary protection considerations. A coordinated screening of different clean rooms in Europe and South America by three German institutes [Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ), and the Institute of Microbiology and Archaea Center, University of Regensburg] took place during the assembly, test, and launch operations of the Herschel spacecraft in 2006-2009. Through this campaign, we retrieved critical information regarding the microbiome within these clean rooms and on the Herschel spacecraft, which served as a model for upcoming ESA mission preparations. This "lessons learned" document summarizes and discusses the data we obtained during this sampling campaign. Additionally, we have taken the opportunity to create a database that includes all 16S rRNA gene sequences ever retrieved from molecular and cultivable diversity studies of spacecraft assembly clean rooms to compare the microbiomes of US, European, and South American facilities.

  8. A Search for O2 in CO-Depleted Molecular Cloud Cores With Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirstroem, Eva S.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The general lack of molecular oxygen in molecular clouds is an outstanding problem in astrochemistry. Extensive searches with the Submillimeter Astronomical Satellite, Odin, and Herschel have only produced two detections; upper limits to the O2 abundance in the remaining sources observed are about 1000 times lower than predicted by chemical models. Previous atomic oxygen observations and inferences from observations of other molecules indicated that high abundances of O atoms might be present in dense cores exhibiting large amounts of CO depletion. Theoretical arguments concerning the oxygen gas-grain interaction in cold dense cores suggested that, if O atoms could survive in the gas after most of the rest of the heavy molecular material has frozen out onto dust, then O2 could be formed efficiently in the gas. Using Herschel HIFI, we searched a small sample of four depletion cores-L1544, L694-2, L429, and Oph D-for emission in the low excitation O2 N(sub J)?=?3(sub 3)-1(sub 2) line at 487.249 GHz. Molecular oxygen was not detected and we derive upper limits to its abundance in the range of N(O2)/N (H2) approx. = (0.6-1.6) x10(exp -7). We discuss the absence of O2 in the light of recent laboratory and observational studies.

  9. The bolometric and UV attenuation in normal spiral galaxies of the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viaene, S.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Cortese, L.; De Looze, I.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Madden, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.

    2016-02-01

    The dust in nearby galaxies absorbs a fraction of the UV-optical-near-infrared radiation produced by stars. This energy is consequently re-emitted in the infrared. We investigate the portion of the stellar radiation absorbed by spiral galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS) by modelling their UV-to-submillimetre spectral energy distributions. Our models provide an attenuated and intrinsic spectral energy distribution (SED), from which we find that on average 32% of all starlight is absorbed by dust. We define the UV heating fraction as the percentage of dust luminosity that comes from absorbed UV photons and find this to be 56%, on average. This percentage varies with morphological type, with later types having significantly higher UV heating fractions. We find a strong correlation between the UV heating fraction and specific star formation rate and provide a power-law fit. Our models allow us to revisit the IRX - AFUV relations, and derive these quantities directly within a self-consistent framework. We calibrate this relation for different bins of NUV - r colour and provide simple relations to relate these parameters. We investigated the robustness of our method and conclude that the derived parameters are reliable within the uncertainties that are inherent to the adopted SED model. This calls for a deeper investigation of how well extinction and attenuation can be determined through panchromatic SED modelling. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. Herschel-ATLAS/GAMA: spatial clustering of low-redshift submm galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kampen, E.; Smith, D. J. B.; Maddox, S.; Hopkins, A. M.; Valtchanov, I.; Peacock, J. A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Norberg, P.; Eales, S.; Dunne, L.; Liske, J.; Baes, M.; Scott, D.; Rigby, E.; Robotham, A.; van der Werf, P.; Ibar, E.; Jarvis, M. J.; Loveday, J.; Auld, R.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S.; Cameron, E.; Croom, S.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Cooray, A.; Driver, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dariush, A.; Fritz, J.; Ivison, R. J.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rodighiero, G.; Temi, P.; Bonfield, D. G.; Hill, D.; Jones, D. H.; Kelvin, L.; Parkinson, H.; Prescott, M.; Sharp, R.; de Zotti, G.; Serjeant, S.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.

    2012-11-01

    We have measured the clustering properties of low-redshift (z < 0.3) submm galaxies detected at 250 μm in the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration phase field. We selected a sample for which we have high-quality spectroscopic redshifts, obtained from reliably matching the 250-μm sources to a complete (for r < 19.4) sample of galaxies from the GAMA data base. Both the angular and spatial clustering strength are measured for all z < 0.3 sources as well as for five redshift slices with thickness Δz = 0.05 in the range 0.05 < z < 0.3. Our measured spatial clustering length r0 is comparable to that of optically selected, moderately star-forming (blue) galaxies: we find values around 5 Mpc. One of the redshift bins contains an interesting structure, at z = 0.164. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  11. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey . VII. Dust in cluster dwarf elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Looze, I.; Baes, M.; Zibetti, S.; Fritz, J.; Cortese, L.; Davies, J. I.; Verstappen, J.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Clemens, M.; Bomans, D. J.; Boselli, A.; Corbelli, E.; Dariush, A.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Vlahakis, C.; Xilouris, E. M.

    2010-07-01

    We use the science demonstration phase data of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey to search for dust emission of early-type dwarf galaxies in the central regions of the Virgo cluster as an alternative way of identifying the interstellar medium. We present the first possible far-infrared detection of cluster early-type dwarf galaxies: VCC 781 and VCC 951 are detected at the 10σ level in the SPIRE 250 μm image. Both detected galaxies have dust masses of the order of 105 M_⊙ and average dust temperatures ≈20 K. The detection rate (less than 1%) is quite high compared to the 1.7% detection rate for Hi emission, considering that dwarfs in the central regions are more Hi deficient. We conclude that the removal of interstellar dust from dwarf galaxies resulting from ram pressure stripping, harassment, or tidal effects must be as efficient as the removal of interstellar gas. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  12. HELP: The Herschel Extragalactic Legacy Project and The Coming of Age of Multi-wavelength Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccari, M.

    How did galaxies form and evolve? This is one of the most challenging questions in astronomy today. Answering it requires a careful combination of observational and theoretical work to reliably determine the observed properties of cosmic bodies over large portions of the distant Universe on the one hand, and accurately model the physical processes driving their evolution on the other. Most importantly, it requires bringing together disparate multi-wavelength and multi-resolution spectro-photometric datasets in an homogeneous and well-characterized manner so that they are suitable for a rigorous statistical analysis. The Herschel Extragalactic Legacy Project (HELP) funded by the EC FP7 SPACE program aims to achieve this goal by combining the expertise of optical, infrared and radio astronomers to provide a multi-wavelength database for the distant Universe as an accessible value-added resource for the astronomical community. It will do so by bringing together multi-wavelength datasets covering the 1,000 deg2 mapped by Herschel extragalactic surveys in an homogeneous and well-characterized manner, creating a joint lasting legacy from several ambitious sky surveys.

  13. Herschel: Testing of Cryogenics Instruments at Spacecraft Level and Early Flight Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaudin, B.; Montet, D.; Roche, Y.; Ilsen, S.; Schamberg, C.; Cesa, M.; Goodey, K.; Rautakoski, J.; Jewell, C.; Idler, S.; Koppe, A.; Sonn, N.; Hendry, D.; Hamer, S.; Bauer, O.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Sawyer, E.; Swinyard, B.; Sidher, S.; Roelfsema, P.; Dieleman, P.; Teyssier, D.

    2010-04-01

    Herschel cryogenics instrument (HIFI, PACS, SPIRE) flight models have been delivered to ESA & Prime contractor Thales Alenia Space mid 2007, to be integrated and tested on the Herschel spacecraft, for a launch mid May 2009. The instrument integration and test campaign at spacecraft level was performed between mid 2007 and end 2008 in Astrium GmbH, Immenstadt (Gernany) and later in ESA's test facilities at Estec, Noordwijk (Nederland). The objective of these tests was to demonstrate full operability and performances of the instruments in spacecraft configuration, and their compatibility with the launch and space environment, while maintaining full compliance with the underlying requirements. A set of short functional tests were developed and used repeatedly to quickly check the health of each instrument at key points in the test campaign. Typically, this was after integration of a major component, prior to a major environmental test or before/after movement of the spacecraft. A set of full functional tests were also performed after launch vibration tests, and during Thermal vacuum test in order to provide a more complete picture of the instruments functional health. Finally a set of unstrument specific tests were performed to verify the performance of the instrument under the most representative operational conditions possible on ground (i.e. the environmental test compaign). The paper will describe instruments and the instruments related tests performed at spacecraft level, focusing on cryogenics aspects.

  14. A Herschel PACS and SPIRE study of the dust content of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, M. J.; Krause, O.; Swinyard, B. M.; Sibthorpe, B.; Besel, M.-A.; Wesson, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunne, L.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Henning, Th.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Olofsson, G.; Polehampton, E. T.

    2010-07-01

    Using the 3.5-m Herschel Space Observatory, imaging photometry of Cas A has been obtained in six bands between 70 and 500 μm with the PACS and SPIRE instruments, with angular resolutions ranging from 6 to 37”. In the outer regions of the remnant the 70-μm PACS image resembles the 24-μm image Spitzer image, with the emission attributed to the same warm dust component, located in the reverse shock region. At longer wavelengths, the three SPIRE bands are increasingly dominated by emission from cold interstellar dust knots and filaments, particularly across the central, western and southern parts of the remnant. Nonthermal emission from the northern part of the remnant becomes prominent at 500 μm. We have estimated and subtracted the contributions from the nonthermal, warm dust and cold interstellar dust components. We confirm and resolve for the first time a cool (~35 K) dust component, emitting at 70-160 μm, that is located interior to the reverse shock region, with an estimated mass of 0.075 M_⊙. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Figure 3 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. A Herschel-Resolved Debris Disk Around the Nearby G Star HIP 32480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapelfeldt, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory is providing unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution in the far-infrared. The DUNES Key Project (DUst around NEarby Stars, PI Carlos Eiroa) has finished its survey of 133 FGK stars within 25 pc of the Sun using the PACS photometer at 100 and 160 microns. We report the detection of a resolved debris ring around HIP 32480, a G0 star 16.5 parsecs distant. The ring is almost 300 AU in diameter and inclined 30 degrees from edge-on. We present a thermal emission model for the system that fits the Spitzer spectroscopy and Herschel images of the system. We find a minimum grainsize of approximately 4 microns in the main ring and a distinct warm dust population interior to it. Faint detached emission features just outside the ring may trace a separate, more distant ring in the system. The non-detection of the ring in archival HST/ACS coronagraphic images limits the dust grain albedo in the ring to be no more than 10%.

  16. Growing evidence for a core formation threshold traced in Herschel Gould Belt survey clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves , V.; André, Ph.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; Men'shchikov, A.

    2013-11-01

    It has already been suggested that a threshold in column density - or in visual extinction - may need to be exceeded to form dense cores and then protostars. Based on Herschel Gould Belt survey results in the Aquila and Orion B molecular cloud complexes we observe clear connection between the locations of the detected prestellar cores and their background column density values. This finding appears to support a core formation scenario where such threshold corresponds to the extinction above which interstellar filaments become gravitationally unstable and fragment into cores. In these two actively star-forming regions we find the vast majority of the gravitationally bound prestellar cores above a high column density of about (6-7) × 1021 cm-2 (AV ˜ 6-7). This limit similarly appears in the column density probability distribution function (PDF) of the regions as well. The spatial distribution of the protostars and young stellar objects (YSOs) also shows a tight connection with the densest sites of both clouds, as more than 70 % of them appear above the mentioned AV thresholds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  17. A Herschel-resolved Debris Disk Around the Nearby G Star HIP 32480

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Bryden, G.; Eiroa, C.; Herschel/DUNES Key Project Team

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory is providing unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution in the far-infrared. The DUNES Key Project (DUst around NEarby Stars, PI Carlos Eiroa) has finished its survey of 133 FGK stars within 25 pc of the Sun using the PACS photometer at 100 and 160 microns. We report the detection of a resolved debris ring around HIP 32480, a G0 star 16.5 parsecs distant. The ring is almost 300 AU in diameter and inclined 30 degrees from edge-on. We present a thermal emission model for the system that fits the Spitzer spectroscopy and Herschel images of the system. We find a minimum grainsize of 4 microns in the main ring and a distinct warm dust population interior to it. Faint detached emission features just outside the ring may trace a separate, more distant ring in the system. The non-detection of the ring in archival HST/ACS coronagraphic images limits the dust grain albedo in the ring to be no more than 10%.

  18. Herschel+Hubble Observations of a Multiply-Lensed Sub-millimeter Galaxy at z~3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha R.; Calanog, Jae Alyson B.; Riechers, Dominik A.; Frayer, David T.; Herschel HERMES, H-ATLAS

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of our deep Keck/NIRC2 and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) observations of an extremely star forming lensed dusty Sub-Millimeter Galaxy (SMG) identified from the Herschel Astrohysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). The object under study forms a complex lensing system that consists of four foreground aligned galaxies at z ~ 1 (measured from Keck/DEIMOS observations) with multiple lensing features that consist of giant arcs and counter images. Molecular line observations of the background source with Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) put it at a redshift of 2.685. Multi-band data from Keck, HST and Herschel yields a Star Formation Rate in excess of 1000 Solar masses per year putting this system among the most intensely star forming systems at z>2. The measured SFR puts this system well above the main sequence of star forming galaxies at z ~ 3. The measured gas fraction and molecular gas surface density measurements from long wavelength observations are consistent with theoretical models and observational trends of gas rich SMGs at high redshifts.

  19. Investigating star formation properties of galaxies in massive clusters with Herschel and ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, John F.; Baker, Andrew J.; Aguirre, Paula; Barkats, D.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Matt; Hughes, John Patrick; Infante, Leopoldo; Lindner, Robert; Marriage, Tobias; Menanteau, Felipe; Sifon, Cristobal; Weiss, Axel; ACT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    I will present results from an investigation of star formation properties of galaxies residing in two massive z ~ 1 clusters (including the 'El Gordo' merger) that were initially selected via their Sunyaev-Zeldovich decrements by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) southern survey. This study uses new Herschel Space Observatory and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 2 observations, which provide information about the dust and cold gas content of galaxies in our targeted clusters. We have detected CO (4-3) and [CI] in individual star-forming cluster galaxies, and also measured stacked continuum and spectral line fluxes at long (e.g., far-infrared, submillimeter, and radio) wavelengths. We use these results to explore the relations between star formation and local environment and cluster dynamical state.This work has been supported by (i) an award issued by JPL/Caltech in association with Herschel, which is a European Space Agency Cornerstone Mission with significant participation by NASA, and (ii) the National Science Foundation through award GSSP SOSPA2-018 from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  20. OT1_jgreen02_2: FOOSH: FU Orionis Objects Surveyed with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.

    2010-07-01

    We propose to utilize the unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity of Herschel at far-infrared and submm wavelengths to observe nearly all known FU Orionis objects, the dramatic result of burst accretion events in protostellar disks. The known FUors represent a vital window into a key process of star formation rather than a rare and peculiar event in the lives of a few stars. In addition, FUors provide a natural laboratory that probes the effect on enhanced heating on disk composition and structure. Our objectives are to (1) Study the structure of known envelopes and constrain the amount of remnant envelope material around the remainder; (2) characterize the physical and chemical properties of the disks and envelope, the parameters that set the initial conditions for planet formation in T Tauri disks; (3) observe solid-state, atomic, and molecular spectral features toward FUors in order to determine the effects of increased luminosity on mineralogy, disk chemistry, and envelope material. In order to do this we will use all three instruments onboard Herschel, providing a comprehensive survey of FUors.

  1. Experimental study of neutron-rich nuclei near the N = 82 closed shell using the {sub 40}{sup 96}Zr+{sub 50}{sup 124}Sn reaction with GASP and PRISMA-CLARA arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, W.; Torres, D. A.; Cristancho, F.; Medina, N. H.; Chapman, R.; Smith, J. F.; Mengoni, D.; Truesdale, V.; Grocutt, L.; Mulholland, K.; Kumar, V.; Hadinia, B.; Labiche, M.; Liang, X.; O'Donell, D.; Ollier, J.; Orlandi, R.; Smith, J. F.; Spohr, K. M.; Wady, P.; and others

    2014-11-11

    In this contribution an experimental study of the deep-inelastic reaction {sub 40}{sup 96}Zr+{sub 50}{sup 124}Sn at 530 MeV, using the GASP and PRISMA-CLARA arrays, is presented. The experiments populate a wealth of projectile-like and target-like binary fragments, in a large neutron-rich region around N ≥ 50 and Z ≈ 40. Preliminary results on the study of the yrast and near-yrast states for {sup 95}Nb will be shown, along with a comparison of the experimental yields obtained in the experiments.

  2. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  3. How "Open" is Open Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisey, Susan D.

    1984-01-01

    The roots of the open learning system approach to education are explored and the relationship between its goals and the succeeding models/methodologies are examined in the context of open and closed systems theories. An open systems orientation to learning system development is recommended. (MSE)

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Panchromatic SED of Herschel sources (Berta+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2016-06-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 micron spectral energy distributions of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near- infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected 10 restframe color space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multi-variate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the MAGPHYS code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-IR luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z~1 Lyα-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eight other popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Panchromatic SED of Herschel sources (Berta+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 micron spectral energy distributions of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near- infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected 10 restframe color space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multi-variate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the MAGPHYS code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-IR luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z~1 Lyα-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eight other popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather

  6. The Herschel Reference Survey: Dust in Early-type Galaxies and across the Hubble Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. W. L.; Gomez, H. L.; Eales, S. A.; Ciesla, L.; Boselli, A.; Cortese, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Baes, M.; Bianchi, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A. R.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fritz, J.; Gavazzi, G.; Gear, W. K.; Madden, S.; Mentuch, E.; Panuzzo, P.; Pohlen, M.; Spinoglio, L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.; Wilson, C. D.; Xilouris, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    We present Herschel observations of 62 early-type galaxies (ETGs), including 39 galaxies morphologically classified as S0+S0a and 23 galaxies classified as ellipticals using SPIRE at 250, 350, and 500 μm as part of the volume-limited Herschel Reference Survey (HRS). We detect dust emission in 24% of the ellipticals and 62% of the S0s. The mean temperature of the dust is langTd rang = 23.9 ± 0.8 K, warmer than that found for late-type galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. The mean dust mass for the entire detected early-type sample is logMd = 6.1 ± 0.1 M ⊙ with a mean dust-to-stellar-mass ratio of log(Md /M *) = -4.3 ± 0.1. Including the non-detections, these parameters are logMd = 5.6 ± 0.1 and log(Md /M *) = -5.1 ± 0.1, respectively. The average dust-to-stellar-mass ratio for the early-type sample is fifty times lower, with larger dispersion, than the spiral galaxies observed as part of the HRS, and there is an order-of-magnitude decline in Md /M * between the S0s and ellipticals. We use UV and optical photometry to show that virtually all the galaxies lie close to the red sequence yet the large number of detections of cool dust, the gas-to-dust ratios, and the ratios of far-infrared to radio emission all suggest that many ETGs contain a cool interstellar medium similar to that in late-type galaxies. We show that the sizes of the dust sources in S0s are much smaller than those in early-type spirals and the decrease in the dust-to-stellar-mass ratio from early-type spirals to S0s cannot simply be explained by an increase in the bulge-to-disk ratio. These results suggest that the disks in S0s contain much less dust (and presumably gas) than the disks of early-type spirals and this cannot be explained simply by current environmental effects, such as ram-pressure stripping. The wide range in the dust-to-stellar-mass ratio for ETGs and the lack of a correlation between dust mass and optical luminosity suggest that much of the dust in the ETGs detected by Herschel has

  7. A Study of the Physics of the Interstellar Medium using the Herschel-SPIRE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiwa, Gibion

    2014-10-01

    Stars form in cold and dense regions of the interstellar medium where Rayleigh scattering heavily attenuates short wavelength radiation but allows long wavelength radiation to escape. Long-wavelength radiation from star forming regions, after travelling many lightyears to reach us, is absorbed by the water vapour in the Earth's atmosphere before it can reach ground-based telescopes. Thus, prior to the far-infrared space telescope, Herschel, our view of the submillimeter universe was through very narrow spectral windows that are only accessible from high mountain sites. Herschel, with its three instruments, was designed to operate in the far-infrared and observe radiation from star forming regions. Unlike ground based telescopes, Herschel has provided the first unfettered access to the entire far-infrared electromagnetic spectrum. In this work, I have analyzed Herschel observations of three starless cores (L1521E, L1521F and L1689B), one Class 0 protostar (IRAS16293-2422) and one Class I protostar (Elias 29). These observations were obtained with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) photometer and spectrometer. The measured low-spectral resolution spectra of starless cores have been used to obtain more accurate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) which have enabled the calculation of dust temperatures, emissivity spectral indices, and masses associated with these cores. The map-making capability of the SPIRE instrument provided fully sampled spectral maps of IRAS16293-2422 and Elias 29. A wealth of molecular line emission was detected from both protostars. These include 12CO, 13CO, C18O, Ci, H2O, HCO+ and CS. Integrated line intensity maps show that both line and continuum emission from IRAS16293-2422 originate from a compact region surrounding the protobinary system. An SED constructed from flux density points obtained with various instruments has been fitted with radiative transfer models to obtain physical parameters associated with IRAS16293

  8. GASP. II. A MUSE View of Extreme Ram-Pressure Stripping along the Line of Sight: Kinematics of the Jellyfish Galaxy JO201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellhouse, C.; Jaffé, Y. L.; Hau, G. K. T.; McGee, S. L.; Poggianti, B. M.; Moretti, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Fasano, G.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fritz, J.; Omizzolo, A.; Sheen, Y.-K.; Vulcani, B.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a spatially resolved kinematic study of the jellyfish galaxy JO201, one of the most spectacular cases of ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in the GAs Stripping Phenomena in galaxies with MUSE (GASP) survey. By studying the environment of JO201, we find that it is moving through the dense intracluster medium of Abell 85 at supersonic speeds along our line of sight, and that it is likely accompanied by a small group of galaxies. Given the density of the intracluster medium and the galaxy’s mass, projected position, and velocity within the cluster, we estimate that JO201 must so far have lost ˜50% of its gas during infall via RPS. The MUSE data indeed reveal a smooth stellar disk accompanied by large projected tails of ionized ({{H}}α ) gas, composed of kinematically cold (velocity dispersion <40 km s-1) star-forming knots and very warm (>100 km s-1) diffuse emission, that extend out to at least ˜ 50 {kpc} from the galaxy center. The ionized {{H}}α -emitting gas in the disk rotates with the stars out to ˜6 kpc but, in the disk outskirts, it becomes increasingly redshifted with respect to the (undisturbed) stellar disk. The observed disturbances are consistent with the presence of gas trailing behind the stellar component resulting from intense face-on RPS along the line of sight. Our kinematic analysis is consistent with the estimated fraction of lost gas and reveals that stripping of the disk happens outside-in, causing shock heating and gas compression in the stripped tails.

  9. GASP. IV. A Muse View of Extreme Ram-pressure-stripping in the Plane of the Sky: The Case of Jellyfish Galaxy JO204

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullieuszik, Marco; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Moretti, Alessia; Fritz, Jacopo; Jaffé, Yara L.; Hau, George; Bischko, Jan C.; Bellhouse, Callum; Bettoni, Daniela; Fasano, Giovanni; Vulcani, Benedetta; D’Onofrio, Mauro; Biviano, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    In the context of the GAs Stripping Phenomena in galaxies with Muse (GASP) survey, we present the characterization of JO204, a jellyfish galaxy in A957, a relatively low-mass cluster with M=4.4× {10}14 {M}ȯ . This galaxy shows a tail of ionized gas that extends up to 30 kpc from the main body in the opposite direction of the cluster center. No gas emission is detected in the galaxy outer disk, suggesting that gas-stripping is proceeding outside-in. The stellar component is distributed as a regular disk galaxy; the stellar kinematics shows a symmetric rotation curve with a maximum radial velocity of 200 km s‑1 out to 20 kpc from the galaxy center. The radial velocity of the gas component in the central part of the disk follows the distribution of the stellar component; the gas kinematics in the tail retains the rotation of the galaxy disk, indicating that JO204 is moving at high speed in the intracluster medium. Both the emission and radial-velocity maps of the gas and stellar components indicate ram-pressure as the most likely primary mechanism for gas-stripping, as expected given that JO204 is close to the cluster center and it is likely at the first infall in the cluster. The spatially resolved star formation history of JO204 provides evidence that the onset of ram-pressure-stripping occurred in the last 500 Myr, quenching the star formation activity in the outer disk, where the gas has been already completely stripped. Our conclusions are supported by a set of hydrodynamic simulations.

  10. OT1_hnetzer_1: Herschel study of black hole and galaxy evolution: The z<0.3 QUEST AGN sample.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzer, H.

    2010-07-01

    We propose 15.6 hours of Herschel time to secure high quality data,over the entire 70-500 micron range, for a group of 27 local, luminous active galactic nuclei (the QUEST AGN sample). The sources represent well the optically selected PG-QSO sample with redshifts up to z=0.3, and have been investigated, in great detail, in almost all other wavelength bands. The new far infrared (FIR) data set will be ideal to study various fundamental questions related to the connection and co-evolution of AGN and their host galaxies. Our previous Spitzer/IRS work on the sample has already revealed a clear relationship between the total AGN luminosity and the star formation rate (SFR) in their hosts. However, the previously undetected FIR sources may be situated in red-and-dead hosts and the Herschel observations can find these objects and allow a direct comparison of their AGN properties, like black hole (BH) mass and accretion rate, with those of the sources with high SFR. The observations will also provide unique information about the "intrinsic infrared AGN spectrum" with consequences to dust properties and distribution in such objects. Our sample is a needed ingredient in any Herschel-based studies that combine FIR-selected (IRAS, Spitzer, Herschel) and optically selected samples with their different biases. Its later comparison with similar high redshift observations will provide invaluable information about the cosmological evolution of AGN and star forming galaxies.

  11. OT1_mthomp01_1: Confirming a sample of luminous debris disk candidates identified in the Herschel ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.

    2010-07-01

    Debris disks are the remains of planetary system formation, tracing the existence of planetesimal-sized objects in orbit around main sequence stars. Current and planned surveys of debris disks (including the